This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The winding process therefore has the basic function of obtaining a larger package from several small ring bobbins. This conversion process provides one with the possibility of cutting out unwanted and problematic objectionable faults. The process of removing such objectionable faults is called as yarn ‘ clearing’ . Practical experience has proven that winding alters the yarn structure.This phenomenon does not affect yarn evenness, but affect the following yarn properties
• • • • •
thick places thin places neps hairiness standard deviation of hairiness
If winding tension is selected properly, the following tensile properties are not affected
• • •
tenacity elongation work- to- break
But excessive tension in winding will deteriarate the above said tensile properties. Changes in the yarn surface structure due to winding cannot be avoided. Since the yarn is accelerated from zero speed to 1200 or 1350 meters per min in a few milli seconds while being pulled off the bobbin, dragged across several deflection bars and eyelets, forced into a traverse motion at speed that make it invisible, and finally rolled up into a firm construction called package or cone. The factors that affect the yarn structure during winding include the frictional properties of the yarn itself, the bobbin geometry and the bobbin unwinding behaviour, winding speed, winding geometry as well as the number and design of the yarn / machine contact points. However, the bobbin unwinding behaviour is the major limiting factor for winding speed which also is the main reason for the above said changes in yarn structure. Most of the damage occurs at the moment when the end is detached and removed from the tight assembly of yarn layers on the bobbin and dragged along the tube at very high speeds. High speed automatic winders have frequently been blamed for causing higher nep counts but this is not a correct statement. typical nep-type imperfections, i.e shor mass defects, can be identified as tight fibre entanglements, clumps of immature or dead cotton fibres, or seed coat fragments. Naturally, such defects are not produced by the winding machine. The increase in nep counts after winding is related to the formation of loose fiber accumulations. These fibre accumulations represent a true mass defect, yet their
the machiery set up. removed It is still not possible to produce a yarn without faults for various reasons. The yarn faults which go into the woven or knitted fabric can be removed at very high costs or can not be removed at all. production and process parameters. knotters were used in winding machine to join two ends after cutting the fault and after chaning the ringframe bobbin . But now . In earlier days. there are about 20 to 100 faults over a length of 100 km yarn which do not correspond to the deisred appearance of the yarn. Fly liberation in Ringframe department is one of the major reasons for short faults in the yarn because of the fly gets spun into the yarn. Clearing Efficiency= 100 * (Total unwanted Faults Removed by Clearer) / ( Total Number of such faults Present in the yarn) Knot Factor = ( Total number of Clearer cuts) / (Number of unwanted yarn faults 4. Some very fine and delicate yarns will result in marginal structural changes after winding. These faults are monitored by classimat or clearer installation on winding. Hence it is not possible to have fault free yarn from ringspinning. .apperance in the yarn and in the final fabric is clearly different from that of typical fibre entanglements or seed coat fragments. they become apparent in all subsequent processing stages. Stickiness of cotton can contribute to the formation of thick and thin places. Both principles have their advantages in specific applications. But this is not the result of mechancial stress like in winding but a natural reaction caused by the reversal of the yarn running direction. This means that the yarn exhibits a yarn fault every 1 to 5 km. splicing of the yarn ends has become quite popular and has gradually replaced knotting by way of its better appearance while at the same time retaining sufficient strength. Yarn quality Factor = Clearing Efficiency / Knot factor 2. The difference between frequent yarn faults and seldom occuring yarn faults are mainly given by the mass or diameter deviation and size. YARN FAULTS AND CLEARING: WINDING Top 1. foregin fibres and diry places in the yarn. These faults are thick and thin faults. Depending upon the rawmaterial. As physical principle for electronic yarn clearing the capacitive and the optical principle have established. it is necessary to have yarn monitoring system in the last production process of the spinning mill. Pre clearer Gauge at winding (carded yarn) 4.0 * yarn diameter Pre clearer Gauge at winding (combed yarn) 5 * yarn diameter 3. Therefore the yarn processing industry demands a fault free yarn. irectional influences are omnipresent.
the characteristic dimensions of the various fault types can be taken into consideration. To an extent they are the result of the rawmaterial ( vegetable matter. The quite extensive application of electronic yarn clearing has set new quality standards with respect to the number of faults in spun yarns. with the naked eye. These can be short thick places. The yarn faults are classified according to their length and cross-sectional size. and in each case accoridng to the type of yarn and its application. 40cms and longer and a cross-sectional decrease with respect to the mean yarn cross-section of approx. They are too frequent in the yarn to be extracted by means of the electronic yarn clearing. Long thick places are much more seldom-occuring than the short thick places and usually have a length longer than 40cms. Their effect in the finished product however. In many cases. + 40% to +100% and more with respect of the mean cross-section of the yarn. The most important aspect is certainly the determination of the fault dimensions of cross-sectional size and length. Their cross sectional size approx. here and there. they can produce quite fatal results in the finished product. to quite a large extent.Each yarn contains. Long thin places have lengths of approx. places which deviate to quite a considerable extent from the normal yarn corss-section. they cause disturbances in subsequent processing. Their frequency is dependent on the rawmaterial and the setting of the drafting element. and have a length approx. their length can even reach many meters. To a much larger extent. and this in 23 classes. etc). Eventhough such events seldom occur. Long thin faults are difficult to determine in the yarn by means of the naked eye. Faults like spinners doubles are difficult to determine in the yarn. These faults are relatively frequent in all spun yarns. A spinners double in the warp or in yarn for circular knitting can downgrade hundreds of meters of woven . three times the mean staple length of the fibre. then a classification system will result which is suitable primarily for satisfying the requirements of yarn clearing and yet allows. With such a cross-section and length classification and by means of the correct choice of the class limits. . Long thick places will affect the fabric apperance. On the other hand. but much more frequently-occuring in long staple yarns. these faults are produced in the spinning section of the mill and are the result of spun in fly. Short thick places are those faults which are not longer than approximately 8 cms. non-seprated fibres. Once they reach a certain size( cross-section and length) . Short thin places are known as imperfections. can be extremely serious. they represent a potential disturbance in the appearance of the fabric or can negatively influnece subsequent processing of the yarn. twice that of the yarn. for a selection of the various types of faults. or knitted fabric. Thin places occur in two length groups. It is therefore necessary to evolve a method of yarn fault classification before clearing the faults in winding. long thin places . In some cases. long thick places or even spinners doubles. They are relatively seldom-occuring in short staple yarns. Short thick places are easily determinable in the yarn.30 to 70%. but have a crosssectional size approx. short thick place fults can considerably affect the appearance of the finished product.
FIG: CLASSIMAT FAULTS: • The cross-sectional deviations are given +% or -% values. Clearers working on the capacitive principle have ‘ mass’as the reference for performing its functions while optical clearers function with ‘ diameter’ as the reference. -45% and -75% and whose lengths are longer than 32 cms. The classes A4. i. 0. 4cm.D4. FIG: YARN CLEARING CONCEPT OF USTER QUANTUM CLEARER N . 2cm. according to their length.1 cm. The classes I1 and I2 are open to the right. The classification of the shorter thin places is of no advantage in the analysis of the seldom-occuring faults.C4. The classes are designated H1. The fault length is measured in cms. Both have their merits and demerits and are equally . whose cross-sectional size oversteps +400%. i.COARSE COUNTS CCM-FINE COUNTS The classes and their limits are set out according to the following: • Short thick place faults: 16 classes with the limits. and +400% for the cross-sectional sizes are provided.D4 contain all those faults.SHORT FAULTS L-LONG FAULTS CCP .NEPS S.e they contain all those thin places having a size between -30 and -45%. FIG: A DIAGRAM FROM LOEPFE YARN CLEARER MANUAL Types of Electronic Yarn Clearers Electronic Yarn Clearers available in the market are principally of two types –capacitive and optical.. • spinners doubles: This refers to a class (with the indication E) for faults whose length oversteps 8cms and whose cross-sectional size oversteps +100 ( open to the right and upwards) • Long thick place faults and thick ends: The long thin place faults are contained in 4 classes with the limits 8 cms and 32 cms for the lengths. and -30% . lower limit with respect to the mean yarn fault cross-section is measure in %... The classes are indicated A1.+250%.. B4. respectively . respetively. -45% and -75% for the cross-sectional sizes.. +150%.e theupper limit. and 8cm for the lengths and +100%.I2..
Sensitivity . Here. the functioning of the capacitive clearer is explained in some detail in the following sections. an electrical signal is produced which is proportional to the change in mass per unit length of the yarn. Reference Length – This defines the length of the yarn over which the fault cross – section is to be measured. When the yarn passes through this measuring field (between the capacitor plates). The clearing limit consists of two setting parameters . i. For a yarn fault to be cut. beyond which the cutter is activated to remove the yarn fault. Both the above parameters can be set within a wide range of limits depending on specific yarn clearing requirements. c. ii.This determines the activating limit for the fault cross sectional size. Clearing Limit: The clearing limit defines the threshold level for the yarn faults. Besides the above basic difference in measuring principle. Yarn Count : The setting of the yarn count provides a clearer with the basic information on the mean value of the material being processed to which the clearer compares the instantaneous yarn signals for identifying the seriousness of a fault. the basis of functioning of both the types of clearers are similar if not exactly same. Material Number: .popular in the textile industry. Functioning Principle The yarn is measured in a measuring field constituted by a set of parallely placed capacitor plates. thick and thin places etc. The number and type of evaluation channels available are dependent on the sophistication and features of the model of the clearer in use. in various departments take into account mass as the reference parameter. This signal is amplified and fed to the evaluation channels of the yarn clearing installation. the mean value of the yarn fault cross-section has to overstep the set sensitivity for the set reference length. The following are some of them a. U% / CV%. it is worth mentioning that the ‘ reference length’ may be lower or higher than the actual ‘ fault length’. Each of the channels reacts to the signals for the corresponding type of yarn fault.Sensitivity and Reference Length. b. the cutting device of the yarn clearer cuts the yarn Yarn Clearer Settings The yarn clearer has to be provided with certain basic information in order to obtain the expected results in terms of clearing objectionable faults. Since most of the other textile measurements like. When the mass per unit length of the yarn exceeds the threshold limit set for the channel..
5 2. when a 67/33 Polyester / Cotton blend is run at an RH of 65%. Long Thick Places . Winding Speed: The setting of the winding speed is also very critical for accurate removal of faults. d. the delivery speed be set by actual calculation after running the yarn for 2-3 minutes and checking the length of yarn delivered. the count.67 * 3. material number and speeds are monitored and automatically corrected during actual running of the yarn. In most of the modern day clearers.) and environmental conditions like relative humidity.5 very dry material(50% RH) 7 very damp material 6 natural silk acetate. acrylonitrile 5. wool.5 polyamide polypropylene.8. poly ethylene polyester polyvinyl chloride 50 to 80% RH 50 to 80% RH 50 to 80%RH 50 to 80% RH 5 very dry material 50 to 80% RH 4.5 cotton. For instance. the material number is formed from the sum of the percentage components of the blend. These factors are taken into consideration in the ‘ Material Number’ .5 From the values given in the table it could be seen that.5) = 4.5 3. It is recommended that.5) + (0. viscost 6.Besides the yarn count there are certain other factors which influence the capacitance signal from the measuring field like type of fibre (Polyester / Cotton / Viscose etc. Similarly a lower speed setting relative to the actual causes less cuts with some faults escaping without being cut.5 very damp material (80%Rh) 7. Table :material number 8. A reduction in material number results in a more sensitive setting causing higher fault removal. The material number values for different materials are provided in Table. Fault Channels: The various fault channels available in a latest generation yarn clearer are as follows: 1.33 * 7. Setting a higher speed than the actual is likely to result in higher number of cuts. For blended yarns. Short Thick places 2. the Material Number is changed by 1 for a 15% change in Relative Humidity. instead of the machine speed. the Material umber should be set at (0. for water absorbent fibres like cotton.
Splicing is the ultimate method to eliminate yarn faults and problems of knots and piecing. Splice The availability of one or more of the above channels is dependent on the type of the yarn clearer. with latest clearers. almost equal elasticity in the joint and basic yarn. The knots are responsible for 30 to 60% of stoppages in weaving. appearance and problems during downstream processes. Splicing satisfies the demand for knot free yarn joining: no thickening of the thread or only slight increase in its normal diameter.3. splicing enables a higher degree of yarn clearing to be obtained on the electronic yarn clearer. The effectiveness of splicing is primarily dependent on the tensile strength and physical appearance. Therefore. SPLICING: A high degree of yarn quality is impossible through knot. This is mostly used while clearing cotton yarn. visibly unobjectionable. Most of the modern clearers have the above channels. Splicing is a technique of joining two yarn ends by intermingling the constituent fibres so that the joint is not significantly different in appearance and mechanical properties with respect to the parent yarn. . No extraneous material is used and hence the dye affinity is unchanged at the joint. This is in spite of the fact that the tensile strength of the yarn with knot is superior to that of yarn with splice. In addition. Long Thin Places 4. high breaking strength close to that of the basic yarn under both static and dynamic loading. Contamination Clearing: Detection of contamination in normal yarn has become a requirement in recent times due to the demands by yarn buyers abroad. Besides detection of the various types of faults. It is universally acceptable and functionally reliable. Count 6. no mechanical obstruction. no great mass variation. some of the optical yarn clearers have an additional channel to detect the contamination in yarn. it is also possible to detect concentration of faults in a specific length of yarn by means of alarms(cluster faults). The various facilities available in the yarn clearers nowadays enable precise setting and removal of all objectionable faults while at the same time ensure a reasonably high level of productivity. Neps 5. as the knot itself is objectionable due to its physical dimension.
Latest methods of splicing process consist of two operations. Short fibres. The fibres of the twisting yarn embrace the body of the yarn and thus acts as a belt. highly twisted and fine yarns could not be joined satisfactorily with such method. twisting and tucking / intermingling. first the yarn is opened. Mechanical splicing and Pneumatic splicing. In a second operation the prepared ends are laid and twisted together. Tucking / Intermingling The middle portion of the splice is a region (2-5 mm) with no distinct order. maintenance and operations. The untwisted fibres are then intermingled and twisted in the same direction as that of parent yarn by another air blast Structure of Splice Analysis of the longitudinal and transverse studies revealed that the structure of the splice comprises of three distinct regions/elements brought by wrapping. the ends are untwisted.. Other methods have inherent drawbacks like limited fields of application. The first air blast untwists and causes opening of the free ends. During the first stage. The yarn ends were fed into the splicing chamber and pieced together in one operation. the fibres intermingled and later twisted in the same direction as that of the parent yarn. high cost of manufacturing. The tail end makes a good wrapping of several turns and thus prevents fraying of the splice. pneumatic splicing is the most popular. Pneumatic Splicing The first generation of splicing systems operated with just one stage without proceeding to trimming. The cross-section of this region distinctly shows the fibres of the two yarn strands separately without any intermingling of the fibres. followed by twisting . each yarn strand twists on the body of the yarn on either side of the middle of the splice. Principle of Pneumatic Splicing The splicing consists of untwisting and later re-twisting two yarn ends using air blast. i. This in turn gives appearance to the splice. The fibres from each yarn end intermingle in this splice zone just by tucking. Many techniques for splicing have been developed such as Electrostatic splicing. improper structure and properties of yarn produced. Splicing proceeds in two stages with two different air blasts of different intensity. Wrapping : The tail end of each yarn strand is tapered and terminates with few fibres. to achieve a near parallel arrangement of fibres. Among them. Twisting The two yarn ends comprising the splice are twisted around the body of the yarn.Splicing technology has grown so rapidly in the recent past that automatic knotters on modern high speed winding machine are a thing of the past.e. The studies on quantitative contribution of splice elements showed that intermingling/tucking contributes the most to the strength of splice (52%).
Twisted yarns also require a relatively longer time for complete opening of the yarn ends. Wrapping and twisting provides mainly transverse forces. Thus. The lower torsional rigidity and higher breaking twist angle permit better fibre intermingling. usually the addition of polyester to other fibre blend like P/W. The absence of fibre migration gives lower breaking elongation to splice. The coarse yarn cross section contains more fibres and provides better fibre intermingling during pre-opening. these yarns show significant differences in splice quality. Breaking elongation is mainly affected by intermingling. Effect of Fibre Properties and Blend Fibre properties such as torsional rigidity. The breaking strength retention varies from 54% to 71% and is much lower compared to the splice of ring spun yarns. Effect of Yarn Twist An increase in the twist significantly increases the breaking load and elongation. breaking twist angle and coefficient of friction affect splice strength and appearance. The lower strength of the splice is attributed to the lower packing coefficient of the splice zone. hence the splice is stronger than that of finer yarns. Effect of Yarn Fineness Several studies on cotton. In case of friction spun yarns.(33%) and wrapping (about 15%). Splicing of twisted ply yarn is more complicated than single yarn due to the yarn structure having opposing twists in the single and doubled yarns. However. polyester and wool report that coarser yarns have higher breaking strength but a moderate extension. Effect of Different Spinning Methods Yarn produced with different spinning methods exhibit different structure and properties. The ring spun yarn lent best splicing but the potential of splicing is affected by the spinning conditions. even at higher pneumatic pressure. the highest relative tensile strength obtained at the spliced joints can be above 80%. Higher coefficient of friction of fibres generates more inter-fibre friction to give a more cohesive yarn. In blended yarn. due to the presence of wrapper fibres. P/C both for ring and rotor spun yarn increases splice strength. but a number of splicing failures . The breaking strength percentage of ring spliced yarns to a parent yarn is 70% to 85% for cotton yarn. Therefore. the breaking strength and extension of splice vary with fibre and yarn properties. Spliced yarn has a lower breaking elongation than normal yarn. Rotor spun yarns. these properties of fibre contribute to better retention of splice strength. This could be due to better opening of the strands at higher pneumatic pressure. Effect of Variables on the Properties of the Spliced yarn Several studies have been conducted on the effect of various variables on the properties of the spliced yarn. make it difficult to untwist and the disordered structure is less ideal for splicing.
different materials require different durations of blast. In fact. Compared to the splicing duration. Comparison of Dry and Wet Splicing The comparative studies on dry and wet splicing with water showed that the breaking load retention for wet spliced yarns are significantly greater than dry spliced yarns. It is desirable however. drafting and twisting in the opposite direction may also occur. It can be therefore be stated that the splices made on longer lengths and for longer period of time have more uniform strength.5 to 1. These are between 0. Only very low tensile strengths and elongation values can be attained due to the inadequate opening of the yarn ends during preparation of the splicing. the splicing length has more pronounced effect on the load-elongation properties of the spliced yarn. This may be due to higher packing coefficient resulting from wet splicing. The air-jet-spun (MJS) yarn and the cover spun yarn are virtually impossible to splice. An increase in pressure up to 5 bar caused release of fibre tufts and fibre loss from the yarn ends in P/C blend which is due to intensive opening. for maximum splice strength. Effect of Splicing Chamber . The splicing duration alone has no conclusive effect on elongation properties of splice yarn. the breaking strength and strength retention of both yarn types increase with the splicing length because of the increased binding length of the two yarn ends.occurs due to unfavourable yarn structure. However. long opening time deteriorates the strength.8 seconds. The effects are more pronounced at higher splicing lengths. The coefficient of variation of these properties is also generally high. Effect of Splicing Duration With a given splicing length. showed that regardless of the splicing material. that splicing duration be as short as possible. but beyond this pressure. It has also been observed that. Effect of Opening Pressure A study on 50/50 polyester cotton. the breaking strength of the spliced yarn and also their strength retention over the normal value of the basic yarn increases because of increased cohesive force resulting from an increased number of wrapping coils in a given length. Effect of Splicing Length Studies on splicing of flyer and wrap spun yarns spun with different materials. Elongation at break and retention of elongation of both flyer and wrap spun spliced yarns increase with the splice length. 25 tex ring spun yarn shows a rise in tensile strength up to a certain opening pressure. wet splicing is more effective for yarn made from long staple fibres and for coarse yarn. when the splicing is extended for a long period of time.
It should be shorter for coarser yarns and longer for fine yarns. and with no damage whatsoever to the yarn.5 to 5 meters. % increase in diameter and evaluation of its performance in down stream process etc. which varies with different staple fibres. (type of fibre. WINDING SPEED: It depends upon the following factors • • • • • count type of yarn. Assessment of Yarn Splice Quality The two important characteristics of a splice are appearance and strength. Although quality of splice can be assessed by methods like load-elongation. because TPI will affect the bobbin length). • Winding ratio:It is the ratio of the length of yarn wound during the upward movement of the ring rail and the length wound during the downward movement of the ringrail. CHARACTERISTICS OF BOBBIN FORMATION: • Strectch length: It is the length of the yarn deposited on the bobbin tube during each chase (one up and down movement of ringrail ) of ring rail. It was observed that irregular air pressure has advantages over constant pressure for better intermingling in the splicing chamber.(abrasion and breaks due to excessive tension) WINDING PRODUCTION: It depends upon the following factors • • • winding speed time required by the machine to carry out one splicing operation bobbin length per bobbin( both bobbin weight and tpi to be considered. This decides the number of bobbin changes . The length should be around 3.. • Bobbin taper: The ratio of the length of the upper taper of the cop (bobbin with yarn) to the diameter of the bobbin must be 1:2 or greater. and yarns with S and Z twists. average strength and minimum strength) type and charactersitics of bobbin package taper final use of package The best winding speed is the speed which allows the highest level of production possible for a given type of yarn and type of package. the appearance can be assessed either by simple visual assessment or by comparing with photograph of standard splice.The factors like method and mode of air supply and pressure along with type of prism affect the splicing quality. It is not possible to make a general comment regarding potential of the splicing chamber due to the multiplicity of factors influencing splicing. work of rupture. filament yarns.
Higher the doff weight.• • • • • the number of faults in the yarn and the clearer settings. It depends upon. clearer settings like off count channel. web: Yarn is visible on the small or on the big side of the cone either across the side . According to Winding: . wrong gaiting. bobbin characteritics etc. drop over. double gaiting. number of repeaters setting for red lights. This is due to loose yarn ends that are wound on to the cone Stitch. According to winding package: a) Pirn Winding Machine b) Cop Winding Machine c) Spool Winding Machine d) Cone Winding Machine e) Cheese Winding Machine f) Warp Winding Machine g) Flange Bobbin Winding Machine 2. it depends on weak yarn. this decides the clearer cuts count the number of doffs. WINDING PACKAGE DEFECTS: Following are some of the package defects which will result in complaints • • • • • • • • • • • Yarn waste in the cones. the yarn shows a wrinkle effect Soft and Hard yarn layer: Some layer of yarn are pushed out on the small side of the cone Soft and Hard cones: Great difference in package density from one winder head to anoth Winding Machines in Weaving Manufacturing: 1. cluster setting which will result in red lights and others • • bobbin rejections. around the tube. Ring formation: The yarn runs in belt formation on to the package. or going back in the cone Damaged edges or broken ends on the cone: The yarn is broken on the edges or in the middle of the cone. because it is misguided Without transfer tail: The desired transfer tail is missing or too short Ribbon formation: Pattern or ring formation are made by the drum when rpm are stying the same Displaced yarn layers: yarn layers are disturbed and are sliding towards the small diameter of the cone Misguided yarn : The yarn is not equally guided over the hole package Cauliflower: On the smaller side of the package. It depends upon the doff weight. number of red lights. lower the number of doffs the time taken for each doff either by the doffer or by an operator Down time due to red light.
a) Precison Winding Machine b) Non-Precison Winding Machine 3. 2. e) During winding no need to traversing. Cheese 1. b) More yarn density in the winding package. c) Over with-drawl is not possible. Near Parallel Winding Packages: This winding package comprises one or more threads which are laid very nearly parallel to the layers already existing on the package. For instance. Precison Winding of Weaving: In this type of winding successive coils of yarn are laid parallel or near parallel to each other. d) During winding no charge of twist. b) Need separate mechanism during unwinding. Flange bobbin. Disadvantages of Parallel Winding Packages: a) Need flanged packages. b) Indirect Drive. For instance. Pirn. Cop. According to Drive: a) Direct Drive. Parallel Winding Package of Weaving: This winding package comprises many threads laid parallel to one another as in a warp beam . For example. Bobbin) Non-Precison Winding of Weaving: This type of winding is the package which consists of a single thread which is laid on the package at appreciable helix angle so that the layer s cross one another and give stability. Cop. Warper Beam. c) Side with-drawl is possible. Advantages of Near Parallel Winding Packages: . Advantages of Parallel Winding Packages: a) Many threads can be wind at a time. Hence a very dense package is formed which contains maximum yarn in a given volume (Warp Beam.it is necessary to have a flanged package.Cone. Weavers Beam.
Sen Gupta R. c) During winding no change of twist. Winding 5.I 7. So that the layers cross one another and give stability. 3. Vol. . Yarn Winding 4. Yarn Preparation. traverse motion. Modern Weaving Calculations. Yarn Preparation. Spool etc.T. Author R. J. Cross Wound Package: This type usually consists of a single thread which is laid on the package at an appreciable helix angle. 02. For example.01 Objects and types of winding. Advantages of Cross Winding Package: a) Package stable due to cross wound.T. Disadvantages of Cross Winding Packages: a) The amount of yarn in the package is less due to low density.a) Normally no need to flange bobbin. TFO . Weaving Calculation 3. Banerjee B. Cone. b) Twist may be charged during unwinding. Merits and demerits of upright spindle winding machine. b) Over with-drawl is possible. 02 Winding 02. b) During winding need traversing mechanism. Sen Gupta P.K.Technology and Techniques. Volume I & II 6. Cam and Mangle Wheel mechanism.02 Slow Speed Winding: Upright spindle winding machine and its drive. Disadvantages of Near Parallel Winding packages: a) Side with-drawl is not possible.R. d) The package is comparatively stable. c) During unwinding no need to separate mechanism. Recommended Books SL Title/Publisher 1. b) Over with-drawl can be possible. Volume-I 2. Marsh Singh Shree Nivasan Murthy 22 .A. Cheese.
07. 02.07. Advantages and disadvantages of Barber coloman spooler winder. 02. 3 Gate type. Spinning disc type. 0 02. 02. 2 02. 03 Pirn Winding 09 .0 Traverse motion.05 Super Speed Winding 02. 7 02. Uni-coner cone winding machine. 02.11 Control of package faults.07.0 Balloon Breaker. TFO. 1 02. Mach-coner cone winding machine.07.0 Automatic thread stop motion. 02.07. Schweiter winding machine.07.10 Winding faults and remedies.1 Full bobbin stop motion.07.Drum winding machine and its mechanism. 02.09 Automatic cone and cheese winding: Barber coloman automatic spooler winder. 5 02.0 Cone winding shaft or drum. Merits and demerits of high speed and super winding.04 High Speed Winding. 02.07 Mechanism and motions used in cone and cheese winding. 9 02.0 Ribbon breaker. 6 02.0 Creel. 8 02. 1 02. Precision cone and cheese winding. 02.07. 02.0 Clearers and slub catchers.0 Cone or cheese holders.1 Drive. Auto-coner cone winding machine.06 Automatic Cone and Cheese winding.07.03 Modern upright spindle winding machine. 4 02. Roto-coner cone winding machine.0 Tensioners: Washer type.07.07.08 High Speed Winding Machines: Schafhorst cheese winding machine. and Compensating type tensioners.
08 Hocoba high speed pirn winding machine.02 Ordinary pirn winding.07 Schweiter high speed pirn winding machine.09 Schweiter Automatic pirn winding machine.03 High speed pirn winding.05 Automatic pirn winding. 03. 03. 03. 03. . Merits and demerits of ordinary pirn winding.04 Super speed pirn winding. 03.03.01 Objects of pirn winding. 03. 03.06 Fully automatic pirn winding. 03.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.