AMA Computer University Quezon City Campus

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN

A DESIGN SUBMITTED TO ENGR. ANTIPAS TEOLOGO JR.

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUBJECT ECEG11A – EC

SUBMITTED BY: CALDERON, Leonard Andre’ MANALO, April Gray MORTALLA, Anjo PEGUIT, Jan Anthony 3nd Trimester 2009-2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES: Letter of Transmittal …………………………………………………………………………………………… i Approval Sheet ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………………………………….… iii Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………………………….………….. iv Company Logo …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v

CHAPTER 1:

A. Objectives ……………………………………………….…………….…….……….… 2 B. Foreword to the Design ……….………………………………...….............. 3 C. Scopes and Limitations ……………………………………..………………..….. 4 D. Significance of the Study …………………………..…………………….…….. 5 E. Review of Related Literature ……………………………….…….…………… 6

CHAPTER 2: CHAPTER 3: CHAPTER 4: CHAPTER 5:

Terms and Definitions …………………………………………………………………. 12 Factor Consideration in Choosing the Site …..…………….…………..…… 20 Site Description ……………………………………………………………..…………..... 25 Path Profile ………………………………………………….……….……………….…… 41

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC

CHAPTER 6:

Link Budget Calculations A. Conditions for Putting Up a Microwave Link ………………….……… 44 B. Topographical Map of the Site ………..………………………............... 44 C. Frequency Plan ……………..………………………………..………………..….. 44 D. Azimuth Computation …………………………..……...……………….…….. 44 E. Antenna Gain ………………………………………………………………………… 44 F. Free Space Loss ………………………………………………….…….…………… 44 G. Received Signal Level ……………………………………………………………. 45 H. Thermal Fade Margin ……………………………………………………………. 47 I. Net Path Loss …………………………………………………………………………. 48 J. Effective Rain Path Length …………………………………………………….. 48 K. Rain Loss ………………………………………………………………………………. 49 L. Rain Attenuation …………………………………………………………………… 49 M. Atmospheric Losses …………………………………………………………….. 50 N. Water Vapor Losses ……………………………………………………………… 50 O. Flat Fade Margin ………………………………………………………………….. 51

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC

62 Equipment Specifications A. 79 Appendix C: List of Tables ……………………………….… 52 Q.……………………….………………………….…………………. Reliability Calculation ……………………………………………………….... Waveguide Specifications …………………………………………………… 72 Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81 Appendix D: List of Formulas …………………….…………..…………………………….. K – Q Reliability …………………………………………………………………… 56 R. K – Q Reliability of Terrain Roughness ………………………………….… 75 Appendix B: Picture Gallery ………………………………………..P.……… 64 B. Antenna Specifications ……………………………. Tower Specifications …………………………………………………………… 68 C.... 84 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . 73 APPENDICES: Appendix A: Curriculum Vitae …………………. 57 CHAPTER 7: CHAPTER 8: Conclusion and Recommendation ……………………………………………..

2010 Engr. College of Engineering AMA Computer University Project 8. In relation to this we have come up with a proposed repeater. Quezon City Dear Sir: In view of our requirements in the course Communications Theory 5. _______________________________ Manalo.LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL March 27. we have prepared documentation on “Microwave Link Design”. Respectfully. receiver and transmitter location with its equipment and specifications based on the design we have made. Antipas Teologo Jr. Thank you very much. Leonard Andre’ ______________________________ Peguit. We are hoping that all the expectations were met with the completion of this design. Anjo _______________________________ Calderon. April Gray _______________________________ Mortalla. Jan Anthony Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

and that this document has been submitted for final examination by the oral examination committee.APPROVAL SHEET This is to certify that the group have designed. ______________________________ Engr. ______________________________ Panel This document is hereby approved and accepted by the Electronics Engineering Department as fulfillment of the design requirement for the subject COMMUNICATIONS THEORY 5. Anjo ____________________________ Calderon. Antipas Teologo Jr. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . _____________________________ Manalo. April Gray ____________________________ Mortalla. Jan Anthony As member of the oral examination committee. conducted studies and documented important parameters in this microwave design which was prepared by the group entitled MICROWAVE LINK SYSTEM DESIGN. Leonard Andre’ ____________________________ Peguit. we certify that we have examined this document and hereby recommend that it be accepted as fulfillment for the subject COMMUNICATIONS THEORY 5.

And most especially. for welcoming us in their humble homes during those sleepless nights of labor and hardwork. Your trust and understanding has given us the energy and lessen the pressures that we have.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We give our warmest thanks to the Calderon and Peguit family. And this whole thing would not be possible if we never believed with the capability of each other in doing our best. this would not be done without the trust and the cooperation within our group. We would also like to thank our parents who have supported us emotionally and financially in making this design. we give our thanks to the Lord Almighty for all the guidance that He granted us in times of need. who gave us the opportunity to gain the knowledge we need through practical applications and designs. And also for letting us go through with the series of overnights to make this project successful. a friend and a family. We also give our deep gratitude to Engr. He unselfishly gave us wisdom to carry on and finish this project. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Antipas Teologo Jr. To the group. And we owe Him the strength that pushed us to continue in all that we aim as a group.

FRIENDS.To our PARENTS. LOVED ONES and THE LORD ALMIGHTY… Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

E. B. C. D. Objectives Foreword to the Design Scopes and Limitations Significance of the Study Review of Related Literature Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .CHAPTER 1 A.

9999% • • To be able to know the general principles in Microwave Communications To be able to come up with a project that will help the students grasp the idea of microwave design more comprehensively • To be able to provide the students a material that will serve as their guide in making their own microwave design Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .OBJECTIVES • To be able to design a reliable Point-to-Point Microwave Cellular Communications System • To be able to design a “fully-operational” microwave link system having the ideal reliability of 99.

A 13 Ghz operating frequency is used for both Hop 1 and Hop 2 and in each relay station in an SFN (single frequency network). Adherence to these guidelines should allow significant terrain and propagation dynamics as well as cost savings to be made for the pursuit of a highly reliable system. the coupling from the transmitting antenna to receiving antenna causes loop interference. and Site C is located on Bongabon. deriving a power budget and the fade margin as well as the path reliability. The interference must be reduced to an allowable level in order to avoid problems with distortion and oscillation so a Coupling Loop Interference Canceller was used. The system link’s Site A is located on General Tinio. Site B is located on Tampak-I. The suggested procedure and considerations are presented with the fundamental components of microwave path design: determining whether a proposed path is "line-of-sight". Philippines. This design focuses on a Microwave System designed for cellular communication. evaluating path clearances with regard to Fresnel zones. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . considering path reflections.FOREWORD This paper describes and provides guidelines for the design and implementation of a two-hop microwave communications system in Nueva Ecija. evaluating path clearances with regard to refractive effects.

one receiver and one repeater. These categorize the reach and restrictions of the microwave system which might be useful to the readers of the paper and on the people of Nueva Ecija. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS This part deals with the scopes and limitations of the design. • A circuit called Coupling Loop Interference Canceller is used in the system to avoid co-channel interference in the transmit-receive process The limitations of the proposed projects are as follows: • • • The distance between sites of each hop is limited to 40 kilometers. The scope of the proposed project is focused on: • The system is comprised of one transmitter. • The microwave link covers the province of Nueva Ecija only. The designed system is only to be used for cellular communication purposes. The system is comprised of only two hops. • The designed microwave link system is to operate at a frequency of 13Ghz for both Hop 1 and Hop 2.

Because of the fast phasing of technology. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . for students who are not yet in the actual field of their studies. This design as well will serve as a reference for students who will take the subject in the future. to cope up with the technological advancements.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Prior to the advent of commercial wireless communications market today. most microwave designs were destined for profitable applications. This design will be of great help to the students to practice everything they have learned theoretically. This design intends to introduce the basics of microwave system design to the students who are required to take up this subject as well as to those who are interested in the field of microwave communications. there is a need.

the design considerations and the components behind a fully functional system that would work under the conditions of being a microwave communications system design.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This part aims to briefly discuss the concepts of microwave communications system. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . terrain and propagation dynamics can play a large role in determining whether a proposed path will have the required signal levels. Official Publication of IWCE Microwave communications path design poses many challenges. From researches about Microwave Systems. In addition to static gain and loss considerations. it specifies that there are so many factors to consider in designing an effective and efficient microwave system. Urgent Communications. clearances and reliability.

Plotting these elevations at intervals will produce a path profile showing terrain relative to the antenna elevations. If a prospective path is not line-of-sight.Electronic Communications Systems 5th Edition. Determining whether a path is line-of-sight can be partially accomplished with the aid of a topographical map.1021 The free-space path is the line-of-sight path directly between the transmit and receive antennas (this is also called the direct wave). p. This graphical representation aids in determining not only whether a line-of-site condition exists between endpoints but also in measuring clearances between the center of the path and the surrounding terrain. This type of map will show the various elevations along the length of the path between proposed endpoints. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . then an alternate route is considered. 2004. The transmit and receive antennas in a microwave system should have a line-of-sight to be able to transmit the intended signal and data. Tomasi.

This will identify path obstructions from terrain features. which offers the necessary visual confirmation that the height of man-made objects (which are not indicated on a topographical map) will not be located in or too near the proposed path.When evaluating a proposed path. 2008 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . the path profile should be developed first. Communication Infrastructure Corporation. A field survey should follow.

During the year.. for example.Figure 1: K factors describe the effective Earth radius. As atmospheric fluctuations cause the beam to bend. Less obvious barriers to microwave signals include the Earth’s curvature (kfactor) and atmospheric conditions.g. which differ over geographic areas and change locally throughout the year. The entire path survey for a microwave link system includes four details according to a microwave communications company and these are as follows: Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . e.5. (See Figure 2) In order to account for these fluctuations. the engineer must carefully calculate the Fresnel zone clearance based on the likely range of k-factors for the region where the microwave path is to be built. the radius of a hypothetical Earth for which the distance to the radio horizon in straight-line propagation is the same as for the actual Earth with a uniform vertical gradient of atmospheric refractive index. the signal strength can easily vary by 20 to 30 dBm. a typical microwave path might experience a change in clearance by 20 feet or more. and normal diurnal fluctuations can vary the Earth’s effective curvature from 4/3 to 0. Fresnel zone clearance cannot be determined through a visual LOS survey. changes in atmospheric density due to temperature inversions. rain storms. Thus. In coastal areas.

Determining the antenna heights and performing a reflection analysis. 2008 Detailed microwave path surveys include: • • • • Accurately locating the tower sites. Traversing the path on the ground to identify potential obstacles.Communication Infrastructure Corporation. Plotting the tower sites and deriving an elevation profile. Microwave link design covers a very wide range and field of study. A wellplanned system is very much required to reach the objectives in putting up a point-topoint LOS link. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

CHAPTER 2 Terms and Definitions Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Comes from the hardware used to deliver the transmitter/receiver output to/from the antenna. decibels relative to isotropic antenna. Fading. Antenna gain.e. Antenna bandwidth. Antenna gain is measured in dBi. A measure of directivity properties and the efficiency of the antenna. Four fading types are considered while planning links. i. Defined as the variation of the strength of a received radio carrier signal due to atmospheric changes and/or ground and water reflections in the propagation path. Branching losses. The difference between the antenna gain and the directivity is that the antenna efficiency is taken into account in the former parameter. It is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in the peak intensity direction to the intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically. meet specifications. They are all dependent on path The frequency range within which the antenna performance Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Adjacent-channel interference fade margin (AIFM) (in decibels). Accounts for receiver threshold degradation due to interference from adjacent channel transmitters.

In a digital microwave radio system. whose center is the intersection of the front with the direct ray. In an analog microwave radio system. First Fresnel Zone. The signal attenuation that would result if all absorbing. Flat fade margin. Circular portion of a wavefront transverse to the line between an emitter and a more distant point.length and are estimated as the probability of exceeding a given (calculated) fade margin Fading Margin. Allowance made in radio system planning to accommodate estimated fading. diffracting. Free Space Loss. the flat fade margin is equal to the system total Gains minus system total losses. where the resultant disturbance is being observed. refracting. and reflecting influences were sufficiently removed Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . and whose radius is such that the shortest path from the emitter through the periphery to the receiving point is one-half wavelength longer than the direct ray. the "flat" or thermal fade margin (TFM) is calculated from the system total Gains minus system total losses. obstructing. Number of decibels of attenuation which may be added to a specified radio-frequency propagation path before the signal-to-noise ratio of a specified channel falls below a specified minimum in order to avoid fading. scattering.

so as to have no effect on propagation. Note: Free-space loss is primarily caused by beam divergence.e. Figure 2: Fresnel Zone in relation to distance Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . signal energy spreading over larger areas at increased distances from the source. Circular portions of a wavefront transverse to a line between an emitter and a point where the disturbance is being observed. Fresnel Zone. Also known as half-period zones.. the nth zone includes all paths whose lengths are between n -1 and n half-wavelengths longer than the line-of-sight path. i.

Link Budget. The accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter. super high and extremely high frequencies directly above the lower frequency ranges. etc. Primarily due to the water vapor and oxygen in the atmosphere in the radio relay region.The absorption peaks are located around 23GHz for water molecules and 50 to 70 GHz for oxygen molecules. It accounts for the attenuation of the transmitted signal due to propagation.) to the receiver in a telecommunication system. cable. temperature and the absolute or relative humidity of the atmosphere. through the medium (free space. fiber. as well as the antenna gains. waveguide. An unobstructed view from transmitter to receiver. These are the ultra high. Interference fade margin (IFM). feed line and miscellaneous losses.Gas absorption. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Line of Sight. The actual IFM value used in a path calculation depends on the method of frequency coordination being used.The specific attenuation (dB/Km)is strongly dependent on frequency. Randomly varying channel gains such as fading are taken into account by adding some margin depending on the anticipated severity of its effects Microwave. Is the depth of fade to the point at which RF interference degrades the BER to 1x 10-3 .

A methodical. Multipath Fading.when a reflected wave reaches the receiver as the direct wave that travels in a straight line from the transmitter. moving objects crossing the path. Multipath Interference. A reflected wave causes a multipath.e. systematic and sometimes lengthy process that includes • • Loss/attenuation Calculations Fading and fade margins calculations • • Frequency planning and interference calculations Quality and availability calculations Miscellaneous (other) losses. i. they will subtract (or add) to the main signal and cause the received signal to be weaker (or stronger) throughout the day. Unpredictable and sporadic in character like fog. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . When signals arrive at a remote antenna after being reflected off the ground or refracted back to earth from the sky (sometimes called ducting).Microwave Link Design. The dominant fading mechanism for frequencies lower than 10GHz. poor equipment installation and less than perfect antenna alignment etc.

Receiver Sensitivity. Is the signal level at which the radio runs continuous errors at a specified bit rate Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Attenuation of radio waves when passing through moisture-bearing cloud formations or areas in which rain is falling. Receive Signal Level.Parabolic Antenna can be used as a transmit and receive antenna with both Single and Dual polarized feeds available.7 to 23. Dual frequency and specialty feeds are also available. increases with the density of the moisture in the transmission path. Losses due to Earth’s atmosphere and terrain. Rain Attenuation. Receive signal level is the actual received signal level (usually measured in negative dBm) presented to the antenna port of a radio receiver from a remote transmitter. Propagation losses. Receiver sensitivity threshold.6 GHz can be accommodated just by changing out the Feed assembly. Various mounting hardware and accessories availably. Receiver sensitivity is the weakest RF signal level (usually measured in negative dBm) that a radio needs receive in order to demodulate and decode a packet of data without errors. Frequencies from 1.

System Operating Margin. Also known as k-type fading. It is measured in dBm. the Earth’s surface becomes curved and terrain irregularities. is the difference between the normal received signal RSL at the input of microwave receiver expressed in dbm and the receiver's threshold ( given by the manufacturer) expressed in dbm (TFM = RSL . Thermal fade margin (TFM).TH ) Transmit Power. The transmit power is the RF power coming out of the antenna port of a transmitter. The probability of refraction-diffraction fading is therefore indirectly connected to obstruction attenuation for a given value of Earth –radius factor. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . In db. For high k values. the Earth’s surface gets close to a plane surface and better LOS(lower antenna height) is obtained.Refraction – Diffraction Fading. System operating margin (SOM) is the difference (measured in dB) between the nominal signal level received at one end of a radio link and the signal level required by that radio to assure that a packet of data is decoded without error. Watts or milliWatts and does not include the signal loss of the coax cable or the gain of the antenna. man-made structures and other objects may intercept the Fresnel Zone. For low k values.

CHAPTER 3 Factor Consideration in Choosing the Site Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

proving it more economical over the long term. especially as radio equipment costs decrease.FACTOR CONSIDERATION IN CHOOSING THE SITE For many wireless carriers. Refraction can reduce the length of the path. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . radio equipment and antennas. It is an attractive option for many reasons. First. But before you move forward. microwave is becoming a popular choice over wire line transport. which is important because the wavelength determines how the atmosphere affects transmission. or microwave hop. it is important to understand the relationship between capacity. Low monthly operating costs can undercut those of typical expenses. tower heights. The atmosphere may refract longer waves. Frequency Options Wavelengths in the lower frequencies are longer. which make them more suitable for rural areas. make sure you understand all of the design considerations that will affect your deployment. Microwave Systems in the 2GHz to 6GHz frequencies can transmit over longer distances. frequency band. High-frequency systems are a better fit for suburban and urban environments. path distance.

These four factors also will dictate system reliability. antenna size. Capacity is another important consideration. fresnel zone clearance. You also must take into account attenuation. As a result. hills.Terrain and Weather Because line of sight is a microwave requirement. you also must consider existing tower loads to ensure that you can implement the design on existing or planned towers and structures. trees and buildings can block a microwave signal and limit the distance of a microwave path. multi-path fading. transmission lines or air. Based on capacity and radio equipment. You will use a large antenna (low frequency) when the path is longer. fade margin calculations. tower heights and terrain elevation will play a major role in how you plan and construct the system. Large antennas require large towers and have higher wind factors. The term often refers to the impact Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . the reduction in energy as a signal travels through equipment. You can configure radios to carry a certain amount of traffic in a specific frequency. terrain such as mountains. interference analysis. system diversity and long-distance specifications.

determine the amount of power the system uses to transmit and receive signals. taking into account an estimate of system downtime for the locale of the planned radio (average rainfall). obstructions. Path reliability normally has to meet the same standards as the rest of the microwave system. and rain attenuation. System planners should perform path calculations to establish fade margins and system gain. More power usage equates to higher operating costs. having a ratio of 2cm : 1km. The objective applied to each hop is limited to a distance of 35km to 40km. Fading mechanisms considered include fading due to multipath phenomena. or fog as well as normal signal loss in the waveguide and microwave system itself. Equipment and power-source reliability demands are dealt with through a combination of highly reliable components plus designs that incorporate redundancy and protection. Equipment Selection When selecting equipment.of rain. Reliability objectives are often stated on a per hop basis or end-toend. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Fade margin is the allowance made to accommodate estimated propagation fading without exceeding a specified signal-to-noise ratio.

free space loss. Population Sites A. however. you can integrate microwave radio effectively into virtually any wireless system. attenuation and availability requirements. receiver sensitivity.With careful attention to link gain power. and C are located at towns in Nueva Ecija where the population is not that large. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . antenna height. the population is not that small as well to attain the objective of providing reliable information signals to the people. to avoid so much of external interference. B.

CHAPTER 4 Site Description Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Muñoz.Talavera. Pantabangan. San Jose. Bongabon. Rizal. he named the province after his homeland Ecija in Seville. Sto. Jaen. Gapan. and Palayan. General M. Llanera. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Licab. San Leonardo. Gabaldon. San Isidro. San Antonio. Nueva Ecija has a total land area of 550.718 hectares with 29 municipalities consisting of: Aliaga. General Tinio. Laur. Talugtug. its capital. Lupao. Guimba. south of Spain. Philippines Founded in 1705 by Spanish Governor General Don Fausto Couzar. Nampicuan. Cuyapo. The province has three cities: Cabanatuan. Quezon. Domingo. Carranglan. Cabiao. Natividad. Sta.SITE DESCRIPTION Province of Nueva Ecija. Peñaranda. and Zaragosa. Rosa.

its land area grew to cover almost the entire island of Luzon. the province of Nueva Vizcaya. From its humble beginning. Poverty was the only reason why Nueva Ecija was not given recognition as a separate country from the Philippines by the King of Spain in 1840s. and one of the provinces which declared its independence in 1898. It was formerly part of the province of Pampanga. Spanish Records in the Philippines recognizes 2 Spanish countries in the Pacific-. The Province was named after the old city of Écija in Seville. From 1777 to 1917. In 1896. with the capital at Baler (now part of Aurora). Cagayan.Las Islas Filipinas and Nueva Ecija. the provinces of Palanan (now Isabela). the territory which became part of the Province of Quirino. Nueva Ecija's territory was however subdivided to give way to the creation of other provinces. and the province of Manila north of the province of Tondo in 1867. Nueva Ecija became one of the first provinces to revolt against Spanish rule. and the District of Morong (now Rizal) were among those created out of Nueva Ecija. Spain. The Province of Tayabas (now Aurora and Quezon) including Polilio Islands.History Nueva Ecija was created as a military comandancia in 1777 by Governor General Clavería. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

An average of six typhoons visit the province per annum. The rainy season is from May to November and is dry the rest of the year.Geography & Climate Nueva Ecija is bounded by the provinces of Pangasinan and Nueva Vizcaya on the north. Most of the typhoons occur during the months of October and November. is the most densely populated area. Three mountain ranges bound the said province: Sierra Madre on the east. Its terrain begins with the southwestern marshes near the Pampanga border. the population was recorded at 1. The province is the largest in Central Luzon. Population & Languages/Dialects Based on the 1995 census. Pampanga and Bulacan on the south. and the Caraballo and Cordillera ranges in the north.505. There are at least 41 languages and dialects used in the Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Caraballo on the north. and Tarlac on the west. The mean average temperature at 27. Aurora and Quezon on the east. It levels off and then gradually increases in elevation to rolling hills as it approaches the mountains of Sierra Madre in the east. Cabanatuan City.827. being the center of economic activities in the province. and Cordillera on the west.3 degrees centigrade.

Camp Tinio. Ibalois. Ilongots. and Nueva Ecija Grandstand have airstrips that cater only to small aircrafts. and the Cabanatuan-Aurora Road. Kankanaeys. Caraballo. Fort Magsaysay.province. Commerce & Industry Trading activities are agri-based mostly confined to buying and selling of agricrops. and Mindanao. and small farm machineries augmented by the wholesale and retail business. The main industries in Nueva Ecija are as follows: wood and other forest Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Kalingas. GapanOlongapo Road. Modern Infrastructure There are four major roads in Nueva Ecija: the Maharlika Highway. followed by Ilocano and Pampango. farm inputs. Visayas.500 kilometers. There are 104 concrete and two temporary bridges with a total length of 4. among others. Kalanguyas. Tagalog is the major tongue. Other languages and dialects (2 percent) are those coming from Luzon. They live in the mountain ranges of Sierra Madre. Cabanatuan-Tarlac. The National Food Authority compound. There are also tribal and ethnic groups in Nueva Ecija composed of Dumagats. and Cordillera.

and Muñoz. mushroom culture and processing. Preferred Investment Areas There are eight investment centers in Nueva Ecija: Cabanatuan. tomato paste and juice. citrus fruit juices. sericulture. broiler production. Sta. San Jose. Talavera. paper manufacturing.products processing. bran oil processing. and other manufacturing industries like furniture making. The preferred investment areas involve trading services. and metalcraft. construction hardwares. inland fisheries. seed production. construction materials. export industry forhandicrafts. mango juice. and Palayan cities. and dairy production. trading services. onion dehydration. agro-based enterprises. Guimba.organic fertilizer production. livestock and poultry production. cucumber pickling/relishing. Rosa. and manufacturing. construction materials. garlic. sack manufacturing. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . agro-processing. agriculture. egg production. cattle breeding/fattening. Other industries are swine breeding/fattening. Gapan.

RL Bus. Diamond Park (San Jose City).. Water & Power Supply Majority of industrial. and the Rubber Dam in Llanera. Barrio Puncan (Carranglan). Ram Transit. There are many transportation facilities in the area. Royal Eagle. and domestic water users using ground water are supplied by local water utilities or privately-owned deep well pumps. Sierra Madre Transit.Upper Pampanga River Integrated Irrigation Systems also supply water to the municipal and Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Mini buses and jeepneys can also take you from one point to another. Some of these are: the Minalungao National Park (Gapan). Burburayok Springs (Talugtug). Palasapas Falls (San Jose City). Hot Springs (Rizal). Arayat Express. General Luna Statue Marker (Cuyapo). The city/municipal water districts and the National Irrigation Administration . Dalton Pass (Carranglan). The Baliwag Transit Inc. Camp Pangatian (Cabanatuan City). Five Star Transit. Pajanutic Falls (Carranglan). and Danilo Transit are some of the buses playing the area. ABC Transit. historic Barrio Labi (Bongabon). commercial. Pantabangan Dam (Pantabangan).Tours & Transport There are various tourist spots in Nueva Ecija.

Napocor and Masiway Hydroelectric Power Plant of Pantabangan.rural areas of the province. and Bitas Power Plant are the major sources of power in the province. II & III. and San Jose Electric Company are the electric cooperatives which also extend electric utilities in some of the barangays The historical Freedom Park which include the in the province. Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . NEECO I.

West and Northside. Nueva Ecija General Tinio is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Nueva Ecija. According to the latest census. it has a population of 38. Nueva Ecija abut the town from its South.640 people in 6. The municipalities of San Miguel. Barangays General Tinio is politically subdivided into 13 barangays consisting of: • • • • Bago (Barangay 6) Concepcion (Barangay 2) Nazareth (Barangay 5) Padolina (Barangay 1) • Palale (reclaimed from Palayan City) • • Pias (Barangay 3) Poblacion Central (Barangay 8) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .SITE A: GENERAL TINIO. Peñaranda and San Leonardo. The town is at the foot of the Sierra Mountain Ridges adjoining the Fort Magsaysay Army Reservation on the Eastside. Philippines. Bulacan.878 households.

• • • Poblacion East (Barangay 10) Poblacion West (Barangay 7) Pulong Matong (Barangay 12) • • • Rio Chico (Barangay 4) Sampaguita (Barangay 11) San Pedro (Barangay 9) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Barangays Guimba is politically subdivided into 64 barangays. it has a population of 96.) San Agustin San Andres San Bernardino San Marcelino San Miguel San Rafael San Roque Santa Ana Santa Cruz Santa Lucia Santa Veronica District (Pob.SITE B: GUIMBA. Philippines. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Agcano Ayos Lomboy Bacayao Bagong Barrio Balbalino Balingog East Balingog West Banitan Bantug Bulakid Bunol Caballero Cabaruan Caingin Tabing Ilog Calem Camiing Cardinal Casongsong • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Escano Faigal Galvan Guiset Lamorito Lennec Macamias Macapabellag Macatcatuit Manacsac Manggang Marikit Maturanoc Maybubon Naglabrahan Nagpandayan Narvacan I Narvacan II Pacac • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Saint John District (Pob.) Santo Cristo District (Pob. Nueva Ecija Guimba is a 1st class municipality in the province of Nueva Ecija. According to the latest census.207 households.116 people in 19.) Saranay District (Pob.) Sinulatan Subol Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . It was incorporated by the King of Spain by virtue of a royal decree in 1897.

• • • • • Catimon Cavite Cawayan Bugtong. Consuelo Culong • • • Partida I Partida II Pasong Intsik • • • • Tampac I Tampac II & III Triala Yuson Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

1.390 San Roque. 762 Larcon. Philippines. 2. The town fiesta. 980 Palomaria. 922 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Nueva Ecija Bongabon is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Nueva Ecija.605 Sampalucan.226 Sinipit.287 Mantile.434 Curva. 820 Calaanan. is known as the Sibuyasan Onion Festival. it has a population of 73.90 hectares land area. The number following the barangay name in the listing is its population Population Center • • • • • • • • • Rural area • • • • • • • • • Commercial. celebrated annually on the 1st to 2nd week of April.285 Labi. 1.352.184 households in 28.639 people in 10. 2.077 Ariendo. 2. 1. 723 Bantug. 1.222 Magtanggo.377 Rizal. 1. 3.SITE C: Bongabon.742 Digmala. 2. 1.806 Antipolo. Each barangay in Bongabon has its own fiesta. 597 Kaingin. According to the latest census.622 Cruz. Barangays Bongabon is politically subdivided into 28 barangays. 1. It is the leading producer of onion in the Philippines and in Southeast Asia.

• • • Sisilang. 657 Social.088 Tugatog.682 Santor.735 Pesa.657 Macabaclay. 5. 1. 1. 1. 630 Tulay na Bato (New Era). 1.770 Olivete. 1. 1.029 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . 5.502 Vega Grande.578 • • • • • • • Lusok.

CHAPTER 5 Path Profile Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Net Path Loss J. Water Vapor Losses O. Topographical Map of the Site C. Conditions for Putting Up a Microwave Link B. Antenna Gain F. Rain Attenuation M. Rain Loss L. Thermal Fade Margin I. Free Space Loss G. Flat Fade Margin P. Atmospheric Losses N. K – Q Reliability R.CHAPTER 6 Link Budget Calculations A. Frequency Plan D. Reliability Calculation Q. K – Q Reliability of Terrain Roughness Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . Effective Rain Path Length K. Received Signal Level H. Azimuth Computation E.

000 Hop 1: Sampaguita. Nueva Ecija to Tampac I.75 – 13. TOPOGRAPHICAL SITE OF THE MAP The Scale used is 1:50.9999% B. Guimba. FREE SPACE LOSS FSL = 92. Nueva Ecija Hop 2: Tampac I.25GHz For Hop 2: Frequency Band: 13 GHz Frequency Range: 12.4 + 20 log (fGHz) (D) For Hop 1 & Hop 2 LBF: HBF: FSL = 92.55 dB FSL = 92. CONDITIONS FOR PUTTING UP A MICROWAVE LINK Path Length (Site A – Site B): 40 km Path Length (Site B – Site C): 40 km Reliability Requirement: 99. Nueva Ecija to Larcon. FREQUENCY PLAN For Hop 1: Frequency Band: 13 GHz Frequency Range: 12.75) (40) = 146.LINK BUDGET CALCULATIONS A. Nueva Ecija C.99. Bongabon. General Tinio. Guimba.9995% .86 dB Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .25) (40) = 146.4 + 20 log (13.75 – 13.25GHz D.4 + 20 log (12.

52 dB RSL = 26 + 41.4 146.51 – 12.5 11. RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL RSL = Po + AGTx + AGRx .4 12.66 – 146.5 -62.E.5 – 0.03 dB LINK PARAMETERS Hop 1: Computation for Low Band Frequency (12.51 – 12.11 – 12.11 – 12.55 41.8 + 41.75 Ghz) Parameters Microwave Radio Output Power Connector Loss (Tx) Waveguide Loss (Tx) Antenna Gain (Tx) Free Space Loss Antenna Gain (Rx) Waveguide Loss (Rx) Connector Loss (Rx) Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Minimum Receiver Threshold Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC Value 26 0.CLTx .5 – 16.66 – 146.5 – 16.66 0.4 + 41.92 -91 dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Unit .66 – 146.92 dB RSL = 26 + 41.8 + 41.92 dB For Hop 2 LBF: HBF: RSL = 26 + 41.66 – 146.51 41.5 – 0.55 = -62.4 – 0.8 – 0.55 = -67.4 – 0.5 – 11.4 + 41.CLRx .5 – 0.55 = -62.5 – 0.8 – 0.5 – 11.55 = -67.WLRx – FSL For Hop 1 LBF: HBF: RSL = 26 + 41.WLTx .

5 12.75 Ghz) Parameters Microwave Radio Output Power Connector Loss (Tx) Waveguide Loss (Tx) Antenna Gain (Tx) Free Space Loss Antenna Gain (Rx) Waveguide Loss (Rx) Connector Loss (Rx) Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Minimum Receiver Threshold Value 26 0.66 0.5 -62.43 -91 dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Unit Hop 2: Computation for Low Band Frequency (12.55 41.5 11.25 Ghz) Parameters Microwave Radio Output Power Connector Loss (Tx) Waveguide Loss (Tx) Antenna Gain (Tx) Free Space Loss Antenna Gain (Rx) Waveguide Loss (Rx) Connector Loss (Rx) Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Minimum Receiver Threshold Value 26 0.86 41.8 12.66 41.5 -67.Computation for High Band Frequency (13.4 146.51 41.8 146.4 16.11 0.52 -91 dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Unit Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Computation for High Band Frequency (13.08 dB TFM = -62.97 dB Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .43 dB – (-91 dB) = 28.25 Ghz) Parameters Microwave Radio Output Power Connector Loss (Tx) Waveguide Loss (Tx) Antenna Gain (Tx) Free Space Loss Antenna Gain (Rx) Waveguide Loss (Rx) Connector Loss (Rx) Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Minimum Receiver Threshold Value 26 0. THERMAL FADE MARGIN TFM = RSL – MRT For Hop 1 LBF: HBF: TFM = -62.11 0.5 -67.57 dB For Hop 2 LBF: HBF: TFM = -67.5 12.8 146.03 dB – (-91 dB) = 23.86 41.66 41.52 dB – (-91 dB) = 23.92 dB – (-91 dB) = 28.48 dB TFM = -67.8 16.03 -91 dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Unit F.

G. NET PATH LOSS NPL = Power Output – RSL For Hop 1 LBF: NPL = 26 dB – (-62.92 dB HBF: NPL = 26 dB – (-62. RAIN LOSS For Hop 1 & Hop 2 LBF: M = (log 12 – log 12.17 HBF: M = (log 12 – log 13.154 – (0.0168))] k = 0.0335) – (0.27 (log 0.52 dB) = 93.43 dB For Hop 2 NPL = 26 dB – (-67.52 dB NPL = 26 dB – (-67.03 dB LBF: HBF: H.75)/(log 12 – log 15) M = 0.27 k = log-1 [(log 0.92 dB) = 88.27)(1.44 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .029 α = 1.43 dB) = 88.03 dB) = 93.0335 – log 0.25)/(log 12 – log 15) M = 0.154-1.217) α = 1.

015 x 180 Do = 2.0335 – log 0.35)] = 2. EFFECTIVE RAIN PATH LENGTH Do = 35 x e-0.0168))] k = 0.015 x R0.154 – (0.0335) – (0.217) α = 1.22 J.18 I.62 Arain = DE (γ) Arain = 2.154-1.17 γ = 12.35 DE = D/ [1 + (D/Do)] Hop 1: DE = 40 / [1 + (40/2.44)(1. RAIN ATTENUATION Hop 1 & Hop 2 LBF: γ = k (180)α γ = 0.62) Arain = 28.35)] = 2.k = log-1 [(log 0.01 Do = 35 x e-0.22 Hop 2: DE = 40 / [1 + (40/2.025 α = 1.0164 dB Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .22 (12.44 (log 0.029 (180)1.

752 x 10-3) D Ao = 7.227)) + (4.8)2 + 10))] (f2 x α x 10-4) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .75 – 57)2 + 1.) D Ao = 7.5)))] (f2 x 10-3) D LBF: Ao = [7.22 (11.252 + 0.19 x 10-3 + (6.HBF: γ = k (180)α γ = 0.3116 dB HBF: Ao = [7.81/((f-57)2 + 1.025 (180)1.09/(12.46) Arain = 25.4412 dB K. ATMOSPHERIC LOSSES o Oxygen Absorption Loss Ao = [7.3)) + (9/((f-183.78 x 10-3 dB/km Ao for 40 km = 0.227)) + (4.46 Arain = DE (γ) Arain = 2.3)2 + 6)) + ( 4.19 x 10-3 + (6.3)2 + 7.752 + 0.79 x 10-3 dB/km Ao for 40 km = 0.067 + (3/((f-22.3112 dB 3 o Water Vapor Loss AH2O = [0.19 x 10-3 + (6.09/(f2 + 0.3/ ((f-323.25– 57)2 + 1.227)) + (4.09/(13.18 γ = 11.252 x 10.5))] (13.81/((13.5)))] (12.81/((12.

3)) + (9/((13.18 x 10-4) AH2O = 2.0836 dB L. FLAT FADE MARGIN FMFlat = -10 log[10(-FMthermal/10) +10 (-FMdiff/10) For Hop 1 FMFlat = -10 log[10(-28.067 + (3/((13.08/10) +10 (-28.96 dB M.86 x 10-3 dB/km AH2O for 40km = 0.3)2 + 7.0744 dB HBF: AH2O = [0.8)2 + 10))] (12.48/10) = 20.75-22.57/10) = 25.LBF: AH2O = [0.17 x 10-4) AH2O = 1.08/10) = 25.25-22.3)) + (9/((12.07 dB HBF: FMFlat = -10 log[10(-28.252 x 1.3/ ((13.3/ ((12.25-183.97/10) +10 (-23.25323.48/10) +10 (-23.3)2 + 6)) + ( 4.56 dB For Hop 2 LBF: LBF: HBF: FMFlat = -10 log[10(-23.09 x 10-3 dB/km AH2O for 40km = 0.752 x 1.3)2 + 7.8)2 + 10))] (13.97/10) = 20.75-183.067 + (3/((12. COMPOSITE OR EFFECTIVE FADE MARGIN FMCOMPOSITE = -10 log[10(-FMthermal/10) +RD10 (-FM Dispersive/10) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .75323.57/10) +10 (-28.3)2 + 6)) + ( 4.46 dB FMFlat = -10 log[10(-23.

97/10) +(3)(10 (-70/10)) FMCOMPOSITE = 23.08/10) +(3)(10 (-70/10)) FMCOMPOSITE = 28.57/10) +(3)(10 (-70/10)) FMCOMPOSITE = 28. For Hop 1 LBF: FMCOMPOSITE = -10 log[10(-28.Considering a dispersive fade margin of 70 dB with an average fade occurrence factor equal to 3.48 dB HBF: FMCOMPOSITE = -10 log[10(-23. the computation for composite fade margin can be done.48/10) +(3)(10 (-70/10)) FMCOMPOSITE = 23.97 dB N.57 dB For Hop 2 LBF: FMCOMPOSITE = -10 log[10(-23.08 dB HBF: FMCOMPOSITE = -10 log[10(-28. RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS Hop 1: Distance (km) 0 1 2 3 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC Path Elevations 0 0 0 0 Path Elevations Squared 0 0 0 0 .

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC 47 38 0 0 0 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 26 28 28 0 0 28 0 0 29 0 0 33 37 37 2209 1444 0 0 0 1521 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 625 0 0 676 784 784 0 0 784 0 0 841 0 0 1089 1369 1369 .

49 Average Terrain Elevation = M = 9.875 Standard Deviation of the Elevations = S = 15.375 15.40 SUM AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 0 395 9.49 Hop 2: Distance (km) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC Path Elevations 0 0 0 0 24 38 0 0 0 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 58 0 0 Path Elevations Squared 0 0 0 0 576 1444 0 0 0 1521 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3364 0 0 .875 0 13495 337.

K-Q RELIABILITY CALCULATION U = K-Q x fb x Dc x 10(-FMeff/10) Hop 1 LBF: U = 1 x 10-9 (12.25 x 10-8 HBF: Hop 2 LBF: U = 1 x 10-9 (12.08/10)) = 1.251.2)(40 3.45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3481 0 0 0 0 10386 259.16 Average Terrain Elevation = M = 5.34 x 10-8 U = 1 x 10-9 (13.2)(403.5)(10(-23.48/10)) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .16 O.751.45 Standard Deviation of the Elevations = S = 15.5)(10(-28.2)(403.65 15.751.5)(10(-28.26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 SUM AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 59 0 0 0 0 218 5.57/10)) = 1.

34 x 10-8) x 100% = 99.99999866% R = (1 – 1.3) x fb x Dc x 10(-FMeff/10) Hop 1: LBF: HBF: U = (1 x 10-9/15.3) (13.= 3.25 x 10-8) x 100% = 99.5) (10(-28.99999875% HBF: For Hop 2 LBF: R = (1 – 3.57/10)) = 3.85 x 10-8 HBF: U = 1 x 10-9 (13.2)(40 3.60 x 10-8 R = (1 – U) x 100% For Hop 1 LBF: R = (1 – 1.79 x 10-7 U = (1 x 10-9/15.491.5)(10(-23.9999964% HBF: P.251.97/10)) = 3.5) (10(-28.99999615% R = (1 – 3.3) (12.2) (403.2) (40 3.55 x 10-7 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .85 x 10-8) x 100% = 99.251. K-Q RELIABILITY WITH TERRAIN ROUGHNESS U = (K-Q/S1.60 x 10-8) x 100% = 99.08/10)) = 3.751.491.

Nueva Ecija Tampac I.9999645% Hop 2: LBF: HBF: R = (1 – 1. Nueva Ecija 40 km 40 km Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .999895% Microwave Path Data Sheet Customer: Project Number: Frequency Band Used: Low Band Frequency: High Band Frequency: Equipment: Site A: Site B: Site C: Hop 1 Path Length: Hop 2 Path Length: TELCO 3 13 GHz 12.161.75 Ghz 13.251.3) (13.99988% R = (1 – 1.751. Nueva Ecija Larcon. Guimba.9999621% R = (1 – 3.2) (40 3.2) (403.161.48/10)) = 1. Bongabon.05 x 10-6) x 100% = 99.3) (12.97/10)) = 1.5) (10(-23.25 GHz Digital Microwave Radio AT 9900 Sampaguita.12 x 10-6) x 100% = 99.Hop 2: LBF: HBF: U = (1 x 10-9/15.79 x 10-7) x 100% = 99.05 x 10-6 R = (1 – U) x 100% Hop 1: LBF: HBF: R = (1 – 3.5) (10(-23.12 x 10-6 U = (1 x 10-9/15.55 x 10-7) x 100% = 99. General Tinio.

6” 0 90 m Bongabon (C) 121’ 09’44” 15’ 38’15.9” 0 120 m 26 .51 12.0164 dB HBF 146.9” 15’ 21’32.11 41.57 dB 25.46 dB 23.86 dB 0.08 dB Hop 1 HBF 28.4 41.97 dB Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .48 dB 20.3116 dB 0.48 dB Hop 2 HBF 23.0744 dB 28.5 11.8” 15’ 37’20.Site Information Longitude: Latitude: Site Elevation: Antenna Height: Equipment Information Transmitter Output Power: Receiver Input Threshold: Connector Loss: Waveguide Loss: Site A: Site B: Site C: Antenna Gain – Low: High: Gen.56 dB 28.3112 dB 0.8 dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Path Losses Free Space Loss: Atmospheric Loss: Water Vapor Loss: Rain Attenuation: LBF 146.7” 0 80 m Guimba (B) 120’ 47’19. Tinio (A) 121’ 02’35.97 dB 20.07 dB 28.4412 dB Fade Margins Thermal FM: Flat FM: Effective FM: LBF 28.91 0.57 dB LBF 23.66 16.08 dB 25.96 dB 23.55 dB 0.0836 dB 25.

99988% 99.99999615% 99.999895% Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .Path Reliability : K-Q Reliability Calculation: Hop 1: Hop 2: K-Q Reliability Calculation w/ Terrain Roughness Hop 1: Hop 2: LBF HBF 99.9999964% 99.99999866% 99.9999621% 99.9999645% 99.99999875% 99.

CHAPTER 7
Conclusion and Recommendation

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Microwave link design is a specific sort of engineering in the broader field of communications. Most installers know that clear line of sight is required between two antennas, but there is a lot more to it than that. To have some certainty as to whether your wireless link will be reliable, an RF path analysis needs to be performed. A clear understanding of the microwave network build-out process is essential for the successful implementation of a project, whether it is a new system or an upgrade/expansion of an existing one. Upon the completion of this design, we were able to meet the needed outcomes and conditions regarding the design. We were able to make a Point – to –Point Cellular Link System design having a 99.99999% reliability. Due to the importance of a design like this, we highly recommend this paper to the students who are interested in microwave communications system design and to those who are required to take the subject Microwave Engineering and make their own link design.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC

CHAPTER 8
Equipment Specifications

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC

M. Electronic Communications System – 5th Edition. L.ydi. Singapore: Delmar Freeman.ph www.org www.com/en/at/at9900.. Canada: Wiley & Sons Frenzel. W. Fundamentals of Microwave Communication with Microwave Planning Guide Tomasi. Communications Electronics – 2nd Edition. Internet: http://digital-microwave-radio. Electronic Communication Systems – 2nd Edition.Bibliography Books: Ampoloquio.at-communication. Singapore: Mcgraw-Hill Rule..electronicslab.html www. 2002 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC . R. J. R. SUPERBook Electronic Systems and Technology Blake. (1994). Telecommunications Transmission Handbook – 3rd Edition. (2008). (2004). (2005). (1991).com Publications: Urgent Communications: The official publication of IWCE Young Design Inc.wikipedia. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

APPENDICES Appendix A: Curriculum Vitae Appendix B: Picture Gallery Appendix C: List of Tables Appendix D: List of Formulas Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

PHOTO GALLERY Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

Link Common Carrier and Satellite Up .8400 10700 .2200 2500 .2690 3700 .2150 2160 .19300 26000 .Link Satellite Down .1990 1990 .Transmitter Link Common Carrier and Satellite Down .Link Satellite Cross .42000 50000 .12950 12950 .7125 7250 .Link Military Military Common Carrier and Satellite Up .Link Common Carrier Operational Fixed Cable Television (CATV) Studio Link Studio .2180 2180 .6875 6875 .6425 6575 .LIST OF TABLES Microwave Radio – Frequency Assignments SERVICE Military Operational Fixed Studio .2110 2110 .5350 5925 .51000 54000 .1850 1850 .15250 17700 .62000 BAND L L L S S S S S S C C C C C C X X X Ku Ku Ka Ka K Q V V .2130 2130 .Link Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC FREQUENCY (MHz) 1710 .11700 12200 .Transmitter Link Military Common Carrier Satellite Up .Link Satellite Cross .4990 5250 .12700 12700 .4200 4400 .Link Operation Fixed Studio .13200 14400 .7750 7900 .Transmitter Link Common Carrier Operational Fixed Operational Carrier Operational Fixed Operational Fixed Television Common Carrier and Satellite Down .32000 39000 .

0691 0.200 0.124 0.0188000 0.233 0.350 0.0030100 0.963 0.939 0.308 1.0039500 1.912 0.929 Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .0101000 0.963 0.021 1.263 0.264 0.0751 0.0001380 0.121 1.065 0.0001540 0.187 0. 530 method Frequency 1 2 4 6 7 8 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 kH kV αV αH 0.0026500 1.0005910 1.0335000 1.310 0.0000352 0.075 0.923 0.0088700 1.113 0.979 0.0006500 0.061 1.276 1.0000387 0.310 1.0015500 1.0468000 1.000 0.0367000 0.030 1.128 0.217 1.332 1.265 0.099 1.167 0.312 0.CCIR RECC.0045400 0.0017500 0.154 1.327 1.880 0.

CLTx .5 LARGER 1ST FRESNEL: FREE SPACE LOSS: RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL: THERMAL FADE MARGIN: NET PATH LOSS: (d1 d2 ) / 17 Path Elevation + Earth Curvature Ground Elevation + Allowance SQRT (d1 d2 /(fD))*(17.6 CLEARANCE 1ST FRESNEL: GRAPH LARGER 1ST FRESNEL: GRAPH 0.LIST OF FORMULAS EARTH CURVATURE: GROUND ELEVATION: OBSTRUCTION HEIGHT: LINE OF SIGHT: LARGER 1ST FRESNEL: 0.CLRx .WLTx .5 (Larger 1st Fresnel) LOS .6 (Larger 1st Fresnel) 1.4 + 20 log (fGHz) (D) RSL = Po + AGTx + AGRx .WLRx – FSL TFM = RSL – MRT NPL = Power Output – RSL Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .6 Larger 1st Fresnel LOS – 1.5 LARGER 1ST FRESNEL: CLEARANCE 1ST FRESNEL: 0.6 LARGER 1ST FRESNEL: 1.6 Larger 1st Fresnel + Obstruction Height) LOS – Larger 1st Fresnel LOS – 0.(0.(Larger 1st Fresnel + Obstruction Height) LOS .5 Larger 1st Fresnel FSL = 92.31) 0.6 LARGER 1ST FRESNEL: GRAPH 1.

81/((f-57)2 + 1.35 DE = D/ [1 + (D/Do)] RAIN ATTENUATION: γ = k (180)α Arain = DE (γ) ATMOSPHERIC LOSSES: Oxygen Absorption Loss Ao = [7.3)) + (9/((f-183.015 x R0.19 x 10-3 + (6.5)))] (f2 x 10-3) D Water Vapor Loss AH2O = [0.015 x 180 Do = 2.09/(f2 + 0.227)) + (4.EFFECTIVE RAIN PATH LENGTH: Do = 35 x e-0.3/ ((f-323.3)2 + 6)) + ( 4.3)2 + 7.067 + (3/((f-22.8)2 + 10))] (f2 x α x 10-4) FLAT FADE MARGIN FMFlat = -10 log[10(-FMthermal/10) +10 (-FMdiff/10) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .01 Do = 35 x e-0.

3) x fb x Dc x 10(-FMeff/10) Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .COMPOSITE OR EFFECTIVE FADE MARGIN FMCOMPOSITE = -10 log[10(-FMthermal/10) +RD10 (-FM Dispersive/10) K-Q RELIABILITY CALCULATION U = K-Q x fb x Dc x 10(-FMeff/10) K-Q RELIABILITY WITH TERRAIN ROUGHNESS U = (K-Q/S1.

Microwave Link Design ECEG11A – EC .

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