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Grenades & Pyrotechnic Signals (1969) - FM 23-30

Grenades & Pyrotechnic Signals (1969) - FM 23-30

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~M

FI ELD MA.t~UAL NO 23-30

..

23-39

DEPARTMENT

HEADQUARTERS

OF THE ARMY

Washlng[on, DC. 27 December 1988

GRENADES

AND PYROTECHNIC
CONTENTS

SIGNALS

Page

I

PREFACE

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,,;...........

iii
iv

INTRODUCTION CHAPTER

1.
1-1. , '" ..I.-oL. 1-4.
1-3. 1-5. 1-6.

FUNDAMENTALS
~---

OF GRENADES

Characteristics ,. -_. ~omponen t: s •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
ltI"

..........................
__

1-1

1-7.
CHApTER
&0-

1-8. 2.
')

Fragmentation Hand Grenades Chemical Smoke Hand Grenades ••••••••••••• Riot Control Hand Grenades ••••••••••••••• Special-purpose Hand Grenades ••••••••••••
UTILIZATION OF GRENADES

.. - -- 170 C!

u __ "' __ .:__
l'W).e'L-J..1dlJ..LE...:C!I.L

1

0 ...__

.&.":'

~ ULI(.;

'-~IJ[J

. ••••••••••••••
..

1-1
1-1 1-8

1-4

r-i a
1-14 1-16

-,

.....

~~':nade
Hand Grenade

Carrying
Gripping

• •••••••

e __ I ••••••••

-

2-2. 2-3.

Hand Grenade
TACTICAL
.,
~.t".t".L

Throwing

.....................
'" -._.

2-1
2-3 2-5

CHAPTER

":l_ ~1 3-2. 3-3. 3-4. 3-5. 3-6.

~.

3.

EMPLOYMENT

OF GRENADES

1LnT"lll,~::."'~t"'\n

n ,",'"

... '

........u"," ... v ..a

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Close

Employment

. .,..••.••.•••.•••• ~'~J-.. ;••••••••• Plans and preparations for Combat ••••••••
Rul es •••••••••••••••••••••••••

Comba t

3-1 3-1 3-2

3-7.
3-8.
"'I_Q

...1-"'.

Offensive Employment •..•...•.... ~: •..••••. Defensive Employment ••••••••••••••••••••• Retrograde Operations Employment ••••••••• Rear rl_~ _ _. Operations __ ~;~ ... _ Area 1\...:1,.,, Employment •••••••••• rTC"!_ "....
v~c U1IUC.L. nUVIC'L~C' '-VL1U.L '-~Vll':) •••••••••••••

3-13 3-14

3-3 3-3 3-8

3-15

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This manual supersedes FM 23-30, 16 December 1969.

i

Page

CHAPTER

4.
4-1. 4-2. 4-3. 4-4.

TRAINING PROGRAM
0··'4;>

Objictives
Training

Courses

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
•••••••••••••••••••••••••

Collective Training •••••••••••••••••••••• Sample Squad Situational Training

4-1 4-17

4-1

Exercise
GROUND

.....•...•.•••.•.......•.........

4-18

CHAPTER

5. 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6.

PYROTECHNIC

SIGNALS

Characteristics •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Capabilities and Uses •••••••••••••••••••• Hand-Held Signals •••••••••••••••••••••••• sur face 'l'r f!'lares ip ': 'J-"'!c"P{" ••••••

5-1 5-1
5-2
5-5

Simulator s ..............•..•...••........
Illumination Ground Signal HAND GRENADES

Kits

••••••••••

5-6
A-1

5-7

APPENDIX

A.
n

THREAT

APPENDIX
APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX
" nn'C'J...'T"\TV nr r.l:l.L."LJ.LA

D.

CHECKLIST C. D. E.
1:' l: •

LIVE

HAND GRENADE

RANGE

OPERATIONS

8-1 C-1 D-1 E-l

HAND GRENADE
~''_'tW'

SAFETY

CONSIDERATIONS •••••••••• ,........

OBSOLETE
_,.... .. c.

HAND GRENADES

RANGE CONSTRUCTION/MODIFICATION
.~~~",'

NATO

HAND GRENADES
QUALIFICATION SCORECARD

F-l

APPENDIX GLOSSARY REFERENCES INDEX

G.

·

· ·

HAND GRENADE

. References-l . Index-l

. Glossary-l

G-1

ii

FM 23-30 PREFACE The purpose of this manual is to orient soldiers to the functions and characteristics of hand grenades and ground pyrotechnic signals. It provides a reference for the identification and capabilities of various hand grenades and pyrotechnic signals. It also provides a guide for the proper handling and throwing of hand grenades, suggests methods and techniques for the tactical employment of hand grenades, and provides a guide for commanders conducting hand grenade training. This manual provides information and guidance for the operation, use, and training of hand grenades. It is intended for two user groups: (1) training centers responsible for introducing and training soldiers to a basic knowledge level, and (2) field units -- officers and noncommissioned officers responsible for sustaining basic knowledge level skills and advancing soldier skills in the employment of hand grenades on the battlefield. The development of new hand grenades and the improvement of existing hand grenades has resulted in many different grenade types within the US inventory. While only a limited number of qrenade types are in production today for US Armed Forces, the majority of all hand grenades ever produced are either used by the armed forces of our allies or countries to which we occasionally provide military assistance. This manual will address hand grenades common to the us Army. Obsolete hand grenades, those less likely to be issued to US Army personnel, will be addressed in Appendix D. The proponent of this pulbication is HQ TRADOC. Submit changes for improving this publication on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to the Commandant, US Army Infantry School, ATTN: ATSH-IN-2B, Fort Benning, Georgia 31905-5598. Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine used, both men and women are included. gender is

111

their characteristics. Historically. hand grenade training has received less emphasis than markmanship and bayonet training programs and field training exercises. include The more hand grenades than the that casualty-producing support signal r iv . bayonet. and crowd control efforts cannot be forgotten. Train soldiers to standard.FM 23-30 INTRODUCTION The rifle. Hand instruments grenades screening. and safety will be inherent. training. and how each is best employed. Once soldiers can safely arm and throw live fragmentation grenades. units should integrate the use of grenades into collective tasks must be integrated with the other available weapon systems to enhance the unit's combat power on the modern battlemanner in which we plan to fight. The proper use of hand grenades could determine the fate of individual soldiers or the success of the mission. and hand grenade are the soldier's most lethal basic weapons. The hand grenade must receive greater emphasis in Leaders at all levels should study the employment of grenades in conjunction with the unit mission and implement a training program that supports that mission. Proper control and safety procedures while using hand grenades will allow us to conduct this training in a safe manner. Hand grenade training must be conducted in the same rather than training it as a separate event. field. Soldiers must be familiar with current grenades. The current inventory provides a specific hand grenade for most circumstances. of war. Hand grenades We cannot let the danger associated with hand grenades deter our training efforts.

contains filler and. COMPONENTS Hand grenades have the following main parts: o Body pIovide8 o -. 1-2. and control riots. The safety clip prevents the safety lever from springing loose even if the safety pin assembly is accidentally removed. o o are several types of hand grenades. It is adaptable to the M26. give signals.and M67-series. and each provides the soldier with a variety of capabilities. and the M69 practice grenade. the MK2. All hand grenades do not have safety clips (NSN 1330-00-183-5996). the most important hand grenade is the fragmentation grenade. CHARACTERISTICS Hand grenades share the following three common characteristics: o Their employment range is short. MECHANICAL FUNCTION The following is the proper procedure (and the results thereof) when preparing to throw a hand grenade. Insert the safety clip. destroy enemy equipment.FM 23-30 CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF GRENADES There ent characteristics. also fId9lllentdtion. 1-1. to function by 1-3.chemical or explosive substance in the grenade. Filler -. a hand grenade safety clip is available through class V ammunition supply channels for some of these. However.causes the grenade igniting or detonating the filler. which determines grenade use and characteristics. a. Each has differ- Their effective casualty radius is small. It is the soldier's personal indirect fire weapon system. in certain grenades. Hand grenades give the soldier the ability to kill enemy soldiers. o Fuze assembly -. Historically. Their delay element permits safe throwing. Adjustment instructions are illustrated 1-1 .

Safety clip installation instructions are (1) Hold fuzed grenade up (Figure 1-1).in Figure as follows. INSERT SMALL LOOP INTO SLOT SNAP SAFETY CLIP SECURELY AROUND SAFETY LEVER Figure 1-1. 1-2 Safety clip insertion. (3) Press clip across safety lever until closed end of clip touches safety lever and clip is snapped securely in place around the safety lever (Figure 1-1). 1-1. . in palm of hand with pull ring (2) Insert small loop at open end of safety clip in slot of fuze body beneath the safety lever (Figure 1-1).

. The striker then detonates the primer. FLASH OF HEAT IGNITES DELAY ELEMENT. e. DELAY ELEMENT BURNS DOWN TO THE DETONATOR OR IGNITER. the striker will he forced to rotate on its axis by the striker spring. 1-3 . and then it activateo either amount of the g. f.Fuze functioning. The primer explodes. STRIKER ROTATES ON AXIS TO STRIKE SAFETY CLIP PRIMER. Remove pull ring. The delay element burns for the prescribed detonator or igniter. explode or e o o WHEN SAFETY LEVER IS RELEASED.. the safety pin from the fuze by pulling the Maintain pressure on the safety lever. the safety the safety tained. throwing the safety lever off. igniting the delay element. Once pressure on safety lever is released. Once clip and safety pin assembly have been removed. lever will spring free if pressure is not main- c. o DETONATOR OR IGNITER SETS OFF BURSTER OR MAIN ~~CHARGE (FILLER). Figure 1-2. time (oee Figure 1-2. The detonator or igniter acts to either burn the filler substance (Figure 1-2).b. WHEN PRIMER IS STRUCK. d.

THIS .. M213. 1-4 .. FUZES The two types of fuzes used in current US hand grenades are detonating and igniting. nade body to initiate the main explosion of the filler substance. These fuzes are used with the M26 and M26A1 fragmentation grenades. Detonating fuzes include the M204Al.. the difference is how they activate the filler substance. M206A2. Each fuze functions as described in paraing 4 to 5 seconds to burn detonator sets off the filler. M204A2 fuze. M204A2.. --STRIKER . IS CAll . train requir The "'II." AND SAFETY HOLDING PIN HAVE BEEN REMOVED GRENADE IT IS POSSIBLE EO MILKING R()TATf . SPRING STRIKER Figure 1-3.. and the C12 integral fuze. The delay element is a powder a. Both function in the same manner.. (1) M204Al and M204A2 fuzes (Figure 1-3).. Detonating fuzes explode within the gre to the detonator. which have been reclassified as the M61 under the product improvement program that added an attached safety clip feature. THF SAFETY LEVER SO THE STRIKER CANNOT 1-4. graph 1 3. THAT THE STRIKER THt GRt NADf- THE . Detonating.

while the M201 DELAY ElEMENT -----I. DETONATOR . commonly referred to as the concussion grenade. except for the safety lever. M206A2 fuze. (3) M213 fuze (Figure 1 5). This fuze is used with the MK3A2 offensive hand grenade. It has a safety clip. M67 fragmentation grenade.(2) M206A2 fuze (Figure 1-4).. The delay element is a powder train requiring 4 to 5 seconds to burn to the detonator. 1-5 .."'- FUZE WELL -r-'-" Figure 1-4. The M206-series of fuzes is similar to the M204-series. ~_-... M206 has a straight safety lever. The safety lever is curved.. M213 fuze. This fuze is used with the Figure 1-5. The delay element is a powder train requiring 4 to 5 seconds to burn to the detonator.

ARMING PiN <. sets off the detonator. The fuze consists of a firing pin (screwed to the base of the grenade body). C12 integral fuze. ~ ~ ~ ~ ARMING SLEEVE FIRING SPRING FIRING PIN __ r- I~ SLIDER ASSEMBLY CLOSURE PLUG ~ Figure 1-6. the slider assembly is forced downward toward the firing pin under pressure of the firing spring. (1) M201A1 fuze (Figure 1-7). This fuze is interchangeable with any standard firing device. Igniting. (b) When the arming sleeve is released. the slider strikes the firing pin and ignites the delay element which. (d) The detonator bursts the grenade body and disperses the riot control agent over an area about 5 meters in diameter. the AN-M14 TH3 incendiary grenade. b. Igniting fuzes are designed for use with chemical hand grenades. They burn at high temperatures and ignite the chemical filler. and a slider assembly. The fuze function is described in 1-6 . an arming sleeve. The slider assembly contains a delay element of 1. in turn.4 to 3 seconds and a small detonator. It functions as follows: (a) When the safety pin is removed. the arming sleeve is held in place with the thumb. (c) At the bottom of the fuze well.(4) C12 integral fuze (Figure 1-6). This fuze is an integral part of the M25-series riot control hand grenades. This fuze is designed for use with the AN-M8HC white-smoke grenade. and the MIS colored-smoke grenade.

.2 to 2 seconds to burn to the igniter.paragraph 1-4. __ SAFETY LEVER Figure 1-7. This fuze is used with the M62 and M69 practice hand grenades to replicate the fuze delay of the M67 fragmentation hand grenade. 1-7 . The time burn time. STRIKER SPRING STRIKER . (2) M228 fuze (Figure 1-8). The time delay element is a powder train requiring 1.. M201Al fuze. deldy element if::> puwder d trdin with d 4tu 5-f::>ecund Figure 1-8. M228 fuze. The igniter then induces the explosion of a black powder charge. The igniter ignites the filler or a pyrotechnic starter with a violent burning action and forces the filler to be expelled from the grenade body..

Fragments are produced by a serrated wire coil fitted to the inside of the grenade body. (1) Body -.5 ounces of Composition B. M61 fragmentation grenade. 1-8 .thin sheet metal. (2) Filler -.HI HA(. (7) Color/markings olive drab body with a single yellow band at the top. WARNING i\LTHOU(J~i f'f~O[JIJCIN(~ DISPfRSF THI AS fAR '<IILINC.1. Nomenclature and or lot number markings are in yellow. (4) Weiqht -. see paragraph 1-3. Mf A~JI' Iff~' [Ht CASUAlTY ('AN RADIUS OF THIS (.MfNTS AS 7311 METfRS Figure 1-9. the effective (6) Capabilities -. M!HRS IS 1!.16 ounces. (5) Safety clip -.can be thrown 40 meters by average soldier.M204Al or M204A2. (3) Fuze -.yes.5 FRAGMENTATION a. AWAY RADIUS IS NADI c.5. The effective killing radius is 5 meters and casualty-producing radius is IS meters. M61 HAND GRENADES (Figure 1-9).

The effective casualty-producing radius is 15 (7) Color/markings olive drab body with a single yellow band at the top. CAN RADIUS OF THIS GRENADF IS 1!'>METfRS I-RAGMENTS AS FAR AWAY METERS ~ C') I COMP B CHARGE Figure 1-10. (1) Body (2 ) (3) -- steel sphere. (6) CaQabilities -. -- (4) Weight (5) Safety cliQ yes. M67 fragmentation grenade.M213 .b.5 ounces of Composition B. -- . see paragraph 1-3. Nomenclature and or lot number markings are in yellow. 14 ounces.can be thrown 40 meters by average soldier.. WARNING ALTHOUGH PRODUCING DISPERSE THfKILLING flADIUS AS 230 IS 5 METERS AND THe CASLJAU. meters. M67 (Figure 1-10) . -- Filler Fuze 6. 1-9 .

(3) Fuze -.6 CHEMICAL SMOKE HAND GRENADES a.15 ounces of white phosphorus. Apply copper sulphate solution to halt combustion of the WP particles.the averaqe soldier can throw the grenade 30 meters. The WP filler burnt:> fur way as ordinary burns (FM 21-11). If particles of WP are embedded in the flesh! immerse the wound in water or pack with wet cloths to halt combustion. -. (2) Filler -. All friendly personnel within this 17-meter area should be in a covered position to avoid being about 60 seconds at a temperature of 5!000 degrees Fahrenheit.grey with one yellow band and burns caused by WP j_n the same t:>truck by burnins pdrticlet:>. (6) Color/markings yellow markings. The particles will reignite spontaneously if allowed to dry. This makes the MIS grenade less desirable for use as a screening agent. (7) Fj_rsL aj_d -.sheet metal. (5) Capabilities -. This intense heat causes the smoke produced by the grenade to rise quite rapidly! especially in cool climates.1. The M15 grenade (Figure 1-11) is a bursting type grenade used for signaling! screening! and incendiary purposes. Then pick out or squeeze out the WP. (1) Body -.31 ounces. This permits them to be removed without igniting. The grenade has a bursting radius of 17 meters. (4) Weight -. M15 White Phosphorous.LreaL 1-10 .M206A2.

WARNING ANY flAIVIAGED AN MB He GRFNADES THAT EXPOSE THF FILl[R ARf HC>. (4) weight -- 24 ounces. (6) Capabilities -. AN-M8 He White Smoke (Figure 1-12). This grenade is used to produce dense clouds of white smoke for signaling and screening.light green body with black markings and a white top.sheet steel cylinder.can be thrown 30 meters by average soldier. MIS WP smoke hand grenade. Filler -. b. HC smoke mixture. (7) Color/markinQs -.M201Al. -- (s) Safety clip no. (3) Fuze -. The grenade emits a dense cloud of white smoke for 105 to 150 seconds.FUZE FILLER BURSTING CHARGE Figure 1-11. (1) (2) Body -.ZARDOUS EXPOSURE OF THF Fit L~R TO MOISTURE ~ND AIR COULD RF'illL 1 IN A CHFMtCAL REACT:ON THAT WILL IGNITE THE GRENADE 1-11 .19 ounces of Type C.

FUZE M201A1 ADAPTER

STARTER MIXTURE

LIT It'
Figure 1-12. AN-M8 HC white smoke grenade.

WARNING

THE

AN M8

HAND

GRENADE

PRODUCES

HARMFUL

HYDROCHLORIC IT SHOULD NOT ARE' WEARING

~UMES T4AT IRRITATE Bf: USED IN CLOSED PROTECTIVE MASKS

THE Ens, THROAT, AND LUNGS IN AREAS UNLESS SOLDIERS

c. MIS Colored Smoke (Figure 1-13). This grenade is used as a ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling device, a target or landing zone marking device, or a screening device for unit movements. (1) Body -- sheet steel cylinder with four emission holes at the top and one at the bottom to allow smoke release when the grenade is ignited. (2) Filler 11.5 ounces of colored (red, green, yellow, and violet) . (3) Fuze -- M201Al. (4) WeiQht -- 19 ounces. (5) Safety cliQ -- no. 1-12 smoke mixture

for 50 to 90 seconds.

soldier.

(6) Capabilities

The grenade

-- can be thrown 35 meters by average
produces a cloud of colored smoke

(7) Color/markinQs -- olive drab body with the top indicating the smoke color. (8) Field expedient -- When employing the M18 or AN-M8 HC hand grenade, it may be desirable to use one of these grenades without the fuze. To do this, the following procedure should be used in combat only: o Remove the tape from grenade bottom to expose the filler. o Remove the fuze by unscrewing it from the grenade. o Ignite starter mixture with open flame. o Immediately throw the grenade to avoid burn injury.
WARNING· WITH BOTH THE AN M8 AND AN M 18 THERE IS DANGER FIRE IF USED IN A DRY ARE:A OF STARTING A

Figure 1-13. M18 colored smoke grenade. 1-13

1.7 RIOT CONTROL HAND GRENADES a. ABC-M7A2 and ABC-M7A3 CS (Figure 1-14). The ABC-M7A2 and the ABC-M7A3 riot control hand grenades contain only and the form of the CS they contain.
CS as a filler. They differ only in the amount of filler

(1) Body -- the bodies of both grenades are sheet metal with four emission holes at tile top and one at the bottom. ounces of CS in gelatin capsules in the ABC-M7A2 grenade/ and 7.5 ounces of burning mixture and 4.5 ounces of pelletized CS agent in the ABC-M7A3 grenade. (3) Fuze -- M201Al/ see paragraph 1-4.
(4)

(2) Filler

-- 5.5 ounces

of burning

mixture

Qnd

3.5

weight -- approximately

15.5

ounces.

(5) Safety clip -- no.
(6) Capabilities -- can be thrown 40 meters by average soldier. Both grenades produce a cloud of irritant agent for 15 to 35 seconds.

(7) Color/markings -- gray body with a red band and red markings.

I
~

cs r
.,3 I

II

I J lot J--~
1-14

Figure 1-14. ABC-M7A2 and ABC-M7A3 riot control grenades.

1-15 ..gray body with red band and red PUT ON PROTECTIVf MASKS BEFORE FORCES SHOULD THESE GRENADES ARMING PIN ~ ARMING SLEEV< ~ PUll RING I ) /'\.no. but grenade fragments may project as far about as 25 meters. (4) Weight -.can be thrown 50 meters by average soldier. / / ~r-"\~ liD IIIr' . The ABC-M25A2 riot control hand grenade is a bursting munition with an integral fuze. Figure 1-15. All fillers are mixed with silica aerogel for increased rli~~pminMtinn pffiripnry_ (2) Filler CSl varies in weight (3) Fuze -. ABC-M25A2 (Figure 1-15). (1) Body compressed fiber or plastic.. markings. The two grenades differ primarily in body construction.\~ "'UN6PLUO~U:~::~'N ~~!~~:=BLY J____ ) --y \ / ( "_ ~ v / I I J I I I I . ~ 'Y FIRING \ ~~ SPRING /' til ~ ~"\ SAFETY PiN ~"\ ~ BODY ASSEMBLY ( /UJII II~\ \ (l%al ~\ .integral..8 ounces. The radius of burst (visible cloud agent) is 5 meters. and composition according to the type of agent contained in the grenade. (6) Capabilities -.. WARNING (7) Color/markings FRIENDLY lliROWING -. (5) Safety clip -.. see paragraph 1-4. The M25A2 grenade is an improved version of the M25Al grenade. ABC-M25A2 riot control grenade..WARNING FRIENDLY THROWING FORCl:S lHESf SHOULD GRENA[)tS PUT ON PR(JT~CTIVr flilASKS fH rORf b.

1-8. The grenade may also be used to start fires in areas containing flammable materials.gray with purple markings and a single purple band (current grenades). (7) Color/markings -. Thermate is an improved version of thermite/ the incendiary agent used in hand grenades during World War II.can be thrown 25 meters by average soldier. The AN-M14 TH3 incendiary hand grenade is used to destroy equipment. or destroy vehicles. (4) Wejgbt -. It will fuze together the metallic parts of any object that it contacts.M201A1/ see paragraph 1-4. The thermate filler of the AN-M14 grenade burns for 40 seconds and can burn through a 1/2-inch homogeneous steel plate. (6) CaQabilities -.26. (2) Filler -. It produces its own oxygen and will burn under water. (5) Safety cliQ -.no.32 ounces. A portion of the thermate mixture is converted to molten iron/ which burns at 4/000 degrees Fahrenheit. WARNING AVOID LOOKING DIFlf:ClL OF THE Y AT THE INCENDIAr~Y LIGHT IS POTENTIALLY GRfNADE immobilize. Under the standard color-coding system/ incendiary grenades are light red with black markings.sheet metal. Incendiary (Figure 1-16). SPECIAL-PURPOSE HAND GRENADES a.5 ounces of thermate (TH3) mixture. It can damage/ ters/ or munitions. (1) Body -. (3) Fuze -. shel- «s IT BURNS TO THt THE INTENSITY RETINA HPZAHDOUS 1-16 . weapons systems.

6 ounces. b.yes l see paragraph 1-4.8 ouunces of TNT. Offensive is designed to produce casualties during close combat while minimizing danger to friendly personnel. grenade.can be thrown 40 meters by average soldier. The MK3A2 has an effective casualty radius in open areas of 2 meters. The shock waves (overpressure) produced by this grenade when used in enclosed areas are greater than those produced by the fragmentation grenade.M206A1 or M206A2 (4) Weight -. hand (2) Filler -. (1) Body -. It iS therefore very effective against enemy soldiers located in bunkers buildings and fortified areas. AN-M14 TH3 incendiary grenade. l l I l l l commonly (Figure referred 1-17). see paragraph 1-3. (5) Safety cliQ -. to as the The MK3A2 concussion offensive grenade. 1-17 .15. The grenade is also used for concussion effects in enclosed areas for blasting or for demolition tasks. 1 (3) Fuze -. (6) Cagabilities -.fiber (similar to the packing container for the fragmentation hand grenade).Figure 1-16. Secondary missiles and bits of fuze may be projected as far as 200 meters from the detonation point.

The grenade body can be used repeatedly by replacing the fuze assembly. inserted into grenade body. M228.14 ounceo. The grenade provides realistic training and familiarizes the soldier with the functioning and characteristics of the fragmentation hand grenade.ito middle. -. WARNING (7) Color/markinqs -. (1) Body steel. MK3A2 offensive grenade. Practice (Figure 1-18).can be thrown 40 meters by average soldier. The M69 grenade emits a small puff of white smoke after a delay of 4 to 5 seconds and makes a loud popping noise. 1-18 . ~t\~11~\\l~111 \ ~ u~ FIBsEtE~~SS >< ~ HAND OFFENS':'~~ MK3A2 GRENADE 1KAFET/CUP I M ~! ~ l(3) Fuze (4) Weight TNT FILLER FIBER BODY it II~ J Figure 1-17.light blue with white markings.black with yellow markings around iN AREA DO NOT USE IN A CLOSED ~i~r Mr ~1I7F~~ ~ ~~ V t SAF~~PULLRING 2ll )) ~W.yes. The safety lever of the fuze is light blue with black markings and a brown tip. (6) Capabilities -. (7) Color/markings -. the M69 practice hand grenade simulates the M67-series of fragmentation hand grenades for training purposes. c. (5) Safety clip -.

M69 practice grenade.WARNING f-UlE ElODY FRAGMENTS CAUSING MAY EXIT THE HOLE IN THE BASE OF THE GRENADE INJURIES Figure 1-18. 1-19 .

This chapter addresses the fundamentals that will develop a soldier's skill and confidence in hand grenade use. Commanders should make every effort to issue training hand grenades for wear and use during all training activities. a. The fuze should never be removed from a grenade unless the the grenade is being used as a booby trap with some other firing device. Precautions. creating a hazardous condition. (1) Check the grenade fuze assembly for tightness. Its versatility makes its use suitable for all operations. intended to preclude accidental pulling of the pi. They provide the foundation upon which the soldier's hand grenade skills will build. Experiences of American infantrymen. the grenade. 2-1 . Before attaching a hand grenade to the ammunition pouch. (3) Do not bend the ends of the safety pin back flush against the fuze body. These fundamentals include proper carrying. This practie. makes the removal of the safety pin difficult. It must be tightly fitted in the grenade fuze well to prevent the grenade from working loose and separating from the grenade body. HAND GRENADE CARRYING The carrying of hand grenades is one of the most neglected aspects of hand grenade training. 2-1. take the following safety precautions. Repeated working of the safety pin in this manner will cause the pin to break. (2) If the grenade safety lever is broken. gripping. both in combat and in training point out the need for specific training in carrying hand grenades and the integration of this type of training into tactical training exercises. do not use A broken safety lever denies the thrower the grenade's most critical safety mechanism. The soldier must be as confident in carrying and using hand grenades as he is with his rifle and bayonet.FM 23-30 CHAPTER 2 UTILIZATION OF GRENADES The hand grenade is an extremely effective and versatile device that is easily carried. and throwing techniques of hand grenades. The tactical employment of the hand grenades is limited only by the imagination of the user.

b. Ammunition Pouch. The prescribed manner of carrying hand grenades is on the ammunition pouch, using the carrying straps, which are designed specifically for this purpose. Grenades ae attached to the ammunition pouch in the following manner: (1) New-style ammunition pouches (Figure 2-1). Open the web carrying sleeve on the side of the ammunition pouch and slide the grenade into the sleeve with the safety lever against the side of the ammunition pouch. Be sure the pull ring is in the downward position. Wrap the carrying strap around the neck of the fuze and snap the carrying strap to the carrying sleeve.

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Figure 2-1. New-style pouch. (2) Old-style ammunition pouches (Figure 2-2). A small strap is sewn to each side of the ammunition pouch. Slip the safety lever over this strap and push the grenade down until it is firmly seated against the side of the pouch. Ensure the pull ring is in the downward position, wrap the carrying strap around the fuze, and snap the carryinq strap. Periodicaly check the qrenade to ensure the fuze is tight and the carrying strap is secure.

2-2

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Figure 2-2. HAND GRENADE 2-2. Old-otyle pouch. GRIPPING

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The importance of properly gripping the hand grenade cannot be overemphasized. a. Safety and throwing efficiency are obtained when the grenade is held in the throwing hand with the safety lever placed between the first and second joints of the thumb (Figure 2-3). b. For right-handed
right with the pull ring

personnel,
away

ing hand so that it can be easily removed by the index finger or middle finger of the free hand (Figure 2-3).

from

the grenade
the palm

of the throw

is held up-

Figure 2-3. Right-handed grip.
2-3

c. For left-handed personel, the grenade is inverted with the finqers and thumb of the throwinq hand positioned in the same manner as by right-handed personnel (Figure 2-4),

Figure 2-4. Left-handed grip.

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d. The M24-series of riot control hand grenades have an arming sleeve, which serves as the safety lever on other grenades. When throwing these grenades, the arming sleeve is held in place by applying constant pressure with the thumb of the throwing hand (Figure 2-5). The safety pin is pulled by the free hand.

Figure 2-5. M24-series grip. 2-4

(5) Allow the motion of your throwing arm to continue naturally once the grenade is released. How accurately it is thrown is more important than how and accuracy using his personal allowed to do so. a recommended method of grenade throwing. These throws may be practiced with training grenades. Remove the safety pin with a pulling. fragmentation grenade must be thrown overhand in a b. In traininq. This position is the most desirable and natural one from which to throw grenades. It allows an individual to obtain the greatest possible throwing distance. NOTE: There will be times when underhand or sidearm throws become necessary in combat. however. The standing position is normally used when occupying a fighting position or during 2-5 . landing on or near the target. the live training environment. HAND GRENADE THROWING Since few soldiers throw in the same manner. throwinq positions are used for uniformity and control and to familiarize soldiers with the proper manner of throwing grenades in combat if the situation gives you a choice. observe the safety pin's removal. minimize exposure time to the enemy (no more than 2 seconds).) (4) Quickly look at the target and throw the grenade using the overhand method so that the grenade arcs. There is. (If the tactical situation permits. In observing the target. (2) Properly grip the grenade 1n throwing hand and (3) Grasp the pull ring with the index or middle finger of your nonthorwing hand. iL is Lhrown. twisting motion. I[ a soldier can achieve style. however. (1) Standing (Figure 2-6). then he should be more disLance a. remove the safety clip. (1) Quickly observe the target to mentally establish the distance between the throwing position and the target area. Practice will develop throwing proficiency. This followthrough improves distance and accuracy and relieves the strain on your throwing arm.2-3. it is difficult to establish firm rules or techniques for throwing hand grenades.

(b) Throw the grenade with a natural motion.Throwing operations from this position in fortified positions is accomplished or urban as follows: terrain. Standing. (a) Assume a natural stance with your weight balanced equally on both feet. 2-6 . facing the direction drop to the prone position your helmet detonation. Using the proper grip. the procedure described in paragraph 2-2a. hold the grenade shoulder high. no cover is available f using If (c) Seek cover to avoid being hit by fragments. of the grenade's with OVERHEAD COVER Figure 2-6.

(2) Kneeling (Figure 2-7). this position reduces the distance that a grenade can be thrown. It is used primarily when the soldier has only a low wall, a shallow ditch, or similar cover to protect him. Throwing from this position is accomplished as follows: (a) Using the proper grip and with the grenade held shoulder high, kneel in the most comfortable manner. (b) Throw the grenade with a natural throwing motion. Push off with your trailing foot to give added force to your throw. (c) When the grenade is released, drop to the prone position or behind available cover to minimize exposure to fragmentation.

Figure 2-7. Kneeling. 2-7

process of throwing from a prone position.

(3) Prone (Figure 2-8). This position reduces both distance and accuracy. It is only used when an individual is pinned down by hostile fire and is unable to rise to engage his target. There are four steps in the

Figure 2-8. Prone. 2-8

Step 1. Lie on your back with your body perpendicular to the grenade's intended line of flight. Hold the grenade at shoulder level as in the standing position. Step
left-handed

2.

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thrower)

your

with your

right

leg

foot

(left

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against the ground. After removal of the safety pin, hold the grenade away from you body with your arm cocked for throwing. Step 3. With your free hand, grasp any object that is capable of giving you added leverage to increase your throwing distance. In throwing the grenade, push off with your rearward foot to give added power to your throw. Step 4. After throwing the grenade, rollover onto your stomach and press yourself flat against the
ground.

2-9

COMBAT The rifle. Hand grenades are used on all missions -. vehicles. the fragmentation hand 3-1 basic weapons of warfare for the individual soldier. and disable enemy soldiers. and equipment. it must be employed under control to protect our own soldiers.to high-intensity conflict to prevent giving away positions. and in all types of terrain. are no longer effective. and to inflict greater casualties. Disable riots. the fragmentation grenade remains the most important. Obscure. Hand grenades are used by all soldiers during close. CLOSt.FM 23-30 CHAPTER TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT 3 OP GRENADES The family of hand grenades provides the individual soldier with a number of highly versatile and effective weapons systems.attack. 3-1. b. Fragmentation hand grenades. Hand grenades have the following specific applications: Fragmentation Offensive Incendiary Smoke Riot control Kill enemy soldiers. defend. APPLICATION a. on the other hand. stun. Destroy weapons. Kill. While all hand grenades have application in modern combat. It is the most important not only because it is the primary killing hand grenade. but because it is also the most dangerous to employ. Hand grenades are employed throughout the spectrum of warfare. and fragmentation hand grenades are the rifle gives the soldier the ability to kill enemy soldiers with direct fires out to the maximum effective line-of-sight range. mark. and retrograde. and identify positions. to save ammunition. deep. from low.2. 3 . The . and rear operations. during all conditions of combat. While the rifle is the safest and most discriminating weapon at close-in ranges. bayonet. allow the individual soldier to effectively engage and kill enemy soldiers located within a radius of 40 meters when line-of-sight systems. It is equally lethal to friendly and enemy soldiersi therefore. such as the rifle.

Furthermore. the type and quantity of hand grenade selected. a. release the safety lever. will not be detonated in such a manner in training. targets confronting the infantryman may be of such a nature that normal methods of target engagement are inadequate. For example. factor in determining It will the basic influence Other factors used in determining basic load are as follows: the hand grenade (1) Weight. and count ONE THOUSAND ONE. it would then be desirable to detonate a grenade as near impact as possible to prevent its rolling away from the target before the time delay is expended. Each hand grenade weighs close to one pound. The basic load is not a fixed quantity. if the targets are located on sloping ground. This will cause the grenade to detonate above ground or shortly after impact with the target. This procedure will expend a sufficient period (about two seconds) of the grenade's fourto five-second time delay. and then throw the grenade. load The most important for hand grenades is unit mission. Consequently. a. Units will vary their basic load. Above ground detonation is especially critical when bunker-type emplacements are engaged.grenade is the weapon of choice when the enemy is within ran~e. each grenade that the soldier carries adds another pound to his total load. For a soldier. Many times in combat. The basic load of hand grenades is normally established by the theater commander. Such above ground detonation also prevents the enemy from securing the grenade and throwing it back before it detonates. 3-2 . depending upon the commander's analysis of METT-T. the close-in fight can occur anywhere on the modern battlefield. ONE THOUSAND TWO. To achieve above ground detonation or near impact detonation. b. soldiers or weapons in trenches or fighting positions are better engaged by causing a grenade to burst over these targets. PLANS AND PREPARATIONS FOR COMBAT Fragmentation and white phosphorous hand grenades 3-3. but terrain masks the engagement area. remove the grenade's safety clip and safety pin. The fragmentatlon hand grenade is the soldier's personal indirect fire weapons system. b. it may be altered as situations dictate.

o o Know where all friendly soldiers are. Different types of hand grenades will be required on all missions. o Leaders identify soldiers who should not throw or carry grenades in combat. These grenades make individual soldier movement easier by suppressing the enemy and disrupting the continuity of the enemy's defensive fires. Fragmentation hand grenades contribute greatly to destroying the enemy's will to continue the fight.Lon. Hand grenades selected for a mission should be distributed among several if not all soldiers. 3-4. (3) Balance. or when in an area where they are being used. close-in firepower essential for the individual solder to overcome and kill his enemy. flash. The noise. They provide the violent. if possible. each soldier that are specific for his job and assigned tasks. and hand grenades and mortar ammunition. then use the grenade sump. EMPLOYMENT RULES (4) Individual duties. For types. Distribute hand grenades to example. o Evacuate positions into which a fragmentation or offensive hand grenade is thrown. Use the buddy team system.(2) Weapons tradeoff. or an o Ensure the projected arc of the fragmentation offensive hand grenade is clear of obstacles. tradeoffs may be required between hand grenade The following are rules to remember before employing hand grenades. and concussion generated by fragmentation and offensive grenades have a 3-3 . Generally.s. 3-5. Soldiers cannot carry everything commanders would like to take into battle. If this is not feasible. destructive. types OFFENSIVE EMPLOYMENT of grenades Fragmentation and offensive hand grenades are the primary used during offensive ope r a t. The value of various weapons and munitions must be considered by commanders with a view toward determining which will contribute the most to mission accomplishment. fragmentation and colored-smoke grenades will be required for all missions. hand grenades and mines.

well-prepared enemy. an enemy who is only temporarily stunned can still kill you. and squad. their employment should be immediately followed by violent rifle fire unless capturing enemy personnel is a mission requirement. b.severe psychological effect on soldiers. Movement forward should be done provides overmatching. but for that same reason. Movement toward the enemy must be rapid and violent. Remember. The individual soldier uses his rifle. use hand grenades to clear crew-served weapons first. One soldier within the huddy team aration for combat. Hand grenades must be thrown accurately into enemy positions to reduce the chances of friendly hand grenades hitting friendly forces. Offensive grenades have less of a killing effect on the enemy. will depend upon availability and prior mission analysis. 3-4 . He does this as part of a buddy team. If the enemy is located in an enclosed area. Both soldiers must take advantage of the hand grenade explosion to immediately continue their movement forward. and bayonet during the assault. or in trenches.that moment when a soldier closes with the enemy to kill him. Fragmentation grenades will be used to kill and suppress enemy soldiers in the open. maintain the momentum of the assault. well-aimed shots at known or suspected enemy positions. He is confires by using established unit SOPs and battle drills. The shock waves from an offensive grenade also provide better overall interior effect in an enclosed space. such as a bunker or room (within a building). direct suppressive fires while the other soldier moves forward. This. In an assault against a dug-in. As the soldier closes to hand grenade trolled and disciplined in his movement and application of more of an enclosed space than a fragmentation grenade. The critical phase of the attack is the final assault -. a. hand grenades. the offensive grenades may be more appropriate than the fragmentation grenades. use hand grenades in a priority effort to attack command bunkers and communications equipment. safer to employ in confined spaces. These battle drills are rehearsed extensively during preprange. Once the first defensive belt has been penetrated. The soldier will first use his rifle. Another as part of a huddy team. firing controlled. and rapidly clear the objectlve of enemy resistance. in defilades. of course. advantage of the offensive grenade is it covers c. Fragmentation hand grenades help gain the initiative. When used. and kill enemy leaders within those bunkers. fire team. he engages the enemy with a combination of rifle fire and hand grenades.

. (c) The first clearing point. the first clearing team throws hand grenades into the trench. 3-5 .. which have been rehearsed during preparation for combat.. a trench within a fortified Qosition (a) Before entering the trench. the soldier participates as a squad member in clearing trenches. landing on their feet and firing their weapons down both directions of the trench. Enemy trench assault. team should hold the entry (d) The teams following the first clearing team should enter at the same position and begin clearing in one direction only (see FM 7-8). will be employed. -. The buddy team forms the basis for all fragmentation or offensive grenade employment in the following general situations: (1) Clearing (Figure 3-1). and clearing rooms. Unit procedures.' Figure 3-1. destroying bunkers. In the assault. the first clearing team rolls into the trench. •• RIFLEMAN MOVES FORWARD WITH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL FIRE - .-.d. (b) After the grenades explode.

(f) At the bend in the trench. He uses the best available covered route to move toward the bunker. plus synchronization of effort at the buddy team and squad level in order to succeed. he can use white smoke thrown on line with the bunker (and as close to the enemy's firing port as possible) to help conceal his movement for the remaining distance. The grenadier holds a grenade at the ready as he moves rapidly down the trench. the third member guards the back of the other team members and stands by to provide fire on point targets. After the explosion. soldiers inside requires violence and speed of execution. the designated grenadier throws a grenade around the bend. ker. Fire teams and squads are bounded forward to continue clearing the trenchline. he cooks off and throws fragmentation or offensive grenades into the firing port 3-6 (c) As he approaches to within 75 meters of the bun(a) DesLLoyln9 an enemy bunkeL and klllln9 Lhe enemy . the rifleman moves rapidly around the bend and one (e) As the lead buddy team moves to the right (left). If a three-man clearing team is used. (d) Once the grenadier member of the buddy team is at the side of the bunker. soldier is the designated grenadier. NOTE: Many of these tasks will be specified by unit SOP. See FM 7-70 for actions on the oblective. (2) Clearing a bunker position (Figure 3-2). He moves along the long axis of the trench. (b) A two-man buddy team assaults a single bunker using a combination of grenades and rifle fire. His movement is covered by his buddy who is ready to fire at enemy soldiers advancing toward them. fireo rapid buroto horizontally and alternately (q) Movement down the trench continues by alternatinq the designated rifleman and grenadier roles or maintaining the same roles throughout. using a combination of individual movement techniques.along the wall closest to the next bend in the trench. One member of the buddy team provides overwatching suppressive fire while the other member moves rapidly toward the bunker.

knocking the door down if necessary. clear each room. (3) Clearing a room in a built-up area.hllnker and faces of the bunker. engage escaping enemy soldiers with his rifle. one man quickly enters and moves out of the doorway to one side or the other. The assault party should not be silhouetted in the doorway. After the grenade detonates. Before entering the room. sprays the room with short bursts of automatic fire. he enters the position from the rear to kill or capture remaining enemy soldiers. 3-7 (a) An assault party (two-man minimum) is assigned to . After detonations. They enter a room through the doorway. Once thrown. and takes up a position where he can observe the entire room. they forcefully throw a grenade into the room. Enemy bunker assault. to the rear of the hllnker prepared he rolls away from the to GRENADIER ROLLS BACKWARDS TO COVER REAR EXIT Jl Figure 3-2.

It is used in conjunction with other weapons and man-made or natural obstacles to destroy the remnants of the attacking enemy force that have succeeded in penetrating the more distant barriers and final protection fires. It is important that soldiers are aware of each other's location at all times. The second man shouts COMING IN. incendiary hand grenades are needed. avoiding silhouetting in windows. It the destruction ot vehicles. a. enters. (4) Using hand grenades during raids. or special equipment is required. rapid. Colored smoke grenades always have application for marking pickup zones and identifying the location of friendly forces. (5) Reacting to enemy ambushes. -- 3-6. (b) Drill squad members to throw both grenades fragmentation first. the soldiers within a squad assault the enemy force. The longer friendly forces remain in the ambush kill zone. In like manner. and conducts a systematic search of the room. characterized by a heavy use of fragmentation and offensive grenades. the employment of offensive grenades is appropriate.himself (b) At this time. is (b) For example. the greater the probability of friendly force destruction. (a) The raid. Using a combination of fragmentation hand grenades to kill the enemy and white smoke grenades to obscure the enemy's sight and rifle fire. a soldier leaving a room through an entrance covered by another soldier would shout COMING OUT. as a type of offensive operation. 3-8 . DEFENSIVE EMPLOYMENT Hand grenades are used in defensive operations during the final phase of the close-in battle. then smoke. weapons. (a) Reaction to an enemy near ambush requires an immediate. although it may also require other types of Qrenades. FM 7-70 and ARTEP 7-8 Drill describe friendly force reactions. the assault party must be prepared to react instinctively to any situation in the room. if the mission is to secure prisoners. The primary hand grenade in all defensive operations is the fragmentation grenade. and violent response.

such as rifle and machine gun fire and Claytuo re m. soldiers should identify dead space in their sector.~\O _---- ~ HAND G~ . Defense from individual fighting positions.. 3-9 .. If time permits durlng the preparation of the defensive position..--<... This potential avenue of approach through the protective wire should be marked with a reference to identify it as a primary hand grenade target.. and move toward friendly fighting positions. / GRAZING RIFLE FIRE ..:::::::::::::::::~\?~:K~{::: : STAKES METERS---- Figure 3-3.b. demoralizes the enemy soldier. (1) From indii vidual fighting :Qosi tions (Figure 3 -3) .."-.uIl he nd ~LeIlctcletJ ct L Lhe critical moment in the assault for a dismounted enemy force is the final blow in taking the initiative away from him. '40~ '\ '\~ . especially that dead space that may intersect the protective wire. CLAYMORE' SECTOR MINE AIMING ':.l ue s • The us e o f [Lct~llleIlLctLi.. J~ f~~_'''''' . The fragmentation hand grenade further disrupts the continuity of the enemy attack. + HAND GRENADE TARGET HAND GRENADE ARC DEADSPACE / G~~:!.. They should be the protective wire. TOP VIEW . Fragmentation hand grenades are used from defensive fighting positions primarily to cover close-in dead space approaches on the friendly side of the protective wire and in front of a squad's position. PROTECTIVE WIRE J. Enemy soldiers stopped at the protective wire should be ensaged first with Claymore mines. STAKES -----40 SIDE VIEW jl<... and forces the enemy into areas covered by direct fire weapons.. The following rules apply when employing fragmentation used in conjunction with ground flares positioned along hand grenades from fighting positions.

Dismounted infantry should first use antitank missiles and rockets to defeat enemy armor and motorized infantry. On occasion/ friendly dismounted soldiers may come in close contact with enemy armored formations. Use your rifle to kill enemy soldiers not in defilade positions. hand grenades supplementary fragmentation each enemy after (2) Against enemy armored and tracked vehicles (Figure 3-4). TO 4·SECOND DELAY. WHICH MEANS YOU HAVE VERY llTTlE TIME TO REACT THE PREFERRED COURSE OF ACTION IF AN ENEMY GRENADE LAI\IOS IN YOUR POSITION OR NEAR YOU IS TO IMMEDIATELY YOURSELF ROll OUT OF YOUR FIGHTING POSITION OR THROW FLAT ON THE GROUND (e) Employ fragmentation hand grenades against enemy soldiers located in defilade positions as a first priority. This minimizes the danger to friendly soldiers and helps cover terrain not covered by direct fire weapons. wheLe YUUL llLl- (c) Keep 50 percent of your fragmentation grenades at the ready in your fighting position/ leaving the remaining fragmentation grenades on your load-carrying equipment. Satchel charges/ as described in FM 5-25/ can also be used to defeat enemy armor.3. (d) Rehearse actions to be taken lands in your fighting position. (f) Reconnoiter your alternate and positions and determine your priority hand grenade target. (lJ) RehectL::>e ~Leuctcle elllllluYllleuLikuuw mary target is. if an enemy grenade WAHNIIIIG: SOVIET GRENADES USE FUZES WITH CNLY A . In either case/ the soldier must approach the armored vehicle to kill it or the 3-10 .(a) Clear overhead obstructions/ which may interfere with the path of the thrown grenade. If these are not available/ it is still possible to destroy/ immobilize/ or render inoperative the vehicle or system/ and or to kill the crew inside the vehicle. (g) Redistribute engagement. Do this at the same time direct fire fields of fire are cleared.

Some characteristics of Soviet armor must to kill or disable the enemy armored vehicle or its crew. Any weapon that can trigger a fire and the fire extinguisher system can possibly knock out a Soviet tank. The Ml station. the crew may have to bailout. manually A fire extinguisher or auLomaLlcally by one of eight heat sensors. However. and power trains. (b) Visual dead space. Diagrams highlighting these areas on selected Threat vehicles are shown in Figure 3-5. ammunition storage areas. From the Soviet tank gunner's rotate its turret through a full 360 degrees. the fire extinguisher's ethylene bromide gas creates a poisonous vapor when exposed to flames. This means a soldier can completely run around a Soviet tank before the turret can be traversed from over the front deck to the rear deck. 3-11 . (a) Turret rotation. Attack of an enemy vehicle. the dead space increases to 50 feet. This means soldiers in fighting positions cannot be seen by Soviet tank gunners when they are within these distances to the tank. (e) Fire extinguisher can be Lrlggered system. The turrets of Soviet tanks rotate much slower than those on US and NATO tanks. Bradley Fighting Vehicle can rotate their turrets a full 360 degrees in 6 seconds. It takes more than 21 seconds for a Soviet tank to be understood and vulin order Abrams Tank and M2. If the turret is oriented over the rear 180 degrees (rear deck). If the extinguisher discharges. nothing within 30 feet at ground level can be seen through the frontal 180 degrees of turret rotation.nerabilities crew with hand grenades. Vulnerabilities common to most Threat vehicles are the fuel cells. SOVIET TANK GUNNER VISUAL DEADSPACE sysLem DEADSPACE 70' MAIN GUN DEADSPACE r::n' 30' VISUAL DEADSPACE FROM GUNNER'S STATION WHILE BUTTONED UP IN DIRECTION OF MAIN GUN "" Figure 3-4.

Enemy vehicle vulnerabilities.T-62A T-72 AUXILIARY FUEL TANK ON REAR DECK T-64 BMP ••• ~- AUXILIARY FUEL TANK ON REAR DECK NOT SHOWN C ENGINE AND DRIVE TRAIN ""'" AMMUNITION FUEL Figure 3-5. 3-12 .

Incendiary grenades can be used when terrain conditions permit initiating fires in specific areas to impede and disrupt enemy movement. a. If there is a special application or consideration for hand grenade use during retrograde operations. o Attempt to drop a fragmentation grenade into an open hatch if incendiary grenades are not available. Colored smoke hand grenades can be used to mark friendly force positions and identify friendly forces. it would probably be for the creation of obstacles. The soldier at the left rear of the vehicle mans either the left rear vision block or the last vision block and firing port on the left side. Eight of these vision blocks (four of each side) correspond to the firing ports for the squad's weapons. o Place an incendiary grenade over the engine compartment. If the flank firing port is being manned. Obstacles. the following procedures are recommended. These vision blocks are oriented at a 45degree angle toward the vehicle's direction of movement. When employing hand grenades for the purpose. Approach the vehicle from the rear. and breaking contact. marking friendly force locations. 3-7. RETROGRADE OPERATIONS EMPLOYMENT Most of the employment considerations applicable to the use of hand grenades in the defense are equally applicable to regrograde operations. the vehicle is vulnerable to an approach from the rear. Marking Locations. o Remain in a covered fighting position until the vehicle closes to within its visual dead space.vehicle. Dismounted solvehicles with hand grenades only as a last resort. b. The BMP has nine vision for the eight infantrymen in the rear of the o Shoot escaping crewmen as they exit the vehicle if it is not disabled by a catastrophic. moving aggressively. 3-13 . o Immediately return to cover. diers should attempt to destroy or disable enemy armor blocks (d) BMP visual dead space. secondary explosion.

There is no safe zone on the battlefield. (2) Riot control grenades. Special Considerations. the Claymore antipersonnel mine. and CS grenades can all be used for breaking contact regaining flexibility of maneuver. The situation will be further confused by the large members of CS and CSS units operating throughout the rear area. Use of hand gre- decisive- some nades in volley fire immediately following the employment of white smoke is especially effective. at enemy Grenades are thrown by indisoldiers in all threat situa- 3-14 . white phosphorous. elements and Breaking Contact. especially in those situations where noncombatants and support troops may be intermingled with threat forces.c. It is not unreasonable to expect enemy SPETNAZ. individual US soldiers must react to every action by aggressive violent employment of grenades and individual weapons. the AT4 antitank rocket. 3 -8. Two features of rear area operations provide for unique considerations insofar as hand grenade employment is concerned. These threats range from large operational maneuver groups to highly trained. especially if the conflict begins to stalemate and does not result in a rapid victory for either side. The smoke obscures enemy observation of friendly force movement from covered positions. the 9-mm pistol. During retrograde operations of the friendly force frequently become l ly engaged. vidual (1) Offensive tions. All US soldiers in combat. and fifth columnists to attempt to incite riots in our rear areas. l a. white smoke. CS. and CSS units must be prepared to fight using the M16A2 rifle. and fragmentation grenade employment forces them to cover. In certain areas ot the world. These factors dictate the following in regard to hand grenade employment in the rear areas. special operating forces and even terrorists. Forces in the rear area must quell these riots as rapidly as possible while minimizing potential damage to the soldiers grenades. REAR AREA OPERATIONS EMPLOYMENT AirLand Battle doctrine recognizes that the nature of a future war poses a significant threat to rear areas. Fragmentation. US forces should consider using the offensive grenade. and the fragmentation grenade. the US Army and its allies must anticipate a large number of civilian refugees moving into and through the rear area. special agent provocateurs. At every squad and section throughout the corps battle area.

special cautions must be considered. MOPP 4. also have relevancy in maintaining control of the rear area. Accordingly. Arming and throwing procedures must be executed slowly and deliberately. It is recommended that the thrower observe each arming action (removal of safety clip and safety pin). the employment of hand grenades from defensive positions surrounding the base cluster is based on the same considerations as hand grenade employment by combat units in the MBA. USE UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS b. Base cluster commanders must organize the defense of their positions in much the same manner as tactical commanders in the MBA.nades. While hand grenade procedures do not change when employed under adverse conditions. are usually and order functions. Wearing gloves will inhibit the thrower's feel and could decrease his throwing ability. a. which lives and property of noncombatants. Depth perception is generally impaired under limited visibility conditions. b. Exercise additional caution when employing hand grenades while in MOPP gear. Concentrate on the grip. 3-15 . Night. Throwers must have clear fields of fire and no overhead obstructions. 3-9. associated with peacetime Riot control grelaw Base Cluster Defense.

hut in combat as well. o Advance trainingcourseslisted in this chapter. 4-2. Technical instruction on grenade function. movement techniques. Once soldiers reach a high proficiency level. and throwing positions. o Practical exercises using targets of different types at varied ranges that stress distance and accuracy.FM 23-30 CHAPTER 4 TRAINING PROGRAM The is to produce soldiers that are proficient in the use of hand grenades in any tactical situation. a. Distance and Accuracy.except for the target engagements at varied ranges. Initially. which will reduce injuries not only in peacetime. These courses may be modified to support the unit METL. OBJECTIVES intended outcome of all hand grenade training programs The hand grenade training program should progress using the crawl-walk-run methodology. culminating with the integration of hand grenades into situational and field training exercise. terrain. o Instruction and practical exercises on fundamentals of gripping. The program progresses from fundamental to advanced training. 4-1 . but. and weapon integration. throwing. training programs will require extensive direct supervision. buddy teams. the amount of supervision required decreases. and commander's intent. The following progrssive training program objectives are offered for use or modification: o o o Instruction on visual identification of hand grenades. except for the standard Army hand grenade qualification course. Instruction on capabilities of hand grenades. 4-1. TRAINING COURSES The training courses listed in this chapter. as soldier profic iency increases. accuracy. The training program should incorporate safe handling and throwing practices. are offered as models to assist units in meeting their training objectives. a sustainment program should be implemented to maintain this level.

The four stations may be combined if the terrain does not allow four stations. TASK: Engage a variety of targets at varying ranges up to 40 meters. position 20 meters from the o A forti fed mortar throwing line. 4-2 . conditions and standards for the coursel followed by a demonstration that meets the stated standard. o A trench target 40 meters from the throwing line. individual I (3) Course (Figure 4-1). Proper procedures for seekinq cover after throwinq a qrenade should be stressed after the soldier acquires throwing accuracy. This feedback l l l l weight of the grenade and the amount of force required to accurately throw the grenade. l (2) Conduct of traininQ. The soldier should receive a course orientation explanation and demonstration. The distance and accuracy course is the initial practical exercise soldiers should perform. o Soldiers in openl during assault at 20 meters from throwing line. The following is a generic task condition and standard to assist units.(1) Puroose. I CONDITION. l l allows the soldier to gain an appreciation for the equipment and a four-station course with a variety of targets at distances of 20 30 and 40 meters. A recommended four-station target course by target type and distance is -o A IlghLlng poslLlon 30 meLers Lrorn Lhe Lluowlng line. It is designed to develop the soldier's proficiency in grenade throwing and reinforce proper throwing habits. A target is successfully engaged when the grenade detonates within 5 meters of the target. TO develop good safety habits supervisors must ensure proper throwing techniques are used by the soldiers. Given 12 practice 1 1 grenades. STANlJAbW: The soldier must successfully engage targets at each station with two out of three grenades using the prone to kneeling or prone to standing and prone throwing positions. This must include clarification of the tasks. During initial hand grenade throwing soldier should be allowed to observe the strike of the grenade.

r-~l \ ..( . READY LINE :.. I I. Distance and accuracy course.\ I ..r:..- -- TARGET lONE - ~ ~ \ r '6"'t6' ----------\ TARGET LINE \ LANE 3 LANE 4 Figure 4-1.... 40 METERS TRENCH TARGET ..-~~~ .:".--- 30 METERS--- -tl LANE 1 LANE 2 MORTAR POSITION .•••.r... 7 ErER MET\S -'r..·n II!!""'" '" """11\__ . 10 METERS . 11 1 .:_".FIGHTING POSITION TARGETS 11 ~ '... _r ~ ..l~~£~\ ' D'RT MOUND ....""""... ... 4-3 . 50 METERS I \ 10 METERS t / _ DIRT MOUND ~ THROWING LINE s. __ ~ t.... THROWING LINE READY LINE 30 METERS . .. ~'• ..

Live pit. The following is a generic task. to include flak vest. a practice pit that replicates a live pit. and standard to assist units. Improper techniques or bad habits. and throw two practice hand grenades from the practice pit while following the tower commands and safety NCO's instrucpit until the command CLEAR or ALL CLEAR is given. STANDARD: Soldier must safely carry. arm. and an orientation and safety briefing. Soldiers are oriented to the practice training pit and given an explanation of the Soldiers will then practice the actual procedures used during live pit training. The number of practice throws a soldier needs depends upon his ability to meet the standard.NOTE: Soldiers throw three grenades at each station. This instills confidence in the soldiers' ability to throw the hand grenade and its lethality. TASK: Successfully throw practice hand grenade from the practice pit and follow all commands from the NCOIC. 4-4 tions. NOTE: c. If the soldier does not meet the standard. The live pit gives soldiers the opportunity to experience the sensations of throwing a live fragmentation grenade. CONDITION: Given individual equipment. Each soldier is evaluated individually. Soldiers must not move from the cover of the commands that will be used during actual throwing. practice hand grenades. Training here introduces the soldier to the throwing commands and provirles add i t. Practice Training pit. The practice pit si where soldiers pre- (2) Conduct of training. The physical layout of the practice replicate the live throw pit. pare to throw live fragmentation grenades. (1) Purpose.i oria l throwing practice. The instructor must enforce correct throwing and safety procedures. condition. Two ot the three grenades must be within 5 meters ot the target. which a soldier could carryover to live pit training. cannot be tolerated. NOTE: b. additional training is required until he does. pit should . (1) Purpose.

Soldier must comply with all fire commands and instructions. NOTE: flak vests. helmets. making it difficult to standardize the operating procedures. o Soldiers must receive a safety briefing first. a facility for live hand grenade throwing. eye armor. TASK: nade. if Instructors must check soldiers by using the live hand grenade range operation checklist in Appendix B. with and standard a live are offered gre- The following for use. o Throughout hand grenade training and particularly at a live pit.) o If facilities permit (observation windows available) . Each facility has its own safety features and training qualities. (Consult local range regulations for restrictions. instructors must instill confidence in the soldiers--not apprehension. LCE. This makes sense tactically and provides a safer training environment. and. STANDARD: Soldier must safely arm and throw at least two live fragmentation hand grenades.(2) Conduct of trainin~. (See Figure 4-3 for suggested live pit layout. and live fragmentation hand grenades attached to the ammunition pouch. Engage targets fragmentation CONDITION: Given individual equipment. The procedures and techniques of conducting live hand grenade range operations depend upon available facilities and their regulations. 4-5 . o Soldiers must wear available. Hand grenades are inherently safe when used properly. o Soldiers throwing a live hand grenade must have a target. task. allow soldiers to observe live/throwing pit procedures before they throw live ho. and flak vest. condition.) o Soldiers must attach hand grenades to ammunition pouches and carry them to the throwing pits. to include helmet.rid grenades. The following guidelines are provided to assist in the conduct of live hand grenade training: o Soldiers must have practice pit training before training at the live/throwing pit (Figure 4-2).

Live/throwing pit.INSTRUCTOR PRESENT (NOT SHOWN) Figure 4-2. ... Suggested 4-6 physical live pit layout.f lr--IL--11 ~ WALL ---_o-J. AMMUNITION ISSUE POINT Figure 4-3. 50 METERS o THROWING PIT TI o THROWING PIT 20~ETERS TOWER '.c'' t t-) --I ------.

(1) Purpose. ated individually. open type wheeled vehicle. Engage a bunker using available cover and concealment. Engage a group of enemy targets behind cover 20 meters distant. 4-7 . o Station 3. simulating enemy movement through and beyond the squad's protective wire. course is standardized throughout the US Army. Engage a fortified 82-mm mortar position from 20 meters. The bunker will have only one firing port oriented toward the direction of the buddy team's movement and a rear exit.d. Engage troops in a halted. o Station 5. practice hand grenades to engage targets in natural terrain under simulated combat conditions. 25 meters distant. Clear an entry point to a trench line 25 meters distant. The course is conducted in two-man fighting position. (2) Conduct of training. The qualification course should not be attempted until after training on the distance and accuracy course. Hand Grenade Qualification Course. This applies especially to units whose soldiers have not had any hand grenade training. The targets (3) The actual course. The hand grenade qualification The qualification course allows soldiers to female soldiers) to the front of the fighting position. The qualification course measures and evaluates the soldier's ability to engage a variety of targets with hand grenades using proper throwing techniques. Engage a group of F-type silhouette targets in the open from a two-man fighting position. o Station 6. will be located 35 meters (25 meters for o Station 2. o Station 4. The stations and their requirements are as follows: o Station 1. use fuzed. It consists of seven stations with one evaluator per station. An added incentive for soldiers to perform well is the award of a hand grenade qualification bar to be worn on his marksmanship medal.

and scorinq 10 BAYS WIDE -------il~ OD LIGHT RED } 'i' . standard. While no two hand grenade qualification courses will be physically the same. Suggested identification station.o Station 7. For a suggested identification station. The evaluator at each station will determine scoring in accordance with the standard scorecard. 4 6 (back) establishes the task. soldiers must be able to identify grenades by shape. refer to Figure 4-4. 4-8 . DA Form 3517-R will be locally reproduced on 8 1/2 . markings and capabilities. Figure 4-7 shows a sample physical layout. Qualification must be awarded only to those soldiers who meet these standards. The DA Form 3517-R (Hand Grenade Qualification scorecard) at Fiqures 4-5 (front) and procedure for the qualification course. condition. the standards must be consistent. color. Identify hand grenades.by 11 inch paper and is located at the back of this regulation.I Figure 4-4.

In Addlhon to the ReqUirements on this Scorecard.""" Me."" Engage Wheeled vemcie at 25 Meters 1~I ~ / 1I / •v 6 -> CHECK 7 Idenllfy Hand Grenades M. J:J .- Meiers (25 Meters· Females) 2 Engage Bunker 3 Engage 82-MM Mortar Position at 20 Meters ~J 4 Engage Enemy Behind Cover at 20 ~eters 5 1 E"gog.use of ttus form. 4-9 . QUAliFiCATiON STANDARD PASSED 7 EXPERT PASSED 6 FIRST CLASS PASSED 5 PASSED 4 OR LESS N StGNATURE SECOND CLASS UNQUALIFIED Of SCORER/O!G OA FORM 3517-R. ~051110n5 at. the Soldier Must Throw Two Live FragmenlaliOn Grenades to Qualily. N(!)V 88 DA fOHM 3517A.. ~.. WERE THROWN DATE LIVE GRENADES e 17 Se:.17-I. sf K N~GO L SCORER INITIALS L'YJ UNIT H STATION T'fPE TAHGE 1 GO ~ ~ t:ngage t:nemy 110m t-Igmmg ~ . see FM 23 30 the proponent agen-cy IS TRADQe NOTE: A. front. Scorecard.Tm"... ~ g c E GRADE SSAN INITIAL~vr /-7 I I: IY J DATE /7 SePt. JUL 69 IS OBSOlETE Figure 4-5..HAND GRENADE QUALIFICATION SCORECARD Po.

.... Used Proper Gnp t". Approached trorn BlllltJ Side. C D. V REVERSE OF DA FORM 3517-R. Completed Porlormance Measuros 6A Through 6E Wllhin 15 Seconds. STAT!QN? V ...._..r Selecled FragmentallOn Grenade to Engage ErJemy Soldiers. B../ v" Engage 6unker A B. Kept Exposure Tune Under 3 Seconds Relunll.t VVlII"'I~lV\J D .u. I.)d to Covered POSition Alter Each Throw.. NOTE: ..:tau.. .... Engage Enemy Benind COVei'at 20 Met&ii (Altern". vV 0 E. Used Proper ThrOWing Techruqoes.> . E_ r: .> ..... B....o. STATION 2..M TtUlJUyll ZE Wlltllfl 15 St./ D E.. NOV 88 Figure 4-6. Prone) -_ _----_-. STATION 6 Engage Vehicle al 25 Meters (Kneeling) GO NO-GO PERFORMANCE ME:ASURES A.> .... IF EXAMINEE CANNOT CORRECTLY STATE NAME OF GRENADE./' V' ./ ..<JoN.. ldenttfled 1../' B. STATION 3 Engage 82-MM Mortar Posilion al 20 Metera (/Cneellng) A. THEN THE EXAMINEE WILL BE SCORED A "GO". EACH PERFORMANCE MEASURE AT EACH SECTION WILL BE GRADED ON A PASSIFAIL A SOLDIER MUST PASS ALL OF STANDARD../" ...". ~ 0 E.....-Octooatoo at Least One Grenade WIIt"rI 5 Meiers 01 the Cenler of Targel . (KneelltJg) A.... /' ... It Must be the Same as Color on the Trammg 11.. Returncd to Covered POSIIIOIlAller eacn rnrow Used Proper Gn!! Used Proper Ttlrowlng Techruques... E: F.""\./ ~.. Completed Pertormence Measures 1A Through 1E Wllt"n 15 Seconds. back. ldenllfled M8 Grenade as "While Smoke" or HC Smoke Idenlrhed M 18 Grenades as "Colored Smoke" or 'Purple (Ere) Smoke". .rl 15 Seconds..des A.. --- / B C D... F.. F.. Used Proper ThrOWing TechnIQues./ Engage Trench at 25 Mete".-j rUIIUIIIIOII H .. STAilON 4./ ..> .. .. C Identity Hand Gr@n.. Detonated Grenade In Bunker Rolled Away from Bunker./ ldenttfled M25A2 Grenade as CS or Riot Control.... Slated.../ . 4-10 Scorecard. BUT CAN CORRECTLY IDENTIFY ITS USE.... u'l[.rlaulIJ I J .. on-> ...114Grenades as Incendiary./' /' . USOOProper Gnp./ B. Checked for Bunker Opening. C .. Detonated at Least One Grenade InSide Mortar POSition Kepi Exposure Tune Under J Seconds.. C D.. Returned to Covered Postuon Alter Each Throw Used Proper Gnp. fOR PERfORMANCE MEASURES 71' THROUGH 7E..--. Kept Exposure Time Under J Seconds.o..)u. .ng Troops. ..4 f"'IU f:'!_..) (SIIHldlllg) GO NO-GO A... Used Proper Gnp Used Proper Throwlflg Techniques Competed Performance Measures 4A Through 4E Within 15 Seconds STATION 5 0/ V" / / E F... (If Soecit«: Color IS. Detonated at Least One Grenade msde Trench Kepi Expoaurc Tunc U. 1 . Completed Perlormance Measures JA Through 3E Wllh... USOOProper ThrOWing Techruqoas.uruJ::i.. . THESE STANDARDS TO RECEIVE A "GO" ON THAT STATION_ NOTE: A./ . . Returned 10 Covered POSIlJonAfter eacr rnrow.smounl.... .> V V . Returned to Covered Position Aller Each Throw ~sed Proper Grrp._ -...) U .." .r . muo..> . PIoRFORMANCEMEASURES Deionated Within 1 Meter of vemcio or Within 5 Meters of D. ryA c... ./ .L:>o. Detonateo at Least One Grenade Wlthlll 5 Moters 01 the Comer of Tinget Kepi Exposure TIIl10 Under J Seconds.rl v. C D E.STATION 1 Engage Enemy From Fighllng POlillon at a Range 01 35 Meiers (25 Meters 'or Fern"..ldcr 3 Seconds B C....

" I BUNKER I I STATION 3.' TABLE WHEELED VEHICLE TARGET J STATION 6..)~~\(~ I \ . ' POSITION... \/1. 2 MAN ~ HI ' 1---""'") I STATION 2. The hand grenade confidence course is designed to accomplish this objective (Figure 4-8). LOGS /'::J ~ \'..J SCORECARD IN STATlON7. " f I I J TURr'".~l START!NG POINT ~~ 1 F!GHT!NG.'\ (. STUM.. \. ~ FINISH POINT Uf I '. -.LOGS -'lI U- \ \ ". course layout. Hand Grenade Qualification Course.. 4-11 ..-41 ~ i I \ - . ./1 STATION 4. n.. he should be given an opportunity to apply his newly acquired proficiency in a simulated tactical situation requiring the use of grenades. e. • SILHOUETTES I Figure 4-7. ~ ~~.STATlo?. Once the soldier has developed his throwing proficiency and has been introduced to throwing casualty-producing hand grenades.. .._ .{ ' A ~ ~ 82-MM MORTAR POSITION I • / /'~ . Confidence (1) Purpose..vII.. . I -c~_....

(a) The course is begun with an orientation period covering the characteristics and functioning of the practice and fragmentation hand grenades.-INCH STEEL SILHOUETTE POP-UP SILHOUETTE ~ -»~ Cl BY F!RE TEAMS Figure 4-8. (2) Conduct. an initial holding area. Each platoon is moved to a separate assembly area for the practice course 4-12 . and a discussion and demonstration of the conduct of the course for the entire unit being trained. Confidence course layout. each squad member is given a number (1-9). and a final holding area. a final coordination line. each consisting of an assembly area. a throwing position. The hand grenade confidence course has a practice and a live course. a covering position. safety considerations governing the conduct of training. (b) Following the initial orientation.TARGt:T AREA2 BUNKER 1 ~ HOLDING AREA V.

(All personnel are inspected by the orc before they negotiate the course to make certain that all grenades are properly secured. The squad leader then sends a new man to bunder number one where he provides covering fire for the number two man who moves to bunker number two to throw his grenades. 4 -13 . the safety officer commands ALL DOWN. depending upon their experience and proficiency.where the orc of the range presents a tactical situation. (d) Upon arrival at a mound representing the initial holding area. When the grenade is thrown. ALPHA team on the right. The squad leader sends two men from the right side of the line to bunker number one near the objective. When the grenade is thrown. the soldier being critiqued by the critique NCO moves directly to the initial holding area. The control NCO directs the number one man on the right to move to bunker number two within hand grenade range of the objective. the squad is taken under fire by a machine gun simulator. the soldier engages target area number two with a second practice hand grenade. Covering fire is continued from bunker number one. This command pertains to everyone in the training area. which indicates the amount of time personnel must remain behind the protective cover) . At this time. the safety officer commands ALL DOWN. He then observes target area number one and engages it with a practice hand grenade. from a tree line that represents the final coordination line of the practice course. From bunker number two. Unfllz~d practic~ hand gr~nad~s ar~ issll~d to the platoon for the practice conduct of the course. (e) The soldier who threw the grenades moves by the most direct route back to the final holding area where he is critiqued by the critique NCO. the soldier continues to fire his weapon until all far targets are suppressed.) NOTE: The orc should determine whether to issue grenades to the soldiers in the holding area or at the throwing bunker. After the grenade functions (the safety officer counts to seven. all personnel get behind protective cover. (c) The first squad moves in a line formation. After the second grenade functions. One man lays down a base of fire at target area number three.

it returns to the sembly area and then moves to the live course for final run with fragmentation grenades. The critique NCO will point out the thrower's mistakes and send him back through the practice course. NOTE: Take off blank adapters before issuing live ammunition. The OIC or NCOIC.(f) The above sequence is repeated until all squad personnel have thrown grenades and provided covering fire. who will be an E7 or above. Live ammunition and two live grenades are used in the conduct of the live course. The first soldier to throw grenades provides covering fire for the last man to throw. asthe the the on NOTE: In the practice course. After first group has completed the practice course. and tactical briefing. After issuing the operation order in the assembly area. (3) Safety personnel. (g) After the first group has finished the practice course and has been critiqued. The following safety personnel are required for the hand grenade confidence course: (a) Officer in charge. presentation of bleacher orientation. is responsible for the overall conduct of the problem. the thrower will be identified to the critique NCO. it may be necessary to place an individual who has extreme difficulty in properly handling grenades under the control of an assistant instructor for detailed instruction. practice and live courses are run concurrently separate training areas. 4-14 carefully the actions on the practice of soldiers course must throwing . the safety officer is positioned in the safety bunker where he has the immediate responsibility of supervising hand grenade throwing. blank rifle ammunition and practice grenades are used. If the safety officer detects any unsafe acts or extreme nervousness on a thrower's part. In some instances. In no instance will a man be allowed to throw live fragmentation grenades until he has clearly demonstrated his ability to throw practice grenades during the practice conduct of the course. (h) The safety officer observe practice grenades.

He will be an E6 or above.(b) Squad leaders. he also controls the soldier furnishing covering fire. The critique NCO will brief each member of the squad after both the practice and to observe another squad. The squad leaders alternate movinq squads to and from the initial holdinq areas. They are responsible for ensuring that all personnel are behind protective cover in the initial holding area when grenades are being thrown. He is positioned in all personnel both before and after each grenade is thrown. The safety officer is the senior assistant instructor. (Practice and live runs are run concurrently after the first squad completes the practice run. The trainin~ facility for the hand grenade confidence course conslsts of a practice grenade course for throwing the M69 practice grenades and a live grenade course for throwing fragmentation grenades.) 4-15 . the critique NCO will observe the same squad during both the practice and live courses. Squad leaders from the initial holding area to bunker number one. The hand grenade confidence course should be conducted concurrently with another 2-hour period of instruction in order to minimize terrain and personnel requirements. He then returns to the practice course (4) Training facility. or an ES serving in an E6 position. ammunition issue. nk.e r riurnbe r one whe re he con Lro Ls Lhe movemenL of (d) Critique NCO. To ensure continuity. live courses. The critique NCO is positioned in the final holding area. each soldj_eL's gLenades be[oLe he moves Lu (c) Safety officer. Time breakdown for the conduct of training is as follows: o Initial orientation: 20 minutes o Tactical situation briefing. These two courses are constructed alike and close together in order to allow easy movement from one to the other. musL check. and inspection prior to crossing the final coordination line: 10 minutes. o Practice run: 35 minutes. He administers a critique to each thrower immediately after the man arrives from bunker number two.

The area should be a mound or a roadside ditch that is long enough to accommodate nine men and high enough to afford protection for a kneeling man. 5. cartridges. (c) Initial holding area. Thio io the laot location outoide the ourface (a) ~ooembly area. Thio area io uoed ao a briefing 5. 40 rounds of live cartridges. 40 rounds of blank. and two target areas. (f) Observation point. (b) Final coordination line. It should be a cleared area. This area should be located 30 to 50 meters forward of the final coordination line. For each demonstration. It should be a pit affording the minimum frontal protection.5 meters high a-rid. Ideally. This position hill. (6) Ranges. and located between the assembly area and the objective. 2 meters wide. The position should be located about 15 meters to the left front of the covering position.56-mm cartridges and two practice hand grenades. are required.grenades. fragmentation hand grenades. M69 unfuzed. M69 unfuzed. each consisting of an assembly area. (e) Throwing position. a safety officer's observation point. The range used for the confidence course consists of two separate areas. a final holding area. (d) Covering position. The position is located 10 meters to the rear of the throwing position. the area between the final coordination line and the objective should slope updanger zone where personnel may maneuver freely without the need for cover to protect soldiers from fragmentation danger. Each soldier needs 40 rounds of blank. sufficiently large to accommodate a 48to 60-man platoon. 4-16 . such as a woodline or stream bed. point and an ammunition issue point. should be 5 meters forward of the right initial holding area. an initial holding area. This is the safety officer's observation point. two should be a and 3 meters The position flank of the should be Q mound or a parapet 1. This line should be a prominent terrain feature. a final coordination line. This position mound or parapet 2 meters (5 feet) high (8 feet) wide across its front side.56-mm (5) Ammunition. and two M67 series. a covering position. a throwing position.

COLLECTIVE TRAINING Two aspects of preparing for combat are training and rehearsals. The target consists of a cluster of 15 to from bunkers one and two. They must then integrate these individual tasks into the training and rehearsals. a. The target areas on the practice confidence course should clearly be marked "practice targets". This is the impact area for the second hand grenade. noncommissioned officers must analyze the collective tasks to be trained and select the individual tasks that support these collective tasks. Noncommissioned officers find the individual tasks that support collective tasks by referring to the mission-task matrix in the ap4-17 . 20 E pop-up silhouettes locoted 50 to 100 meters (i) Training area (general) The training area should be located on slightly sloping terrain. o Target area two. There are three separate target areas in each course (practice or live). o Target area one. This is the impact area for the first hand grenade. It is located 5 meters to the left of the safety officer's observation point. The position must accommodate a minimum of two kneeling men. This area should have characteristics similar to the initial holding area. This is the target area for M16 fire. This target should be unmarked and located at ranges varying from 25 to 40 meters and 50 meters to the left of target area one.(g) Final holding area. When training collective tasks or rehearsing a particular combat mission. ~he target should be a cluster of 1/2-inch steel E silhouette targets located at ranges varying from 25 to 40 meters. The target consists of a cluster of ten 1/2-inch steel E silhouettes. Training managers decide which collective tasks they must practice by analyzing the operation outlines contained in the appropriate mission training plan. As much natural vegetation as possible should be left on the site. The operation outlines layout the collective tasks required to execute a critical wartime mission. (h) Targets. 4-3. o Target area three.

knock out bunker. They find the correct training standards in the appropriate soldier's manual task. The STX must be a r. Once soldiers can safely arm and throw live fragmentation grenades. Noncommissioned officers tell soldiers when and how to use the grenades. There are no firm guidelines for an STX (Figure 4-9). He analyzes the mission outline for attack and determines which collective tasks his squad may have to do as part of this mission. defend. Use simulation or live hand grenades. conduct hasty ambush. Soldiers must use hand grenades any time they engage the enemy in close combat. evaluate their use. When units train or rehearse these tasks. As an example. SAMPLE SQUAD SITUATIONAL TRAINING EXERCISE Present soldiers with tactical situations in an STX requiring hand grenade use in conjunction with other fire team or squad weapons that force soldiers to make sound tactical decisions on hand grenade employment. disengage. correct mistakes. a team leader learns that his platoon is going to practice the ARTEP mission: attack. 4-4.. and the collective skills of his fire team and squad. break contact. Soldiers should carry practice hand grenades whenever they carry their individual weapon. and clear a building. they should also train and evaluate the use of hand grenades. a. b. They use the squad and platoon IVl'l'J:l (AJ:G'!::. Several of these tasks require soldiers to engage in close combat.J:l 7-8-MTP) and FMs 7-8 and 7-70 to see how to use the individual tasks to do their collective tasks. c.-ealistic training event that im- close proves the soldier's hand grenade throwing skill. b. clear a trench line. as appropriate. Drills that require close combat are: react to contact. They should be required to use both to 4-18 .propriate platoon mission training plan. conduct a raid. the use of his individual weapon. Collective tasks that require combat are: conduct fire and movement. against realistic targets while practicing the collective task. The close combat tasks listed in paragraph 4-3c should also be offered in a unit STX training program. units should integrate the use of grenades into collective tasks rather than training it as a separate event. conduct point ambush. and retrain soldiers as necessary. and react to ambush. Consider including hand grenade tasks in the tactical scenario that are best suited to the unit's METL.

. STATION 4. for specific tasks can be Opposing found in force ARTEP STARTING POINT c o o SQUAD o o 0 I I I STATION 1.. CLEAR A BUILDING o o 0 o i \. Figure 4-9. CROSS A DANGER AREA I I I \ ~ ~ STATION 2. CONDUCT MANEUVER ~ / I I I ~ SNIPER NOTE: REFER TO TC-90-1 TO CONSTRUCT BUILDING. ENGAGE BUNKER rA U:d STATION 7. o I . Sample squad STX with hand grenade. enhances training realism. CLEAR TRENCHLINE It \ STATION 3. CONDUCT HASTY AMBUSH I . The use of opposing forces objectives 7-8-MTP. ESTABLISH/CONDUCT o 't \ FINISH POINT SQUAD DE:fCNSE \ STATION 6.maximize their individual capabilities. . 4-19 .. \ ~ STATION 6.

Ground Smoke Signals. They are used for signaling and illuminating missions. a. telephone. The signal consists of a cylindrical smoke pellet. Hand-held Signals. These signals produce a smoke cloud that lasts for 13 to 30 seconds. These signals are issued in their own launching mechanism and are designed to reach a minimumheight of 200 me t. 8ig- 5-1 . unlike the old rifle smoke grenades that functioned either on impact or shortly after firing. and smoke parachutes. five-star clusters. The illuminating capabilities of pyrotechnic signals are somewhat limited because of their Radio. Signaling (Communication). 5-1. The hand-held signals replaced all rifleprojected pyrotechnic ground signals and chemical grenades. and a striker ring assembled in an aluminum photocan container.FM 23-30 CHAPTER 5 GROUND PYROTECHNIC SIGNALS Ground pyrotechnic signals are classified as either handheld or ground smoke signals. 5-2. Pyrotechnic signals are prescribed at command level and are prearranged in accordance with SOls. an igniter cap. voice. Illuminating. b.e e . They replaced rifle-projected smoke signals. This group of signals r includes single-star parachutes. an internal retaining ring. me88enger. CHARACTERISTICS Ground pyrotechnic signals rise to a height of 180 to 250 meters before functioning. a fuze (thermalite-type ignitacord). b. Pyrotechnic signals are used in such situations to supplement or to take the place of normal communication means. Effective control of units on the battlefield depends largely on communication. and arm-and-hand nals are communication means that at times are made ineffective by the tactical situation. a. These signals are selfcontained units used by ground soldiers to signal aircraft or to convey information (prearranged signal) . CAPABILITIES AND USES These signals are capable of signaling for communications or illuminating a small area.

and 4.Gt-~ALS. M169 ILLUMINANT ASSEMBLY ROCKET MOTOR ASSEMBLY SIGNAL CROSS SECTION Figure 5-1. M168. 5-3.JATION.( (1_. a. however.size. to light a small area illuminating cignalc are used at the same time. and smoke parachutes are and illuminating. They are issued in an expendable launcher. Star Clusters. Figure consists of a launching 5-1). RED STAR. Ground pyrotechnic 5-2 signals. M126A1. ILLUMIr-.>==_= _= FIRING CAP) 1=. These signals produce cap a [ SHIPPING CONTAINER ] FOR HAND-HELD SIGNAL LAUNCHER TUBE o~"'--~ r FIRING CAP ~----n-r. ) THE HAND-HELD SIGNAL (LAUNCHER TUBE AND ( SIGNAL CARRIER CORK SEAL S. They can be used. HAND-HELD Star clusters. WHITE STAR. 3. GROUND. Star clusters star parachutes. (1. . SIGNALS for cnort periodc when two or more three hand-held signals used by the Army. GREEN STAR. 2. which are used for signaling tube and a firing cluster of five free-falling pyrotechnic stars. CLUSTERS.

holding the elbow tight against the body with the signal at the desired trajectory angle and the firing cap at the bottom.) For more detailed information on safety and precautions. Operation of hand-held signals should be as follows: (This will not always agree with the instructions found on the launcher tube. keeping the left arm rigid. finger in alignment red-knurled with (b) Withdraw the firing cap from the upper end of the signal. 5-3 . (d) Grasp the center of the signal firmly with the left hand. refer to TM 9-1370-206-10. red (2) Operation. the signal with the little in the left hand. (c) the nal red Point the ejection end of the signal away from body and slowly push the firing cap onto the siguntil the open end of the cap is aligned with the band. band (a) Hold the red band (Figure 5-2). the M158.star cluster. the MI25 (1) Types. The current types of star clusters include ond MI25AI. Figure 5-2. (e) Strike the bottom of the cap a sharp blow with the palm of the right hand. and the M159. Turn the head down and away from the signal to avoid injury to the face and eyes from particles ejected by the small rocket (Figure 5-2). green otor cluoter. down. Firing the hand-held signal. white star cluster.

Smoke parachutes are used for signaling only. Smoke Parachutes. the firing pin is forced into the base of the launcher tube at the primer. green star parachute. They are issued in an expendable launcher that consists of a launching tube and a firing cap. Their average rate of descent is 2. The M126 burns for 50 seconds and the M127 burns for 25 seconds. a delay element ignites an ejecting charge. (3) Function. Gases from the burning initiating charge expel the signal from the launcher tube (rocket barrel) with a slight recoil. white star parachute. perforated colored smoke cannister that is parachute-suspended. (1) Tvne s. Star parachutes are also used for signaling and illuminating. These signals function in the same manner as star clusters. which in turn forces the five-star illuminant cluster out of the nose of the signal body. begins to burn fully. (4) Firing data. forcing the signal to a height of 200 to 215 meters (650 to 700 teet). are fired in the same (3) Function. These signals produce a single parachutesuspended illuminant star. When the primer is struck. The signal can be seen for 50 to 58 kilometers (30 to 35 miles) at night. which was ignited by the propelling gases. the rocket motor. Their rate of descent is 14 meters (45 feet) per second. and the M195. 5-4 . the flash from the primer ignites an initiating charge of black powder at the base of the signal. (4) FirinG data. These signals manner as star clusters. The current types of star parachutes include the M126Al. At that pOint. c.and M12 7-series of star parachutes rise to a height of 200 to 215 meters. When the firing cap is struck.NOTE: Before firing the signal. Star clusters burn 6 to 10 seconds. As the signal is expelled. the firer must make sure he has overhead clearance. The M12 6. (2) O:oeration. the M127Al. Star Parachutes. red star parachute. b. They are issued in an expendable launcher that consists of a launching tube and a firing cap. These signals produce a single.1 meters per second. four flexible steel fins unfold to stabilize the signal during flight _ After the signal rises approximately 6 meters.

000 candlepower of illumination. manner as star clusters. red smoke parachute. SU. green smoke parachute. Smoke parachutes rise to a height of 200 to 215 meters. yellow smoke parachute. Their rate of descent is 4 meters per second. SAFETY LEVER "'TRIGGER TONGUE . 5-5 .Kb'AC. the M129A1. forming a smoke cloud which persists for 60 seconds.____ WiRE SLOT TRiGGER MECHANiSM-FRONT viEW BEFORE COCKiNG Figure 5-3. Surface trip flares. These signals function In the same manner as star clusters. ~ -4.b: 'I'k I P b'LA!{. and the M194.b:S or hand Surface trip flares outwardly resemble antipersonnel mines grenades (Figure S-3). (4) Firing data.(1) Types. The current types of smoke parachutes include M128Al. When activated. Their primary use is to warn of infiltrating troops by illuminating the field. They may also be used as signals or as booby traps. the flare produces 50. These signals are fired in the same (3) Function. (2) Operation. The siqnals emit smoke for 6 to 18 seconds.

The during allows traps.. AS ISSUED I I I I Q!!!llI!ll!llIllmllmllDm!!llnijulI!!I1l1!lmrnmnlllllllllllllllllllmliIIUlIIIllIIIIIl!III III Ijllllllll I!Il!IIIIlIiUII1Il1:l I . I I I3. The ground burst simulator Ml15A2 (Figure 5-5) is used to create battle noises and flash effects during training.25 IN.90 IN. a. 5-6 .. with a booby trap simulator Ml17 (Figure 5-4) is used training and military exercises. SIMULATORS Simulators are used in training to imitate the sounds and effects of combat detonations.-SIMULATOR II. the simulator functions loud report and flash. The detonation produces a flash and loud report.2. Ml15A2 simulator.~1:1n I . Figure 5-4.5-5. FUSE LIGHTER SAFETY FUSE WH!STLE ASSEMBLY j SAFETY CLIP Figure 5-5. B-SIMULATOR WITH CAP REMOVED ~ CAP ( ( ~ J] ( ~~-~ PU-L-LC-O'RD AND CORD EXTENDED -.! I #>:: I Ir. b. 0/i eXTeNSION SPRINO I A-S!!V!ULATOR W!TH EQU!P!'i!ENT. Ml17 simulator.. It produces a high-pitched whistle that lasts 2 to 4 seconds. L-.-l I-:-T. This device training in the installation and use of booby When tripped/activated. 'I 0 TRIPWIRE I U'~rT I ~~.

land mineo l and rifle 1".1'8 IN. u. _I .. Ml16A1 simulator. PULL CORD TIME BLASTING FUSE IGNITER M3A1 It t I ~ ~ CAP~ ~. The hand grenade simulator Ml16A1 to create battle noises and flashes (Figure 5-6) is used during training.I IT 0. I I 5-7 .__ ~'!'Q! HAND CiBBl'lADZ.69 IN. It creates a loud report and a flash 5 to 10 seconds after ignition..l IlJ 'i~1 1. differs from the ground burst simulator in that it is shorter and does not emit a high-pitched whistle before detonation. 1 trapo. SIMULATOR EXPLOSIVE M80 . It is used to or artillery fire..27 IN. Figure 5-7. MBO simulator. d. 5-6. ~I iI I. booby FUSE . ILLUMINATION GROUND SIGNAL KITS The pen gun flare supports the small-unit leader in fire control maneuver and initiating operations such as ambushes. I III \ mD~ "----~liJl ~ _ . I_GRAY (MARKING IN BLACK ON WHITE BACKGRO_U_N_D_) 4...Ail1 121 • r I SAFETY CLIP Figure 5-6. and also in deactivation training programs. oimulate hand grenadeo. ___. {rr-11 2.663 IN.c.. The explosive simulator M80 (Figure 5-7) is used during training to depict booby traps and land mines.=ouqlC" or". \ III I • •• MJ1IDA~ rIBllfG lHSTllUOTJOn \\ \ . The hand grenade simulator is thrown in the same manner as a live grenade.r...

The M186 signal kit contains three red. Carefully thread the projector onto the signal. Signal kit 1.5 INCHES 2. Cock the projector by moving the trigger to the safety slot. M187. Each of the signals listed below may be fired from a hand-held projector while encompassed in a bandoleer. projector a. The M185 red signal kit contains only red signals.bandoleer. Select the signal to be fired by color. Remove and discard the plastic cap.29 INCHES T l-=-I 1 SIGNAL LANYARD f3 FEET LONG) CAPS PROTECT THREADED END OF SIGNAL WHICH ATTACHES TO THE PROJECTOR. o o o o Red illumination ground signal. This pen gun flare is identified by a threaded with the projectiles being contained in a cloth (1) Contents. (2) OQeration. RED PERSONNEL SIGNAL KIT. two white. use the one farthest from the lanyard. M186 fCONTAINS ONLY RED SIGNALS) VARIOUS COLOR SIGNAL KIT. 2 WHITE. taking care not to dislodge the trigger from the safety slot. Amber illumination ground signal. M190. M189. The projector and the bandoleer plus seven projectiles/signals make up the signal kit (Figure 5-8). Green illumination ground signal. Aim in the 5-8 . All signals may be obtained and fired separately. Kit 1. If the bandoleer contains more than one signal of the chosen color. White illumination ground signal. and two green signals. Figure 5-8. M186 (CONTAINS 3 RED. M188. AND 2 GREEN SIGNALSI PROJECTOR PLASTIC CAP 0.

:$5 ?:s?. Carefully insert the nozzle end of the signal into the projector as far as it will go.chosen direction. Fire by pulling the trigger knob to the rear of the slot and releasing with a snap. Retain the bandoleer for future use. select and remove the signal to be fired from the bandoleer using the one farthest from the lanyard.~:~~. or if the signals between the expended signal and the end have been used. the projectiles must be removed from the bandoleer before being fired.000 candlepower. Kit 2. The burning time for these signals is 10 seconds at 100.. RED PERSONNEL DISTRESS SIGNAL KIT: A/P266. b. This kit contains only red illumination qround siqnals.~: .J ~~ J S ~" LANYARD (30 INCHES LONG) Figure 5-9. To operate this signal. The prolector and the bandoleer plus seven signals make up this kit (Figure 5-9).'f':ci~ 'V J "90"" 2. -~-= :. This pen gun flare is identified by a forcefitted projector and a plastic bandoleer. With this kit. if l~ I ~. Return the partially used kit to the plastic bag and seal with tape. If the expended signal is on the end of the bandoleer. TRIG~ER PROJECTOR / SEpARAtELV.. 5-9 . ~·MCH nnn n n n~:. cut the bandoleer and discard the waste. Fire by moving the trigger to the bottom of the firing slot and releasing it with a snap.~~.1IP. (2) Or>erat ion.0 INCHEf SIGNAL NOZZLE ~r~1 ~< <5 L-J }:::JWWU lj U~_J~ . Return the partially used kit to the barrier bag and seal with tape.~~~.6A (CONTAINS ONLY RED SIGNALS) ~~~ST ~~::I~:~T~~~A~~M. Signal kit 2. (1) Contents.

RGN hand Type: fragmentation. Range Thrown: 25 to 45 meters. As with most Warsaw equipment. Fuze Delay: 3. functions. Weight: 31 ounces.3 seconds or impact. the majority of these grenades are Sovietmade. Filler weight: 115 grams. Fuze Type: sleeve or socket. Body Material: aluminum. Filler Material: RDX. and capabilities Although the Warsaw Pact nations have an extensive inventory of hand grenades. older hand grenades remain in circulation and use long after being classified obsolete. A-I . A-I. UPPER EXTERNAL HEMISPHERE .FM 23-30 APPENDIX A THREAT HAND GRENADES This appendix provides general information on common Threat grenade identification.3 and 4. LOWER EXTERNAL HEMISPHERE Figure A -1 . offensive. RGN grenade.

RDX. Weight: Body Material: Filler Weight: Filler Material: Fuze Type: Fuze Delay: Range Thrown: Ef Le c t. 3. aluminum.A-2.3 seconds or shock of impact. Type: RGO fragmentation. A-2 . FragmenL SLEEVE OR SOCKET Uf>PER INTERNAL HEMISPHERE UPPER HEMISPHERE LOWER HEMISPHERE BURSTING CHARGE Figure A-2. Rad_j_us: 100 meters. 92 ounces. 25 to 45 meters.3 and 4. 53 ounces. defensive. RGO grenade.Lv e sleeve or socket.

defensive.2 seconds. Range Thrown: Effective Fragment Radius: Figure A-3. Fuze Type: Fuze Delay: delay. A-3 . 15 to 20 meters.A-3. F1 Type: Weight. Length: 124 millimeters. TNT. F1 grenade. 60 ounces. cast iron.2 to 4. fragmentation. 60 ounces. 3. Maximum Diameter: Body Material: Filler Weight: Filler Material. 30 meters. 55 millimeters.

5. RPG-43. 20 meters. .A-4.07 RPG-40. and RPG-6). RKG-3M grenade. Length: 362 millimeters. Maximum Diameter: o Figure A-4 A-4. Weight of HE Filling: 567 grams. Type of HE Filling: Penetration: Fuze Type: Effective 165 millimeters. instantaneous Fragment Radius. kilograms. impact. RKG-3M antitank with (replaces Fuze: 1. Type: Weight. TNT/RDX.56 millimeters.

2 seconds delay UZRG._ ---- GRENADE ) BODY <::> Figure A-S.. Fuze: 3. TNT..~[[leIlLd. Weight: Length: Diameter: 31 ounces. PUll RING lEVER (Ill:~lf@=~j (I~ U l \ l-.. RGD-5 grenade.2 to 4. Range Thrown: Effective Fraqment Radius: 15 to 20 meters.A-S. 30 meters. Type: RGD-S [Ld.Lj_ull. 11 Weight of Filling: Type of Filling: ounces. A-S . S7 millimeters. 114 millimeters..

Radius: 2 to 5 meters. . 121 millimeters. 118 grams. Diameter: 54 millimeters. Markings: P-42. Fragment Figure A-6 A-6. RG42 fragmentation. Type. Body Material: Filler Weight. steel. pressed TNT. Range Thrown: Effective 35 meters. 3 to 4 seconds.A-6. Filler Material: Fuze Type: Fuze Delay: Identifying delay. RG42 grenade. weight: Length: Maximum 436 grams.

.f. Burning Time: Average Smoke Area: Throwing Distance: Weight: Length: NOTE: 500 grams.tions with white or blo. 1 to 1 1/2 minutes. RGD-1 smoke grenade. screening It is waterproof and it floats.A-7. SMALL CARD LID CENTRAL PAPER TUBE SMALL SMOKE BRIQUETS 11: - INCH. A-7 . Type: RGD-1 smoke. It is capable of wo. 35 meters.SI ---~I.ck smoke...4 INCHE:-I Figure A-7.ter opero.. 460 square meters..8..7INCHE IGNITER PELLETS S BODY OF MOLDED CARDBOARD LARGE SMOKE BRIQUETS J CARDBOARD PROTECTIVE RING LARGE WOODEN DIAPHRAGM I FRICTION BLOCK & TAPE IGNITER HEAD LARGE CARDBOARD LID I ~. 222 millimeters.

. but it cannot support water SCRATCHER PAPER SAFETY CAP co CARDDBOARD TUBE A-8 Figure A-B. 1 1/2 minutes. RGD-2 smoke grenade. Type: RGD-2 smoke.A-8. 35 meters. 160 square meters. operations. It is damp proof. 240 millimeters. Burning Time: Average Smoke Area: Throwing Distance: Weight: Length: NOTE: 500 grams.

B. 8. SUGGESTED CHECKLIST I. 1. A. DETERMINE REQUIREMENTS. RATELOs. control and read installation range 2. preferably while in use. Target detail.FM 23-30 APPENDIX B LIVE operation HAND GRENADE live RANGE hand OPERATIONS grenade CHECKLIST This appendix list. Ammunition personnel. Assistant instructors. Personnel. in the safe As a check- BECOME AN EXPERT. Review FM 23-30 and TM 9-1330-200-12 w/ch 1-10. 6. 1. Ammunition NCO. Review AR 385-63. 3. Visit range instructions. of a basic is designed to assist leaders range. Modification of the checklist for other types of live hand grenade training (collective training. Review Written Material. II. Tower operator. 10. and so forth) is expected. it does not provide the answers. it asks the questions for leaders to answer. 7. OIC. Recon the range. NCOIC 5. Assistant safety officer. 2. Check Out the Range. Safety officer. 2. 1. A. B-1 . 4. STX. 9.

Field telephones and wire. 13. and ear plugs. Equipment for safety personnel and trainees is Kevlar or steel helmet. Guards. B-2 . B. Mounted courier. LBE. Ear plugs for all personnel. the driver must have knowledge of the route to the hospital. Ambulance or required dedicated evacuation vehicle.11. 11. PA set with backup bullhorns. 9. 7. Tables and chair. Equipment. Qualification scorecards. 8. have extras on hand. 4. a. Truck driver. Water for drinking and cleaning. NOTE: Two means of communication are required. 6. Appropriate publications pertaining to training that will be conducted (FM 23-30 and TM 9-1330-200-12 w/ch 1-10) 5. b. 12. with required medical supplies. c. Communications. FM radios and RC-292. helmets for control personnel. 12. if necessary. if needed. d. flak vest. 1. 3. Range packet and clearance form. 14. and reporting folders. as required. Medics. 13. Lesson plans. Safety fan and diagram. 2. Range flag. Commercial phones. Marked 10. status reports.

Parking. Set Up. Check all throwing pits for sharp edges or unlevel throwing surfaces. B. Request range. Make sure the impact area is raked and clear of debris. Hclipad. Preparation. 2. 2. Ammunition point. Water point. b. range control permission to occupy the Establish good communications. 1. b.15. Organize personnel into throwing orders. Conduct safety briefing to include admin personnel on range. OCCUPY THE RANGE. 1. Inspection.) III. Have the following designated areas prepared: a. B-3 . Mess. 3. (Bunkers or personnel target 1/4-inch steel E-type silhouette. c. c. d. Raise the flag when occupying or firing. according to local SOP. Check to see if the knee walls meet standards. Ensure range personnel are in proper uniform and the equipment is in position. Inspect range for operational condition: a. e. f. Medical station. 2. 3. A. C. Targets should be required for operation of range. 1.

2. A. 2. turn in grenade. A. turn in grenade. V. TM 9-1330-200-12. Teach the Soldiers. 4. If safety pin or safety Remove Grenade from Canister and Inspect. ISSUE GRENADES. 1. if not. (See page 2-2. If grenade is packed upside down. The proper grip. permission to commence firing from range CONDUCT PRE-THROW (TRAINING). turn In grenade. IV. turn in grenade. turn in grenade.) 5. Open Canister and Visually Inspect. If fuze is loose. If fuze lugs are broken. 3. 1. The proper throwing techniques.) clip is missing. The safety NCO at the live grenade issue point will physically inspect each soldier as the live grenades are being attached. B. (See page 3-5. Receive control. NOTE: Issue grenades to soldiers and secure them to ammo pouches under supervision of safety NCO. turn in grenade. The throwing commands. B. turn in grenade. If grenade body is cracked. 3. TM 9-1330-200-12. 1. Execute Practice Throws (10 or more as required). turn in grenade. If pull ring is cracked. VI. The safety pin must have either a diamond crimp or a 4S-degree spread. INSPECT GRENADES. If safety lever is bent or broken. 4. 2. B-4 .3. 6. To attach grenades to ammunition pouches.

i n t. Assign a Pit Safety NCO to Each Throwing Pit. safety lever. based on left or right throwing arm. Old-Type Ammo Pouches. 1.:JfF'ty .A. the safety lever inside the pocket. each soldier will be instructed not pit safety NCO in the live pit. identifies the throwing arm to pit 4. The pit safety NCO directs soldier to appropriate position of pit. 'THROW 'THF. B. 3. B-5 .NADF.S. 3. New-Type Ammo Pouches. F.nsllre pllll ring on safet_y pin lS a downward position. 1.lre rn CdLLY j_ll~ F. ?. 4. sleeve. and pull ring. Lo remove Lhe lIve grenades unLll Lold Lo do so by Lhe NOTE: Soldiers must be briefed dropped grenades. Ensure grenade is positioned on in grenade pin is in pocket with position. Ensure that carrying strap is wrapped fuze.~ vldceu . After the live grenades have been attached to the ammunition pouches. Ensure that carrying strap is snapped and secure. Ell~uLe ~d[eLy Le v e. GRF. 4. ?.:J riownwa r-d 3.r J. 2.ns11rF' p1l11 ring s. 1. A. The soldier safety NCO. around the Ensure that carrying strap is snapped and secure. NOTE: on safety procedures for The range orc must be positioned in the tower to observe throw-phase procedures and count grenade explosions for purposes of grenade accountability. The safety NCO directs soldiers to specific throwing pit safety NCO. The pit safety NCO observes movement of soldier to the pit. "\lTT.

the tower NCO commands THROW. (From this point on. 5. The soldier prepares to throw a second grenade. Order the Throw. The Dit safety NCO directs soldier to remove a grenade from the ammo pouch with the Droper grip. and the pit safety NCO repeats the command THROW.5. The tower NCO commands CLEAR after observing grenade detonate. When all throwing pits are ready. NOTE: Only one pit will throw at a time. ) safety NCO does not remove his eyes from the throwing WARNIN~ IF A (. WARNING IF A SOLDIER GRENADE TO THROW GRENADE RE:LE:ASES AND IF THE SAFETY NCO THf LEVER PIT BUT FAilS REPEATS SAFETY NCO TO THRO\i" TH[ THROWS • THI THI THE PIT SAFETY HIMSELF fORCEFUllY COMMAND NECEcSSARY 3.RFNAOF IS DROPPFO IN THF PIT THF PIT SAF!=TY NCO FORe!=s THI SOLDIER FOLLOWS OUT HIM OF T'j~ PiT INTO THI DESIGNAII::D SAFE AREA AND B. The pit safety NCO signals the tower that the soldier is prepared to throw. The pit safety NCO directs the soldier to exit the live pit area after a final ALL CLEAR from the tower. and then drops to 2. The soldier throws the grenade cover. repeating required steps. WARNING 'COOKING TRAINING OFfWILL' NOT BE DONE WITH LIVE GRENADtS DliRINlJ 8-6 . each 4. 1. 6. the pit hand until completion of the throw. The pit safety NCO directs soldier to remove safety clip and prepare to throw.

COMPLETE THE MISSION. Remove all equipment and ammunition from range. Close down range control according to local SOP. Turn In Paperwork and Equipment. B-7 . 2. A. 1. Report any noted safety hazards to proper authorities. 1. Police ranger rake the impact arear and perform other maintenance as required by local SOP. 3. 4.VIII. Turn in all unexpended grenades in original grenade containers to the ASPr along with all safety pins and packing residue from all detonated grenades. Submit after-action report to headquarters. Clear the Range. Request a range inspection from range control when ready to be cleared. 3. 2. B.

a safety Treat any thrown grenade that fails to detonate as a dud regardless status.FM 23-30 APPENDIX HANU Gk~NAU~ SAJ:t'Kl'Y C CONS1U~kA'1'10NS Appendix BI Live Hand Grenade Range Operations Checklist educate leaders to safely conduct hand grenade training. l C-l . -. Do not remove the safety clip or the safety pin until the grenade is to be thrown. b. o A dud -.a thrown grenade from the instant it is oLive released until the expected fuze time has elapsed. b. a. More specific instructions to grenade users include -- devices until just before use. o of safety pinl safety clipi or safety lever Know a grenade/s status. Once to a the the grenade must be thrown.any thrown grenade that failed to detonate after the expected fuze time has elapsed. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS be followed This appendix lists precautions and other considerations to by hand grenade users. unauthorized modifications c. safety pin has been pulled C-2. C-l. TRAINING PRECAUTIONS l (1) A safety clip can be removed (2) Never attempt to reinsert l and reattached pin.a grenade with all safety devices intact. a. It may be Safe -. Do not open grenade Never make containers or remove protective to hand grenades. It should be used with l to Observe general precautions applicable to the use of any ammunition. During training the pit NCO determines a dropped grenade's status (safe/live/dud). hand grenade if the safety pin is still in place.

Keep the bottom of the grenade oriented in a safe area. DUDS Duds must be regarded as dangerous. Place the dud fuze in a sand-filled container and return it to issuing facility. and he decides what actions are most appropriate. a. the location of the dropped grenade.c. continue training on adjacent impact areas separated by berms. recover. AN-MI8. Observe caution when using hand grenades with igniting type fuzes (M14 TH3. M7A3. the loca- . These grenades ignite with a flash and should be thrown at least 10 from all personnel to avoid hazardous conditions. Make sure that the impact area is level and free of in training. and AN-M8). b. Fragmentation Grenade. M69 Practice Grenade. Do not handle. a. such as the safety design of the throwing tion of the thrower. These will be taken care of by explosive ordnance disposal personnel. If range facilities provide. and possibly his ability to physically move the thrower. Knee walls provide the quickest and safest means of reacting to a dropped grenade. In most C-2 pit. C-4. All of these factors need to be considered before the safety pin is pulled. The thrower and supervisor wait in the throwing pit for 5 minutes before returning to a covered area. the throwing pit safety NCO is responsible for reacting accordingly. debris d. approach. Throwing pit with Knee Wall. or otherwise tamper with dud live grenades. f. His actions are dependent upon many factors. The following procedures must be followed if a grenade does not detonate. Do not throw any hand grenades into the area of the Qud until it has been neutralized. Throwers must consider the flight of the grenade to make sure no obstacle will alter the fliqht of the qrenade or cause it to bounce back toward them. He is responsible for the safety of the thrower. meters C-3. Wait 5 minutes before defuzing. before throwing the casualty-producing hand grenade e. It is recommended that all throwing pits for live grenade training have knee walls (Figure C-l). DROPPED LIVE HAND GRENADES In the event a casualty-producing grenade is dropped accidentally after the safety pin has been removed. Notify EOD immediately.

In most instances. the throwing pit safety NCO would yell GRENADE and force the thrower to the ground inside the throwing pit. the throwing pit safety NCO would yell GRENADE. Throwing pit with knee wall. His immediate actions must be to remove the thrower from the danger area. He would follow him over.other personnel in the area) and by physically pushing the thrower over the knee wall. and force the thrower over the front of the throwing pit. b. Throwing pit without Knee Wall. dropped instances. C-3 . If the hand grenade were dropped over the knee wall. the throwing pit safety NCO would react to a live grenade by yelling GRENADE (to alert all KNEE WAll Figure C-l. Throwing pits that do not have knee walls must have safety pits attached to both sides (Figure C-2). It the hand grenade were dropped to the rear of the throwing pit. the throwing pit safety NCO would react to a dropped live grenade by yelling GRENADE (to alert other personnel in the area) and by physically moving the thrower out of the throwing pit and into a satety pit. The safety NCO's first responsibility is the thrower's safety. Any attempt by the throwing pit safety NCO to throw the dropped grenade out of the throwing pit is discouraged. falling on top of him.

This can occur on most grenades without the safety lever being detached from the grenade. creating significant safety hazards. C-4 . Soldiers will move from the danger area and drop to the prone position with helmets facing the direction of the grenade. C-S. The fragments present a hazard to the aircraft and its passengers.Figure C-2.or high-level flying helicopters should be limited to mission-critical situations. Grenades will not be kicked or thrown into sumps. c. throwing hand grenades from medium. C-6. Throwing pit with safety pits. Sumps. GRIP Hold the safety lever firmly. HELICOPTERS Do not throw fragmentation or white phosphorous grenades from low-flying or hovering helicopters. The burst of white phosphorous chemical may be brought into the helicopter by the rotor wash. An insufficient grip on the safety lever could result in the striker rotating and striking the primer that ignites the delay element. As a general rule. This minimizes the soldier's exposure and maximizes the protection of the helmet.

} b. The following are suggested techniques: a. AIRBORNE Do not attach hand grenades on ammunition pouches during airborne operationsi carry them in the main body of the rucksack instead. Remove grenades from canisters and tape the safety pin and safety lever to the grenade.C-7. Return grenades to the canisters opening them to inspect each grenade. for carrying after C-5 . {Fold back the end of the tape for a quick release.

FUZE M205A2 BODY a. M30 practice grenade. WARNING Light blue with white markings. the majority of them are still in use by other services or nations. (The grenade body is reusable. b. Figure 0-1. FRAGMENTS MAY CAUSING INJURY 0-1 .Lc s o I Lht: fLdg- mentation hand grenade. d. M30 PRACTICE GRENADE This practice grenade simulates the M26-series of fragmentation hand grenades for training purposes (Figure 0-1 ). Safety Clip. 16 ounces.) M205A1 or M205A2. The grenade adds realism to training and familiarizes the soldier with the functioning dud cha r ac Ler l st. Body. Capabilities. f. Figure 1-7. EXIT THI:' HOLE IN THE BASE OF THE GRENADI:: ruzs BODY. Weight. Color and Markings. The average soldier can throw the grenade 40 meters.FM 23-30 APPENDIX OBSOLETE This appendix provides data 0 HAND GRENADES for identifying and understand- ing the characteristics and capabilities of obsolete US hand grenades. c. Cast iron. Although these grenades are no longer common to the US inventory. Fuze. The M30 grenade emits a small puff of white smoke after a delay of 4 to 5 seconds and makes a loud popping noise. e. 0-1.

Body.~I!~~JI II ifi)... Its uses are similar to ground pyrotechnic signals... 10 ounces. except that the grenade burns only at ground level! whereas pyrotechnic signals burn in flight or while suspended from a parachute.. _p.__ ] 9::~~::ATCH OUICKMATCH c ::I: Figure D-2.5 ounces of illuminating pyrotechnic compo- Fuze. The special igniter differs from other igniting-type fuzes in that it contains a quick match! rather than a powder-delay train. Special igniter. Filler.~ . b. D-2 . c. The igniter charge initiates the burning process of the grenade!s filler.D-2. PIVOT PIN STRIKER ~~_ ito incendiary nature! caution should be exercised to pre- .. a. weight.._ ~__jr-<7 Illn ~ IL~"'" r ~ --- PULL R!NG -~ OUICKMATCH BODY __ PRIMER ~c:. d. Because of vent fires! which would be detrimental to tactical operations... Sheet steel. 3. MK1 ILLUMINATING HAND GRENADE The MK1 illuminating hand grenade is a ground signaling and illuminating item (Figure D-2).. sition. The grenade burns with a very hot flame and may be used as anincndiary agent. A~A '{ ( Il~ i ~"~ f en w Z I . The quick match has a burning time of 7 seconds! after which it sets off an igniter charge. MK1 illuminating grenade.. The MKI should not be used in deep mud or swampy ground because the grenade may become embedded in the ground! which would result in little or no illumination..

WARNING If THf THf fU2f IS LOOSE DO NOT TRY 10 TlbHH N IT THIS COULD ser OFF GRANUlAR TNT IN THE GRENADE D-3 . C. e. LUG --. M204A2. The MK1 greenade will illuminate an area 200 meters in diameter. M204A1. f. b. White with black markings (old). The grenade produces casualties by high velocity projections of fragments. 21 ounces. Figure D-3. Weight. Olive drab body with a single yellow band indicates a high explosive firler. d. Fuze.-----r-- FUZE M204A2 ~ TNT CHARGE SAFETY PIN PULLAING~ ------w~ \\\ ~-" 1 I/) BOOY ='1 ~y U 1lJ I w :t Z U Ie . Color.. WAR N ING nade 40 meters_ The filler will burn f. The average soldier can throw the grenade 30 meters. The average soldier can throw the grefor 25 seconds.t I t a. The grenade has a bursting radius of 10 meters. Capabilities. TNT (flaked or granular). Body Cast iron. Capabilities. MK2 FRAGMENTATION HAND GRENADE This grenade is used to supplement small arms fire against the enemy in close combat (Figure D-3). producing 55. unpainted with black markings (new). MK2 fragmentation hand grenade. DI Rf C q Y AT TH E IL LlllIIIl NA riNG GR f NA 0 I: AS IT au RNS Hif INTENSITY OF THf LIGHT MAY DAMAGE THI: RETINA D-3. Filler.000 candlepower. Color and Markings.e. A vOID LO()KIN(.

f. The average soldier can throw the gre40 Ildue met. Tile sreIldue Ira s em effective cdt>udlty radius of 15 meters.D-4. d... The grenade produces casualties by high velocity projection of fragments. 21 ounces. M26 and M26Al fragmentation hand grenades. Weight. which indicate a high explosive filler. WARNING Al THOL'r. Olive drab body with a single yellow band at the top and yellow markings. c. e. Filler. M204A2. b.. M26 AND M26Al FRAGMENTATION HAND GRENADES These grenades are used to supplement small arms tire against the enemy in close combat (Figure D-4). Body. SAFETY PIN PULL RING FRAGMENTATION COIL TETRYL BOOSTER COMP B CHARGE ~~Ii VVl . a. Capabilities.H METERS THl ('ASUAI TY CAN PRODUCING DISf'ERS~ nADIUSO. Cast iron. UP TO 230 THIS GRENADE ME:TERS IS 15 'RAGM~NTS D-4 . Il -1 / ~\ r ~I I I Figure D-4. M204Al.e rs . TNT (flaked or granular). Color and Markings. Fuze.

The M7 and M7Al grenades have a gray body with a single red band and red markings.5 ounces.same as the MAl (paragraph D-7a)..18. ure D-5).e D-S.17 ounces. a. M201Al. M7 grenade -. 9d~ 9I.D-5. Color and Markings. M7 AND M7Al CN RIOT CONTROL HAND GRENADES These grenades contain only CN (tear gas) for a filler (Fig-.12. d. b.5 ounces of CN. Both grenades produce a dense cloud of irritant agent for 20 to 60 seconds. e. Weight. grenade .25 ounces of CN.10. c. Capabilities. FUZE M201Al STARTER MIXTURE Fi9UI. M7 dwl M7A1 tedI.eIldde~. The average soldier can throw either grenade 35 meters. WARNING' FRlfNDLY THESE FORCES SHOULD DON PROTECTIVE MASKS BEFORE USING GRENADES D-5 . M7Al grenade -. Filler. M7Al grenade -. M7 grenade -. They differ in the amount of filler they contain. Fuze.same as the M6 (paragraph D-7a) . Body. M7 M7Al grenade -. f.

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