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A PAPER ON
COMPUTER APPLICATION IN LAND SURVEYING BY
MAHAJAN SUNNY.S SUJIT.D
KOLHAPUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY’S
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOLHAPUR.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. Today as we can see that the basic need of surveying is increasing, all environmental, commercial, agricultural, and residential purposes therefore there is a much work to do for surveyors . We in this paper have given two methodologies which are commonly used in practice today. Surveying can be done with computer applications in two methods:1. Survey with conventional equipments such as dumpy level and theodolite. a) Excel b) Autocad c) Customization of Excel and Autocad 2. Survey with Non-conventional equipments such as total stations and smart stations. a) Total station b) Autocad land desktop c) Autocad 3d d) Smart stations e) GPS f) DGPS g) GIS
Basically we work with two methodologies stated above. The traditional or conventional way of surveying and the modern way of surveying has a paradigm difference. As we all know the traditional way of surveying is a time consuming ,tedious ,and of less accuracy. Also it uses more human efforts. There is a large amount of difficulties faced by surveyors who actually works on site. As we know that the data collected from site is very difficult to process and make a systematic resource for further works. In the convential way the process data should be further analylised to prepare drawing, maps, countours etc. And also the storage of the data or maps was of a great concern for the engineers. But now with the evolution of modern techniques and trend survey has become a field of interest for the surveyors. Now in the world of this technology surveys can be conducted systematically by COMPUTER APPLICATIONS. Computer application has a given a new direction in the field of surveying. It has made work easy and quick. As it requires 20% time compared to conventional way, also energy used by the human resource is very less. It is very accurate. As in modern world there is a need to do fast and accurate work and it will never me accomplished without computers. As there are many soft wares available in market we have a taken into consideration the market leaders AUTODESK. It is a company which provides many soft wares in field of civil engineering. The basic is the AUTOCAD then comes the Autocad land desktop then the autocad civil designs. And now Autocad civil 3D which is a combination of both.
COMPUTER APPLICATION IN LAND SURVEY
TWO WAYS TO TAKE HELP OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN SURVEYING:1. SURVEY WITH CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS 2. SURVEY WITH NON- CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS
1.SURVEY WITH CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS
Here first take reading from the field are taken then it is entered in the field book then it is entered in the excel then at last in AutoCAD, drawing is done.
In computing, Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) consists of a proprietary spreadsheet-application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables and, except for Excel 2008 for Mac OS X, a macro programming language called VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). It is overwhelmingly the dominant spreadsheet application available for these platforms and has been so since version 5 in 1993, and is bundled as part of Microsoft Office. This is a best platform for surveyors to enter there field readings in a systematic manner.
AutoCAD is a CAD (Computer Aided Design) software application for 2D and 3D design and drafting, developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc. Initially released in late 1982, AutoCAD was one of the first CAD programs to run on personal computers, and notably the IBM PC. Most CAD software at the time ran on graphics terminals connected to mainframe computers or mini-computers. Here in autocad we can prepare drawing with the help of field readings in 2D or 3D. drafting. It is the market leader in computer aided
The main problem that most people have with importing Word and Excel documents into AutoCAD is the limitation of the size of documents that Window’s can handle. What many people do is spend time separating documents, or keep cutting and pasting the document into AutoCAD and trying to put it all back together in a presentable fashion. This is a very time consuming process, but perhaps more importantly, you do not have a link between the source document and the imported document in AutoCAD. Here with the help of customization we can easily transfer the data from excel to AutoCAD.
2.SURVEY WITH NON- CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS A) TOTAL STATION
A total station is an optical instrument used in modern surveying. It is a combination of an electronic theodolite (transit), an electronic distance meter (EDM) and software running on an external computer known as a data collector. With a total station one may determine angles and distances from the instrument to points to be surveyed. With the aid of trigonometry and triangulation, the angles and distances may be used to calculate the coordinates of actual positions (X, Y, and Z or northing, easting and elevation) of surveyed points, or the position of the instrument from known points, in absolute terms.
The data may be downloaded from the theodolite to an external computer and application software will generate a map of the surveyed area
B) AUTOCAD LAND DESKTOP
1.At first readings on the field with help of total station are taken then the total station is connected to the computer then all the data in the total station is transferred to the computer with help of data cable. 2. This data can be saved in the computer in various formats . Usually it is saved in a .dxf format. 3. Then we save this .dxf format to .dwg format that is the AutoCAD format. 4. Then we open this .dwg file in AutoCAD land desktop, we will a get all the reading points taken its X,Y,Z readings. 5. Then with the help of land desktop we can draw a grid and then interpolate the points.
6.And then we can also get a contour map in land desktop. 7.It also can give us cross-sections at any line drawn. The above figure can give a idea about what is explained. 8. After this contour map we can also construct a road or a building on it so that we can get exact quantity of cutting and filling.
C) AUTOCAD 3D
AutoCAD 3D is more advanced software in which we can do dual work of AutoCAD land desktop and AutoCAD civil design at one place.
D) SMART STATION
Smart Station position coordinates at the touch of a key With Smart Station you don’t need to worry about control points, traverses and resections. Just set up wherever it’s convenient, touch the GPS key and let the Smart Antenna do the rest. RTK determines the position to centimeter accuracy within a few seconds at ranges up to 50 km from a reference station. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) satellite navigation is a technique used in land survey and in hydrographic survey based on the use of carrier phase measurements of the GPS, GLONASS and/or Galileo signals where a single reference station provides the real-time corrections of even to a centimetre level of accuracy.With Smart Station you’re ready to go in the shortest possible time; fix the position with GPS and then survey with the total station. GPS fully integrated into total station with the entire software in the total station, all TPS and GPS operations are controlled via the TPS keyboard. All data are stored in the same database on the same Compact Flash card. All measurement, status and other information are displayed on the TPS screen. The TPS plug-in battery also powers the GPS Smart Antenna and RTK communication device. All components combine perfectly. Everything is integrated into one compact unit – no need for cables, external battery, data logger etc. Use as Smart Station, or as a total station and RTK rover With Smart Station’s modular design, you can use the equipment in any way you like. Use Smart Station when there are no control points available. Once Smart Station is accurately positioned, take off the Smart Antenna, put it on a pole, and use it with the RX1250 Controller for as a fully fledged, ultra light Smart Rover. You’re totally flexible with Smart Station.
Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is changing the way we work and play. You can use GPS technology when you are driving, flying, fishing, sailing, hiking, running, biking, working, or exploring. With a GPS receiver, you have an amazing amount of information at your fingertips. Here are just a few examples of how you can use GPS technology. Know precisely how far you have run and at what pace while tracking your path so you can find your way home Pinpoint the perfect fishing spot on the water and easily relocate it. Get the closest location of your favorite restaurant when you are out-of-town. Find the nearest airport or identify the type of airspace in which you are flying Some total stations also have a GPS interface which combines these two technologies to make use of the advantages of both (GPS - line of sight not required between measured points; Traditional Total Station - high precision measurement especially in the vertical axis compared with GPS) and reduce the consequences of each technology's disadvantages (GPS - poor accuracy in the vertical axis and lower accuracy without long occupation periods; Total Station - requires line of sight observations and must be set up over a known point or within line of sight of 2 or more known points). The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that sends and receives radio signals. A GPS receiver acquires these signals and provides you with information. Using GPS technology, you can determine location, velocity, and time, 24 hours a day, in any weather conditions anywhere in the world—for free. GPS, formally known as the NAVSTAR (Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging)
Global Positioning System, originally was developed for the military. Because of its popular navigation capabilities and because you can access GPS technology using small, inexpensive equipment, the government made the system available for civilian use. The USA owns GPS technology and the Department of Defense maintains it.
F) DGPS :
GPS is the U.S. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A network of 24 satellites continuously transmits high-frequency radio signals, containing time and distance data that can be picked up by any GPS receiver, allowing the user to pinpoint their position any where on Earth. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is a system designed to improve the accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) by measuring infinitesimal changes in variables to provide satellite positioning corrections. Two or more receivers observe the same set of satellites, taking similar measurements that produce similar errors when positioned closely together. In all to overcome the demerits of GPS, DGPS is used.
GEOGRAPIC INFORMATION SYSTEM integrates hardware, software ,and data for capturing managing analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework. All the data processed in GIS is used for many works. Such as for governance (for collection of land revenue, for water supply for municipal authorities etc.), environmental surveys (such as for conservation of flora and fauna).
Use of modern techniques has made human being more equipped to do more work in less time. Modern equipments such as total station, micro station, integrated with satellites using GPS and use of computer application has made surveying more precise. Computer application has given a new direction in the field of survey.
Due to computer application the transformation of data into many useful formats for different needs is possible. REFERENCES:1. www.Autodesk.com 2. Surveying Volume 2 By Mr. S.K.Duggal 3. www.wikipedia.com 4. www.lieca-geosystems.com 5.www.gisdevelopment.net SPECIAL THANKS:Mr. Rohit Ghatage (ICON civil services, Kolhapur)
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