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BIOMOL 1 Ttg prokariot dan eukariot

BIOMOL 1 Ttg prokariot dan eukariot

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Komposisi dan Organisasi Sel Prokariot dan Eukariot

Pendahuluan
Sel adalah unit terkecil yg menunjukkan semua sifat yg dihubungkan dgn kehidupan Semua sel mengandung makromolekul ttt : lipid, protein, asam nukleat, polisakarida Berdasarkan komposisi dan organisasinya sel dibagi menjadi sel prokariot dan eukariot

SISTEMATIKA DAN TAKSONOMI
Taksonomi :  Ilmu yang mempelajari klasifikasi organisme  Dua subdisplin (identifikasi dan nomenklatur) Taksonomi vs filogeni :  analisis fenotipik sebagai dasar klasifikasi  analisis genotipik sebagai dasar klasifikasi Kronometer evolusi : Alat ukur perubahan evolusi Jarak evolusi antara dua spesies dapat dihitung dari perbedaan urutan nukleotida/ asam amino makromolekul homolog yang terdapat pada kedua spesies Pemilihan kronometer yang benar :  Terdistribusi secara universal  Fungsi identik  Align secara benar  Perubahan harus sesuai dengan jarak evolusi

SISTEMATIKA DAN TAKSONOMI (lanjutan)
RNA ribosom sebagai kronometer evolusi  Ancient molecule  Fungsi konstan  Terdistribusi secara universal  Bersifat cukup konservatif RNA ribosom pada prokariot  5s rRNA  16s rRNA  23s rRNA Berdasarkan urutan nukleotida gen 16s/18sRNA yang mengkode RNA sebagai komponen ribosom : prokariot, arkhaebakteri or eukariot

Cartoon of the tree of life

Figure 1. Last Universal Common Ancestor

Phylogenetic tree .

Cell Theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells. . Cells are the smallest living units of all living organisms. Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryote = without a nucleus Eukaryote = with a nucleus .

Prokaryotic cells Diagram .

no distinct interior compartments gram-positive thick single layer wall that retains a violet dye from gramGram stain procedure gram-negative multilayered wall does not retain dye gram Susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics depends on cell wall structure. .Prokaryotic Cells Simplest organisms Cytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membrane and encased in a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan.

html .edu/cells/bacteriacell. Offers protection from environment. Http://micro.fsu.Cell Wall Rigid peptidoglycan polysaccharide coat that gives the cell shape and surround the cytoplasmic memmembrane.magnet.

From Prescott et al. The Gram-Positive envelope..Gram positive cell walls Figure 18. 2005 .

From Prescott et al.. 2005 .Gram negative cell walls Figure 19. The Gram-Negative envelope.

2005 .. Comparison between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Modified from Prescott et al.Gram negative vs Gram positive Table 3.

html .edu/cells/bacteriacell.magnet.Plasma Membrane Layer of phosphophospholipids and proteins that separates cytoplasm from external environment. Http://micro.fsu. Regulates flow of material in and out of cell.

html .fsu.Plasma Membrane Phospholipid bi-layer bithat separates the cell from its environment. Http:micro.edu/cells/animal/plasmame mbrane. Selectively permeable to allow substances to pass into and out of the cell.magnet.

. 2005 . Plasma membrane structure. From Prescott et al.Plasma membrane Figure 16 .

metabolism. and replication.Cytoplasm Also known as protoprotoplasm is location of growth. Http://micro.edu/cells/bacteriacell.magnet.html .fsu.

Ribosomes Translate the genetic code into proteins.edu/cells/bacteriacell. Http://micro.html .magnet. FreeFree-standing and disdis-tributed throughout the cytoplasm.fsu.

70S RIBOSOME DURING TRANSLATION Ket : "S" refers to a unit of density called the Svedberg unit .

sc. Photosynthetic pigments or respirarespiratory chains here.Mesosome Infolding of cell membrane. Http://www. Possible role in cell division. Increases surface area.edu:85/fox/protobact.med.jpg .

Http://micro.html .Nucleoid Region of the cytoplasm where chromosomal DNA is located.edu/cells/bacteriacell. Smaller circles of DNA called plasmids are also located in cytoplasm. circular chromosome.magnet. Usually a singular.fsu.

FUNGSI KOMPONEN SEL PROKARIOT Capsules and slime layers  outside of the cell envelope  glycocalyx  consist of polysaccharide. in certain bacilli: polypeptide (polyglutamic acid) not always produce a capsule  Capsules of pathogenic bacteria cell wall rigid and protects the cell from osmotic lysis cell membrane where oxidative phosphorylation occurs (since there are no mitochondria). periplasmic space  space between the inner and outer membranes  Gram negative bacteria  store degradative enzymes .

Nucleus Contains most of the heriditary material (DNA) of the cell Plasmids  extra-chromosomal DNA  usually present in multiple copies  often code for pathogenesis factors and antibiotic resistance factors Ribosome Site of protein synthesis Flagella  locomotory organelles  chemotaxis .

.Pili  synonym: fimbriae  types of pili varies  in sexual conjugation  allow adhesion to host epithelial surfaces in infection Endospores (spores)  a dormant form  produced by certain bacteria when starved  vegetative form  resistant to adverse conditions  spore cytoplasm is dehydrated and contains calcium dipicolinate which is involved in the heat resistance of the spore  are commonly found in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

The developmental cycle of the Endospore .

2005 ..Table 4. Prokaryotic structures From Prescott et al.

The Structures of a Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi vesicles Lysosomes Peroxisomes .

.

.

Nucleus Repository for genetic material Directs activities of the cell Nucleolus .region of intensive ribosomal RNA synthesis Surface of nucleus bound by two phospholipid bilayer membranes nuclear membrane Nuclear pores protein gatekeepers Usually proteins going in and RNA going out .

Nucleus .

exist as strands of chromatin. packaging proteins nucleosomes . except during cell division associated with packaging histones.Chromosomes DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear chromosomes.

A schematic representation of the process of endosymbiosis .Endosymbiotic hypothesis Figure 10.

60% RNA and 40% protein.fsu.html . Http://micro.edu/cells/animals/ribosom es.Ribosomes Translate the genetic code into proteins.magnet. Found attached to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm.

5. designated S1-S33 large subunit: 60S Three rRNA molecules (5S.8S.8S 28S Approximate number of nucleotides 1.700 Subunit location 40S 60S 60S 60S ‡ ‡ . and 28S) 50 different proteins.900 120 156 4. designated L1-L50 Type 18S 5S 5.EUKARYOTIC RIBOSOMES ‡ ‡ small subunit: 40S One rRNA molecule (18S) 33 different proteins.

studded with ribosomes Smooth ER . channeling passage of molecules through cell s interior.Endomembrane System Compartmentalizes cell.few ribosomes . Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER .

Http://micro. and transports proteins for export from cell.magnet.fsu. Manufactures.Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of continuous sacs. Continuous with nuclear envelope.edu/cels/animal/endoplas micreticulum. studded with ribosomes.html . proprocesses.

fsu. Metabolizes calcium. carbohydrate metabolism.magnet. but without the ribosomes. Http://micro. Involved in the production of lipids.Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Similar in appearance to rough ER.edu/cells/animals/endoplasmicreticulum.html . and detoxification of drugs and poisons.

fsu.Golgi Apparatus Modifies proteins and lipids made by the ER and prepares them for export from the cell.edu/cells/animals/golgiapp aratus. Encloses digestive enyzymes into membranes to form lysosomes.magnet. Http://micro.html .

Endomembrane System Golgi apparatus collection of Golgi bodies collect. Back trans Cisternae stacked membrane folds . package.cis . and distribute molecules synthesized at one location in the cell and utilized at another location Front .

Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cisternae cis face Proteins trans face Transport vesicle Golgi apparatus Protein Vesicle Migrating budding transport from rough vesicle endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome Fusion of vesicle with Golgi apparatus . Inc.

Http://micro.fsu.edu/cells/animals/lysosom e/html .magnet. Contains digestive enzymes that break down cellular waste and debris and nutrients for use by the cell.Lysosome Single membrane bound structure.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cytoplasm Phagocytosis Food vesicle Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Plasma membrane Digestion of phagocytized food particles or cells Transport vesicle Old or damaged organelle Breakdown of old organelle Extracellular fluid . Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

containing thylakoids found in photosynthetic organisms .Organelles With DNA Mitochondria bounded by exterior and interior membranes interior partitioned by cristae Chloroplasts have enclosed internal compartments of stacked grana.

Structure. "Powerhouse of the cell" .cellular metabolism B.outer and inner membranes.Mitochondria A. Have their own DNA . Structurecristae C.

Chloroplasts ‡Chloroplasts are larger and more complex than mitochondria ‡Grana ± closed compartments of stacked membranes ‡Thylakoids ± disc shaped structure ± light capturing pigment ‡Stroma ± fluid matrix .

Cytoskeleton supporting cell shape and Network of protein fibers anchoring organelles Actin filaments cell movement Microtubules Hollow tubes Facilitate cell movement Microtubules Intermedia te filaments Intermediate filaments Stable .don t break down Actin .

Cytoskeleton .

Plant Cells Central vacuole often found in the center of a plant. and serves as a storage facility for water and other materials Cell wall primary walls laid down while cell is growing middle lamella glues cells together secondary walls inside the primary cell walls after growth .

Plant Cell .

and resilience . form extracellular matrix provides support. strength.Animal Cells Animal cells lack cell walls.

.

.

. 2005 . Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells From Prescott et al. Eukaryotes Table 1.Prokaryotes vs.

Hierarchical arrangement in taxonomy. 2005 ‡A prokaryotic species is a collection of strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups or strains. . From Prescott et al.Phylogeny of bacteria Figure 6 . ‡A species (genomospecies) is a collection of strains that have a similar G+C composition and 70% or greater similarity as judged by DNA hybridization experiments. .

Prokaryotic cell Figure 8b. and Eucarya From Prescott et al.. Eukaryotic cell . Comparison of Bacteria. 2005 Figure 8a. Archaea and Eucarya Table 2. Archaea.Bacteria.

Table 2 cont. Archaea. and Eucarya . Comparison of Bacteria.

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