DC MOTOR CONTROL

USING CHOPPER


A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGEREE OF

Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering
By
AMIR FAIZY (10602053)

SHAILENDRA KUMAR (10502060)

Under the guidance
Of
Prof. K. B. Mohanty


















Department of Electrical Engineering

National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
India








NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA



CERTIFICATE



This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, “CONTROL OF DC
MOTOR USING CHOPPER” submitted by Shri Amir Faizy in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Electrical
Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India , is an authentic
work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any
other University/Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.







Prof. K.B.MOHANTY



Date: Department of Electrical Engineering
Place: National Institute of Technology, Rourkela












NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA



CERTIFICATE



This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, “CONTROL OF DC
MOTOR USING CHOPPER” submitted by Shri Amir Faizy and Shri Shailendra
Kumar in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of
Technology degree in Electrical Engineering at the National Institute of
Technology Rourkela, India , is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision
and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any
other University/Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.







Prof. K.B.MOHANTY



Date:
Place:
Department of Electrical Engineering



National Institute of Technology, Rourkela





NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA



CERTIFICATE



This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, “CONTROL OF DC
MOTOR USING CHOPPER” submitted by Shri Shailendra Kumar in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in
Electrical Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India , is an
authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any
other University/Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.







Prof. K.B.MOHANTY



Date:
Place:
Department of Electrical Engineering



National Institute of Technology, Rourkela


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT





We would like to articulate our deep gratitude to our project guide Prof. K. B. Mohanty
who has always been source of motivation and firm support for carrying out the project.
We express our gratitude to Prof. B. D. Subudhi, Professor and Head of the
Department, Electrical Engineering for his invaluable suggestion and constant
encouragement all through the thesis work.


We would also like to convey our sincerest gratitude and indebtedness to all other faculty
members and staff of Department of Electrical Engineering, NIT Rourkela, who bestowed
their great effort and guidance at appropriate times without which it would have been very
difficult on our project work.


An assemblage of this nature could never have been attempted with our reference to and
inspiration from the works of others whose details are mentioned in references
section. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all of them. Further, we would like to
express our feeling towards our parents and God who directly or indirectly encouraged
and motivated us during this dissertation.























CONTENTS:




ITEMS TITLE PAGE NO.

1 LIST OF FIGURES 1

2 ABSTRACT 2

CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 3

CHAPTER: 2 CHOPPER 7

2.1 DC Chopper 8

2.2 Principles of Operation 9

2.3 Control Strategies 10

2.3.1 Time Ratio Control 10

2.3.2 Current Limit Control 11

11
2.4. Gate Turn-Off Thyristor
2.4.1 Device Description 11
2.4.2 Comparison of GTO and Thyristor 13

CHAPTER: 3 SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR 14

3.1 Basics Of Separately Excited DC motor 15

3.2 Operation 15
3.3 Field And Armature Equations 16
3.4 Basic Torque Equation 16

3.5. Steady State Torque And Speed 17

3.6. Torque And Speed Control 18

3.7 Variable Speed Operation 18

3.8 Base Speed And Field-Weakening 19

CHAPTER: 4 MODELING OF DC MOTOR FOR DRIVE SYSTEM 21



4
.
1

B
a
s
i
c

I
d
e
a

2
2


4
.
2

M
o
d
e
l
i
n
g

o
f

S
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
l
y

E
x
c
i
t
e
d

D
C

m
o
t
o
r


2
3







4.1 Basic Idea 22



4.2 Modeling of Separately Excited DC motor

23
CHAPTER: 5 CONTROLLER DESIGN

28


5.1 Controller Fundamentals
5.2 Deciding Type Of Controller
5.3 Importance Of Current Controller
5.4 Representation of Chopper in Transfer Function
5.5 Complete Layout for DC motor Speed Control
5.6 Current Controller Design
5.7 Speed Controller Design
5.8 Modulus Hugging Approach for Optimization

29
29
30
31
31
32
34
35

CHAPTER: 6

PROBLEM STATEMENT

37

CHAPTER: 7
MATLAB SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

7.1 SIMULINK Model
7.2 Results 1 to 5
7.3 Analysis for 1 to 5
7.4 Results 6 to 20
7.5 Analysis for 6 to 20




39
40
41
42
43
50



7.2 Block Diagram

38



38
CHAPTER: 8 CONCLUSION 51

8.1 Discussions 52

8.2 Future Scope 52


CHAPTER: 9 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 53












LIST OF FIGURES:



FIGURE

NO.
TITLE PAGE

NO.

Figure. 1

Chopper Circuit and Voltage and Current Waveform

2

Figure. 2

Circuit Symbol of GTO

12

Figure. 3

Model of Separately Excited DC motor

15

Figure. 4

Torque Vs Speed Characteristic For Different Armature Voltages

18

Figure. 5

Torque Vs Speed And Power Vs Speed Characteristic

Separately Excited DC Motor

19

Figure. 6

Typical Operating Regions Of Separately Excited DC Machines

20

Figure. 7

Closed loop system model for speed control of dc motor

22

Figure. 8

Separately Excited DC motor

23

Figure. 9

Block Model of Separately Excited DC Motor

25

Figure. 10

Complete layout for DC motor speed control

31

Figure. 11

Block Model for Current Controller Design

32

Figure. 12

Block model for Speed Controller design.

34

Figure. 13

Gain Vs Frequency Waveform

35







1








ABSTRACT
The speed of separately excited DC motor can be controlled from below and up to rated
speed using chopper as a converter. The chopper firing circuit receives signal from
controller and then chopper gives variable voltage to the armature of the motor for
achieving desired speed. There are two control loops, one for controlling current and
another for speed. The controller used is Proportional-Integral type which removes the delay
and provides fast control. Modeling of separately excited DC motor is done. The complete
layout of DC drive mechanism is obtained. The designing of current and speed controller is
carried out. The optimization of speed controller is done using modulus hugging approach,
in order to get stable and fast control of DC motor. After obtaining the complete model of
DC drive system, the model is simulated using MATLAB(SIMULINK).The simulation of
DC motor drive is done and analyzed under varying speed and varying load torque
conditions like rated speed and load torque, half the rated load torque and speed, step speed
and load torque and stair case load torque and speed.





2



Chapter 1





























INTRODUCTION














3

Development of high performance motor drives are very es s ent i al for
industrial applications. A high performance motor drive system must have good
dynamic speed command tracking and load regulating response. DC motors provide
excellent control of speed for acceleration and deceleration. The power supply of a DC
motor connects directly to the field of the motor which allows for precise voltage control,
and is necessary for speed and torque control applications.

DC drives, because of their simplicity, ease of application, reliability and favorable cost
have long been a backbone of industrial applications. DC drives are less complex as
compared to AC drives system. DC drives are normally less expensive for low horsepower
ratings. DC motors have a long tradition of being used as adjustable speed machines and a
wide range of options have evolved for this purpose. Cooling blowers and inlet air flanges
provide cooling air for a wide speed range at constant torque. DC regenerative drives are
available for applications requiring continuous regeneration for overhauling loads. AC
drives with this capability would be more complex and expensive. Properly applied brush
and maintenance of commutator is minimal. DC motors are capable of providing starting
and accelerating torques in excess of 400% of rated
[3]
.

D.C motors have long been the primary means of electric traction. They are also used for
mobile equipment such as golf carts, quarry and mining applications. DC motors are
conveniently portable and well fit to special applications, like industrial equipments and
machineries that are not easily run from remote power sources
[25]
.


4

D.C motor is considered a SISO (Single Input and Single Output) system having
torque/speed characteristics compatible with most mechanical loads. This makes a D.C
motor controllable over a wide range of speeds by proper adjustment of the terminal
voltage. Now days, Induction motors, Brushless D.C motors and Synchronous motors have
gained widespread use in electric traction system. Even then, there is a persistent effort
towards making them behave like dc motors through innovative design and control
techniques. Hence dc motors are always a good option for advanced control algorithm
because the theory of dc motor speed control is extendable to other types of motors as well

[3]
.

Speed control techniques in separately excited dc motor:

By varying the armature voltage for below rated speed.
By varying field flux should to achieve speed above the rated speed.


Different methods for speed control of DC motor:

Traditionally armature voltage using Rheostatic method for low power dc
motors.
Use of conventional PID controllers.
Neural Network Controllers.

Constant power motor field weakening controller based on load-adaptive multi-
input multi- output linearization technique (for high speed regimes).
Single phase uniform PWM ac-dc buck-boost converter with only one switching
device used for armature voltage control.
Using NARMA-L2 (Non-linear Auto-regressive Moving Average) controller for
the constant torque region.
5


Large experiences have been gained in designing trajectory controllers based on self-
tuning and PI control. The PI based speed control has many advantages like fast control, low
cost and simplified structure. This thesis mainly deals with controlling DC motor speed using
Chopper as power converter and PI as speed and current controller.






























6









Chapter 2











CHOPPER













7


2.1. DC CHOPPER
A chopper is a static power electronic device that converts fixed dc input voltage to a
variable dc output voltage. A Chopper may be considered as dc equivalent of an ac
transformer since they behave in an identical manner. As chopper involves one stage
conversion, these are more efficient
[2]
.
Choppers are now being used all over the world for rapid transit systems. These are also
used in trolley cars, marine hoist, forklift trucks and mine haulers. The future electric
automobiles are likely to use choppers for their speed control and braking. Chopper systems
offer smooth control, high efficiency, faster response and regeneration facility
[2]
.
The power semiconductor devices used for a chopper circuit can be force commutated
thyristor, power BJT, MOSFET and IGBT.GTO based chopper are also used. These devices
are generally represented by a switch. When the switch is off, no current can flow. Current
flows through the load when switch is “on”. The power semiconductor devices have on-
state voltage drop of 0.5V to 2.5V across them. For the sake of simplicity, this voltage drop
across these devices is generally neglected
[2]
.
As mentioned above, a chopper is dc equivalent to an ac transformer, have continuously
variable turn’s ratio. Like a transformer, a chopper can be used to step down or step up the
fixed dc input voltage
[2].




8

2.2. PRINCIPLE OF CHOPPER OPERATION
A chopper is a high speed “on" or “off” semiconductor switch. It connects source to load
and load and disconnect the load from source at a fast speed. In this manner, a chopped load
voltage as shown in Fig. is obtained from a constant dc supply of magnitude V
s.
For the sake
of highlighting the principle of chopper operation, the circuitry used for controlling the on,
off periods is not shown. During the period T
on
, chopper is on and load voltage is equal to
source voltage V
s
. During the period T
off
, chopper is off, load voltage is zero. In this
manner, a chopped dc voltage is produced at the load terminals
[2]
.


Figure1.Chopper Circuit and Voltage and Current Waveform.
Average Voltage, V
o
= (T
on
/ (T
on
+T
off
))*V
s

= (T
on
/T)*V
s
=αV
s

T
on
=on-time.
T
off
=off-time.
T=T
on
+T
off
= Chopping period.
α=T
on
/T
off
. 9


Thus the voltage can be controlled by varying duty cycle α.
V
o
= f* T
on
* V
s

f=1/T=chopping frequency.

2.3. CONTROL STRATEGIES
[2]
The average value of output voltage V
o
can be controlled through duty cycle by opening and
closing the semiconductor switch periodically. The various control strategies for varying
duty cycle are as following:
1. Time ratio Control (TRC) and
2. Current-Limit Control.
These are now explained below.
2.3.1. Time ratio Control (TRC)
In this control scheme, time ratio Ton/T(duty ratio) is varied. This is realized by two
different ways called Constant Frequency System and Variable Frequency System as
described below:
1. CONSTANT FREQUENCY SYSTEM
[2]

In this scheme, on-time is varied but chopping frequency f is kept constant.
Variation of T
on
means adjustment of pulse width, as such this scheme is also called
pulse-width-modulation scheme.
2. VARIABLE FREQUENCY SYSTEM
[2]

In this technique, the chopping frequency f is varied and either (i) on-time T
on
is kept
constant or (ii) off-time T
off
is kept constant. This method of controlling duty ratio is
also called Frequency-modulation scheme.
10

2.3.2. CURRENT- LIMIT CONTROL
[2]

In this control strategy, the on and off of chopper circuit is decided by the previous set
value of load current. The two set values are maximum load current and minimum load
current.
When the load current reaches the upper limit, chopper is switched off. When the load
current falls below lower limit, the chopper is switched on. Switching frequency of chopper
can be controlled by setting maximum and minimum level of current.
Current limit control involves feedback loop, the trigger circuit for the chopper is therefore
more complex.PWM technique is the commonly chosen control strategy for the power
control in chopper circuit.
2.4. GATE TURN OFF THYRISTOR AS A SWITCHING DEVICE
[2] [25]

A GTO (Gate Turn Off) is a more versatile power-semiconductor device. It is like a
Conventional Thyristor but with some added features . A GTO can easily be turned off by a
negative gate pulse of appropriate amplitude. Thus, a GTO is a pn-pn device that can be
turned on by a positive gate current and turned off by a negative gate current at the gate
cathode terminals. Self –turn off capability of GTO makes it the suitable device for inverter
and chopper applications.
2.4.1. Device Description: Normal thyristors are not fully controlled switches.
Thyristors can only be turned ON and but cannot be turned OFF. Thyristors are switched
ON by a gate signal, but even after the gate signal is removed, the thyristor remains in the
ON-state until any turn-off condition occurs, which can be the application of a reverse
voltage to the terminals, or when the forward
11

Current flowing through goes below a certain threshold value known as the "Holding
current". A thyristor behaves like a normal semiconductor diode after it is turned on.

Figure2.Circuit Symbol of GTO
[25]
.
The GTO can be turned-on by a gate signal, and can be turned-off by a gate signal of
negative polarity. Turn on is accomplished by a positive current pulse between the gate and
the cathode terminals. As the gate-cathode behaves like PN junction there will be some
relatively small voltage drop between the terminals. The turn on process in GTO is
however, not as reliable as an SCR and small positive gate current must be maintained even
after turn on to improve reliability.
Turn off is achieved by a negative voltage pulse between the gate and cathode terminals.
Some of the forward current (approx one-third to one-fifth) is stolen and used to induce a
cathode-gate voltage which in turn induces the forward current to fall and the GTO switch
off.
GTO thyristors suffer from long switch off times, whereby after the forward current falls,
there is a long tail time where residual current continues to flow until all remaining charge
from the device is taken away. This restricts the maximum switching frequency to approx
1 kHz. It should be noted that the turn off time of a comparable SCR is ten times that of a
GTO. Thus switching frequency of GTO is much higher than SCR.
12


2.4.2. Comparison between GTO and Thyristor
[2]
:
A GTO has the following disadvantages as compared to a conventional thyristor:
(i) Magnitude of Latching current and holding currents is more in a GTO.
(ii) On state voltage drop and associated loss is more in a GTO.
(iii) Gate drive circuit losses are more.
(iv) Its reverse-voltage blocking capacity is less than its forward-voltage blocking
capability. But this is no disadvantage to chopper circuit.
In spite of all these demerits, GTO has the following advantages over an SCR:
(i) GTO has faster switching speed.
(ii) Its surge current capability is comparable with an SCR.
(iii) It has more di/dt rating at turn-on.
(iv) GTO has lower size and weight as compare to SCR.
(v) GTO unit has higher efficiency because an increase in gate drive power loss and
on state loss is more than compensated by the elimination of forced
commutation.
(vi) GTO has reduced acoustical and electromagnetic noise due to elimination of
commutation chokes.




13





Chapter 3





























SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR














14



3.1. Basics of Separately Excited DC Motor
[13]
:

Figure3. Separately Excited DC motor
[13]
.

• Separately Excited DC motor has field and armature winding with separate
supply.
• The field windings of the dc motor are used to excite the field flux.
• Current in armature circuit is supplied to the rotor via brush and commutator
segment for the mechanical work.
• The rotor torque is produced by interaction of field flux and armature current.

3.2. Operation of Separately excited DC motor
[13]
:

• When a separately excited dc motor is excited by a field current of i
f
and an armature
current of i
a
flows in the circuit, the motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance
the load torque at a particular speed.
• The field current i
f
is independent of the ar mat ur e cur r ent i
a
. Each winding i s
supplied separately. Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current.

15

• The i
f
is generally much less than the i
a
.

3.3. FIELD AND ARMATURE EQUATIONS
[13]
:


Instantaneous field current:









3.4. BASIC TORQUE EQUATION
[13]
:



16




3.5. STEADY-STATE TORQUE AND SPEED
[13]
:













17

3.6. TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL
[13]
:


• From the above derivation important facts can be deduced for steady-state operation of

DC motor.

• For a fixed field current, or flux (I
f
) the torque demand can be satisfied by varying the
armature current (I
a
).
• The motor speed can be controlled by:
– controlling V
a
(voltage control)
– controlling V
f
(field control)
• These observation lead to the application of variable DC voltage for controlling the speed
and torque of DC motor.

3.7. VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION
[13]
:





Figure 4: Torque Vs Speed Characteristic For Different Armature Voltages


• Family of steady state torque speed curves for a range of armature voltage can be drawn
as above.
18


• The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying the correct voltage.
• The speed variation from no load to full load (rated) can be quite small. It depends on the
armature resistance.


3.8. BASE SPEED AND FIELD-WEAKENING
[13]
:





Figure 5: Torque Vs Speed And Power Vs Speed Characteristic Of Separately Excited DC Motor



• Base speed: (w
base
)
– The speed which correspond to the rated V
a
, rated I
a
and rated I
f
.
• Constant Torque region (w < w
base
)
– I
a
and I
f
are maintained constant to met torque demand. V
a
is varied to control the speed.
Power increases with speed.
• Constant Power region (w > w
base
)
– V
a
is maintained at the rated value and I
f
is reduced to increase speed. However, the power
developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant. This phenomenon is known as
Field weakening.
19




Figure 6: Typical Operating Regions Of Separately Excited DC Machines
[13]




















20









Chapter 4























MODELING OF DC MOTOR FOR
DRIVE SYSTEM










21




4.1. BASIC IDEA

The basic principle behind DC motor speed control is that the output speed of DC motor can be
varied by controlling armature voltage for speed below and up to rated speed keeping field
voltage constant. The output speed is compared with the reference speed and error signal is fed
to speed controller. Controller output will vary whenever there is a difference in the reference
speed and the speed feedback. The output of the speed controller is the control voltage Ec that
controls the operation duty cycle of (here the converter used is a Chopper) converter. The
converter output give the required V
a
required to bring motor back to the desired speed. The
Reference speed is provided through a potential divider because the voltage from potential
divider is linearly related to the speed of the DC motor. The output speed of motor is measured
by Tacho-generator and since Tacho voltage will not be perfectly dc and will have some ripple.
So, we require a filter with a gain to bring Tacho output back to controller level
[1]
.
The basic block diagram for DC motor speed control is show below:

Figure7.Closed loop system model for speed control of dc motor
[1]
.



22

4.2. MODELING OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR
[1]


Figure8.Separately Excited DC motor model.
The armature equation is shown below:
V
a
=E
g
+ I
a
R
a
+ L
a
(dI
a
/dt)
The description for the notations used is given below:
1. V
a
is the armature voltage in volts.
2. E
g
is the motor back emf in volts.
3. I
a
is the armature current in amperes.
4. R
a
is the armature resistance in ohms.
5. L
a
is the armature inductance in Henry.
Now the torque equation will be given by:
T
d
= Jdω/dt +Bω+T
L

Where:
1. T
L
is load torque in Nm.
2. T
d
is the torque developed in Nm.
23

3. J is moment of inertia in kg/m².
4. B is friction coefficient of the motor.
5. ω is angular velocity in rad/sec.
Assuming absence (negligible) of friction in rotor of motor, it will yield:
B=0
Therefore, new torque equation will be given by:
T
d
= Jdω/dt + T
L
--------- (i)
Taking field flux as Φ and (Back EMF Constant) K
v
as K. Equation for back emf of motor will
be:
E
g
= K Φ ω --------- (ii)
Also, T
d
= K Φ I
a
--------- (iii)
From motor’s basic armature equation, after taking Laplace Transform on both sides, we will
get:
I
a
(S) = (V
a
– E
g
)/(R
a
+ L
a
S)
Now, taking equation (ii) into consideration, we have:
=> I
a
(s) = (V
a
– KΦω)/ R
a
(1+ L
a
S/R
a
)
And, ω(s) = (T
d
- T
L
)/JS = (KΦI
a
- T
L
) /JS
Also, The armature time constant will be given by:
(Armature Time Constant) T
a
= L
a
/R
a

24

Figure 9.Block Model of Separately Excited DC Motor
[1]


After simplifying the above motor model, the overall transfer function will be as given below:
ω (s) / V
a
(s) = [KΦ /R
a
] /JS(1+T
a
S) /[ 1 +(K²Φ² /R
a
) /JS(1+T
a
S)]
Further simplifying the above transfer function will yield:
ω(s) /V
a
(s) = (1 /kΦ) /{ 1 +(k²Φ² /R
a
) /JS(1+T
a
S)} ---------------- (iv)
Assuming, T
m
= JR
a
/ (kΦ) ² as electromechanical time constant
[1]
.
Then the above transfer function can be written as below:
ω(s)/V
a
(s) = (1/kΦ)/ [ST
m
(1+ST
a
)+1] --------(v)
Let us assume that during starting of motor, load torque T
L
= 0 and applying full voltage V
a

Also assuming negligible armature inductance, the basic armature equation can be written as:
V
a
= KΦω(t) + I
a
R
a

At the same time Torque equation will be:
Td = Jdω/dt = KΦI
a
----- (vi)
25

Putting the value of I
a
in above armature equation:
V
a
=KΦω(t)+(Jdω/dt)R
a
/ KΦ
Dividing on both sides by KΦ,
V
a
/KΦ=ω(t)+JR
a
(dω/dt)/(KΦ)² ------------------------(vii)
V
a
/KΦ is the value of motor speed under no load condition. Therefore,
ω(no load)=ω(t)+JR
a
(dω/dt)/(KΦ)² = ω (t) + T
m
(dω/dt)
Where, KΦ = K
m
(say)
And,
T
m
=JR
a
/(KΦ)²=JR
a
/(K
m

Therefore, J = T
m
(K
m
) ²/ R
a
--------- (viii)
From motor torque equation, we have:
ω(s) = K
m
I
a
(s)/JS - T
L
/JS -------- (ix)
From equation (viii) and (ix), we have:


Now, Replacing KΦ by K
m
in equation (v), we will get:
ω(s)/V
a
(s)=(1/K
m
) / (1+ST
m
+S²T
a
T
m
) ------------ (x)
26
ω(s) = [(R
a
/ K
m
) I
a
(s) - T
L
R
a
/ (K
m
) ² ] (1/T
m
(s))
(1/Tm(s))


Since, the armature time constant T
a
is much less than the electromechanical time constant T
m
,
(T
a
<< T
m
)
[1]

Simplifying, 1 + ST
m
+ S²T
a
T
m
≈ 1 + S (T
a
+T
m
) + S²T
a
T
m
= (1 + ST
m
)(1 + ST
a
)
The largest time constant will play main role in delaying the system when the transfer function
is in time constant form. To compensate that delay due to largest time constant we can use PI
controller as speed controller. It is because the zero of the PI controller can be chosen in such a
way that this large delay can be cancelled. In Control system term a time delay generally
corresponds to a lag and zero means a lead, so the PI controller will try to compensate the whole
system
[1]
.
Hence, the equation can be written as:
ω(s)/V
a
(s) = (1/K
m
)/((1 + ST
m
)(1 + ST
a
)) -----(xi)
T
m
and T
a
are the time constants of the above system transfer function which will determine the
response of the system. Hence the dc motor can be replaced by the transfer function obtained in
equation (xi) in the DC drive model shown earlier.







27














Chapter 5























CONTROLLER DESIGN


















28




5.1. CONTROLLER FUNDAMENTALS
[15]
:
The controller used in a closed loop provides a very easy and common technique of keeping
motor speed at any desired set-point speed under changing load conditions. This controller can
also be used to keep the speed at the set-point value when, the set-point is ramping up or down
at a defined rate. The essential addition required for this condition to the previous system is a
means for the present speed to be measured.
In this closed loop speed controller, a voltage signal obtained from a Tacho-generator attached
to the rotor which is proportional to the motor speed is fed back to the input where signal is
subtracted from the set-point speed to produce an error signal. This error signal is then fed to
work out what the magnitude of controller output will be to make the motor run at the desired
set-point speed. For example, if the error speed is negative, this means the motor is running
slow so that the controller output should be increased and vice-versa
[15]
.
5.2. DECIDING THE TYPE OF CONTROLLER
[15]

The control action can be imagined at first sight as something simple like if the error speed is
negative, then multiply it by some scale factor generally known as gain and set the output drive
to the desired level. But this approach is only partially successful due to the following reason: if
the motor is at the set-point speed under no load there is no error speed so the motor free runs. If
a load is applied, the motor slows down and a positive error speed is observed. Then the output
increases by a proportional amount to try and restore the desired speed. However, when the
motor speed recovers, the error reduces drastically and so does the drive level. The result is that
the motor speed will stabilize at a speed below the set-point speed at which the load is balanced
by the product of error speed and the gain. This basic technique discussed above is known as
"proportional control" and it has limited use as it can never force the motor to run exactly at
the set-point speed
[15]
. 29

From the above discussion an improvement is required for the correction to the output which
will keep on adding or subtracting a small amount to the output until the motor reaches the set-
point. This effect can be done by keeping a running total of the error speed observed for instant
at regular interval (say 25ms) and multiplying this by another gain before adding the result to
the proportional correction found earlier. This approach is basically based on what is effectively
the integration of the error in speed.
Till now we have two mechanisms working simultaneously trying to correct the motor speed
which constitutes a PI (proportional-integral) controller. The proportional term does the job of
fast-acting correction which will produce a change in the output as quickly as the error arises.
The integral action takes a finite time to act but has the capability to make the steady-state speed
error zero.
A further refinement uses the rate of change of error speed to apply an additional correction to
the output drive. This is known as Derivative approach. It can be used to give a very fast
response to sudden changes in motor speed. In simple PID controllers it becomes difficult to
generate a derivative term in the output that has any significant effect on motor speed. It can be
deployed to reduce the rapid speed oscillation caused by high proportional gain. However, in
many controllers, it is not used. The derivative action causes the noise (random error) in the
main signal to be amplified and reflected in the controller output. Hence the most suitable
controller for speed control is PI type controller
[15]
.
5.3. Importance of Current Controller in a DC drives system
[1]
:
When the machine is made to run from zero speed to a high speed then motor has to go to
specified speed. But due to electromechanical time constant motor will take some time to speed
up. But the speed controller used for controlling speed acts very fast. Speed feedback is zero
initially. So this will result in full controller output E
c
and hence converter will give maximum
30

voltage. So a very large current flow at starting time because back Emf is zero at that time
which sometime exceeds the motor maximum current limit and can damage the motor
windings. Hence there is a need to control current in motor armature. To solve the above
problem we can employ a current controller which will take care of motor rated current limit.
The applied voltage V
a
will now not dependent on the speed error only but also on the current
error. We should ensure that V
a
is applied in such a way that machine during positive and
negative torque, does not draw more than the rated current. So, an inner current loop hence
current controller is required.
5.4. Representation of Chopper in Transfer function form:
Since chopper takes a fixed DC input voltage and gives variable DC output voltage. It works on
the principle Pulse Width Modulation technique
[2]
. There is no time delay in its operation.
Hence, it can be represented by a simple constant gain K
t
.
5.5. COMPLETE LAYOUT FOR DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL
[1] [3]


Figure 10.Complete layout for DC motor speed control
[1] [3]
.
31

5.6. CURRENT CONTROLLER DESIGN
[1]
:
We need to design current controller for the extreme condition when back emf is zero that is
during starting period because at that time large current flows through the machine.

Figure 11.Block Model for Current Controller Design
[1]
.
Transfer function of the above model:
I
a
(s)(f)/I
a
(s)ref={[K
c
(1+T
c
S)/T
c
S](K
t
)[(1/R
a
)/(1+ST
a
)}/{1+[K
c
(1+T
c
S)/T
c
S]K
t
[(1/R
a
)/(1+ST
a
)][K
2
/(1+T
2
S)]}-----
(xii)
Here, T
c
(Current Controller Parameter) can be varied as when required. T
c
should be chosen
such that it cancels the largest time constant in the transfer function in order to reduce order of
the system
[1]
. Now, the response will be much faster. So, let us assume

Now, putting this value in equation (xii)
I
a
(S)(f)/ I
a
(S)(ref) ={ K
c
(K
t
/T
a
R
a
)(1+T
2
S)} /{ S (1+T
2
S) + (K
c
K
t
K
2
)/T
a
R
a
} ---(xiii)
Let, K
o
= (K
c
K
t
/T
a
R
a
)
I
a
(S)(f)/ I
a
(S)(ref) =K
o
(1+T
2
S) / [S²T
2
+S+ K
o
K
2
] ---------- (xiv)
Where T
2
corresponds filter lag. Dividing T
2
on R.H.S:
32
T
c
= T
a


I
a
(S) (f)/ I
a
(S) (ref) = {(K
o
/T
2
) (1+T
2
S)}/ [S²+S/T
2
+ K
o
K
2
/T
2
] ------ (xv)
Characteristic Equation:-
S²+(S/T
2
)+(K
o
K
2
/T
2
)≈S²+2єω+ω²
here, ω = √ (K
o
K
2
)/T
2

є =1/ (2Tω) =1/2√ (T
2
K
2
K
o
)
Since, it is a second order system. So, to get a proper response є should be 0.707
[4] [6]
.
So, 1/√ (2) = 1/2√ (T
2
K
2
K
o
) => K
o
= 1/ (2K
2
T
2
) = K
c
K
t
/ (R
a
T
a
)


Here,
K
o
= K
c
K
t
/ (R
a
T
a
) = 1/ (2K
2
T
2
) => K
o
K
2
=1/2T
2

Now, from equation-(xiv): I
a
(S) (f)/ I
a
(S) (ref) = {(1/K
2
) (1+T
2
S)}/ [2S²T
2
²+2ST
2
+ 1] --- (xvi)
We can see that the zero in the above equation may result in an overshoot. Therefore, we will
use a time lag filter to cancel its effect. The current loop time constant is much higher than filter
time constant. Hence a small delay will not affect much
{I
a
(S) (f)/ I
a
(S) (ref)} (1+ST
2
) = {(1/K
2
) (1+T
2
S)}/[ 2S²T
2
²+2ST
2
+ 1]
Hence,

33

K
c
= (R
a
T
a
)/ (2K
t
K
2
T
2
)
I
a
(S) (f) / I
a
(S) (ref) = (1/K
2
)/ (2S²T
2
²2ST
2
+1)

5.7. SPEED CONTROLLER DESIGN
[1]
:

Figure 12.Block model for Speed Controller design
[1]
.
Now, converting the block model in transfer function, we will get:
ω(s)/ω(s)(ref.)=
(K
n
/K
2
)(R
a
/K
m
T
m
T
n
)(1+T
n
S/(1+2T
2
S)S²)/{1+(K
n
R
a
/K
2
K
m
T
m
T
n
)(1+T
n
S/(1+2T
2
S)S²)(K
1
/(1+
T
1
S))} -------- (xviii)
Here, we have the option to T
n
such that it cancels the largest time constant of the transfer
function
[1]
. So,

Hence, equation --- (xviii) will be written as:
ω(s)/ω(s)(ref.)=(K
n
R
a
/K
2
K
m
T
m
T
n
)(1+T
1
S)/{K
2
K
m
T
n
S
2
(1+T
1
S)+K
n
R
a
K
1
}
Ideally, ω(s) =1/S (S²+αs+β)
The damping constant is zero in above transfer function because of absence of S term, which
results in oscillatory and unstable system. To optimize this we must get transfer function whose
gain is close to unity
[1] [4] [6]
.
34
T
n
= 2T
2


5.8. Modulus Hugging Approach for Optimization of Speed Controller
Transfer Function
[1]
:
If the variable to be controlled rapidly reaches the desired value then dynamic performance of
the control system is considered as good. For any frequency variation within bandwidth of the
input variable, the output should follow the input variable instantaneously for achieving unity
gain.

Figure 13.Gain Vs Frequency Waveform
[1]
.
The process of making output close to input variable so as to obtain unity gain for wide
frequency range is termed as Modulus Hugging
[1]
.
Considering equation (xviii):
ω (s)/ ωs (ref.) = {(K
n
R
a
)(1 + T
n
S) (1 + T
1
S)}/{ S²T
m
T
n
K
2
K
m
(1 + 2T
2
S) (1 + T
1
S) + (K
n
R
a
K
1
)(1 + T
n
S)}
Here, (1+2T
2
S) (1+T
1
S) =1+T
1
S+2T
2
S+2T
2
T
1
S² ≈ 1 + S (2T
2
+ T
1
) + 2T
2
T
1
S² ≈ 1 + S (2T
2
+ T
1
)
Here, T
1
and T
2
are smaller time constants. So their product can be approximated to zero.
So, 1 + S (2T
2
+T
1
) = 1+ oS. Assuming, o = (2T
2
+T
1
) and K
o
= (K
n
R
a
/K
2
K
m
)
Then,
ω (s)/ω(s)(ref.) = {(K
n
R
a
/K
2
K
m
)(1 + T
n
S) (1 + T
1
S)}/{ S³T
m
T
n
o + S²T
m
T
n
+ (K
o
K
1
T
n
)S + K
o
K
1
}
The above transfer function is of third order. The terms (1 + T
n
S) and (1 + T
1
S) in the
denominator will be cancelled by using filters
[1]
.
35

Taking a standard 3
rd
order system:
G (jω) = (b
o + jωb
1
)

/ [a
o
+ jωa
1 + (jω) ²a
2
+ (jω) ³ a
3
]
[1]

for low frequency b
o
= a
o
and b
1
= a
1

lG(jω)l = (a
o
² +ω²a
1
²)/(a
o
² + ω²(a
1
²- 2a
o
a
2
) + ω⁴(a
2
²- 2a
1
a
3
) +ω⁶(a
3
²) )⅟2
Now, Modulus hugging principle, lG(jω)l= 1; for that coefficients of ω² and ω⁴ are made equal
to zero.
So, a
1
2
=2a
0
a
2
& a
2
2
=2a
1
a
3
-------- (A)
We need to use filters on the ω(s) (ref) side to cancel (1 + T
n
S) (1 + T
1
S) term:
ω (s)/{ω(s)(ref) (1/(1 + T
n
S))(1/(1 + T
1
S))} = (K
n
R
a
/K
2
K
m
)(1 + T
n
S)(1 + T
1
S)/(S³T
m
T
n
o+S²T
m
T
n
+
(K
o
K
1
T
n
)S+K
o
K
1
) ------- (xix)
Now, from optimization condition in - (A), we get:-
 (K
o
K
1
T
n
)
2
=2*K
o
K
1
*T
m
T
n

 k
o
K
1
T
n
= 2T
m

 T
m
= K
o
K
1
T
n
/2 ------- (xx)
Also, (T
m
T
n
)
2
= 2*T
m
T
n
oK
o
K
1
T
n

 T
m
=2oK
o
K
1

 T
n
K
o
K
1
/2=2*oK
o
K
1

 T
n
=4o=(2T
2
+T
1
) ÷÷÷÷÷÷ (xxi)
From equation (xx) and (xxi):
T
m
= 2 K
o
K
1
o = 2 (K
n
R
a
/K
2
K
m
) K
1
o
K
n
=T
m
K
m
K
2
/(2K
1
R
a
o) -------- (xxii)
Now, putting the values of K
n
and K
m
in the main transfer function, we get:
ω(s)(f)/{ω(s)(ref)=1/(K
1
+4oK
1
+8s
2
oK
1
+8s
3
oK
1
)
36



Chapter 6

























PROBLEM STATEMENT













37



A separately excited DC motor with name plate ratings of 320KW, 440V (DC), 55 rad/sec
is used in all simulations. Following parameter values are associated with it.
- Moment of Inertia, J = 85 Kg-m
2
.
- Back EMF Constant = 9 Volt-sec/rad.
- Rated Current = 715 A.
- Maximum Current Limit = 1000 A.
- Resistance of Armature, R
a
= 0.0241 ohm.
- Armature Inductance, L
a
= 0.718 mH.
- Speed Feedback Filter Time Constant
[1]
, T
1
= 25 ms.
- Current Filter Time Constant
[1]
, T
2
= 3.5 ms.

Current Controller Parameter
[1]
:

Current PI type controller is given by: K
c
{(1+ T
c
S)/T
c
S}
Here, T
c
= T
a
and K
c
= R
a
T
a
/ (2K
2
K
t
T
2
)
T
a
= L
a
/R
a
= 0.718*10
-3
/0.0241 = 29.79 ms.
For analog circuit maximum controller output is ± 10 Volts
[1]
. Therefore, K
t
= 440/10 = 44.
Also, K
2
= 10/1000 = 1/100.
Now, putting value of R
a
, T
a
, K
2
, K
t
and T
2
we get: K
c
= 0.233.
Speed Controller Parameter
[1]
:
Speed PI type controller is given by: K
n
{(1+T
n
S)/T
n
S}
Here, T
n
= 4o = 4(T
1
+2T
2
) = 4(25 + 7) = 128 ms.
Also, K
n
= T
m
K
m
K
2
/(2K
1
R
a
o).
K
1
= 10/55 = 0.181.
Tm = JR
a
/K
m
= 85*0.0241/9 = 22.7 ms.
Now, K
n
= (22.7*9*1)/ (2*0.181*0.0241*32*100) = 6.15
38








Chapter 7



















MATLAB SIMULATION, RESULTS AND ANALYSIS









39


















7.1.Simulink Model:


Fig14.Simulink Model for Speed Control of Separately Excited DC motor using Chopper Converter (without filter after reference
speed)

Fig15.Simulink Model for Speed Control of Separately Excited DC motor using Chopper Converter (with filter after reference speed)

40

7.2.Graph1.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (without Filter):

Graph2.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (without Filter):


41

Graph3.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (with Filter):

Graph4.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (with Filter):




42

Graph5.Reference Speed Vs Time while using Filter after reference:

7.3.Analysis for Graph1to5: From above simulation results, it is clear that the SIMULINK
model without filter ( Graph 1&2) after reference speed gives larger overshoot in speed before
settling to steady state and faster response than the model using filter (Graph 3&4) after
reference speed. The error in later starts from zero because reference takes time to reach desired
value (shown in graph5) due to introduction of filter.
7.4. Graph6.Speed Response at reference speed half the rated speed and full Load:
43


Graph7.Error in Speed Response at reference speed half the rated speed and full Load:
Graph8.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and half of full Load :


44

Graph9.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and half of full Load:
Graph10.Speed Response at reference speed of half the rated speed and half of full Load:
45

Graph11.Error in Speed Response at reference speed of half the rated speed and half of full Load:
Graph12.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and step torque Load:


46


Graph13.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and step torque Load:

Graph14.Speed Response at step reference speed and constant torque Load:



47

Graph15.Error in Speed Response at step reference speed and constant torque Load:
Graph16.Speed Response at stair case type reference speed and constant torque Load:
48

Graph17.Error in Speed Response at stair case type reference speed and constant torque Load:
Graph18.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and stair case type torque Load:



49

Graph19.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and stair case type torque Load:
Graph20.Speed Response at stair case type reference speed and stair case type torque Load:
7.5.Analysis for Graph 6 to 20: When the load is constant the speed response is smooth after
attaining steady state. But when the load is varying, speed response have ripples due to time
delay in achieving desired speed. When load is constant and reference speed is varying then
speed response is shifting accordingly with a time delay. When Reference speed and load is
varying then in speed response, speed is adjusting as well as there is some ripple due to delay in
achieving current reference speed.
50




Chapter 8



















CONCLUSION























51










8.1. DISCUSSIONS:

The speed of a dc motor has been successfully controlled by using Chopper as a converter and
Proportional-Integral type Speed and Current controller based on closed loop system model.
Initially a simplified closed loop model for speed control of DC motor is considered and
requirement of current controller is studied. Then a generalized modeling of dc motor is done.
After that a complete layout of DC drive system is obtained. Then designing of current and
speed controller is done. The optimization of speed control loop is achieved through Modulus
Hugging approach. A DC motor specification is taken and corresponding parameters are
found out from derived design approach. Ultimately simulation is done for model with and
without filter used after reference speed and a comparative study is done on response of both
cases. The simulation results under varying reference speed and varying load are also studied
and analyzed. The model shows good results under all conditions employed during
simulation.


8.2. FUTURE SCOPE:
MATLAB simulation for speed control of separately excited DC motor has been done
which can be implemented in hardware to observe actual feasibility of the approach applied
in this thesis. This technique can be extended to other types of motors. In this thesis, we
have done speed control for rated and below rated speed. So the control for above the rated
speed can be achieved by controlling field flux. The problem of overshoot can be removed
using a Neural Network and Fuzzy approach.





52


REFRENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY:
[1] Gopakumar, K., Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, Video Lectures 1-25, Centre
for Electronics and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
[2] Bimbhra, P.S., Power Electronics. New Delhi, Khanna Publishers, 2006.
[3] Dubey, G.K., Fundamentals of Electrical Drives. New Delhi, Narosa Publishing House,
2009.
[4] Gopal, M., Control Systems, Principles and Design. New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Company limited, 2008.
[5] Mohan, Ned, Electrical Drives-An Integrated Approach. Minneapolis, MNPERE, 2003.
[6] Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.
[7] Leonhard, W., Control of Electric Drives. New York, Springer-Verlag, 2001.
[8] Mohan, Ned, Power Electronics, John Wiley and Sons, 1989.
[9] Rashid, M.H., Power Electronics, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1993.
[10] Moleykutty George., Speed Control of Separately Excited DC motor, American Journal
of Applied Sciences, 5(3), 227-233, 2008.
[11] SIMULINK, Model-based and system-based design using Simulink, Mathsworks, Inc,
Natick, MA, 2000.
[12] MATLAB SIMULINK, version 2009, SimPowerSystem, One quadrant chopper DC
drive.
[13] Salam Dr. Zainal, UTJMB, Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003).
[14] FINCOR Automation, Adjustable speed Drives Applications.
[15] Infineon Technologies, Basic DC motor speed PID control with the Infineon
Technologies.
[16] C.U. Ogbuka, Performance characteristics of Controlled separately excited dc motor,
Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 10(1), 67-74.
[17] Singh Brijesh, Prakash Surya, Pandey Shekhar Ajay, Sinha S.K., Intelligent PI
controller for DC motor, International Journal Of Electronics Engineering Research, Vol.2,
pp-(87-100).
[18] Zuo Z. Liu,Frang L. Luo, Rashid M.H., High performance nonlinear MIMO field
weakening controller of a separately excited dc motor, Electric Power System research, Vol
55, Issue 3, 2000, pp(157-164).
[19] Chinnaiyan V. Kumar, Jerome Joritha, Karpagam, J. S.Sheikh Mohammed, Design and
Implementation of High Power DC-DC converter and speed control of dc motor using TMS
320F240DSP, Proceedings of India International Conference on Power Electronics, 2006.
[20] Bose B.K., Power electronics and motor drives recent technology advances,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, IEEE, 2002, pp
22-25.
[21] Saffet Ayasun,Gultekin Karbeyaz, DC motor speed control methods using
MATLAB/SIMULINK and their integration into undergraduate courses, 2008.
[22] Aung Wai Phyo, Analysis on Modeling and Simulink of DC motor and its driving
system used for wheeled mobile robot, Proceedings of world Academy of Science,
Engineering and Technology Vol. 26, 2007.
[24] MATLAB and SIMULINK Version 2009a, the Mathsworks Inc, USA.
[25] www.wikipedia.org. 53

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, “CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING CHOPPER” submitted by Shri Amir Faizy in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Electrical Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India , is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Prof. K.B.MOHANTY

Date:

Department of Electrical Engineering

Place:

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, “CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING CHOPPER” submitted by Shri Amir Faizy and Shri Shailendra

Kumar in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Electrical Engineering at the National Institute of

Technology Rourkela, India , is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Prof. K.B.MOHANTY

Date:

Department of Electrical Engineering

Place:

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree or diploma. “CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING CHOPPER” submitted by Shri Shailendra Kumar in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Electrical Engineering at the National Institute of Technology Rourkela. is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled.B. K. Rourkela . Prof.MOHANTY Date: Department of Electrical Engineering Place: National Institute of Technology. India .

who bestowed their great effort and guidance at appropriate times without which it would have been very difficult on our project work. Mohanty who has always been source of motivation and firm support for carrying out the project. Professor and Head of the Department.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to articulate our deep gratitude to our project guide Prof. . NIT Rourkela. We would also like to convey our sincerest gratitude and indebtedness to all other faculty members and staff of Department of Electrical Engineering. B. we would like to express our feeling towards our parents and God who directly or indirectly encouraged and motivated us during this dissertation. K. Electrical Engineering for his invaluable suggestion and constant encouragement all through the thesis work. Further. We express our gratitude to Prof. B. D. Subudhi. An assemblage of this nature could never have been attempted with our reference to and inspiration from the works of others whose details are mentioned in references section. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all of them.

CONTENTS: ITEMS 1 2 CHAPTER: 1 CHAPTER: 2 TITLE LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CHOPPER 2.3 Field And Armature Equations 3.6.4 Basic Torque Equation 3.1 D C Chopper 2.5. Gate Turn-Off Thyristor 2.8 Base Speed And Field-Weakening CHAPTER: 4 MODELING OF DC MOTOR FOR DRIVE SYSTEM 11 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 21 .1 Device Description 2.2 Current Limit Control PAGE NO.2 Comparison of GTO and Thyristor CHAPTER: 3 SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR 3.1 Basics Of Separately Excited DC motor 3.2 Operation 3. Torque And Speed Control 3.4. Steady State Torque And Speed 3.3.3.4.1 Time Ratio Control 2.7 Variable Speed Operation 3.4.2 Principles of Operation 2.3 Control Strategies 2. 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 2.

1 SIMULINK Model 7.2 Discussions Future Scope 39 40 41 42 43 50 38 38 51 52 52 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 . 2 42 13 .6 5.42 .3 5. 2 B a M s o i d c e l I i CHAPTER: 5 d n e g a o f S e p a r a CHAPTER: 6 t e CHAPTER: 7 l y E x c i t e CHAPTER: 8 d D C m o t CHAPTER: 9 o r 4.1 8.5 5.8 Importance Of Current Controller Representation of Chopper in Transfer Function Complete Layout for DC motor Speed Control Current Controller Design Speed Controller Design Modulus Hugging Approach for Optimization 29 30 31 31 32 34 35 37 PROBLEM STATEMENT MATLAB SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 7.4 5.3 Analysis for 1 to 5 7.2 Block Diagram CONCLUSION 8.5 Analysis for 6 to 20 7.2 Modeling of Separately Excited DC motor CONTROLLER DESIGN 5.2 Controller Fundamentals Deciding Type Of Controller 22 23 28 29 5.1 Basic Idea 4.7 5.1 5.4 Results 6 to 20 7.2 Results 1 to 5 7.

LIST OF FIGURES: FIGURE NO. 11 Figure. 6 Figure. 9 Figure. 10 Chopper Circuit and Voltage and Current Waveform Circuit Symbol of GTO Model of Separately Excited DC motor Torque Vs Speed Characteristic For Different Armature Voltages Torque Vs Speed And Power Vs Speed Characteristic Separately ExcitedRegions Of Separately Excited DC Machines Typical Operating DC Motor Closed loop system model for speed control of dc motor Separately Excited DC motor Block Model of Separately Excited DC Motor Complete layout for DC motor speed control TITLE PAGE NO. 13 Gain Vs Frequency Waveform 35 1 . 3 Figure. 1 Figure. 2 Figure. 2 12 15 18 19 20 22 23 25 31 Figure. 5 Figure. 7 Figure. 12 Block Model for Current Controller Design Block model for Speed Controller design. 4 Figure. 32 34 Figure. 8 Figure. Figure.

2 . After obtaining the complete model of DC drive system. half the rated load torque and speed. Modeling of separately excited DC motor is done. The chopper firing circuit receives signal from controller and then chopper gives variable voltage to the armature of the motor for achieving desired speed.ABSTRACT The speed of separately excited DC motor can be controlled from below and up to rated speed using chopper as a converter. step speed and load torque and stair case load torque and speed. The controller used is Proportional-Integral type which removes the delay and provides fast control. The complete layout of DC drive mechanism is obtained. The designing of current and speed controller is carried out.The simulation of DC motor drive is done and analyzed under varying speed and varying load torque conditions like rated speed and load torque. in order to get stable and fast control of DC motor. The optimization of speed controller is done using modulus hugging approach. one for controlling current and another for speed. the model is simulated using MATLAB(SIMULINK). There are two control loops.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 3 .

reliability and favorable cost have long been a backbone of industrial applications. and is necessary for speed and torque control applications. AC drives with this capability would be more complex and expensive. DC drives are less complex as compared to AC drives system. DC motors have a long tradition of being used as adjustable speed machines and a wide range of options have evolved for this purpose. D. Properly applied brush and maintenance of commutator is minimal. Cooling blowers and inlet air flanges provide cooling air for a wide speed range at constant torque. A high performance motor drive system must have good dynamic speed command tracking and load regulating response. 4 . DC motors provide excellent control of speed for acceleration and deceleration. like industrial equipments and machineries that are not easily run from remote power sources [25]. DC regenerative drives are available for applications requiring continuous regeneration for overhauling loads.Development of high performance motor drives are very e s s e n t i a l for industrial applications.C motors have long been the primary means of electric traction. quarry and mining applications. DC drives are normally less expensive for low horsepower ratings. DC motors are capable of providing starting and accelerating torques in excess of 400% of rated [3]. They are also used for mobile equipment such as golf carts. DC motors are conveniently portable and well fit to special applications. because of their simplicity. DC drives. ease of application. The power supply of a DC motor connects directly to the field of the motor which allows for precise voltage control.

Use of conventional PID controllers.C motors and Synchronous motors have gained widespread use in electric traction system. Using NARMA-L2 (Non-linear Auto-regressive Moving Average) controller for the constant torque region. Now days. Hence dc motors are always a good option for advanced control algorithm because the theory of dc motor speed control is extendable to other types of motors as well [3] . By varying field flux should to achieve speed above the rated speed.output linearization technique (for high speed regimes). Constant power motor field weakening controller based on load-adaptive multiinput multi. Even then. 5 . Neural Network Controllers. This makes a D. Single phase uniform PWM ac-dc buck-boost converter with only one switching device used for armature voltage control.D. Different methods for speed control of DC motor: Traditionally armature voltage using Rheostatic method for low power dc motors.C motor controllable over a wide range of speeds by proper adjustment of the terminal voltage. Speed control techniques in separately excited dc motor: By varying the armature voltage for below rated speed. Induction motors. Brushless D. there is a persistent effort towards making them behave like dc motors through innovative design and control techniques.C motor is considered a SISO (Single Input and Single Output) system having torque/speed characteristics compatible with most mechanical loads.

low cost and simplified structure.Large experiences have been gained in designing trajectory controllers based on selftuning and PI control. 6 . This thesis mainly deals with controlling DC motor speed using Chopper as power converter and PI as speed and current controller. The PI based speed control has many advantages like fast control.

Chapter 2 CHOPPER 7 .

Chopper systems offer smooth control. The power semiconductor devices used for a chopper circuit can be force commutated thyristor. A Chopper may be considered as dc equivalent of an ac transformer since they behave in an identical manner. no current can flow. As mentioned above. faster response and regeneration facility [2]. power BJT.2. When the switch is off. a chopper can be used to step down or step up the fixed dc input voltage [2]. The power semiconductor devices have onstate voltage drop of 0. Current flows through the load when switch is “on”.5V to 2. DC CHOPPER A chopper is a static power electronic device that converts fixed dc input voltage to a variable dc output voltage. Like a transformer. forklift trucks and mine haulers. this voltage drop across these devices is generally neglected [2]. For the sake of simplicity.5V across them.1. a chopper is dc equivalent to an ac transformer. These devices are generally represented by a switch. These are also used in trolley cars. have continuously variable turn’s ratio. The future electric automobiles are likely to use choppers for their speed control and braking. 8 . MOSFET and IGBT. these are more efficient [2].GTO based chopper are also used. high efficiency. As chopper involves one stage conversion. marine hoist. Choppers are now being used all over the world for rapid transit systems.

During the period Ton. In this manner. Average Voltage. For the sake of highlighting the principle of chopper operation. PRINCIPLE OF CHOPPER OPERATION A chopper is a high speed “on" or “off” semiconductor switch. a chopped load voltage as shown in Fig. During the period Toff.2. a chopped dc voltage is produced at the load terminals [2]. is obtained from a constant dc supply of magnitude Vs.2. It connects source to load and load and disconnect the load from source at a fast speed. Vo= (Ton/ (Ton+Toff))*Vs = (Ton/T)*Vs =αVs Ton=on-time. α=Ton/Toff. off periods is not shown. 9 . chopper is on and load voltage is equal to source voltage Vs. Figure1.Chopper Circuit and Voltage and Current Waveform. T=Ton+Toff = Chopping period. the circuitry used for controlling the on. Toff=off-time. load voltage is zero. In this manner. chopper is off.

Thus the voltage can be controlled by varying duty cycle α. Vo = f* Ton* Vs f=1/T=chopping frequency.

2.3. CONTROL STRATEGIES [2]
The average value of output voltage Vo can be controlled through duty cycle by opening and closing the semiconductor switch periodically. The various control strategies for varying duty cycle are as following: 1. Time ratio Control (TRC) and 2. Current-Limit Control. These are now explained below.

2.3.1. Time ratio Control (TRC)
In this control scheme, time ratio Ton/T(duty ratio) is varied. This is realized by two different ways called Constant Frequency System and Variable Frequency System as described below: 1. CONSTANT FREQUENCY SYSTEM [2] In this scheme, on-time is varied but chopping frequency f is kept constant. Variation of Ton means adjustment of pulse width, as such this scheme is also called pulse-width-modulation scheme. 2. VARIABLE FREQUENCY SYSTEM [2] In this technique, the chopping frequency f is varied and either (i) on-time Ton is kept constant or (ii) off-time Toff is kept constant. This method of controlling duty ratio is also called Frequency-modulation scheme. 10

2.3.2. CURRENT- LIMIT CONTROL [2]
In this control strategy, the on and off of chopper circuit is decided by the previous set value of load current. The two set values are maximum load current and minimum load current. When the load current reaches the upper limit, chopper is switched off. When the load current falls below lower limit, the chopper is switched on. Switching frequency of chopper can be controlled by setting maximum and minimum level of current. Current limit control involves feedback loop, the trigger circuit for the chopper is therefore more complex.PWM technique is the commonly chosen control strategy for the power control in chopper circuit.

2.4. GATE TURN OFF THYRISTOR AS A SWITCHING DEVICE [2] [25]
A GTO (Gate Turn Off) is a more versatile power-semiconductor device. It is like a Conventional Thyristor but with some added features . A GTO can easily be turned off by a negative gate pulse of appropriate amplitude. Thus, a GTO is a pn-pn device that can be turned on by a positive gate current and turned off by a negative gate current at the gate cathode terminals. Self –turn off capability of GTO makes it the suitable device for inverter and chopper applications.

2.4.1. Device Description: Normal thyristors are not fully controlled switches.
Thyristors can only be turned ON and but cannot be turned OFF. Thyristors are switched ON by a gate signal, but even after the gate signal is removed, the thyristor remains in the ON-state until any turn-off condition occurs, which can be the application of a reverse voltage to the terminals, or when the forward 11

Current flowing through goes below a certain threshold value known as the "Holding current". A thyristor behaves like a normal semiconductor diode after it is turned on.

Figure2.Circuit Symbol of GTO [25].

The GTO can be turned-on by a gate signal, and can be turned-off by a gate signal of negative polarity. Turn on is accomplished by a positive current pulse between the gate and the cathode terminals. As the gate-cathode behaves like PN junction there will be some relatively small voltage drop between the terminals. The turn on process in GTO is however, not as reliable as an SCR and small positive gate current must be maintained even after turn on to improve reliability.

Turn off is achieved by a negative voltage pulse between the gate and cathode terminals. Some of the forward current (approx one-third to one-fifth) is stolen and used to induce a cathode-gate voltage which in turn induces the forward current to fall and the GTO switch off.

GTO thyristors suffer from long switch off times, whereby after the forward current falls, there is a long tail time where residual current continues to flow until all remaining charge from the device is taken away. This restricts the maximum switching frequency to approx 1 kHz. It should be noted that the turn off time of a comparable SCR is ten times that of a GTO. Thus switching frequency of GTO is much higher than SCR.

12

Its surge current capability is comparable with an SCR. It has more di/dt rating at turn-on. But this is no disadvantage to chopper circuit. (vi) GTO has reduced acoustical and electromagnetic noise due to elimination of commutation chokes. Gate drive circuit losses are more. GTO unit has higher efficiency because an increase in gate drive power loss and on state loss is more than compensated by the elimination of forced commutation. Its reverse-voltage blocking capacity is less than its forward-voltage blocking capability. 13 . GTO has the following advantages over an SCR: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) GTO has faster switching speed.2.2. GTO has lower size and weight as compare to SCR. In spite of all these demerits.4. Comparison between GTO and Thyristor [2]: A GTO has the following disadvantages as compared to a conventional thyristor: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Magnitude of Latching current and holding currents is more in a GTO. On state voltage drop and associated loss is more in a GTO.

Chapter 3 SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR 14 .

Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current. 15 . the motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. • Separately Excited DC motor has field and armature winding with separate supply. • The field current if is independent of the a r m at ur e c ur r en t ia. Each winding i s supplied separately. Separately Excited DC motor [13]. • The rotor torque is produced by interaction of field flux and armature current. Operation of Separately excited DC motor [13]: • When a separately excited dc motor is excited by a field current of i f and an armature current of ia flows in the circuit. Current in armature circuit is supplied to the rotor via brush and commutator segment for the mechanical work. Basics of Separately Excited DC Motor [13]: Figure3. • • The field windings of the dc motor are used to excite the field flux.1.3. 3.2.

FIELD AND ARMATURE EQUATIONS [13]: Instantaneous field current: 3. 3.• The if is generally much less than the ia.3.4. BASIC TORQUE EQUATION [13]: 16 .

5. STEADY-STATE TORQUE AND SPEED [13]: 17 .3.

TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL [13]: • From the above derivation important facts can be deduced for steady-state operation of DC motor.6. • For a fixed field current. or flux (If ) the torque demand can be satisfied by varying the armature current (Ia). 18 . 3.7.3. • The motor speed can be controlled by: – controlling Va (voltage control) – controlling Vf (field control) • These observation lead to the application of variable DC voltage for controlling the speed and torque of DC motor. VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION [13]: Figure 4: Torque Vs Speed Characteristic For Different Armature Voltages • Family of steady state torque speed curves for a range of armature voltage can be drawn as above.

Va is varied to control the speed. • The speed variation from no load to full load (rated) can be quite small. BASE SPEED AND FIELD-WEAKENING [13]: Figure 5: Torque Vs Speed And Power Vs Speed Characteristic Of Separately Excited DC Motor • Base speed: (wbase) – The speed which correspond to the rated Va. 3. This phenomenon is known as Field weakening. However.8. the power developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant. rated Ia and rated If. 19 . • Constant Torque region (w < wbase) – Ia and If are maintained constant to met torque demand. Power increases with speed. • Constant Power region (w > wbase) – Va is maintained at the rated value and I f is reduced to increase speed. It depends on the armature resistance.• The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying the correct voltage.

Figure 6: Typical Operating Regions Of Separately Excited DC Machines[13] 20 .

Chapter 4 MODELING OF DC MOTOR FOR DRIVE SYSTEM 21 .

Controller output will vary whenever there is a difference in the reference speed and the speed feedback. The output speed of motor is measured by Tacho-generator and since Tacho voltage will not be perfectly dc and will have some ripple. 22 . The basic block diagram for DC motor speed control is show below: Figure7. The output of the speed controller is the control voltage Ec that controls the operation duty cycle of (here the converter used is a Chopper) converter.4.Closed loop system model for speed control of dc motor [1]. we require a filter with a gain to bring Tacho output back to controller level [1]. The Reference speed is provided through a potential divider because the voltage from potential divider is linearly related to the speed of the DC motor. So. The converter output give the required Va required to bring motor back to the desired speed. BASIC IDEA The basic principle behind DC motor speed control is that the output speed of DC motor can be varied by controlling armature voltage for speed below and up to rated speed keeping field voltage constant.1. The output speed is compared with the reference speed and error signal is fed to speed controller.

Ra is the armature resistance in ohms. 23 . Ia is the armature current in amperes. Td is the torque developed in Nm. La is the armature inductance in Henry. The armature equation is shown below: Va =Eg+ IaRa+ La (dIa/dt) The description for the notations used is given below: 1. Va is the armature voltage in volts. 5. 2. MODELING OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR [1] Figure8. 2. 4.2. 3. Now the torque equation will be given by: Td = Jdω/dt +Bω+TL Where: 1. Eg is the motor back emf in volts.4.Separately Excited DC motor model. TL is load torque in Nm.

B is friction coefficient of the motor. Td = K Φ Ia --------. we have: => And.3. 4. J is moment of inertia in kg/m². new torque equation will be given by: Td = Jdω/dt + TL --------. ω is angular velocity in rad/sec.TL )/JS = (KΦIa . Equation for back emf of motor will be: Eg = K Φ ω Also.(i) Taking field flux as Φ and (Back EMF Constant) Kv as K. it will yield: B=0 Therefore. Assuming absence (negligible) of friction in rotor of motor. 5.TL ) /JS The armature time constant will be given by: (Armature Time Constant) Ta = La/Ra 24 . taking equation (ii) into consideration. after taking Laplace Transform on both sides.(iii) From motor’s basic armature equation. Ia(s) = (Va – KΦω)/ Ra(1+ LaS/Ra ) ω(s) = (Td . we will get: Ia(S) = (Va – Eg)/(Ra + LaS) Now.(ii) --------. Also.

the overall transfer function will be as given below: ω (s) / Va(s) = [KΦ /Ra] /JS(1+TaS) /[ 1 +(K²Φ² /Ra) /JS(1+TaS)] Further simplifying the above transfer function will yield: ω(s) /Va(s) = (1 /kΦ) /{ 1 +(k²Φ² /Ra) /JS(1+TaS)} ---------------. Tm = JRa / (kΦ) ² as electromechanical time constant [1].Figure 9. the basic armature equation can be written as: Va = KΦω(t) + IaRa At the same time Torque equation will be: Td = Jdω/dt = KΦIa ----(vi) 25 . Then the above transfer function can be written as below: ω(s)/Va(s) = (1/kΦ)/ [STm (1+STa)+1] --------(v) Let us assume that during starting of motor.Block Model of Separately Excited DC Motor [1] After simplifying the above motor model. load torque TL = 0 and applying full voltage Va Also assuming negligible armature inductance.(iv) Assuming.

we have: ω(s) = KmIa(s)/JS . Va/KΦ=ω(t)+JRa(dω/dt)/(KΦ)² ------------------------(vii) Va/KΦ is the value of motor speed under no load condition. J = Tm (Km) ²/ Ra --------.Putting the value of Ia in above armature equation: Va=KΦω(t)+(Jdω/dt)Ra/ KΦ Dividing on both sides by KΦ. Tm=JRa/(KΦ)²=JRa/(Km)² Therefore. we will get: ω(s)/Va(s)=(1/Km) / (1+STm+S²TaTm) -----------.TL Ra / (Km) ² ] (1/Tm(s)) (1/Tm(s)) Now. we have: ω(s) = [(Ra / Km) Ia(s) .TL/JS -------.(x) 26 . Therefore.(viii) KΦ = Km(say) From motor torque equation. ω(no load)=ω(t)+JRa(dω/dt)/(KΦ)² = ω (t) + Tm (dω/dt) Where. And.(ix) From equation (viii) and (ix). Replacing KΦ by Km in equation (v).

It is because the zero of the PI controller can be chosen in such a way that this large delay can be cancelled. To compensate that delay due to largest time constant we can use PI controller as speed controller.Since. 1 + STm + S²TaTm ≈ 1 + S (Ta+Tm) + S²TaTm = (1 + STm)(1 + STa) The largest time constant will play main role in delaying the system when the transfer function is in time constant form. 27 . so the PI controller will try to compensate the whole system [1]. the equation can be written as: ω(s)/Va(s) = (1/Km)/((1 + STm)(1 + STa)) -----(xi) Tm and Ta are the time constants of the above system transfer function which will determine the response of the system. Hence the dc motor can be replaced by the transfer function obtained in equation (xi) in the DC drive model shown earlier. Hence. the armature time constant Ta is much less than the electromechanical time constant Tm. (Ta << Tm) [1] Simplifying. In Control system term a time delay generally corresponds to a lag and zero means a lead.

Chapter 5 CONTROLLER DESIGN 28 .

1. This basic technique discussed above is known as "proportional control" and it has limited use as it can never force the motor to run exactly at the set-point speed [15]. CONTROLLER FUNDAMENTALS [15]: The controller used in a closed loop provides a very easy and common technique of keeping motor speed at any desired set-point speed under changing load conditions. a voltage signal obtained from a Tacho-generator attached to the rotor which is proportional to the motor speed is fed back to the input where signal is subtracted from the set-point speed to produce an error signal. If a load is applied. the motor slows down and a positive error speed is observed. then multiply it by some scale factor generally known as gain and set the output drive to the desired level. But this approach is only partially successful due to the following reason: if the motor is at the set-point speed under no load there is no error speed so the motor free runs. For example. this means the motor is running slow so that the controller output should be increased and vice-versa [15]. if the error speed is negative.2. The essential addition required for this condition to the previous system is a means for the present speed to be measured. In this closed loop speed controller. The result is that the motor speed will stabilize at a speed below the set-point speed at which the load is balanced by the product of error speed and the gain. This error signal is then fed to work out what the magnitude of controller output will be to make the motor run at the desired set-point speed. DECIDING THE TYPE OF CONTROLLER [15] The control action can be imagined at first sight as something simple like if the error speed is negative. 5. the error reduces drastically and so does the drive level. However. This controller can also be used to keep the speed at the set-point value when. when the motor speed recovers. the set-point is ramping up or down at a defined rate. 29 . Then the output increases by a proportional amount to try and restore the desired speed.5.

It can be deployed to reduce the rapid speed oscillation caused by high proportional gain. This approach is basically based on what is effectively the integration of the error in speed. Importance of Current Controller in a DC drives system [1]: When the machine is made to run from zero speed to a high speed then motor has to go to specified speed. But the speed controller used for controlling speed acts very fast. A further refinement uses the rate of change of error speed to apply an additional correction to the output drive. It can be used to give a very fast response to sudden changes in motor speed. The derivative action causes the noise (random error) in the main signal to be amplified and reflected in the controller output. But due to electromechanical time constant motor will take some time to speed up. in many controllers. However.3. In simple PID controllers it becomes difficult to generate a derivative term in the output that has any significant effect on motor speed. This effect can be done by keeping a running total of the error speed observed for instant at regular interval (say 25ms) and multiplying this by another gain before adding the result to the proportional correction found earlier. Till now we have two mechanisms working simultaneously trying to correct the motor speed which constitutes a PI (proportional-integral) controller. So this will result in full controller output Ec and hence converter will give maximum 30 . This is known as Derivative approach. Speed feedback is zero initially. The integral action takes a finite time to act but has the capability to make the steady-state speed error zero. 5. it is not used. The proportional term does the job of fast-acting correction which will produce a change in the output as quickly as the error arises.From the above discussion an improvement is required for the correction to the output which will keep on adding or subtracting a small amount to the output until the motor reaches the setpoint. Hence the most suitable controller for speed control is PI type controller [15].

5.5. Representation of Chopper in Transfer function form: Since chopper takes a fixed DC input voltage and gives variable DC output voltage. Hence. an inner current loop hence current controller is required. To solve the above problem we can employ a current controller which will take care of motor rated current limit. it can be represented by a simple constant gain Kt. does not draw more than the rated current.4. So a very large current flow at starting time because back Emf is zero at that time which sometime exceeds the motor maximum current limit and can damage the motor windings. We should ensure that Va is applied in such a way that machine during positive and negative torque. 31 . COMPLETE LAYOUT FOR DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL [1] [3] Figure 10. Hence there is a need to control current in motor armature. It works on the principle Pulse Width Modulation technique [2] .voltage. The applied voltage Va will now not dependent on the speed error only but also on the current error. There is no time delay in its operation. 5. So.Complete layout for DC motor speed control [1] [3].

Ko = (KcKt/TaRa) Ia(S)(f)/ Ia(S)(ref) =Ko(1+T2S) / [S²T2+S+ KoK2] ---------.H.5. let us assume Tc = Ta Now. the response will be much faster. CURRENT CONTROLLER DESIGN [1]: We need to design current controller for the extreme condition when back emf is zero that is during starting period because at that time large current flows through the machine. putting this value in equation (xii) Ia(S)(f)/ Ia(S)(ref) ={ Kc(Kt/TaRa)(1+T2S)} /{ S (1+T2S) + (KcKtK2)/TaRa} ---(xiii) Let. Figure 11.(xiv) Where T2 corresponds filter lag. Tc (Current Controller Parameter) can be varied as when required.6. Dividing T2 on R. Now.S: 32 .Block Model for Current Controller Design [1]. Tc should be chosen such that it cancels the largest time constant in the transfer function in order to reduce order of the system [1]. So. Transfer function of the above model: Ia(s)(f)/Ia(s)ref={[Kc(1+TcS)/TcS](Kt)[(1/Ra)/(1+STa)}/{1+[Kc(1+TcS)/TcS]Kt[(1/Ra)/(1+STa)][K2/(1+T2S)]}----(xii) Here.

1/√ (2) = 1/2√ (T2K2Ko) => Ko = 1/ (2K2T2) = KcKt / (RaTa) Kc = (RaTa)/ (2KtK2T2) Here. So.707 [4] [6]. to get a proper response є should be 0. Therefore. Ko = Kc Kt / (RaTa) = 1/ (2K2T2) => KoK2=1/2T2 Now. Hence a small delay will not affect much {Ia(S) (f)/ Ia(S) (ref)} (1+ST2) = {(1/K2) (1+T2S)}/[ 2S²T2²+2ST2 + 1] Hence.Ia(S) (f)/ Ia(S) (ref) = {(Ko/T2) (1+T2S)}/ [S²+S/T2 + KoK2/T2] Characteristic Equation:S²+(S/T2)+(KoK2/T2)≈S²+2єω+ω² here. The current loop time constant is much higher than filter time constant. from equation-(xiv): Ia(S) (f)/ Ia(S) (ref) = {(1/K2) (1+T2S)}/ [2S²T2²+2ST2 + 1] --. So.(xv) Since. we will use a time lag filter to cancel its effect. it is a second order system.(xvi) We can see that the zero in the above equation may result in an overshoot. ω = √ (KoK2)/T2 є =1/ (2Tω) =1/2√ (T2K2Ko) -----. Ia(S) (f) / Ia(S) (ref) = (1/K2)/ (2S²T2²2ST2+1) 33 .

To optimize this we must get transfer function whose gain is close to unity [1] [4] [6].)= (Kn/K2)(Ra/KmTmTn)(1+TnS/(1+2T2S)S²)/{1+(KnRa/K2KmTmTn)(1+TnS/(1+2T2S)S²)(K1/(1+ T1S))} -------.Block model for Speed Controller design [1]. equation --.(xviii) will be written as: ω(s)/ω(s)(ref. we have the option to Tn such that it cancels the largest time constant of the transfer function [1]. converting the block model in transfer function.5. 34 . ω(s) =1/S (S²+αs+β) The damping constant is zero in above transfer function because of absence of S term. So. Now.(xviii) Here.)=(KnRa/K2KmTmTn)(1+T1S)/{K2KmTnS2(1+T1S)+KnRaK1} Ideally. we will get: ω(s)/ω(s)(ref.7. SPEED CONTROLLER DESIGN [1]: Figure 12. which results in oscillatory and unstable system. Tn = 2T2 Hence.

8. For any frequency variation within bandwidth of the input variable. T1 and are smaller time constants.) = {(KnRa)(1 + TnS) (1 + T1S)}/{ S²TmTnK2Km(1 + 2S) (1 + T1S) + (KnRaK1)(1 + TnS)} Here. 35 Assuming. (1+2S) (1+T1S) =1+T1S+2S+2T1S² ≈ 1 + S (2T1) + 2T1S² ≈ 1 + S (2T1) Here. So.Gain Vs Frequency Waveform [1].  = (2+T1) and Ko= (KnRa/K2Km) . 1 + S (2+T1) = 1+ S. Then. The terms (1 + TnS) and (1 + T1S) in the denominator will be cancelled by using filters [1]. The process of making output close to input variable so as to obtain unity gain for wide frequency range is termed as Modulus Hugging [1]. Modulus Hugging Approach for Optimization of Speed Controller Transfer Function [1]: If the variable to be controlled rapidly reaches the desired value then dynamic performance of the control system is considered as good. ω (s)/ω(s)(ref.) = {(KnRa/K2Km)(1 + TnS) (1 + T1S)}/{ S³TmTn+ S²TmTn + (KoK1Tn)S + KoK1} The above transfer function is of third order. So their product can be approximated to zero.5. the output should follow the input variable instantaneously for achieving unity gain. Figure 13. Considering equation (xviii): ω (s)/ ωs (ref.

lG(jω)l= 1. putting the values of Kn and Km in the main transfer function.Taking a standard 3rd order system: G (jω) = (bo + jωb1) / [ao + jωa1 + (jω) ²a2 + (jω) ³ a3] [1] for low frequency bo = ao and b1 = a1 lG(jω)l = (ao² +ω²a1²)/(ao² + ω²(a1².(A). Modulus hugging principle. we get: (KoK1Tn)2 =2*KoK1*TmTn  koK1Tn = 2Tm  Tm = KoK1Tn/2 ------. from optimization condition in .2aoa2) + ω⁴(a2².(xxii) Now.(A) We need to use filters on the ω(s) (ref) side to cancel (1 + TnS) (1 + T1S) term: ω (s)/{ω(s)(ref) (1/(1 + TnS))(1/(1 + T1S))} = (KnRa/K2Km)(1 + TnS)(1 + T1S)/(S³TmTn+S²TmTn+ (KoK1Tn)S+KoK1) ------. So. (TmTn)2 = 2*TmTnn  Tm=2KoK1  TnKoK1/2=2*KoK1  Tn=4(xxi) From equation (xx) and (xxi): Tm = 2 KoK1 = 2 (KnRa/K2Km) K1  Kn=TmKmK2/(2K1Ra  -------. a12=2a0a2 & a22=2a1a3 -------. for that coefficients of ω² and ω⁴ are made equal to zero.2a1a3) +ω⁶(a3²) )⅟2 Now.(xx) Also.(xix) Now. we get: ω(s)(f)/{ω(s)(ref)=1/(K1+4K1+8s2K1+8s3K1) 36 .

Chapter 6 PROBLEM STATEMENT 37 .

7 ms. Therefore. Rated Current = 715 A.718 mH.         Moment of Inertia. Current Controller Parameter [1]: Current PI type controller is given by: Kc {(1+ TcS)/TcS} Here.5 ms.A separately excited DC motor with name plate ratings of 320KW. putting value of Ra.0241/9 = 22. Speed Feedback Filter Time Constant [1].79 ms. Now.15 38 . T1 = 25 ms. K2. 55 rad/sec is used in all simulations. Kt and T2 we get: Kc = 0. Following parameter values are associated with it. T2 = 3. La = 0. Resistance of Armature. Back EMF Constant = 9 Volt-sec/rad. Now. Also. Ra = 0.0241 = 29. 440V (DC).718*10-3/0. For analog circuit maximum controller output is ± 10 Volts [1]. Speed Controller Parameter [1]: Speed PI type controller is given by: Kn{(1+TnS)/TnS} Here.233. Armature Inductance. Current Filter Time Constant [1]. Tn = 4ms. K2 = 10/1000 = 1/100. Kt = 440/10 = 44. Maximum Current Limit = 1000 A. Kn = TmKmK2/(2K1Ra  Tm = JRa/Km = 85*0. Ta. Also.0241*32*100) = 6.7*9*1)/ (2*0. J = 85 Kg-m2.181*0. Kn = (22. Tc = Ta and Kc = RaTa/ (2K2KtT2) Ta = La/Ra = 0.0241 ohm.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 39 .Chapter 7 MATLAB SIMULATION.

Simulink Model for Speed Control of Separately Excited DC motor using Chopper Converter (without filter after reference speed) Fig15.1.7.Simulink Model: Fig14.Simulink Model for Speed Control of Separately Excited DC motor using Chopper Converter (with filter after reference speed) 40 .

Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (without Filter): 41 .Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (without Filter): Graph2.Graph1.7.2.

Graph3.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (with Filter): 42 .Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and full Load (with Filter): Graph4.

7.4.3.Reference Speed Vs Time while using Filter after reference: 7.Graph5.Speed Response at reference speed half the rated speed and full Load: 43 . it is clear that the SIMULINK model without filter ( Graph 1&2) after reference speed gives larger overshoot in speed before settling to steady state and faster response than the model using filter (Graph 3&4) after reference speed.Analysis for Graph1to5: From above simulation results. Graph6. The error in later starts from zero because reference takes time to reach desired value (shown in graph5) due to introduction of filter.

Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and half of full Load : 44 .Graph7.Error in Speed Response at reference speed half the rated speed and full Load: Graph8.

Graph9.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and half of full Load: Graph10.Speed Response at reference speed of half the rated speed and half of full Load: 45 .

Error in Speed Response at reference speed of half the rated speed and half of full Load: Graph12.Graph11.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and step torque Load: 46 .

Graph13.Speed Response at step reference speed and constant torque Load: 47 .Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and step torque Load: Graph14.

Error in Speed Response at step reference speed and constant torque Load: Graph16.Graph15.Speed Response at stair case type reference speed and constant torque Load: 48 .

Graph17.Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and stair case type torque Load: 49 .Error in Speed Response at stair case type reference speed and constant torque Load: Graph18.

When load is constant and reference speed is varying then speed response is shifting accordingly with a time delay. 50 .5.Analysis for Graph 6 to 20: When the load is constant the speed response is smooth after attaining steady state. speed is adjusting as well as there is some ripple due to delay in achieving current reference speed.Graph19. But when the load is varying.Error in Speed Response at reference speed same as rated speed and stair case type torque Load: Graph20. speed response have ripples due to time delay in achieving desired speed.Speed Response at stair case type reference speed and stair case type torque Load: 7. When Reference speed and load is varying then in speed response.

Chapter 8 CONCLUSION 51 .

FUTURE SCOPE: MATLAB simulation for speed control of separately excited DC motor has been done which can be implemented in hardware to observe actual feasibility of the approach applied in this thesis. So the control for above the rated speed can be achieved by controlling field flux. A DC motor specification is taken and corresponding parameters are found out from derived design approach. The optimization of speed control loop is achieved through Modulus Hugging approach. This technique can be extended to other types of motors. 52 .8.2. Then designing of current and speed controller is done. The simulation results under varying reference speed and varying load are also studied and analyzed. Initially a simplified closed loop model for speed control of DC motor is considered and requirement of current controller is studied. After that a complete layout of DC drive system is obtained. Ultimately simulation is done for model with and without filter used after reference speed and a comparative study is done on response of both cases. The problem of overshoot can be removed using a Neural Network and Fuzzy approach.1. In this thesis. we have done speed control for rated and below rated speed. Then a generalized modeling of dc motor is done. 8. DISCUSSIONS: The speed of a dc motor has been successfully controlled by using Chopper as a converter and Proportional-Integral type Speed and Current controller based on closed loop system model. The model shows good results under all conditions employed during simulation.

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