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MEDIA IMPERIALISM AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CULTURE OF PAKISTAN

By AMBREEN AFTAB 62-SS/MSMC/F09

DEPARTMENT OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

2011

drama. music fashion & film award shows.2 ABSTRACT The cultural imperialism term is mainly replaced by the media imperialism in this globalized world where the global media is playing the major part of creating the global culture. This research study will identify and analyze cultural aspect with regard to the entertainment programs of Pakistani private TV channels. . For this purpose it has been explored what effects foreign channels have on Pakistani channels then these effects have been correlated with the effects on society through the qualitative content analysis of media cultural products which includes different categories of programs like film. Pakistan is a developing country who is facing the problems of cultural invasion and imperialism due to the persuasive and pervasive influence of foreign content on Pakistani channels in the entertainment gala.

4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.3 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 5 HYPOTHESIS ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLRM «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 9 REFRENCES ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 10 ... 7 METHODOLOGY ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 8 WORKPLAN «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.. 6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.

E." According to Dr. pointed and extremely influential. The term cultural imperialism is understood differently in particular discourses. Globalization is considered to a stage of µdevelopment¶. Historically.4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the age of information technology. and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to. Mass Media came up in a big way and its influence on people was very powerful. This frequently resulted in a conquering of natives¶ cultures. Media is producing information and entertainment day and night throughout the world. forced. one of the best known writers on media imperialism defined cultural imperialism as "the sum of the process by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how its dominating stratum is attracted. we cannot underestimate the role of Mass Media as a great ³agent of change´ in the society. Since these are two very different referents. Nowadays we frequently encounter media campaigns on TV. In the same way this act of imperialism has continued but this imperialism is taking place through a different way. This was recognized for the first time scholars and researchers in the area came to realize that mass communication had for reaching and pervasive effects on the audience. Radio. as "media imperialism" or as "discourse of nationality" The societies today cannot remain isolated from globalization. the values and structures of the dominating center of the system. Mehdi (2004) ³Cultural Imperialism´ was a term to be used to explain the relationship between the culture and the media in the Third World. before the "global village" and "globalization" terms became popular in the world. It is a process of social change by changing the geographical and cultural Barrier of countries and continents. There are so many ³pieces of information´ which are carefully designed to mould attitudes and public opinion. Herbert Schiller. or even promote. Media has become a very effective and powerful weapon through which ³authorities manipulate social attitude and behavior. The messages were directed. Internet or newspapers or magazines. the validity of the term has been called into question. pressured. Today the globalize media has also been involved in the debate.g. The Twentieth century has been described as the age of mass communication revolution. imperialism referred to selected powerful nations colonizing land not already controlled by other power rivals. Tomlinson (1991) Cultural imperialism' can refer to either the forced acculturation of a subject population. or to the voluntary embracing of a foreign culture by individuals who do so of their own free will. .

It is our TV viewing that shapes our understanding of the world and ourselves. premised on a one-way flow of information dominated by the United States and Great Britain. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to examine the nature of cultural globalization through media and its effects on national and local culture with special reference to Pakistan in the shape of effects on the youth of Multan. The modern production and distribution of mass media have the ability Media is now playing the role of a cultural agent. this study is going to be conducted under the title of ³Media Imperialism & its effects on the culture of Pakistan: A case study of youth of Islamabad´ In this study it will be explored up to what extent cable TV & satellite transmissions have affected the youth of Islamabad. for better or worse has made the world a global village. it is saturated with foreign influence and media imperialism. In addition to the main objective of the study the other relevant objectives that are going to be focused are as follows: . Especially their thoughts. Cable TV & Satellite transmissions . suggested Western media products ± television to bring homogeneous cultural messages to every corner around the world. but media consumers in receiving countries were conceptualized as active audiences that could accommodate. One common thread in the media imperialism thesis of the 1970s as well as the 1980s revision was the predominance of the West-to-rest one-way flow of information and a focus on the effects of Western media products in the South countries. The medium of cable television is a prime example to illustrate the effect of media imperialism. Due to the increasing & explosive growth of cable TV & satellite transmissions. and resignify ³foreign´ media products for their own particular and locally relevant uses. beliefs & cultural values have been impacted or not.5 PROBLEM STATEMENT Media imperialism theory was revised in the 1980s to challenge the idea of a passive audience completely manipulated by Western media products. Media Imperialism occurs when one society media dominate another country's culture. However. Media globalization is seen as a modern form of imperialism and more believe that this globalization will destroy individual cultures & diversity. the notion of a predominantly West-dominated one-way flow of information remained. Theories of media imperialism proposed in the 1970s. resist. In the revised theory. How much world television through satellite & cable TV has affected our culture and identity is yet to be explored.

To explore the viewer choice of watching types of programs of cable network. its impact on language and culture can be detected in every facet of life. following research questions & hypothesis have been formulated: Research Questions y y y y Are the foreign channels (cable TV channels) invading into our cultural values? Is our culture going to deplete? How can we develop firewalls against the northern flow of information? How can we commodify our culture? . To discuss the aspects of media globalization. 3. wherever they live. To determine the effects of cable network on viewers in terms of their demographic characteristics. To explore and document viewers' perceptions about Pakistani channels that to what extent promotes western life style. 2. To explore the viewers perceptions about the fashion and female dresses. The satellites and cable TV are sweeping away cultural boundaries. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY Modern media technology has now created the possibility and even the Likelihood of a global culture.6 1. For this purpose. Global entertainment industries shape the perceptions and dreams of ordinary citizens. The concept of global village has changed the outlook of future society. 5. This analysis increases importance of the study because if the local media of any country absorbs the change from foreign channels then the viewers are readily persuaded to adopt those changes are the the the RESEARCH QUESTIONS & HYPOTHESES For this research study. 6. To explore the viewers consumption patterns of cable network. researchers have undertaken an analysis of media cultural products. 4. In this study it will be analyzed how much our indigenous or independent media channels being influenced due to the competition of satellite & cable channels. The global economy has been influencing traditional values and ways of thinking for a long time. As current globalization requires comprehensive transformation of a society.

´It is an established fact that the activity of imperialism is not limited to the political and economic domains. comics etc) because they have the money to do so. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Cultural domination and the threat to cultural identity were treated by the MacBride Commission (1980). The third world cultures then start to want and do the same things in their countries and destroy their own culture. He interpreted that western civilization produce the majority of the media (film. Therefore.´ Ogan (1988) posited the axiom that ³Third world consumers of (foreign) media products will be influenced by the values inherent in that content. believing and thinking. structure. of developed countries dominated developing countries. The commission saw cultural identity endangered by the overpowering influence on and the assimilation of some dominant cultures. distribution or content of the media in any country are singly or together subject to substantial external pressures from the media interests of any other country or countries without proportionate reciprocation of influence by the country so affected. He has been lauded as one of the major proponent of cultural imperialism theory. (International commission for the study of communication problems. though these nations may well be the heirs of more ancient and richer culture. Barrett (1977) conducted the research on international communication under the heading ³media Imperialism´. imposing there by a foreign ideological domination on the people of the developing world. Schiller (1976) in his work ³Communication and Cultural Domination´ proposed the use of the term ³Cultural imperialism´ to describe and explain the way in which large multinational corporation. including the media. Since diversity is the most precious quality of culture. In 1973 the non-aligned summit at Algiers stated. the greater the effects of foreign culture on our youth & cultural identity. despite a counter . values of an alien and predominantly capitalist system´. third world countries are watching media filled with the western world's way of living. but encompasses social and cultural areas as well. The rest of the world purchases those productions because it is cheaper for them to do so rather than produce their own. Thussu (2000) in his article µIndian media ± from colonial to global' says ³Internationally. He defined media imperialism as ³the process whereby the ownership. 1980).7 Research Hypotheses ‡ The greater the exposure to the satellite/cable TV Entertainment programs.

US-Led western media domination has not diminished´. Similarly Hamelink (1983) argued that cultural globalization or imperialism refers to the process by which dominant cultures infiltrate and supersede satellite cultures where the values that may be perfectly harmless in one society are adopted by or imposed upon others. it exposes viewers to the taboos and immoralities of the modern world such as obscenities including profanities. globalization and deregulation of media conglomerates has been ³Preparing the way for the inexorable advance of a one-dimensional' capitalist culture´. To evaluate the media to media effects. C. the researchers have conducted the comparative study between the Pakistani independent channels and the foreign especially Indian entertainment channels. Consequently whatever the viewers watch on screen definitely affect them to a certain degree. Ogan (1988) also propagate the same views about media hegemony. The research hypotheses which are as follows: ³the greater the exposure to the satellite / cable TV entertainment programs. the effects can be devastating. Tomlinson (1991) in his work ³Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction´ argues that a chief concern identified in the media globalization is that increasing consolidation. METHOD In this study qualitative content analysis technique will be employed by which it will be analyzed how the foreign cultural or entertainment products are invading and influencing our indigenous media and cultural products. eroticism and the like are supported to have huge effects on the mind of the young generation.J.8 flow of cultural products. and then the effects can be devastating. Hamelink (1983) argues that the cultural values evolve to fit the economic and environmental constraints faced by the society. For this purpose. According to the Hamelink. the greater the effects of foreign culture on our youth & cultural identity´ because cable TV channels are ruining the youth's mind of today. as exemplified by the network such as Zee. the researchers analyzed how the different entertainment cultural products are being influenced. In order to examine the media to media effects. µCultural synchronization' also Known as cultural globalization or imperialism refers to the process by which dominant cultures infiltrate and supercede satellite cultures. following categories were selected: . Many critical theorists have coined various phrases in reference to the notion of ³cultural imperialism´ and have done work in this direction. When values that may be perfectly harmless in one society are adopted by or imposed upon others.

In this way most of the Pakistani entertainment TV channels appear to be the imitation of alien channels. When the viewers observe that our media is absorbing the change whether it is in the form of dresses.9 CATEGORIES OF PROGRAMS TV programs are categorized into Film. Jewelry. . Music. Use of intoxicants . Drama. are trying to compete with this Indian and western channels. ARY digital.Our independent media channels are not confined to the combine productions. Element of Romance. they have taken the rights from (PEMRA) Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority to broadcast pure Indian productions from their own channels due to which the Pakistani viewers can hardly judge whether it is Pakistani channel or an Indian channel. Their main hardship seems to be the dilemma of how to come out of their traditional yoke of conservatism and face the brunt and attacks of modern channels. Analysis explicit that Pakistani Independent drama channels such as Indus Vision. Geo entertainment and Hum TV etc. Jewelry and use of Indian style fashion products . In this research study the units of analysis are as follows: Themes . Thus our media channels being influenced form foreign Indian channels serve as the trendsetter for our Pakistani viewers and society. Show of Indian religion and traditions . Dresses . Language .adultery. The co-productions have changed the face of today media industry. extra marital affairs . Background Sets. language or other cultural values such as male actors hugging and handshaking with female actresses then the viewers are easily persuaded to adopt these changes or at least they become mentally liberal which is an initial step towards change. When exposed to the external environment of modernity. Fashion and Film Award Show for this study.. UNIT OF ANALYSIS FOR CULTURAL PRODUCTS The smallest element of a content analysis that is actually counted is called the unit of analysis. the Pakistani TV channels in fact could not cope with the adverse situation. Male-female Friendship .

Beverly Hills. Renato Rosaldo. James. Culture and Message Bazaar. Observation and interviews April: Primary and secondary data analysis April-May: Writing up References: Mehdi Mohsenian Rad.. Globalization isn¶t new. CA: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . Imam Sadegh · · · Ronathan Xavier Inda. C. (2002). Media imperialism reconsidered: The homogenization of TV culture.D. Ph.10 Work plan February: Topic formulation. anti-globalization isn¶t either: September 11 and history of nations. Localizing Cultures Lee. Umm al-Qura University. (1980). design. Prometheus. · · Sage. Precursors of Globalization: Review and discussion of University media globalization · Carey. Globalization. literature search & dissertation plan March: Literature review. Globalization and Television: Comparative Perspectives. · Michael Richards & David French. Impact of Globalization Safran Almagati (2002). The Anthropology of Globalization Mohammed Moussalli(2003). Jeremy Seabrook (2004). 20(3).

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