Session 2

Standardise an operation  Measure the standardise operation  Gauge measurements against requirements  Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity  Standardise the new, improved operations  Continue ad infinitium

Control Charts  Histogram  Pareto Chart  Check Sheet  Cause & Effect Diagram  Flowchart  Scatter Diagram

An effective method of monitoring processes through control charts  Monitors processes and variations  Helps reduce waste  Identification of bottleneck, wait times  Reduction in time required to produce

Tool used to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in the state of statistical control or not  Represents measurements of quality characteristics in samples taken periodically  A mean is calculated from the data and displayed  Tolerance limits  .

.

 Variable Control Charts Attribute Control Charts  .

R Chart  X S Chart  p-chart  np-chart  c-chart  u-chart  CUSUM Chart (Cumulative Sum Chart)  Time Series Model  Regression Control  X .

.

It is the method for determining the size and frequency so that each sample represents a point in time or space  It is a way to collect data that best represents a process state that is unknown  .

X  x chart tracks the subgroup average from the process  R chart tracks the range within each subgroup  Both the charts give the process level and process variation at same time as well as presence of special causes .

.

.

Similar to X-bar and R chart but used when subgroup size is 11 or more  It uses standard deviation instead of range  Used to monitor the effects of process improvement theories  .

Is a control chart for attribute of data  Measures the proportion detective items in a subgroup  .

.

 Similar to P-chart. with two differences ◦ All subgroup size must be same ◦ Is used to track attribute data in terms of numbers rather than proportion .

Is used to track attribute data in terms of counts per subgroup  All subgroups must be the same size  .

 Graphically summarises and displays the distribution of a process or data set .

most frequent reasons for customer complaints. etc.  . most common source of defects.It is used to graphically summarise and display the relative importance of the differences between groups of data  It has two vertical axis  Left-side vertical axis is labelled frequency  Right-side of the vertical axis is the cumulative frequency  It is used to represent the most common occurring defect.

.

  It is used to collect data in real-time and at the location where data is generated Types of check sheets ◦ Classification – A trait such as a defect or a failure mode must be classified into a category ◦ Location – The physical location of a trait is indicated on a picture of a part or item being evaluated ◦ Frequency – The presence or absence of trait is indicated along with number of occurrences ◦ Measurement scale – Measurements are indicated by checking on an appropriate interval on a pre-divided measurement scale ◦ Check-list – Items are listed so that as each is accomplished. it is indicated by a check/tick-mark .

.

allowing analysis and optimization of workflow  . outputs and units of activity  Represents the entire process at a high or detailed level of observation.Graphical representation of a process. depicting inputs.

Reveals the relationship of association between two variables  Answers the following questions  ◦ Are two variables related? ◦ If yes. linearly or non-linearly .

Capability Maturity Model  Capability Maturity Model Integration  IDEAL  .

 Types of defects in software ◦ Logical error ◦ Incorrectly assigned variable ◦ Typing errors .

It is industry specific quality model for software development  Focuses on “Zero-Defect” software development  Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) provides a structured way to develop an application and helps in early decision making  SDLC helps reduce the total cost of software development  .

release a beta test version  Final release and customer support  .Create and evaluate concept  Analysis to define requirements  Define architecture  Design tests  Specify computer program  Write and revise computer program. with inspection and testing  For published software. its documentation and instruction  Put the program together.

.

.

But methods are different in different places for no good reason ◦ The whole organisation has standard methods for standard activities. establish. and are following them & keeping them up to date. sustains and continuously improves  Defined  Managed  Optimising . The organisation relies on heroes ◦ Departments have their acts together. procedures. Initial  Repeatable ◦ Each person learns and does the job any way he/she can. and departments have unique procedures where they are needed. This is centrally coordinated ◦ The organisation eliminates defects by quality management and constantly works in order to make things better ◦ Organisation uses.

.

It is the integration of various CMMs  CMMI is a framework for business process improvement  It is a suite of products used for process improvements  It has  ◦ Models ◦ Appraisal methods ◦ Training Courses .

.

.

 Continuous ◦ User focuses on the specific processes that are considered important for organisation’s immediate business objectives  Staged ◦ Provides a standard sequence of improvements and can serve as a basis for comparing the maturity level of different projects and organisation ◦ It provides easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI .

CMMI best practices – documented are called CMMI models  CMMI models cover the following areas  ◦ Development ◦ Acquisition CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV)  CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ)  CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC)  .

understandable approach to continuous improvement by outlining the steps necessary to establish a successful improvement program Consists of 5 stages ◦ I – Initiating ◦ D – Diagnostic Laying the ground work for a successful improvement effort Determining where you are relative to where you want to be Planning the specifics of how will you reach your destination Doing the work according to the plan Learning from the experience and improving the ability to adopt new technologies in future ◦ E – Establishing ◦ A – Acting ◦ L .Learning .  Is a usable.

.

ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems  ISO 9000:2000  ◦ QMS –Fundamentals and Vocabulary  ISO 9001:2000 ◦ QMS – Requirements  ISO 9004:2000 ◦ QMS-Guidelines for performance improvements .

analysis and improvement  .Requirements  Scope  Normative Reference  Terms and definition  Quality management system  Management responsibility  Resource management  Product realisation  Measurement.

.

.

closely linked to business and to customers needs  Quality policy is understood at all levels and by all employees  Documentation and audits are conducted periodically  Records should show how and where raw materials and products are processed to allow products and problems to be traced to the source  .Quality policy is a formal statement from management.

measurement and analysis tools must be properly maintained and calibrated  Determine customer requirements and create systems for communicating with customer  Perform periodic internal audits and meetings  .Map all processes. monitor & control them  Monitoring.

.

Its a business management strategy developed by Motorola  It seeks to identify and remove the causes of defects in manufacturing or business process  .

000 DPMO = Two Sigma = 308.379% efficiency = 99.9997% efficiency .000 DPMO = Three Sigma = 66.210 DPMO = Five Sigma = 230 DPMO efficiency Six Sigma = 3.800 DPMO = Four Sigma = 6.977% 99.      One Sigma = 690.2% efficiency 93.4 DPMO = 31% efficiency 69.32% efficiency 99.

.

Determine what the relationships are and attempt to ensure that all the factors have been considered I-Improve or optimise the process based on data analysis using techniques like design of experiments C-Control to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects .     D -Define high level project goals and the current process M-Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data A-Analyse the data to verify cause and effect relationships.

.

.

.

create high level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design D-Design details. implement the production process and . optimise the design and plan for design verification V-Verify the design. setup pilot runs.     D-Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy M-Measure and identify characteristics that are critical to quality (CTQ). production process capability and risks A-Analyse to develop and design alternatives. product capabilities.

puneit.com 9350832020 9953324595 http://www.singh@gmail.com/puneit .scridb.

Sign up to vote on this title