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ACMotors
Literature Number: BPRA073
Texas Instruments Europe
February 1998
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Contents
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iii
Contents
1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 1
2. Classic AC drives..................................................................................................... 1
3. Field Orientated Control........................................................................................... 2
3.1 Space Vector definition and projection ......................................................... 3
3.1.1 The (a,b,c)>(α,β) projection (Clarke transformation) .................. 3
3.1.2 The (α,β)>(d,q) projection (Park transformation) ........................ 4
3.1.3 The (d,q)>(α,β) projection (inverse Park transformation) ........... 5
3.2 The basic scheme for the FOC..................................................................... 5
3.3 The input for the FOC................................................................................... 7
3.3.1 Current sampling......................................................................... 7
3.3.2 Rotor flux position........................................................................ 7
3.4 Conclusion.................................................................................................... 8
4. The PI regulator ....................................................................................................... 8
5. The Space Vector PWM.......................................................................................... 9
5.1 The 3phase Inverter .................................................................................... 9
5.2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)................................ 10
5.3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM................................................................ 12
6. Conclusion............................................................................................................. 13
References ................................................................................................................ 14
Contents
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iv
List of Figures
Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b,c)................................... 3
Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a,b).................................... 4
Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b) and in the d,q rotating
reference frame.................................................................................................. 4
Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor................................................................... 6
Figure 5: Current, voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d,q rotating reference frame
and their relationship with a,b,c and a,b stationary reference frame .................. 7
Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure....................................................... 8
Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term............................. 9
Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor............................................... 9
Figure 9: SVPWM, vectors and sectors .......................................................................... 10
Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors................................. 11
Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3 ................................................................. 11
Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM, pattern......................................................................... 12
Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM......................................................... 13
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 1
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors
ABSTRACT
The principle of vector control of electrical drives is based on the control of
both the magnitude and the phase of each phase current and voltage. For
as long as this type of control considers the three phase system as three
independent systems the control will remain analog and thus present
several drawbacks. Since high computational power silicon devices, such as
the TMS320F240 from TI, came to market it has been possible to realize far
more precise digital vector control algorithms. The most common of these
accurate vector controls is presented in this document: the Field Orientated
Control, a digital implementation which demonstrates the capability of
performing direct torque control, of handling system limitations and of
achieving higher power conversion efficiency.
1. Introduction
During the last few years the field of controlled electrical drives has undergone rapid
expansion due mainly to the advantages of semiconductors in both power and signal
electronics and culminating in microelectronic microprocessors and DSPs. These
technological improvements have enabled the development of really effective AC drive
control with ever lower power dissipation hardware and ever more accurate control
structures. The electrical drive controls become more accurate in the sense that not only
are the DC current and voltage controlled but also the three phase currents and voltages
are managed by socalled vector controls. This document describes the most efficient
form of vector control scheme: the Field Orientated Control. It is based on three major
points: the machine current and voltage space vectors, the transformation of a three
phase speed and time dependent system into a two coordinate time invariant system
and effective Pulse Width Modulation pattern generation. Thanks to these factors, the
control of AC machine acquires every advantage of DC machine control and frees itself
from the mechanical commutation drawbacks. Furthermore, this control structure, by
achieving a very accurate steady state and transient control, leads to high dynamic
performance in terms of response times and power conversion. These different aspects
are discussed in the following chapters.
2. Classic AC drives
AC motor control structures generally apply three 120º spatially displaced sinusoidal
voltages to the three stator phases. In most of the classic AC drives the generation of the
three sine waves is based on motor electromechanical characteristics and on an
equivalent model for the motor in its steady state. Furthermore, the control looks like
three separate single phase system controls rather than one control of a three phase
system. Some major common drawbacks are presented in this chapter [1]:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 2
• The machine models and characteristics used are valid only in steady state. This
causes the control to allow high peak voltage and current transients. These damage
not only the drive dynamic performance but also the power conversion efficiency.
Additionally, the power components must be oversized to withstand the transient
electrical spikes.
• Great difficulty in controlling the variables with sinusoidal references: PI regulators can
not perform a sinusoidal regulation without damaging the sinusoidal référence, and
hysteresis controllers introduce high bandwidth noise into the system that is hard to
filter out.
• No three phase system imbalance management. No consideration of the phase
interactions.
• Finally, the control structure must be dedicated according to motor type (asynchronous
or synchronous).
The following chapters present the Field Orientated Control of AC drives. This control
solution overcomes each of these drawbacks and thus improves the overall effectiveness
of the AC drive. Detailed explanations and references to other helpful documents gives
the reader a good understanding of the control structure and of the immediate benefits of
such a solution.
3. Field Orientated Control
The Field Orientated Control (FOC) [1][3] consists of controlling the stator currents
represented by a vector. This control is based on projections which transform a three
phase time and speed dependent system into a two coordinate (d and q coordinates)
time invariant system. These projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC
machine control. Field orientated controlled machines need two constants as input
references: the torque component (aligned with the q coordinate) and the flux
component (aligned with d coordinate). As Field Orientated Control is simply based on
projections the control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. This makes
the control accurate in every working operation (steady state and transient) and
independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model. The FOC thus solves the
classic scheme problems, in the following ways:
• the ease of reaching constant reference (torque component and flux component of the
stator current)
• the ease of applying direct torque control because in the (d,q) reference frame the
expression of the torque is:
m i
R Sq
∝ψ
By maintaining the amplitude of the rotor flux (ψ
R
) at a fixed value we have a linear
relationship between torque and torque component (i
Sq
). We can then control the torque
by controlling the torque component of stator current vector.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 3
3.1 Space Vector definition and projection
The threephase voltages, currents and fluxes of ACmotors can be analyzed in terms of
complex space vectors [1][6]. With regard to the currents, the space vector can be
defined as follows. Assuming that i
a
, i
b
, i
c
are the instantaneous currents in the stator
phases, then the complex stator current vector i
S
_
is defined by:
i i i i
S
a b c
_
· + + α α
2
where α
π
· e
j
2
3
and α
π
2
4
3
· e
j
, represent the spatial operators. The following diagram
shows the stator current complex space vector:
a
i
S
b
c
i
a
α
2
i
c
αi
b
Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b,c)
where (a,b,c) are the three phase system axes. This current space vector depicts the
three phase sinusoidal system. It still needs to be transformed into a two time invariant
coordinate system. This transformation can be split into two steps:
• (a,b,c)⇒(α,β) (the Clarke transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time variant
system
• (α,β)⇒(d,q) (the Park transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time invariant
system
This is explained in the following chapter.
3.1.1 The (a,b,c)>(α,β) projection (Clarke transformation)
The space vector can be reported in another reference frame with only two orthogonal
axis called (α,β). Assuming that the axis a and the axis α are in the same direction we
have the following vector diagram:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 4
α·a
β
i
S
b
c
i
Sα
i
Sβ
Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a,b)
The projection that modifies the three phase system into the (α,β) two dimension
orthogonal system is presented below.
i i
i i i
S a
S a b
α
β
·
· +
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
1
3
2
3
for a TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report (BPRA048). We obtain a two
coordinate system
i
i
S
S
α
β

.
`
,
that still depends on time and speed.
3.1.2 The (α,β)>(d,q) projection (Park transformation)
This is the most important transformation in the FOC. In fact, this projection modifies a
two phase orthogonal system (α,β) in the d,q rotating reference frame. If we consider the
d axis aligned with the rotor flux, the next diagram shows, for the current vector, the
relationship from the two reference frame:
θ
α·a
β
i
S
d
q
i
Sd
i
Sq
i
Sα
i
Sβ
Ψ
R
Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b) and in the d,q
rotating reference frame
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 5
where θ is the rotor flux position. The flux and torque components of the current vector
are determined by the following equations:
i i i
i i i
Sd S S
Sq S S
· +
· − +
¹
'
¹
¹
α β
α β
θ θ
θ θ
cos sin
sin cos
These components depend on the current vector (α,β) components and on the rotor flux
position; if we know the right rotor flux position then, by this projection, the d,q component
becomes a constant. For TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report
(BPRA048). We obtain a two coordinate system
i
i
Sd
Sq

.
`
,
with the following characteristics:
• two coordinate time invariant system
• with i
Sd
(flux component) and i
Sq
(torque component) the direct torque control is possible
and easy.
3.1.3 The (d,q)>(α,β) projection (inverse Park transformation)
Here, we introduce from this voltage transformation only the equation that modifies the
voltages in d,q rotating reference frame in a two phase orthogonal system:
v v v
v v v
S ref Sdref Sqref
S ref Sdref Sqref
α
β
θ θ
θ θ
· −
· +
¹
'
¹
¹
cos sin
sin cos
The outputs of this block are the components of the reference vector that we call V
r
_
;
V
r
_
is the voltage space vector to be applied to the motor phases. For TMS320F240
software implementation refer to report (BPRA048).
3.2 The basic scheme for the FOC
The following diagram summarizes the basic scheme of torque control with FOC [1][2][3]:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 6
θ
SV
PWM
a,b,c
α,β
i
Sq
i
Sd
i
Sα
i
Sβ
i
a
i
b
v
Sqref
PI
PI
v
Sdref
v
Sαref
v
Sβref
i
Sqref
i
Sdref


3phase
Inverter
AC
motor
V
DC
Clarke t.
d,q
α,β
d,q
α,β
Park t.
Park
1
t.
Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor
Two motor phase currents are measured. These measurements feed the Clarke
transformation module. The outputs of this projection are designated i
S
α
and i
S
β
. These
two components of the current are the inputs of the Park transformation that gives the
current in the d,q rotating reference frame. The i
Sd
and i
Sq
components are compared to the
references i
Sdref
(the flux reference) and i
Sqref
(the torque reference). At this point, this
control structure shows an interesting advantage: it can be used to control either
synchronous or induction machines by simply changing the flux reference and obtaining
rotor flux position. As in synchronous permanent magnet motors, the rotor flux is fixed
(determined by the magnets) there is no need to create one. Hence, when controlling a
PMSM, i
Sdref
should be set to zero. As induction motors need a rotor flux creation in order
to operate, the flux reference must not be zero. This conveniently solves one of the major
drawbacks of the “classic” control structures: the portability from asynchronous to
synchronous drives. The torque command i
Sqref
could be the output of the speed regulator
when we use a speed FOC. The outputs of the current regulators are v
Sdref
and v
Sqref
; they
are applied to the inverse Park transformation. The outputs of this projection are v
S
α
ref
and
v
S
β
ref
which are the components of the stator vector voltage in the α,β stationary
orthogonal reference frame. These are the inputs of the Space Vector PWM. The outputs
of this block are the signals that drive the inverter. Note that both Park and inverse Park
transformations need the rotor flux position. Obtaining this rotor flux position depends on
the AC machine type (synchronous or asynchronous machine). Rotor flux position
considerations are made in a following paragraph.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 7
3.3 The input for the FOC
Fundamental requirements for the FOC are a knowledge of two phase currents (as the
motor is starconnected, the third phase current is also known, since i i i 0
a b c
+ + · ), and
the rotor flux position.
3.3.1 Current sampling
The measured phase currents i
a
and i
b
are sampled and converted by an A/D converter.
The correct working of the FOC depends on the true measurement of these currents.
3.3.2 Rotor flux position
Knowledge of the rotor flux position is the core of the FOC. In fact if there is an error
in this variable the rotor flux is not aligned with daxis and i
Sd
and i
Sq
are incorrect flux and
torque components of the stator current. The following diagram shows the (a,b,c), (α,β)
and (d,q) reference frames, and the correct position of the rotor flux, the stator current
and stator voltage space vector that rotates with d,q reference at synchronous speed.
ψ
R
θ
α·a
β
i
S
d
q
b
c
v
S
Figure 5: Current, voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d,q rotating reference
frame and their relationship with a,b,c and a,b stationary reference frame
The measure of the rotor flux position is different if we consider synchronous or induction
motor.
• In the synchronous machine the rotor speed is equal to the rotor flux speed. Then θ
(rotor flux position) is directly measured by position sensor or by integration of rotor
speed [1].
• In the induction machine the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (there is a
slip speed), then it needs a particular method to calculate θ. The basic method is the
use of the current model [1][2][3] which needs two equations of the motor model in d,q
reference frame.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 8
3.4 Conclusion
Thanks to FOC it becomes possible to control, directly and separately, the torque and
flux of AC machines. Field Orientated Controlled AC machines thus obtain every DC
machine advantage: instantaneous control of the separate quantities allowing accurate
transient and steady state management. In addition to this advantage, Field Orientated
Controlled AC machines solve the mechanical commutation problems inherent with DC
machines. TMS320F240, by providing high CPU power and highly versatile motor control
dedicated peripherals, makes the use of DC machines obsolete in terms of power
conversion efficiency and system reliability, when compared with FOC AC machines.
4. The PI regulator
An electrical drive based on the Field Orientated Control needs two constants as control
parameters: the torque component reference I
Sqref
and the flux component reference I
Sdrefef
.
The classic numerical PI (Proportional and Integral) regulator is well suited to regulating
the torque and flux feedback to the desired values as it is able to reach constant
references, by correctly setting both the P term (K
pi
) and the I term (K
i
) which are
respectively responsible for the error sensibility and for the steady state error. The
numerical expression of the PI regulator is as follows:
U K e K e e
k pi k i k n
n
k
· + +
·
−
∑
0
1
which can be represented by the following figure:
Kpi
Ki
Z
1
y
refk
y
fbk
U
k
e
k
x
i
Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure
According to [4], the limiting point is that during normal operation, or during the tests,
large reference value variations or large disturbances may occur, resulting in saturation
and overflow of the regulator variables and output. If they are not controlled, this kind of
nonlinearity damages the dynamic performance of the system. To solve this problem,
one solution is to add to the previous structure a correction of the integral component as
depicted in the following diagram:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 9
Kpi
Ki
Z
1
y
refk
y
fbk
U
k
e
k
x
i
Kcor
U
1k
Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term
The integral term correction algorithm in a high level language is given below:
INPUT y y
e =y y
u =x +K e
u =u
IF u >u THEN u =u
IF u u THEN u =u
OUTPUT u
e =u u
x =x +K e +K e
refk fbk
k refk fbk
k i pi k
lk k
k lk
k lk
lk
lk k lk
i i i k cor lk
,
max max
min min
<
With u
max
, u
min
we mean the limitations of the output variable.
5. The Space Vector PWM
5.1 The 3phase Inverter
The structure of a typical 3phase power inverter is shown in Figure 8, where V
A
V
B
, V
C
are the voltages applied to the starconnected motor windings, and where V
DC
is the
continuous inverter input voltage.
0 1 2
O
+

V
DC
Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 10
The six switches can be power BJT, GTO, IGBT etc. The ONOFF sequence of all these
devices must respect the following conditions:
• three of the switches must always be ON and three always OFF.
• the upper and the lower switches of the same leg are driven with two complementary
pulsed signals. In this way no vertical conduction is possible, providing care is taken to
ensure that there is no overlap in the power switch transitions.
The next paragraph presents a technique for generating such pulsed signals.
5.2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)
Space Vector PWM supplies the AC machine with the desired phase voltages. The
SVPWM [5] method of generating the pulsed signals fits the above requirements and
minimizes the harmonic contents. Note that the harmonic contents determine the copper
losses of the machine which account for a major portion of the machine losses. Taking
into consideration the two constraints quoted above there are eight possible
combinations for the switch commands. These eight switch combinations determine eight
phase voltage configurations. The diagram below depicts these combinations.
( ) V 000
0
( ) V 111
7
1º
2º
3º
4º
5º
6º
( ) V 001
1
( ) V 011
3
( ) V 011
4
( ) V 010
2
( ) V 101
5
( ) V 110
6
α
β
Figure 9: SVPWM, vectors and sectors
The vectors divide the plan into six sectors. Depending on the sector that the voltage
reference is in, two adjacent vectors are chosen. The binary representations of two
adjacent basic vectors differ in only one bit, so that only one of the upper transistors
switches when the switching pattern moves from one vector to the adjacent one. The two
vectors are time weighted in a sample period T to produce the desired output voltage.
Assuming that the reference vector V
ref
_
is in the 3° sector, we have the following situation:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 11
T
T
V
6
6
−
V
ref
−
T
T
V
4
4
−
( ) V
4
−
100
( ) V
6
110
−
Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors
Where T
4
and T
6
are the times during which the vectors V
_
4
, V
_
6
are applied and T
0
the
time during which the zero vectors are applied. When the reference voltage (output of the
inverse Park transformation) and the sample periods are known, the following system
makes it possible to determine the uncertainties T
4
,T
6
and T
0
.
T T T T
V
T
T
V
T
T
V
ref
· + +
· +
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
4 6 0
4
4
6
6
_ _ _
Under these constraints the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a hexagon
whose vertices are formed by the tips of the eight vectors. The generated space vector
PWM waveforms are symmetrical with respect to the middle of each PWM period [3]. The
diagram shows the waveforms in the example presented above.
T
0
/4 T
6
/2 T
6
/2 T
0
/4 T
0
/4 T
6
/4 T
4
/4 T
0
/4
V
0
V
6
V
4
V
7
V
7
V
6
V
4
V
0
T
t
t
t
0
1
2
Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3
The following diagram shows the pattern of SVPWM for each sector:
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 12
3°
1°
5°
4°
6°
2°
V
4
( 100)
V
6
( 110) V
2
( 010)
V
3
( 011)
V
1
( 001) V
5
( 101)
α
β
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM, pattern
In conclusion, the inputs for the SVPWM are the reference vector components (v
α
Sr
, v
β
Sr
)
and the outputs are the times to apply each of the relevant sector limiting vectors.
5.3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM
The SVPWM generates minimum harmonic distortion of the currents in the winding
of 3phase AC motor. SV Modulation also provides a more efficient use of the
supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation methods. In fact, with
conventional sinusoidal modulation [7][8][9] in which the sinusoidal signals are compared
with a triangular carrier, we know that the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a
circle with a radius of
1
2
V
DC
. In the SV modulation it can be shown that the length of each
of the six vectors is
2
3
V
DC
. In steady state the reference vector magnitude might be
constant. This fact makes the SV modulation reference vector locus smaller than the
hexagon described above. This locus narrows itself to the circle inscribed within the
hexagon, thus having a radius of
1
3
V
DC
. In Figure 13 below the different reference
vector loci are presented.
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 13
α·a
b
c
conventional
sinusoidal PWM
Space Vector PWM
O L
M
N
OL=2/3V
DC
OM=1/sqrt(3)V
DC
ON=1/2V
DC
Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM
Therefore, the maximum output voltage based on the Space Vector theory is
2
3
( )
OM
ON
times as large as that of the conventional sinusoidal modulation. This explains why, with
SVPWM, we have a more efficient use of the supply voltage than with the sinusoidal
PWM method.
6. Conclusion
This paper dealt with the Field Orientated Control of threephase AC machines. Following
a description of common major drawbacks of classic control structures it has been shown
how the Field Orientated Control overcomes these deficiencies and what kind of benefits
Field Orientated Controlled AC drives can bring. By explaining in detail each of the FOC
modules necessary this paper presents a clear introduction to efficient vector control of
AC drives. By providing high CPU power and vector control dedicated peripherals in one
single TMS320F240 chip, and by giving references to the necessary software modules,
Texas Instruments addresses every startup requirement and allows users of the DSP
Controller rapidly to commence development of a system based on vector control with
the TMS320F240.
References
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 14
References
[1] F. Parasiliti, “Appunti delle lezioni di Azionamenti Elettrici: Controllo Vettoriale ad
Orientamento di Campo”, Università degli Studi di L’Aquila
[2] R. Di Gabriele, F. Parasiliti, M. Tursini, “Digital Field Oriented Control for induction
motors: implementation and experimental results”, Universities Power Engineering
Conference (UPEC’97)
[3] Riccardo Di Gabriele, “Controllo vettoriale di velocità di un motore asincrono
mediante il Filtro di Kalman Esteso”, Tesi di Laurea, Università degli Studi di
L’Aquila, Anno Accademico 199798
[4] J.P. Favre, “Correction de la compsante intégrale de régulateurs digitaux en cas
de limitation”, EPF Lausanne
[5] A. Ometto, “Modulation Techniques”, Università degli Studi di L’Aquila
[6] L.Zhang, C. Wathanasarn, F. Hardan, “An efficient MicroprocessorBased Pulse
Width Modulator using Space Vector Modulation Strategy”, IEEE 1994
[7] Satoshi Ogasawara, Hirofumi Akagi, Akira Nabae, “A novel PWM scheme of
Voltage Source Inverters based on Space Vector Theory”, EPE Aachen 1989
[8] Joachim Holtz, “Pulsewidth ModulationA Survey”, IEEE 1992
[9] Alberto J. Pollmann, “Software Pulsewidth Modulation for µP Control of AC
Drives”, IEEE 1986 Transactions on industry applications, Vol. IA
22,NO.4,July/August 1986
[10] Werner Leonard, “Control of Electrical Drives”, 2nd Completely Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Springer
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 15
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 16
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 17
Notes
Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 18
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Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 19
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...................................................... 2 3..........3. 7 3............................... 1 3......................1........................ 5 3.... 8 4................... The Space Vector PWM ...... 13 References ....................1 The (a...................................................................2 The (α............... The PI regulator ..... 3 3........2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)..............................................................................β) projection (Clarke transformation) ............ 7 3......... Introduction.β) projection (inverse Park transformation) . 12 6...........3 The input for the FOC .........q) projection (Park transformation) .1 The 3phase Inverter .................................................................. 9 5..... 9 5................1........................ Classic AC drives................................................ 1 2..................................................................... 14 Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iii .............3 The (d..........3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM.................................................................... 5 3...........................................................................................................2 Rotor flux position.................................................................................................. 8 5......Contents Contents 1.............................β)>(d......c)>(α...........................1 Current sampling ...............................................1 Space Vector definition and projection ................................. Conclusion.......................... 7 3.q)>(α.............b...............................3.....................................................4 Conclusion ...................2 The basic scheme for the FOC ...........1. 10 5................................................................................... 3 3......................................................................................... Field Orientated Control................ 4 3...........
............................c)....c and a.......... 13 Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors iv ............b............ 7 Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure ........ 4 Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor................................. voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d. 11 Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3 .... 4 Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a.........q rotating reference frame and their relationship with a........Contents List of Figures Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a... 8 Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term........................................................................................................... 9 Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor............. 9 Figure 9: SVPWM................................b) and in the d................................q rotating reference frame..............................b........................ 3 Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a........ vectors and sectors .................................... pattern ............................................................................. 11 Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM........................................................b)................................................. 12 Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM ................... 6 Figure 5: Current...............b stationary reference frame .......................................................... 10 Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors............
Furthermore. the control of AC machine acquires every advantage of DC machine control and frees itself from the mechanical commutation drawbacks. Since high computational power silicon devices. For as long as this type of control considers the three phase system as three independent systems the control will remain analog and thus present several drawbacks. of handling system limitations and of achieving higher power conversion efficiency. Classic AC drives AC motor control structures generally apply three 120º spatially displaced sinusoidal voltages to the three stator phases. Furthermore. leads to high dynamic performance in terms of response times and power conversion. It is based on three major points: the machine current and voltage space vectors. a digital implementation which demonstrates the capability of performing direct torque control. These technological improvements have enabled the development of really effective AC drive control with ever lower power dissipation hardware and ever more accurate control structures. this control structure. 2. Thanks to these factors. This document describes the most efficient form of vector control scheme: the Field Orientated Control. by achieving a very accurate steady state and transient control. In most of the classic AC drives the generation of the three sine waves is based on motor electromechanical characteristics and on an equivalent model for the motor in its steady state.Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors ABSTRACT The principle of vector control of electrical drives is based on the control of both the magnitude and the phase of each phase current and voltage. The electrical drive controls become more accurate in the sense that not only are the DC current and voltage controlled but also the three phase currents and voltages are managed by socalled vector controls. the control looks like three separate single phase system controls rather than one control of a three phase system. Some major common drawbacks are presented in this chapter [1]: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 1 . The most common of these accurate vector controls is presented in this document: the Field Orientated Control. the transformation of a three phase speed and time dependent system into a two coordinate time invariant system and effective Pulse Width Modulation pattern generation. such as the TMS320F240 from TI. 1. These different aspects are discussed in the following chapters. came to market it has been possible to realize far more precise digital vector control algorithms. Introduction During the last few years the field of controlled electrical drives has undergone rapid expansion due mainly to the advantages of semiconductors in both power and signal electronics and culminating in microelectronic microprocessors and DSPs.
• Great difficulty in controlling the variables with sinusoidal references: PI regulators can not perform a sinusoidal regulation without damaging the sinusoidal référence. Finally. Additionally. the power components must be oversized to withstand the transient electrical spikes. This causes the control to allow high peak voltage and current transients. We can then control the torque by controlling the torque component of stator current vector. the control structure must be dedicated according to motor type (asynchronous • or synchronous). in the following ways: • the ease of reaching constant reference (torque component and flux component of the stator current) • the ease of applying direct torque control because in the (d. Field Orientated Control The Field Orientated Control (FOC) [1][3] consists of controlling the stator currents represented by a vector. The following chapters present the Field Orientated Control of AC drives. The FOC thus solves the classic scheme problems. • No three phase system imbalance management. and hysteresis controllers introduce high bandwidth noise into the system that is hard to filter out. 3. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 2 . Detailed explanations and references to other helpful documents gives the reader a good understanding of the control structure and of the immediate benefits of such a solution. These projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC machine control. This control solution overcomes each of these drawbacks and thus improves the overall effectiveness of the AC drive. This control is based on projections which transform a threephase time and speed dependent system into a two coordinate (d and q coordinates) time invariant system. This makes the control accurate in every working operation (steady state and transient) and independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model.• The machine models and characteristics used are valid only in steady state. Field orientated controlled machines need two constants as input references: the torque component (aligned with the q coordinate) and the flux component (aligned with d coordinate). These damage not only the drive dynamic performance but also the power conversion efficiency. As Field Orientated Control is simply based on projections the control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. No consideration of the phase interactions.q) reference frame the expression of the torque is: m ∝ ψ RiSq By maintaining the amplitude of the rotor flux ( ψ R ) at a fixed value we have a linear relationship between torque and torque component (iSq).
With regard to the currents. then the complex stator current vector i S is defined by: i S = ia + αib + α 2 i c where α = e and α = e .b. Assuming that the axis a and the axis α are in the same direction we have the following vector diagram: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 3 . ic are the instantaneous currents in the stator _ phases.b.b. This current space vector depicts the three phase sinusoidal system.c)⇒(α. The following diagram shows the stator current complex space vector: 2 2 j π 3 4 j π 3 _ b iS αib α2ic ia a c Figure 1: Stator current space vector and its component in (a.β)⇒(d.β) projection (Clarke transformation) The space vector can be reported in another reference frame with only two orthogonal axis called (α. It still needs to be transformed into a two time invariant coordinate system.b. represent the spatial operators.1.1 The (a.1 Space Vector definition and projection The threephase voltages. the space vector can be defined as follows. ib.β). 3.c) are the three phase system axes. This transformation can be split into two steps: • (a. currents and fluxes of ACmotors can be analyzed in terms of complex space vectors [1][6].q) (the Park transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time invariant system This is explained in the following chapter. Assuming that ia.c)>(α.3.c) where (a.β) (the Clarke transformation) which outputs a two coordinate time variant system • (α.
β)>(d. If we consider the d axis aligned with the rotor flux. for the current vector.2 The (α. this projection modifies a two phase orthogonal system (α.b) The projection that modifies the three phase system into the (α.b) and in the d.1. We obtain a two i Sα coordinate system that still depends on time and speed.β) two dimension orthogonal system is presented below. In fact. the next diagram shows. i Sβ 3. i Sα = i a 1 2 i Sβ = 3 i a + 3 ib for a TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report (BPRA048).q) projection (Park transformation) This is the most important transformation in the FOC.q rotating reference frame.q rotating reference frame Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 4 . the relationship from the two reference frame: q β iSβ iSq iS θ iSα ΨR d iSd α=a Figure 3: Stator current space vector and its component in (a.β) in the d.b β iSβ iS iSα α=a c Figure 2: Stator current space vector and its components in (a.
β) components and on the rotor flux position.where θ is the rotor flux position.1. We obtain a two coordinate system with the following characteristics: i Sq • two coordinate time invariant system • with iSd (flux component) and iSq (torque component) the direct torque control is possible and easy. 3.q rotating reference frame in a two phase orthogonal system: v Sαref = v Sdref cosθ − v Sqref sin θ v Sβref = v Sdref sin θ + v Sqref cosθ _ The outputs of this block are the components of the reference vector that we call V r . 3.q component becomes a constant. by this projection. The flux and torque components of the current vector are determined by the following equations: i Sd = i Sα cosθ + i Sβ sin θ i Sq = −i Sα sin θ + i Sβ cosθ These components depend on the current vector (α.3 The (d.2 The basic scheme for the FOC The following diagram summarizes the basic scheme of torque control with FOC [1][2][3]: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 5 .β) projection (inverse Park transformation) Here. For TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report i Sd (BPRA048). if we know the right rotor flux position then. we introduce from this voltage transformation only the equation that modifies the voltages in d. For TMS320F240 software implementation refer to report (BPRA048). _ V r is the voltage space vector to be applied to the motor phases.q)>(α. the d.
At this point. the rotor flux is fixed (determined by the magnets) there is no need to create one. These two components of the current are the inputs of the Park transformation that gives the current in the d. the flux reference must not be zero. this control structure shows an interesting advantage: it can be used to control either synchronous or induction machines by simply changing the flux reference and obtaining rotor flux position. The outputs of this block are the signals that drive the inverter. AC motor Figure 4: Basic scheme of FOC for ACmotor Two motor phase currents are measured. d.b.β stationary orthogonal reference frame.β Park t.c Clarke t. The outputs of the current regulators are vSdref and vSqref. Hence. iSdref should be set to zero. These measurements feed the Clarke transformation module. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 6 . As induction motors need a rotor flux creation in order to operate. As in synchronous permanent magnet motors. iSα α.iSqref iSdref  PI PI vSqref vSdref Park 1 t. they are applied to the inverse Park transformation. These are the inputs of the Space Vector PWM. Note that both Park and inverse Park transformations need the rotor flux position.q rotating reference frame.q α. Rotor flux position considerations are made in a following paragraph. This conveniently solves one of the major drawbacks of the “classic” control structures: the portability from asynchronous to synchronous drives. The outputs of this projection are vSαref and vSβref which are the components of the stator vector voltage in the α.β iSβ ia ib a. The outputs of this projection are designated i Sα and iSβ.β vSαref vSβref θ SV PWM VDC 3phase Inverter iSq iSd d. The torque command iSqref could be the output of the speed regulator when we use a speed FOC. Obtaining this rotor flux position depends on the AC machine type (synchronous or asynchronous machine). The iSd and iSq components are compared to the references iSdref (the flux reference) and iSqref (the torque reference).q α. when controlling a PMSM.
In fact if there is an error in this variable the rotor flux is not aligned with daxis and iSd and iSq are incorrect flux and torque components of the stator current. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 7 . and the rotor flux position. The basic method is the use of the current model [1][2][3] which needs two equations of the motor model in d. and the correct position of the rotor flux.3. The correct working of the FOC depends on the true measurement of these currents.β) and (d. 3. • In the induction machine the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (there is a slip speed).1 Current sampling The measured phase currents ia and ib are sampled and converted by an A/D converter. • In the synchronous machine the rotor speed is equal to the rotor flux speed.c and a.2 Rotor flux position Knowledge of the rotor flux position is the core of the FOC. The following diagram shows the (a. (α. voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d. Then θ (rotor flux position) is directly measured by position sensor or by integration of rotor speed [1]. then it needs a particular method to calculate θ.b stationary reference frame The measure of the rotor flux position is different if we consider synchronous or induction motor.3 The input for the FOC Fundamental requirements for the FOC are a knowledge of two phase currents (as the motor is starconnected.q rotating reference frame and their relationship with a. 3.c). the stator current and stator voltage space vector that rotates with d. b q β vS iS ψR θ d α=a c Figure 5: Current.b.q reference at synchronous speed.q) reference frames.3.q reference frame. since i a + i b + i c = 0 ).3.b. the third phase current is also known.
the limiting point is that during normal operation. or during the tests. the torque and flux of AC machines. resulting in saturation and overflow of the regulator variables and output.4 Conclusion Thanks to FOC it becomes possible to control. If they are not controlled. Field Orientated Controlled AC machines solve the mechanical commutation problems inherent with DC machines. The classic numerical PI (Proportional and Integral) regulator is well suited to regulating the torque and flux feedback to the desired values as it is able to reach constant references. Field Orientated Controlled AC machines thus obtain every DC machine advantage: instantaneous control of the separate quantities allowing accurate transient and steady state management. The numerical expression of the PI regulator is as follows: U k = K pi ek + K i ek + k −1 n=0 ∑ en which can be represented by the following figure: yrefk yfbk Ki ek Kpi xi Z1 Uk Figure 6: Classical Numerical PI Regulator Structure According to [4]. In addition to this advantage. To solve this problem. when compared with FOC AC machines. by correctly setting both the P term (Kpi) and the I term (Ki) which are respectively responsible for the error sensibility and for the steady state error. The PI regulator An electrical drive based on the Field Orientated Control needs two constants as control parameters: the torque component reference ISqref and the flux component reference ISdrefef. one solution is to add to the previous structure a correction of the integral component as depicted in the following diagram: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 8 . this kind of nonlinearity damages the dynamic performance of the system.3. 4. directly and separately. large reference value variations or large disturbances may occur. makes the use of DC machines obsolete in terms of power conversion efficiency and system reliability. by providing high CPU power and highly versatile motor control dedicated peripherals. TMS320F240.
5.yrefk yfbk ek Kpi xi Ki Z1 Uk U1k Kcor Figure 7: Numerical PI Regulator with Correction of the Integral Term The integral term correction algorithm in a high level language is given below: INPUT y refk . VDC +  0 1 2 O Figure 8: Basic scheme of 3phase inverter and ACmotor Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 9 .1 The 3phase Inverter The structure of a typical 3phase power inverter is shown in Figure 8. where VA VB. umin we mean the limitations of the output variable. VC are the voltages applied to the starconnected motor windings. and where VDC is the continuous inverter input voltage. The Space Vector PWM 5. y fbk ek =y refk y fbk u k =xi +K pi ek ulk =u k IF uk >umax THEN ulk =u max IF uk < umin THEN ulk =u min ulk elk =u k ulk xi =xi +Ki ek +K cor elk OUTPUT With umax.
• the upper and the lower switches of the same leg are driven with two complementary pulsed signals.The six switches can be power BJT. Taking into consideration the two constraints quoted above there are eight possible combinations for the switch commands. _ Assuming that the reference vector Vref is in the 3° sector. providing care is taken to ensure that there is no overlap in the power switch transitions. The two vectors are time weighted in a sample period T to produce the desired output voltage. we have the following situation: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 10 .2 The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) Space Vector PWM supplies the AC machine with the desired phase voltages. V2 (010 ) β 1º V6 (110 ) 5º V3 (011) V7 (111) V0 (000) 3º V4 (011) α 4º 6º V1 (001) 2º V5 (101) Figure 9: SVPWM. IGBT etc. GTO. Depending on the sector that the voltage reference is in. two adjacent vectors are chosen. The ONOFF sequence of all these devices must respect the following conditions: • three of the switches must always be ON and three always OFF. The binary representations of two adjacent basic vectors differ in only one bit. Note that the harmonic contents determine the copper losses of the machine which account for a major portion of the machine losses. vectors and sectors The vectors divide the plan into six sectors. The next paragraph presents a technique for generating such pulsed signals. 5. The SVPWM [5] method of generating the pulsed signals fits the above requirements and minimizes the harmonic contents. so that only one of the upper transistors switches when the switching pattern moves from one vector to the adjacent one. In this way no vertical conduction is possible. The diagram below depicts these combinations. These eight switch combinations determine eight phase voltage configurations.
T = T4 + T6 + T0 _ T4 _ T6 _ V ref = V 4 + V 6 T T Under these constraints the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a hexagon whose vertices are formed by the tips of the eight vectors. The generated space vector PWM waveforms are symmetrical with respect to the middle of each PWM period [3]. V 6 are applied and T0 the time during which the zero vectors are applied. The diagram shows the waveforms in the example presented above.V6 − (110) − Vref T6 − V6 T T4 − V T 4 V4 − (100) Figure 10: Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors _ _ Where T4 and T6 are the times during which the vectors V 4 . the following system makes it possible to determine the uncertainties T4 . When the reference voltage (output of the inverse Park transformation) and the sample periods are known. 0 t 1 t 2 t T0/4 V0 T6/2 V6 T6/2 V4 T0/4 V7 T T0/4 V7 T6/4 V6 T4/4 V4 T0/4 V0 Figure 11: Pattern of SVPWM in the sector 3 The following diagram shows the pattern of SVPWM for each sector: Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 11 .T6 and T0.
This locus narrows itself to the circle inscribed within the 1 hexagon. SV Modulation also provides a more efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation methods. vβSr) and the outputs are the times to apply each of the relevant sector limiting vectors. In the SV modulation it can be shown that the length of each 2 2 of the six vectors is V DC .V 2 (010) β 0 1 2 0 1 2 V 6 (110) 5° 1° 3° 0 1 2 0 V 3 (011) 4° 0 1 2 6° 2° 0 1 2 1 2 α V 4 (100) V 1 (001) V 5 (101) Figure 12: Hexagon of SVPWM.3 Comparison SVsinusoidal PWM The SVPWM generates minimum harmonic distortion of the currents in the winding of 3phase AC motor. pattern In conclusion. This fact makes the SV modulation reference vector locus smaller than the hexagon described above. In steady state the reference vector magnitude might be 3 constant. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 12 . 5. In Figure 13 below the different reference 3 vector loci are presented. we know that the locus of the reference vector is the inside of a 1 circle with a radius of VDC . with conventional sinusoidal modulation [7][8][9] in which the sinusoidal signals are compared with a triangular carrier. the inputs for the SVPWM are the reference vector components (vαSr. In fact. thus having a radius of V DC .
Texas Instruments addresses every startup requirement and allows users of the DSP Controller rapidly to commence development of a system based on vector control with the TMS320F240.b Space Vector PWM OL=2/3VDC OM=1/sqrt(3)VDC ON=1/2VDC L M O N α=a conventional sinusoidal PWM c Figure 13: Locus comparison SVsinusoidal PWM Therefore. and by giving references to the necessary software modules. By providing high CPU power and vector control dedicated peripherals in one single TMS320F240 chip. the maximum output voltage based on the Space Vector theory is 2 OM ( ) 3 ON times as large as that of the conventional sinusoidal modulation. By explaining in detail each of the FOC modules necessary this paper presents a clear introduction to efficient vector control of AC drives. we have a more efficient use of the supply voltage than with the sinusoidal PWM method. Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 13 . Conclusion This paper dealt with the Field Orientated Control of threephase AC machines. with SVPWM. 6. Following a description of common major drawbacks of classic control structures it has been shown how the Field Orientated Control overcomes these deficiencies and what kind of benefits Field Orientated Controlled AC drives can bring. This explains why.
Tesi di Laurea. Hardan. “Modulation Techniques”.Lausanne A. Università degli Studi di L’Aquila. F. M. “Appunti delle lezioni di Azionamenti Elettrici: Controllo Vettoriale ad Orientamento di Campo”. “A novel PWM scheme of Voltage Source Inverters based on Space Vector Theory”. Hirofumi Akagi. Pollmann. “Controllo vettoriale di velocità di un motore asincrono mediante il Filtro di Kalman Esteso”.NO. Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC’97) Riccardo Di Gabriele.P. Anno Accademico 199798 J. IEEE 1994 Satoshi Ogasawara. Favre. “Correction de la compsante intégrale de régulateurs digitaux en cas de limitation”. Ometto.July/August 1986 [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Werner Leonard. “Control of Electrical Drives”. Akira Nabae. EPF. Vol. Parasiliti. Università degli Studi di L’Aquila L. Springer Field Orientated Control of 3Phase ACMotors 14 . IEEE 1992 Alberto J. IA22. Di Gabriele. Parasiliti. “Digital Field Oriented Control for induction motors: implementation and experimental results”.4. Wathanasarn. C.References References [1] [2] F.Zhang. F. IEEE 1986 Transactions on industry applications. 2nd Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition. Tursini. “An efficient MicroprocessorBased Pulse Width Modulator using Space Vector Modulation Strategy”. “Pulsewidth ModulationA Survey”. “Software Pulsewidth Modulation for µP Control of ACDrives”. EPE Aachen 1989 Joachim Holtz. Università degli Studi di L’Aquila R.
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