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CP 10 2005

CP 10 2005

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SINGAPORE STANDARD

CP 10 : 2005
(Ies 13.220.20; 13.320)
\ .
",1.
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR
Installation and servicing of
electrical fire alarm systems
/
,
,
Published by
SPRING Singapore
2 Bukit Merah Central
Singapore 159835
SPRING Singapore Website: www.spring.gov.sg
Standards Websile: www.slandards.org.sg
~
SPRING
smgapore
SINGAPORE STANDARD
CP 10 : 2005
(ICS 13.220.20; 13.320)
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR
Installation and servicing of
electrical fire alarm systems
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this Singapore
Standard may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilming, without
permission in writing from the SPRING Singapore at the address below:
Head
Standardisation Department
SPRING Singapore
2 Bukit Merah Central
Singapore 159835
Telephone: 62786666 Telefax: 62786667
Email: stn@spring.gov.sg
ISBN 981-4154-01-6
CP 10: 2005
CP 10 : 2005
This Singapore Standard was approved by the Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee on
behalf of the Standards Council of Singapore on 22 March 2005.
The Technical Committee on Emergency Alarm and Communication Systems appointed by the
Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee and responsible for the preparation of this standard
consists of representatives from the following organisations:
The Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee appointed by the Standards Council consists of
the following members:
First published, 1980
First revision, 1993
Second revision, 2005
The experts of the Working Group are nominatedlrecommended by the following organisations:
The Working Group appointed by the Technical Committee to assist in the preparation of this standard
comprises the following experts who contribute in their individual capacity:
Singapore Manufacturers' Federation
SPRING Singapore
Housing & Development Board
Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore
Institution of Engineers Singapore
Singapore Electrical Trades Association
Singapore Civil Defence Force
Land Transport Authority
PSB Corporation Pte Lld
Fire Safety Managers' Association (Singapore)
PSB Corporation Pte Lld
Member, Electrical and Electronic Standards
Committee
Capacity
Mr David Goh King Siang
Mr Benjamin Gan
Mr Eddie Lai
Mr Kenneth Liu
Mr Loke Yee Weng
Cpt Md Nizam Agil
Mr Ong Chew Seng
Mr George Tan Hai Ping
Name
Mr David Goh King Siang
Mr Ong Chih Hsing
Mr Chan Gabin
Mr Foo Chee Yan
Mr Loke Yee Weng
Mr Low Kim Seong
Cpt Md Nizam Agil
Mr Sng Chun Hui
Mr George Tan Hai Ping
MrJohn Wu
Mr Yee Cheong In
Mr Kenneth Liu
Convenor
Members
Chairman
Deputy
Chairman
Secretary
Members
Member, Standards Council
Member, Standards Council
SPRING Singapore
Nanyang Technological University
PSB Corporation pte Lld
SP PowerGrid Lld
Housing & Development Board
Association of ConSUlting Engineers Singapore
Nanyang Technological University
Singapore International Chamber of Commerce
National University of Singapore
Association of ConSUlting Engineers
Institution of Engineers Singapore
Singapore Electrical Contractors and Licensed
Electrical Workers Association
SPRING Singapore
Institution of Engineers Singapore
Singapore Manufacturers' Federation
Land Transport Authority
Singapore Manufacturers' Federation
Energy Market Authority
Singapore Electrical Trades Association
National University of Singapore
Capacity
Mr Renny Yea Ah Kiang
Mr Michael Ong
Er. Ong Ser Huan
Mr K Seshadri
Mr Sim Wee Meng
Mr Tan Boon Chong
Mr Tan Hak Khoon
Mr Jimi Wong Yick Chee
Prof Yeo Tat Soon
Name
Mr Lim Say Leong
Mr Ong Chih Hsing
Assoc Prof Chan Tat Wai
Mr Chong Weng Hoe
Mr Chua Kok Yong
Mr Ho Fui Chan
Er. Adeline Koh
Assoc Prof Koh Liang Mong
Mr Peter Leong
Prof Liew Ah Choy
Mr Kenneth Liu
Mr Ng Kim Leong
Mr Ng Kin Ming
Chairman
Deputy
Chairman
Secretary
Members
Co-opted
Member Er. Ng Eng Kiong Individual Capacity
Celtec Systems pte Lld
Donnelley Simpson G.leary & Oehlers
GIB Automation Pte Lld
Loke & Associates
Patent Engineering Co Pte Lld
PSB Corporation Pte Lld
Singapore Civil Defence Force
Vision Fire and Security
2
3
GP 10 : 2005 GP 10: 2005
Contents
Page
Foreword _
CLAUSES
Section One - Scope and general requirements
8
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
Scope _
Application _
Definitions _
General requirements _
Areas to be protected _
Locations where protection is not required ~ _
Alarm zone limitation _
Connection to alarm monitoring station _
10
10
10
12
12
14
15
16
Section Two - Design considerations
(blank page)
4
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.2.8
2.2.9
2.2.10
2.2.11
2.2.12
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
System components and equipment _
General _
Compatibility _
Special environment _
BUilding management system _
Design process for limitation of false alarms _
Alarm panel --,- _
Main/sub alarm panel _
Zone chart/mimic panel _
Location ~ _
Alarm zone facilities _
Precaution against failure _
Visible indication for alarm panels _
Other indications during the fire alarm condition ~ -
Identification and marking of indicators _
Signals to fire service signalling transmitter _
Fire alarm panel cabinet _
Records _
Program controlled fire alarm system _
Power supply _
Operating voltage _
Form of supply _
Batterycharger _
Battery capacity _
Battery location _
Connection of additional equipment _
When permitted _
Connection requirements _
5
17
17
.17
17
17
18
18
18
19
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
CP 10: 2005
Page
CP 10 : 2005
Page
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.5.6
2.5.7
2.5.8
2.5.9
2.5.10
2.5.11
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.7
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3
2.9
2.9.1
2.9.2
2.9.3
2.9.4
2.9.5
2.9.6
Audible and visual alarms _
General _
Audible alarm sounders _
Audibility of general alarms _
Code signalling ~ _
Restricted alarms _
Multi-stage alarm _
Visual alarm signal -::- _
Fire alarm sounder silencing _
Fire alarm buzzer silencing _
Fault buzzer silencing _-:-:-:-:=:- _
Alarm verification feature (AVF) _
Manual call points _
General - - : : - ~ : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Manual call point _
Special environment _
Operation _
Supervision _
Location _
Alarm zone _
Heat detection systems _
General _
Detectors - - : - : _ - - : : - _ ~ : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Spacing and location of detectors _
Smoke detection systems _
General _
Detectors ---:-:---::-_-:- _
Spacing and location of detectors _
Flame detection systems _
General _:-_-::-:-::- _
Stability and sensitivity _
Spacing and location of detectors _
Fixing of detectors _
Detector lenses . _
Outdoor applications _
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
'29
29
35
35
35
35
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
3.4 Maintenance -----------------------
3.4.1 General _
3.4.2 False alarm _
3.4.3 Regular testing and inspection _
3.5 Operations _
ANNEXES
A Guidance for the selection of detectors (Informative) _
B Fire alarm symbols _
C Daily log - Records for automatic fire alarm installations _
D Components of a fire alarm system _
FIGURES
1 Typical heat detector spacing - Flat ceilings _
2 Heat detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and sloping roof -----
3 Design criteria for point-type heat detectors _
4 Typical smoke detector spacing - Flat ceilings _
5 Point-type smoke detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and
sloping roof _
6 Typical beam-type smoke detector iocations for sloping surfaces _
7 Design criteria for point-type and beam-type smoke detectors located at apex of
ceiling or roof _
8 Smoke detector locations _
9 Design criteria for pOint-type smoke de\.ectors in structures with deep beams _
A1 Typical field of view of flame detector _
A2 Typical floor area protected by 9ne flame detector _
A3 MUltiple coverage provided by four flame detectors _
D1 The components of a typical fire alarm system _
46
46
47
47
49
50
59
60
62
31
32
33
38
39
40
41
43
43.
58
58
58
62
Section Three - Installation and maintenance
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.2
3.3
Installation _
General --:--:--:- _
Cables and wiring _
Conductor sizing --:- :- _
Protection against electromagnetic interference _
Joints and terminations _
Mounting of detectors _-:- _
Separation from other systems _
Operation and maintenance manuals and "as installed" drawings _
Symbols _
6
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
46
46
7
CP 10: 2005
Foreword
This Singapore Standard is a revision of CP 10 : 1993 and was prepared by the Technical Committee
on Emergency Alarm and Communication Systems under the purview of the Electrical and Electronic
Standards Committee. The Code provides recommendations for the installation and servicing of fire
alarm systems in buildings.
In this revision, eXisting requirements were reviewed and revised to bring the Code in line with the
latest fire alarm concept and technology. The principal changes made in this revision are as follows:
a) The requirements for locations where fire protection is not required have been updated (1.4.2);
b) A new requirement for permitted extension of zones extending beyond a single fire compartment
has been added (1.4.3.2);
c) New features and requirements for main/sub alarm panels and repeater panel have been
included, in line with new technology (1.3.18, 2.2.1,2.2.5,2.2.6,2.2.7,2.5.8 and 3.1.2);
d) The requirements for zone chart/mimic panei have been included, as advised by the regulatory
authority (2.2.2);
e) New requirements for the aiarm verification feature (AVF) have been added (2.5.11);
f) The requirements for spacing between detectors have been updated to be in line with AS 1670.1
: 1995. The previous edition of CP 10 was based on AS 1670: 1986 (2.7 and 2.8);
g) Guidelines on the design process and maintenance of the fire alarm system and the selection of
detectors to limit false alarms are provided (2.1.5, 3.4.2 and A.2.2);
h) The design requirement for beam-type smoke detectors is provided (2.8.3.2.2 and 2.8.3.8).
In the preparation of the standard, reference was made to the following standards:
CP 10 : 2005
i'
,,1,
Acknowledgement is made to Standards Australia and British Standards Institute for the use of the
information in the above standards.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this Singapore Standard may be the
SUbject of patent rights. SPRING Singapore shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all of
such patent rights.
AS 1670.1 : 1995
BS 5839-1 : 2002
BS EN 54-2 : 1998
Automatic fire detection and alarm systems - System design,
installation, and commissioning
Fire detection and fire alarm systems for buildings - Part 1 : Code
of practice for system design, installation, commissioning and
maintenance
Fire detection and fire alarm systems - Part 2 Control and
indicating equipment
In particular, the follOWing requirements have been based on the AS 1670.1 : 1995:
a) The spacing, location and mounting of heat, smoke and flame detectors;
b) Optical beam line-type smoke detector and aspirating smoke detection systems.
8
NOTE
1.
2.
Singapore Standards are subject to periodic review to keep abreast of technological changes and new
technical developments. The revisions of Singapore Standards are announced through the issue of
either amendment slips or revised editions.
Compliance with a Singapore Standard does not exempt users from legal obligations.
9
CP 10: 2005
Code of practice for installation and servicing of electrical fire
alarm systems
Section One - Scope and general requirements
CP 10: 2005
1.3.6 Corridor
A narrow enclosed thoroughfare (other than a lift lobby, smoke stop lobby and fire fighting lobby) within
a building not more than 3.6 m wide and not used for trade or storage purposes.
1.3.7 Extra low voltage
Normally not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V d.c., whether between conductors or to Earth.
1.1 Scope
1.3.8 Fire alarm device
This Code of Practice applies to the installation and servicing of electrical fire alarm system in
buildings. It covers alarm systems using manual call points, heat detectors, smoke detectors and
flame detectors.
Component of a fire alarm system, not incorporated in the control and indicating equipment, which is
used to give a warning of fire.
1.3.9 Fire alarm monitoring station
1.2 Application
All installations of automatic fire detection and alarm systems shall comply with the general
requirements of Clause 1.4, with the additional requirements of Section 2 according to the detector
type, and with th.e installation a.nd maintenance requirements of Section 3. Manual call points installed
In conjunction with an automatic fire detection and alarm system or as a separate system shall comply
with the general installation requirements of Section 2 with the additional requirements of Clause 2.6.
Where an automatic fire detection and alarm system is ancillary to an automatic fire-extinguishing
system and/or an engineered smoke control system, the detection system shall comply with the
appropriate requirements of this Code.
1.3 Definitions
A centre that monitors the fire detection and transmits the signals to the fire fighting authority for
activation of the fire fighting measures.
1.3.10 Fire compartment
Parts of building separated by walls, floors and ceilings, having an approved fire-resistance rating, with
openings protected by approved devices.
1.3.11 Fire detector
A component of a fire detection system which contains at least one sensor which constantly monitors
at least one suitable physical and/or chemical phenomenon associated with fire, and that provides at
least one corresponding signal to the control and indicating equipment.
For the purpose of this Code the following definitions shall apply:
1.3.1 Addressable system
A system in which signals from each detector, call point and/or activating device are individually
identified at the control panel.
1.3.2 Alarm indicator
A device which by visual means indicates the zone and/or compartment from which an alarm has
originated.
1.3.3 Alarm zone
A subdivision of the protected premises such that the detection of a fire within it will be indicated
separately and independently from an indication of fire in any other subdivision.
1.3.4 Alarm zone facility
Part of the control and indicating equipment which registers and indicates signals (alarm and fault)
received from its alarm zone circuit.
1.3.5 Control and indicating equipment (CIE)
A. c o m p o ~ e n t of a fire detection and fire alarm system which controls the receipt and transmission of
Signals "':Ithln .the fire detection and alarm system or initiates other action, and provides indication of
any warning Signals (alarm and fault) received.
10
1.3.12 Fire service signalling transmitter
/
A device to transmit signals to an approved monitoring station.
1.3.13 Flat ceiling
A ceiling having a slope not exceeding 1 in 20.
1.3.14 Main alarm panel (MAP)
A control and indicating equipment that controls the receipt and transmission of signals from the sub
alarm panel (SAP) and all other alarm signals within the fire alarm system or initiates other actions and
transmits such signals to the alarm monitoring station if required.
1.3.15 Manual call point
Component of a fire detection and alarm system which is used for the manual initiation of an alarm.
1.3.16 Mimic panel
A panel which repeats the alarm zone indication in a diagrammatic form.
1.3.17 Protected area
An area of a building eqUipped with an automatic fire detection and alarm system installed in
accordance with this Code or an approved automatic fire suppression system.
11
CP 10 : 2005
1.3.18 Repeater panel
A duplicate alarm panel for indication only.
CP 10 : 2005
1.4.1.3 Specific locations
1.4.1.3.1 Concealed spaces
Protection and adequate access for maintenance requirements shall be provided in all concealed
spaces, except the following:
1.3.19 Shall
Indicates a mandatory requirement.
1.3.20 Should
Indicates a recommendation.
1.3.21 Sounders
An audible fire alarm device which is used to give a warning of fire.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Concealed spaces to which there is no access and which do not contain electrical services
and combustible materials;
Concealed spaces below raised floor not more than 150 mm;
Concealed spaces not more than 800 mm deep in roofs;
Concealed ceiling spaces not more than 800 mm deep.
1.3.22 Sub alarm panel (SAP)
A control and indicating equipment that is located remotely from the main alarm panel and having
either alarm zone facilities or indicators to show the location of the alarm and transmits such alarm
signal to the main alarm panel.
1.4 General requirements
The colour of all fire panels and bells shall be red. Other colours may be used subject to the approval
of the relevant authority. However, the colour of the manual call point must be red.
1.4.1 Areas to be protected
1.4.1.1 General
The following general consideration shall apply in determining the areas to be protecled:
(a) Detectors and manual call points shall be installed throughout all parts of the building as
required by the relevant authority and under Sections 1, 2 and 3.
NOTE - Areas specified in 1.4.2 are exempted from this requirement.
(b) Each room shall be separately protected. Where a room is divided into sections by walls,
partitions or storage racks reaching within 300 mm of the ceiling (or of the soffits of the beams
where there is no false ceiling), each section shall be separately protected. Goods or
materials shall not be piled so as to divide rooms into sections unless separate protection is
provided for each such section.
Where personnel entry to the concealed space is reqUired, the access dimensions shall be not less
than 450 mm x 350 mm.
Where a concealed space less than 800 mm deep in roof or ceiling contains electrical equipment
connected to the electricity supply mains and such equipment is not enclosed in a non-combustible
container, the equipment shall have a detector mounted in the concealed space not more than 1.5.m
of the equipment location. Electrical wiring approved by the relevant authority does not require
protection.
Detectors installed in concealed spaces shall be provided with remote alarm indicators located in a
position clearly visible from the occupied area. If necessary, a label or zone chart should be provided
to show the location of the detector(s).
1.4.1.3.2 Vertical shafts and openings
Hoists, lift hoistways, vertical risers and other such openings exceeding 0.1 m
2
in area between
storeys shall be protected within the riser at tl)e top. Where such openings are not fire-isolated,
detectors shall be placed on the ceiling at each fioor level, not more than 1.5 m horizontally distant
from such openings.
Any area Which contains a non-fire-isolated opening exceeding 9 m
2
between storeys shall have one
detector located on the ceiling within 1.5 m of each side of the opening and spaced not more than 7.2
m apart around the perimeter of the opening. Such detectors may be regarded as part of the general
protection of the area. If the opening is less than 0.5 m from a wall, detectors are not reqUired between
the wall and the opening. ~
A fire-isolated lift hoistway with approved automatic self-closing fire-rated doors does not require a
detector within 1.5 m of the lift door. Normal spacing of the detectors shall, therefore, apply in the lift
lobby.
1.4.1.2 Clearances
(c) The area covered by detectors that may be rendered out of operation due to any electrical
wiring fault shall not be more than 2000 m
2
• Such fault(s) shall not affect detectors of other
areas.
1.4.1.3.3 Staircases
Approved fire-isolated staircases should not require protection. All other staircases shall be protected
at each main floor level.
All alarm panels shall be located and mounted such that the indicators and controls are clearly visible
and readily accessible for operation and maintenance purposes.
Except in shop windows, a clear space of at least 300 mm radius, to a depth of 600 mm, measured
from the detector shall be maintained. No goods or materials shall be placed within the area.
12
NOTE - As aform of good practice, it is advisable that all staircases should be protected at each main floor levei.
1.4.1.3.4 Near fire doors
A detector shall be placed inside the protected area not more than 1.5 m from any fire door, where the
door separates the protected area from an unprotected area (see also 1.4.1.3.2). Where a fire door
separates two protected areas, a detector is not necessary within 1.5 m of the fire door.
13
-I
,--
CP 10: 2005
. ,.'
CP 10: 2005
1.4.1.3.5 Return air ducts (e) Skylights, as follows:
(g) Concealed spaces as follows (see 1.4.1,3.1):
(i) Concealed spaces to which there is no access and which do not contain electrical
services and combustible materials;
(iii) That have less than 4.0 m
2
area, a recess height of not more than 800 mm and are
not used for ventilation;
(iv) With an opening on the ceiling of less than 0.15 m
2
,
Air locks, not used as a washroom, with opening on both sides into protected areas, provided
that air locks do not contain electrical equipment or are not used for the storage of goods or
for access to cupboards,
(iI) Concealed spaces below raised floor not more than 150 mm;
(iii) Concealed spaces not more than 800 mm deep in roofs;
(iv) Concealed ceiling spaces not more than 800 mm deep.
Any walk-in type enclosure which is less than 2 m high or having side extending to the ceiling
and has:
Installed in areas not requiring detection (such as sanitary spaces);
With an opening on the ceiling of less than 0.5 m
2
and not used for ventilation; (i)
(iI)
(h)
(f)
Detectors may be omitted from under open grid portions of the ceiling which have not less than two-
third of the ceiling area open to the free flow of air and have detectors installed on the ceiling above
the open grid. Where any solid portion of the ceiling has a dimension in excess of 2 m and has an
area in excess of 5 m
2
, normal protection shall be supplied to the solid portion of the open grid ceiling.
Where flame detectors are used they shall be installed both above and below the open grid ceiling.
Where smoke detection is required in the return air duct under SS CP 13, such detection should be
done via an air sampling device,
Where a structure has a monitor, sawtooth or gable ceiling or roof, a row of detectors shall be installed
between 0.5 m and 1.5 m from the apex measured horizontally (see Figures 3b and 7b).
The rest of the ceiling or roof shall be protected in accordance with the general requirements of this
Code.
Tunnels linking two or more buildings shall be protected unless the buildings are fire-isolated from the
tunnel by approved means.
1.4.1.3.6 Open grid (or egg crate) ceilings
1.4.1.3.7 Monitor, sawtooth or gable ceilings or roofs
1.4.1.3.8 Tunnels
1.4.1.3.9 Strongrooms, vaults, or the like
In a strongroom, vault, or the like, each room shall have a separate alarm zone facility or a suitably
labelled and monitored indicating device installed outside the room. The indication'shall latch on until
the alarm zone facility is manually reset.
(i)
(iI)
a floor area not exceeding 1 m
2
, provided its content is of minimal fire risk;
a floor area not exceeding 0.3 m
2
if housing electrical or communication equipment.
1.4.1.3.10 Other structures (i) Exhaust ducts: in ducts eXhausting from toilets, or rooms containing single ironing and laundry
facilities.
Additional protection should be provided where any special feature or condition calls for such
protection. 1.4.3 Alarm zone limitation
Notwithstanding the foregoing requirements, detectors are not required in the following locations:
1.4.2 Locations where protection is not reqUired
NOTE - Under loading platfonns, mechanically ventilated cupboards, vertical service ducts, spray painting booths,
kitchen hoods, walk-in type air handling plants and the like should be considered as requiring additional protection.
1.4.3.2 Permitted extension
Detectors protecting concealed spaces not exceeding 500 m
2
area may be connected to the
alarm zone below the concealed space, prOVided that the total number of detectors does ~ o t
exceed the number specified in 1.4.3.1 and the total area covered does not exceed 2000 m ;
(a)
Notwithstanding 1.4.3.1, extension of the area covered by one alarm group may be permitted under
the follOWing circumstances:
1.4.3.1 Area limitation
A separate aiarm zone shall be provided for each 2000 m
2
of protected floor area. The number of
detectors required for this area shall not exceed the number specified in Clauses 2.7 to 2.9, according
to the type of detector fitted.
There shall be a separate alarm zone for each floor and each fire compartment.
Protected areas to which there is no access from inside the building shall have separate alarm zone
facilities from those having access.
NOTE - For intennixing of detector systems - intennixing of the various detectors on one alann zone circuit is
pennitted, provided that the detectors are suitably rated for the system voltages and are compatible.
Any non-recessed or free-standing switchboard or switchboard cubicle protected by the
normal protection of the area in which it is contained.
Sanitary spaces: any water closet, shower-recess or bathroom, with a floor area of less than
3.5 m
2
and opening off a protected area.
Covered ways: verandas, balconies, colonnades, open-sided covered walkways and
staircases (one-sided or more), overhanging roof areas, and the like constructed of material
not deemed combustible, and not used for the storage of goods or as a car park.
Under all structures such as platforms, hoods, ducts and the like, within a protected room or
area, which are less than 2 m in width and do not obstruct the free flow of air from reaching
the detector(s) mounted above.
(d)
, ~
(a)
~ (b)
:1
Si
~
(c)
14 15
CP 10 : 2005
,-
CP 10: 2005
(b) The mezzanine fioor may be connected to the same alarm zone as the main fioor, provided
that the total number of detectors does not exceed the number specified in 1.4.3.1 and the
total area covered does not exceed 2000 m
2
;
(b)
(c)
"Leased-line" or "wireless system" failure/restored;
Fire alarm system fault/restored.
(c) Where a zone extends beyond a single fire compartment, the zone boundaries should be
boundaries of fire compartments and the fioor area of the zone should not exceed 300 m
2

Such signals shall appear as indicators in the monitoring stations in both audio and visual forms.
1.4.3.3 Fire extinguishing alarm initiating devices
Flow switches, pressure switches and the like associated with fixed fire extinguishing systems that are
used to initiate an alarm, shall be individually connected under separate alarm zones on the fire alarm
panel. Flow switches used shall incorporate time-delay devices to avoid false alarm due to water
surges.
Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur within 90 seconds of water flow at the alarm-initiating device
when flow occurs that is equal to or greater than that from a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size
installed in the system.
1.4.3.4 Connection to existing alarm systems
Where the work is an extension of an existing alarm system, the combined systems shall be
thoroughly tested to ensure that all parts of the systems are compatible and that it will satisfactorily
perform the required function. The new part of the system shall comply with the requirements of this
Code.
1.4.4 Connection to alarm monitoring station
1.4.4.1 Fire service signalling transmitter
All transmitting equipment shall be approved by the relevant authority. The transmitting equipment
shall have at least the following features:
If other signals such as security alarm signals are to be transmitted through the same "leased-line" or
"wireless system", then the transmission of the fire alarm signals shall have an overriding priority over
other non-fire alarm signals.
1.4.4.5 Box for transmitting equipment
The transmitting equipment shall be housed in a tamper resistance box consistent with that of the
main alarm panel. The transmitting module may be housed within the main alarm panel.
Section Two - Design considerations
2.1 System components and equipment
2.1.1 General
The purpose of a fire alarm system is to detect fire at the earliest time and to give an alarm so that
appropriate action can be taken. It may be installed for the protection of life, property, or both. The
control and indicating equipment of a fire alarm system shall be contained within its own enclosure(s).
Other systems should only be connected to the fire alarm system if their connection does not cause
the performance of the system or any component to fail outside the limits specified by relevant parts of
this Code. Interfacing is permitted to provide data to the BUilding Management System. An illustration
of the components of a typical fire alarm system can be seen in Annex D.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Transmission of signal via "leased-line" or "wireless system";
Alternative transmission path via direct exchange telephone line which serves as back up;
Be designed so that all connections are completely enclosed and not accessible to
unauthorised persons;
Indications for status of phone line, system test, alarm and power supply.
All system equipment used shall be listed by institutions recognised by the relevant authority, and
suitable for use locally. Consideration shall be given for local ambient conditions such as temperature
and relative humidity.
2.1.2 Compatibility
All the individual components of a fire alarm system shall be compatible. This is particularly important
if the components of an installation are made by different manufacturers.
1.4.4.2 Power supply
The power supply requirement for transmitting equipment shall comply with the relevant requirement
of Clause 2.3. It may be derived from the same power source of the main alarm panel.
1.4.4.3 Means of transmission
"Leased-line" or ''wireless system" shall be the primary means of signal transmission with an automatic
switch over to normal direct exchange telephone line upon failure of the "leased-line" or ''wireless system".
1.4.4.4 Signal transmission
The following signals shall be transmitted to the monitoring station:
(a) Fire alarmlfire alarm reset;
16
2.1.3 Special environment
If any equipment is located in a position where it is exposed to dampness, corrosion, extreme
temperature, large fiuctuation of temperature or other special condition, the design and construction
shall be such that the reliability of the system is not adversely affected by these conditions. In
particular any equipment which is installed in places where fiammable or explosive gas or dust may be
present shall comply with the appropriate Singapore Standard or any other standards accepted by the
relevant authorities for the use in such hazardous environment.
2.1.4 BUilding management system
Where a Building Management System (BMS) is installed in a building, the BMS shall not be used to
replace in total or in part the fire alarm system specified in this Code. If the BMS is meant to provide
surveillance as well as monitoring of the fire alarm system, the fire alarm system shall be capable of
operating independently at all times.
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CP 10: 2005
CP 10 : 2005
2.1.5 Design process for limitation offalse alarms
At the design stage of every system, there should be formal consideration of the potential for false
alarms, with a view to confirming the design is such that the frequency of false alarms is likely to be
acceptable.
In principle, measures to limit false alarms may be divided into:
Siting and selection of manual call points;
(j)
(k)
Fire alarm buzzer silencing switch
A switch to silence only the fire alarm buzzer, and may be the same as that used for silencing
the fault warning buzzer (see 2.5.9).
Fire alarm sounder silencing switch
A switch to acknowledge that the fire alarm has been noted by the operator and to silence the
fire alarm sounder (see 2.5.8). A yellow visible indication shall be shown when the fire alarm
sounder is being silenced.
Selection and siting of automatic fire detectors;
Protection against electromagnetic interference;
(I) Evacuation switch
A switch to energise all the alarm sounders so as to alert all personnel that a fire has been
detected and to leave the premises immediately.
Performance monitoring of newly commissioned systems;
(m) Indicator test facility
A manual operation to energise all visible and audible indicators to detect any faulty ones.
System management;
Regular servicing and maintenance.
(n) Fire alarm signal for remote monitoring
A provision for the automatic transmission of fire alarm signals to the fire service signalling
transmitter (see 2.2.9). The transmission of the signal shall be indicated by a red visible
indicator, and shall remain until the fire alarm condition is reset.
2.2.2 Zone chart/mimic panel
/
NOTE - Each general visible indication and system energisation indication shall be given via a separate Iight-
emitting indicator.
Fault signal for remote monitoring
A provision for the automatic transmission of fault signals to the fire service signalling
transmitter (see 2.2.9). This output shall signal all faults specified in 2.2.5.
For sub alarm panel, items (n) and (0) are not applicable.
(0)
Where sub alarm panels are used, each sub alarm panel is to be provided with a single alarm zone
facility at the main alarm panel. Sub alarm panel shall be required in a large building or multi-building
complex.
2.2.1 Main/sub alarm panel
(a) Fire alarm indication (Red)
A general visible indicator followed by a separate visible indicator for each zone, to identify the
source of the alarm location.
2.2 Alarm panel
(b) System fault indication (Yellow)
A generai visible indicator followed by a separate visible indicator for each fault covered in
2.2.5.
The main/sub alarm panel with the associated control and supervisory functions shall consists of the
following:
I
I
!,
I:!
;1
(c)
(d)
System energisation indication (Green)
A visible indicator to show that the system is energised.
Isolation indication (Yellow)
A general visible indicator followed by a separate visible indicator for each zone, to show that
the alarm zone has been isolated.
A zone chart shall be provided at each alarm panel location. For fire alarm panel that uses only
alphanumeric display to identify its alarm location, indicators shall be fixed on the diagram of the mimic
panel to show its alarm location. The mimic diagram shall be installed in accordance with its floor or
building orientation.
2.2.3 Location
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
System reset facility
A switch to reset the system to normal after the fault and/or alarm has been cleared.
Power supply monitoring facility
A circuitry to monitor the condition of the system power supply.
Audible fault warning buzzer
A buzzer to alert the operator that a fault is present in the system.
Fault buzzer silencing switch
A switch to silence the fault warning buzzer (see 2.5.10).
The main alarm panel shall be sited in the building fire command centre. If a fire command centre is
not available, it should be sited ideally in a position clearly visible from the main entrance lobby.
Alternatively, where the main fire alarm panel is mounted in a remotely located control point
acceptabie to the relevant authority, a mimic or repeater panel should be installed in a position cleariy
visible from the main entrance lobby. If necessary, a suitable notice should indicate its position.
Where sub alarm panels are used, they shall be located at the fire lift lobby, smoke stop lobby,
protected staircase in that order of priority or at the main point of entry into the area covered by the
alarm zone.
2.2.4 Alarm zone facilities
(i) Fire alarm buzzer
A buzzer to inform the operator that a fire alarm has been activated, and may be the same as
that used for fault warning.
Each alarm zone shall be provided with the following facilities:
(a) Alarm indication. A visible indication by means of a separate light-emitting indicator for each
zone and/or an alphanumeric display for ease of identifying its alarm location.
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CP 10 : 2005 CP 10: 2005
(iii) The total number of zones In alarm shall be permanently displayed.
(b)
(c)
Fault indication. A visible indication by means of a separate light-emitting indicator for each
zone and/or an alphanumeric display for ease of identifying its fault location.
Isolation facility. A means to manually Isolate an alarm zone. A visible indication by means of
a separate light-emitting indicator for each zone and/or an alphanumeric display for ease of
identifying its isolated location. Only authorised personnel appointed by the building
management shall have access to this function. Upon isolation of an alarm zone, the facility
shall Inhibit all subsequent fault and fire signals from that isolated zone and shall not impair
the normal functioning of any other alarm zones in the system.
(ii)
(iv)
The most recent zone in alarm shall be permanently displayed in another field.
Zones in alarm not currently indicated shall be capable of being displayed. A single
manual action shall be required for the display of each additional zone in alarm, which
shall either be in the field used for the first zone in alarm, or in another field. In the
former case, the display shall revert to the first zone in alarm between 15 seconds and
30 seconds following the last interrogation.
NOTE - CPU fault visible indication shall be given by means of a separate light-emitting indicator.
2.2.5 Precaution against failure
2.2.6 Visible indication for alarm panels
A separate visible and audible fault indication shall be given on the panel. The visible indications may be
suppressed during the fire alarm condition for the following faults except items (c), (d), (I), (m) and (n): The presence of fault indications that have been suppressed shall be indicated;
Suppressed indications shall be capable of being displayed, independently of other
indications, by means of a manual operation.
The presence of isolation indications that have been suppressed shall be indicated;
Suppressed fault indications shall be capable of being displayed by means of a
manual operation, which interrogates only fault indications.
(i)
(il)
Fault warning condition. If the indication is on an alphanumeric display, which cannot
simultaneously indicate all of the faults due to Its limited capacity, the following shall apply:
(i)
(il)
Isolated condition. If the indication is on an alphanumeric display, which cannot simultaneously
indicate all of the isolation due to its limited capacity, the following shall apply:
(a) Information not related to the fire alarm condition shall be suppressed, unless the display has
more than one window, one of which is exclusively reserved for fire alarm indications.
If the fire alarm indications are on an alphanumeric display, the following shall apply to the display of
other information: ..
.
2.2.7 other indications during the fire alarm condition
/
The arrangement of indicators shall be such that the operation of any indicator clearly shows the alarm
zone location.
2.2.8 Identification and marking of indicators
(b) Suppressed indications of faults and isolations shall each be capable of being displayed at any
time by manual operations. If the display is in the field where the first zone in alarm is
displayed, the indication shall revert to the first zone in alarm between 15 seconds and 30
seconds following the last interrogation.
Where, because of the size of the building and the location of the detectors, it is not possible to
adequately describe all detector locations concisely on the main/sub alarm panel, the location of the
detectors should be permanently indicated on a separate panel, within or adjacent to the main/sub
alarm panel.
(c)
NOTE 2 - All visible indicators shall be visible on the fire alarm panel, without the need to open a door.
NOTE 1 - The indications on alphanumeric displays do not require the use of different colours. However, if
different coiours are used it shall follow the relevant colour codes for fire alarm, fault warning and isolated
conditions.
(b)
Electrical earth fault of cables containing direct power source;
Removal of any detector from its circuit;
Disconnection of a transmission path, which affects the transmission of fault signals to the fire
service signalling transmitter;
Short-circuit of a transmission path, which affects the transmission of fire alarm signals to the
fire service signalling transmitter;
Short-circuit of a transmission path, which affects the transmission of fault signals to the fire
service signalling transmitter;
Disconnection of any leads to fire alarm devices (sounders) external to the fire alarm panel;
CPU fault in the case of a software-controlled fire alarm panel (see 2.2.12).
Short-circuit in any cable of alarm zone circuit;
Open circuit in any cable of alarm zone circuit;
Short-circuit of any leads to fire alarm devices (sounders) external to the fire alarm panel;
Disconnection of call point from its circuit;
Disconnection of a transmission path, which affects the transmission of fire alarm signals to
the fire service signalling transmitter;
Short-circuit of primary power supply source, battery charging equipment and battery;
Disconnection of primary power supply source, battery charging equipment and battery;
The visible indication shall be by means of a separate light-emitting indicator and/or an alphanumeric
display. No filament lamp shall be used for visible indication. If the indication is on an alphanumeric
display, the following conditions shall apply:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Ul
(k)
(I)
(m)
it
(n) .
i ,
(a) Fire alarm condition. If the zonal indications are on an alphanumeric display, which due to its
limited capacity cannot simultaneously indicate all the zones in alarm, the following shall apply:
(i) The first zone in alarm shall be displayed in a field at the top of the display.
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CP 10 : 2005
2.2.9 Signals to fire service signalling transmitter
If the fire alarm indications are on an alphanumeric display, a field shall be capable of containing at
least the following:
CP 10: 2005
Power supply 2.3
2.3.1 Operating voltage
The primary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be a.c. supply from an authorised electricity
provider and shall be exclusive to the alarm system. The secondary (standby) power supply shall be
in the form of storage batteries with an automatic charger.
The secondary power supply shall be capable of operating the alarm system in the event of failure of
the primary power supply and vice versa.
2.3.2 Form of supply
The operating voltage for the alarm system shall be extra low voltage.
16 characters, where the display of a fire aiarm uses a cross-reference to other information to
identify the location;
40 characters, where the display Is intended to include complete information on the location of
a fire alarm.
(b)
(a)
The alarm panel shall be able to transmit fire alarm and fault signals to the fire service signalling
transmitter. There shall be no delay and no isolation is allowed for the transmission of fire alarm and
fault signals to the fire service signalling transmitter. Fault output signal to the fire service signalling
transmitter shall be provided If the CIE is de-energised.
2.2.10 Fire alarm panel cabinet
Fault warning shall be given in the event of failure of the primary/secondary power supply.
(a) The cabinet shall be red and of robust construction;
2.3.3 Battery charger
(b) The fire alarm panel must be easily identifiable;
(c) The manufacturer's name, together with any other appropriate means of identification of the
alarm system, shall be clearly and permanently marked on the front face of the fire alarm
panel. The above information shall include the type of panel and the model number.
2.2.11 Records
A battery charger of the appropriate type and rating shall keep the storage batteries under constant
voltage charge. The charger shall incorporate automatic control features with output designed to
charge and maintain the batteries within the limits specified by the battery manufacturer, taking into
account any quiescent load imposed by the associated system.
The charger shall be designed and rated so that a battery discharged to its final voltage can be
recharged to at least 80 % of its rated capacity within 24 hours and to its rated capacity within another
48 hours.
A log record shall be. kept in which details of all alarms (genuine, false, practice, or test), 'faults,
service, and routine attention given shall be properly maintained and updated. The log record
shall be In the form of soft copy, pnnt out or log book. If the log record is kept in the form of a log
book, a recommended format for the log book is described in Annex C.
2.2.12 Program controlled fire alarm system
A controlled fire .alarm system performs its primary function via microprocessors or similar
deva::es, In which the particular of a system are dependent on a stored program. In
addition to the reqUirements listed In this Code, such systems shall comply with the following:
The charger should be connected to the building emergency mains supply if the supply is available.
The primary power supply shall come directly from the electrical distribution board and the circuit shall
not be used for any other purposes. The protective Isolating device controlling this circuit shall be
clearly labelled to indicate that it controls the fire a!arm system. The primary power supply circuit shall
be terminated inside the fire alarm panel or its Integral power supply unit. No external intermediary
switch shall be proVided between the protective isolation device at the electrical distribution board and
the fire alarm panellintegral power supply,unit.
2.3.4 Battery capacity
NOTE - When an extemal CPU is used to record the events and/or generate graphics, this equipment is
acceptable as an enhancement to the mam fire alarm system only.
(c) The of. processors shall be continuously monitored. This is partiCUlarly important
where It IS P?sslbie for the stored program to be accidentally corrupted (e.g. by transient
Interference) m such a way as to interfere with the correct operation of the system. In the
event of a faJiure, a fault warning shall be given (see 2.2.5) and shall remain until a manual
reset and/or another manual operation. The restart procedure should check the contents of
the memories, and if necessary re-initialise running data to ensure that the fire alarm system
enters a safe operating state.
(a)
(b)
Facilities provided for the alteration of the stored program shall be protected against
unauthorised alteration.
Those of the system which are required in this Code shall not depend on programs
stored on rotating diSks, other storage media using moving parts, or any other form of easily
corruptible memory.
The capacity of the storage battery used to power the alarm system shall be such that in the event of
power supply failure, the battery Is capable of maintaining the system in normal working
condition for at least 24 hours. Thereafter it shall be capable of supplying an additional load resulting
from an alarm originating in two separate alarm zones for a period of half an hour and, if utilised to
supply evacuation alarms, It shall in addition be capable of supplying the full emergency
evacuation alarm load for a period of at least 10 minutes.
NO"!"E - Care shall be taken to size the battery capacity to include the load controlling the operation of ancillary
equipment (see 2.4.2).
2.3.5 Battery location
Batteries shall be kept in a separate cool, dry and well-ventilated location. They shall be kept in a
locked cabinet. Such cabinet or container shall be readily accessible for inspection and shall not be
the control cabinet. The interior of the cabinet or container shall be protected against corrosion.
Maintenance-free batteries need not have a separate location.
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CP 10 : 2005 CP 10: 2005
2.4.1 When permitted
2.4.2 Connection requirements
Voltages in excess of extra low voltage associated with remote control functions shall not enter the
alarm panels. This requirement does not apply to the primary power supply feeding the alarm panels.
AnciJIary equipment not forming an essential part of the approved fire alarm system may be connected
either through relay(s) or interfacing device(s), provided that such additional device(s) wiJI not
adversely affect the system or otherwise prejudice the performance of the approved system.
In discos, night-clubs and other places of entertainment, the sound system shall be electrically
interlocked with the fire alarm system to enable the sound to be automatically cut-off in the event that
the fire alarm is activated.
2.5.4 Code signalling
Generally, all alarm sounders in the building shall be activated simultaneously in the event of an alarm
unless it is permissible under 2.5.6.
Code signalling on audible alarms, for example: one ring means "first floor" and two rings means
"second floor" etc., shall not be used. Such coded signals on audible alarms are liable to
misinterpretation.
Connection of additional equipment 2.4
I1
,
!!
Where provision is to be made for the operation of anciJIary equipment under fire alarm conditions as
required by the relevant authority (such as the control of air handling equipment, lift homing,
pressurisation fans and fire suppression system), a current limited extra low voltage supply may be
provided from the fire alarm panel to operate a relay or similar operating device controlling the
equipment in question. The circuit controlling this operation shall be supervised or be of a 'fall-safe"
type. Visible and audible fault indications shall be prOVided at the front of alarm panel.
Overload protection shall be provided such that any short circuit or malfunction of any anciJIary
eqUipment cannot impede the proper functioning of other anciJIary equipment, the fire alarm panel and
other connected equipment. In cases where electrically operated anciJIary equipment requires
continuous power supply, such power supply shall be separate and distinct from the power supply of
the fire alarm system.
2.5 Audible and visual alarms
2.5.1 General
The installation of an automatic fire alarm system using audible and visual alarms appliances shall
comply with Sections 1 and 2, in so far as they are applicable and appropriate, and with this clause.
Audible alarm appliances shall form part of the fire alarm system and shall be installed in a building so
that audible alarm signals are clearly audible throughout the bullding(s)!fIoor(s) in which they are
installed. It is essential that audible alarm signals are sufficient in nature and of the extent to warn and
initiate evacuation of all persons for whom the alarm signals are intended.
2.5.5 Restricted alarms
In some installations, and sUbject to the approval of the relevant authority, where the control point is
under continuous and competent watch during the whole time the premises are occupied, it may be
advisable that in order to avoid unnecessary dislocation, to restrict the alarm in the first place to the
locality from which It arises and to resort to the sounding of a audible general alarm only if a
responsible person considers it desirable to do so. Such a restricted alarm system shall always
incorporate suitable means of summoning fire-fighting staff to the outbreak on the operation of the
alarm.
An audible general alarm is undesirable where distress or disturbance might arise as in health care
facilities and the like. In such places, it is desirable that the alarm system shall be restricted to the
prOVision of audible alarms out of hearing of the public or patient. The aUdible alarms shall be
supplemented by adequate visual alarms throughout the premises for staff recognition only and/or by
discreet special sounders. The staff in such premises should be sufficient in number and properly
driJIed to conduct other occupants to safety in the event of an activation of fire alarm. In all cases,
there shall be effective arrangements for giving an audible general alarm throughout the premises. An
acceptable arrangement is to provide a delay timer to set off the audible general alarm after a
predetermined delay to be approved by the relevant authority. A manual evacuation switch shall be
prOVided to give an immediate audible general alarm. The relevant authority should be consulted very
early in the design stage as to the best method of providing an appropriate system.
In the case where the system is directly lfnked to the fire alarm monitoring station, the delay timer shall
not delay the immediate transmission of the fire signal to the fire alarm monitoring station.
2.5.6 Multi-stage alarm
2.5.2 Audible alarm sounders
All audible alarm sounders shall generate the continuous tone of an alarm bell. In special
environments where the use of alarm bell tone is impractical or in areas of high background noise
level, other tones may be used, in which case the relevant authority's permission must be sought. It is
essential that all audible alarm sounders in a particular installation shall produce a similar tone.
2.5.3 Audibility of general alarms
The number of audible alarm sounders used shall be sufficient to produce a minimum sound level of
either 65 dBA, or 5 dBA above the ambient noise level likely to persist for a period longer than 30
seconds, whichever is greater. In all parts of the bUildings, the sound level produced by audible alarm
sounders signalling shall not exceed 120 dBA. If levels higher than this are required, special provisions
such as Visual alarm signal should be considered (refer to 2.5.7).
In certain large and/or high rise bUllding(s), a multi-stage fire alarm arrangement might be more
appropriate. In the multi-stage fire alarm system, the initial warning of fire is given in a restricted area,
or is restricted to key personnel, but can be extended in the further stages to ultimately warn all
occupants of the premises.
For evacuation, it might be desirable to firstly evacuate from those floors of the premises at the greater
risk, usually those closest to the fire or immediately above and below the f1oor(s). Other floors are
evacuated thereafter. In such a case, a mUlti-stage alarm shall be subjected to the approval of the
relevant authority.
It is important that in such a system, an evacuation manual switch shall be prOVided at the main alarm
panel to activate all the fire alarm sounders for total evacuation. In any case if the alarm is not
acknowledged/reset after a predetermined delay specified by the relevant authority, all the fire alarm
sounders in the building shall be activated.
In order to prevent excessive sound levels in some areas, it may be preferable to install a larger
number of quieter alarm sounders rather than a few very loud sounders.
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CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005
2.5.7 Visual alarm signal 2.5.10 Fault buzzer silencing
The silencing of the fault buzzer whilst a fault condition exists shall:
2.5.11 Alarm verification feature (AVF)
The principle of system operation shall be such that once a fault condition has been received, the fault
buzzer shall continue to operate until normal conditions have been restored.
The activation of the AVF function for the selected zone shall be through selector switch or
programming.
not prevent the proper receipt of fault warning on any circuit not already providing the fault.
not cancel the indication of the faUlt or any indicator concerned; (a)
(b)
Such an alarm verification feature, if provided, shall operate in the following manner. Upon activation
of a detector in any zone, the fire alarm system shall go into an alarm retard state for a period not
exceeding 20 s at the control unit. After the expiry of this period, the fire alarm system shall go into an
alarm confirmation state for a period not less then 120 s and not exceeding 300 s. Only when the
same detector or another detector within the same zone or panel is activated during this alarm
confirmation period, shall the fire alarm system go into full operation.
To reduce the effects of transient environmental conditions, Which may cause various types of
detectors to be activated, an automatic fire alarm system may be provided with an alarm verification
feature, subject to the approval of the relevant authority.
The silencing of fire alarm sounders whilst an alarm condition exists shall:
2.5.8 Fire alarm sounder silencing
In general, visual signals shall not be used in place of audible alarms. The intensity of the light shall
be sufficient to draw the attention of people in the vicinity.
In areas where audible alarms may be ineffective, e.g. where the background noise is excessive,
where there are people with impaired hearing or where hearing protection is likeiy to be worn, visual
aiarm signals shall be provided.
The principle of system operation shall be such that once an alarm has been given the fire alarm
sounders shall continue to operate until normal conditions have been restored. No isolation and delay
facilities shall be allowed for the transmission of fire alarm signals to fire alarm sounders.
If a building does not have an approved emergency voice communication system complying with SS
CP 25, whenever the fire alarm system enters a new fire alarm condition, only the first alarm shall be
permitted to be silenced after 3 minutes and any sUbsequent alarms may be silenced immediately. An
appropriate instruction shall be provided for this function. Where a building is provided with an
approved emergency voice communication system complying with SS CP 25, alarm sounders may be
silenced immediately. In this case when the fire alarm sounder is silenced, a recorded voice message
shall automatically be activated to inform the occupants in the building of the alarm. A yellow visible
indication that the alarm has been silenced shall be provided at the front of the main/sub alarm panel.
The indication of the alarm on any indicator concerned shall not be cancelled whilst the fire alarm
sounders are still in operation.
I
(a)
(b)
(c)
not prevent the transmission of the alarm signal to the approved monitoring station;'
not cancel the indication of the alarm or any indicator concerned;
not prevent the proper receipt of alarm signal on any circuit not already proViding the alarm
from other zones, and shall not prevent the restarting of the fire alarm-sounder;
Receipt of first
alarm signal
-
------±---------;;I;;-...:./-. ---;=t-:.,.,.- Time (s) I 1 [
o 20 140 (min)
320 (max)
When the fire alarm system is in the AVF mode, the activation of the system reset facility shall not
reset the AVF operation.
A visible indication in the form of a yellow light-emitting indicator or an alphanumeric display shall be
provided when the fire alarm system enters into the alarm retard state and/or alarm confirmation state.
The follOWing components of the fire alarm system shall not be SUbject to this feature:
(a) Alarm zone facilities containing only manual call points;
Normal state Alarm confirmation
state
Alarm retard
state
Normal stale
The silencing of the fire alarm buzzer whilst an alarm condition exists shall:
The principle of system operation shall be such that once a fire alarm condition has been received, the
fire alarm buzzer shall continue to operate until normal conditions have been restored. The fire alarm
buzzer shall not be silenced automatically.
(a) not cancel the indication of the alarm or any indicator concerned;
2.5.9 Fire alarm buzzer silencing
(d) not prevent the correct operation of any control for starting or restarting the fire alarm
sounders.
The silencing of the general fire alarm sounders shall only be permitted at the activated main/SUb
alarm panel.
,'I
'I
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(b) not prevent the proper receipt of alarm signal on any circuit not already providing the alarm
from other zones, and shall not prevent the restarting of the fire alarm buzzer.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Circuits between sub alarm panels and the main alarm panels;
Detectors used to activate fire suppression systems;
Detectors installed in high risk areas;
Alarm zone cirCUits from fire suppression systems.
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CP 10 ; 2005
CP 10: 2005
2.6.1 General
2.6 Manual call points This clause applies only to conventional point-type heat detectors. Fire alarm systems based on a
different heat detection concept may be used subject to the approval of the relevant authority.
2.7.2 Detectors
Manual call points shall be provided in accordance with the latest Code of Practice for Fire
Precautions in BUildings. There are two main types of heat-sensitive elements in each form as follows:
2.6.2 Manual call point
Manual call point shall be bright red in colour and shall be of the "break glass" type. The glass of the
call point shall be of the non-fragmental type. Other types of manual call point may be used subject to
the approval by the relevant authority. .
(a)
(b)
Rate-of-rlse of temperature elements which are designed to operate when their temperature
rises abnormally quickly;
Fixed-temperature (static) elements which are designed to operate when they reach a
preselected temperature.
2.6.3 Special environment
Special consideration shall be given to provide suitable type of call points installed in extreme
conditions such as outdoor, damp, corrosive, flammabie or explosive environment.
2.6.4 Operation
Detectors containing only rate-of rise elements shall not be used.
The delay between the activation of a heat detector and activation of the generai alarm shall not
exceed 10 seconds.
The type of detectors used shall be as follows:
The method of operation of all manual call points in an installation shall be identical unless there is a
special reason for differentiation.
The delay between operation of a call point and activation of the general alarm shall not exceed 3
seconds.
2.6.5 Supervision
Manuai call points shall be connected to the alarm zone circuit protecting the area where they are
installed and it shall be electrically supervised.
2.6.6 Location
Manual call points shall be provided on every storey of the bUilding or part of the building. It should be
located on exit routes preferably next to hose reels and in particular on the floor landings of exit
staircases and at exits to the street(s).
Manual call points should be fixed at a height of 1.4 m above the finished floor level and shall be
located at easily accessible and conspicuous position free from obstructions. It shall be so located
that no person needs to travel more than 30 m from any position within the building to activate the
alarm. It shall also be installed in well-lighted positions and against a contrasting background so that
they can be seen easily.
2.6.7 Alarm zone
Manual call points shall not share the same alarm zone with other detectors.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Type A - Normal temperature duty, incorporating both fixed-temperature and rate-of-rise
actuation. This type of detector shall be considered for use in the majority of applications with
moderate ambient temperatures below 45 ·e where rapid temperature increases are not
normally experienced (see Note).
Type B - Normal temperature duty, fixed-temperature actuation only. This type of detector
shall be considered where rapid temperature increases are normally encountered and the
maximum ambient temperature does not normally exceed 45 ·e.
Type e - High temperature duty, incorporating both fixed-temperature and rate-of-rise
actuation. This type of detector shall be considered for use in applications with high ambient
temperatures below 75 ·e where rapid temperature increases are not normally experienced
(see Note). /
Type 0 - High temperature duty, fixed-temperature actuation only. This type of detector shall
be considered where rapid temperature increases are normally encountered and the
maximum ambient temperature does not normally exceed 75 ·e.
Type E - Special purpose fixed-temperature actuation. Type E detectors are intended to
provide protection in areas which cannot be satisfactorily protected by Types A to 0 owing to
some factors associated with the environment, such as extremely high ambient temperatures,
severe corrosion, and the like.
The maximum coverage of Type E detectors is 9 m' for a detector of point-type construction.
(For all other types of Type E detectors, the advice of the relevant authority should be sought
prior to the inclusion of this type of detector in a fire protection system, if it is to be considered
as the only type of detector for the area.)
Each manual call point should have its alarm zone number indelibly marked on the unit so that it is
clearly visible.
2.7 Heat detection systems
2.7.1 General
The installations of automatic fire alarm system using heat detectors shall comply with Sections 1 and
2, in so far as they are applicable and appropriate, and with this clause.
28
NOTE - Although Type A or Type e detectors are intended to protect the majority of areas, special
circumstances may prevent or interfere with reliable operation. Such circumstances may dictate the use of a
Type B, Type D, or Type Edetector manufactured to suit the special environment.
2.7.3 Spacing and location of detectors
2.7.3.1 General
The location of detectors shall be to the best advantage for detecting a fire. The maximum spacing
and location of detectors shall comply with the requirements of s 2.7.3.2 to 2.7.3.7 (see Figures 1, 2
and 3 for detector locations).
29
CP 10: 2005
.-
CP 10: 2005
2.7.3.2 Location
Detectors shall be installed in the highest point of the ceiling where appropriate. However, where the
ceiling is constructed with beams or joists less than 300 mm deep, the detector may be installed on
the underside of the beam or joist. '
Isolated attachments to the ceiling such as lighting fittings and iuminaries do not normally act as
obstructions to the general fiow of smoke or hot gas. They may, however cause a local disturbance,
and detectors should not be mounted too close to such attachments; the distance should be more
than twice the depth of the attachment.
Care shall be taken in the location of detectors to ensure that their correct operation is not prejudiced
. by special conditions of dampness, high ambient temperature (see 2.7.2), vibration, air currents (e.g.
from air conditioning outlets) or the like. Detectors shall not be installed closer than 400 mm to any air
supply outlet.
2.7.3.3 Spacing between detectors for flat ceilings
(a)
(b)
(c)
Concealed spaces with upper level surfaces in excess of 2 m high shall have detectors
spaced in accordance with 2.7.3.3,2.7.3.4 and 2.7.3.5.
For concealed spaces with upper level surfaces less than 2 m high and having downward
projections, such as beams and ducts, not exceeding 300 mm from the upper surface of the
space, the spacing between detectors shall not exceed 10 m. Where the downward
projections exceed 300 mm, the spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with 2.7.3.4 and
2.7.3.5.
For concealed spaces with apices, the spacing between detectors in the longitudinal direction
at the apex and sloping roof shall not exceed 7.2 m and 14.4 m respectively. On the sloping
roof, the horizontal distance between rows parallel to the apex shall not exceed 7.2 m with the
lowest row of detectors located not more than 7.2 m measured horizontally towards the apex
from a position where the vertical height, between the upper and lower surfaces of the space,
is 800 mm. The longitudinal spaces between the detectors on the lower rows shall be
arranged so that the detectors are spaced equally between the detectors on the adjacent rows
(see Figure 2).
For fiat ceiling, excluding corridors, the distance from any point on the ceiling of the protected area to
the nearest detector does not exceed 5.1 m (see Figure 1a). In addition, the distance between
detectors shall not exceed:
(a) 7.2 m for areas other than corridors (see Figure 1a);
(b) 10.2 m for corridors (see Figure 1b).
2.7.3.4 Spacing of detectors from walls or partitions
2.7.3.7 Detector mounting
Each detector shall be installed in such a way that the sensing element is not less than 15 mm or more
than 100 mm below the ceiling or roof. Where roof purlins inhibit the free flow of heat to the detector,
the detector may be installed on the underside of such purlins provided that the sensing element is not
further than 350 mm from the roof.
Heat detectors beneath roofs and ceilings SUbject to solar radiation shall be installed with the sensing
element between 180 mm and 350 mm vertically below the roof or ceiling.
2.7.3.5 Reduced spacing
For all types of heat detectors, closer spacing may be required to take into account the special structural
characteristics of the protected area. In particular, the following requirements shall be observed:
The distance from the nearest row of detectors to any wall or partition shall not be less thaA 300 mm
or exceed half the relevant maximum allowable distance between detectors given in 2.7.3.3, 2.7.3.5
and 2.7.3.6. For corridors, this distance shall only be taken from end walls.
J
I
i
i
I
I
(a)
(b)
Where the ceiling of the protected area is segmented by beams, joists or ducts, and the
vertical depth of such members is greater than 300 mm, the distance between detectors shall
be reduced to but not exceeding:
(i) 5 m for areas other than corridors;
(iI) 7 m for corridors.
Where the height of the fiat ceiling exceeds 3.5 m, the distance between detectors shall be
reduced to but not exceeding:
(i) 6 m for areas other than corridors;
2.7.3.8 Arrangement of alarm zones
Not more than 40 heat detectors shall be connected on a single alarm zone. (see 1.4.3.1)
NOTE - Where a single alarm circuit is connected,with more than 40 heat detectors, means shall be specified
and provided which ensure that a short circuit or an interruption in this detection alarm circuit does not prevent
the indication of a fire alarm from more than 40 heat detectors.
.

3600
7200 , 7200 , 7200 ,
-\.
\.r
.. \.

7200 <,
, ) , ,
-::y -::
\.i
\. ..
(a) Spacing for open areas
(iI) 8 m for corridors.
Where the height of the ceiling above the protected area is greater than 6 m, it is recommended that a
more sensitive type of detector be considered.
2.7.3.6 Spacing of detectors in concealed spaces
Concealed spaces for which protection is required, other than those exempted under 1.4.1.3.1, shall
be protected in accordance with the following:
30
ilf-----"5-'-'1
(b) Spacing for Corridors
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 1 - Typical heat detector spacing - Flat ceilings
31
CP 10: 2005
7200 max. (Note 2)
1 I I I
1500 max.
500 min. M
I I Site detector

CP 10: 2005
1500 max.
500min.MJ
n Site detector

in this area
I I
I '
! 7200 max.
Glass
or similar
7200 max.

et
300 min. I
1
1
I
I
(e) Ceiling or roof with skylight
,
'-'
(b) Sawtooth ceiling or roof
.'
Ct
______ 1
(c) Equal slope ceiling or roof
Side detector
in this area
7200 max.
,
I
- I I
( \1 I

Site detector
in this area
1500 max.

I Irkl
Louvers I \JI

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
(d) Louvred ceiling or roof with louvred riser
NOTE - Detector always on side with least slope.
Dimensions in millimetres
1500 max. 1500 max.
(a) Unequal slope ceiling or roof
Ct
l
14400 Ct--.-
Ct
J
14L
CtJ
7200
I
Ct-+
I
7200
Ct-+
3600
3600
Ct-+
I
7200
I
Cti Ct
7200
I
Cti
7200
Ct-+ Ct
I
7200
Ct-+
I
7200
Ct-+ Ct
I
7200
I
Cti
(Note 1)
Figure 3 (in part) - Design criteria for point-type heat detectors
Dimensions in millimetres
NOTE
1. Alternate rows offset.
2. See 2.7.3.6 (c).
3. t.owest row measurement from 800 mm height.
Figure 2 - Heat detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and sloping roof
32
33
CP 10: 2005 CP 10: 2005
500 min.
2000 max.
~
< 500
ti
Protective Hood ~
r ~ ~
cl
(f) Ventilated ridge
I
Louvers ~
I
I
(g) Narrow apex
I
,
,
I
I
I
~
..~
cll
~ , ,
max.
2.8 Smoke detection systems
2.8.1 General
The installations of an automatic fire alarm system using smoke detectors shall comply with Sections 1
and 2, in so far as they are applicable and appropriate, and with this ciause.
This clause applies only to point-type and opticai beam line-type smoke detectors. Fire alarm systems
based on a different smoke detection concept may be used subject to the approval by the relevant
authority.
2.8.2 Detectors
The type of detectors for use in various locations is described in Annex A.
2.8.3 Spacing and location of detectors
2.8.3.1 General
The location of detectors shall be to the best advantage for detecting a fire. The maximum spacing
and location of detectors shall comply with the requirements of of 2.8.3.2 to 2.8.3.7 (See Figures 4, 5,
6,7,8 and 9 for detector locations).
2.8.3.2 Location
2.8.3.2.1 In determining point detector position, consideration shall be given to the following:
(h) Narrow ridge vent
> 2000
I" ·1
~
Louvers ___! 1
1
f
- - ~ :
, ,
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
High temperatures close to ceilings or roofs. It may be necessary to extend the location of the
detector downwards below the ceiling to obtain earliest response.
Detector mounting height over 3 m from the floor. The minimum distances of the sensing
elements beiow the ceiling line shall comply with Figure 8.
Effects of airflow on the detector and the movement of smoke. Detectors shall not be installed
closer than 400 mm to any air sup-ply outlet.
Isolated attachments to the ceiling such as light fittings and luminaries normally do not act as
obstructions to the general fiow of smoke. They may however cause local disturbance.
Detectors should not be mounted too close to such attachments; the distance should be more
than twice the depth of the attachment.
(i) Broad ridge vent
7200 mal<. 7200 max.
et'""
.1
2.8.3.2.2 In determining optical beam line-type detector position, consideration shall be given to the
following:
(a) High temperatures close to ceilings or roofs. It may· be necessary to extend the location of the
detector downwards below the ceiling to obtain earliest response.
Dimensions in millimetres
NOTE
(b) Detector mounting height over 8 m from the floor. The minimum distances of the
transmitter/receiver units below the ceiling line shall comply with Figure 8.
(c) Infrared scans of a building have shown heat pockets at apices of roof structure due to solar radiation.
Therefore, to obtain effective fire detection, the detectors must be located below these pockets.
Figure 3 (in part) - Design criteria for point-type heat detectors
34
Care should be taken to ensure that beam detectors' receiver units are not exposed to strong
light, especially direct sunlight.
2.8.3.3 Spacing between detectors for flat ceilings
For flat ceiling, the distance from any point on the ceiling of the protected area to the nearest detector
shall not exceed 7.2 m. In addition, the distance between point-type detectors shall not exceed 10.2 m.
(see Figure 4).
35
CP 10: 2005
For optical beam line-type detectors, the distance to the next transmitter I receiver shall not exceed 14 m.
NOTE - For ceiling height above 10 m the same spacing requirements may still be applicable provided the
detector has been type-tested and approved for use in aparticular situation.
CP 10 : 2005
2.8.3.7 Spacing of detectors in concealed spaces
Concealed spaces for which protection is required under 1.4.1.3.1 shall be protected in accordance
with the following:
2.8.3.4 Spacing of detectors from walls or partitions
The distance from the nearest row of detectors to any wall or partition shall not be less than 300 mm
or exceed half the relevant maximum allowable distance between detectors given in 2.8.3.3, 2.8.3.5
and 2.8.3.6. For the purpose of this clause, smoke barriers shall be considered partitions.
2.8.3.5 Spacing of detectors where additional protection is required
(a)
(b)
Concealed spaces with upper level surfaces in excess of 2 m high shall have detectors
spaced in accordance with 2.8.3.3 and 2.8.3.4.
For concealed spaces with upper level surface not exceeding 2 m high and having downward
projections, such as beams and ducts, not exceeding 300 mm from the upper surface of the
space, the spacing between detectors shall not exceed 15 m. Where the downward
projections exceed 300 mm, the spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with 2.8.3.5.
Where roofs or level surfaces are compartmentalised by structural features which could have the
effect of restricting the free flow of smoke, the detectors shall be located so that early detection is
ensured, sUbject to the following for point-type detectors (see Figure 9):
(a) For areas with ceiling height equal to or greater than 4 m and beam depth exceeding 100 mm
(see Area 4, Figure 9), detectors shall be mounted on the underside of the beams and spaced
in accordance with 2.8.3.3 and 2.8.3.4.
NOTE - Additional detectors shall be provided in interbeam area in cases where the interbeam area is
so large that the spacing of detectors located on the underside of beams does not comply with 2.8.3.3
and 2.8.3.4.
(c) For conceaied spaces with apices, the spacing between detectors in the longitudinal direction
at the apex and sloping roof shall not exceed 10.2 m and 20.4 m respectively. On the sloping
roof, the horizontal distances between rows parallel to the apex shall not exceed 10.2 m with
the lowest row of detectors located not more than 10.2 m, measured horizontally towardsthe
apex from a position where the verticai height, between the upper and lower surfaces of the
space, is 800 mm. The longitudinal spaces between the detectors on the lower rows shall be
arranged so that the detectors are spaced equally between the detectors on the adjacent rows
(see Figure 5).
2.8.3.8 Detector mounting
!
I
j
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
For areas with ceiling height greater than 2 m but not exceeding 4 m, beam depth exceeding
300 mm (see Area 3, Figure 9) and the interbeam area less than 4 m
2
, detectors shall be
mounted on the underside of the beams and spaced in accordance with 2.8.3.6.
For areas such as item (b) above, where the interbeam area is equal to or greater than 4 m
2
,
detectors shall be mounted in each interbeam area (see Area 3, Figure 9).
For areas with ceiling height not exceeding 4 m and beam depth not exceeding 300 mm (see
Area 1, Figure 9), the spacing of the detectors shall be in accordance y;ith 2.8.3.3 and 2.8.3.4.
For areas with ceiling height not exceeding 2 m and beam depth exceeding 300 mm (see
Area 2, Figure 9), the spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with 2.8.3.3 and 2.8.3.4.
NOTE - Where airflow reduces the response of the detector located in these areas, the detectors
should be relocated in a more favourable position. Nevertheless, the spacing requirements of the above
clauses should not be exceeded.
The sensing element for ceiling mounted point-type detectors shall be not less than 25 mm and
normally not more than 600 mm, below the ceiling or roof (see Figure 8).
Optical beam line-type smoke detactors shall be mounted not less than 300 mm and not more than
600 mm below the ceiling or roof. Additional optical beam line-type detectors should be installed in
vertical shafts, e.g. atria and warehouse etc at lower levels (see Figure 8).
2.8.3.9 Arrangement of alarm zones
Not more than 20 smoke detectors shall be connected on a single alarm zone.
NOTE - Where a single alarm circuit is connected with more than 20 paint-type smoke detectors, then means
shall be specified and provided which ensure that a short circuit or an interruption in this detection alarm circuit
does not prevent the indication of afire alarm from more than 20 point-type smoke detectors.
2.8.3.6 Reduced spacing
For all types of smoke detector, closer spacing may be required to take account of special
characteristics of the protected area. The distance between detectors shall not exceed 7 m in the
following areas where:
(a)
(b)
the ceiling height is greater than 2 m but not exceeding 4 m, the beam depth exceeding 300
mm and the interbeam area less than 4 m
2
; or
the number of air changes exceeds 15 per hour.
NOTE - For areas with high air velocities Le. in excess of 3 m/s, the detector spacing may need to be further
reduced or more sensitive detection equipment may need to be installed.
36
37
CP 10 : 2005
- .'
CP 10: 2005
I
S}-----{ }-----(S}-----( S
I
10 200 max. (Note 2)
I I I I ! I I I
, , r "
'f, f
+
® .-®
5100 10200
I
® 20400
(b) Spacing for corridors
®
®
®
5100
®-+
I
10200
I
®-+ ®
I
10200
I
®-+
I
10200
I
®-+ ®
I
10200
I
®-+
I
10200
I
®-+ ®
I
10200
I
®-+ .-®
10 fOO I
®-+ ®20400
I
10200
®-f
5100
®
®
®
® l.-®
®.. ®
I
20400 ®
I
®-'- ®
(Note 1)
(a) Spacing for open areas
Figure 4 - Typical smoke detector spacing - Flat ceilings
NOTE - Smoke detector spacing in corridors are the same as general areas.
Dimensions in miliimetres
I
i
Figure 5 - Point-type smoke detector locations for concealed spaces with
apex and sloping roof
NOTE 1 Alternate rows offset.
NOTE 2 See 2.8.3.7 (c).
NOTE 3 Lowest row measurement taken from 800 mm height.
Dimensions in millimetres
38
39
CP 10 : 2005
. ","
CP 10: 2005
Xmax.
Site detector
in this area
1500 max.
500 min.
I Site detector
in this area
, V
r---- X max. _
1500 max.
500 min.
(§)s
(Note 2)
'""" I ."'" I """' L'""' L' 000 I "000 I . '""'
[
800 11 I Ss I
·t
(a) Unequal slope ceiling or roof (b) Sawtooth ceiling or roof
"V
S
Xrnax.
(c) Equal slope ceiling or roof
NOTE 1 - Lowest row measurement taken from 800 mm height applies to concealed spaces only.
NOTE 2 - Arrangement of siting of transmitter I receiver position shall be in accordance to the manufacturer's
recommendation.
NOTE - Detector always on side with least slope.
y,-,-------.-,
®
Glass.J
S or similar
300 min.
(e) Ceiling or roof with skylight
y
S
Side detector
in this area
Xmax.
y
,
,
IS
(d) Louvred ceiling or roof with louvred riser
1500 max.
500 min.
I
,
,
:
-:
,
,
I
I
,
,
I
----'
(S)s (S)s (S)s (S)s (S)s (S)s
(Note 2)
(S)S
Dimensions in millimetres Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 6 - Typical beam-type smoke detector locations for sloping surfaces
Figure 7 (in part) - Design criteria for point-type and beam-type smoke detectors located
at apex of ceiling or roof
40
41
CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005
,
,
,
,
,
,

MiNIMUM SENSING ELEMENT DISTANCE BELOW ROOF OR CEiLING LINE. mm
Figure 8 - Smoke detector locations
NOTE - Fire aerosols are transported by means of warm air from the fire source and their vertical progress is
impeded when the temperature of the smoke equals that of the surrounding air; therefore, for high ceilings a
larger fire source is necessary to transport the smoke to the detector. For this reason, it is necessary for smoke
detectors to be installed below the warm air pockets at roof levels as indicated by the graph.
Point-type
smoke detector
Beam detector
I
500 600 400
300
2 I
-+--+--+--+----1--+--1
o 100 200
25
20
18 I '/
16 I V
E I /1/
': I IL/r''------¥//'---/-+--+--I
I 6 ,-+1--+--+--+--1
4 I
/1
/
-S"5100
max.
(g) Narrow apex
500 min.
2000 max.

,
Louvers ----J
,
,

(f) Ventilated ridge
< 500
Protective Hood b

/ :
Cl
(h) Narrow ridge vent
>2000
I
I I

, ,
Louvers --------..J :
, ,
I I
(11/ (( (tLjll I (Ill (11
I
Llnterbeam -r;; .
area
h
777l (( (I (( (1/ I (( II (Ill ((.' (
6000
s s
5000
4 (see Clause 2.8.3.5 (a»
E Detector on beam
E 4000 -f----r--------------
g I
I
I
I '
,
NOTE 1
X =10 200 for point -type detector
X =14 000 for beam-type detectors
Y =distance in accordance with Figure 8
Xmax. Xmax.
(i) Board ridge vent
f0-
B3000
[ij
I
2000
::J
[ij
o
1000
1
(see
Clause
2.8.3.5 (d»
3 (see Clause 2.8.3.5 (b) and (c»
lnterbeam areas I Detector on beam
2 (see Clause 2.8.3.5 (e»
Normal spacing
NOTE 2
Infrared scans of a building have shown heat pockets at apices of roof structures due to solar radiation.
Therefore, to obtain fire detection, the detectors must be located below these pockets.
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
BEAM DEPTH (d). mm
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 9 - Design criteria for point-type smoke detectors in structures with deep beams
Figure 7 (in part) Design criteria for point-type and beam-type smoke detectors located
at apex of ceiling or roof
42
43
CP 10: 2005
2.9.4 Fixing of detectors
bl ort so
that vibration or shocks will not cause spurious
I b
..dly fixed to a sta e supp .
Detectors shal e. f th detector leading to loss of protection.
alarm signals or misalignment 0 e

I
I
I
! I
I
Suitable additional protection for the cable shall be provided at any point where they are likely to be
subjected to mechanical damage.
Section Three - Installation and maintenance
3.1 Installation
PVC insulated non-sheathed cable shall be laid in metal conduit complying with SS 504 or metal
trunking complying to SS 249, exclusive to the fire alarm system. The cable shall comply with the
requirements of SS 358. Rigid PVC conduits and fittings may be used in situations where the ambient
temperature is below 60 QC. Suitable additional protection for the conduits shall be provided at any
point where they are likely to be subjected to mechanical damage.
CP 10 : 2005
3.1.1 General
45
Wiring for fire alarm system shall comply with the requirements stipulated in this Code. All other wiring
shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SS CP 5, except as stipulated by
3.1.2 to 3.1.7.
,
If a common duct or trunking is to be used to contain both fire alarm circuits and those of any other
services, the fire alarm circuits shall be wired in fire resistant cable. Alternatively they may be wired in
PVC insulated cable provided they are separated from the cables of other services by a rigid and
continuous partition of non-combustible material affording them complete enclosure when the covers
of the duct or trunking are in place.
Particular attention should be given to the protection and segregation of the fire alarm system from
other systems. If fibre optics are used in the fire alarm system, then approval by the relevant authority
is required.
3.1.2 Cables and wiring
Cables insulated with general purpose PVC shall not be installed in any situation where the sustained
ambient air temperature is liable to exceed 65 QC for long periods. If such situations cannot be
avoided, cables having heat resistant PVC insulation complying with the requirements of SS 299 shall
be used.
Cables laid underground shall be run in ducts. PVC insulated and sheathed cable conforming to the
requirements of IEC 60227-4 shall be used. Cables laid direct in the ground shall be PVC insulated
and sheathed, armoured and sheathed overall.
Any telephone-type cable should be allowed for use in the wiring between the fire alarm panel and the
repeater or mimic panel for secondary indication and shall be protected against mechanical damage
by the use of conduit or trunking.
All cable conductors shall be sized to comply with the requirements of the relevant Singapore
Standard(s).
3.1.3 Conductor sizing
In selecting conductor sizes, regard should be paid to physical strength and to limitations imposed by
voltage drop. Voltage drop across a cable should not be such as to prevent devices from operating
within their specification limits, even under minimum supply and maximum load conditions.
Consideration should be given to any possible extensions to the system.
Flame detection systems
2.9.5 Detector lenses
. h fI e radiation is received shall be appropriately designed
Lenses of flame detectors through WhlC
t
ame placed in environments likely to lead to the build-up of
for the coverage required. debteffic ors ar purging eqUipment shall be fitted to ensure that the
. the lens appropnate a es or
particles, on s'lt',vity retained between service periods.
detector s sen
2.9.6 Outdoor applications
f th
eatherproof type. They shall be fixed and supported so
t d outdoors shall be 0 e w
Detectors moun e
l
. ble to movement due to wind or other causes.
that they are not ,a
44
2.9.2 Stability and sensitivity
h th t incorrect operation does not occur as a
The stability and sensitivity of detectodr:> sources or steady infrared sources, or
result of extraneous natural light or ra la Ion rom
of variations in ambient temperature.
NOTE _ Regarding use in special situafions, refer to 2.1.3.
2.9.3 Spacing and location of detectors
. t t the radiation emitted from flame. Accordingly,
Flame detectors do not rely on convection, but are not in any case, affected by stratification.
they do not need to be mounted on ceilings, an Y their distance from the fire increases, as the
Their sensitivity to a fire does decrease, as ortion to the square of the distance from ItS
intensity of the radiation decreases relatively low level within a hign space to
source. On .other hand't they early detection of a shielded fire.
maximise senSitiVity to a fire a groun e ,
Detectors shall be spaced to ensure that the risk areas are protected with a minimum of shadowing or
blind spots.
. f fI d tectors should be within maximum limits specified by the manufacturer.
Spacing 0 ame e
. . neral area/special hazard(s) protection, there should be a
Where flame. detectors are to the protected area and one or more flame detectors.
clear line of Sight between all pOlnts/hazar
2.9.1 General
. I t in which flame-responsive
The design installation and maintenance of automatic fre and 2 in so far as they are
detectors used as a fire system shall comp y WI ec I ,
applicable and appropriate, and With this clause.
. . . . . b fi e Both types use
detect the infrared and/or ultraviolet radiation that IS emitted y am .
detectorts cells that "see" fire either directly or through built-in lenses or reflectors.
radlatlon-sensl Ive .
fi h t ristics such as flicker, size
Infrared flame detectors are usually designed to rTespon? use can be designed to
th one specific radiation frequency. ypes In . r
or more an 'fi 'nfrared frequency bands that are not characteristic of solar radla Ion.
respond to specI IC I
. . th th t the ozone layer filters out of solar
Ultraviolet flame detectors normally operate Within wla
l
veleng t a unlight and may generally be used
radiation. Hence, ultraviolet detectors do not norma y respon 0 s
outdoors.
2.9
3.4.3 RegUlar testing and inspection
3.4.3.1 General
Record the false alarm in the Id' og recor and Inform the organisation responsible for servicing.
If one detector or group of detectors gives false al
for servicing be informed and required to then the organisation responsible
Any installations, detectors or detector I r ..
special investigation. oca Ions having higher false alarm rates should be subject to
(c)
The details of any service call shall be entered in t . "
reference. The alarm monitoring station and he iog record which shall be provided for convenient
any portion of a system is isolated for or are to be notified when
reconnected. enance an likeWise notified when this portion is
Operating instruction comprising EVACUATE, ALARM SILENCE
RESET should be proVided prominently at the fire aiarm panel. ' FAULT SILENCE & SYSTEM
3.4.2 False alarm
False alarms can be a major hazard to any fire alarm .
the system. It is important that any alarm from th since they lead to a loss of confidence in
proved to be false, rather than being treated as f e treated as an alarm of fire until it can be
been found to be false, the following immediate a un proven to be a fire. Where an alarm has
a person to whom he has delegated this duty: c Ions s ould be taken by the responsible person or
(a) Where possible, identify the particular dete t ..
detectors having individual indicators are in call pOln! which has initiated the alarm. If
and hence it is important that the detect ' nyindications Will be cancelled by resetting
ors are examined before the system is reset. '
(b) Where possible, establish the cause of the fal I . .
the alarm would have been lost in the ope r se a arm: It IS pOSSible that the actual cause of
record should be kept of any events or resulling from the alarm. Where this is so a
alarm. IVI les near the detector immediately prior to the
47
CP 10: 2005
It is the responsibility of the owner of the rotected bG; .
measures to prevent activation of the def t Idlng to prevent false alarms, by taking adequate
cooking, exhaust fumes, etc. ec caused by cutting, weiding, sawing, smoking, heating,
It is the responsibility of the owner of the rotected .. .
accordance with the requirements in this to ensure that the Installation is tested in
reqUired by the relevant authority. The tests should be with any additional tes!s which may be
responsible for the maintenance of the installati d 11 nducted by the owner or his representative
log record as prescribed in 2 2 11 and k on
l
adn a results of the tests should be entered in the
appropriate. . . ac nowe ged by the owner and/or his representative as
It is important to ensure that regular testin and . . .
The occupants of the premises should begn rfi operations do not result in a false alarm
sounders being operated. 0 I le 0 any test of the system that may result in
3.4.3.2 Daily check
A check should be made every day to ascert i 'f .
should be recorded and steps taken 't the system IS operating normally. Fault(s) detected
y 0 ensure that the fault(s) is rectified.

To ensure continuous reliability of the system, the owner or owner's representative should establish an
agreement to carry out regular maintenance of the installation with the manufacturer or manufacturer's
representative or a competent contractor. The arrangements for maintenance should be such as will
ensure that a qualified person is available on call at all times to provide service in the event of any fault
that developS at the installation. The name and telephone number of the servicing organisation should
be prominently displayed at the control and indicating equipment. Where a service contract cannot be
arranged, the owner or owner's representative with suitable experience of fire alarm system and
special training with the manufacturers, suppliers or contractors should carry out simple servicing.
However, he should be instructed not to attempt to exceed the scope of such training.
3.4.1 General
operation and maintenance manuals and "as installed" drawings of the complete installation including
a single-line diagram of the system, the fire alarm panel layout and the positions of the detectors and
alarm zones should be provided to the user before a final inspection is made.
3.2 Operation and maintenance manuals and "as installed" drawings
The mains feed to the power supply equipment of the fire alarm system shall be segregated from the
wiring of all other services and also from all other circuits of the fire alarm system.
The wiring of the fire alarm system shall be kept separate and distinct from the wiring of any other
services. Except in common duct or trunking as provided for in 3.1.2, fire alarm wiring shall be spaced
at least 50 mm away from the wiring of any other service. Where crossings are unavoidable, however,
a bridge of suitable non-combustible insulating material at least 6 mm thick shall be securely fitted at
the crossing. In no case shall the fire alarm equipment or connections be mounted in or on boxes,
cover plates or blocks carrying accessories of connections of any other service unless effectively
separated by means of strong and rigidly fixed covering or partitions.
3.1.7 Separation from other systems
Provision shall be made to prevent contact between live parts (including terminals) and the ceiling on
which the detector is mounted. The loop-in system of wiring shall be observed throughout.
3.3 Symbols
3.1.6 Mounting of detectors
Symbols as shown in Annex B shall be used on all drawings relevant to the fire alarm systems.
3.4 Maintenance
46
Joints and terminations shall only be made in a suitable terminal box.
A loop-in system of wiring shall be used for parallel connected detectors, call points and sounders etc;
each incoming and outgoing conductor of the same potential shall be connected to the appropriate
terminal provided.
3.1.5 Joints and terminations
3.1.4 Protection against electromagnetic interference
In order to minimise equipment damage and false alarms, equipment (including cabling) should not be
sited in places likely to have high levels of electromagnetic interference. Adequate electromagnetic
protection should be provided if such an arrangement could not be achieved.
CP 10: 2005
CP 10: 2005
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Visually inspect the condition of components, terminations and cables.
Ensure that faUlty parts are satisfactorily replaced and recorded. Enter in the log record any
fault(s) that requires repair.
Check that all switches are returned to their operating positions after the test.
Enter the test results and follow-up actions, if any, in the log record.
CP 10: 2005
The maintenance personnel should arrange to check the operation of at least 20 percent of
the detectors In an Installalton each year. The selection of detectors to be tested should be
over as many zones as possible and should be made in such a way that all detectors
In an installation should have been checked at least once in 5 years.
The checking of the detectors should take the form of in situ testing to ensure it is operational.
Circuits connecting ancillary equipment which require automatic voltage regulated supplies
should be checked to ensure correct operation and voltage output.
Where the heat-sensitive element of thermal detectors or the enclosure of other detectors are
found to be coated with paint or any other material likely to affect the operation of the
detectors, such material should be cleaned off or if necessary, have the detector replaced.
The smoke shall be cleaned, tested or calibrated according to the manufacturer's
recommendation.
49
The owner shall appoint a competent person to supervise and coordinate all matters in relation to the
fire alarm systems. The person should be trained in operating the fire alarm system effectively.
When a is. annunciated on the fire alarm panels, fire or non-fire, the person should be capable
of analySing and interpreting the Signal correctly and taking appropriate actions.
In a false .alarm or other fault annunciation, the source of the false alarm or fault signal shall be made
available. In a log record. Recommendations to prevent recurrence of such events should also be
Included In the log record. .
The person shall. also be responsible for keeping all the log records on routine preventive
maintenance, repair and alteration works carried out on the systems.
.
(e)
3.5 Operations
(c)
(d)
(b)
(k)
(I)
(a)
(m)
The annual test should consist of all the inspection and testing procedures specified in 3.4.3.4 and the
follOWing:
(n) Enter the test results and follow-up actions, if any, in the log record.
3.4.3.5 Annual test
48
Check operation of all alarm sounders.
Check and confirm the battery monitoring function is operational.
Test the system under the failure of electrical suppiy to the fire alarm panel to confirm it is
operational (see 2.2.5 (e), 2.2.5(f), 2.3.3 and 2.3.4).
Simulate fire alarm conditions and check the output signals available to initiate the remote
auxiliary functions that is required to be in operation in the event of fire.
Check and ensure the fire alarm panels, zone charts and all necessary indicators, printer,
where applicable, are clean and in clearly visible condition.
Check to ensure that all indicating lights are operating correctly and replace if faulty.
Simulate fire and fault condition on all alarm zones to ensure it is operational. Confirm with
the monitoring station that the fire alarm and fault signals have been received.
Check charger voltage and charging current in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Check batteries and their terminals as specified by the manufacturer to ensure that they are in
good serviceable condition. Carry out measurement of the impedance of the battery.
Check condition of battery cabinet for corrosion and ensure that batteries are stored in a
secure condition.
Carry out a simulation & transmission of fire alarm and fault signals to the monitoring station
and confirm it is functioning correctly;
NOTE _ It will be necessary to contact the monitoring station prior to the of the simulated
fire alarm and fault signals to inform them of the test and alsoJo check with the station after
completion of the test to ensure the fire alarm and fault signals were received and to adVise them when
the system has been normalised.
(i)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(e)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(a)
3.4.3.4 Monthly test
In addition to the weekly test specified above, the following checking and testing procedures should be
carried out each month:
(b) Check the battery voltage and conditions;
(c) On completion of the test, take corrective action immediately on any abnormality or fault(s)
encountered within the system;
(d) Enter the test result(s) and follow-up actions, if any, in the log record.
(a)
The following tests and checks should be made every week:
3.4.3.3 Weekly test
If a fault is detected, the responsible person should ensure that the following actions are taken:
(a) Determine the area affected by the fault and decide whether special action (such as fire
patrols) are needed in that area;
(b) If possible, determine the cause of the fault, or note the activities immediately prior to the fault
in the area affected;
(c) Enter the fault in the log record, inform the organisation responsible for servicing and arrange
for repair.
CP 10: 2005
A.2.1 Choice of fire detectors
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Aesthetics (aspirating pipe work might be run in floor voids, with a capillary tube sampling air
from the space below via a small hole drilled in the ceiling);
Height of the space (the high sensitiVity of some aspirating systems, coupled with the
possibi!ity of running p!pe work vertically on walls and storage racks, can provide enhanced
protectIon compared with POint smoke detectors mounted at high level);
Temperature of the space (e.g. in cold stores, the detector can be located outside the space,
so that it is not directly exposed to low temperature).



In any automatic fire detection system, the detector has to discriminate between a fire and the normal
conditions existing within the building. The system chosen should have detectors that are suited to
these conditions and provide the earliest reliable warning. Each type of detector responds at a
different rate to different kinds of fire. With a slowly developing smouldering fire such as the initial
stages of a fire involving cardboard, a smoke detector would probably be activated first. A fire that
evolves heat rapidly and with very little smoke could activate a heat detector before a smoke detector.
With a flammable liquid fire, a flame detector could be activated first.
Aspirating smoke detection systems are also used, sometimes, to protect spaces in which point-type
smoke detectors would present difficulties on the basis of:
In general: smoke detectors give appreciably faster responses than heat detectors, but may be more
liable to give false alarms, so care must be taken in their selection and location. Where there are
productions or other processes that produce smoke, fumes, dust, etc., which might activate smoke
detectors, an appropriate type of fire detector should be used.
If detectors are installed for the protection of a room's occupants and have a direct effect on their
escape routes, smoke detectors should be used. If detectors are installed in order to give warning of
fire before it spreads to other areas of the building, then either smoke or heat detectors may be used.
Heat and smoke detectors rely on the transport of products from the fire to the detector by convection.
The plume above a fire is relatively narrow, and in general these detectors rely on the presence of a
ceiling (or other similar near-horizontal surface) to direct the products outwards from the plume to the
detectors. Heat and smoke detectors are therefore suitable for use in most buildings, but are
generally unsuitable for complete open-air applications.
'" (flame) detectors are particularly suited to outside applications, where there is no ceiling to
direct the products outwards. They are especially suited to risks in which smouldering is unlikely (such
as in liquid fuels). Flame detectors in bUildings"are mainly suitable for supplementing heat and smoke
detectms in high ceiling compartments, provided that an unobstructed view is possible, and for special
applications such as outdoor storage and chemical processes employing flammable liquids.
Aspirating smoke detection systems commonly incorporate a detector of much higher sensitivity than
point or optical beam smoke detectors. Such "high sensitivity aspirating detection systems" are often
used to protect critical electronic equipment rooms, in which even a very small fire can result in
unacceptable damage.
The fire behaviour of the contents of each part of the building, the processes taking place, and
the deSign of the bUilding should be considered. The susceptibility of the contents to heat, smoke, and
water damage should also be considered.
No type of detector is the most suitable for all applications and the final choice will depend on
Individual circumstances. In some premises, it may be useful to combine different types of detectors
to achieve the best results.
combustion gas (such as carbon monoxide)
infrared or ultraviolet radiation.
In some fire detection systems, a fire signal is initiated when the characteristic reaches a pre-
determined threshold. A signal may, instead or in addition, be initiated when the rate-of-change of the
characteristic is representative of a fire.
Explosive or flammable atmospheres require special suppression systems automatically actuated by
the detection system.
Premises where people sleep require different criteria for the selection of the detection and alarm
system from those for premises where occupants are continuousiy supervising the area.
In multi-sensor fire detectors, each detector contains more than one sensor and thus monitors more
than one of the characteristic fire phenomena (e.g. heat and smoke). By analysis of the signals
received from the sensors, potentiai response to phenomena other than fire can be reduced while still
providing an adequate response to fire.
A fire detection instaliation is intended to enable a fire to be detected at a sufficiently early stage so
that people who are at risk can be made safe either by escaping from the fire, or by the fire being
extinguished (also to prevent extensive property damage). Neither of these measures can be used
until people are made aware of the fire.
The effectiveness of the fire detection and alarm system depends on the stage of the fire at which it is
operated. In order for all the occupants to escape without too much difficulty, an early alarm should
operate before the escape routes becomes smoke-logged to such an extent as will cause occupants
to have difficulty finding their way out of the building.
50
Fire detectors are designed to detect one or more of the four characteristics of a fire, namely:
In the case of point detectors, the characteristic is detected at a defined point(s) within the protected
area. In contrast, "line" detectors are capable of detecting the characteristic along a defined line within
the protected space. In an "integrating line detector", the effect of the characteristic on the detector is
integrated along the line. In a "non-integrating line detector", this is not the case, and the detector
behaves, effectively, as though it comprises an infinite number of point detectors arranged along the
line.
Guidance for the selection of detectors
(Informative)
AnnexA
smoke
heat
A.2 General notes on detectors
These recommendations should be applied with due regard to the attributes of each type of detector
and its prime function for life safety and protection.
A.1 Introduction
CP 10 : 2005
52
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53
CP 10 : 2005
Heat detectors with rate-of-rise elements .
vary siowly, while fixed tem t are more sUitable Where ambient te
likely to fluctuate rapidly dedtectors are more suitable where the are low or
peno s. emperature IS
It must be appreciated that a rate-of-rise detector .
of t its fatster
protection of areas. ra e-o -nse and fixed-temperature is f pera ure.
. pre erred for general
Where enVironmental conditions of a b 'Id'
?wing to normally occurring ra id' UI Ing are not conducive to the use of rat _ _.
Installation of fixed-temperature In temperature, consideration nse detectors
are typical examples Where e e ec ors to reduce the incidence of false e given to the
furnaces, kitchens, cold-rooms variations can be expected' The follOWing
, ooms, and laundries. . rooms, above
A.4 Smoke detectors
A.4.1 General
There are two smoke sensing principles commonly used for smoke detectors as follows'
(a) Ionization chamber type Which t .
ch b opera es on the chang .
am er upon entry of smoke particles. e In current flOWing through an ionisation
(b) Optical type Which operates on th .
light beam. e scattenng or absorption of light by smoke rt· I .
pa Ices In a
There are single-point and multi oint
based on optical or ionisation that detect smoke at one or more positions and may be
Duct sampling units draw air from within the duct to p . t t
. . ._ OIn - ype smoke detectors.
MultrpOlnt aspirating smoke dete
pipe network. The sen . ctors sampleair from the protected area t
and/esponds
o

sensitivity I e design tools are commonly used to deterr::. air rom specific. locations as required.
. Ine correct holes size and sampling point
Optical beam sm k d
bea 0 e etectors are effectively Iin d t
detect thermal principl:s. Some
air. eam at turbulent Interfaces
Ionisation chamber smok
produced in clea . e detectors respond quickly to smoke . .
particles which fires, but may respond slOWly to small particles normally
produ: . e. by smouldering materials containing large
maIn y arge particles to which ionisation det t ma enals, e.g. PVC, when
Optical ec ors are less sensitive.
d smoke detectors respond . kl
etectors have SUfficiently wid qUlc y to smoke that is optically dense B th
e ranges of response for general use. . 0 optical and ionisation
A.4.2 Application
A4.2.1 General
Operation of all typ
chamber or r es of smoke detectors depends on co .
detectors Ight beam. Where SUfficient concentration' mbustlon entering the sensing-
hot fire .usually mounted on the ceiling response t!S operation IS obtained. Since the
heat, ther f nve th: combustion products up'to the ceil' Ime upon the nature of the fire. A
e ore the time for smoke to reach the detect In
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braPldlY. A smouldering fire produces little
or WI e Increased.
Ambient conditions such as heat, smoke or fiame from cooking or work processes, fumes
from engine exhaust, or high air velocities due to strong winds outside the building;
(b)
(g) The build-up of dust or dirt within a detector, or the entry of insects;
(f) Inadequate maintenance and servicing;
(e) Electrical transients or radio interference;
(d) Communication faults arising from servicing or testing work carried out without prior
notification to the alarm monitoring station;
A.3.1 General
(c) Work being carried out in a protected area without knowledge of, or in neglect of, the
necessary precautions;
(i) Accidental or malicious activation of manual call points or detectors;
A.3 Heat detectors
G> Changes of outdoor environmental conditions e.g. temperature, relative humidity.
(h) Change of use or changes within the building;
Heat detectors are in general, less sensitive than smoke detectors. They are unlikely to respond to
smouldering fires, and as a simple rule of thumb, wlll require the flames from the fire to reach about
one-third of the distance to the ceiling before they wlll operate. They are therefore not suitable for the
protection of places where unacceptable losses could be caused by small fires, e.g. in computer rooms.
There are two main forms of heat-sensitive detector. One is the "poinf' type of detector which is
affected by the hot gas layer immediately adjacent to it. The other is the "line" type of detector which is
sensitive to the heat effect produced along any portion of the detector line.
Point-type heat detectors are generally suitable for use in most buildings. Line-type heat detectors
may be particularly suitable for protecting items of plant or cabling. When used for these purposes,
the detector should be mounted as close as possible to the place where fire or overheating might
occur, and be either mounted above the risk or in contact with it.
Installations, detectors or detector locations having higher false alarm rates should be subject to
special investigation.
(a) Mechanical and electrical faults, often resulting from the effects of vibration, impact or
corrosion;
It is essential that utmost care should be taken by system designers, installers and users to reduce the
incidence of false alarms. Common cause of false alarms include the following:
A.2.2 False alarms
All fire detectors wlll respond to some extent to phenomena other than fire and therefore careful
choice of detectors and their location is essential.
For aspirating systems, specialist application guidance needs to be sought from the manufacturer.
The choice of fire detector may also be affected by the environmental conditions within the premises.
In general, heat detectors have greater resistance to adverse environmental conditions than other
types.
CP 10: 2005
CP 10 : 2005
The optical beam smoke detector will respond when the light path at the receiver is interrupted or
obscured. It is important therefore that the light path be kept clear of obstacles at all times.
Smoke detectors other than those incorporating thermal turbulence detectors do not detect fumes
from burning alcohol and other clean burning liquids which do not produce smoke particles. This is
not a serious disadvantage because a fire will normally involve other combustible materials at an early
stage. Combined optical beam smoke detectors and thermal turbulence detectors may be suitable for
such risk, but heat or flame detectors should also be considered.
Smoke detectors incorporating thermal turbulence detectors may be unsuitable for installation
immediately above ceiling-mounted blower heaters or industrial processes that produce appreciable
heat.
Multi-sensor detectors contain more than one sensor, each of which responds to a different physical
and/or chemical characteristic of fire. The purpose of combining sensors in this way is to enhance the
performance of the system in detection of fire, or its resistance to at least certain categories of false
alarm, or both.
The method (if any) of combining the signals from each sensor varies between different proprietary
multi-sensor fire detection systems. In some such systems, there is significant potential for reduction
of many types of false alarms.
Aspirating smoke detection systems are suitable for applications where a very high sensitivity is
desirable. They are also suitable for large areas where smoke detection is required at high and
normal sensitivity levels. However, where a large area is covered the precise location of the smoke
sensed cannot be determined.
A.4.2.2 Location considerations
Location of smoke detectors should result from an evaluation based upon engineering judgement or
field test. Ceiling shape and surfaces, ceiling height, configuration of contents, burning characteristics
and ventilation are some of the factors that must be considered.
CP 10 : 2005
For atria type constructions, smoke beams at several levels may be necessary because of
stratification (see A.4.2A). Natural or forced ventilation assists the smoke reaching detectors at high
ceiling levels (see AA.2.5).
A.4.2.4 Stratification
As mentioned in AA.2.3, smoke is driven upwards by the heat from the fire source.
Smoke released from slow burning or small fires may not be hot enough to penetrate the normally
heated air which collects at the ceiling. This is especially true in warehouses with metal roofs. During
the day, the air under the roof is heated by the sun and a thermal barrier exists which prevents the
warm combustion products from reaching the ceiling. The smoke will then stratify at a level which
prevents the warm combustion products from reaching the ceiling. The smoke will then stratify at a
level beneath the ceiling. Generally at night this condition will not exist. Proper protection may require
detectors at two levels; one group at the ceiling level and another at some distance below the ceiling.
A.4.2.5 Airflow
Smoke can be diluted by airflow caused by updraughts, open windows, forced ventilating systems or
air-conditioning systems.
It may be necessary to conduct air circulation observation tests in a room to ensure proper placement
of detectors.
For air-conditioned facilities and others where forced ventilation is present, it is good practice to take
advantage of air currents to transport smoke to a detector. However, in such situations, smoke
dilution and high airflow may cause the detector to respond slowly.
The effects of airflow on the detector and the movement of smoke where detectors are installed near
air ducts and in air-conditioned rooms may in some cases require repositioning of the detector.
A.4.2.6 Special environmental considerations
In extreme environments the selection of smoke detectors shouid be confined to those capable of
withstanding the environmental conditions.
A.4.2.3 Ceiling surfaces
As mentioned in A.4.2.2, the ceiling surface is one of the factors that must be considered before the
locations of smoke detectors are established.
Some typical ceiling surfaces where the use of smoke detectors should be evaluated are as follows:
The location of smoke detectors should be determined taking into consideration the special
environments where false activation or is likely.
Some typical environments where the use of smoke detectors should be carefully evaluated are as
follows:
(a) Smooth ceilings. Heated air and smoke usually rise. When they reach smooth ceilings, they
travel along the ceiling. As these products flow along the ceiling, their concentration
decreases as the distance from the source increases.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Areas where gases may be present from exhausts and normal manufacturing processes;
In kitchens, bathrooms, and other areas subject to cooking fumes and vapours;
Near openings, such as doors, windows, or other inlets, where the introduction of outside
industrial gases or products of combustion may be possible;
(c)
(b) Other ceilings. Where deep beams or other obstructions form pockets in the ceiling, the
products collect in the pocket and, if sufficient products are being generated, will eventually
"spill over" into adjacent pockets.
Sawtooth, sloping, open joist, beam construction, or other shaped ceilings must receive
special consideration as smoke usually travels in a longitudinal direction at the highest point.
High ceilings. As smoke rises from a fire, it to spread in form of an
inverted cone. Therefore the concentration within the cone vanes approximately Inversely as
the square of the distance from the source.
In high ceilings, such as high rack storage warehouses, it may be necessary to install de!ectors at
more than one level to take advantage of the higher concentrations near the floor to provide faster
response.
54
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
In areas where the detector is subject to movement and excessive vibration, in particular
where beam detectors are used;
In dusty areas or in areas where particulate matter, such as aerosols, could enter the detector;
Areas where high concentrations of tobacco smoke are expected;
In areas where steam or condensation vapour is expected;
In the vicinity of certain materials, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which during smouldering
produce mainly large particles to which optical detectors are more responsive.
55
CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005
A.5 Flame detectors A.5.4 Field of view considerations
A.5.1 Flame characteristics
Flames from most fire sources emit electromagnetic radiation which includes an ultraviolet
component, visible light, and infrared radiation in various intensities characteristic of each particular
source. Flames from sources such as petrol and oil tend to generate greater quantities of infrared
radiation, whereas gas flames and solvents such as methylated spirits have a much higher ultraviolet
component. Other sources, particulariy sunlight and building lighting, generate radiation in the same
parts of the spectrum and therefore flame detectors must be selected to discriminate flame from other
radiation sources.
A.5.2 Detector characteristics
Flame (radiation) detectors are sensitive to radiation that travels from the fire to the detector in
negligible time irrespective of distance. They may be of the ultraviolet or infrared type and respond
when the radiant energy in their respective sensing band exceeds a preset threshold. The amount of
radiation received by the detector will be reduced, and the response time of the detector may be
increased, with increased distance from the fire. A clear line of sight to the protected area is desirable,
although reflected radiation, e.g. by mirrors, may actuate a detector with reduced sensitivity.
The distance from the seat of the fire to the detectors influences radiation intensity. The intensity of
the radiation striking the detector decreases by the square of the distance from the seat of the fire.
This means that if this distance is doubled, the intensity of the fire must be four times greater in order
to activate an alarm.
Flame detectors are essentially "line of sighf' devices which can sense the presence of flames in a set
field of view. This field is generally described (see Figure A1) by the cone of vision angle and the
maximum perpendicular sensitivity in metres, although other considerations are important.
Where a flame detector is placed at a fixed height above the floor, then a protected area, within which
a particular fire size will be detected, can be determined from the manufacturer's data (see Figure A2).
The aim of designers should be to provide full coverage of the area to be protected with maximum
multiple coverage to account for obstructions in the line of sight of some detectors
Figure A3 shows a typical layout of four flame detectors protecting an aircraft hangar with multiple
coverage.
A.5.5 Spurious alarms
There are a number of sources of radiation which occur in installations for which some measures of
protection must be taken to prevent spurious alarms.
For ultraviolet flame detectors, potential sources of spurious alarm include the following:
(a) Lightning, electric arcs;
(b) Cutting and welding operations;
In order to discriminate flames from other sources, many infrared flame detectors operate on the
"fiicker principle" Le. they have a filter which only allows them to respond to radiation pulsing around a
central frequency of 5 Hz to 15 Hz which is characteristic of many types of flames.
(c)
(d)
Ultraviolet lamps;
Quartz halogen lamps.
Ultraviolet flame detectors mostly discriminate flames from sunlight by sensing only radiation at
wavelengths between 185 nm and 270 nm which is outside the solar spectrum.
A.5.3 Selection
Flame detectors should be chosen for applications where there is the likelihood of rapid flame
development so that an alarm can be raised before products of combustion or heat would have
reached smoke detectors or heat detectors. Combinations UV/IR, IRlIR and IR
3
detectors can be
used to reduce or eliminate the potential for spurious alarms in applications where UV or IR detectors
may experience problems.
The choice of infrared or ultraviolet detectors or some combination will depend on the typical radiation
from the expected fire hazard and the presence of false alarm sources in the vicinity. For example in
aircraft maintenance hangars where aviation kerosene is a strong infrared source and welding,
lightning and non-destructive inspection, are potential ultraviolet spurious alarm sources, infrared
detectors would be appropriate. However, if potential infrared spurious alarm sources such as high
frequency radio transmission equipment and running aircraft auxiliary power units are present in the
hanger, then a combination of UVIIR detector would be more appropriate. Similarly, for a store
containing solvents which burn cleanly, with a low infrared radiation component, and which is lit by
incandescent lamps (good infrared source), ultraviolet detectors should be selected. The environment
in which the detector is to be installed would also influence the choice, e.g. contamination of lenses.
Other typical applications of flame detectors are storage tanks and pipework containing flammable
liquids, chemical processes, and large open warehouses.
56
Where ultraviolet detectors must be used in these environments, appropriate shielding must be fitted
to prevent the non-flame ultraviolet radiation falling on the detector or combination UVIIR detectors
may be considered. -'
For infrared flame detectors, potential sources of alarm include the following:
(a) Very hot objects;
(b) Ovens/furnaces;
(c) Sunlight;
(d) Incandescent lamps.
Most infrared flame .detect?rs use the fiicker principle and/or narrow band optical filter to guard against
these sources, but, If rotation of a fan or motor or rippling on a liqUid surface causes radiation from the
source to flicker at the same frequency as a flame, a spurious alarm may occur.
Some flame detectors are fitted with a time delay to eliminate the effects of short-term transient
signals. where detectors are. to actuate extinguishing or high-speed suppression
systems, these time delays should be eliminated or reduced considerably. An alternative is to use
dual sensor operation whereby both sensors must detect the presence of flames before the
suppression system is activated.
57
CP 10 : 2005
Field of view
Distance
1
I
i
I
Maximum perpendicular
sensitivity (metres)
CP 10 : 2005
Annex B
Fire alarm symbols
The following symbols are those which are in common use to indicate on drawings the various items
of equipment:
I SAP I
I MAP I
I RP I
Sub alarm panel
Main alarm panel
Repeater panel
et
Heat detector in concealed

Heat detector in ceiling or roof spaces
(Note 1)
Heat detector (exposed or surface
mounted) (Note 1)
Angle +90·
of vision
_90·
Flame detector
Figure A1 - Typical field of view of flame detector
Smoke detector (exposed or surface
mounted) (Note 2) @
Mimic panel
Figure A2 - Typical floor area protected by one flame detector
/
/
Flame Detector
Cone of vision
Detector aiming point
--""<,.-----Horizontal
field of view
Smoke detector in ceiling or roof
spaces (Note 2)
Smoke detector in concealed under-
fioor spaces (Note 2)
Smoke detector with sampling device
(Note 2)
Remote visual indicator
Smoke detector (beam-type)
Flame detector (Note 3)
@B
Manual call point
Batteries
/Fire alarm bell
Electromagnetic door
holder
Pressure switch
Flow switch
o
I BAT I
PS I
FS I
NOTE 1 - If other than Type A, indicate Type S, C, D or E.
NOTE 2 - Indicate Type of Smoke detector, e.g. I =Ionization, P= Photo-electric I optical
NOTE 3 - Indicate Type of Flame detector, e.g. UV, IR, UV/IR.
-L-
Linear heat detector
EOl
End of line device
Smoke sampling system
(X= sampling point)
4 Detector coverage
1 Detector coverage
f-?JI 2 Detector coverage
ffi]ill 3 Detector coverage
Detector
Figure A3 - Multiple coverage provided by four flame detectors
58
59
CP 10 : 2005
CP 10: 2005
Annex C
Weekly/monthly/annual test report
61
• Delete if not applicable
+ Tick if satisfactory; put '>c' if unsatisfactory and give explanation under the remarks space.
TIME: _
DATE: _
Tester's Name _
I HEREBY CERTIFY THAT THE ABOVE TESTS
HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT
Signatute, _
Signature, _
Owner's Name, _
OWNER : _
LOCATION : _
TYPE OF TEST : WEEKLY/MONTHLY/ANNUAL'
REMARKS: _
ALARM ZONE NUMBER
THERMAL ALARM TEST
FAULT TEST
ISOLATION
SMOKE ALARM TEST
DEVICES+ FAULT TEST
ISOLATION
FLAME ALARM TEST
FAULT TEST
ISOLATION
MANUAL ALARM TEST
CALL
FAULT TEST
POINT
ISOLATION
OPERATIVE NON- REMARKS
OPERATIVE
POWER SUPPLY+
MAIN SUPPLY
CHARGER
BATTERY
ALARM MONITORING ALARM TEST
STATION
FAULT TEST .
ALARMS+ AND ALARM SOUNDER
ANCILLARY
ANCILLARY CONTROLS
60
Daily log - Records for automatic fire alarm installations
en
.J
et
E
~
0
W
W ....
.... W
et.J
o ~
0
U
Z
0
i=
u
et
ll-
:::l
;:
0
.J
.J
0
"-
en
.J
et
i=
~
en
- :.:::
a:
et
:;;
W
a:
"-
0
z
oen
- ....
.... z
5!:w
a:>
U
W
en
w
0
<.9
z
Cl
W
.J
:;;
::::>
i=
CO
u..
(/)
0
(/)
w
w
w 0::: ....
:2 Cl et
« Cl 0
z «
I
I
I
CP 10: 2005
Annex D
CP 10 : 2005
Standards referred to:
Components of a fire alarm system
~ C
A
Fire Alarm Signal
E
-
F
B Fault Signal
I--
0
' [ ~ ' [ ~ J
....................
I
I
-
Key
A Fire detector(s);
B Control and indicating equipment;
C Fire alarm device(s);
D Manual call point(s);
E Fire service signalling transmitter;
F Alarm monitoring station;
G Control for automatic fire protection equipment;
H Automatic fire protection equipment;
I Power supply equipment.
NOTE 1. Items G and H may need to be provided with a separate power supply.
NOTE 2. The lines linking the various components indicate information flows, and not physical
interconnections.
NOTE 3. The dotted line that link items Gand H mean that these two items are optional features, which will be
included into the system having an automatic fire-extinguishing installation.
Figure D1 - The components of a typical fire alarm system
62
IEC 60227-4: 1997
CP 5: 1998
CP 13: 1999
CP 25: 1999
SS 249; 1981
SS299:-
SS358:-
SS504;-
Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450
/750 V
Part 4 ; Sheathed cables for fixed wiring
Code of practice for electrical installations
Code of practice for mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings
Code of practice for emergency voice communication system In buildings
Specification for steel surface cable trunking and accessories
Specification for fire resistance cables
Part 1 : 1998 Performance requirements for cables required to maintain
circuit integrity under fire conditions
Specification for polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to
and including 450 / 750 V
Part 1 : 1996 General requirements
Part 2 : 1998 Test methods
Part 3 : 1996 Non-sheathed cables for fixed Wiring
Part 5 : 1998 Flexible cables (cords)
Specification for conduit systems for cable management
Part 21 : 2003 Particular requirements for rigid conduit systems
63
CP 10: 2005
STANDARDS, PRODUCTIVITY AND INNOVATION BOARD (SPRING SINGAPORE)
SPRiNG's mission is to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises for a vibrant Singapore economy.
We work to nurture a pro-business environment that encourages enterprise formation and growth,
facilitate the growth of industries, enhance productivity & innovation and capabilities of enterprises,
and heip increase access to markets and business opportunities. Our vision is to nurture a host of
dynamic and innovative Singapore enterprises.
Strategic Thrust 1: Nurture a pro-business environment that encourages enterprise formation
and growth
SPRING takes on the role of a steward to nurture a pro-business environment. In this role, SPRING
helps to ensure that there is a conducive environment for enterprises to form, compete and grow.
SPRING promotes the review and removal of rules and regulations that stifle enterprises. It also
facilitates enterprise access to key factor inputs like iand, labour, technoiogy and finance.
Strategic Thrust 2: Facilitate the growth of industries
SPRING adopts an integrated ciuster deveiopment approach in enhancing the vibrancy and
competitiveness of selected industries.
Strategic Thrust 3: Enhance productivity & innovation and capabilities of enterprises
SPRING helps enterprises to enhance their productivity & innovation and capabilities. These include
eqUipping enterprises with capabilities to upgrade their know-how, and creating conditions that
encourage a productivity & innovation and service focus in enterprises. Focused assistance wili be
provided for promising enterprises.
Strategic Thrust 4: Increase access to markets and business opportunities
SPRING helps enterprises gain access to markets by reducing technical barriers to trade, providing
quality assurance for Singapore products/services and linking local enterprises to business
opportunities, both locally and overseas.
SPRING Singapore
2 Bukit Merah Central
Singapore 159835
Tel: 6278 6666
Fax: 6278 6667
E-mail: queries@spring.gov.sg
Website: http://www.spring.gov.sg
ABOUT THE NATIONAL STANDARDISATION PROGRAMME
SPRING is also the national standards body in Singapore. Under the national standardisation
programme, SPRING Singapore helps companies and industry to meet international standards and
conformity requirements by creating awareness of the importance of standardisation to enhance
competitiveness and improve productivity, co-ordinating the development and use of Singapore
Standards and setting up an information infrastructure to educate companies and industry on the
latest developments.
SPRING Singapore is vested with the authority to appoint a Standards Council to advise on the
preparation, publication and promulgation of Singapore Standards and Technical References and
their implementation.
64
CP 10: 2005
Singapore Standards are in the form of specifications for materials and products, codes of practice,
methods of test, nomenclature, services, etc. The respective standards committee wili draw up the
standards before seekmg final approval from the Standards Council. To ensure adequate
representation of all viewpoints in the preparation of Singapore Standards, all committees appointed
consist of representatives from various interest groups which include government agencies,
professional bodies, tertiary institutions and consumer, trade and manufacturing organisations.
Technical. are iransition developed to heip meet urgent industry demand for
specifications or requirements on a particular product, process or service in an area where there is an
absence of reference standards. Unlike Singapore Standards, they are issued for comments over a
period of two years before assessment on their suitability for approval as Singapore Standards. All
are considered when a technical reference is reviewed at the end of two years to
determine the feasibility of its transition to a Singapore Standard. Technical References can therefore
become Singapore Standards after two years, continue as Technical References for further
comments or be withdrawn.
In the international arena, SPRING Singapore represents Singapore in the International Organisation
of Standardisation (ISO), the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) Sub-committee for
Standards and Conformance (SCSC) and in the ASEAN Consultative Committee on Standards and
Quality (ACCSQ). The Singapore National Committee of the International Electrotechnical
Commission which is supported by SPRING Singapore, represents Singapore in the IEC.
65
...
'.
-' ~ -
i
I
I
--- ----

SINGAPORE STANDARD

CP 10 : 2005
(ICS 13.220.20; 13.320)

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR

Installation and servicing of electrical fire alarm systems

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this Singapore Standard may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilming, without permission in writing from the SPRING Singapore at the address below:
Head Standardisation Department SPRING Singapore 2 Bukit Merah Central Singapore 159835 Telephone: 62786666 Telefax: 62786667 Email: stn@spring.gov.sg

ISBN 981-4154-01-6

CP 10: 2005
This Singapore Standard was approved by the Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee on behalf of the Standards Council of Singapore on 22 March 2005. First published, 1980 First revision, 1993 Second revision, 2005 The Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee appointed by the Standards Council consists of the following members: Name Chairman Deputy Chairman Secretary Members Mr Renny Yea Ah Kiang Mr Lim Say Leong Mr Ong Chih Hsing Assoc Prof Chan Tat Wai Mr Chong Weng Hoe Mr Chua Kok Yong Mr Ho Fui Chan Er. Adeline Koh Assoc Prof Koh Liang Mong Mr Peter Leong Prof Liew Ah Choy Mr Kenneth Liu Mr Ng Kim Leong Mr Ng Kin Ming Mr Michael Ong Er. Ong Ser Huan Mr K Seshadri Mr Sim Wee Meng Mr Tan Boon Chong Mr Tan Hak Khoon Mr Jimi Wong Yick Chee Prof Yeo Tat Soon Co-opted Member Er. Ng Eng Kiong Capacity Chairman Deputy Chairman Secretary Members

CP 10 : 2005
The Technical Committee on Emergency Alarm and Communication Systems appointed by the Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee and responsible for the preparation of this standard consists of representatives from the following organisations: Name Mr Kenneth Liu Capacity

Member, Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee Singapore Manufacturers' Federation SPRING Singapore Housing & Development Board Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore Institution of Engineers Singapore Singapore Electrical Trades Association Singapore Civil Defence Force Land Transport Authority PSB Corporation Pte Lld Fire Safety Managers' Association (Singapore) PSB Corporation Pte Lld

Mr David Goh King Siang Mr Ong Chih Hsing Mr Chan Gabin Mr Foo Chee Yan Mr Loke Yee Weng Mr Low Kim Seong Cpt Md Nizam Agil Mr Sng Chun Hui Mr George Tan Hai Ping MrJohn Wu Mr Yee Cheong In

Member, Standards Council Member, Standards Council SPRING Singapore Nanyang Technological University PSB Corporation pte Lld SP PowerGrid Lld Housing & Development Board Association of ConSUlting Engineers Singapore Nanyang Technological University Singapore International Chamber of Commerce National University of Singapore Association of ConSUlting Engineers Singapor~ Institution of Engineers Singapore Singapore Electrical Contractors and Licensed Electrical Workers Association SPRING Singapore Institution of Engineers Singapore Singapore Manufacturers' Federation Land Transport Authority Singapore Manufacturers' Federation Energy Market Authority Singapore Electrical Trades Association National University of Singapore Individual Capacity

The Working Group appointed by the Technical Committee to assist in the preparation of this standard comprises the following experts who contribute in their individual capacity: Convenor Members Mr David Goh King Siang Mr Benjamin Gan Mr Eddie Lai Mr Kenneth Liu Mr Loke Yee Weng Cpt Md Nizam Agil Mr Ong Chew Seng Mr George Tan Hai Ping

The experts of the Working Group are nominatedlrecommended by the following organisations:

Celtec Systems pte Lld Donnelley Simpson G.leary & Oehlers GIB Automation Pte Lld Loke & Associates Patent Engineering Co Pte Lld PSB Corporation Pte Lld Singapore Civil Defence Force Vision Fire and Security

2

3

7 2.4 2.17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 4 5 .3 2.Scope and general requirements 1.2.2 1.5 2.3.1 1.1 2.4 Scope Application Definitions General requirements Areas to be protected Locations where protection is not required Alarm zone limitation Connection to alarm monitoring station ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 10 10 12 12 14 15 16 Section Two .2 1.3.4 2.3 1.1 2.11 2.4.3.4 1.2 (blank page) System components and equipment General Compatibility Special environment BUilding management system Design process for limitation of false alarms --.3.12 2.2.3.2.10 2.Design considerations 2.4.4.1 2.1.1 2.1 2.8 2.2.3 2.3 2.2.4.4.1.5 2.Alarm panel Main/sub alarm panel Zone chart/mimic panel Location ~ Alarm zone facilities Precaution against failure Visible indication for alarm panels Other indications during the fire alarm condition Identification and marking of indicators Signals to fire service signalling transmitter Fire alarm panel cabinet Records Program controlled fire alarm system Power supply Operating voltage Form of supply Batterycharger Battery capacity Battery location Connection of additional equipment When permitted Connection requirements _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 17 17 .3 1.1.2 2.2.6 2.4 2.2.2.2.2.4.1.2 2.2.GP 10 : 2005 GP 10: 2005 Contents Page Foreword _ 8 CLAUSES Section One .4 2.9 2.1.2 2.1 1.2.3 2.2 2.5 2.

5.Flat ceilings _ Heat detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and sloping roof .Flat ceilings _ Point-type smoke detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and sloping roof _ Typical beam-type smoke detector iocations for sloping surfaces Design criteria for point-type and beam-type smoke detectors located at apex of ceiling or roof Smoke detector locations Design criteria for pOint-type smoke de\.5.1.1.5.7 2.9.10 2.5.2 3.11 2.5.4.Records for automatic fire alarm installations Components of a fire alarm system _ _ _ _ 50 59 60 62 _ _ _ General --::-~:------------------------Manual call point _ Special environment _ Operation _ _ Supervision Location _ Alarm zone _ Heat detection systems _ _ General Detectors --:-:_--::-_~:---------------------Spacing and location of detectors _ Smoke detection systems _ General _ Detectors ---:-:---::-_-:Spacing and location of detectors Flame detection systems General _:-_-::-:-::Stability and sensitivity Spacing and location of detectors Fixing of detectors Detector lenses .1.9 2.5 2.5. Outdoor applications _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ FIGURES 1 2 3 Typical heat detector spacing .8 2.7.2 2.ectors in structures with deep beams Typical field of view of flame detector Typical floor area protected by 9ne flame detector MUltiple coverage provided by four flame detectors The components of a typical fire alarm system _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 31 32 33 38 39 40 4 5 6 7 8 9 A1 44 44 A2 A3 D1 41 43 43.4 2.4.1 3.1 2.3 2.5 3.CP 10: 2005 Page 2.7 2.6 3.Installation and maintenance 3.9.1 3.1 2.5 Maintenance General False alarm ----------------------_ _ _ _ 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 '29 29 35 35 35 35 Regular testing and inspection Operations 46 46 47 47 49 ANNEXES A B C D Guidance for the selection of detectors (Informative) Fire alarm symbols Daily log .4 2.4 3.3 3.2 Installation General --:--:--:Cables and wiring :Conductor sizing --:Protection against electromagnetic interference Joints and terminations Mounting of detectors _-:Separation from other systems Operation and maintenance manuals and "as installed" drawings Symbols _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 45 45 45 45 3.1.8.1.8.6 2.Design criteria for point-type heat detectors _ Typical smoke detector spacing .5.5.4 2.5 2.6..9 2.8 2.2 2.1.3 2.6..3 2.1 2.4.3 46 46 46 46 46 46 6 7 .1 3.4 3.6.9.5.9.7.8.2 2. 58 58 58 62 44 44 44 44 44 Section Three .7.2 2.3 3.5.3 2.1.6 2.6.6 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.6.1 2.7 3.5.5 2.6.6 Audible and visual alarms General Audible alarm sounders Audibility of general alarms Code signalling ~ Restricted alarms Multi-stage alarm Visual alarm signal -::Fire alarm sounder silencing Fire alarm buzzer silencing Fault buzzer silencing _-:-:-:-:=:Alarm verification feature (AVF) Manual call points _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CP 10 : 2005 Page 3.2 3..9.6.9.2 2.7 2.

8.2.1. SPRING Singapore shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all of such patent rights.2.Part 2 indicating equipment Control and BS EN 54-2 : 1998 In particular. New requirements for the aiarm verification feature (AVF) have been added (2.2). installation.6. Optical beam line-type smoke detector and aspirating smoke detection systems. Compliance with a Singapore Standard does not exempt users from legal obligations. 3.2.2. c) d) e) f) g) h) In the preparation of the standard. The requirements for spacing between detectors have been updated to be in line with AS 1670.Part 1 : Code of practice for system design.2. commissioning and maintenance Fire detection and fire alarm systems . in line with new technology (1.1 : 1995 BS 5839-1 : 2002 Automatic fire detection and alarm systems . The principal changes made in this revision are as follows: a) b) The requirements for locations where fire protection is not required have been updated (1. reference was made to the following standards: AS 1670. New features and requirements for main/sub alarm panels and repeater panel have been included. 2.8).2).4.18. The previous edition of CP 10 was based on AS 1670: 1986 (2.System design. The Code provides recommendations for the installation and servicing of fire alarm systems in buildings.2). installation. and commissioning Fire detection and fire alarm systems for buildings .5.1 : 1995. eXisting requirements were reviewed and revised to bring the Code in line with the latest fire alarm concept and technology.CP 10: 2005 i' . In this revision.4. CP 10 : 2005 Acknowledgement is made to Standards Australia and British Standards Institute for the use of the information in the above standards. 8 9 . 2.1. as advised by the regulatory authority (2.3.2). Singapore Standards are subject to periodic review to keep abreast of technological changes and new technical developments. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this Singapore Standard may be the SUbject of patent rights.2 and 2. The design requirement for beam-type smoke detectors is provided (2.7. Foreword This Singapore Standard is a revision of CP 10 : 1993 and was prepared by the Technical Committee on Emergency Alarm and Communication Systems under the purview of the Electrical and Electronic Standards Committee.8.3.5.1 : 1995: a) b) The spacing..2.4. the follOWing requirements have been based on the AS 1670. location and mounting of heat.2.2.5.8 and 3. The revisions of Singapore Standards are announced through the issue of either amendment slips or revised editions.2).1.5. A new requirement for permitted extension of zones extending beyond a single fire compartment has been added (1. Guidelines on the design process and maintenance of the fire alarm system and the selection of detectors to limit false alarms are provided (2. The requirements for zone chart/mimic panei have been included.8).1.7 and 2. smoke and flame detectors.2.2.11).3.3.2.2 and A. NOTE 1.

3.3. call point and/or activating device are individually identified at the control panel.3.Scope and general requirements A narrow enclosed thoroughfare (other than a lift lobby. heat detectors.2 Alarm indicator A device which by visual means indicates the zone and/or compartment from which an alarm has originated.3.9 1. whether between conductors or to Earth.15 Manual call point Component of a fire detection and alarm system which is used for the manual initiation of an alarm. 1.5 Control and indicating equipment (CIE) 1.1 Addressable system A device to transmit signals to an approved monitoring station.6 m wide and not used for trade or storage purposes.10 Fire compartment Parts of building separated by walls. with openings protected by approved devices. 1.3. 1.c. It covers alarm systems using manual call points. which is used to give a warning of fire.11 Fire detector A component of a fire detection system which contains at least one sensor which constantly monitors at least one suitable physical and/or chemical phenomenon associated with fire.3. compo~ent of a fire detection and fire alarm system which controls the receipt and transmission of Signals "':Ithln . Where an automatic fire detection and alarm system is ancillary to an automatic fire-extinguishing system and/or an engineered smoke control system. A system in which signals from each detector.1 Scope 1. 1.e installation a.13 Flat ceiling A ceiling having a slope not exceeding 1 in 20.the fire detection and alarm system or initiates other action. smoke stop lobby and fire fighting lobby) within a building not more than 3.3 Alarm zone A subdivision of the protected premises such that the detection of a fire within it will be indicated separately and independently from an indication of fire in any other subdivision.3. and with th. 1.14 Main alarm panel (MAP) A control and indicating equipment that controls the receipt and transmission of signals from the sub alarm panel (SAP) and all other alarm signals within the fire alarm system or initiates other actions and transmits such signals to the alarm monitoring station if required. 10 11 .nd maintenance requirements of Section 3.3. 1.3. having an approved fire-resistance rating.. 1. 1. or 120 V d. 1. not incorporated in the control and indicating equipment. A. 1.17 Protected area An area of a building eqUipped with an automatic fire detection and alarm system installed in accordance with this Code or an approved automatic fire suppression system.4. with the additional requirements of Section 2 according to the detector type. All installations of automatic fire detection and alarm systems shall comply with the general requirements of Clause 1.c.3 Definitions For the purpose of this Code the following definitions shall apply: 1.8 Fire alarm device Component of a fire alarm system.6 Corridor CP 10: 2005 Code of practice for installation and servicing of electrical fire alarm systems Section One . and provides indication of any warning Signals (alarm and fault) received.3.7 Extra low voltage Normally not exceeding 50 V a. the detection system shall comply with the appropriate requirements of this Code.4 Alarm zone facility Part of the control and indicating equipment which registers and indicates signals (alarm and fault) received from its alarm zone circuit.3. 1.6. smoke detectors and flame detectors.CP 10: 2005 1.3.3. 1.3.3. and that provides at least one corresponding signal to the control and indicating equipment. This Code of Practice applies to the installation and servicing of electrical fire alarm system in buildings. floors and ceilings. 1.3.16 Mimic panel A panel which repeats the alarm zone indication in a diagrammatic form. Manual call points installed In conjunction with an automatic fire detection and alarm system or as a separate system shall comply with the general installation requirements of Section 2 with the additional requirements of Clause 2.3.2 Application Fire alarm monitoring station A centre that monitors the fire detection and transmits the signals to the fire fighting authority for activation of the fire fighting measures.12 Fire service signalling transmitter / 1. 1.

5 m from a wall. except the following: (a) 1.2).3.1. detectors are not reqUired between ~ the wall and the opening.2 Clearances All alarm panels shall be located and mounted such that the indicators and controls are clearly visible and readily accessible for operation and maintenance purposes.18 Repeater panel A duplicate alarm panel for indication only.5 m from any fire door. Concealed spaces not more than 800 mm deep in roofs. Except in shop windows.5 m of each side of the opening and spaced not more than 7.3. NOTE .4. the access dimensions shall be not less than 450 mm x 350 mm.CP 10 : 2005 CP 10 : 2005 1. No goods or materials shall be placed within the area. 1.2 are exempted from this requirement.4. Where a fire door separates two protected areas.4.1.4.5 m horizontally distant from such openings.m of the equipment location. the colour of the manual call point must be red. (b) Concealed spaces to which there is no access and which do not contain electrical services and combustible materials. measured from the detector shall be maintained.4. apply in the lift lobby.3.3.3 Specific locations 1.21 Sounders An audible fire alarm device which is used to give a warning of fire. therefore.5 m of the lift door. All other staircases shall be protected at each main floor level.4.3. 1. Detectors installed in concealed spaces shall be provided with remote alarm indicators located in a position clearly visible from the occupied area. 2 2 1.4.3. 1. Where a room is divided into sections by walls. a label or zone chart should be provided to show the location of the detector(s).3. to a depth of 600 mm. 1.19 Shall Indicates a mandatory requirement. 1. Such detectors may be regarded as part of the general protection of the area.3 Staircases Approved fire-isolated staircases should not require protection.4.1. Where a concealed space less than 800 mm deep in roof or ceiling contains electrical equipment connected to the electricity supply mains and such equipment is not enclosed in a non-combustible container. The area covered by detectors that may be rendered out of operation due to any electrical 2 wiring fault shall not be more than 2000 m • Such fault(s) shall not affect detectors of other areas.22 Sub alarm panel (SAP) A control and indicating equipment that is located remotely from the main alarm panel and having either alarm zone facilities or indicators to show the location of the alarm and transmits such alarm signal to the main alarm panel. (b) Each room shall be separately protected. vertical risers and other such openings exceeding 0.1 General The following general consideration shall apply in determining the areas to be protecled: (a) Detectors and manual call points shall be installed throughout all parts of the building as required by the relevant authority and under Sections 1. a clear space of at least 300 mm radius.20 Should Indicates a recommendation.1. Concealed spaces below raised floor not more than 150 mm.1 Areas to be protected 1.1. If the opening is less than 0.As a form of good practice.1 Concealed spaces Protection and adequate access for maintenance requirements shall be provided in all concealed spaces.2 Vertical shafts and openings Hoists. Goods or materials shall not be piled so as to divide rooms into sections unless separate protection is provided for each such section. A fire-isolated lift hoistway with approved automatic self-closing fire-rated doors does not require a detector within 1. the equipment shall have a detector mounted in the concealed space not more than 1. Electrical wiring approved by the relevant authority does not require protection. Other colours may be used subject to the approval of the relevant authority. (c) (d) Where personnel entry to the concealed space is reqUired. it is advisable that all staircases should be protected at each main floor levei.5 m of the fire door. each section shall be separately protected.4. 1.5.1.4 General requirements The colour of all fire panels and bells shall be red. where the door separates the protected area from an unprotected area (see also 1.4 Near fire doors A detector shall be placed inside the protected area not more than 1. 1. a detector is not necessary within 1.1. not more than 1. lift hoistways. If necessary. 12 13 . 2 and 3.4. detectors shall be placed on the ceiling at each fioor level.3. 1. partitions or storage racks reaching within 300 mm of the ceiling (or of the soffits of the beams where there is no false ceiling).2 m apart around the perimeter of the opening.3.3. Concealed ceiling spaces not more than 800 mm deep. However. Any area Which contains a non-fire-isolated opening exceeding 9 m between storeys shall have one detector located on the ceiling within 1. (c) 1.1.Areas specified in 1.1 m in area between storeys shall be protected within the riser at tl)e top. Normal spacing of the detectors shall. Where such openings are not fire-isolated. NOTE .

5 Return air ducts Where smoke detection is required in the return air duct under SS CP 13. NOTE . 2 (iii) Detectors may be omitted from under open grid portions of the ceiling which have not less than twothird of the ceiling area open to the free flow of air and have detectors installed on the ceiling above the open grid.2 Locations where protection is not reqUired 1. normal protection shall be supplied to the solid portion of the open grid ceiling.2 Permitted extension Notwithstanding 1.4. vaults. Any non-recessed or free-standing switchboard or switchboard cubicle protected by the normal protection of the area in which it is contained. provided that the detectors are suitably rated for the system voltages and are compatible. (f) Where flame detectors are used they shall be installed both above and below the open grid ceiling. overhanging roof areas. sawtooth or gable ceilings or roofs (g) Where a structure has a monitor. 1. and the like constructed of material not deemed combustible.3.5 m and 1. (h) 1.1. (iv) Air locks.~ (a) Sanitary spaces: any water closet.4.7 to 2. sawtooth or gable ceiling or roof.1 Area limitation A separate aiarm zone shall be provided for each 2000 m of protected floor area.10 Other structures Additional protection should be provided where any special feature or condition calls for such protection. each room shall have a separate alarm zone facility or a suitably labelled and monitored indicating device installed outside the room.-.4. NOTE 2 Notwithstanding the foregoing requirements. provided its content is of minimal fire risk.3. The indication'shall latch on until the alarm zone facility is manually reset.1 and the total area covered does not exceed 2000 m .3.4. The number of detectors required for this area shall not exceed the number specified in Clauses 2. open-sided covered walkways and staircases (one-sided or more). balconies.4. Protected areas to which there is no access from inside the building shall have separate alarm zone facilities from those having access. Where any solid portion of the ceiling has a dimension in excess of 2 m and has an 2 area in excess of 5 m .5 m and opening off a protected area.9. 1. There shall be a separate alarm zone for each floor and each fire compartment. Concealed spaces as follows (see 1. Concealed ceiling spaces not more than 800 mm deep.15 m 2 . Concealed spaces below raised floor not more than 150 mm. such detection should be done via an air sampling device.1.3. which are less than 2 m in width and do not obstruct the free flow of air from reaching the detector(s) mounted above.3. or the like In a strongroom.' CP 10: 2005 1. Concealed spaces not more than 800 mm deep in roofs. mechanically ventilated cupboards.1.3 kitchen hoods.5 m from the apex measured horizontally (see Figures 3b and 7b). with a floor area of less than 2 3.1.3. hoods. 1.3. With an opening on the ceiling of less than 0. provided that air locks do not contain electrical equipment or are not used for the storage of goods or for access to cupboards.1): (i) Concealed spaces to which there is no access and which do not contain electrical services and combustible materials. a row of detectors shall be installed between 0. That have less than 4.1.3. shower-recess or bathroom.0 m2 area. (b) For intennixing of detector systems .1.4.-I CP 10: 2005 . walk-in type air handling plants and the like should be considered as requiring additional protection.Under loading platfonns. or the like. a floor area not exceeding 0. a recess height of not more than 800 mm and are not used for ventilation. Under all structures such as platforms.4. 2 (c) (d) 14 15 . 1.5 m and not used for ventilation. (i) Exhaust ducts: in ducts eXhausting from toilets. vertical service ducts. spray painting booths.4. 1. or rooms containing single ironing and laundry facilities. according to the type of detector fitted. and not used for the storage of goods or as a car park.4. prOVided that the total number of detectors does ~ot exceed the number specified in 1. Covered ways: verandas.3 m2 if housing electrical or communication equipment. . The rest of the ceiling or roof shall be protected in accordance with the general requirements of this Code. Installed in areas not requiring detection (such as sanitary spaces). colonnades. detectors are not required in the following locations: ~ :1 Si ~ .7 Monitor. not used as a washroom.6 Open grid (or egg crate) ceilings (e) Skylights.4.8 Tunnels Tunnels linking two or more buildings shall be protected unless the buildings are fire-isolated from the tunnel by approved means. extension of the area covered by one alarm group may be permitted under the follOWing circumstances: (a) Detectors protecting concealed spaces not exceeding 500 m area may be connected to the alarm zone below the concealed space.4.3. with opening on both sides into protected areas.intennixing of the various detectors on one alann zone circuit is pennitted. within a protected room or area. (iI) (iii) (iv) Any walk-in type enclosure which is less than 2 m high or having side extending to the ceiling and has: (i) (iI) a floor area not exceeding 1 m2 .1.3.. as follows: (i) (iI) With an opening on the ceiling of less than 0.4. vault.1.9 Strongrooms. 1.4.3. ducts and the like. Alarm zone limitation 1.

The new part of the system shall comply with the requirements of this Code.4. corrosion. Other systems should only be connected to the fire alarm system if their connection does not cause the performance of the system or any component to fail outside the limits specified by relevant parts of this Code. the fire alarm system shall be capable of operating independently at all times. The purpose of a fire alarm system is to detect fire at the earliest time and to give an alarm so that appropriate action can be taken. extreme temperature. 1. Be designed so that all connections are completely enclosed and not accessible to unauthorised persons. or both. the design and construction shall be such that the reliability of the system is not adversely affected by these conditions.. If the BMS is meant to provide surveillance as well as monitoring of the fire alarm system. It may be installed for the protection of life. The transmitting module may be housed within the main alarm panel.4. If other signals such as security alarm signals are to be transmitted through the same "leased-line" or "wireless system".4. An illustration of the components of a typical fire alarm system can be seen in Annex D.1 2. Fire alarm system fault/restored. The control and indicating equipment of a fire alarm system shall be contained within its own enclosure(s).Design considerations Where the work is an extension of an existing alarm system.2 Compatibility (d) All the individual components of a fire alarm system shall be compatible. Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur within 90 seconds of water flow at the alarm-initiating device when flow occurs that is equal to or greater than that from a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system.3.5 Box for transmitting equipment The transmitting equipment shall be housed in a tamper resistance box consistent with that of the main alarm panel. system test.4. This is particularly important if the components of an installation are made by different manufacturers. property. Where a zone extends beyond a single fire compartment.4.4 BUilding management system Where a Building Management System (BMS) is installed in a building. 1.3 Flow switches.1 Fire service signalling transmitter All transmitting equipment shall be approved by the relevant authority. 2. (c) (c) Such signals shall appear as indicators in the monitoring stations in both audio and visual forms. The transmitting equipment shall have at least the following features: (a) (b) (c) Transmission of signal via "leased-line" or "wireless system". All system equipment used shall be listed by institutions recognised by the relevant authority.1. Flow switches used shall incorporate time-delay devices to avoid false alarm due to water surges. the combined systems shall be thoroughly tested to ensure that all parts of the systems are compatible and that it will satisfactorily perform the required function.4.1. and suitable for use locally.3. Indications for status of phone line.4. It may be derived from the same power source of the main alarm panel. 2.3.2 Power supply The power supply requirement for transmitting equipment shall comply with the relevant requirement of Clause 2.4 Connection to alarm monitoring station 2. alarm and power supply.4.3. shall be individually connected under separate alarm zones on the fire alarm panel.4.4. the BMS shall not be used to replace in total or in part the fire alarm system specified in this Code. pressure switches and the like associated with fixed fire extinguishing systems that are used to initiate an alarm. the zone boundaries should be boundaries of fire compartments and the fioor area of the zone should not exceed 300 m2 • Fire extinguishing alarm initiating devices (b) CP 10: 2005 "Leased-line" or "wireless system" failure/restored.- CP 10 : 2005 (b) The mezzanine fioor may be connected to the same alarm zone as the main fioor.4 Connection to existing alarm systems Section Two . 1. Interfacing is permitted to provide data to the BUilding Management System.1 System components and equipment General 1. 1.1.1 and the total area covered does not exceed 2000 m2 . 16 17 . provided that the total number of detectors does not exceed the number specified in 1. 1. then the transmission of the fire alarm signals shall have an overriding priority over other non-fire alarm signals.1.3 Means of transmission "Leased-line" or ''wireless system" shall be the primary means of signal transmission with an automatic switch over to normal direct exchange telephone line upon failure of the "leased-line" or ''wireless system". Consideration shall be given for local ambient conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. Alternative transmission path via direct exchange telephone line which serves as back up.4. 1. In particular any equipment which is installed in places where fiammable or explosive gas or dust may be present shall comply with the appropriate Singapore Standard or any other standards accepted by the relevant authorities for the use in such hazardous environment.3 Special environment If any equipment is located in a position where it is exposed to dampness. 2. large fiuctuation of temperature or other special condition. 1.4.4.4 Signal transmission The following signals shall be transmitted to the monitoring station: (a) Fire alarmlfire alarm reset.4.

Fire alarm sounder silencing switch A switch to acknowledge that the fire alarm has been noted by the operator and to silence the fire alarm sounder (see 2.5. (k) (I) (m) (n) 2.2. System fault indication (Yellow) A generai visible indicator followed by a separate visible indicator for each fault covered in 2.5. The mimic diagram shall be installed in accordance with its floor or building orientation. A yellow visible indication shall be shown when the fire alarm sounder is being silenced.9). Indicator test facility A manual operation to energise all visible and audible indicators to detect any faulty ones.CP 10: 2005 2. Audible fault warning buzzer A buzzer to alert the operator that a fault is present in the system. with a view to confirming the design is such that the frequency of false alarms is likely to be acceptable.2. items (n) and (0) are not applicable. NOTE . Performance monitoring of newly commissioned systems. Where sub alarm panels are used. If necessary. The transmission of the signal shall be indicated by a red visible indicator. indicators shall be fixed on the diagram of the mimic panel to show its alarm location. Fault buzzer silencing switch A switch to silence the fault warning buzzer (see 2. protected staircase in that order of priority or at the main point of entry into the area covered by the alarm zone.2 2.1 (b) emitting indicator.2. Protection against electromagnetic interference. Regular servicing and maintenance. In principle. Evacuation switch A switch to energise all the alarm sounders so as to alert all personnel that a fire has been detected and to leave the premises immediately. Fault signal for remote monitoring A provision for the automatic transmission of fault signals to the fire service signalling transmitter (see 2. Selection and siting of automatic fire detectors.5 Design process for limitation offalse alarms CP 10 : 2005 (j) Fire alarm buzzer silencing switch A switch to silence only the fire alarm buzzer. a suitable notice should indicate its position. System energisation indication (Green) A visible indicator to show that the system is energised.2 Zone chart/mimic panel A zone chart shall be provided at each alarm panel location.2.4 Alarm zone facilities Each alarm zone shall be provided with the following facilities: (a) Alarm indication. where the main fire alarm panel is mounted in a remotely located control point acceptabie to the relevant authority. each sub alarm panel is to be provided with a single alarm zone facility at the main alarm panel. I:! . measures to limit false alarms may be divided into: Siting and selection of manual call points. Isolation indication (Yellow) A general visible indicator followed by a separate visible indicator for each zone.5.3 Location (e) (f) The main alarm panel shall be sited in the building fire command centre.1. Fire alarm signal for remote monitoring A provision for the automatic transmission of fire alarm signals to the fire service signalling transmitter (see 2. Alternatively.5.8). and may be the same as that used for fault warning. there should be formal consideration of the potential for false alarms. it should be sited ideally in a position clearly visible from the main entrance lobby.9). For fire alarm panel that uses only alphanumeric display to identify its alarm location. and shall remain until the fire alarm condition is reset. smoke stop lobby. to identify the source of the alarm location.Each general visible indication and system energisation indication shall be given via a separate Iight- !.5.1 I Alarm panel Main/sub alarm panel (0) I The main/sub alarm panel with the associated control and supervisory functions shall consists of the following: (a) Fire alarm indication (Red) A general visible indicator followed by a separate visible indicator for each zone. (i) 18 19 . At the design stage of every system. Fire alarm buzzer A buzzer to inform the operator that a fire alarm has been activated. / 2.2. Power supply monitoring facility A circuitry to monitor the condition of the system power supply. This output shall signal all faults specified in 2. Sub alarm panel shall be required in a large building or multi-building complex. For sub alarm panel. System reset facility A switch to reset the system to normal after the fault and/or alarm has been cleared. Where sub alarm panels are used. they shall be located at the fire lift lobby. (c) (d) 2.2. If a fire command centre is not available. a mimic or repeater panel should be installed in a position cleariy visible from the main entrance lobby.10).2. (g) (h) 2.9). System management. and may be the same as that used for silencing the fault warning buzzer (see 2.2. to show that the alarm zone has been isolated. A visible indication by means of a separate light-emitting indicator for each zone and/or an alphanumeric display for ease of identifying its alarm location.

(a) Information not related to the fire alarm condition shall be suppressed. If the indication is on an alphanumeric display. Open circuit in any cable of alarm zone circuit. Where. one of which is exclusively reserved for fire alarm indications. which affects the transmission of fault signals to the fire service signalling transmitter.2. (d). CPU fault in the case of a software-controlled fire alarm panel (see 2. independently of other indications. (i) 2.CPU fault visible indication shall be given by means of a separate light-emitting indicator. (d) (e) (f) (g) NOTE 1 . the location of the detectors should be permanently indicated on a separate panel. Short-circuit in any cable of alarm zone circuit. . (m) and (n): (a) (b) Removal of any detector from its circuit. within or adjacent to the main/sub alarm panel. the following shall apply: (i) The first zone in alarm shall be displayed in a field at the top of the display. If the indication is on an alphanumeric display. If the zonal indications are on an alphanumeric display. 2. Disconnection of a transmission path. Disconnection of call point from its circuit.7 other indications during the fire alarm condition / Ul (k) If the fire alarm indications are on an alphanumeric display. if different coiours are used it shall follow the relevant colour codes for fire alarm. Short-circuit of a transmission path. The arrangement of indicators shall be such that the operation of any indicator clearly shows the alarm zone location. or in another field. (c) Isolated condition. Isolation facility. (h) NOTE 2 . (c) Short-circuit of any leads to fire alarm devices (sounders) external to the fire alarm panel. which cannot simultaneously indicate all of the isolation due to its limited capacity. If the display is in the field where the first zone in alarm is displayed.2. which affects the transmission of fault signals to the fire service signalling transmitter. Upon isolation of an alarm zone. Only authorised personnel appointed by the building management shall have access to this function.2.5 Precaution against failure (b) Fault warning condition. which due to its limited capacity cannot simultaneously indicate all the zones in alarm.2. Suppressed indications shall be capable of being displayed. 2. (I). because of the size of the building and the location of the detectors. battery charging equipment and battery. A visible indication by means of a separate light-emitting indicator for each zone and/or an alphanumeric display for ease of identifying its isolated location. the facility shall Inhibit all subsequent fault and fire signals from that isolated zone and shall not impair the normal functioning of any other alarm zones in the system. 2. A separate visible and audible fault indication shall be given on the panel. (I) (b) (m) (n) . which affects the transmission of fire alarm signals to the fire service signalling transmitter. A single manual action shall be required for the display of each additional zone in alarm. battery charging equipment and battery. it is not possible to adequately describe all detector locations concisely on the main/sub alarm panel. If the indication is on an alphanumeric display.The indications on alphanumeric displays do not require the use of different colours. unless the display has more than one window.2. the following shall apply: (i) (il) The presence of fault indications that have been suppressed shall be indicated. Disconnection of a transmission path. A visible indication by means of a separate light-emitting indicator for each zone and/or an alphanumeric display for ease of identifying its fault location. Electrical earth fault of cables containing direct power source. Short-circuit of a transmission path. the indication shall revert to the first zone in alarm between 15 seconds and 30 seconds following the last interrogation. fault warning and isolated conditions. (ii) (iii) (c) (iv) CP 10: 2005 The most recent zone in alarm shall be permanently displayed in another field. which cannot simultaneously indicate all of the faults due to Its limited capacity. A means to manually Isolate an alarm zone. Short-circuit of primary power supply source.. The total number of zones In alarm shall be permanently displayed. No filament lamp shall be used for visible indication. In the former case. the following shall apply: (i) (il) The presence of isolation indications that have been suppressed shall be indicated.CP 10 : 2005 (b) Fault indication. Disconnection of any leads to fire alarm devices (sounders) external to the fire alarm panel. by means of a manual operation. which interrogates only fault indications. Suppressed indications of faults and isolations shall each be capable of being displayed at any time by manual operations.12). which affects the transmission of fire alarm signals to the fire service signalling transmitter. Zones in alarm not currently indicated shall be capable of being displayed. I 20 21 .All visible indicators shall be visible on the fire alarm panel. which shall either be in the field used for the first zone in alarm. the display shall revert to the first zone in alarm between 15 seconds and 30 seconds following the last interrogation. The visible indication shall be by means of a separate light-emitting indicator and/or an alphanumeric display. However. Suppressed fault indications shall be capable of being displayed by means of a manual operation. Disconnection of primary power supply source. The visible indications may be suppressed during the fire alarm condition for the following faults except items (c). the following shall apply to the display of other information: . the following conditions shall apply: (a) Fire alarm condition.8 Identification and marking of indicators it NOTE . without the need to open a door.6 Visible indication for alarm panels i .

11 Records A log record shall be. shall be clearly and permanently marked on the front face of the fire alarm panel. a fault warning shall be given (see 2. 2. The charger shall incorporate automatic control features with output designed to charge and maintain the batteries within the limits specified by the battery manufacturer. This is partiCUlarly important where It IS P?sslbie for the stored program to be accidentally corrupted (e.9 Signals to fire service signalling transmitter The m~in alarm panel shall be able to transmit fire alarm and fault signals to the fire service signalling transmitter. In the event of a faJiure. (b) 2. The manufacturer's name.alarm system performs its primary function via microprocessors or similar deva::es. The primary power supply shall come directly from the electrical distribution board and the circuit shall not be used for any other purposes. (b) NOTE . If the log record is kept in the form of a log book. Those function~ of the system which are required in this Code shall not depend on programs stored on rotating diSks. (c) The op~ration of.g. this equipment is acceptable as an enhancement to the mam fire alarm system only. together with any other appropriate means of identification of the alarm system.5 Battery location Batteries shall be kept in a separate cool. Maintenance-free batteries need not have a separate location. The above information shall include the type of panel and the model number. Fault warning shall be given in the event of failure of the primary/secondary power supply. CP 10: 2005 2. dry and well-ventilated location. The interior of the cabinet or container shall be protected against corrosion.3 Battery charger A battery charger of the appropriate type and rating shall keep the storage batteries under constant voltage charge. The fire alarm panel must be easily identifiable. a field shall be capable of containing at least the following: (a) 16 characters. processors shall be continuously monitored. The secondary (standby) power supply shall be in the form of storage batteries with an automatic charger. kept in which details of all alarms (genuine. Thereafter it shall be capable of supplying an additional load resulting from an alarm originating in two separate alarm zones for a period of half an hour and. supply from an authorised electricity provider and shall be exclusive to the alarm system. The log record shall be In the form of soft copy. They shall be kept in a locked cabinet. There shall be no delay and no isolation is allowed for the transmission of fire alarm and fault signals to the fire service signalling transmitter. and if necessary re-initialise running data to ensure that the fire alarm system enters a safe operating state. No external intermediary switch shall be proVided between the protective isolation device at the electrical distribution board and the fire alarm panellintegral power supply. or any other form of easily corruptible memory.3.2 Form of supply 2. In addition to the reqUirements listed In this Code. 40 characters.2. In which the particular c~aracteristics of a system are dependent on a stored program.1 Power supply Operating voltage The operating voltage for the alarm system shall be extra low voltage. 2. other storage media using moving parts.3. The charger should be connected to the building emergency mains supply if the supply is available.4 Battery capacity The capacity of the storage battery used to power the alarm system shall be such that in the event of prlm~ry power supply failure. pnnt out or log book. The charger shall be designed and rated so that a battery discharged to its final voltage can be recharged to at least 80 % of its rated capacity within 24 hours and to its rated capacity within another 48 hours. The secondary power supply shall be capable of operating the alarm system in the event of failure of the primary power supply and vice versa. The restart procedure should check the contents of the memories.3. where the display of a fire aiarm uses a cross-reference to other information to identify the location. service. practice.4. taking into account any quiescent load imposed by the associated system.3. NO"!"E . if utilised to supply ~mergency evacuation alarms.2.CP 10 : 2005 If the fire alarm indications are on an alphanumeric display. the battery Is capable of maintaining the system in normal working condition for at least 24 hours. The primary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be a. 2. 22 23 .c.When an extemal CPU is used to record the events and/or generate graphics.2. It shall in addition be capable of supplying the full emergency evacuation alarm load for a period of at least 10 minutes. 2. Fault output signal to the fire service signalling transmitter shall be provided If the CIE is de-energised.10 Fire alarm panel cabinet (a) (b) (c) The cabinet shall be red and of robust construction.3 2.2. a recommended format for the log book is described in Annex C. false. 2.2). 2. Such cabinet or container shall be readily accessible for inspection and shall not be ab~ve the control cabinet. The primary power supply circuit shall be terminated inside the fire alarm panel or its Integral power supply unit. The protective Isolating device controlling this circuit shall be clearly labelled to indicate that it controls the fire a!arm system.5) and shall remain until a manual reset and/or another manual operation. ~ests and routine attention given shall be properly maintained and updated.3. or test).2. such systems shall comply with the following: (a) Facilities provided for the alteration of the stored program shall be protected against unauthorised alteration.unit.Care shall be taken to size the battery capacity to include the load controlling the operation of ancillary equipment (see 2. by transient Interference) m such a way as to interfere with the correct operation of the system.12 Program controlled fire alarm system A progra~ controlled fire . where the display Is intended to include complete information on the location of a fire alarm. 'faults.

7). 24 25 . Such a restricted alarm system shall always incorporate suitable means of summoning fire-fighting staff to the outbreak on the operation of the alarm. Voltages in excess of extra low voltage associated with remote control functions shall not enter the alarm panels. a current limited extra low voltage supply may be provided from the fire alarm panel to operate a relay or similar operating device controlling the equipment in question.3 Audibility of general alarms The number of audible alarm sounders used shall be sufficient to produce a minimum sound level of either 65 dBA.5.5. shall not be used. In the multi-stage fire alarm system. pressurisation fans and fire suppression system).4.1 The installation of an automatic fire alarm system using audible and visual alarms appliances shall comply with Sections 1 and 2. for example: one ring means "first floor" and two rings means "second floor" etc. Such coded signals on audible alarms are liable to misinterpretation. special provisions such as Visual alarm signal should be considered (refer to 2.6. It is essential that audible alarm signals are sufficient in nature and of the extent to warn and initiate evacuation of all persons for whom the alarm signals are intended. 2. Visible and audible fault indications shall be prOVided at the front of alarm panel. the delay timer shall not delay the immediate transmission of the fire signal to the fire alarm monitoring station. This requirement does not apply to the primary power supply feeding the alarm panels. In special environments where the use of alarm bell tone is impractical or in areas of high background noise level. I1.. Audible alarm appliances shall form part of the fire alarm system and shall be installed in a building so that audible alarm signals are clearly audible throughout the bullding(s)!fIoor(s) in which they are installed.2 Connection requirements Code signalling on audible alarms. the sound level produced by audible alarm sounders signalling shall not exceed 120 dBA. but can be extended in the further stages to ultimately warn all occupants of the premises. and sUbject to the approval of the relevant authority. all the fire alarm sounders in the building shall be activated. other tones may be used. to restrict the alarm in the first place to the locality from which It arises and to resort to the sounding of a audible general alarm only if a responsible person considers it desirable to do so. In cases where electrically operated anciJIary equipment requires continuous power supply. In certain large and/or high rise bUllding(s). 2. In all parts of the bUildings. or 5 dBA above the ambient noise level likely to persist for a period longer than 30 seconds.5 Audible and visual alarms General 2.4 2. In all cases. 2. in so far as they are applicable and appropriate.5. or is restricted to key personnel. Overload protection shall be provided such that any short circuit or malfunction of any anciJIary eqUipment cannot impede the proper functioning of other anciJIary equipment. it is desirable that the alarm system shall be restricted to the prOVision of audible alarms out of hearing of the public or patient.6 Multi-stage alarm 2. the fire alarm panel and other connected equipment. If levels higher than this are required. there shall be effective arrangements for giving an audible general alarm throughout the premises.5. 2. In order to prevent excessive sound levels in some areas. A manual evacuation switch shall be prOVided to give an immediate audible general alarm.1 Connection of additional equipment When permitted AnciJIary equipment not forming an essential part of the approved fire alarm system may be connected either through relay(s) or interfacing device(s). For evacuation. it might be desirable to firstly evacuate from those floors of the premises at the greater risk. In any case if the alarm is not acknowledged/reset after a predetermined delay specified by the relevant authority. lift homing. where the control point is under continuous and competent watch during the whole time the premises are occupied. In discos. it may be preferable to install a larger number of quieter alarm sounders rather than a few very loud sounders. The staff in such premises should be sufficient in number and properly driJIed to conduct other occupants to safety in the event of an activation of fire alarm. an evacuation manual switch shall be prOVided at the main alarm panel to activate all the fire alarm sounders for total evacuation.4. !! 2. the sound system shall be electrically interlocked with the fire alarm system to enable the sound to be automatically cut-off in the event that the fire alarm is activated. a mUlti-stage alarm shall be subjected to the approval of the relevant authority. It is essential that all audible alarm sounders in a particular installation shall produce a similar tone.CP 10 : 2005 CP 10: 2005 Generally. In such a case. in which case the relevant authority's permission must be sought. It is important that in such a system. and with this clause. whichever is greater. In such places. provided that such additional device(s) wiJI not adversely affect the system or otherwise prejudice the performance of the approved system. The relevant authority should be consulted very early in the design stage as to the best method of providing an appropriate system. Where provision is to be made for the operation of anciJIary equipment under fire alarm conditions as required by the relevant authority (such as the control of air handling equipment. 2. An audible general alarm is undesirable where distress or disturbance might arise as in health care facilities and the like.5. it may be advisable that in order to avoid unnecessary dislocation.5.5 Restricted alarms In some installations. usually those closest to the fire or immediately above and below the f1oor(s). The circuit controlling this operation shall be supervised or be of a 'fall-safe" type. a multi-stage fire alarm arrangement might be more appropriate.4 Code signalling 2.5. all alarm sounders in the building shall be activated simultaneously in the event of an alarm unless it is permissible under 2.5. the initial warning of fire is given in a restricted area. The aUdible alarms shall be supplemented by adequate visual alarms throughout the premises for staff recognition only and/or by discreet special sounders. such power supply shall be separate and distinct from the power supply of the fire alarm system. night-clubs and other places of entertainment. An acceptable arrangement is to provide a delay timer to set off the audible general alarm after a predetermined delay to be approved by the relevant authority. In the case where the system is directly lfnked to the fire alarm monitoring station. Other floors are evacuated thereafter.2 Audible alarm sounders All audible alarm sounders shall generate the continuous tone of an alarm bell.

[ 140 (min) 320 (max) Time (s) 20 (d) .=t-:. The activation of the AVF function for the selected zone shall be through selector switch or programming.5.' not cancel the indication of the alarm or any indicator concerned. alarm sounders may be silenced immediately. The silencing of the fire alarm buzzer whilst an alarm condition exists shall: (a) (b) not cancel the indication of the alarm or any indicator concerned. Detectors installed in high risk areas. 2. The principle of system operation shall be such that once a fire alarm condition has been received. and shall not prevent the restarting of the fire alarm buzzer. No isolation and delay facilities shall be allowed for the transmission of fire alarm signals to fire alarm sounders.CP 10: 2005 2. the fault buzzer shall continue to operate until normal conditions have been restored.5. The intensity of the light shall be sufficient to draw the attention of people in the vicinity. The follOWing components of the fire alarm system shall not be SUbject to this feature: (a) Alarm zone facilities containing only manual call points. not prevent the proper receipt of fault warning on any circuit not already providing the fault. Upon activation of a detector in any zone. The silencing of fire alarm sounders whilst an alarm condition exists shall: (a) (b) (c) not prevent the transmission of the alarm signal to the approved monitoring station.I 11 Alarm retard state Alarm confirmation state Normal state I The silencing of the general fire alarm sounders shall only be permitted at the activated main/SUb alarm panel.9 Fire alarm buzzer silencing A visible indication in the form of a yellow light-emitting indicator or an alphanumeric display shall be provided when the fire alarm system enters into the alarm retard state and/or alarm confirmation state.I./-.------±---------. (a) not cancel the indication of the faUlt or any indicator concerned. Such an alarm verification feature. Alarm zone cirCUits from fire suppression systems. not prevent the proper receipt of alarm signal on any circuit not already proViding the alarm from other zones. shall the fire alarm system go into full operation.. not prevent the correct operation of any control for starting or restarting the fire alarm sounders.:.g.. e.. The fire alarm buzzer shall not be silenced automatically.7 Visual alarm signal CP 10 : 2005 2.. visual aiarm signals shall be provided. Only when the same detector or another detector within the same zone or panel is activated during this alarm confirmation period. o ---. If a building does not have an approved emergency voice communication system complying with SS CP 25. A yellow visible indication that the alarm has been silenced shall be provided at the front of the main/sub alarm panel. Receipt of first alarm signal I 1 . 2.. In general. Circuits between sub alarm panels and the main alarm panels. An appropriate instruction shall be provided for this function.5. where there are people with impaired hearing or where hearing protection is likeiy to be worn. only the first alarm shall be permitted to be silenced after 3 minutes and any sUbsequent alarms may be silenced immediately. the fire alarm system shall go into an alarm retard state for a period not exceeding 20 s at the control unit. an automatic fire alarm system may be provided with an alarm verification feature.5.10 Fault buzzer silencing The principle of system operation shall be such that once a fault condition has been received. 2. After the expiry of this period. (b) (c) (d) (e) 26 27 . and shall not prevent the restarting of the fire alarm-sounder. visual signals shall not be used in place of audible alarms.. where the background noise is excessive. Where a building is provided with an approved emergency voice communication system complying with SS CP 25. a recorded voice message shall automatically be activated to inform the occupants in the building of the alarm. the activation of the system reset facility shall not reset the AVF operation. the fire alarm buzzer shall continue to operate until normal conditions have been restored.11 Alarm verification feature (AVF) To reduce the effects of transient environmental conditions.-. shall operate in the following manner. Which may cause various types of detectors to be activated. the fire alarm system shall go into an alarm confirmation state for a period not less then 120 s and not exceeding 300 s. Detectors used to activate fire suppression systems. not prevent the proper receipt of alarm signal on any circuit not already providing the alarm from other zones. whenever the fire alarm system enters a new fire alarm condition.5.. subject to the approval of the relevant authority. The indication of the alarm on any indicator concerned shall not be cancelled whilst the fire alarm sounders are still in operation. if provided. The silencing of the fault buzzer whilst a fault condition exists shall: In areas where audible alarms may be ineffective..8 Fire alarm sounder silencing (b) I The principle of system operation shall be such that once an alarm has been given the fire alarm sounders shall continue to operate until normal conditions have been restored. In this case when the fire alarm sounder is silenced. When the fire alarm system is in the AVF mode.'I 'I Normal stale 'I :1 H 11 .

High temperature duty. 2. Type A . The delay between operation of a call point and activation of the general alarm shall not exceed 3 seconds. This type of detector shall be considered for use in applications with high ambient temperatures below 75 ·e where rapid temperature increases are not normally experienced / (see Note).) (b) 2.6. Type D.Normal temperature duty. 2 and 3 for detector locations). This type of detector shall be considered where rapid temperature increases are normally encountered and the maximum ambient temperature does not normally exceed 45 ·e. Manual call points should be fixed at a height of 1.6.CP 10 . in so far as they are applicable and appropriate. Such circumstances may dictate the use of a Type B. NOTE .7 (see Figures 1.1 Manual call points General 2. There are two main types of heat-sensitive elements in each form as follows: (a) 2. This type of detector shall be considered where rapid temperature increases are normally encountered and the maximum ambient temperature does not normally exceed 75 ·e.1 The installations of automatic fire alarm system using heat detectors shall comply with Sections 1 and 2. It should be located on exit routes preferably next to hose reels and in particular on the floor landings of exit staircases and at exits to the street(s).4 m above the finished floor level and shall be located at easily accessible and conspicuous position free from obstructions. 28 29 .3. if it is to be considered as the only type of detector for the area. fixed-temperature actuation only. The glass of the call point shall be of the non-fragmental type.2 Detectors Manual call points shall be provided in accordance with the latest Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in BUildings. Manual call point shall be bright red in colour and shall be of the "break glass" type. Other types of manual call point may be used subject to the approval by the relevant authority.6. Type E detectors are intended to provide protection in areas which cannot be satisfactorily protected by Types A to 0 owing to some factors associated with the environment.3 Special environment Detectors containing only rate-of rise elements shall not be used. fixed-temperature actuation only. corrosive.6.3 Spacing and location of detectors 2.7 Alarm zone Manual call points shall not share the same alarm zone with other detectors. flammabie or explosive environment. and the like. and with this clause. Fire alarm systems based on a different heat detection concept may be used subject to the approval of the relevant authority. The delay between the activation of a heat detector and activation of the generai alarm shall not exceed 10 seconds. Type 0 . The type of detectors used shall be as follows: (a) Special consideration shall be given to provide suitable type of call points installed in extreme conditions such as outdoor. incorporating both fixed-temperature and rate-of-rise actuation. the advice of the relevant authority should be sought prior to the inclusion of this type of detector in a fire protection system. or Type E detector manufactured to suit the special environment. 2.7 Heat detection systems General 2. The maximum spacing and location of detectors shall comply with the requirements of s 2.4 Operation The method of operation of all manual call points in an installation shall be identical unless there is a special reason for differentiation. The maximum coverage of Type E detectors is 9 m' for a detector of point-type construction. (e) 2. Type E .7. damp. This type of detector shall be considered for use in the majority of applications with moderate ambient temperatures below 45 ·e where rapid temperature increases are not normally experienced (see Note).Normal temperature duty.7.6. severe corrosion. Type e .2 to 2.6.6 2. incorporating both fixed-temperature and rate-of-rise actuation.7.3. Each manual call point should have its alarm zone number indelibly marked on the unit so that it is clearly visible.7.7.High temperature duty. (For all other types of Type E detectors. special circumstances may prevent or interfere with reliable operation. 2.6.5 Supervision Manuai call points shall be connected to the alarm zone circuit protecting the area where they are installed and it shall be electrically supervised. It shall be so located that no person needs to travel more than 30 m from any position within the building to activate the alarm. 2. such as extremely high ambient temperatures. It shall also be installed in well-lighted positions and against a contrasting background so that they can be seen easily.3. (b) 2.7.6 Location (d) Manual call points shall be provided on every storey of the bUilding or part of the building. Fixed-temperature (static) elements which are designed to operate when they reach a preselected temperature. Type B .Although Type A or Type e detectors are intended to protect the majority of areas. 2005 CP 10: 2005 This clause applies only to conventional point-type heat detectors. .Special purpose fixed-temperature actuation.2 Manual call point Rate-of-rlse of temperature elements which are designed to operate when their temperature rises abnormally quickly.1 General The location of detectors shall be to the best advantage for detecting a fire. (c) 2.

3.. the spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with 2.5 Reduced spacing For all types of heat detectors. means shall be specified and provided which ensure that a short circuit or an interruption in this detection alarm circuit does not prevent the indication of a fire alarm from more than 40 heat detectors. J I i 2.3.3. 8 m for corridors.4 Spacing of detectors from walls or partitions The distance from the nearest row of detectors to any wall or partition shall not be less thaA 300 mm or exceed half the relevant maximum allowable distance between detectors given in 2. air currents (e. vibration. other than those exempted under 1.3. . 3600 7200 . Where the ceiling of the protected area is segmented by beams. the detector may be installed on the underside of such purlins provided that the sensing element is not further than 350 mm from the roof. The longitudinal spaces between the detectors on the lower rows shall be arranged so that the detectors are spaced equally between the detectors on the adjacent rows (see Figure 2).3.2 m for corridors (see Figure 1b). however cause a local disturbance.5.3. excluding corridors. 2.Flat ceilings 30 31 .4 and 2.7.7.3.2 Location Detectors shall be installed in the highest point of the ceiling where appropriate. the horizontal distance between rows parallel to the apex shall not exceed 7. For concealed spaces with upper level surfaces less than 2 m high and having downward projections.r ) . . CP 10: 2005 (a) Concealed spaces with upper level surfaces in excess of 2 m high shall have detectors spaced in accordance with 2.7. \. the spacing between detectors in the longitudinal direction at the apex and sloping roof shall not exceed 7. and the vertical depth of such members is greater than 300 mm.4. On the sloping roof. For concealed spaces with apices.3 Spacing between detectors for flat ceilings For fiat ceiling.3. 7200 .1. They may. (a) Spacing for open areas (iI) Where the height of the ceiling above the protected area is greater than 6 m.with more than 40 heat detectors. the detector may be installed on the underside of the beam or joist. this distance shall only be taken from end walls. ' Isolated attachments to the ceiling such as lighting fittings and iuminaries do not normally act as obstructions to the general fiow of smoke or hot gas.3.6.3.7.3. and detectors should not be mounted too close to such attachments.1 m (see Figure 1a).6 Spacing of detectors in concealed spaces ilf-----"5-'-'1 0"'0'----_+I---------'1-"-0=-20"'0'-------~+I-------(b) Spacing for Corridors Concealed spaces for which protection is required. 360~ -\. closer spacing may be required to take into account the special structural characteristics of the protected area. In particular.3. Where roof purlins inhibit the free flow of heat to the detector. is 800 mm.4 m respectively. \. the distance from any point on the ceiling of the protected area to the nearest detector does not exceed 5. the following requirements shall be observed: (a) i I I .1.2 m with the lowest row of detectors located not more than 7.1) NOTE . shall be protected in accordance with the following: Dimensions in millimetres Figure 1 . the distance between detectors shall be reduced to but not exceeding: (i) 6 m for areas other than corridors.3. -::y (iI) (b) -:: .7 Detector mounting Each detector shall be installed in such a way that the sensing element is not less than 15 mm or more than 100 mm below the ceiling or roof.5 m. For corridors.7.3. \. where the ceiling is constructed with beams or joists less than 300 mm deep. .2 m and 14.g.7.2..7. 2. it is recommended that a more sensitive type of detector be considered. the spacing between detectors shall not exceed 10 m.5.7. (see 1. Care shall be taken in the location of detectors to ensure that their correct operation is not prejudiced . \. Detectors shall not be installed closer than 400 mm to any air supply outlet.CP 10: 2005 2. Heat detectors beneath roofs and ceilings SUbject to solar radiation shall be installed with the sensing element between 180 mm and 350 mm vertically below the roof or ceiling. high ambient temperature (see 2.7. the distance between detectors shall be reduced to but not exceeding: (i) 5 m for areas other than corridors.7.7.2). from air conditioning outlets) or the like.3. 2.8 Arrangement of alarm zones Not more than 40 heat detectors shall be connected on a single alarm zone.3.4 and 2.. 7200 .3. the distance between detectors shall not exceed: (a) (b) 7. between the upper and lower surfaces of the space.~ 7200 <.3.Where a single alarm circuit is connected. However. by special conditions of dampness. 10. In addition.7. 2.7.2 m measured horizontally towards the apex from a position where the vertical height. (b) (c) 2. Where the downward projections exceed 300 mm. joists or ducts. the distance should be more than twice the depth of the attachment.2 m for areas other than corridors (see Figure 1a). Where the height of the fiat ceiling exceeds 3.3. 7 m for corridors.5 and 2..7. such as beams and ducts. not exceeding 300 mm from the upper surface of the space. 2.4.Typical heat detector spacing .i .7.7.

. (b) Sawtooth ceiling or roof 7200 Cti Ct 7200 I Site detector in this area . Figure 3 (in part) .Heat detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and sloping roof 32 33 . 2. '-' Ct 1 (c) Equal slope ceiling or roof 14L Ct-+ Ct I 7200 CtJ ~ Louvers ~: 1500 max.MJ Site detector Site detector in this area 1 I I I 500 min. 3. t. .n:. 7. Side detector in this area ~omax.Design criteria for point-type heat detectors Figure 2 . .Detector always on side with least slope.~------i~ ~I ' I I I I n ! 7200 max. 1500 max.2" 0" 0-"m~a"'x'_ .3. 1500 max.~atl~e ______ . Ct-+ I 7200 I (d) Louvred ceiling or roof with louvred riser Dimensions in millimetres NOTE . M ~i_'-. Ct-+ I I 3600 (a) Unequal slope ceiling or roof 1500 max. ( I \1 Cti 7200 (Note 1) Ct I I I Ct-+ Ct I 7200 Ct-+ I 7200 l Ct--.' ~ et 300 min.Ct J 14400 4e.6 (c). See 2. 500min.!. I 1 1 Glass or similar I Cti 7200 I I I I I I 7200 max.owest row measurement from 800 mm height.CP 10: 2005 7200 max. Alternate rows offset. 7200 max. (e) Ceiling or roof with skylight Ct-+ 3600 Dimensions in millimetres NOTE 1.£:~ soa-. .:~:x.7. (Note 2) CP 10: 2005 1500 max. ~ I Irk I I I I I l \J I .

The installations of an automatic fire alarm system using smoke detectors shall comply with Sections 1 and 2.3. Effects of airflow on the detector and the movement of smoke. Isolated attachments to the ceiling such as light fittings and luminaries normally do not act as obstructions to the general fiow of smoke.8. I 2.2 to 2.1 Smoke detection systems General r~~ (g) Narrow apex cll ~ . 2. to obtain effective fire detection. It may· be necessary to extend the location of the detector downwards below the ceiling to obtain earliest response. (i) Broad ridge vent Dimensions in millimetres NOTE Infrared scans of a building have shown heat pockets at apices of roof structure due to solar radiation.2 Detectors max.8.2.7 (See Figures 4. They may however cause local disturbance.3 Spacing and location of detectors Louvers ~ ~ I I .Design criteria for point-type heat detectors (c) 2.2 m. consideration shall be given to the following: (a) I I I I ~ (h) Narrow ridge vent > 2000 . The type of detectors for use in various locations is described in Annex A. 2.3. the distance from any point on the ceiling of the protected area to the nearest detector shall not exceed 7. The maximum spacing and location of detectors shall comply with the requirements of of 2.3. Care should be taken to ensure that beam detectors' receiver units are not exposed to strong light.1 General The location of detectors shall be to the best advantage for detecting a fire.1 2. (see Figure 4).8 2.8. especially direct sunlight.3.2.8.8 and 9 for detector locations). . Detector mounting height over 3 m from the floor. Figure 3 (in part) . In addition. 2. the distance should be more than twice the depth of the attachment.8.. Detectors should not be mounted too close to such attachments. The minimum distances of the sensing elements beiow the ceiling line shall comply with Figure 8. consideration shall be given to the following: (a) (b) High temperatures close to ceilings or roofs. (f) Ventilated ridge 500 min.3.2 In determining optical beam line-type detector position.8. . Fire alarm systems based on a different smoke detection concept may be used subject to the approval by the relevant authority.8.3 Spacing between detectors for flat ceilings For flat ceiling. 6. (b) ~ Louvers ___! 1 I" ·1 (c) --~.8. It may be necessary to extend the location of the detector downwards below the ceiling to obtain earliest response. . 5.8. the distance between point-type detectors shall not exceed 10.3.1 In determining point detector position. The minimum distances of the transmitter/receiver units below the ceiling line shall comply with Figure 8. 34 35 .2 m. Therefore.8. and with this ciause.CP 10: 2005 < 500 CP 10: 2005 Protective Hood ~ cl ti 2. 7200 max. This clause applies only to point-type and opticai beam line-type smoke detectors. in so far as they are applicable and appropriate. Detectors shall not be installed closer than 400 mm to any air sup-ply outlet. f (d) et'"" 7200 mal<.~ High temperatures close to ceilings or roofs.3. Detector mounting height over 8 m from the floor.7.2 Location 2. the detectors must be located below these pockets. 2000 max. 1 : .

4. detectors shall be mounted in each interbeam area (see Area 3.8. beam depth exceeding 300 mm (see Area 3.Where airflow reduces the response of the detector located in these areas. (c) CP 10 : 2005 2.5 and 2.Additional detectors shall be provided in interbeam area in cases where the interbeam area is so large that the spacing of detectors located on the underside of beams does not comply with 2. closer spacing may be required to take account of special characteristics of the protected area. the spacing between detectors in the longitudinal direction at the apex and sloping roof shall not exceed 10. detectors shall be mounted on the underside of the beams and spaced in accordance with 2. Nevertheless.8. For areas with ceiling height not exceeding 2 m and beam depth exceeding 300 mm (see Area 2.8. The longitudinal spaces between the detectors on the lower rows shall be arranged so that the detectors are spaced equally between the detectors on the adjacent rows (see Figure 5).3.8. the spacing between detectors shall not exceed 15 m.2 m with the lowest row of detectors located not more than 10.4.CP 10: 2005 For optical beam line-type detectors.8.3.8.2 m.3 and 2.For areas with high air velocities Le.9 Arrangement of alarm zones Not more than 20 smoke detectors shall be connected on a single alarm zone.8.ith 2. between the upper and lower surfaces of the space.3 and 2. Figure 9).3. 2.8. NOTE .8. For areas such as item (b) above.For ceiling height above 10 m the same spacing requirements may still be applicable provided the detector has been type-tested and approved for use in a particular situation.3. Figure 9). Figure 9).8. e. Figure 9) and the interbeam area less than 4 m2.8.3. smoke barriers shall be considered partitions.8.3.3. the detectors shall be located so that early detection is ensured. where the interbeam area is equal to or greater than 4 m 2.8. On the sloping roof.5 Spacing of detectors where additional protection is required Where roofs or level surfaces are compartmentalised by structural features which could have the effect of restricting the free flow of smoke. NOTE . (c) (d) I j ! (e) (b) NOTE .3.g. not exceeding 300 mm from the upper surface of the space. For areas with ceiling height not exceeding 4 m and beam depth not exceeding 300 mm (see Area 1.3.6. the beam depth exceeding 300 mm and the interbeam area less than 4 m2. the spacing of the detectors shall be in accordance y. 36 37 .3. NOTE .3. the distance to the next transmitter I receiver shall not exceed 14 m.6 Reduced spacing For all types of smoke detector. For the purpose of this clause.1 shall be protected in accordance with the following: (a) Concealed spaces with upper level surfaces in excess of 2 m high shall have detectors spaced in accordance with 2. Where the downward projections exceed 300 mm. measured horizontally towardsthe apex from a position where the verticai height.8. Figure 9).3.2 m and 20.3.7 Spacing of detectors in concealed spaces Concealed spaces for which protection is required under 1.8 Detector mounting The sensing element for ceiling mounted point-type detectors shall be not less than 25 mm and normally not more than 600 mm. is 800 mm.8.4 m respectively.3.8. in excess of 3 m/s. The distance between detectors shall not exceed 7 m in the following areas where: (a) the ceiling height is greater than 2 m but not exceeding 4 m. Optical beam line-type smoke detactors shall be mounted not less than 300 mm and not more than 600 mm below the ceiling or roof.1. sUbject to the following for point-type detectors (see Figure 9): (a) For areas with ceiling height equal to or greater than 4 m and beam depth exceeding 100 mm (see Area 4.3 and 2. NOTE .3. For conceaied spaces with apices. the detector spacing may need to be further reduced or more sensitive detection equipment may need to be installed. the horizontal distances between rows parallel to the apex shall not exceed 10.3 and 2. the spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with 2.5.4.8.4 Spacing of detectors from walls or partitions The distance from the nearest row of detectors to any wall or partition shall not be less than 300 mm or exceed half the relevant maximum allowable distance between detectors given in 2.3.3 and 2.3. atria and warehouse etc at lower levels (see Figure 8). then means shall be specified and provided which ensure that a short circuit or an interruption in this detection alarm circuit does not prevent the indication of a fire alarm from more than 20 point-type smoke detectors.3. the spacing requirements of the above clauses should not be exceeded.8. For concealed spaces with upper level surface not exceeding 2 m high and having downward projections. the detectors should be relocated in a more favourable position. Additional optical beam line-type detectors should be installed in vertical shafts.4. detectors shall be mounted on the underside of the beams and spaced in accordance with 2. 2. the spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with 2.6. such as beams and ducts.8.4.3.8.8. 2.Where a single alarm circuit is connected with more than 20 paint-type smoke detectors. below the ceiling or roof (see Figure 8). 2. 2.3. or the number of air changes exceeds 15 per hour. (b) For areas with ceiling height greater than 2 m but not exceeding 4 m.3.3.4. (b) 2.3.

-® ®-+ Dimensions in miliimetres I I ® 10200 Figure 4 . (Note 2) I I I I . NOTE 2 See 2.8. NOTE 3 Lowest row measurement taken from 800 mm height.. I 10200 I l. I . i I 5100 f I 10200 ®-+ + ® (Note 1) I I ® 20400 10200 I ®-+ (b) Spacing for corridors NOTE .' CP 10: 2005 10 200 max.-® 5100 ®-+ I ® ® ® 10200 'f.CP 10 : 2005 - .3.Point-type smoke detector locations for concealed spaces with apex and sloping roof NOTE 1 Alternate rows offset.Smoke detector spacing in corridors are the same as general areas. Dimensions in millimetres 38 39 .Flat ceilings ® ®-+ I I 10200 ®.7 (c).Typical smoke detector spacing . 20400 ® ® ®-+ I I ® . ! r I I " I S}-----{ }-----(S }-----( S I (a) Spacing for open areas ® ® .-® I 10200 ®-+ 10 fOO I ®-'® I ®20400 ® ®-+ I 10200 ® ®-f 5100 Figure 5 .

'""' I ~ I """' 000 "000 Ss 1500 max. S y (Note 2) (S)S (S)s (S)s (S)s (S)s (S)s (S)s (d) Louvred ceiling or roof with louvred riser NOTE 1 . IS -:. 500 min."'" 800 11 [ !(Note1~~S I L'""' ~""""' L' ~I . Glass. Site detector in this area 1500 max. I ·t ~~ ~s I Site detector in this area (§)s (Note 2) ~s ~s ~s ~s ~s . (a) Unequal slope ceiling or roof (b) Sawtooth ceiling or roof S "V Xrnax." CP 10 : 2005 CP 10: 2005 '""" I . NOTE 2 . (c) Equal slope ceiling or roof 1500 max. _~---=-----_rs r---- X max.-.Design criteria for point-type and beam-type smoke detectors located at apex of ceiling or roof 40 41 .Arrangement of siting of transmitter I receiver position shall be in accordance to the manufacturer's recommendation.Lowest row measurement taken from 800 mm height applies to concealed spaces only. 500 min. .-.. . 500 min.Detector always on side with least slope.Typical beam-type smoke detector locations for sloping surfaces Figure 7 (in part) . I Side detector in this area y. _ V Xmax. I I . y ® S 300 min. . Louvers~ : I . NOTE .-------. . (e) Ceiling or roof with skylight Dimensions in millimetres Dimensions in millimetres Figure 6 .J or similar ----' Xmax. . ".

-.' ( s I 4 (see Clause 2. . .Design criteria for point-type smoke detectors in structures with deep beams Figure 7 (in part) Design criteria for point-type and beam-type smoke detectors located at apex of ceiling or roof 42 43 . 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 BEAM DEPTH (d)...5 (d» 2 (see Clause 2..8. Xmax. NOTE . ~ ~ >2000 ~ I I : . (g) Narrow apex /1 / 20 --. I ~.5 (e» Normal spacing o 1000 NOTE 2 Infrared scans of a building have shown heat pockets at apices of roof structures due to solar radiation.. For this reason.-.---r----... mm . . .-+1--+--+--+--1 I ~~ I I I '/ V /1/ Beam detector Point-type smoke detector 4 I 2 o 100 25 I I -+--+--+--+----1--+--1 200 300 400 500 600 Louvers ----J ~ .. mm Dimensions in millimetres Figure 9 . . I Figure 8 .5 (b) and (c» lnterbeam areas I Detector on beam (see Clause I' . I NOTE 1 X 10 200 for point -type detector X 14 000 for beam-type detectors Y distance in accordance with Figure 8 ::J = = = 2. for high ceilings a larger fire source is necessary to transport the smoke to the detector.3. 2000 max. 6000 I 777l (( s 5000 E E (I (( (1/ I (( I I ( I l l ((.J. MiNIMUM SENSING ELEMENT DISTANCE BELOW ROOF OR CEiLING LINE. Therefore.. .----.8.8.3. ..r .. therefore..CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005 Protective Hood b < 500 /~""..5 (a» Detector on beam Xmax.. g f0- 4000 . Louvers --------.8. it is necessary for smoke detectors to be installed below the warm air pockets at roof levels as indicated by the graph. .------..3..- I (i) Board ridge vent [ij I B 3000 ~ 2000 [ij 1 3 (see Clause 2. to obtain fire detection.Smoke detector locations (h) Narrow ridge vent (11/ (( (tLjll ~I (Ill ~(( (11 I h Llnterbeam area -r.Fire aerosols are transported by means of warm air from the fire source and their vertical progress is impeded when the temperature of the smoke equals that of the surrounding air.f .3. the detectors must be located below these pockets./~I 18 16 E ~ ':6 I IL/r''------¥//'---/-+--+--I .. .. -----y-~rl -S"5100 max. . / : ~ Cl (f) Ventilated ridge 500 min.

they do not need to be mounted on ceilings. the lens appropnate a es or particles. ! I I I I 2. d tectors should be within maximum limits specified by the manufacturer. Accordingly. f fI Spacing 0 ame e . . Cables insulated with general purpose PVC shall not be installed in any situation where the sustained ambient air temperature is liable to exceed 65 QC for long periods. ypes In . . .mateIY ~n t~f relatively low level within a hign space to source. 3.2 Cables and wiring 2. even under minimum supply and maximum load conditions..I~ CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005 I 2. Fla~~ detectorts cells that "see" fire either directly or through built-in lenses or reflectors. I t in which flame-responsive The design installation and maintenance of automatic fre ~:': ~Y. Particular attention should be given to the protection and segregation of the fire alarm system from other systems.Installation and maintenance 3. ng~ e alarm signals or misalignment 0 3. The cable shall comply with the requirements of SS 358. Hence. Detectors shal I b e.3 Spacing and location of detectors .1 3. fi h t ristics such as flicker.vity i~ retained between service periods. armoured and sheathed overall. Suitable additional protection for the conduits shall be provided at any point where they are likely to be subjected to mechanical damage. an Y their distance from the fire increases. except as stipulated by 3. Wiring for fire alarm system shall comply with the requirements stipulated in this Code.1 Flame detection systems General Section Three .2 to 3. e Both types use . Wh~re debteffic ors ar purging eqUipment shall be fitted to ensure that the .1.6 Outdoor applications eatherproof type. and With this clause. If fibre optics are used in the fire alarm system. Voltage drop across a cable should not be such as to prevent devices from operating within their specification limits. neral area/special hazard(s) protection. Consideration should be given to any possible extensions to the system.1. radlatlon-sensl Ive . clear line of Sight between all pOlnts/hazar PVC insulated non-sheathed cable shall be laid in metal conduit complying with SS 504 or metal trunking complying to SS 249. refer to 2.1 Installation General .4 Fixing of detectors .9. regard should be paid to physical strength and to limitations imposed by voltage drop. detectors are Inte~ded to pr~(~d)~:n the protected area and one or more flame detectors. . PVC insulated and sheathed cable conforming to the requirements of IEC 60227-4 shall be used. then approval by the relevant authority is required. NOTE _ Regarding use in special situafions. maximise senSitiVity to a fire a groun e . If such situations cannot be avoided. th th t the ozone layer filters out of solar Ultraviolet flame detectors normally operate Within wlaveleng ~ t a unlight and may generally be used radiation. They shall be fixed and supported so t d outdoors shall be 0 f th e w Detectors moun e ble to movement due to wind or other causes.9.3.1. . If a common duct or trunking is to be used to contain both fire alarm circuits and those of any other services.1. In selecting conductor sizes. cables having heat resistant PVC insulation complying with the requirements of SS 299 shall be used. the fire alarm circuits shall be wired in fire resistant cable. Detectors shall be spaced to ensure that the risk areas are protected with a minimum of shadowing or blind spots. as the Their sensitivity to a fire does decrease. ~owever: as ortion to the square of the distance from ItS intensity of the radiation decreases appro~. Any telephone-type cable should be allowed for use in the wiring between the fire alarm panel and the repeater or mimic panel for secondary indication and shall be protected against mechanical damage by the use of conduit or trunking. Alternatively they may be wired in PVC insulated cable provided they are separated from the cables of other services by a rigid and continuous partition of non-combustible material affording them complete enclosure when the covers of the duct or trunking are in place.other hand't they ~~yve~ p~eoc~~d~ early detection of a shielded fire. respond to specI IC I . shocks will not cause spurious f th detector leading to loss of protection. b fi detect the infrared and/or ultraviolet radiation that IS emitted y am . affected by stratification.9.1. r or more an 'fi 'nfrared frequency bands that are not characteristic of solar radla Ion.7. size Infrared flame detectors are usually designed to rTespon? :~ndae~~~ ~~~~o~r use can be designed to th one specific radiation frequency. . Suitable additional protection for the cable shall be provided at any point where they are likely to be subjected to mechanical damage.9. t t the radiation emitted from flame. there should be a Where flame. that they are not l. ultraviolet detectors do not norma ly respon 0 s outdoors. h fI e radiation is received shall be appropriately designed Lenses of flame detectors through WhlC ame placed in environments likely to lead to the build-up of t for the coverage required.dly fixed to a sta bl e supp ort so that vibration or. exclusive to the fire alarm system.hO~ld bea~~~Ciall~ght sources or steady infrared sources.3 Conductor sizing 2.a 44 45 .1.2 Stability and sensitivity h th t incorrect operation does not occur as a The stability and sensitivity of detectodr:> St. .5 Detector lenses . or result of extraneous natural light or ra la Ion rom of variations in ambient temperature.9 2. detector s sen All cable conductors shall be sized to comply with the requirements of the relevant Singapore Standard(s). . Rigid PVC conduits and fittings may be used in situations where the ambient temperature is below 60 QC. 2. Flame detectors do not rely on convection. Cables laid underground shall be run in ducts. applicable and appropriate. on s'lt'.9. All other wiring shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SS CP 5. 2. but ~et~~ are not in any case. On t~e . .n~~sand 2 in so far as they are detectors a~e used as a fire warn~ng system shall comp y WI ec I .9. Cables laid direct in the ground shall be PVC insulated and sheathed.

call points and sounders etc. equipment (including cabling) should not be sited in places likely to have high levels of electromagnetic interference. a bridge of suitable non-combustible insulating material at least 6 mm thick shall be securely fitted at the crossing.2. False alarms can be a major hazard to any fire alarm . If and hence it is important that the detect ' ny indications Will be cancelled by resetting ' ors are examined before the system is reset. ac nowe ged by the owner and/or his representative as It is important to ensure that regular testin and . .4 3. . og d ' 3. The alarm monitoring station and he iog record which shall be provided for convenient any portion of a system is isolated for m~~ter or owne~'srepr~sentativeare to be notified when reconnected. (c) If one detector or group of detectors gives false al for servicing ~!.4. ALARM SILENCE ' FAULT SILENCE & SYSTEM RESET should be proVided prominently at the fire aiarm panel. IVI les near the detector immediately prior to the Record the false alarm in the Irecor and Inform the organisation responsible for servicing...4. The name and telephone number of the servicing organisation should be prominently displayed at the control and indicating equipment. higher false alarm rates should be subject to special investigation. In no case shall the fire alarm equipment or connections be mounted in or on boxes.7 Separation from other systems (b) The wiring of the fire alarm system shall be kept separate and distinct from the wiring of any other services. Where possible. the fire alarm panel layout and the positions of the detectors and alarm zones should be provided to the user before a final inspection is made.a~::eatedlY then the organisation responsible Any installations.4.2 False alarm A loop-in system of wiring shall be used for parallel connected detectors. exhaust fumes.1. Joints and terminations shall only be made in a suitable terminal box. rather than being treated as ~yS e~1 e treated as an alarm of fire until it can be been found to be false.2 Operation and maintenance manuals and "as installed" drawings operation and maintenance manuals and "as installed" drawings of the complete installation including a single-line diagram of the system. 0 I le 0 any test of the system that may result in 3. heating. It is the responsibility of the owner of the rotected accordance with the requirements specifi~d in this ~~~dIn9 to ensure that the Installation is tested in reqUired by the relevant authority. etc.1 Maintenance General th~ To ensure continuous reliability of the system. . The loop-in system of wiring shall be observed throughout. Where a service contract cannot be arranged. 3. 't 46 47 ----------". identify the particular dete t . Where an alarm has a person to whom he has delegated this duty: c Ions s ould be taken by the responsible person or f 3.3 RegUlar testing and inspection 3. detectors or detector IocarIons having . However.4. The arrangements for maintenance should be such as will ensure that a qualified person is available on call at all times to provide service in the event of any fault that developS at the installation. the owner or owner's representative with suitable experience of fire alarm system and special training with the manufacturers. .6 Mounting of detectors (a) Provision shall be made to prevent contact between live parts (including terminals) and the ceiling on which the detector is mounted.1 General . suppliers or contractors should carry out simple servicing. It is the responsibility of the owner of the rotected bG.3.3.1. enance an likeWise notified when this portion is Operating instruction comprising EVACUATE. the following immediate a at~e un ~ proven to be a fire.2 Daily check A check should be made every day to ascert i 'f .~ . ec ~rs caused by cutting.5 Joints and terminations 3.ould be informed and required to inv:~~..1.4.1. It is important that any alarm from th srte~ since they lead to a loss of confidence in proved to be false. by taking adequate cooking. establish the cause of the fal I . 3. The tests should be ~oand with any additional tes!s which may be responsible for the maintenance of the installati d 11 nducted by the owner or his representative log record as prescribed in 2 2 11 and k on adn a results of the tests should be entered in the l appropriate. . Adequate electromagnetic protection should be provided if such an arrangement could not be achieved. . 3. the system. sawing. however. The occupants of the premises should begn rfi ~e~. Except in common duct or trunking as provided for in 3. 3. detectors having individual indicators are in ~~~ o~ call pOln! which has initiated the alarm. .4 Protection against electromagnetic interference In order to minimise equipment damage and false alarms. The mains feed to the power supply equipment of the fire alarm system shall be segregated from the wiring of all other services and also from all other circuits of the fire alarm system.CP 10: 2005 CP 10: 2005 The details of any service call shall be entered in t . Fault(s) detected y 0 ensure that the fault(s) is rectified. Where crossings are unavoidable.3 Symbols Symbols as shown in Annex B shall be used on all drawings relevant to the fire alarm systems. " reference. smoking. 3. the alarm would have been lost in the ope r se a arm: It IS pOSSible that the actual cause of record should be kept of any events or ~~tl07-S resulling from the alarm. should be recorded and steps taken immedia~e~ the system IS operating normally. the owner or owner's representative should establish an agreement to carry out regular maintenance of the installation with the manufacturer or manufacturer's representative or a competent contractor. fire alarm wiring shall be spaced at least 50 mm away from the wiring of any other service. Where possible.1. 3. weiding. cover plates or blocks carrying accessories of connections of any other service unless effectively separated by means of strong and rigidly fixed covering or partitions.. Where this is so a alarm. each incoming and outgoing conductor of the same potential shall be connected to the appropriate terminal provided.clng operations do not result in a false alarm sounders being operated. . measures to prevent activation of the def t Idlng to prevent false alarms. he should be instructed not to attempt to exceed the scope of such training.

NOTE _ It will be necessary to contact the monitoring station prior to the transmitti~g ofthe simulated fire alarm and fault signals to inform them of the test and alsoJo check with the momto. also be responsible for keeping all the log records on routine preventive maintenance. The person should be trained in operating the fire alarm system effectively.4.3 Weekly test The following tests and checks should be made every week: (a) Carry out a simulation & transmission of fire alarm and fault signals to the monitoring station and confirm it is functioning correctly. The selection of detectors to be tested should be ~pread over as many zones as possible and should be made in such a way that all detectors In an installation should have been checked at least once in 5 years. if any. Simulate fire alarm conditions and check the output signals available to initiate the remote auxiliary functions that is required to be in operation in the event of fire. I I " 'I !l 11' j. where applicable. the following checking and testing procedures should be carried out each month: (a) Simulate fire and fault condition on all alarm zones to ensure it is operational. The person shall. 3. I .4. have the detector replaced. the person should be capable of analySing and interpreting the Signal correctly and taking appropriate actions. the source of the false alarm or fault signal shall be made available. printer. Check and confirm the battery monitoring function is operational. Check that all switches are returned to their operating positions after the test. in the log record. terminations and cables.4 Monthly test In addition to the weekly test specified above. (e) " '1' 3. Confirm with the monitoring station that the fire alarm and fault signals have been received. (d) (m) (n) (k) Visually inspect the condition of components. (b) (c) Check the battery voltage and conditions.4). the responsible person should ensure that the following actions are taken: (a) Determine the area affected by the fault and decide whether special action (such as fire patrols) are needed in that area.4 and the follOWing: (a) The maintenance personnel should arrange to check the operation of at least 20 percent of the detectors In an Installalton each year. tested or calibrated according to the manufacturer's recommendation. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Check to ensure that all indicating lights are operating correctly and replace if faulty. are clean and in clearly visible condition.3. Included In the log record. In a log record. (c) Enter the fault in the log record.3.2.5(f). or note the activities immediately prior to the fault in the area affected. Recommendations to prevent recurrence of such events should also be . Carry out measurement of the impedance of the battery. The checking of the detectors should take the form of in situ testing to ensure it is operational. if any. When a ~ignal is. Check condition of battery cabinet for corrosion and ensure that batteries are stored in a secure condition.3. annunciated on the fire alarm panels.' I I1 IJ 1. repair and alteration works carried out on the systems. CP 10: 2005 (I) Ensure that faUlty parts are satisfactorily replaced and recorded.2. if any. The smoke d~tectors shall be cleaned.. Check operation of all alarm sounders.3 and 2. The owner shall appoint a competent person to supervise and coordinate all matters in relation to the fire alarm systems.4. (d) Enter the test result(s) and follow-up actions. Enter the test results and follow-up actions. (c) On completion of the test. (b) Circuits connecting ancillary equipment which require automatic voltage regulated supplies should be checked to ensure correct operation and voltage output. Check charger voltage and charging current in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.5 (e). Enter the test results and follow-up actions. in the log record. Where the heat-sensitive element of thermal detectors or the enclosure of other detectors are found to be coated with paint or any other material likely to affect the operation of the detectors.~g station after completion of the test to ensure the fire alarm and fault signals were received and to adVise them when the system has been normalised. 2. zone charts and all necessary indicators. (i) 48 49 . (b) If possible.3. fire or non-fire.4. inform the organisation responsible for servicing and arrange for repair.' ill 3.3.5 Annual test The annual test should consist of all the inspection and testing procedures specified in 3. Enter in the log record any fault(s) that requires repair. 3. determine the cause of the fault. Check batteries and their terminals as specified by the manufacturer to ensure that they are in good serviceable condition. take corrective action immediately on any abnormality or fault(s) encountered within the system.alarm or other fault annunciation.3. In a false .5 Operations .CP 10: 2005 If a fault is detected. 2. in the log record. Check and ensure the fire alarm panels. such material should be cleaned off or if necessary. Test the system under the failure of electrical suppiy to the fire alarm panel to confirm it is operational (see 2.

Heat and smoke detectors rely on the transport of products from the fire to the detector by convection. Temperature of the space (e. In order for all the occupants to escape without too much difficulty. it may be useful to combine different types of detectors to achieve the best results. In multi-sensor fire detectors.! CP 10 : 2005 CP 10: 2005 No ~ne type of detector is the most suitable for all applications and the final choice will depend on Individual circumstances. in cold stores.I 1 '. • 50 51 . and in general these detectors rely on the presence of a ceiling (or other similar near-horizontal surface) to direct the products outwards from the plume to the detectors. which might activate smoke detectors. this is not the case. A signal may. In contrast. By analysis of the signals received from the sensors. Where there are productions or other processes that produce smoke. the processes taking place.1 Choice of fire detectors These recommendations should be applied with due regard to the attributes of each type of detector and its prime function for life safety and protection."1 i . the characteristic is detected at a defined point(s) within the protected area. and the deSign of the bUilding should be considered. In a "non-integrating line detector". a flame detector could be activated first. so that it is not directly exposed to low temperature). provided that an unobstructed view is possible. be initiated when the rate-of-change of the characteristic is representative of a fire. a smoke detector would probably be activated first. but are generally unsuitable for complete open-air applications. potentiai response to phenomena other than fire can be reduced while still providing an adequate response to fire.. each detector contains more than one sensor and thus monitors more than one of the characteristic fire phenomena (e. can provide enhanced protectIon compared with POint smoke detectors mounted at high level). in which even a very small fire can result in unacceptable damage.g. The lik~ly fire behaviour of the contents of each part of the building. "line" detectors are capable of detecting the characteristic along a defined line within the protected space. smoke detectors should be used. '" Aspirating smoke detection systems commonly incorporate a detector of much higher sensitivity than point or optical beam smoke detectors. a fire signal is initiated when the characteristic reaches a predetermined threshold. smoke. I' 1'1 I 1 A. Each type of detector responds at a different rate to different kinds of fire. so care must be taken in their selection and location. coupled with the possibi!ity of running p!pe work vertically on walls and storage racks. In the case of point detectors. Aspirating smoke detection systems are also used. In general: smoke detectors give appreciably faster responses than heat detectors. In an "integrating line detector". where there is no ceiling to direct the products outwards. or by the fire being extinguished (also to prevent extensive property damage). Height of the space (the high sensitiVity of some aspirating systems. Neither of these measures can be used until people are made aware of the fire. il! 1 I I'I! 1 1 . With a slowly developing smouldering fire such as the initial stages of a fire involving cardboard. Premises where people sleep require different criteria for the selection of the detection and alarm system from those for premises where occupants are continuousiy supervising the area. instead or in addition. A fire detection instaliation is intended to enable a fire to be detected at a sufficiently early stage so that people who are at risk can be made safe either by escaping from the fire. The susceptibility of the contents to heat. Such "high sensitivity aspirating detection systems" are often used to protect critical electronic equipment rooms. They are especially suited to risks in which smouldering is unlikely (such as in liquid fuels). 'I I1 : d 1'1 .2. The plume above a fire is relatively narrow. sometimes. etc. Flame detectors in bUildings"are mainly suitable for supplementing heat and smoke detectms in high ceiling compartments. The system chosen should have detectors that are suited to these conditions and provide the earliest reliable warning. '11 1'1 " AnnexA Guidance for the selection of detectors (Informative) A.1 l '. dust. the detector can be located outside the space. but may be more liable to give false alarms. A fire that evolves heat rapidly and with very little smoke could activate a heat detector before a smoke detector. With a flammable liquid fire. If detectors are installed in order to give warning of fire before it spreads to other areas of the building. and the detector behaves. an early alarm should operate before the escape routes becomes smoke-logged to such an extent as will cause occupants to have difficulty finding their way out of the building. the detector has to discriminate between a fire and the normal conditions existing within the building. heat and smoke). with a capillary tube sampling air from the space below via a small hole drilled in the ceiling). as though it comprises an infinite number of point detectors arranged along the line. fumes. namely: heat smoke combustion gas (such as carbon monoxide) infrared or ultraviolet radiation. In some premises. and for special applications such as outdoor storage and chemical processes employing flammable liquids.2 General notes on detectors Fire detectors are designed to detect one or more of the four characteristics of a fire. If detectors are installed for the protection of a room's occupants and have a direct effect on their escape routes. the effect of the characteristic on the detector is integrated along the line. In some fire detection systems. Explosive or flammable atmospheres require special suppression systems automatically actuated by the detection system.1 Introduction 'I' I I !I A. to protect spaces in which point-type smoke detectors would present difficulties on the basis of: • • Aesthetics (aspirating pipe work might be run in floor voids. effectively. The effectiveness of the fire detection and alarm system depends on the stage of the fire at which it is operated.g. then either smoke or heat detectors may be used. ~adiation (flame) detectors are particularly suited to outside applications. In any automatic fire detection system. an appropriate type of fire detector should be used. and water damage should also be considered. Heat and smoke detectors are therefore suitable for use in most buildings.

. Changes of outdoor environmental conditions e. . ooms. sensitivity . emperature IS protection of areas. One is the "poinf' type of detector which is affected by the hot gas layer immediately adjacent to it. Common cause of false alarms include the following: (a) Mechanical and electrical faults. light beam. I . There are two main forms of heat-sensitive detector.2 Application A4. kitchens. Work being carried out in a protected area without knowledge of.or~in:~:. A smouldering fire produces little or WI ll e Increased. fumes from engine exhaust. cold-rooms variations can be expected' The follOWing . All fire detectors wlll respond to some extent to phenomena other than fire and therefore careful choice of detectors and their location is essential. e. particles which ~ bUr~Ing fires. The other is the "line" type of detector which is sensitive to the heat effect produced along any portion of the detector line.2. ch b opera es on the chang . Communication faults arising from servicing or testing work carried out without prior notification to the alarm monitoring station. A.usually mounted on the ceiling response t!S pr~sent._ OIn . . less sensitive than smoke detectors. kl etectors have SUfficiently wid qUlc y to smoke that is optically dense B th e ranges of response for general use. e. often resulting from the effects of vibration. Ine correct holes size and sampling point Optical beam sm k d bea 0 e etectors are effectively Iin d t betw':e~e~~~t~~sd ~~7dal~o detect thermal turbule~cee~yC~C:~a~~~~n. .1 Smoke detectors General (b) (c) (d) There are two smoke sensing principles commonly used for smoke detectors as follows' (a) Ionization chamber type Which t . Installation of fixed-temperature ~p "~r~a~es In temperature. specialist application guidance needs to be sought from the manufacturer. Ambient conditions such as heat. PVC. H~IC:S'~~I~:~g~e~h:o~~:ryn~~~~:~~i~Vi% and/esponds t~ ~~~~~nd~~~~o~~~k: e design tools are commonly used to deterr::. rooms.g. Where SUfficient concentration' mbustlon Prod~cts.ype smoke detectors. . t t . .3. ther f nve th: combustion products up'to the ceil' Ime ~pends upon the nature of the fire. They are unlikely to respond to smouldering fires. Change of use or changes within the building. temperature. CP 10 : 2005 Heat detectors with rate-of-rise elements . e In current flOWing through an ionisation Optical type Which operates on th . The choice of fire detector may also be affected by the environmental conditions within the premises.1 General Operation of all typ chamber or r es of smoke detectors depends on co . ctors sample air from the protected area t o I G> Installations. ~~rti~les. Since the heat.4. when Optical ec ors are less sensitive. ~~. and be either mounted above the risk or in contact with it. e detectors respond quickly to smoke . e.f ~~o~scuration principl:s. 0 optical and ionisation A.1 Heat detectors General Heat detectors are in general. smoke or fiame from cooking or work processes. impact or corrosion. MultrpOlnt aspirating smoke dete pipe network. or the entry of insects. but may respond slOWly to oPtic~~~t~lnIng small particles normally smoulde~ing produ: . When used for these purposes. A g e ore the time for smoke to reach the detect In braPldlY. and as a simple rule of thumb.u CP 10: 2005 For aspirating systems. The sen . air rom specific. the detector should be mounted as close as possible to the place where fire or overheating might occur. the necessary precautions. consideration ShoUI~ ~f nse detectors e e ec ors to reduce the incidence of false e given to the are typical examples Where furnaces. and laundries. installers and users to reduce the incidence of false alarms. eam at turbulent Interfaces Ionisation chamber smok produced in clea . entering the sensinghot fire Wil~~ . Point-type heat detectors are generally suitable for use in most buildings. Inadequate maintenance and servicing. d smoke detectors respond . The build-up of dust or dirt within a detector. operation IS obtained. relative humidity. Where enVironmental conditions of a b 'Id' ?wing to normally occurring ra id' UI Ing are not conducive to the use of rat _ _.2 False alarms It is essential that utmost care should be taken by system designers. Electrical transients or radio interference. or in neglect of. heat detectors have greater resistance to adverse environmental conditions than other types. am er upon entry of smoke particles. above S~~hthrtemperature a~aOrlm'esr' A. A. Accidental or malicious activation of manual call points or detectors. or high air velocities due to strong winds outside the building. ~~~~~:.~~::~:r~~u~:te~fo~s~~~~~~h of te-of:~liI~~s~~n~:~s:e r~~~~e~ncc~eo::::f ~~n~~ns fatster its ra -nse and fixed-temperature is pera ure. wlll require the flames from the fire to reach about one-third of the distance to the ceiling before they wlll operate. locations as required.2. detectors Ight beam. detectors or detector locations having higher false alarm rates should be subject to special investigation. vary siowly. in computer rooms.4. 52 53 . e scattenng or absorption of light by smoke pa rt·Ices In a (e) (b) (f) (g) (h) (i) There are single-point and multi oint based on optical or ionisation princiPI~s~tectors that detect smoke at one or more positions and may be Duct sampling units draw air from within the duct to p . In general.4 A. jr~dUCed by smouldering materials Certai~nse t~oke containing large maIn y arge particles to which ionisation det t ma enals. Line-type heat detectors may be particularly suitable for protecting items of plant or cabling. They are therefore not suitable for the protection of places where unacceptable losses could be caused by small fires. while fixed tem t are more sUitable Where ambient te likely to fluctuate rapidly ove~:~~rture dedtectors are more suitable where the a~~rernattutres are low or peno s.g.3 A. Some air. pre erred for general It must be appreciated that a rate-of-rise detector .g.

there is significant potential for reduction of many types of false alarms.5 Airflow Smoke can be diluted by airflow caused by updraughts. 54 55 . A.2. CP 10 : 2005 For atria type constructions. Proper protection may require detectors at two levels. will eventually "spill over" into adjacent pockets. Some typical ceiling surfaces where the use of smoke detectors should be evaluated are as follows: (a) Smooth ceilings.4.2. They are also suitable for large areas where smoke detection is required at high and normal sensitivity levels. It may be necessary to conduct air circulation observation tests in a room to ensure proper placement of detectors. In the vicinity of certain materials. The method (if any) of combining the signals from each sensor varies between different proprietary multi-sensor fire detection systems. open joist.2. it tend~ to spread up~ards in th~ gener~l form of an inverted cone. (c) High ceilings. A. In kitchens. configuration of contents.6 Special environmental considerations The location of smoke detectors should be determined taking into consideration the special environments where false activation or non-activati~n is likely. such as high rack storage warehouses.2. The smoke will then stratify at a level beneath the ceiling.2. windows. For air-conditioned facilities and others where forced ventilation is present. A. sloping. open windows. Multi-sensor detectors contain more than one sensor. Smoke detectors other than those incorporating thermal turbulence detectors do not detect fumes from burning alcohol and other clean burning liquids which do not produce smoke particles. and other areas subject to cooking fumes and vapours. burning characteristics and ventilation are some of the factors that must be considered. As these products flow along the ceiling. A. which during smouldering produce mainly large particles to which optical detectors are more responsive. In some such systems. in such situations. Natural or forced ventilation assists the smoke reaching detectors at high ceiling levels (see AA. ceiling height. such as doors. they travel along the ceiling. This is especially true in warehouses with metal roofs. Near openings.3. it is good practice to take advantage of air currents to transport smoke to a detector. the air under the roof is heated by the sun and a thermal barrier exists which prevents the warm combustion products from reaching the ceiling. smoke is driven upwards by the heat from the fire source. smoke dilution and high airflow may cause the detector to respond slowly. could enter the detector. forced ventilating systems or air-conditioning systems. if sufficient products are being generated.2A). In areas where steam or condensation vapour is expected. Areas where high concentrations of tobacco smoke are expected. Heated air and smoke usually rise. (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) In high ceilings. Smoke detectors incorporating thermal turbulence detectors may be unsuitable for installation immediately above ceiling-mounted blower heaters or industrial processes that produce appreciable heat.4.4. In dusty areas or in areas where particulate matter. or other shaped ceilings must receive special consideration as smoke usually travels in a longitudinal direction at the highest point. In extreme environments the selection of smoke detectors shouid be confined to those capable of withstanding the environmental conditions. bathrooms. The purpose of combining sensors in this way is to enhance the performance of the system in detection of fire.2. Therefore the concentration within the cone vanes approximately Inversely as the square of the distance from the source. Ceiling shape and surfaces. A. The effects of airflow on the detector and the movement of smoke where detectors are installed near air ducts and in air-conditioned rooms may in some cases require repositioning of the detector.2. or its resistance to at least certain categories of false alarm. Other ceilings. Aspirating smoke detection systems are suitable for applications where a very high sensitivity is desirable. beam construction. Generally at night this condition will not exist.CP 10 : 2005 The optical beam smoke detector will respond when the light path at the receiver is interrupted or obscured. smoke beams at several levels may be necessary because of stratification (see A. where the introduction of outside industrial gases or products of combustion may be possible. When they reach smooth ceilings. However. it may be necessary to install de!ectors at more than one level to take advantage of the higher concentrations near the floor to provide faster response. However. one group at the ceiling level and another at some distance below the ceiling. in particular where beam detectors are used.2. During the day.3 Ceiling surfaces As mentioned in A. Smoke released from slow burning or small fires may not be hot enough to penetrate the normally heated air which collects at the ceiling. As smoke rises from a fire. The smoke will then stratify at a level which prevents the warm combustion products from reaching the ceiling. the products collect in the pocket and. where a large area is covered the precise location of the smoke sensed cannot be determined.2 Location considerations Location of smoke detectors should result from an evaluation based upon engineering judgement or field test.4.4 Stratification As mentioned in AA.5). This is not a serious disadvantage because a fire will normally involve other combustible materials at an early stage. or other inlets. Where deep beams or other obstructions form pockets in the ceiling. the ceiling surface is one of the factors that must be considered before the locations of smoke detectors are established. but heat or flame detectors should also be considered. such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC).2.4. their concentration decreases as the distance from the source increases. Some typical environments where the use of smoke detectors should be carefully evaluated are as follows: (a) (b) (c) Areas where gases may be present from exhausts and normal manufacturing processes. each of which responds to a different physical and/or chemical characteristic of fire. such as aerosols. Sawtooth. Combined optical beam smoke detectors and thermal turbulence detectors may be suitable for such risk. or both. In areas where the detector is subject to movement and excessive vibration.4.4. It is important therefore that the light path be kept clear of obstacles at all times.

Ovens/furnaces. are potential ultraviolet spurious alarm sources.5. appropriate shielding must be fitted to prevent the non-flame ultraviolet radiation falling on the detector or combination UVIIR detectors may be considered. Where a flame detector is placed at a fixed height above the floor. these time delays should be eliminated or reduced considerably.1 Flame detectors Flame characteristics Flames from most fire sources emit electromagnetic radiation which includes an ultraviolet component. they have a filter which only allows them to respond to radiation pulsing around a central frequency of 5 Hz to 15 Hz which is characteristic of many types of flames. many infrared flame detectors operate on the "fiicker principle" Le. visible light. ultraviolet detectors should be selected.3 Selection Flame detectors should be chosen for applications where there is the likelihood of rapid flame development so that an alarm can be raised before products of combustion or heat would have 3 reached smoke detectors or heat detectors. A. within which a particular fire size will be detected. then a combination of UVIIR detector would be more appropriate. and infrared radiation in various intensities characteristic of each particular source. electric arcs. Incandescent lamps. Quartz halogen lamps. e. -' For infrared flame detectors. Where ultraviolet detectors must be used in these environments. Other typical applications of flame detectors are storage tanks and pipework containing flammable liquids. The intensity of the radiation striking the detector decreases by the square of the distance from the seat of the fire.5. and which is lit by incandescent lamps (good infrared source). For ultraviolet flame detectors. Flames from sources such as petrol and oil tend to generate greater quantities of infrared radiation. lightning and non-destructive inspection. IRlIR and IR detectors can be used to reduce or eliminate the potential for spurious alarms in applications where UV or IR detectors may experience problems.5. An alternative is to use dual sensor operation whereby both sensors must detect the presence of flames before the suppression system is activated. Most infrared flame . If rotation of a fan or motor or rippling on a liqUid surface causes radiation from the source to flicker at the same frequency as a flame. The distance from the seat of the fire to the detectors influences radiation intensity. The amount of radiation received by the detector will be reduced. for a store containing solvents which burn cleanly. Similarly. particulariy sunlight and building lighting. Combinations UV/IR.2 Detector characteristics Flame (radiation) detectors are sensitive to radiation that travels from the fire to the detector in negligible time irrespective of distance.5 Spurious alarms There are a number of sources of radiation which occur in installations for which some measures of protection must be taken to prevent spurious alarms.4 Field of view considerations Flame detectors are essentially "line of sighf' devices which can sense the presence of flames in a set field of view.5. u~ed to actuate extinguishing or high-speed suppression systems.g. Howev~r. whereas gas flames and solvents such as methylated spirits have a much higher ultraviolet component. A. A. and the response time of the detector may be increased. Sunlight. The choice of infrared or ultraviolet detectors or some combination will depend on the typical radiation from the expected fire hazard and the presence of false alarm sources in the vicinity. contamination of lenses. Other sources. the intensity of the fire must be four times greater in order to activate an alarm. They may be of the ultraviolet or infrared type and respond when the radiant energy in their respective sensing band exceeds a preset threshold. with increased distance from the fire. generate radiation in the same parts of the spectrum and therefore flame detectors must be selected to discriminate flame from other radiation sources. This means that if this distance is doubled. e. and large open warehouses. may actuate a detector with reduced sensitivity. Ultraviolet flame detectors mostly discriminate flames from sunlight by sensing only radiation at wavelengths between 185 nm and 270 nm which is outside the solar spectrum. A. where detectors are. infrared detectors would be appropriate. The aim of designers should be to provide full coverage of the area to be protected with maximum multiple coverage to account for obstructions in the line of sight of some detectors Figure A3 shows a typical layout of four flame detectors protecting an aircraft hangar with multiple coverage. although reflected radiation.g. can be determined from the manufacturer's data (see Figure A2). with a low infrared radiation component. Ultraviolet lamps. A clear line of sight to the protected area is desirable. if potential infrared spurious alarm sources such as high frequency radio transmission equipment and running aircraft auxiliary power units are present in the hanger.5. potential sources of sp~rious alarm include the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Very hot objects. The environment in which the detector is to be installed would also influence the choice.CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005 A. 56 57 . For example in aircraft maintenance hangars where aviation kerosene is a strong infrared source and welding. Some flame detectors are fitted with a time delay to eliminate the effects of short-term transient signals. In order to discriminate flames from other sources. potential sources of spurious alarm include the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Lightning. then a protected area.detect?rs use the fiicker principle and/or narrow band optical filter to guard against these sources. although other considerations are important. This field is generally described (see Figure A1) by the cone of vision angle and the maximum perpendicular sensitivity in metres. by mirrors. chemical processes.5 A. Cutting and welding operations. a spurious alarm may occur. However. but.

UV/IR.-----Horizontal field of view Smoke detector (beam-type) Electromagnetic door holder @B Pressure switch PS I FS I Figure A2 . P = Photo-electric I optical NOTE 3 . I Ionization.CP 10 : 2005 CP 10 : 2005 Distance Annex B Fire alarm symbols Maximum perpendicular sensitivity (metres) 1 Field of view I i I The following symbols are those which are in common use to indicate on drawings the various items of equipment: Heat detector (exposed or surface mounted) (Note 1) et Main alarm panel I MAP I ~L_-:::-c-. e.g. indicate Type S. C. D or E. IR.If other than Type A. NOTE 2 .Typical floor area protected by one flame detector Flame detector (Note 3) Flow switch ~ 1 Detector coverage End of line device EOl Linear heat detector -L- Detector f-?JI ffi]ill ~ 2 Detector coverage Smoke sampling system (X= sampling point) NOTE 1 .:1---Cone vision of Heat detector in ceiling or roof spaces (Note 1) Heat detector in concealed unde~fioorspaCeS(Nmel) Sub alarm panel I SAP I I RP I _90· +90· Angle Flame detector Figure A1 . e.Indicate Type of Smoke detector..g. UV. 3 Detector coverage = 4 Detector coverage Figure A3 .Indicate Type of Flame detector.Multiple coverage provided by four flame detectors 58 59 .Typical field of view of flame detector Repeater panel Smoke detector (exposed or surface mounted) (Note 2) Smoke detector in ceiling or roof spaces (Note 2) @ Mimic panel Manual call point Flame Detector Smoke detector in concealed underfioor spaces (Note 2) Smoke detector with sampling device (Note 2) Detector aiming point Batteries o I BAT I Cone of vision /Fire alarm bell / / Remote visual indicator --""<.

..Records for automatic fire alarm installations en Weekly/monthly/annual test report OWNER : LOCATION : _ TIME: DATE: TYPE OF TEST : WEEKLY/MONTHLY/ANNUAL' _ _ _ .J o~ U 0 Z i= u et 0 ..... _ _ _ _ - z oen . « z :2 w w Cl Cl 0::: w . + Tick if satisfactory.9 .J .: ..J ll:::l 0 0 "- .. a: ALARM SOUNDER ANCILLARY CONTROLS _ I HEREBY CERTIFY THAT THE ABOVE TESTS HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT Tester's Name Signatute. et 0 « I I I 60 61 . . Owner's Name. W et.. i= (/) (/) W • Delete if not applicable 0 u. ... . put '>c' if unsatisfactory and give explanation under the remarks space...J Cl ::::> CO :.. z 5!:w 0 "0 a:> U W en w z <....CP 10 : 2005 CP 10: 2005 Annex C Daily log .J en ~ et i= en :.::: a: W - et :.. Signature.J ~ E 0 W et ALARM ZONE NUMBER THERMAL ALARM TEST FAULT TEST ISOLATION SMOKE DEVICES+ FLAME ALARM TEST FAULT TEST ISOLATION ALARM TEST FAULT TEST ISOLATION MANUAL CALL POINT ALARM TEST FAULT TEST ISOLATION OPERATIVE POWER SUPPLY+ MAIN SUPPLY CHARGER BATTERY ALARM MONITORING STATION ALARMS+ AND ANCILLARY REMARKS: ALARM TEST FAULT TEST NONOPERATIVE REMARKS W .

.CP 10: 2005 CP 10 : 2005 Annex D Components of a fire alarm system Standards referred to: IEC 60227-4: 1997 Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450 /750 V Part 4 . B Control and indicating equipment.. F Alarm monitoring station. Part 2 : 1998 I I '[~'[~J - Part 3 : 1996 Part 5 : 1998 SS504. 1981 E Fault Signal - F SS299:- I-- SS358:- Specification for polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450 / 750 V Part 1 : 1996 General requirements Test methods Non-sheathed cables for fixed Wiring Flexible cables (cords) 0 .. E Fire service signalling transmitter. Items G and H may need to be provided with a separate power supply... which will be included into the system having an automatic fire-extinguishing installation. D Manual call point(s). and not physical interconnections...The components of a typical fire alarm system 62 63 . I Power supply equipment.- Specification for conduit systems for cable management Part 21 : 2003 Particular requirements for rigid conduit systems Key A Fire detector(s)... Sheathed cables for fixed wiring CP 5: 1998 Code of practice for electrical installations Code of practice for mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings Code of practice for emergency voice communication system In buildings Specification for steel surface cable trunking and accessories Specification for fire resistance cables Part 1 : 1998 Performance requirements for cables required to maintain circuit integrity under fire conditions ~ C CP 13: 1999 CP 25: 1999 A B Fire Alarm Signal SS 249. The dotted line that link items G and H mean that these two items are optional features... G Control for automatic fire protection equipment.. The lines linking the various components indicate information flows. H Automatic fire protection equipment. Figure D1 . NOTE 1.. C Fire alarm device(s).... NOTE 3... NOTE 2..

SPRING Singapore helps companies and industry to meet international standards and conformity requirements by creating awareness of the importance of standardisation to enhance competitiveness and improve productivity. These include eqUipping enterprises with capabilities to upgrade their know-how. tertiary institutions and consumer. Our vision is to nurture a host of dynamic and innovative Singapore enterprises. SPRING Singapore 2 Bukit Merah Central Singapore 159835 Tel: 6278 6666 Fax: 6278 6667 E-mail: queries@spring. Strategic Thrust 4: Increase access to markets and business opportunities SPRING helps enterprises gain access to markets by reducing technical barriers to trade. process or service in an area where there is an absence of reference standards. and heip increase access to markets and business opportunities. continue as Technical References for further comments or be withdrawn. Technical. codes of practice. Strategic Thrust 2: Facilitate the growth of industries SPRING adopts an integrated ciuster deveiopment approach in enhancing the vibrancy and competitiveness of selected industries. SPRING Singapore is vested with the authority to appoint a Standards Council to advise on the preparation. All comm~nts are considered when a technical reference is reviewed at the end of two years to determine the feasibility of its transition to a Singapore Standard. they are issued for comments over a period of two years before assessment on their suitability for approval as Singapore Standards. trade and manufacturing organisations. We work to nurture a pro-business environment that encourages enterprise formation and growth. compete and grow. methods of test. labour. To ensure adequate representation of all viewpoints in the preparation of Singapore Standards. etc. and creating conditions that encourage a productivity & innovation and service focus in enterprises. PRODUCTIVITY AND INNOVATION BOARD (SPRING SINGAPORE) SPRiNG's mission is to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises for a vibrant Singapore economy. services.gov. both locally and overseas. It also facilitates enterprise access to key factor inputs like iand. The Singapore National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission which is supported by SPRING Singapore.gov.CP 10: 2005 STANDARDS. In the international arena. CP 10: 2005 Singapore Standards are in the form of specifications for materials and products. providing quality assurance for Singapore products/services and linking local enterprises to business opportunities. professional bodies. Under the national standardisation programme. The respective standards committee wili draw up the standards before seekmg final approval from the Standards Council. SPRING helps to ensure that there is a conducive environment for enterprises to form. co-ordinating the development and use of Singapore Standards and setting up an information infrastructure to educate companies and industry on the latest developments. all committees appointed consist of representatives from various interest groups which include government agencies.spring. enhance productivity & innovation and capabilities of enterprises. Reference~ are iransition do~uments developed to heip meet urgent industry demand for specifications or requirements on a particular product. Strategic Thrust 1: Nurture a pro-business environment that encourages enterprise formation and growth SPRING takes on the role of a steward to nurture a pro-business environment. the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) Sub-committee for Standards and Conformance (SCSC) and in the ASEAN Consultative Committee on Standards and Quality (ACCSQ). represents Singapore in the IEC. publication and promulgation of Singapore Standards and Technical References and their implementation. Strategic Thrust 3: Enhance productivity & innovation and capabilities of enterprises SPRING helps enterprises to enhance their productivity & innovation and capabilities. Technical References can therefore become Singapore Standards after two years. SPRING promotes the review and removal of rules and regulations that stifle enterprises. technoiogy and finance. SPRING Singapore represents Singapore in the International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO). nomenclature. In this role. Focused assistance wili be provided for promising enterprises.sg Website: http://www. 64 65 .sg ABOUT THE NATIONAL STANDARDISATION PROGRAMME SPRING is also the national standards body in Singapore. facilitate the growth of industries. Unlike Singapore Standards.

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