Course 441

Background and Introduction to Background and Introduction to

UMTS WCDMA Technology UMTS WCDMA Technology

9-2004

Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter

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Contents
Industry Survey, Update and Perspective • Survey of competing technologies • WCDMA releases and timeline WCDMA Principles Summary of Differences between WCDMA and CDMA2000 WCDMA Channels • Physical, Transport, Logical Timing Structure of WCDMA Channels Network Architecture Subscriber Equipment Architecture Power Control Basic Call Processing Handovers • WCDMA Soft • Hard Handover to GSM Base Station Performance

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Industry Survey, Update Industry Survey, Update and Perspective and Perspective

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153 kbps up IS-95A /J-Std008 Analog Voice 1xEV-DO IS-95B 1xRTT 3xRTT 1xEV-DV IS-2000: IS-2000: 5 Mbps down 307k up 9-2004 Course 441 v1.5G/3G Transition 3G Digital <2Mbps 384k typ R6. “Legacy” Analog Technologies TACS Data <14k With modem GSM TDMA IS-54/136 GPRS EDGE PDC DEAD <76 kbps 153 kbps RC3 307 kbps RC4 <1 Mbps UMTS UTRA WCDMA AMPS 14 kbps 2. 30k typ. <384k. HSCSD 30k <115k. 100k typ.4 Mbps down. .Competing Wireless Technology Families: Origins and Migration Paths 1G Analog 2G Digital 2.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .4 TIA Family CDPD 19 kbps ETSI Family NMT CSD 9600.

y 6.y 9.y or 2. MMS. Notes and Features Phase 2+ Release 7 (tbd) Phase 2+ Release 6 (will be TR 41.5 .y indicates that it is a new.x. encryption -800 Mhz.x. Location Svcs.y 5.y 7. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.x. 1. draft.101) Release 2000 Rel-7 Rel-6 Rel-5 Rel-4 R00 7.y 3. AMR.y 4.101) Release 6 (TR 21.x.x. specification which has not yet been approved.y 6.101) Release 4 (TR 21.01) - R99 R98 R97 R96 Ph2 Ph1 - Note 1: The term "Release 2000" was used only temporarily and was eventually replaced by "Release 4" and "Release 5" (most elements originally in Release 2000 were renamed Release 4. IP and session issues Numerous major revisions Numerous major revisions Numerous major revisions Widely used as first commercial release Release 1999 (TR 21.y tbd March 2004? June 2002 March 2001 See note 1 below March 2000 early 1999 early 1998 early 1997 1995 1992 User interface.y 4.x.101) Phase 2+ Release 1999 (TR 01.101) Phase 2+ Release 2000 Release7 (TR 21.y.y 3. UIM.x.01) Phase 2+ Release 1997 (TR 01.x.y 8.WCDMA Releases and Timeline GSM/EDGE Release 3G Release Abbrev name Spec version number Freeze date Changes. security.x.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .101) Phase 2+ Release 5 (TR 41.01) Phase 2+ Release 1996 (TR 01.01) Phase 2 (TR 01.. L3 msg. Note 2: Specifications with a version number of 0. interfaces.x.01) Phase 2+ Release 1998 (TR 01.x.01) Phase 1 (TR 01.101) Phase 2+ Release 4 (TR 41.x.y 5.101) Release 5 (TR 21. but some were deferred until Release 5).x. CS and IP sessions.x.y 3.x. The anticipated release is normally shown on the cover of the document.x.

Current UMTS WCDMA Deployment North America USA USA Cingular + AT&T Wireless Jun-04 Constructing T-Mobile ?? ?? Luxembourg Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands Netherlands Date Status Portugal Portugal Slovenia Spain Spain Sw eden Sw eden Sw eden UAE UK UK UK UK Asia Pacific Country Australia Hong Kong Japan Japan Malaysia Malaysia Singapore South Korea South Korea Operator 3 3 NTT DoCoMo Vodafone K. Africa Country Austria Austria Austria Belguim Croatia Denmark Estonia Finland France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Greece Ireland Ireland Ireland Isle of Man Italy Italy Italy Operator 3 mobilkom austria T-Mobile Proximus VIPnet 3 EMT TeliaSonera Orange SFR O2 Vodafone T-Mobile E-Plus Telestet COSMOTE 3 Vodafone O2 Manx Telecom 3 Vodafone TIM Czech Republic Eurotel 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .K. Middle East.6 . Telekom Malaysia Maxis SingTel KTF SKT Date Status Apr-03 Service Launched Jan-04 Service Launched Oct-01 Service Launched Dec-02 Service Launched Jul-03 Trial Mar-04 Trial Sep-03 Trial Dec-03 Service Launched Dec-03 Service Launched May-03 Service Launched Apr-03 Service Launched Dec-03 Service Launched May-04 Service Launched May-03 Trial Feb-03 Trial Oct-03 Service Launched Sep-03 Trial Dec-03 Trial Feb-04 Trial May-04 Service Launched Apr-04 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched Apr-04 Service Launched Jun-04 Service Launched Jan-04 Service Launched May-04 Service Launched Oct-03 Trial Jul-04 Service Launched Dec-03 Trial Dec-01 Trial Mar-03 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched May-04 Service Launched P&T Luxembourg Tango Monaco Telecom KPN Mobile Vodafone Vodafone TMN Mobitel Telefَnica Mَviles Espaٌa Vodafone 3 Vodafone Tele2 Etisalat 3 Vodafone T-Mobile Orange Jun-03 Trial May-03 Trial Jun-01 Trial Jul-04 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched Apr-04 Service Launched Dec-03 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched May-03 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched Jun-04 Service Launched Dec-03 Service Launched May-03 Service Launched Feb-04 Service Launched Feb-04 Trial Jul-04 Service Launched Europe.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .WCDMA Principles WCDMA Principles 9-2004 Course 441 v1.7 .

signal-to-noise-ratio.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter . channel bandwidth. 2001. 24.Claude Shannon: The Einstein of Information Theory The core idea that makes WCDMA possible was first explained by Claude Shannon.8 Course 441 v1. 9-2004 SHANNON’S CAPACITY EQUATION C = Bω log2 [ 1+ S N ] Bω = bandwidth in Hertz C = channel capacity in bits/second S = signal power N = noise power 441 . He observed that "the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. A Mathematical Theory of Communication." His paper so clearly established the foundations of information theory that his framework and terminology are standard today. Shannon died Feb. a Bell Labs research mathematician Shannon's work relates amount of information carried. and detection error probability • It shows the theoretical upper limit attainable In 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmark paper on information theory. at age 84.

mingled with other users’ code patterns.Wireless Multiple Access Methods FDMA Power T im e Frequency Division Multiple Access ue eq Fr nc y •A user’s channel is a private frequency TDMA Power Ti m e Time Division Multiple Access •A user’s channel is a specific frequency. Course 441 v1.9 WCDMA Power Tim DE CO e F ue req nc y 9-2004 . thus conveying information. If a user’s code pattern is known.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . the presence or absence of their signal can be detected. but it only belongs to the user during certain time slots in a repeating sequence F re e qu nc y Code Division Multiple Access •Each user’s signal is a continuous unique code pattern buried within a shared signal.

10 . WCDMA: -15 to -23 dB.but with a uniquely recoverable code WCDMA Figure of Merit: C/I (carrier/interference ratio) AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB. 9-2004 Course 441 v1. WCDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .WCDMA: Using A New Dimension All WCDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators WCDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users WCDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View Input A: User’s Data Originating Site XOR Exclusive-OR At Originating Site: Input A: User’s Data @ 19.84 Mcps Output: Spread spectrum signal 1 Input B: Spreading Code Gate Spread Spectrum Signal via air interface Input A: Received Signal Destination Site XOR Exclusive-OR Gate At Destination Site: Input A: Received spread spectrum signal Input B: OVSF Code #23 @ 3.11 .200 bits/second just as originally sent Input B: Spreading Code Output: User’s Original Data 1 Drawn to actual scale and time alignment 9-2004 Course 441 v1.84 Mcps Output: User’s Data @ 19.200 bits/second Input B: OVSF Code #23 @ 3.

Spreading from a Frequency-Domain View
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband
Slow Information Sent TX Signal Slow Information Recovered

Traditional technologies try to squeeze signal into minimum required bandwidth WCDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity

RX

SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM
Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered

Fast Spreading Sequence

Fast Spreading Sequence

Spread Spectrum Payoff:
Processing Gain

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The WCDMA Spread Spectrum Payoff:
Take all the gain yourself, or share it with others?
WCDMA Spreading Gain

Claude Shannon's work suggests that a certain bit rate of information deserves a certain bandwidth If one WCDMA user is carried alone by a WCDMA signal, the processing gain is large - roughly 26 db for an 8k vocoder. • 3,840,000 / 9,600 = 400 power gain • 10 log 400 = 26.0 db • Each doubling of the number of users consumes 3 db of the processing gain • Somewhere above 100 users, the signal-to-noise ratio becomes undesirable and the ultimate capacity of the sector is reached Practical WCDMA systems restrict the number of users per sector to ensure processing gain remains at usable levels
9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter

Consider a user with a 9600 bps vocoder talking on a WCDMA signal 3,840,000 hz wide. The processing gain is 3,840,000/9600 = 400, which is 26 db. What happens if additional users are added?

# Users Processing Gain 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 26 db 23 db 20 db 17db 14 db 11 db 8 db 5 db

Half the wisdom of winning is knowing when to leave the game.

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Terminology: All “Bits” Are Not Created Equal
Units of information in binary form are called “bits” In WCDMA, there are streams of information at three distinct levels of importance; we call their individual information elements by different names BITS are the 1’s and 0’s in the stream of raw information to be transmitted – the “payload” SYMBOLS are redundantly-encoded 1’s and 0’s output from a convolutional or turbo coder CHIPS are the 1’s and 0’s in the fast spread spectrum signal, and the 1’s and 0’s in the codes which make the signal
Information
OVSF

Building a WCDMA Signal

Bits
from User’s Vocoder
Forward Error Correction

Symbols
Coding and Spreading

BITS

SYMBOLS

CRC Addition

Convolutional Block Or Turbo Interleaving Coding

Chips
CHIPS
Scrambling Code To modulator

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15 .Channelization Insulates Multiple Users Modulating waveform Analog Σ Summing QPSK RF Users Node B Demodulated waveform 1 if 0 = if 1 = Demodulated Received WCDMA Signal Our OVSF Code Decision: (Locally Generated. This simplified demonstration leaves out the scrambling and descrambling. =0) Received energy: Correlation Matches! (=0) 1 matches +10 OVSF -26 Channelization opposite Opposite Codes Time ( =1) Integration Σ This figure illustrates the basic technique of WCDMA signal generation and recovery.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter -16 441 . 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

robust channels The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link “Whatever we do. we can undo” 9-2004 Course 441 v1.16 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .WCDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences ORIGINATING SITE Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+OVSF X+OVSF+PN X+OVSF DESTINATION Input Data Recovered Data X OVSF Spreading Code “Channelization” PN (Gold) Scrambling Code PN (Gold) Scrambling Code OVSF Spreading Code “Channelization” X WCDMA combines two different spreading sequences to create unique.

17 .W-CDMA Spreading W-CDMA uses long spreading codes • One set of codes are used for cell separation on downlink • One set of codes are used for user separation on uplink Downlink • Gold Codes 218 chips long are used • Truncated to same length as the 10 ms frames • Total number of scrambling codes is 512 • Divided into 64 code groups with 8 codes in each group. to allow fast cell search Uplink • Short codes can be used to ease implementation of advanced multiuser receiver techniques – VL-Kasami Codes 256 chips long • Otherwise long codes are used – Gold sequences 241 chips long.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . truncated to 10 ms frame length 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

or • they’re small enough to use from ROM Unique Properties: Mutual Orthogonality EXAMPLE: Correlation of OVSF #23 with OVSF #59 #23 #59 Sum 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 Correlation Results: 32 1’s. each 64 chips long Each OVSF is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other OVSF Codes in its family • it’s simple to generate the codes. 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------.18 .The WCDMA Spreading and Channelization Sequence: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor 64 “Magic” Sequences.64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 2x2 4x4 8x8 16x16 OVSF Names Cch1232 = “OVSF #12.16-Chips ------0000000000000000 0101010101010101 0011001100110011 0110011001100110 0000111100001111 0101101001011010 0011110000111100 0110100101101001 0000000011111111 0101010110101010 0011001111001100 0110011010011001 0000111111110000 0101101010100101 0011110011000011 0110100110010110 OVSF # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 ----------. -1 Physical 32x32 OVSF can be built to any size from a single zero by replicating and inverting All OVSF matrixes are square -.1 > +1.” OVSF Level Mapping The OVSF shown here are in logical state values 0 and 1. Logical zero is the signal value +1 and Logical 1 is the signal value -1. Mapping: Logical 0. OVSF also can exist as physical bipolar signals.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 64x64 441 .32-Chip Sequence ------------00000000000000000000000000000000 01010101010101010101010101010101 00110011001100110011001100110011 01100110011001100110011001100110 00001111000011110000111100001111 01011010010110100101101001011010 00111100001111000011110000111100 01101001011010010110100101101001 00000000111111110000000011111111 01010101101010100101010110101010 00110011110011000011001111001100 01100110100110010110011010011001 00001111111100000000111111110000 01011010101001010101101010100101 00111100110000110011110011000011 01101001100101100110100110010110 00000000000000001111111111111111 01010101010101011010101010101010 00110011001100111100110011001100 01100110011001101001100110011001 00001111000011111111000011110000 01011010010110101010010110100101 00111100001111001100001111000011 01101001011010011001011010010110 00000000111111111111111100000000 01010101101010101010101001010101 00110011110011001100110000110011 01100110100110011001100101100110 00001111111100001111000000001111 01011010101001011010010101011010 00111100110000111100001100111100 01101001100101101001011001101001 Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------.Families of OVSF OVSF # 1-Chip 0 0 OVSF # 2-Chips 0 00 1 01 OVSF # 0 1 2 3 4-Chips 0000 0101 0011 0110 OVSF # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-Chips 00000000 01010101 00110011 01100110 00001111 01011010 00111100 01101001 OVSF # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ---.19 . 32 chips long.same number of codes and number of chips per code 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

Individual OVSF sequences can also be expanded in the same way.20 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . that OVSF and all its replicative descendants are compromised and cannot be reused to carry other signals Therefore.OVSF Trees and Interdependencies Cch316 0110 0110 0110 0110 Cch3 8 Cch332 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 Cch19320110 0110 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 Cch11320110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 Cch27320110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 0110 0110 Cch732 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 Cch23320110 1001 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 Cch15320110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 Cch31320110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 0110 1001 0110 0110 Cch11 Cch34 0110 160110 0110 1001 1001 Cch364 Cch3564 Cch1964 Cch164 Cch1164 Cch4364 Cch2764 Cch5964 Cch764 Cch3964 Cch2364 Cch5564 Cch1564 Cch4764 Cch3164 Cch6364 Cch716 0110 1001 0110 1001 Cch7 8 0110 1001 Cch15 160110 1001 1001 0110 Entire OVSF matrices can be built by replicating and inverting -. the supply of available OVSF codes on a sector diminishes greatly while a fast data channel is being transmitted! 9-2004 Course 441 v1. WCDMA adds each symbol of information to one complete OVSF code Faster symbol rates therefore require shorter OVSF codes If a short OVSF is chosen to carry a fast data channel.

9-2004 Course 441 v1. 55.all forbidden! • 16 codes are tied up since the data is being sent at 16 times the rate of conventional 64-chip OVSF The Node B controller managing this sector must track the precluded OVSF and ensure they aren’t assigned Which OVSF preclude each another? Cchxxyyties up every YYth OVSF starting with #XX. 43. • A 4-chip OVSF will be used for this channel If OVSF #3 (4 chips) is chosen for this channel: • Use of Cch34 will preclude other usage of the following 64-chip OVSF: • 3.21 . 31.228.OVSF Families and Exclusions Consider a forward link supplemental channel being transmitted with a data W34 rate of 307. 27.64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 441 . 39. 59.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor 0110 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. 19. 15.800 c/s. 63 -.200 symbols/second • Each symbol will occupy 4 chips at the 1x rate of 1. 7. 11. 23. 51. 35. 47.

Remember.22 7 7 23 15 . It shows each OVSF code’s parents and children.Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# Code# 0 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 15 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# This way of displaying OVSF codes is called “bit reversal order”.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 5 9 1 14 6 10 10 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 1 2 6 1 5 441 . 3 11 3 3 OVSF Code “Trees” 13 13 29 3 19 11 27 7 2 2 12 4 4 0 24 4 20 12 28 2 18 Code# Code# Code# 0 Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips 9-2004 8 0 16 8 Course 441 v1. we cannot use any OVSF code if another OVSF code directly above it or below it is in use.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . where N is number of cells in register • Such sequences match if compared in step (no-brainer. self-mutating sequence 2N-1 chips long (N=register length) Sequence repeats every 2N-1 chips. in sync: Sum: Complete Correlation: All 0’s exactly matched in time • Cross-correlation typically <2% Compared Shifted: Little Correlation Sequence: Self.PN M-Sequences: Generation & Properties An Ordinary Shift Register Maximal-length sequences used in W-CDMA are generated in linear shift registers Sequence repeats every N chips. where N is number of cells in register Simple shift register: sequence length = length of register A Tapped. Summing Shift Register Tapped shift register generates a wild.23 . Shifted: Sum: Practically Orthogonal: Half 1’s. A Special Characteristic of Sequences any sequence matches itself) Generated in Tapped Shift Registers • Such sequences appear Compared In-Step: Matches Itself approximately orthogonal if Sequence: compared with themselves not Self. Half 0’s 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

+ M-Sequence 2 Gold Code Gold Codes were first described by R.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . Gold in 1967 • Gold described a method for generating a PN sequence from a pair of primitive polynomials Gold Codes have defined and bounded cross-correlation • The cross-correlation can be much less than that achieved from M-sequences alone Gold Codes also provide a larger number of available codes than can be achieved using M-sequences alone 9-2004 Course 441 v1. a different Gold code will be produced.24 .PN Sequences: Gold Codes GOLD-CODE GENERATION M-Sequence 1 If the starting state for either of the M-Sequence generators is altered.

frame. Spreading user bitstream into spread-spectrum chipstream for gain advantage..25 .. ensuring no error burst wipes out all symbols of a specific bit. The main goal is to have fewer bits to transmit.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . Add calculated redundancy in the bit stream to allow error correction at reception after noisy radio link. without causing excessive interference Eliminate outer sidebands of the baseband signal to meet bandwith requirements Encodes user functions Physical Layervoice or data Course 441 v1. Increases the bandwidth-density of transmitted information for maximum system capacity So each UE transmits enough power to achieve desired S/N. Increase redundancy in the bitstream even further when bit rates are low enough to allow it Ensures symbols representing an information bit are distributed throughout the 10 ms. maximizing capacity.Steps in WCDMA Signal Generation User Voice Vocoder BITS CRC Convolutional Symbol Block Addition Or Turbo Repetition Interleaving Coding SYMBOLS CHIPS OVSF Scrambling Code Baseband Filtering To RF modulator Function Vocoding Convolutional Coding Symbol Repetition Block Interleaving Orthogonal Spreading Scrambling Quadrature Spreading Power Control Baseband Filtering 9-2004 What Does It Do? Encode information bit stream before transmission Repeat information symbols before transmission Disperse redundant bits away from each other Create a Spread-Spectrum Signal. make User channel Scramble user chipstreams in a cell (DL) or UE (UL) Add additional phase dimensions to RF signal Node B adjusts UE’s transmit power Restrict and shape signal bandwidth Why Do We Do It? For digitization and compression. the specific OVSF code is the user’s “channel” in the cell This makes the DL signal of each cell unique from other cells and each UE (UL) from other UEs.

26 .84 MCPS Data modulation is QPSK Each pair of two bits are serial-parallel converted and mapped to the I and Q branches • I and Q are then spread to chip rate with an OVSF unique for the specific channel Complex spreading uses one of 512 primary scrambling codes • the primary CCPCH is scrambled this way • Other downlink physical channels are scrambled using the primary scrambling code or a secondary scrambling code from the set of the chosen 1-of-512 primary scrambling code 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .Downlink Spreading and Modulation I Data Serial-toParallel Converter Complex Scrambling QPSK Modulation Q Node OVSF Generator B 1-of-512 Primary Scrambling Code 1-of-512 Secondary Scrambling Code 3.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .27 .Transmitter Elements in a Node B IQ Modulator FEC Encoder OVSF Code Convolution Encoder RRC Filter NCO ADD BB TX Filter DAC CRC Turbo Encoder Block Interleaver S/P Scrambling Code RRC Filter 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

Uplink Spreading and Modulation
OVSF Generator

I
DPDCH1 DPCCH
Complex Scrambling QPSK Modulation

Q
OVSF Generator UE-Specific Channelization Code *Short S(2) code Or long Gold Code

3.84 MCPS

Dual-channel QPSK is used DPCCH channel mapped to Q, first DPDCH mapped to I • Subsequently-mapped DPDCHs can be mapped to I or Q I and Q are then spread to chip rate with two different OVSF codes In an ordinary Node B, a 38.4K-long Gold Code is used for complex scrambling • If transmitting to a Node B with advanced receiver for multiuser detection, a 256 code from the S(2) family is used instead
9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 - 28

Receiver Elements in a Node B

Multipath Estimator
Delay Phases

Channel Estimation & Symbol decoding

Multi User detector

Multi Path Combiner

Channelizer

Deinterleaver

Despreading

ADC

. . . .

FEC Decoder

Viterbi Decoder

DATA OUT CRC

Turbo Decoder

Error Indication

9-2004

Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter

441 - 29

Differences between Differences between WCDMA and CDMA2000 WCDMA and CDMA2000

9-2004

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441 - 30

10.9.3.access scheme initiated by the base station message 10 ms with 15 slots Data mod:UL-dual channel QPSK. 20.12) Code-divided continuous dedicated pilot (UL) Code-divided continuous common pilot (DL) Code-divided continuous common or dedicated auxiliary pilot (DL) 3GPP (W-CDMA) Multiple Access: DS-CDMA Duplexing: FDD 3. Precision Synchronous (optional) 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .84 Mchips/s Dedicated pilots (UL) Common and/or dedicated pilots (DL) Frame Length Modulation and Detection 5.6. DL-QPSK Spreading modulation: QPSK Detection: pilot-aided coherent detection Orthogonal variable spreading factor codes UL .flexible random access scheme Allowing three modes of access: -Basic Access -Power controlled Access -Reserved access Designated access scheme .2288 Mchip/s (N = 1. Goldcode-based) DL: Gold-code-based Acquisition-indication-based random access mechanism with power ramping on preamble followed by message Channelization Code Scrambling Code Access Scheme Inter-base-station operation Synchronous. requiring GPS at each BTS for synchronization Asynchronous.400 chips.short code (256 chips from family of S(2) codes or long code (38. 40.31 .Comparison of IS-2000 and W-CDMA Parameters Multiple Access Technique and duplexing scheme Chip Rate Pilot Structure 3GPP2 (cdma2000) Multiple access: DS-CDMA (UL) MC-CDMA(DL) Duplexing: FDD N x 1. 80 ms (usually 20) Data modulation: UL-BPSK DL-QPSK Spreading modulation: UL-HPSK DL-QPSK Detection: pilot-aided coherent detection Walsh Codes (UL) Walsh Codes or quasi-orthogonal codes(DL) Long code (period 242-1 chips for N=1) Short PN code (period 215-1 chips for N=1) N = spreading rate number RsMa . E-1 sufficient to sync.

W-CDMA Parameters Parameters Carrier Spacing Downlink RF Channel Structure Chip Rate Roll-off factor for chip shaping Frame Length Number of slots/frame Spreading modulation 3GPP (W-CDMA) 5 MHz.) Soft handover. truncated cycle 10 ms.84 Mcps 0. Gold sequences 218 for user separation (different time shifts in I and Q channel.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .22 10 ms.32 .) Variable length orthogonal sequences for channel separation. raster Direct Spread 3.4 MHz. For the data and control channels I and Q multiplexing Variable spreading and multicode 4-256 Open and fast closed loop (1. On 200 kHz. 15 Balanced QPSK (downlink) Dual channel QPSK (uplink) Complex spreading circuit QPSK (downlink) BPSK (uplink) Pilot Symbols/channel Control and pilot channel time multiplexed. truncated cycle 10 ms.2-5.) Variable length orthogonal sequences for channel separation. Gold sequences 218 for user separation (different time shifts in I and Q channel.5 kHz. Interfrequency Handover Data modulation Coherent Detection Channel multiplexing in uplink Multirate Spreading Factors Power Control Spreading (downlink) Spreading (uplink) Handover 9-2004 Course 441 v1. (nominal) 4.

WCDMA Channels WCDMA Channels 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .33 .

much like a hotel lobby • DEDICATED channels are private for one user. much like a guest room in a hotel • SHARED channels can serve several users at a time In terms of direction: • FORWARD channels are transmitted by Node B.Introduction to WCDMA Channels Like other wireless technologies. WCDMA uses various types of channels to carry the actual information to and from users. received by Node B In terms of purpose: • DATA • CONTROL (includes PRIMARY and SECONDARY subchannels) • SYNC (includes PRIMARY and SECONDARY subchannels) 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .34 . received by UE • REVERSE channels are transmitted by UE. and to manage the connections between users and the system The channels break down cleanly into several categories: In terms of ownership or control: • COMMON channels are public places.

different information streams may be transmitted on the I and Q phase planes of the UE’s signal A Physical channel is a specific combination of • carrier frequency • code • for uplink channels only.Physical Channel Characteristics The physical channels are “carved out” of the code / frequency plane • On the Uplink. also relative phase I or Q (0 or pi /2) Most Physical channels are also time-multiplexed using a threetier structure of super frames.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .35 . and time slots • Depending on the symbol rate of the physical channel. the configuration of radio frames or time slots varies • these time-patterns are shown in a following chapter 9-2004 Course 441 v1. radio frames.

The W-CDMA Physical Channels DOWNLINK CHANNELS CPICH P-CPICH S-CPICH Common Pilot Channel Primary Common Control Physical Channel Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Synchronization Channel Page Indication Channel Acquisition Indication Channel Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel CPCH Status Indicator Channel Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel UPLINK CHANNELS Physical Random Access Channel Physical Common Packet Channel PRACH PCPCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH SCH PICH P-SCH S-SCH Node B AICH AP-AICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH DPDCH DPCCH PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .36 .

Contains Paging Channel PCH and Forward Access Channel FACH time-multiplexed. P.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . or both CD/CA indicators if CA is active P-CCPCH S-CCPCH SCH PICH Node B AICH AP-AICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH DPDCH DPCCH PDSCH P-SCH S-SCH 9-2004 Course 441 v1. uses same ch. Not transmitted in first 256 chips of every slot (90% duty factor). Two subchannels. A mobile sending a random access preamble watches AICH to see when it may end the preamble and transmit its request. Much like “supplemental channel” in IS-2000. Secondary can use other scrambling pattern and beam-forming. A mobile sending a CPCH preamble watches AICH to see when it may end the preamble and transmit its request. UEs monitor as 1) phase reference for SCH.CCPCH. Fixed-rate downlink channel carries CPCH status information. only looking at this channel to see if they need to wake up and hear a page. BCH cell configuration information.37 . In PCCPCH idle period. Paired with CPCH AP-AICH. Downlink channel used to carry fast user data (the DSCH transport channel). S-SCH gives long code group. Same OVSF in every cell. Idle mobiles sleep deeply to save battery power. and scr. Unmodulated P-SCH gives S-SCH timing. OVSF is announced on the P-CCPCH. PICH and 2) to measure signal strength for cell selection/Handover Primary is uncoded and uses main scrambling pattern of the cell.Forward W-CDMA Physical Channel Functions DOWNLINK CHANNELS CPICH P-CPICH S-CPICH Common Pilot Channel Primary Common Control Physical Channel Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Synchronization Channel Page Indication Channel Acquisition Indication Channel Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel CPCH Status Indicator Channel Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Carries user or control information to a UE wherever it may be in the cell. AICH. codes Fixed-rate common DL channel carries CD indicator only if CA is not active.

More on SCH Coding The Primary SCH consists of an unmodulated code 256 chips long • Transmitted once every slot • The same code is used for every base station in the system – Transmitted time-aligned with the slot boundary The Secondary SCH consists of one modulated code 256 chips long. repeated each frame • The same sequence is used for each Node B and has good cyclic autocorrelation The SCH is transmitted intermittently (one codeword per slot) • Multiplexed with DPDCH/DPCCH and CCPCH after long code scrambling • So SCH is non-orthogonal to the other downlink physical channels 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . determined by the code group set to which the base station’s downlink scrambling code belongs • S-SCH is modulated by a binary sequence 16 bits long.38 . transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH • The code is one of 8.

Can be continuous (code multiplexed) or time-multiplexed. Pwr ctrl bits. It’s always associated with a downlink channel for power control Physical Random Access Channel Physical Common Packet Channel PRACH PCPCH Carries user data from a UE anywhere in the cell. Carries user or control information from a UE wherever it may be in the cell. Dedicated Physical Data Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPDCH DPCCH 9-2004 Course 441 v1. reverse rate indication.Reverse W-CDMA Physical Channel Functions UPLINK CHANNELS A common uplink physical channel used to carry control information or short user packets from the UE A common uplink physical channel used to carry short and medium. services interleaved on it. Usually only one DPDCH allocated per connection.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .39 .sized user packets. Pilot symbols.

Channels at Three Functional Levels Thus far we’ve considered only channels physically identifiable in the WCDMA signal. the flow of information can be defined as channels at three distinct levels: Physical Channels • These are the actual. However. tangible channels you could receive off-air and analyze Transport Channels • These are the internally-bundled flows of information between the packet controller function in the system and the actual Node B Logical Channels • These are the aggregated broad conceptual flows of information generated by software at the signaling and application levels RLC (Radio Link Control) LOGICAL CHANNELS MAC (Media Access Control) TRANSPORT CHANNELS Transport Sublayer PHYSICAL PHYSICAL LAYER CHANNELS Physical Sublayer 9-2004 Course 441 v1.40 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

41 .W-CDMA Logical Channels DOWNLINK BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL BCH System Control Information for all users Configuration and Parameters UPLINK DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL DCCH A private channel carrying control information between one user and the network DCCH COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL CCCH A shared channel carrying control information Between many users and the network CCCH PAGING CONTROL CHANNEL PCCH Node B DTCH A shared channel carrying paging information Between the network and many users DEDICATED TRAFFIC CHANNEL A private bi-directional channel carrying traffic between one user and the network DTCH COMMON TRAFFIC CHANNEL CTCH 9-2004 A shared channel carrying traffic from the network to many users or to groups of users Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

beam-forming. Paired with one DCH Course 441 v1. can use beam-forming DEDICATED CHANNEL Node B DCH Data rate can change each frame (10 ms) Fast power control. collision detection CPCH Shared control or Bursty traffic 441 . Notifications RACH Common downlink PAGING CHANNEL PCH Uses efficient sleep/slotted-mode procedures Transmitted over entire sector coverage area Contention-based. Bursty traffic Change data rates fast. Open-loop ramp-up Fast power control. SMS FACH RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL Limited data fields. can use beam-forming DCH COMMON PACKET CHANNEL Contention-based. Power control is open loop FORWARD ACCESS CHANNEL Data rate can change each frame (10 ms) For small bursts No fast power control.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 9-2004 . risk of collisions. transmitted over the Entire sector coverage area UPLINK Configuration information Pages. can use beam-forming.W-CDMA Transport Channels DOWNLINK BROADCAST CHANNEL BCH Low fixed bit rate.42 DOWNLINK SHARED CHANNEL DSCH Fast data and fast power control. Access.

43 9-2004 Course 441 v1.Logical. Transport.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter . Physical Channel Mapping LOGICAL CHANNELS TRANSPORT CHANNELS PHYSICAL CHANNELS BCH BCCH FACH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PCCH PCH RACH CCCH FACH CTCH FACH RACH FACH DCH CPCH DSCH S-CCPCH PRACH DCCH DTCH DPDCH PCPCH PDSCH 441 .

Timing Structure of WCDMA Channels Timing Structure of WCDMA Channels 9-2004 Course 441 v1.44 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

45 .WCDMA Physical Channel Details A physical channel corresponds to a specific • Carrier frequency • Code • and in the case of uplink channels. and time slots • Depending on the symbol rate of the physical channel. long and consists of 72 radio frames • boundaries are determined by its System Frame Number SFN A Radio Frame is a processing unit with 15 time slots • one slot includes 2560 chips A time slot is a unit containing information symbols • number of symbols per time slot depends on physical channel Uplink dedicated channels can use multicode transmission • up to six parallel DPDCH transmitted on different channelization codes 9-2004 Course 441 v1. I or Q phase (0 or pi/2) W-CDMA physical channels typically consist of a three-layer structure of superframes.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . the configuration of the radio frames or time slots varies A Superframe is 720 ms. radio frames.

Dedicated Physical Channel Frame Structure Superframe (720 ms) Frame #1 Frame #2 Frame #i Radio Frame (10 ms) Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #i Tslot = 2560 chips. 10*2k bits ( k = 0-7 ) Downlink TFCI DPCCH Data 1 DPDCH TPC DPCCH Data 2 DPDCH Pilot DPCCH Slot #15 Frame #72 Uplink Pilot Data TFCI FBI TPC DPDCH DPCCH Tslot = 2560 chips.46 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . 10*2k bits ( k = 0-6 ) 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

the channel on which user data is transmitted.47 . is always associated with a DPCCH containing layer 1 information • The Transport Format Combination Indicator field is used to indicate the demultiplexing scheme of the data stream • The TFCI field does not exist for static (fixed bit rate allocations) or where blind transport format detection is used • The Feedback Information (FBI) field is used for transmit and site diversity functions • The Transmit Power Control bits are used for power control • On the downlink. a number of dedicated pilot bits may be included 9-2004 Course 441 v1.Physical Frame Structure Frame #1 Frame #2 Frame #i Frame #72 Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #i Tslot = 2560 chips.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . 10*2k bits ( k = 0-7 ) Downlink TFCI DPCCH Data 1 DPDCH TPC DPCCH Data 2 DPDCH Pilot DPCCH Slot #15 Uplink Pilot Data TFCI FBI TPC DPDCH DPCCH Tslot = 2560 chips. 10*2k bits ( k = 0-6 ) Each radio frame of 10 ms is split into 15 slots Uplink Physical Channels DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q multiplexed Downlink Physical Channels are time-multiplexed within each slot • DPCH.

10*2k bits ( k = 0-7 ) Downlink TFCI DPCCH Data 1 DPDCH TPC DPCCH Data 2 DPDCH Pilot DPCCH Slot #15 Uplink Pilot Data TFCI FBI TPC DPDCH DPCCH Uplink • Max.48 Tslot = 2560 chips.Physical Channel Bit Rates Frame #1 Frame #2 Frame #i Frame #72 Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #i Tslot = 2560 chips. physical channel bit rate 960 kb/s with spreading factor of 4 • A user may use several physical channels to obtain higher bit rates • The channel bit rate of the DPCCH is fixed at 15 kb/s • The maximum uplink spreading factor is 256 Downlink • Maximum channel bit rate is 1920 kb/s with a spreading factor of 4 • The maximum downlink spreading factor is 512 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . 10*2k bits ( k = 0-6 ) .

or several S-CPICH per cell.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . PICH AP-AICH. The P-CPICH is the default phase reference for the downlink DPCH • upper layer signaling tells the UE if a different reference will be used S-CPICH SECONDARY COMMON PILOT CHANNEL An OVSF SF=256 is arbitrarily used as the S-CPICH channelization code S-CPICH is scrambled by the primary OR a secondary scrambling code There may be zero. P-CCPCH. The P-CPICH is the phase reference for the SCH. the UE is informed by higher-layer signaling. and the S-CCPCH. CSICH.Common Pilot Channel CPICH P-CPICH PRIMARY COMMON PILOT CHANNEL There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell • P-CPICH always uses same channelization code and the primary scrambling code of the cell • The P-CPICH is transmitted over the entire cell. • If this occurs. • it is possible that an entirely different non-CPICH phase reference can be used for a downlink DPCH. AICH.49 . An S-CPICH may be transmitted over the entire cell or on a narrow beam S-CPICH may be the phase reference for a downlink DPCH. one. CD/CA-ICH. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

14 s One 10 ms SCH radio frame Synchronization Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal for cell search • consists of two sub channels: – Primary SCH --.50 .0 s SCH 256 chips 2560 chips ac i.1 s ac i.System Acquisition: the Synchronization Channel Slot #0 Primary SCH ac p ac p Slot #1 ac p Slot #14 Secondaryac i.Secondary SCH The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . each 2560 chips long 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length 15 sequence of modulated codes of length 256 chips. 1. 9-2004 Course 441 v1. transmitted once every slot.51 . 14 is the slot number. This sequence on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code groups the cell's downlink scrambling code belongs to.k in figure.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . the Primary Synchronization Code (PSC) denoted cp in figure . where i = 0.The Primary SCH The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256 chips. and k = 0. …. Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256. transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH. The SSC is denoted cs i. the Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC). The PSC is the same for every cell in the system. 1. …. 63 is the number of the scrambling code group.

the P-CCPCH gets the rest The P-SCH and S-SCH are code multiplexed 9-2004 Course 441 v1.52 .Multiplexing of SCH and P-CCPCH 256Chips P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH OFF ON ON 2304 Chips ON OFF OFF Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot i Radio Frame = 10 ms Slot 15 The P-CCPCH and SCH are time multiplexed • the SCH gets 10% of each slot.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

53 .5 15 15 SF Bits/ Slot DPDCH Bits/Slot NData1 NData2 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 4 8 2 4 14 NTPC 2 2 4 2 4 2 DPCCH Bits/Slot NTFCI NPilot 0 0 0 2 4 0 4 4 8 4 8 2 Transmitted slots per radio frame NTr 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 15 512 512 256 512 256 256 10 10 20 10 20 20 the CPCH case Total number of slot formats = 50 9-2004 Course 441 v1.5 7.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .DPDCH and DPCCH Fields Slot Format #i 0 0A 0B 1 1B 2 Channel Bit Rate (kbps) 15 15 30 15 30 30 Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) 7.5 15 7.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .54 .Downlink Slot Format for Multi-Mode Transmission DPDCH TPC Transmission Power TFCI DPDCH Pilot Physical Channel 1 Transmission Power Physical Channel 2 •• • Transmission Power Physical Channel L One Slot (2560 chips) 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

Two types of CPCH control commands: • L1 control command such as Start of Message Indicator • Higher layer control command .Frame Structure for Downlink DPCCH for CPCH DPCCH for CPCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits CCC NCCC bits Pilot Npilot bits Tslot = 2560 chips. Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 The downlink DPCCH for CPCH is a special case: • downlink dedicated physical channel of format #0 • spreading factor for the DL-DPCCH is 512. 10 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i One radio frame.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .55 . Emergency Stop 9-2004 Course 441 v1.for example.

56 . SF=256) DL physical channel used to carry the BCH transport channel. 20 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f Slot #14 = 10 ms It is a fixed rate (30 kbps.Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) 256 chips (Tx OFF) Data N data1 =18 bits T slot = 2560 chips . The Primary CCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each slot. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

57 .Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) TFCI N TFCI bits Data NData Bits N data 1 bits T slot = 2560 chips. hence making it mandatory for all UEs to support the use of TFCI.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f Slot #14 = 10 ms It is used to carry the FACH and PCH. 20*2 k Pilot N pilot bits bits (k=0.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . It is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI should be transmitted. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.. There are two types of Secondary CCPCH: those that include TFCI and those that do not include TFCI.

58 .Secondary CPCCH Fields Slot Format #i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Channel Bit Rate (kbps) 30 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 120 120 240 240 480 480 960 960 1920 1920 Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) 15 15 15 15 30 30 30 30 60 60 120 120 240 240 480 480 960 960 SF Bits/ Frame 300 300 300 300 600 600 600 600 1200 1200 2400 2400 4800 4800 9600 9600 19200 19200 Bits / Slot 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 80 80 160 160 320 320 640 640 128 0 128 0 Ndata 1 Npilot NTFCI 256 256 256 256 128 128 128 128 64 64 32 32 16 16 8 8 4 4 20 12 18 10 40 32 38 30 72 64 152 144 312 296 632 616 1272 1256 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 16 0 16 0 16 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

Differences between Primary and Secondary CCPCH P-CCPCH Primary • transport channel can use only a fixed predefined transport format combination • is transmitted over the entire cell S-CCPCH Secondary • can support multiple transport format combinations using TFCI • can be transmitted over the entire cell or on narrow beams if desired – this is only valid for an S-CCPCH carrying the FACH 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .59 .

This is a special case of multicode transmission. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.60 .Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) is used to carry the Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) • it is a fast data channel assigned frame-by-frame to no more than one UE at a time A PDSCH uses a channelization code derived from a PDSCH root channelization code • the PDSCH code must not conflict with other codes in use in the cell Within one radio frame. UTRAN may allocate different PDSCHs under the same PDSCH root channelization code to different UEs so long as they do not interfere Within the same radio frame.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter Code# 4 chips Code#0 8 chips Code# 8 4 12 2 10 6 14 1 9 5 13 3 11 Code# 0 7 15 16 chips Code# 824 20 28218 26622 30117 255 13 319 27723 31 0 16 4 12 10 14 9 21 29 11 Code# 15 32 chips Code# 64 chips Code# 128 chips 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 0 2 1 3Code# 4 2 6 1 5 3 Code# 7 Code# 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 Code# 441 . All the PDSCHs under the same PDSCH root channelization code are operated with radio frame synchronization. PDSCHs allocated to the same UE on different radio frames may have different spreading factors. with the same spreading factor. multiple parallel PDSCHs. may be allocated to a single UE.

each PDSCH is associated with one downlink DPCH • The PDSCH and associated DPCH do not necessarily have the same spreading factors and are not necessarily frame aligned All relevant Layer 1 control information is transmitted on the DPCCH part of the associated DPCH • the PDSCH does not carry Layer 1 information • The TFCI field of the associated DPCH is used to indicate for UE that there is data to decode on the DSCH 9-2004 Course 441 v1.Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Data Ndata1 bits k Tslot = 2560 chips. 20*2 bits (k=0.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 ..61 .6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T = 10 ms f Slot #14 Frame by frame.

31. bs.Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) 4096 chips. 32 real-valued symbols AI part a0 a1 a2 a30a31 1024 chips Transmission Off aj = ∑ AI s=0 15 s b s. Acquisition Indicator AIs correspond to signatures on the PRACH The real-valued symbols a0. If the signature s is not a member of the set of available signatures for all the Access Service Class (ASC) for the corresponding PRACH .0. a1. a31 in figure are given by the equation where AIs is the acquisition indicator corresponding to signature s and the sequence bs.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . or 0 as appropriate. -1.…. • AIs can take on the values +1. 9-2004 Course 441 v1. …. j AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS # i 20 ms AS #14 AS #0 The Acquisition Indicator channel (AICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry Acquisition Indicators (AI). then AIs shall be set to 0.62 .

…. 9-2004 Course 441 v1. bs.CPCH Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH) 4096 chips. -1.63 .0.31. If the signature s is not a member of the set of UL Access Preamble signatures for the corresponding PCPCH then APIs shall be set to 0. a1. AP acquisition indicator APIs corresponds to signatures transmitted by UE. j s=0 AS #14 AS #0 15 AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS i# 20 ms The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator channel (AP-AICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel carrying AP acquisition indicators (API) of CPCH. a31 in figure are given by the equation where APIs. is the AP acquisition indicator corresponding to Access Preamble signature s transmitted by UE and the sequence bs. …. The real-valued symbols a0. taking on values +1. 32 real-valued symbols API part a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 Transmission Off 1024 chips a j = ∑ API s × b s.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . or 0.

bs.31 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9-2004 Course 441 v1.AICH and AP-AICH signature patterns s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 bs. bs.1….64 .0.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

the real-valued symbols a0. is the CA indicator corresponding to the assigned channel index k In case CA is not active.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . …. taking the values +1/0 or -1/0. is the CD indicator corresponding to the CD preamble i transmitted by the UE. and 0. the real-valued symbols a0.0.CPCH Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (CD/CA-ICH) 4096 chips. 32 real-valued symbols CDI/CAI part 1024 chips a0 a1 a2 a30a31 Transmission Off a j = ∑ CDI i × b si . a31 are as shown in the upper expression where CDIi. and CAIk. a31 are as shown in the lower expression where CDIs. …. is the CDI indicator corresponding to CD preamble signature s transmitted by UE and the sequence bs. taking the values +1. a1. taking the values +1/0 or -1/0. j + ∑ CAI k × b sk . j s =0 15 In case CA is active.65 . j i =0 k =0 15 15 AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS # 20 ms AS #14AS #0 a j = ∑ CDIs × b s. ….31 9-2004 Course 441 v1. a1. bs.

36.Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) (transmission off) b0 288 bits for paging indication One radio frame (10 ms) b0 b1 b2 b287 b288 12 bits b299 The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) runs at a fixed rate. PNp-1} are transmitted.…. b299) • Bits 0-287 carry paging indicators. where q is computed as a function of the PI computed by higher layers. • The period with no transmission is reserved for possible future use. and the number of paging indicators per frame (Np). where Np=18. 72.b1. the SFN of the P-CCPCH radio frame during which the start of the PICH radio frame occurs. or 144. the other 12 aren’t transmitted. Np paging indicators {P0. …. by the following expression: p = PI + 9-2004 18 X SFN + SFN SFN SFN + 8 64 + 512 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter ( (( mod 144 (( ( X Np 144 mod Np 441 . The PI calculated by higher layers for use for a certain UE. is associated with the paging indicator Pq. In each PICH frame.66 . SF256 • The PICH is always paired with an S-CCPCH carrying a PCH One 10 ms PICH radio frame includes 300 bits (b0.

67 . This part is reserved for use by AICH. • The second part is a Status Indicator (SI) consisting of 8 bits b8i. AP-AICH or CD/CA-ICH. The CSICH frame includes 15 consecutive access slots (AS).0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .b8i+7. and is not formally a functioning part of the CSICH. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH) Transmission off b8i b8i+1 b8i+6 b8i+7 AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i AS #14 AS #0 The CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry CPCH status information. • The first part has 4096 chips with no transmission. each 40 bits long and divided into two parts. where i is the access slot number.….

Uplink Physical Channels: Dedicated Uplink Physical Channel DPDCH Data Ndata bits Tslot = 2560 chips. transmit power-control (TPC) commands. 10 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T= 10 ms f Slot #14 FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits k The two types of uplink dedicated physical channels. and an optional transport-format combination indicator (TFCI). one. DPDCH and DPCCH. are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame The uplink DPCCH carries Layer 1 control information • known pilot bits to support channel estimation for coherent detection.6) DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits TFCI NTFCI bits Tslot = 2560 chips..0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . The uplink DPDCH carries the DCH transport channel. feedback information (FBI). 9-2004 Course 441 v1. There is always one and only one uplink DPCCH on each radio link. Ndata = 10*2 bits (k=0. There may be zero. or several uplink DPDCHs on each radio link.68 .

69 .DPDCH fields Slot Forma t #i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Channel Bit Rate (kbps) 15 30 60 120 240 480 960 Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) 15 30 60 120 240 480 960 SF Bits/ Frame 150 300 600 1200 2400 4800 9600 Bits/ Slot 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 Ndata 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

70 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .DPCCH fields Slot Format #i 0 0A 0B 1 2 2A 2B 3 4 5 5A 5B Channel Bit Rate (kbps) 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 SF Bits/ Frame Bits / Slot 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Npilot NTPC NTFCI NFBI Transmitted slots per radio frame 15 10-14 8-9 8-15 15 10-14 8-9 8-15 8-15 15 10-14 8-9 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 6 5 4 8 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 4 0 2 3 4 0 0 2 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

Higher layers dictate what access slots are available for random access transmission.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .PRACH radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips Access slot #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 radio frame: 10 ms Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) carries the RACH The random-access process uses Slotted ALOHA protocol • augmented with a fast acquisition indication • The UE can start the random-access transmission at any of many time boundaries called access slots • There are 15 access slots in two frames. and the other parameters of the process 9-2004 Course 441 v1.71 . spaced 5120 chips apart.Common uplink physical channels .

Structure of the Random-Access Transmission Preamble 4096 chips Preamble 4096 chips Preamble Preamble Preamble Preamble Message part 10 ms (one radio frame) Message part 20 ms (two radio frames) RACH Preamble Part Each preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips. There are a maximum of 16 available signatures 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .72 .

.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .1.73 .2. with k=0. each 2560 chips long Each slot consists of two parts • a data part (RACH transport channel) 10*2 k bits long. and 2 TFCI bits The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel • A 10 ms message-part is one radio frame • A 20 ms message-part is two consecutive 10 ms radio frames The message part length is the Transmission Time Interval (TTI) of the RACH Transport channel in use • This TTI length is configured by higher layers. 10 * 2k bits (k=0. 9-2004 Course 441 v1.3) TFCI NTFCIbits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Message part radio frame TRACH = 10 ms Slot #14 The 10 ms message-part radio frame has 15 slots.3 • a control part : 8 known pilot bits for channel estimation and coherent detection.Random-Access Transmission: RACH Message Part DATA CONTROL Data Ndatabits Pilot Npilotbits Tslot = 2560 chips.

74 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .RACH Message Data Fields Slot Format #i Channel Bit Rate (kbps) Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) SF Bits/ Frame Bits/ Slot Ndata 0 1 2 3 15 30 60 120 15 30 60 120 256 128 64 32 150 300 600 1200 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 Random Access Message Control Fields Slot Format #i Channel Bit Rate (kbps) Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) Bits/ Frame Bits/ Slot SF Npilot NTFCI 0 15 15 256 150 10 8 2 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .75 . relative to the frame boundary of the received BCH of the current cell. 9-2004 Course 441 v1. 10 or 20 ms on RACH) • Power controlled (commands provided in the DPCCH in the downlink) • Status indication provided in the downlink to avoid collisions CPCH transmission uses DSMA-CD with fast acquisition indication • The UE can start transmission at the beginning of any of several defined time-intervals.Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) P0 P1 Pj Pj Message Part 4096 chips 0 or 8 slots Access Preamble CollisionDetection Preamble N*10 msec Control Part Data part The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) carries the CPCH and: • Longer message duration (up to 640 ms vs.

pilot bits extend from: • slot# (15-Lpc-preamble) to slot #14 9-2004 Course 441 v1. Value: 0 or 8 slots • When Lpc-preamble > 0. CPCH ACCESS PREAMBLE PART 4096 chips long: 256 repetitions of one of 16 signatures 16-chips long RACH preamble signature sequences are used. CPCH POWER CONTROL PREAMBLE PART The slot format for CPCH PC-P part is same as for the message part PC-P length is upper-layer parameter Lpc-preamble.76 .PCPCH – Physical Common Packet Channel A PCPCH access transmission includes: • one or several Access Preambles [A-P] of length 4096 chips • one Collision Detection Preamble (CD-P) of length 4096 chips • DPCCH Power Control Preamble (PC-P) either 0 slots or 8 slots long • message of variable length Nx10 ms.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . CPCH COLLISION DETECTION PREAMBLE PART Scrambling code is chosen to be a different code segment of the Gold code than for the RACH or CPCH preambles. The RACH preamble signature sequences are used.

N_Max_frames is a higher layer parameter..77 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . Data N data bits Pilot N pilot bits TFCI N TFCI bits k Data Control FBI N FBI bits TPC N TPC bits T slot = 2560 chips. Each 10 ms frame is split into 15 slots. each of length Tslot = 2560 chips.CPCH message part Each message consists of up to N_Max_frames 10 ms frames. 9-2004 Course 441 v1. Each slot consists of two parts. 10*2 bits (k=0.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #14 The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel. a data part that carries higher layer information and a control part that carries Layer 1 control information.

CPCH message part Data Control Pilot N pilot bits Data N data bits TFCI N TFCI bits k FBI N FBI bits TPC N TPC bits T slot = 2560 chips. • N_Max_frames is a higher layer parameter. Each 10 ms frame has15 slots 2560 chips long Each slot has a data part carrying higher layer information and a control part carrying Layer 1 control information.78 . The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . 9-2004 Course 441 v1.. 10*2 bits (k=0.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #14 Each message includes up to N_Max_frames 10 ms frames.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .Slot Format of the Control Part of CPCH Message Part Slot Form at #i 0 1 2 Channe l Bit Rate (kbps) 15 15 15 Channel Symbol Rate (ksps) 15 15 15 SF 256 256 256 Bits/ Fram e 150 150 150 Bits/ Slot 10 10 10 Npilot 6 5 5 NTPC 2 2 1 NTFC I NFBI 0 1 2 2 2 2 9-2004 Course 441 v1.79 .

Network Architecture Network Architecture 9-2004 Course 441 v1.80 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .3 Steps to 3G: GSM Transition to W-CDMA GSM TODAY PLMN PSTN ISDN Internet Core Network Gateway MSC VLR HLR MSC Mobile Switching Center Base Station Controller BSC Base Transceiver Stations BTS SIM Mobile Station Mobile Equipment 2.5G: GSM + GPRS PLMN PSTN ISDN Internet Core Network VLR Gateway MSC HLR Gateway Support node MSC Mobile Switching Center Serving Support node GPRS GPRS Base Station PCU Controller BSC Base Transceiver Stations BTS SIM Mobile Station Mobile Equipment 3G: UMTS.81 . UTRA W-CDMA Core Network MSC Mobile Switching Center Serving Support node PLMN PSTN ISDN Gateway MSC Gateway VLR HLR UTRAN RNC Radio Network Controller Radio Network Controller Node B Node B Node B Node B UMTS SIM User Equipment Mobile Equipment Internet 9-2004 Support node GPRS GPRS RNC Course 441 v1.

82 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .User Equipment Architecture User Equipment Architecture 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Rake Finger Scrambling Channelization ∆t Σ Symbols Viterbi Decoder. Ctrl.83 .What’s In a WCDMA UE? summing time-aligned Chips Digital Rake Receiver Rake Finger Scrambling Channelization Symbols bits Rake Finger Scrambling Channelization control power Receiver RF Section IF. Course 441 v1. Demultiplexer Rake Finger Scrambling Channelization Packets Messages Audio Vocoder Audio Pilot Searcher Scrambling Channelization CPU Closed Loop Pwr.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter Messages Transmitter RF Section 9-2004 UIM 441 . Transmitter Digital Section Scrambling Gen. Decoder. Convl.

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .Power Control Power Control 9-2004 Course 441 v1.84 .

the mobile uses open loop power control • mobile initial transmit power adjusted inversely to receive power • Open loop control is used only to set the initial power. and is not used during further transmission (unlike IS-95/IS-2000) WCDMA FAST CLOSED LOOP During a call or data session.85 .WCDMA POWER CONTROL OPEN LOOP When coming from an idle state into an access transmission.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . WCDMA applies power control to both Uplink and Downlink with 1500 corrections per second • correction step size is nominally 1 db but can be adjusted • up/down decisions on each link use SIR at the receiver 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

86 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .Basic Call Processing Basic Call Processing 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

symbol.87 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . Using the peaks detected in 1. Frame synchronization and the code group of the cell can be obtained 3.Cell Search Procedure Background: • each cell uses the same 256-chip primary synchronization code 1. the UE seeks the largest peak from the Secondary SCH code word • there are 64 possible values for this code word • the UE must check all 15 possible delay positions since the frame boundary isn’t available until this word is found • from the strongest Secondary SCH code word. The UE searches the 256-chip primary synchronization code • the detected correlation peak corresponds to the slot boundary • chip.the starting point is known already • Scrambling code of the cell is then obtained 9-2004 Course 441 v1. The UE now has the Secondary SCH code word and frame timing is known • The UE now seeks the primary scrambling codes belonging to this code group – each group has 8 primary scrambling codes which must be tested but only at the starting position of relative timing -. and slot synchronization are obtained 2.

88 .Handovers in WCDMA Handovers in WCDMA 9-2004 Course 441 v1.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

Types of Handovers in WCDMA Intra-Mode • soft handover • softer handover • hard handover Inter-Mode • UMTS WCDMA to/from UTRA TDD mode Inter-system Handover • UMTS WCDMA to GSM • UMTS WCDMA to CDMA2000 9-2004 Course 441 v1.89 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .Soft Handover Before entering soft handover.90 . the mobile • Measures the observed timing differences of the downlink SCHs from the involved base stations • Reports the timing differences back to the serving base station Trigger Parameters • RSCP Received Signal Code Power • RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator • Ec/No = RSCP/RSSI • other parameters are being discussed The timing of the new downlink soft handover connection is adjusted with a resolution of one symbol • This enables the rake receiver in the mobile to collect the macrodiversity energy from the two base stations • Timing adjustments of dedicated downlink channels is carried out with a resolution of one symbol without losing orthogonality of the downlink codes 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

indoor cells) • Several carriers and interfrequency handovers may also be used for taking care of high capacity needs in hot spots • Interfrequency handovers are also needed to second-generation systems such as GSM or IS-95 • An efficient method is needed for making measurements on other frequencies while still having the connection running on the current frequency Two methods are available to do interfrequency measurements in WCDMA: Dual Receiver and Slotted Mode • Dual receiver is considered feasible especially if the mobile uses antenna diversity – One receiver branch can be switched to the other frequency • Slotted Mode is necessary if the receiver has no diversity – The information transmitted during a 10 ms frame is compressed by puncturing or changing the FEC rate and the mobile is free to make a quick measurement on the other frequency 9-2004 Course 441 v1. micro.91 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .Interfrequency Handovers Interfrequency handovers arise during utilization of heirarchical cell structures (macro.

WCDMA-GSM Handovers Measurement Process Since GSM use is so widespread. W-CDMA--GSM handovers are quite important • The GSM compatible multiframe structure allows similar timing for intersystem measurements as in the GSM system itself • The needed measurement interval is not as frequent as for GSM terminals operating in a GSM system In this frame. change coding or puncturing to allow payload bits to finish early so mobile receiver is free during part of the frame. 12 frames 120 ms Measure GSM FCCH and SCH 12 frames 120 ms Measure GSM FCCH and SCH TIME 9-2004 Course 441 v1. WCDMA UMTS Frames In this frame.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .92 . change coding or puncturing to allow payload bits to finish early so mobile receiver is free during part of the frame.

Special Topics Special Topics 9-2004 Course 441 v1.93 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 . convolutional coding of 1/3 is used • For high bit rates. several DPDCHs are allocated A second alternative for service multiplexing is to map parallel services to different DPDCHs in a multicode fashion with separate channel coding and interleaving • This allows independent control of the power and quality of each service • For BER 10-3 services.94 . the multiservice data stream is mapped to one DPDCH • If the total rate exceeds the upper limit for single code transmission. parallel concatenated convolutional code is used Retransmission can be used to guarantee service quality 9-2004 Course 441 v1.Multirate Multiple services of the same connection are multiplexed on one DPDCH • After service multiplexing and channel coding. a code rate of 1/2 can be used • For higher quality service classes.

Rate Matching After channel coding and service multiplexing. rate matching to the closest uplink DPDCH rate is always based on unequal repetition or code puncturing • Puncturing is chosen for bit rates less than 20% above • In all other cases. is only made for the highest rate of a variable rate connection 9-2004 Course 441 v1. using unequal repetition or code puncturing. rate matching to the closest DPDCH rate. unequal repetition is performed For Downlink.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .95 . the total bit rate can appear quite arbitrary! • The rate matching adapts this rate to the limited set of possible bit rates of a DPDCH – Repetition or puncturing is used to match the coded bit stream to the channel gross rate For Uplink.

Packet Data W-CDMA has two types of Packet Data transmission modes Common Channel Packet Transmission • Short Data Packets can be appended directly to a random access burst • Used for short infrequent packets. where link maintenance to set up a dedicated channel would cause unacceptable overhead Dedicated Channel Packet Transmission • Larger or more frequent packets are transmitted on a dedicated channel • A large single packet is transmitted using a scheme where the channel is released immediately after the packet has been transmitted • In a multipacket scheme. the dedicated channel is maintained by transmitting power control and synchronization information between subsequent packets 9-2004 Course 441 v1.96 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .97 .Modes and States .RRC Modes UTRAN Connected Mode URA PCH CELL_PCH UTRAN Inter-System Handover GSM Handover GSM Connected Mode Release RR Connection CELL_DCH CELL_FACH GPRS Packet Transfer Mode Release RRC Connection Establish RRC Connection Establish RR Connection Release RRC Connection Cell Establish Reselection RRC Connection Release Temp Block Flow Initiate Temp Block Flow GPRS Packet Idle Mode Camping on a UTRAN cell Camping on a GSM/GPRS cell Idle Mode 9-2004 Course 441 v1.

Base Station (Node B) Performance Base Station (Node B) Performance 9-2004 Course 441 v1.98 .0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .

0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .. Code Power and Transmit Modulation Power control steps and power control dynamic range Out of band emission Transmit intermodulation Time alignment error in TX Diversity Receiver: Reference sensitivity level Dynamic range Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS) Blocking characteristics Intermodulation characteristics Receiver spurious emission 9-2004 Course 441 v1..Node-B Performance Measurements The following characteristics and parameters. and methods for test of base stations are all provided in standards documents... Transmitter: Maximum output power. total power dynamic range Frequency.99 . the required performance levels.. For in-class discussion.

: UMTS Networks Architecture. Release 5.100 . Toskala Antti: WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications.228 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).0 2002-12 3GPP: TS 23.0. 2001. V5. Ltd. Release 5. ISBN: 0471486876 Halonen Timo.6. England.3gpp. ISBN 0471 48654 X UMTS Forum: <http://www.002 Network Architecture. V5.6. Ltd.0 2002-12 3GPP: TS 23.Release contents and functionality.References 3GPP: 3GPP Specifications . 2002-12 Holma Harri.002 Network Architecture.org/servlet/dycon/ztumts/umts/Live/en/umts/Home> UMTS World: <http://www. etc. Release 4. Release 1999.umtsworld. V3. 07 March. GPRS and EDGE Performance. 2001.: GSM. Mobility and Services. 2002-10-01 <http://www.com/> 9-2004 Course 441 v1.htm> 3GPP: TS 23.umtsforum. etc. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0470 84457 4 Kaaranen Heikki.org/specs/releasescontents.7.0 (c)2004 Scott Baxter 441 .6. 2002. V4. Stage 2.0 2002-09 3GPP: TS 23.002 Network Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. England.

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