THE NEW UP ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TOURISM COMPLEX: RESOLVING IDENTITY THROUGH ARCHITECTURE

by Frances Leana Libranda Capellan

An undergraduate thesis proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for ARCH 199.1: Design Thesis Proposal College of Architecture University of the Philippines August 2010

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1. BACKGROUND
Architecture always has been in some of its aspects, a branch of psychological research (Canter, 1974). The thesis revisits the metaphor, poetry and power that architecture has on its viewer. The “viewer”, in this study, is not confined to the inhabitants of the building (Prina, 2008). The end goal is to make an architecture “work” and be truthful to its definition.

Like research, design does not take place at one moment in time and on the basis of one clearly defined set of decisions. By acknowledging the design process as a parallel field of applied research, the thesis will be a validation of the power of architecture to reinforce the identity of an institution. The final output for this thesis is expected to be a well-ordered, properly conceived and technically viable architecture that will not only be a validation of the essence of architecture but more so, a proof that the architect’s main purpose for building structures is to provide a functional, creative and inspiring environment for its people.

The thesis aims to aid the Asian Institute of Tourism in its quest to strengthen its niche in the University. Arguably, it has now conceded to the new developments within its vicinity. Visualizing the complex at least ten years into the future, the goal is to provide the institution with an architectural identity that will be able to stand its ground against all the other future developments. The premise is that a structure’s totality can be envisioned as a response for the ultimate need of creating this architectural identity. Additionally, the building should be as effective to its users as it is to the passerby who should be able to recognize the complex as an institutional building that is still part of UP.

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2. SETTING
2.1. Scope and Limitations
Although there are numerous schools of thoughts that seek to define both the “identity” and “definition” of architecture, it is still a relatively unexplored subject. There are no thesis topics in the University of the Philippines College of Architecture (UPCA) that attempted to design an institutional building using the identity of the institute and translate it through the tectonics of architecture. To limit the scope of the thesis, the following will serve as boundaries / basis: 1. Identity, on the end of the users, will be taken from the collective memory or notion of AIT faculty, staff, students, and alumni. They will be the primary source of information to document what they believe constitutes their institute’s essence. 2. Identity, in terms of architectural translation, will be based on the “essence” or definition of architecture. This is under the principle that architecture, if true to its nature, will be a source of “delight” for its users. 3. The resulting “architecture” will be defined as a result of three factors: the poetics of the space (Bachelard, 1958), the identifiable form, and the structure. The totality of the three will be referred to as “Tectonics”. (See: 2.3 Definitions) 4. The final output will be set against the current developments in Commonwealth and will be tested by means of random survey / interviews with both AIT and non-AIT observers. This will be done to validate if the architecture was able to provide the formidable “presence” for the institute.
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2.2. Assumptions
Although the main and sub problems are based from real issues of the institute, the thesis is still a theoretical project. For the purpose of the study, the following will be held true: 1. Although the complex is envisioned to be a future development, the existing curriculum will still be used as basis for the computation and programming of spaces. These spaces will be provided for the projected demographics. 2. The basis for the space programming will be taken from the projected population of AIT. This will be done by collecting the enrolment statistics of the college and theoretically assuming the institute’s future user density. The vision is to provide a future development designed using today’s current technology and processes. 3. The entire five-hectare AIT site is an empty lot and that the current building is non-existent. However, the history and existing facilities of the institute will still be revisited during the conception phase of the thesis since it has been the home of AIT for at least the past thirty years. 4. Following the notion that there are shared memories from the existing structure, the original or existing AIT spaces will serve as case studies in the process of the creation of the new complex. 5. The new construction will be abiding with all the current city and university rules on planning and construction.
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Capellan 6. The premise is that the impact of the building for both the “secondary” and the “tertiary” users should be as strong as its effect on the “main users” since all these set of observers should be able to experience the “presence” of the architecture in different settings.

2.3. Definitions a) AIT Identity: the collective aspect of the set of
characteristics by which the Asian Institute of Tourism is definitively recognizable or known. It is this distinctiveness that sets AIT apart from all other colleges within or outside the University of the Philippines.

b) Character: the nature, quality and spirit that make up
UP AIT. The “AIT Character” can be treated as synonymous with “AIT Identity”.

c) Institute: the UP-Diliman Asian Institute of Tourism,
also referred to as UP AIT or “the college”.

d) Tectonics: the skill of architectural expression which is
regarded as architect’s art (Dytoc, 1994).

e) Tertiary Users: users who use the building in the sense
that they arrange to meet people at its entrance, simply look at it as they pass by, or use it as a landmark as they move around the city (Canter, 1974). For the purpose of the thesis, how this user group perceives the resulting architecture will be as important as the perception of both the main and secondary users.

f) UP AIT: the University of the Philippines – Diliman
Asian Institute of Tourism.
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2.4. Site Description
The AIT vicinity (Picture 1) is framed by a triangular lot joined by two streets --- the Commonwealth Avenue and the Central Avenue. The Institute is bounded on the west side by the Philippine Social Science Center (PSSC) and on the east side but the SEAMEO-INNOTECH building. Further along its east side is the new UP-AYALA North Science & Technology Park
Picture 1: The UP AIT Vicinity showing nearby structures. The approximate site is the highlighted rectangular lot.

(Techno Hub) with its Phase 1 of development almost finished. In the projected future, it is expected that all the proposed S&T park developments are completely finished. The Commonwealth Avenue can be considered as the vantage point for AIT with the highest impact as it is a busy highway where most public and private vehicles pass by. The Central Avenue is a relatively undeveloped street but is included for possible metro-rail developments. Currently, the Institute is most accessible to students coming from “inside” UP through the footbridge connecting both ends of the Commonwealth Avenue.

2.5. Significance of the Study
Architecture has the power to speak and it does so with a highly precise grammatical language based on structural elements, materials and techniques that are fitted together to make up the syntax of the building (Prina, 2008). The thesis will be a validation of the definition of architecture not only as the marriage of art and science, but more particularly, a tedious process of providing identity as a response to a specific need for presence of an institutional building. The thesis will also be a venue for revisiting the approaches on creating schemes for buildings. An alternative to “user analysis” is to use “tectonics” along with the space programming for users. The thesis is an attempt to converge the psychology of space and the tectonics in architecture into reflecting an institute’s sense of identity. This is an application

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Capellan of thinking in three-dimensions and will highly benefit the field of architectural design.

2.6. Initial Space Program
Architects are creators of environments. Canter (1974) noted this and emphasized the importance of taking into account the psychological effect of created spaces. Thus, it will be essential for the thesis to include AIT’s future spaces in the quest of communicating the character of the Institute. In the process of visualizing the spaces, the collective spatial memory of the users should be taken into account since certain existing spaces may prove significant to the identity that is of AIT. The Institute will be designed for the projected population. (See Section 2.2: Assumptions). As customary, space requirements will be based from the needs of the college plus the envisioned future spaces for the Institute. After a series of interviews and ocular site inspection, the preliminary set of spaces was envisioned. The future complex will be composed of three sets of spaces: (1) the Administrative Spaces, which will be the service area for the college ; (2) the Academic Spaces, where the bulk of architectural programming will be set; and, the Auxilliary Spaces, that will serve as the Institute’s support system. The Administrative Zone will include the Office of the Dean, Office of the College Secretary, Administrative Staff’s Offices, Faculty Room(s), Conference Room and other spaces deemed necessary for the main control center of the Institute. The AIT Library and the Classrooms (or Lecture Rooms) will be the main parts of the Academic Zone. The thesis also proposes Laboratories for each “specialization”. An example of this laboratory will be “simulation spaces” for airline-related jobs or specialized laboratory rooms for hotel and restaurant management. The actual number of laboratories and their specifications will be discussed once the demographics and
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Capellan curriculum are taken into account. Auxiliary Spaces will be the Cafeteria / Canteen, Auditorium, Students Hubs / Tambayan and Comfort Rooms. Open and landscaped areas will be added to serve as buffer for both the noise and pollution from the busy streets near the site.

3. DESIGN PROBLEM
While there are streams of literature about the design of academic buildings, this cannot be attributed to the design of every particular institutional structure. A complex for the Institute of Tourism, for example, is a particularly difficult building to plan for. The fact that it is located “outside” the realms of the academe, along with all the political and social issues connected with its inception and location, makes it both an interesting and challenging thesis topic. With its constantly changing curriculum and the continuously widening grasp of its field, a generic academic structure would not be the appropriate response. (See: Illustration 1 for Initial Problematization).
MAIN PROBLEM
AIT Students’ lack of pride for their course and college

SOLUTION: ARCHITECTURAL INTERVENTION

A New UP AIT building that will make the college “visible”, “elevate” its presence in the university, and consequently re-ignite the sense of pride for its users.

EFFECT:

Architecture as the physical stimuli to create the desired psychological response.

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Illustration 1. Initial Phase of Problematization

By defining and simplifying the main problem as an issue on the lack of pride for the students of the Asian Institute of Tourism, an architectural resolution can be hypothesized: A building that embodies the college’s identity, if designed as a reflection of the college’s spirit, will not only be a source and stimulus of pride for its users, but more importantly, it will be a testament to the institute’s core.

3.1 Main Problem How can a design of a new UP Asian Institute of Tourism (UP AIT) building aid the Institute’s visibility and presence in the University and consequently reignite the sense of pride for its users?

3.2 Sub-Problems
Sub-Problem 1: What is meant by “visibility” and “presence” and how can reinforcing these through architecture help solve AIT’s “lack of pride”? Sub-Problem 2: What stimulus can reignite AIT’s sense of pride? Sub-Problem 3: What is the UP AIT Identity? Sub-Problem 4: What design and structural types will be necessary to reflect the college’s identity?
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4. PRECEDENTS AND RELATED LITERATURE
4.1.1 Precedent Studies
Three architecture precedents were chosen from a varied list of building resources. The projects were not specifically “Institute of Tourism” buildings but were, in essence, able to answer the two basic inquiries of the thesis:

1. How did the architect or design team resolved the
challenge of creating a new building given a site with existing (and continuing future) developments?

2. What is the “impact” provided by the new architecture
into its landscape?

4.1a Yale University: Sculpture Building and Gallery Yale University's Sculpture Building and Gallery (Picture 2) "nods to Yale's gothic-style architectural legacy while allowing the desire for daylighting and energy-efficiency to define its aesthetic" (Architectural Record, November 2008). Observers describe Yale University’s new sculpture building as a
Picture 2: The Sculpture Building and Gallery at Yale University. New Haven, Connecticut (Completion Date: September 2007)

contemporary take on Yale’s gothic-style older buildings. The approach of the design was to incorporate the architectural language of Yale, which was defined to be of gothic, and combine it with the contemporary. The design team “down played” the color scheme and finishes for the structure. Although it is a very modern approach to the building, with utilities such as daylighting techniques and energy efficiency measures defining its aesthetics, the architectural language conformed with the existing fabric in the university. 4.1b Woodbury University: New Studio Building The design approach for the studio building (Picture 3) was centered on the spatial requirement of the program. Rios Clementi Hale Studios designed the space with an open,

Picture 3: The New Studio Building at Woodbury University Burbank, California (Completion Date: February 2008)

flexible floor plan to accommodate future changes in the
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Capellan architecture school, teaching philosophies, or administrative needs (Archinovations, August 2008). The resulting building form is a massive and dominating structure making it the most visible structure within the Woodbury perimeter. The building’s “impact” was not originally intended. Functioning as an architectural studio, a part of the building has exposed interior construction and mechanical systems to foster an architectural learning environment.

4.1c University of Technology: Broadway Building The winning design for a revitalized campus plan in Sydney made use of the literal translation of “basic technology” to create the identity for the Broadway building (Picture 4). The building is made of aluminium sheets perforated with binary code, the series of “1s” and “0s” that underpins computer programming language (Sydneyarchitecture, 2010). The
Picture 4: The Denton Corker Marshall Broadway Building, University of Technology Sydney, Australia (Winner: Broadway Building Design Competition, March 2010)

building is envisioned to function as the Information Technology and Engineering (ITE) Building.

A building always makes a statement. The three precedent studies, although different on their design approaches, strongly manifested their presence in terms of their form, colors, materials, and the like. The three precedents either harmonized with its vicinity’s architectural language, or went against it. The set was limited to buildings inside universities to further take note of how campuses adapt to change without destroying their campus’ fabric. Rarely does a building get a chance to be the first structure on a site. For a university building, there’s always a possibility for
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Capellan new construction as dictated by the growing needs of the campus. Although there are always zoning plans to guide future and additional developments, they are still subject to change that results to an assortment of architectural languages. Similar to UP’s current and continuously changing landscape, it is still integral for new construction to at least have a basis for their chosen architectural language. One particular challenge for the new UP AIT building is on how it will be able to project UP’s architectural character when it is “outside” the realm of the academe (at least in the cognitive map of “outsiders”) and how its new architecture will be able to reinforce its presence amidst the towering new structures along Commonwealth Avenue. More specifically, should it “harmonize” with the S&T Park developments? Or should it go against it?

4.2

Related Literature

The thesis aims to reflect an institute’s identity through its architecture. To fully design for identity, a clear definition of the terms “identity” and “architecture” should first be established.

According to Johnson (1994), definitions are schizophrenic creatures. Defining a word brings it to an end. The word “definition”, in its essence, means “to finish”. To define a word is to delimit its boundaries, describe its properties, fix its meaning --- all with a degree of precision that is intended to get at the “truth” of the word. For this thesis, the goal is to design an institute using the definition of architecture. The researcher hypothesizes that the source of identity can be the “architecture” of the institute. Given that the final form and space requirement will be the result of the AIT identity as translated through architecture. Defining the term, in this case, will not “put an end” to the word, but rather provide the jump-off course of the thesis. The definition is essential and required because architects, unlike painters, work with a highly technical language.

4.2.1 Architecture and Identity
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Capellan 4.2.1.1 Defining Architecture There are as many definitions of the term “architecture” as the number of design approaches used by architects in attacking their design problems. The complexity of an architect’s responsibility should be paralleled by their degree of creativity. Roger Scruton, writing about the essence of architecture, says that “Architecture, when successful, [...] like the essence of almost every human being, lies in its elaboration” (as cited in Johnson, 1994, p. 80). Here, Scruton is defining architecture as the end product itself. In his book “The Aesthetics of Architecture” (1979), he discussed architecture from five viewpoints, each with their own body of theory: function, space, kuntgeschichte (art history), künstwollen (artistic intention) and proportion. Scruton argues that none of these views is sufficient to define the essence of architecture. He believes architecture should not be inclusive. That an architect should not ignore any of architecture’s significant aspect. But are these aspects completely definitive of architecture? It is notable that Scruton mentioned proportion, but not structure. His five aspects were predominantly related to “art” which is understandable since his book focused on the aesthetics of architecture. However, his book provides the notion that the structural element is not part of the definition.

Le Corbusier’s definition presents architecture as an “event” that an architect experiences and shares. He wrote: “... for architecture is an undeniable event that arises in that instant of creation when the mind, preoccupied with assuring the firmness of a construction, with desires for comfort, find itself raised by a higher intention than that of simply being useful, and tends to show the poetic powers that animate us and give us joy” (as cited in Johnson, 1994, p.75). In this sense, he is not merely pointing to “function” as the main goal of architecture, but the power of a building to provide people with a sense of delight. Here, architecture is not confined to the technicality of the term but to the senses it evokes. Architecture is also lifted such that an architect’s power to create pushes him to build.
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At its most fundamental meaning, architecture is often defined as the “art and science” of building. As previously noted, Scruton did not mention about the “science” part of architecture while Le Corbusier focused more on the drive of the architect to create. In layman’s term, architecture is interchangeable with the terms “building” and “structure”.

A “building” is defined as “a structure that is essentially constructed with walls and a roof, commonly created for human habitation or use” (Coates, Brooker & Stone, 2009). The physical aspect is thus regarded as the building itself. There is no mention of the art nor the science involved in the make of the building. On the other hand, “stucture” is defined as “a collection or assemblage of materials that when joined together will withstand the loads and forces to which they are subjected” (Coates, Brooker & Stone, 2009). The definition’s focus is on the “engineering” part of the building. It acknowledges that the technical part of a building, the process and its make, is its structure. With these given definitions of the terms “building” and “structure”, where does the term “architecture” fit in?

The most enlightening definition of the term “architecture” was presented by Dytoc (1994) on his paper “Structure = Form: The Relationship of Form to Principles of Structure”. The paper revisits the definition of architecture and comes up with a definitive meaning that stems from the very nature of the word itself.

Dytoc believes that there is more to architecture than “structure” and “form”. He discussed the danger in treating structures like machines, on using “function and efficiency” as main form-finder. He warned architects into treating the subjects of aesthetics or art as merely a decorative-finish, or a “band-aid” cosmetic finish. He noted that although the art of “facadism” or ornamentation in architecture is not a fault, it is best if these
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Capellan act of embellishments are related to, and rooted in the structure that support it.

Dytoc probed on the validity of the “most accepted” definition of Architecture as the art and science of building. He believes the definition creates confusion mainly because, most of the time, the meaning of “art” and “science” are taken for granted and not properly examined. The terminology may also not be valid for all past, present of future periods of architectural history. To fully search for architecture’s best definition, he presented key examples of architecture from different stages in history and traced how the technology in construction relates to both art and science. His aim was to “attempt at a heightened appreciation and redefinition of architecture by exploring how constructed structure generates tectonic and expressive form”. Here, he dismissed “movements” in architecture if it is purely based on the ornament of form without technological basis.

The oldest definition of architecture is Vitruvius’ firmitas (firmness), utilitas (commodity) and venustas (delight). Dytoc claims that works of architecture have a much better claim of being recognized as works of art when “delight” in form results from the studied expression of “firmness in structure”. For architecture to “delight” in form means that it must engage man in visual and tactile dialogue. He considers this a priori or unvoidable condition.

Architecture is a form of writing that a significant statement. It is usually “read” just as literature, music and other forms of art are criticized and analyzed. To be able to understand architecture is to decipher its form and its structure. The problem is that, most of the times, architecture is not aware of the “statement” it makes. What it communicates visually may not be consistent to its physical, constructed condition. It is thus important for architects to always be aware of every architectural
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Capellan form’s potential and promise and what it is “saying” to the user. This skill of architectural expression which is regarded as an architect’s art is what Eduard Sekler labels as tectonics (as cited in Dytoc, 1994, p.3).

Art and science should go hand-in-hand for a structure to be truly a functional architecture. The most important requirement in the making of architecture is the element of creativity and ingenuity --- the drive to achieve the impossible. Another interesting point raised by Dytoc was the much-needed close relationship of “architecture” and “engineering”. He dissected the origin and meaning of the words “Architect” and “Engineer” and traced the differences and similarities of their nature of work.

From the Greek words archè and tektôn, an Architect literally means someone who is considered as the prime maker, master builder, and chief craftsman. Loosely defined, this means an architect is one who builds something which has not been built before. Dytoc claims that with this very definition, architecture should not be given to mere duplication or replication. Essentially, there should not be an architecture that looks exactly like anything done before. With this, the researcher agrees. Every building is designed as a response to a particular set of needs and should never be imitative of any other structure. Architecture, in the very sense of the word, is the continous attempt of realizing the future (Dytoc, 1994).

Engineering, on the other hand, is taken from the Latin word ingenium and genus. Ingenium means ingenuity, and inventiveness. Genum pertains to birth, nascence and ability to produce. An engineer, then, is a close relative of the architect, a person that practices ingenuity and inventiveness, a person committed to advancing convention and building the future.

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Capellan Combining the two previous definitions, Dytoc (1994) claims that “Architecture is potent communication. It is creation; it is invention; it is technology. Architecture is making the impossible possible.” Illustration 2 shows how the established Definition of Architecture will be used to translate the UP AIT Identity.

ARCHITECTURE

Form

Structure Space

TECTONICS

Psychology of Spaces

UP AIT’s ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY

Illustration 2. The Definition of Architecture as Creator of Identity.

4.2.1.2 Identity in Architecture

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Capellan The discussion of identity in architecture entails a revalidation of the psychology of spaces. Identity can be translated in architecture using a number of approaches. The thesis aims to organize a theoretical framework after conducting an more indepth literature research combined with random interviews with AIT students and staff. Illustration 3 shows the Initial Design Approach for the thesis.

People

Site

Users

Site Factors

Perception, Meaning

Architectural Programming

THE AIT IDENTITY

THE NEW AIT BUILDING

RENEWED SENSE OF PRIDE FOR AIT STUDENTS
Illustration 3. Initial Design Approach in Finding Identity

4.2.2 AIT and UP
4.2.2.1 Projecting UP’s Architectural Character The University of the Philippines is a community with a continuously changing landscape. Every corner of the academe serves as a living testament of its historical past. The architectural character and language of the Diliman Campus was documented through two books published by the Office of the Chancellor. Both books showcased the university’s “sites and symbols” using photographs and essays that seeks to provide nostalgic but official accounts of UP. The book’s first volume featured UP’s initial set of sites and symbols. It presented the academe’s older set of buildings along with a list of memorable “landmarks”. Emerlinda Roman’s Foreword spoke of the legacy that is reflected by these structures. Roman (2000) wrote that for most people “Landmarks are all too often merely stone or metal markers of
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Capellan [what used to be] important, now half-forgotten events, preserved mainly for posterity”. She noted that more than monoliths, landmarks in the campus are legacies. That they are “icons, edifices and sites that inspired, sheltered and spurred generations of students on pursuit of knowledge, truth and [...] self-realization”. In architecture and urban planning, a landmark is defined as a “point of reference that is external” (Lynch, 1960). Kevin Lynch, on his book focusing on the “imageability” of cities, defines a landmark as a simply defined physical object. It can be as large as a building or as small as a signage. They are used as clues of identity of a place. They are external points because the observers do not enter them. In UP, the familiar sites and institutional symbols are not only landmarks of the campus, but also of UP’s individual dreams and aspirations. Landmarks in the univeristy are not only place makers, they are also able to ignite different emotions to different people. Similarly, they also serve different purposes. Roman’s choices of what she called as “landmarks” ranged from the relatively small oblation statue, to the assorted sculptures scattered strategically around the campus, up to the huge edifices that circles the academic oval. According to Roman, these physical structures are flashpoints in time. Notably, UP buildings recall “the glory and greatness of the immortalized moment”. Ruben Defeo’s Introduction (2000) of the same book provided a rundown of what the Diliman campus looked like “then and now”. His recollection of the past fifty years gave an easy glimpse at the developments in the academe. He believes that although much of UP’s landscape have been altered significantly, the spirit of the University endures. The first buildings in UP were homogenous in character, or at least each building tried to relate to its neighbor’s form and character. He used the words “hellenistic fashion” to describe the buildings’ feel in the 1950s and noted how the almost uniform design brought about “an architectural harmony made hallowed through time”.
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Capellan The second volume of the “Sites and Symbols” went into further details on describing Diliman’s “changing shape”. This time, Roman (2005) described UP’s skyline as a “constant flux”. What used to be just “a handful of concrete structures that jutted out like monolithic monuments in the vast cogonal landscape” is now filled with building “of all shapes and sizes”. The Hellenistic character of the older buildings is now “complemented” by new construction. Roman shared that the buildings were constructed as a response to the “demands of the times and the growing student enrolment”. She believes that it is with these new structures and the structure’s interconnectivity that UP welcomed the information age. Currently, the uniquely Hellenistic character of old buildings have been lost to give way “to a position favouring an eclectic, albeit confused, architectural persuasion.” What used to be uniformly rectangular and symmetrical building forms are now injected with diverse shapes. For instance, the Faculty Center is of a square form while additional rooms for the College of Music were octagonal. There is also Vargas Museum, the first building on campus made mostly of glass. Defeo believes that amidst the infusion of modern developments in the original campus plan, it has “never violated the sanctity of academic discipline that inheres the campus by nature.” He even compared UP Diliman into a modern-day monastery citing its “self-contained” but “selfsustaining” reasons as source of its strong identity. He also tagged UP as a “Campus of Scholars” and a “Community of People”. The second volume of the book is a tribute to “the architects who shared magnanimously their artistic gifts in designing and constructing the buildings that today define the architectural landscape of UP Diliman.” Roman’s previous claim that buildings are “flashpoints in time” is supported by the notion that structures in the campus reflected dominant architectural movements during the time that it was built. Defeo wrote of this when he said that the rise of structures in UP parallels the
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Capellan development of architecture in the country. The architects that created the first buildings in the University were also the initial set of architects in the Philippines. Most of them have been educated abroad, and were the pioneers of engineering and architecture school in the country. Defeo quoted former regent Oscar M. Alfonso on his observation that “buildings may be inanimate, [but] lifeless they need not be”. Buildings constructed before may be devoid of the original design of those who conceptualized them, but they were able to evolve along with the people who uses them. This time, Defeo called UP “an academic asylum and a residential refuge”. It is the collective of people that gives the University its vibrancy while the architecture of the assortment of buildings gives the campus its institutional look. 4.2.2.2 AIT in UP’s History The University of the Philippines – Diliman is the first university in Asia to offer a four-year baccalaureate course leading to a degree in Bachelor of Science in Tourism. Graduates of the course are expected to provide leadership and manpower for the various sectors of the hospitality and tourism industry. Work choices for a UP Asian Institute of Tourism (UP AIT) graduate includes (but is not limited to) any of the following: tourism promotions, hotel management, transportation / tour / travel operations, research and other tourism – oriented undertakings. Neighbouring Asian countries had since looked up on AIT’s course offerings as basis on making their own tourism curriculum. The birth of AIT was UP’s answer to the country’s developing and promising tourism industry in the early 1970s. Top hotels were being managed by foreigners and the Filipinos were technically inexperienced on handling such a diverse and relatively new field. AIT’s vision was to upgrade the travel and tourism profession by providing high quality education and training to students who will be the industry’s future manager, entrepreneurs, and technical experts.
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Capellan The plan for the creation of AIT was finalized in 1975 under the administration of former UP President Onofre D. Corpuz. It was executed through a tripartite agreement between the University of the Philippines, the Department of Tourism (DOT), and the Philippine Tourism Authority. The following year, AIT’s plans was put forth as approved by UP’s Board of Regents. Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos released an initial 16 million pesos for the construction of the complex. Total cost for the project amounted to 25 million pesos. The UP AIT complex was designed by Efren R. Hernandez and Lily De Leon. Aside from the institutional building, what used to be an added attraction for the five-hectare complex was the 28-room hotel with rooms patterned after those of top hotels and resorts in the country. The hotel was originally envisioned to serve as a laboratory for the student’s academic learning and at the same time as a source of income for the college.

It will be safe to say that the visibility of the Institute is fuelled by its presence in the cognitive minds of both the UP population and the people who pass by the building everyday. At present, the once glorified UP Asian Institute of Tourism Complex is visibly thwarted by newly constructed neighbouring edifices. Although physically missing and easily unrecognizable along Commonwealth Avenue, the future of the Institute is still at its most progressive.

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5. METHODOLOGY
Desk research was the first point of topic validation for the thesis. An interview with the Dean of the Institute and its respective heads was also conducted to further have a grasp of the college’s future plans. After establishing the theories related to the architectural problem, and analyzing precedent studies, the course of the thesis will be divided into three major phases:
1. Architectural Programming 2. Design Translation 3. Design Evaluation

During the Architectural Programming and Design Translation Phases, the following systems of inquiry will be used:

Ocular Site Inspection and Documentation to further establish the opportunities and strengths of the Institute’s location.

Continued desk / literature research, specifically on building standards and codes, to validate space requirements as aid for space programming.

Random survey / interviews with AIT students and staff to gain the collective notion for the “AIT spirit”, alongside Recorded Observations of the behavior of AIT students inside their college as basis for the zoning and creation of their spaces.

Interviews and consultations with knowledgeable professionals to ensure that the concepts and architecture proposed will work given the current technology.

For the Design Evaluation phase, the thesis’ goal is to come up with at least three schemes for the UP AIT complex and have the design evaluated by a group of people from the Institute. Only the design that best captures the AIT Identity and answers the architectural problem will be presented in the
23 The New UP AIT Complex: Resolving Identity Through Architecture

Capellan final thesis deliberation. Schemes not approved will serve as case studies and can be used to further support the claims of the thesis.

6. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abel, C. (1997). Architecture and Identity: towards a Global Eco-culture. Oxford, England: Architectural Press. Bachelard, G. & Jolas, M. (1994). The Poetics of Space. Boston: Beacon. Boehland, J. (July 2008) Case Study: Yale Sculpture Gallery – GreenSource Magazine. Green Building, LEED Projects and Sustainable Design -- Commercial Green Buildings, Building Performance and Green Homes -Sustainable Materials and Green Building Products -GreenSource Magazine. Retrieved July 10, 2010, from http://greensource.construction.com/projects/0807_Yal eSculptureGallery.asp Canter, D.V. (1974). Psychology for Architects. London: Applied Science. Coates, M., Graeme, B., and Sally, S. (2009). The Visual Dictionary of Interior Architecture and Design. Lausanne: AVA Academia. Defeo, R. D.F. (2000) Introduction. In Sites and Symbols: UP Diliman Landmarks. (pp.3-7). Quezon City: Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines. "Denton Corker Marshall - Broadway Building, University of Technology in Sydney, Australia." (March 2010). Archinnovation: Online Architecture Magazine. Retrieved July 7, 2010, from http://www.archinnovations.com/featured24 The New UP AIT Complex: Resolving Identity Through Architecture

Capellan projects/academic/denton-corker-marshall-broadwaybuilding-university-of-technology-in-sydney-australia/ Dytoc, B. C. (1994). Form = Structure: The Relationships of Form to Principles of Structure. Gonchar, J. (November 2008) Yale University Sculpture Building and Gallery - Building Types Study Architectural Record. Architecture Design for Architects | Architectural Record. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives /universities/08_Yale/default.asp Johnson, P. (1994). The Theory of Architecture: Concepts, Themes & Practices. New York: Wiley. Powow, V. G. (2009) A Report on Psychology and Architecture GrandLodge of Manitoba. Retrieved July 5, 2010, from http://www.grandlodge.mb.ca/mrc_docs/Psychology %20of%20Architecture.pdf Prina, F. (2008) Architecture: Elements, Materials, Form. Princeton: Princeton University Press "Rios Clementi Hale Studios - Woodbury University New Studio Building." (August 2008). Archinnovation: Online Architecture Magazine. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://www.archinnovations.com/featuredprojects/academic/rios-clementi-hale-woodburyuniversity-new-studio-building/ Rivera, I. A. B. (2005). ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TOURISM: The University's Concrete Contribution to Tourism Development. In Sites and Symbols 2 : UP Diliman Landmarks. (pp.084-087). Quezon City: Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines Diliman.
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Capellan Roman, E. A. (2000). Landmarks As Legacies. Foreword. In Sites and Symbols: UP Diliman Landmarks. (pp.1-2). Quezon City: Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines. "UTS Broadway Building (ITE Building) | Sydneyarchitecture.com." (July 2010) Sydneyarchitecture.com | Sydney Architecture- Historic and Contemporary. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://sydneyarchitecture.com/?p=764 "Woodbury University Architecture Studio Building - Building Types Study - Architectural Record." Architecture Design for Architects | Architectural Record. Retrieved from http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives /universities/08_Woodbury/default.asp

26 The New UP AIT Complex: Resolving Identity Through Architecture

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