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“A STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM AMONG THE EMPLOYEES

OF MADURA COATS PVT LTD,MADURAI”

BY

K.A.HARI KUMAR

(Reg No : 22509631013)

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted to the

FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

In partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the award of degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


IN

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

ANNA UNIVERSITY,

CHENNAI -600025,
JUNE, 2010
ACKNOWLEDGE MENT

I thank the Almighty for his continuous presence and strength experienced throughout the
project for making me to complete this project successfully.

I express my gratitude to our honorable chairman Rev.Fr.Dr.ARULRAJ, DMI group of


institute for providing such an opportunity and also their encouragement to do this program.

I express my gratitude to our beloved principal Dr.BALUCHAMI for his whole hearty
encouragement for completing this project.

I am indebted to Prof.R.D.Samuel Head, department of management studies, for his valuable


guidance’s and consistent encouragement during the entire course of this project work.

I express my gratitude and sincere thanks to my guide Mr.R.Mrugan for his guidance’s and
support for completion of this project.

I am also thankful to all staff members of the department for their constant cooperation and
encouragement for completion of this project.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to my agency guide Mr.V.K.Chandra Sekar, Assistant


Manager, IRD department, Madura Coats pvt ltd, at Madurai for giving me all the help to
undergo this study.

I also express my gratitude to all staff of Madura Coats pvt ltd, at Madurai for contributing
valuable & reliable information to my project report.
LOYOLA INSITITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Anna University)

Palanchur, Nazarathpet (P.O)

Chennai – 602103.

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This project report entitle A STUDY OF ABSENTEEISM AMONG THE


EMPLOYEES IN MADURA COATS,MADURAI is the Bonafide work done
by MR.K.A.HARIKUMAR (22509631013) who carried out the research under
my supervision. Cerified further that to the best to my knowledge the work
reported herein does not form part of any other previous study or discussion on
the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to
candidate or any other researchers.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT INTERNAL GUIDE


ABSTRACT

Absenteeism is a major problem which adversely affects the entire industrial


economy hence the extent to which absenteeism of the workers can be reduced is
of great importance to the success of an industry.

The problem of absenteeism is of vital importance in Indian organization because


in comparison to the west, the rate is considerably higher in India. Absenteeism
among workers is one the most establishing factors.

In an organization, it results in production losses; an increase labour cost and


reduces efficiency of operation. The losses and additional costs caused by
absenteeism expressed in terms of money will be alarming.

The increased productivity of an industry mainly depends upon the best


possible use of man power which is the most valuable and hampers the entire
production process. It is a problem which needs everybody’s attention.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter DESCRIPTION Page


No No
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction 1
I 1.2 Industry Profile 7
17
1.3 Company Profile

MAIN THEME

1.1 Review of Literature 29


1.2 Research Problem 33
II
1.3 Research Objectives 34
1.4 Research Methodology 35
1.5 Limitations of the study
38

RESULT

III 1.1 Data Analysis & Interpretation 39


1.2 Data Using Statistical Tools 56
DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION

1.1 Research Findings 67


IV 1.2 Suggestions 68
69
1.3 Conclusion

BIBILOGRAPHY 70

ANNEXURE 71
LIST OF TABLE & CHART
S.NO Contents Page no

1. Age of respondents 39
2. Sex of the respondents 40
3. Department of resources 41
4. Educational qualification of the respondents 42
5. Martial status of the respondents 43
6. Years of service of respondents 44
7. Respondents opinion about mode of conveyance 45
8. Salary of the respondents 46
9. Expenditure of the respondents 47
10. Illness of respondents and family members 48
11. Respondents Opinion about welfare facilities 49
12. Respondents opinion about cleaning 50
13. Satisfaction level of the facility for ventilation 51
14. Satisfaction level of lighting facilities 52
15. Respondents opinion about appropriate safety 53
measures
16. Respondents opinion about the rejected application 54
for leave
17. Membership in Union 55
CHAPTER 1

Introducti
on
1

A STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF


MADURA COATS PRIVATE LIMITED, MADURAI.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Industrialization is undoubtedly a falter in economic progress. Now that the


industrialization developed countries has been become a focus of national and international
action wide range of technical, economical, social, cultural and political, cultural and political
aspects of industrialization are calm increasing attention in the task of making labors
understand his duties and obligations which will lead to the considerable growth of labor
consciousness.

A growing number of official and private publication record industrial development


today the success registered and the obstacles encountered in to the implementation of
industrialization programme in spite of the face that industrial sociologist and psychologist
could reveal the reason for absenteeism as religious factors over indebtedness frequency of
sickness frequency of visits to home-town, on-provision of transport by the company bad
habits like drinking, gambling, further analysis of the possibilities of remedial measures based
on the cultural background have to be done .

The absenteeism is affecting the optimum utilization of human resources it is an


industrial malady affecting productivity, profits, investments and the absences workers
themselves. An increasing rate of absence adds considerable cost to the industry and social loss
occurring from Absenteeism cannot be determined accurately.
The effect of absenteeism in industrial productions cannot be measured easily. The
Higher absenteeism greater the production loss for the country. People who are working in
industry and other area related to the industrial production also suffer.

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Definition of the term absenteeism:

According to the Webster’s Dictionary, “Absenteeism is the practice or habit of


being an absentee and an absentee is on who habitually stays away.

According to workings and Dodod “Absenteeism refers to the workers absence from
his regular task no matter what the cause”.

According to J.Jucius “Absenteeism is the failure of the workers to report on the job
when they are schedule to work.

According to J.D.Heckett: “Absenteeism is temporary cessation of work, for no less


than one whole working day, on the initiative of the worker, when his presence is expected”.

According to Ankalikan: “Absenteeism is unauthorized absence of the workers from


his job”.

Labour Bureau, simla interpret “Absenteeism as the total of man shifts lost because
of absence as a percentage of the total number of man shifts scheduled to work it excludes
authorized vacation privilege leave, strike, lockout, lay-off or regularized over’s for the
computation of absenteeism rate, on the other hand annual survey of industries takes in to
account all the instances of workers absence with a view to ascertaining the costs of the time
lost as a percentage of the total labour cost .
A general definition of absenteeism includes time lost because of illness and accident
and time away from the job due of personal reasons whether authorized or unauthorized.
Authorized absence on leave with pay is also treated as absence.

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Rate of Absenteeism:

No of total man shifts lost


----------------------------------------- X 100
No of total man shifts schedule

Causes of Absenteeism:

The workers remain absent for various reasons which some may be genuine but others
are not so The Labour Investigation Committee (1946) pointed out the following causes of
absenteeism.

1. Sickness and low vitality


The labour investigation committee pointed out that sickness is responsible
for a considerable part of absenteeism at most places, epidemics like cholera, small box and
malaria most industrial areas the vitality of workers make them an easy prey to such
expediencies and bad housing and insanitary conditions of living appear to trouble.

2. Means of transport:
Again the sickness rate is also affected by the nature of the jobs and the
provisions of transport facilities of the workers for attending the factories and coming back
to homes after working hours.
3. Night shift:
It has also been pinpointed out that there is a great percentage of
absenteeism during the night shift than in the shifts owing to the greater discomforts on
work during night time.
4
4. Rural Exodus:
It has been noted that the workers go back to their villages at the time of
harvesting and showing the crops and when their visits to the village home are frequent
regular it increases the rate of absenteeism in the factories.

5. Accident:
Industrial accident depends upon the nature of work to be performed by the
worker and his ability and soon that the undertakes for doing
that work in case of hazardous nature of the job accidents occur more frequency which
leads to higher rate of absenteeism.

6. Social and Religious function:


It has been noticed that worker become absent from their duty on
occasions of social and religious since worker like to visit their families on such occasions
hence they go back to their villages for show period.

7. Drinking and amusement :


Drinking and amusement in the late hours of night of night makes it difficult
for the worker to reach in time for their duties. They like to become absent rather than
coming late. Since they know that badly worker will be substituted.

8. After Pay Day :


It has been noted by the industrial committee that the level of absenteeism is
comparatively high after the payday. When the worker either feels like having a good time
or some case return to their villages to makes purchase for the family and meet them.

5
9. Nature Of Work :
Absenteeism prevails because the worker is not accustomed to the factory life
and factory discipline. In other words absenteeism prevails because of the nature of work in
factories is different form that for which is accustomed.

10.Other Factors/Causes :

• Inadequacy in welfare facility


• Insecurity of employment with no stake in life
• Fatigue and innate desire for rest and enjoyment
• The prospect of high wages during harvesting season in rural a
areas have all been responsible for Absenteeism and,
• Unsatisfactory housing condition
• Undesirable behavior of employer

Reasons for choosing this study:

The major reason for choosing this topic is because the company is facing high level
of Absenteeism in the company. The company likes to find out reason for employee
Absenteeism and to overcome that the researcher chose this study about the employee
Absenteeism.
IMPORTANC
E OF THE STUDY:

Absenteeism is one of the major labor problems. Which will have impact in future.
Many authors have taken this problem as an important problem which affects the industrial
growth. When the skilled employees go away from the for a long time due to personal factors,
work environment, home conditions and economic factor, like nature of work.
6
Shift arrangements, management attitudes, personnel policies, supervisory quality, leave
facilities, fringe benefits etc and social factors, like religion, community obligations, customer,
festivals, marriages, deaths and funerals in the above circumstances the productivity and
efficiency of the workers are wasted. When the human resources are unnecessarily wasted the
entire growth of the organization will be wasted. This is very important to overcome all those
difficulties by taking effective measures to avoid the problem. But all of a sudden this problem
of absenteeism cannot be solved. However by taking effective remedies we can curtail the
problem to some extent.
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1.2 INDUSTRIAL PROFILE

Textile Industry in India is the second largest employment generator after agriculture. It
holds significant status in India as it provides one of the most fundamental necessities of the
people. Textile industry was one of the earliest industries to come into existence in India and it
accounts for more than 30% of the total exports. In fact Indian textile industry is the second
largest in the world, second only to China

Textile Industry is unique in the terms that it is an independent industry, from the basic
requirement of raw materials to the final products, with huge value-addition at every stage of
processing. Textile industry in India has vast potential for creation of employment
opportunities in the agricultural, industrial, organized and decentralized sectors & rural and
urban areas, particularly for women and the disadvantaged. Indian textile industry is
constituted of the following segments: Readymade Garments, Cotton Textiles including
Handlooms, Man-made Textiles, Silk Textiles, Woollen Textiles, Handicrafts, Coir, and Jute.

Till the year 1985, development of textile sector in India took place in terms of
general policies. In 1985, for the first time the importance of textile sector was recognized and
a separate policy statement was announced with regard to development of textile sector. In the
year 2000, National Textile Policy was announced. Its main objective was: to provide cloth of
acceptable quality at reasonable prices for the vast majority of the population of the country, to
increasingly contribute to the provision of sustainable employment and the economic growth of
the nation; and to compete with confidence for an increasing share of the global market. The
policy also aimed at achieving the target of textile and apparel exports of US $ 50 billion by
2010 of which the share of garments will be US $ 25 billion.

Cottage stage

Before the manufacturing processes were mechanized, textiles were produced in the
home, and excess sold for extra money. Most cloth was made from either wool, cotton, or flax,
depending on the era and location. For example, during the late mediaeval period, cotton
became known as an imported fibre in northern Europe, without any knowledge of what it
came from other than that it was a plant; noting its similarities to wool, people in the region
could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville,
writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a
wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the ends of its branches. These branches were so
pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie" This aspect is
retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle,
which translates as "tree wool". By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated
throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas. In Roman times, wool, linen and
leather clothed the European population: the cotton of India was a curiosity that only
naturalists had heard of, and silk, imported along the Silk Road from China, was an
extravagant luxury. The use of flax fibre in the manufacturing of cloth in northern Europe dates
back to Neolithic times.
Cloth was produced in the home, and the excess woven cloth was sold to merchants
called clothiers who visited the village with their trains of pack-horses . Some of the cloth was
made into clothes for people living in the same area and a large amount of cloth was exported.

The process of making cloth depends slightly on the fiber being used, but there are
three main steps: preparation of fibers for spinning, spinning, and weaving or knitting. The
preparation of the fibers differs the most depending on the fiber used. Flax requires retting and
dressing, while wool requires carding and washing. The spinning and weaving processes are
very similar between fibers though.Spinning evolved from twisting the fibers by hand, to use
of a drop spindle, to a spinning wheel. Spindles or parts of them have been found in very, very
old archaeological sites; they may represent one of the earliest pieces of technology available

to humankind. Was invented in India between 500 and 1000 A.D. It reached Europe via the
Middle East in the European Middle Ages.

Weaving, done on a loom has been around for as long as spinning. There are some
indications that weaving was already known in the Palaeolithic. An indistinct textile
impression has been found at Pavlov, Moravia. Neolithic textiles are well known from finds in
pile dwellings in Switzerland. One extant fragment from the Neolithic was found in Fayum at a
site which dates to about 5000 BCE.

There are many different types of looms, from a simple inkle loom that dates back to the
Vikings, to the standard floor loom.

History during the industrial revolution

Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution

The key British industry at the beginning of the 18th century was the production of
textiles made with wool from the large sheep-farming areas in the Midlands and across the
country (created as a result of land-clearance and inclosure). Handlooms and spinning wheel
were the tools of the trade of the weavers in their cottages, and this was a labour-intensive
activity providing employment throughout Britain, with major centres being the West Country;
Norwich and environs; and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The export trade in woolen goods
accounted for more than a quarter of British exports during most of the 18th century, doubling
between 1701 and 1770. Exports of the cotton industry centred in Lancashire had grown
tenfold during this time, but still accounted for only a tenth of the value of the woollen trade.

The textile industry grew out of the industrial revolution in the 18th Century as mass
production of clothing became a mainstream industry. Starting with the flying shuttle in 1733
inventions were made to speed up the manufacturing process.

10
In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-
bobbin system. Lewis Paul invented a carding machine in 1748, and by 1764 the spinning
jenny had also been invented. In 1771,

Richard Arkwright used waterwheels to power looms for the production of cotton cloth, his
invention becoming known as the water frame. In 1784, Edmund Cartwright invented the
power loom. With the spinning and weaving process now mechanized, cotton mills cropped up
all over Great Britain.

Textile mills originally got their power from water wheels, and thus had to be situated
along a river. With the invention of the steam engine, in the 1760s to 1800's, mills no longer
needed to be along rivers.

Post industrial revolution

Many of the cotton mills, like the one in Lowell MA, in the US originally started with
the intention of hiring local farm girls for a few years. The mill job was designed to give them
a bit more money before they went back to the farm life. With the inflow of cheap labor from
Ireland during the potato famine, the setup changed, as the girls became easily replaceable.
Cotton mills were full of the loud clanking of the looms, as well as lint and cotton fiber. When
the mills were first built a worker would work anywhere from one to four looms. As the design
for the loom improved so that it stopped itself whenever a thread broke, and automatically
refilled the shuttle, the number of machines a worker could work increased to up to 50.

Originally, power looms were shuttle-operated but in the early part of the 20th century
the faster and more efficient shuttle less loom came into use. Today, advances in technology
have produced a variety of looms designed to maximize production for specific types of
material. The most common of these are air-jet looms and water-jet looms. Industrial looms
can weave at speeds of six rows per second and faster.

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By the latter 20th Century, the industry in the developed world had developed a bad
reputation, often involving immigrants in illegal "sweat shops" full of people working on
textile manufacturing and sewing machines being paid less than minimum wages. This trend
has resulted due to attempts to protect existing industries which are being challenged by
developing countries in South East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and more recently, Central
America. Whilst globalization has seen the manufacturing outsourced to overseas labor
markets, there has been a trend for the areas historically associated with the trade to shift focus
to the more white collar associated industries of fashion design, fashion modeling and retail.

Areas historically involved heavily in the "rag trade" include London and Milan in
Europe, So How district in New York City and the Flinders Lane and Richmond districts in
Melbourne and Surry Hills in Sydney.

Outlook for Indian textile Industry

The outlook for textile industry in India is very optimistic. It is expected that Indian
textile industry would continue to grow at an impressive rate. Textile industry is being
modernized by an exclusive scheme, which has set aside $5bn for investment in improvisation
of machinery. India can also grab opportunities in the export market. The textile industry is
anticipated to generate 12mn new jobs in various sectors.

India Spinning Industry

India Spinning Industry has gone from strength to strength since a very long time now
as it was the hub of cotton manufacturing. Cotton is not only consumed to the highest extent in
India but it has also become one of the most profitable textiles in the export industry.

Spinning in India can be classified into 2 categories: medium and long staple. But there was a
shortfall in the 'extra-long' category that continued for many years. There was a massive
downfall in the cotton spinning in India during 2004-2005. The production rate of cotton was
about 4 lakh bales that was less by 5 lakh bales from the required rate which was 9 lakh bales.
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Mr. P. D. Patodia, the Chairman of the Standing Committee on Cotton, CITI-CDRA said that
the manufacturing of cotton will rise to 11-12 lakh bales in 2010.

The present downfall in the cotton production has witnessed a 50% increase in the price of
Indian varieties of ELS, which is detrimental for the spinning industry in India. Spinning mills
require domestic accessibility of ELS cotton in increased quantity and of better fiber qualities.

To survive this downfall in the cotton trade which is a highly profitable textile in the India
Spinning Industry, CITI-CDRA is conducting a conference with various research organizations
such as CICR (Nagpur), JNKVV (Khandwa), UAS (Dharwad), and Regional Textile Mills'
Association in R&D activities. It conducted a discussion pertaining to the development of new
varieties of seeds and adopting the advanced procedure of cultivation which will add to the
profit in the cotton textile sector of the spinning industry. The most important and efficient step
towards the resurgence of cotton manufacturing would be to develop the ELS varieties with
lesser duration crops and yield to cost-effectiveness and consistency in cultivation. This will
not only motivate the farmers but will also make them stick to the desired sector of cotton crop.
The yarn spinning industry covers almost 25 percent of the total industrial production of one of
the world's 10 largest economies. Trends are reviewed every year in accordance with the need
and fashion. An elaborate and detailed assessment is made on various sectors of the yarn
spinning such as, production, consumption, and materials. The legislative and the political
consequences are also reviewed at the same time. In addition to it, other areas that are being
reviewed in the yarn spinning sector are exports, imports, prices, advertising, and sales
promotion patterns.

The Spinning Industry in India is on set to hit the global market with other fabrics as well like
the cotton textiles with its enthusiasm and consistency in work. It has already reached a
phenomenal status in India by beating the obstacles that caused a downfall since past few years
and is now on its way to cover a wider area in the spinning sector.

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SWOT Analysis of Indian Textile Industry:

Strengths:

Indian Textile Industry is an Independent & Self-Reliant industry.


Abundant Raw Material availability that helps industry to control costs and reduces the lead-
time across the operation.
Availability of Low Cost and Skilled Manpower provides competitive advantage to industry.
Availability of large varieties of cotton fiber and has a fast growing synthetic fiber industry.
India has great advantage in Spinning Sector and has a presence in all process of operation and
value chain.

Weaknesses:

Indian Textile Industry is highly Fragmented Industry.


Industry is highly dependent on Cotton.
Lower Productivity in various segments.
There is Declining in Mill Segment.
Lack of Technological Development that affect the productivity and other activities in whole
value chain.

Opportunities:

Growth rate of Domestic Textile Industry is 6-8% per annum.


Large, Potential Domestic and International Market.
Product development and Diversification to cater global needs.
Elimination of Quota Restriction leads to greater Market Development.
Market is gradually shifting towards Branded Readymade Garment.

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Threats:

Competition from other developing countries, especially China.


Continuous Quality Improvement is need of the hour as there are different demand patterns all
over the world.
Elimination of Quota system will lead to fluctuations in Export Demand.
Threat for Traditional Market for Power loom and Handloom Products and forcing them for
product diversification.
Geographical Disadvantages.

Industry

India textile industry is one of the leading in the world. Currently it is estimated to be
around US$ 52 billion and is also projected to be around US$ 115 billion by the year 2012. The
current domestic market of textile in India is expected to be increased to US$ 60 billion by
2012 from the current US$ 34.6 billion. The textile export of the country was around US$
19.14 billion in 2006-07, which saw a stiff rise to reach US$ 22.13 in 2007-08. The share of
exports is also expected to increase from 4% to 7% within 2012. Following are area,
production and productivity of cotton in India during the last six decades:

15

Area in lakh Production in lakh bales Yield kgs per


Year
hectares of 170 kgs hectare
1950-51 56.48 30.62 92
1960-61 76.78 56.41 124
1970-71 76.05 47.63 106
1980-81 78.24 78.60 170
1990-91 74.39 117.00 267
2000-01 85.76 140.00 278
2001-02 87.30 158.00 308
2002-03 76.67 136.00 302
2003-04 76.30 179.00 399
2004-05 87.86 243.00 470
2005-06 86.77 244.00 478
2006-07 91.44 280.00 521
2007-08 94.39 315.00 567
2008-09 93.73 290.00 526

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Though during the year 2008-09, the industry had to face adverse agro-climatic conditions, it
succeeded in producing 290 lakh bales of cotton comparing to 315 lakh bales last year, yet
managed to retain its position as world's second highest cotton producer.

Current Facts on India Textile Industry

• India retained its position as world’s second highest cotton producer.


• Acreage under cotton reduced about 1% during 2008-09.
• The productivity of cotton which was growing up over the years has decreased in 2008-
09.
• Substantial increase of Minimum Support Prices (MSPs).
• Cotton exports couldn't pick up owing to disparity in domestic and international cotton
prices.
• Imports of cotton were limited to shortage in supply of Extra Long staple cottons.
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1.3 COMPANY PROFILE:

YEAR EVENTS 1889 - Madura Mills Co. Ltd., was incorporated at Madurai, Ambasamudram
& Tuticorin, in TamilNadu & the tyre cord factory as located at Serampore in West Bengal, &
was engaged in the production of cotton & blended yarns, & industrial fabrics such as tyre
cord, canvas & hard duck.

1942 - J and P Coats [Indias] Pvt. Ltd., was incorporated as a private Comp. in 1942 under the
name of `Jamna Thread Mills Ltd.' to manufacture sewing threads.

1945 - A and F Harvey Ltd., which was founded in 1883, was incorporated as a private limited
Comp. in 1945 to manage textile & other companies in South India. It acted as the
Management Agents of Madura Mills Co., Ltd., until December 1969.

- With the statutory termination of managing agencies, the Company became primarily an
investment company. It also had some shipping & insurance agencies & small baling press at
Tuticorin.

1953 - A factory complex was inaugurated at Koratti in Kerala for full scale manufacture of
quality threads with a view of import substitution. Over the years, it built up a considerable
export business in sewing threads to complement its domestic trade.
1974 - The Comp. was incorporated on 31st July, to take over the entire undertakings of
Madura Mills Co., limited A and F Harvey Ltd., & J and P Coats [Indias] Pvt. Ltd., as from 1st
July, in terms of the Scheme of Amalgamation approved by High Courts of Mumbai &
Chennai on 6th December.

1977 - Towards the end, 23,06,286 No. of equity shares of Rs. 10 each were offered for sale at
Rs. 8 per share by non-residents to the existing Indian shareholders & employees of Comp. to
reduce the foreign shareholding to 40%.

18

- The Comp. allotted 74,08,881 No. of equity shares of Rs. 10 each for cash at a premium of
Rs. 55 per share to J and P Coats, Ltd., Glassgow, U.K. to increase their equity holding in the
Comp. from 39.90% to 51%.

- Simultaneously, 40,92,505 No. of equity shares of Rs. 10 each for cash at a premium of Rs.
20 per share to one or more member companies of Coats Viyella Group.

1981 - In addition, the 7% debenture stockholders of Madura Mills Co., Ltd., were allotted
number of debenture stocks in the new company on the same terms & conditions.

1982 - The Pandyan Press Ltd., is a subsidiary of Company. Vaigani Investments, Ltd., & Kor
Investments Ltd., became subsidiaries of Company.

- 29, 07,886 Bonus Equity shares issued in prop. 1:4 & alloted on 8th March 1983.

1985 - Land, buildings & residential flats of Comp. were revalued as on 30th June & the net
surplus arising out of this revaluation was transferred to Revaluation Reserve.

- 72, 69,715 Bonus Equity shares in prop. 1:2.

1988 - During the period, the Comp. commenced marketing of ready made garments &
`Elysee' both owned by British Van Heusen Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Coats Viylla p.l.c. U.K.
- The Comp. commenced work on installation of an additional capacity of 650 TPA of non-
wovens covered by existing licence.

- The Company non-woven plant at Madurai with a capacity of 1000 TPA was implemented on
23rd February, with technical collaboration from Bonded Fibre Fabric, U.K.

- The Comp. issued 5,00,000 - 14% non-convertible debentures of Rs. 100 each on private
placement basis to financial institutions. These debentures are redeemable at a premium of Rs.
5 per debenture during 1994/1998.

19

1989 - During the year, the Comp. launched `Van Heusen' range of shirts & trousers in the
domestic market.

1990 - In the domestic market, high quality poly/cotton oxford shirting & cotton polyester
cross dyed jeans material were introduced.

1991 - In industrial textiles, new products such as acrylic based awning fabric & synthetic
fabric for cement industry were introduced.

- The Pandyan Press, limited closed down its operations with effect from 26th November. The
Company name was changed to Madura Agro Industries Ltd.

- The Tuticorin Co., Ltd., The Papairnasam Mills Co., Ltd., Coral Mills Co., Ltd., & The
Tinnevelly Mills Co., Ltd., all in Members' Voluntary Liquidation, are also subsidiaries of the
Company.

- The Comp. issued 17.5% non-convertible debentures of Rs. 100 each on private placement
basis of financial institutions. These debentures are redeemable at a premium of Rs. 5 per
debenture during 1998/2000.

- The Comp. issued 2,00,000-17% non-convertible secured debentures of Rs. 100 each
redeemable at par on 30th September 1994 on private placement basis.
- The fixed assets of Comp. were revalued as on 31st March, & the net surplus arising out of it
was credited to the revaluation reserve. 1, 09,04,573 Bonus Equity shares issued in prop. 1:2.

1992 - New products such as blazers & jackets were added to garment business.

- Profit margins came under pressure due to unabsorbed fixed costs by virtue of long strikes &
disturbed conditions in the country affecting adversely the supplies & sales.

- Additional capacities were created for thread; export of canvas & for domestic synthetic duck
business. New machines were installed for overall upgradation in the quality of yarn & fabrics.

20

- Weaving production commenced & 4 lakh metres of fabrics was exported. Spinning capacity
became fully operational by September 1993.

1993 - Pursuant to the Scheme, the shareholders of amalgamating companies were allotted
shares of new Comp. was follows:

- Madura Mills Co., limited For every 5 equity shares of Rs. 15 each held, 8 No. of equity
shares of Rs. 10 each.

- A and F Harvey limited for every equity shares of Rs. 10 each held, four equity shares of Rs.
10 each, for every preference shares of Rs. 100 held, one preference share of Rs. 100 each.

- J and P Coats [Indias] Pvt. limited for every 2 equity shares of Rs. 10 each, 41 No. of equity
shares of Rs. 10 each. - With effect from 14th June, the name of Comp. was changed from
Madura Coats limited to `Coats Viyella India Ltd.'.

1994 - The Company newest division `Introd' commenced its activities of exports.

1996 - The fabrics division launched 'Easycare' variety of cotton shirting & bottomwear. Also,
flame retardant 'Proban' finish was imparted to widewidth fabrics, a new project development.

- 2,594 No. of equity shares issued to NRI on RBI approval.


1997 - Steady recovery in the Coats threat business was reported. The Comp. launched Peter
England in the mid priced mens' shirt market.

- 240,73,560 Rights shares issued. [Prem. Rs. 55; Prop. 1:2s] 7,394 shares kept in abeyance.

1998 - Pursuant to the demerger of Coats Viyella Plc. the name of the Comp. was changed
back to `Madura Coats Ltd.'

2000 - The Management has declared a lock-out of Tuticorin Mill effective from first shift of
October 9.

21

2002

-Madura Coats appoints Additional Director Mr. Anil Dias as an Additional Director of Comp.
with immediate effect.

-Board approves for principle of amalgamation of 3 wholly owned subsidiaries namely Kor
investments Ltd, Vaigai Investments Ltd and Madura Agro Industries Ltd.

-Board approves for buy-back of 14714000 equity shares at a price not exceeding Rs.27 per
equity share.

-Gets clearance from stock exchange for delisting of equity shares from ASE, BGSE, CSE &
DSE.

-J and P coats along with Coats Plc makes open offer to acquire 36.8% stake in Madura Coats.

-Introduces 3 new collection of garments Purista, Dazzlers & Satin Trousers.

-Introduces 'Clean Jeans' denims under the Allen Solly Brand.

-J and P coats hikes its stake in the Indian Subsidiary Madura Garments from 63.2% to 93%
through an open offer estimated estimated at Rs.71cr.
2003

-Sets up new brand of jeans, SF anticipating 12cr turnover.

2004

-Madura forays into men innerwear market

22

Quality policy:

Global thread supply Indian (GTSI’S) policy is to offer its customer the required value
in terms of agreed products specification and delivery schedules.

Global thread supply India (GTSI’S) will understand its customer’s needs and
continually improve its products and services.

Mission and Vision

“Coats India’s mission is to provide its entire customer with products and service that offer the
best overall values in terms of price, performance and delivery,”
23

Madura Coats – Division

Madura Coats Private limited

Global thread supply India Coats India

New Mill
Water Mill
Steam Mill

Tuticorin
Panoli

Faridabad

Serampore
24

Organizational Structure
Managing Director

President

General Manager

Purchase
Logistics Manager
Manager
Technical
4unit mill Manager
Manager
Engineering
HR
Finance Manager
Manager
Spinning Manager
IT
Manager

Assistant Spinning Manager

Executives

25

Human resources department


It is otherwise called as industrial relation department. Human resources
management is that part of management, concerned with the people at work and with their
relationship within the organization. It seeks to bring together men and women who make
up an enterprise, enabling each to make up an enterprise, enabling each to make his own
best contribution to its success both as an individual and as a member of a working group.
The full control of assistant and labors.

Function

 Assistant’s salary, ESE and all the things are maintained.


 VRS scheme maintenance.
 Gate control.
 Legal dealings.
 Contract workers and scheme girls control.
 Canteen control.
 Department misbehave enquiry.

Employee details

Here, company employees and fixed term apprentices are direct category those who are
working direct in the company. Contract employees are indirect category those who are
helping for the manufacturing process in the company. They have three shifts in the company.
The timing 7am to 3pm, 3pm to 11pm, and 11pm to 7am. They give training for the employee
in both technical and general. They declared 9 days as the holidays for the employees. There
are 300 company employees, 350 female fixed term apprentices and 350 contract employees.
Totally they have 1000 employees.

26
Product profile

 Cotton
 Polyester

End user

 Sewing thread
 Embroidery
 Kite fly
 Tea bag thread

Structure of HR department

HR Manager

Executive Executive

Assistant Assistant
27
Awards for IRD

In 1987, they got reward from all India organization of employees – New Delhi, for
maintaining the health and wealth policy for the employees.

They got reward for outstanding industrial safety from National Safety award. They provide
the facilities like canteen, safety measures, and entertainment programmers.

Motivation of IRD

“Progress is impossible without change and those who cannot change their minds cannot
change anything”. To maintain the harmonious relation between the management and the
workers. They take care of recruitment, man-power planning, promotion, transfers, placement
and career planning for the executive employees.

They take care of trade union activities collective participation in collective bargaining,
negotiation, grievance handling and discipline activities. Ensuring the welfare facilities
(statutory and non-statutory)

They provide training for women in the name of scheme for newly appointed apprentices.
They also provide stay fund of Rs 30 per day. They provide gift worth Rs 500 for employee’s
references and motivate current employees.

Company policy

Madura coats limited introduced the management trainee scheme in the 60’s. in the 70’s
the company came to be known as embracing modern management concepts such as
management by objectives and performance appraisal system.
28
Coats value statement:

“We knew what we are doing

We like what we keep our promises”.

“We use our capacity to innovate and improve.

We take considered risk.

We compete as a team’.

Safety policy

The company is committed to provide a safe working environment and will make
available the necessary resources for the purpose. It is the responsibility of every manager and
executive to ensure that operations are carried our safety preventing injury to persons and
damage to property

Every employee of the company will be educated, trained, encouraged and motivated to
implement this policy on safety, its regards the promotion of health and safety as a common
objective for management and employees at all levels and is committed to health and safety.

Environment policy
Ensures that its operation comply with all relevant legislation and defined group standards.
Manages all environment issues either at, or as close to their source as practicable. To design
and develop products which have the minimum environment impact during their
manufacturing, use and subsequent disposal. Minimize energy used and waste wherever
practicable. Rescue or recycle materials wherever practicable.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF
LITERATURE

29
2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

It means abstract of studies reported in various magazines, books, journal etc, relating to the
current study. Review of literature is important for the researcher to carry out his research
project successfully. In this chapter the investigator has collected the studies related to
absenteeism and various authors’ opinion and their findings.

No researcher will able to do the research in an effective manner without the help of
review of literature. The researcher can mention the previous study results and interpret with
previous results.

Absenteeism is a social phenomenon an industrial mal adjustment and a labour in India. It


is too complex concept to understand absenteeism is supposed to decrease with industrial
development improvement of medical care, better working conditions and increase income. If
this is true the frequency gone down in Indian industries during the past 20 years.

Work related factories the recitation of within the control of the management may cause
absenteeism if they are known they can be improved for the purpose a study should be
conducted with the objectives of understanding the difference in attitude of the high
absenteeism and low absenteeism of employees. This helps in the promotion for proper work
environment.

STORKRORD (1994) and BHATIA and VALECHA (1978) have got a deep insight into
the relationship between in debtless and absenteeism. The former established that the high
absences employees had greatest commitment. Such as marriage, purchase of land, house etc,
but chronic absentee did it to finance their day today family expenses.

30
A survey made by the American management association of 120 chronic absentees
indicated the following causes of absenteeism.

 Personal maladjustment
 Lack of interest and not satisfaction in the job
 Irresponsibility’s like transportation, housing, home problems
 Sickness

In a study association of four major textile mill in Delhi covering a period of 4years.

The perceptions and attitudes that forced workers to become chronic absentees were that
the company is neither fair nor first supervisors were production centered nor work group was
not helped. They considered grievance handling suggestion schemes and joint committees as
more for maladies and their knowledge about the company it structure and products was very
poor.

In another study of thirty industrial units located in and around Bombay made by the
“employees federation of India’ in the august 1965 the following facts has come to light causes
making for absenteeism. Thus for example absenteeism due to the reason of sickness was
highest in the quarter of July to September and the lowest in the quarter of April to June.

In the detailed studies on the absenteeism at difference units in the country made by the
rational productivity council of varying periods between first January 1968 and 31 st December
1970. The following is one of the conclusion arrived at the unit level take house pay housing
and nearness to factory mode of transport level of education labour turnover and accidents.

There is also a relationship between absenteeism and managerial polices and practices
with regard to working conditions and welfare measures.

31
JACKSONS (1944) identified a curvilinear relationship between age and absenteeism in the
younger and old workers in currying higher absenteeism than middle age groups.

LIDDEL (1954) observed that willing absenteeism was more in younger than older
workers.

MURTHY (1957) states that the highest rate among the respondents from 18-21 years of
age group although the difference more than the married or unmarried respondents. The
relationship between distance of residence from factory and absenteeism increased beyond two
times.

STIRA’S publication refers to the following causes

 Unsuitable working conditions


 Unfavorable mental attitude arising out of boredom, discontent with wages
resentment against supervisors.
 Lack of provision for drinking water
 Increased distance between management and workers

Financial positions
According to state KHAN A.A (19590 there are no uniform pattern between absenteeism
and indebtedness.

Absenteeism decreased as wage increased SRINIVASAN .K (1963) the rate of


absenteeism is increased due to rate of wage.

32
Health Aspects

SANKAR .A.K (1954) states that ‘Illness leads to absenteeism’

KHAN.A. (1959) states that main causes of absenteeism were sickness, Introduction of
the employee state insurance scheme.

Social aspects

MURTHY .S.A (19510 states the management encouraged working in shifts by means of
overtime and production bonus etc. and consequently the workers absented from subsequence
shifts due to fatigue other cause leading to absenteeism were religious function and family
quarrels.

A study in coal mine showed that the absenteeism was because of the dissatisfaction in
work, working conditions and the behavior of supervisors towards workers. (V.R.JOSHI 1960)
33
2.2 Research Problem:

Organization is paying handsome wages, bonus, gratuity, improved working condition,


adequate, welfare facilities, modern machine etc. Even though all those facilities are given to
the workers, there is a constantly increased rate of absenteeism. The absenteeism problem can’t
be fully eradicated. But one can minimize this problem.
34

2.3 OBJECIVES:

OBJECTIVES TO STUDY OF ABSENTEEISM:

Primary Objectives:

To study on Absenteeism among the employees of Madura


Coats Private Ltd, Madurai.

Secondary Objectives:

 To find out the problem of absenteeism.


 To find out the opinion of the employees about the effect of absenteeism
on work life.
 To suggest suitable remedies to solve the problem related to absenteeism.
 To analyze the reason for the absenteeism.

35
2.4 RESEARCH MEHODOLOGY

Introduction:

Research is a systematic and logical enquiry having as its aim the discovery of new facts
or the verification of existing ones. Social work research may therefore be defined as a
systematic of existing with a view to increasing, generalizing or verifying social work
knowledge. Ti embraces the entire gamete of social work method field and philosophy.

The word method simply means the mode of way of accomplishing a work. The modern
world is very sound of scientific inventions and wants to have scientific outlook of everything.
Any scientific approach should have a method or an outline to be followed to attain the
particular goal.

Research design:

The research design is the plan structure and strategy of the investigation to obtain answer
to the research question. The researcher has taken descriptive design that with explain various
factors which contribute to reduce absenteeism such as working conditions, family problem,
transport facility relation with co worker and supervisors, organizational factor financial
position & social position etc…

Pilot study:

It is a method used to get first hand information about the problem. Pilot study has helped
the researcher to prepare a good schedule. It has given good knowledge about problem which
is an important prerequisite in any research.

36
During pilot study the researcher visited Madura coats global ltd, Madurai several
times and observed the work in the corporation. Further the researcher contacted the employees
and made her self acquainted with their opinion the working condition in that mill.

SAMPLI
NG TECHNIQUES:

In this research study, simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents
needed for study. The researcher selected 50 respondents randomly in various department like
carding, winding, spinning, blow rook & packing etc.. Out of total of 986 workers in the
Madura coats Global ltd at Madurai.

Tools for data collection:

The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and
research design/plan chalked out. The two types of data are

2. Primary data.
3. Secondary data.
1. Primary data

Primary data are those which are collected for the first time. In this study the method of
data collection followed is through,

• Questionnaires

37
2. Secondary data

Secondary data are those data, which have been already collected and analyzed by some
other.

It provided details about the organization, which supports the research. The published
sources include various text books and company literatures. The Researcher has used
Questionnaires for collecting data.

Population size : 986

Sample size : 50
38

2.5 Limitation of this study:

2. The researcher did not include the staff in this study


3. A time constraint is another limitation of the study
4. So the findings cannot generalized to other industry
CHAPTER III
DATA ANALYSIS &
INTERPRETATI
ONS

39
3.1 FACTORS RELEVENT TO ABSENTEEISM

TABLE - 1

AGE OF RESPONDENTS

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 3
4 8.0 8.0 8.0
4
46 92.0 92.0 100.0
Total
50 100.0 100.0

Chart - 1
60

40

20

0
18-20 21-25 26-30 Above 30

Respondents 0 0 4 46

Inference:

Table 1, clearly shows that out of 50 respondents 8% of respondents are between age of 25-30
years, 92% in the age group of 30 above years.

40
Table – 2

GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1
50 100.0 100.0 100.0

CHART – 2
50

40

30
RESPONDENTS
20

10

0
MALE FEMALE

Inference:

Table no-2 and chart 2 show that 100% of the respondents are male and there is
no female respondent.

41
Table – 3

Department of Resources

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 28 56.0 56.0 56.0
2 6 12.0 12.0 68.0
3 3 6.0 6.0 74.0
4 13 26.0 26.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Chart – 3

60

50

40

30 Respondents

20

10

0
Spining Winding Packing Others

Inference:

From the above chart and table, clearly states that 56% of the respondents are
in spinning department 12% of the respondents are from winding department 6% of the
respondents from packing department and remaining 26% from other department.

42
Table – 4

Educational Qualification Of The Respondents

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 22 44.0 44.0 44.0
2 18 36.0 36.0 80.0
3 6 12.0 12.0 92.0
4 4 8.0 8.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Chart – 4
30
25
20
15 Respondents

10
5
0
Belov10th Upto 12th UG Others

Inference:

From the above table and chart, we understand that out of 50 respondents, 44% of them
have passed up to 10th ,36% of them have passed up to 12th , and remaining 12% have finished
ug level, and remaining 8% have passed other field like IT etc…

43

Table - 5

Marital Status Of The Respondents

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 47 94.0 94.0 94.0
2 3 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Chart – 5
50

40
30
Respondents
20

10
0
Married Unmarried Others

Inference:

This table, shows that out of the 50 respondents, 94% are married and only 6% are
unmarried.

44

Table - 6

Years Of Service Of The Respondents

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 3
3 6.0 6.0 6.0
4
47 94.0 94.0 100.0
Total
50 100.0 100.0
Chart – 6

50
40

30
20

10
0
ab ove 8
0-2 years 2-4 years 4-6 years
years

Respondents 0 0 3 47

Inference :

From the above chart and table, we can infer that out of 50 respondents, 6% are having
less than 6 years of experience and remaining 94% of the respondents are above 8 years
experience

45

Table - 7

Respondents Opinion About Mode Of Conveyance

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 4 8.0 8.0 8.0
2 20 40.0 40.0 48.0
3 20 40.0 40.0 88.0
4 6 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0
Chart – 7

40
35
30
25
20
Respondents
15
10
5
0
By Walk By-Cycle Two wheeler Bus

Inference:

From the above table and chart, we understand that 8% of the respondents are coming to
the organization by walk, 40% of the respondents are coming to the organization by cycle,40%
of the respondents are coming to the organization by two wheeler, and 12% of the respondents
are coming to the organization by bus.

46
CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM

(WORKING CONDITION)

Table - 8

Salary Of The Respondents

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 2 3 6.0 6.0 6.0
3 15 30.0 30.0 36.0
4 32 64.0 64.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Chart - 8
35
30
25
20
Respondents
15
10
5
0
1000-2000 3000-4000 4000-5000 above 5000

Inference:

It is evident from above table and chart, depicts the monthly income of the
respondents family of 50 respondents interviewed,6% of the respondents families belong to the
income group between Rs 3000-4000,30% of the respondents families belonged to the income
group of Rs 4000-5000,64% of the respondents families belonged to the income group of
above Rs 5000.

47

Table – 9

EXPENDITURE OF THE RESPONDENTS

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 1 2.0 2.0 2.0

3 6.0 6.0 8.0


3
46 92.0 92.0 100.0
4
50 100.0 100.0
Total
Chart – 9

50

40

30
Respondents
20

10

0
2000-3000 3000-4000 4000-5000 Above 5000

Inference

It is seen from table no – 10, shows the average expenditure of the respondents family of
75 respondents interviewed, 2% of the respondents family average expenditure is between
2000-3000, 6% of their family average expenditure between 3000-4000,92% of their family
average expenditure above Rs 5000.

48
Table – 10

Illness Of Respondents And Family Members

Valid Cumulative
Frequency Percent Percent Percent
Valid 1
50 100.0 100.0 100.0

Chart – 10
50

40

30
Respndents
20

10

0
yes No

Inference:

It is evident from table – 10 depicts the health of the respondents and his family
members out of 50 person interview 100% of them have been absent ill to the respondents and
their family.

49
Table – 11

Respondents Opinion About The Welfare Facilities

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 2 24 48.0 48.0 48.0
16 32.0 32.0 80.0
3
9 18.0 18.0 98.0
4
1 2.0 2.0 100.0
5
50 100.0 100.0
Total

Chart – 11

30
25
20
15 Respondents
10
5
0
Highly Satisfied Neither/nor Dissatisfied Highly
Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

Inference

From the above chart, it is cleared that only 48% of the respondents are statisfied with the
welfare facilities, 32% of the respondents are neither satisfied/nor dissatisfied with the welfare
facilities,18% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the welfare facilities,2% of the
respondents are dissatisfied with the welfare facilities.

50
Table – 12

Respondents Opinion About Cleaning

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 5 10.0 10.0 10.0

43 86.0 86.0 96.0


2
2 4.0 4.0 100.0
3
50 100.0 100.0
Total
Chart – 12

50

40

30
Respondents
20

10

0
Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor

Inference

From the above table, it can observed that 10% of the respondents feels that the cleaning
facilities in the organization is excellent, 86% of the respondents feels that the cleaning
facilities in the organization is good,4% of the respondents feels that the cleaning in the
organization is fair.

51
Table – 13

Satisfaction Level Of Respondents About The Facility


Of Ventilation

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 2 4.0 4.0 4.0
5 10.0 10.0 14.0
2
15 30.0 30.0 44.0
3
25 50.0 50.0 94.0
4
3 6.0 6.0 100.0
5
50 100.0 100.0
Total
Chart – 13

30
25
20
15 Respondents
10
5
0
Satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied
Satisfied/nor
Dissatisfied
Highly

Highly
Neither

Inference

From the above table, it is cleared that only 4% of the respondents are highly satisfied
about the ventilation,10% of the respondents are satisfied about the ventilation facilities, 30%
of the respondents are neither satisfied/nor dissatisfied about the ventilation facilities,50% of
the respondents are dissatisfied about the ventilation, 6% of the respondents are highly
dissatisfied about the ventilation facilities.

52
Table – 14

Satisfaction Level Of the Lighting Facilities

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 8 16.0 16.0 16.0

39 78.0 78.0 94.0


2
3 6.0 6.0 100.0
3
50 100.0 100.0
Total

Chart – 14
40
35
30
25
20
15 Respondents
10
5
0
Highly Satisfied Neither Dissatisfied Highly
Satisfied Satisfied Dissatified

Inference

From the above chart, it is cleared that only 16% of the respondents are having a highly
satisfied about the lighting facilities, 78% of the respondents are having a satisfied about the
lighting facilities, 6% of the respondents are having a neither/nor satisfied about the lighting
facilities.

53
Table – 15

Respondents Opinion About Appropriate Safety Measures

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 7 14.0 14.0 14.0
2 41 82.0 82.0 96.0
3 1 2.0 2.0 98.0
4 1 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Chart – 15
50

40

30
Respondents
20

10

0
Excellent Good Fair Poor Very poor

Inference

From the above chart, it can be observed that 14% of the respondents feels that the safety
measures in the organization is excellent, 82% of the respondents feels that the safety
measures in the organization is good, 2% of the respondents feels that the safety measures in
the organization is fair and 2% of the respondents feels that the safety is poor .

54
Table – 16

Respondents Opinion About The Rejected Application For Leave

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1 16 32.0 32.0 32.0
2 23 46.0 46.0 78.0
3 11 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 50 100.0 100.0

Chart – 15
25

20

15
Respondents
10

0
Always Some Times Never

Inference

It can be observed from the above table 15, 32% of the respondents feel that the leave
application is always rejected by the management,46% of the respondents feel that the leave
application is sometimes rejected by the management,22% of the respondents feel that the
leave application is never rejected by the management.

55
Table – 17

Membership In Any Union

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1
41 82.0 82.0 82.0
2
9 18.0 18.0 100.0
Total
50 100.0 100.0

Chart – 16
60

40

20

0
yes No

Respondents 41 9

Inference

It can be depicted from chart, that union membership of the respondents of


50 respondents interviewed 82% of them were member’s of trade union and 18% of them were
not a member in any union.

56
Data Using Statistical Tools

Chi-Square Test

It is one of the simplest and most widely and widely used non-parametric tests, is statistical
work. The quantity describe the magnitude of discrepancy between theory and observation. i.e.
with the help of chi square test we can know whether a discrepancy between theory and
observation can be attributed to chance or whether it results from the inadequacy of the theory
to fit the observed facts.

Using spss software for calculating the date


57

Chi-Square Test - 1

Absent due to ill health to You and Your Family Members

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 50 50.0 .0
Total 50 a
a. This variable is constant. Chi-Square
Test cannot be performed.
Welfare Condition

Observed N Expected N Residual


2 24 12.5 11.5
3 16 12.5 3.5
4 9 12.5 -3.5
5 1 12.5 -11.5
Total 50

Absent If Supervisor Not Sanctioning Leave

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 16 16.7 -.7
2 23 16.7 6.3
3 11 16.7 -5.7
Total 50

Participation in Union Activites

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 7 25.0 -18.0
2 43 25.0 18.0
Total 50

58
Test Statistics

Absent If
Supervisor
Not Participation
Welfare Sanctioning in Union
Condition Leave Activites
Chi-Squarea,b,c 23.120 4.360 25.920
df 3 2 1
Asymp. Sig. .000 .113 .000
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.
The minimum expected cell frequency is 12.5.
b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.
The minimum expected cell frequency is 16.7.
c. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.
The minimum expected cell frequency is 25.0.

59
Chi-Square Test - 2

Department

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 28 12.5 15.5
2 6 12.5 -6.5
3 3 12.5 -9.5
4 13 12.5 .5
Total 50

AGE

Observed N Expected N Residual


3 4 25.0 -21.0
4 46 25.0 21.0
Total 50

Education

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 22 12.5 9.5
2 18 12.5 5.5
3 6 12.5 -6.5
4 4 12.5 -8.5
Total 50

Experience

Observed N Expected N Residual


3 3 25.0 -22.0
4 47 25.0 22.0
Total 50

Test Statistics

Education Experience
Chi-Squarea,b 18.800 38.720
df 3 1
Asymp. Sig. .000 .000
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 12.5.
b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 25.0.

60
Chi-Square Test - 3

Welfare Condition

Observed N Expected N Residual


2 24 12.5 11.5
3 16 12.5 3.5
4 9 12.5 -3.5
5 1 12.5 -11.5
Total 50

CLEANING

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 5 16.7 -11.7
2 43 16.7 26.3
3 2 16.7 -14.7
Total 50

Ventilation

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 2 10.0 -8.0
2 5 10.0 -5.0
3 15 10.0 5.0
4 25 10.0 15.0
5 3 10.0 -7.0
Total 50

Test Statistics

Welfare
Condition CLEANING Ventilation
Chi-Squarea,b,c 23.120 62.680 38.800
df 3 2 4
Asymp. Sig. .000 .000 .000
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 12.5.
b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 16.7.
c. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 10.0.

61
Chi-Square Test - 4

Monthly Salary

Observed N Expected N Residual


2 3 16.7 -13.7
3 15 16.7 -1.7
4 32 16.7 15.3
Total 50

Monthly Expenditure

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 1 16.7 -15.7
3 3 16.7 -13.7
4 46 16.7 29.3
Total 50

Conveyance

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 4 12.5 -8.5
2 20 12.5 7.5
3 20 12.5 7.5
4 6 12.5 -6.5
Total 50

Test Statistics

Monthly
Monthly Salary Expenditure Conveyance
Chi-Squarea,b 25.480 77.560 18.160
df 2 2 3
Asymp. Sig. .000 .000 .000
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.
The minimum expected cell frequency is 16.7.
b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5.
The minimum expected cell frequency is 12.5.

62
Chi-Square Test - 5

SEX

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 50 50.0 .0
Total 50 a
a. This variable is constant. Chi-Square
Test cannot be performed.

AGE

Observed N Expected N Residual


3 4 25.0 -21.0
4 46 25.0 21.0
Total 50

Marital Status

Observed N Expected N Residual


1 47 25.0 22.0
2 3 25.0 -22.0
Total 50

Test Statistics

AGE Marital Status


Chi-Squarea 35.280 38.720
df 1 1
Asymp. Sig. .000 .000
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than
5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 25.0.

63
One Way ANOVA

ANOVA

Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Absent due to ill Between Groups .000 3 .000 . .
health to You and Within Groups .000 46 .000
Your Family Total
.000 49
Members
Welfare Condition Between Groups 2.680 3 .893 1.328 .277
Within Groups 30.940 46 .673
Total 33.620 49
CLEANING Between Groups .706 3 .235 1.772 .166
Within Groups 6.114 46 .133
Total 6.820 49
Ventilation Between Groups 4.610 3 1.537 1.980 .130
Within Groups 35.710 46 .776
Total 40.320 49
LIGHTING Between Groups 1.308 3 .436 2.181 .103
Within Groups 9.192 46 .200
Total 10.500 49
SAFETY Between Groups .488 3 .163 .668 .576
Within Groups 11.192 46 .243
Total 11.680 49
64

Correlations

Correlations

Absent due
to ill health
to You and
Monthly Your Family
AGE SEX Monthly Salary Expenditure Members
AGE Pearson Correlation 1 .a .284* .081 .a
Sig. (2-tailed) . . .046 .577 .
N 50 50 50 50 50
SEX Pearson Correlation .a .a .a .a .a
Sig. (2-tailed) . . . . .
N 50 50 50 50 50
Monthly Salary Pearson Correlation .284* .a 1 .173 .a
Sig. (2-tailed) .046 . . .229 .
N 50 50 50 50 50
Monthly Expenditure Pearson Correlation .081 .a .173 1 .a
Sig. (2-tailed) .577 . .229 . .
N 50 50 50 50 50
Absent due to ill Pearson Correlation .a .a .a .a .a
health to You and Your Sig. (2-tailed) . . . . .
Family Members N 50 50 50 50 50
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
a. Cannot be computed because at least one of the variables is constant.

65
Regression

b
Variables Entered/Removed

Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method
1
SAFETY,
LIGHTING,
. Enter
Ventilation,a
CLEANING

a. All requested variables entered.


b. Dependent Variable: Welfare Condition

Model Summary

Adjusted Std. Error of


Model R R Square R Square the Estimate
1 .373 a .139 .062 .802
a. Predictors: (Constant), SAFETY, LIGHTING, Ventilation,
CLEANING

ANOVAb

Sum of
Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 4.665 4 1.166 1.813 .143a
Residual 28.955 45 .643
Total 33.620 49
a. Predictors: (Constant), SAFETY, LIGHTING, Ventilation, CLEANING
b. Dependent Variable: Welfare Condition

Coefficientsa

Unstandardized Standardized
Coefficients Coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) .770 .827 .931 .357
CLEANING .404 .329 .182 1.228 .226
Ventilation -.039 .135 -.043 -.289 .774
LIGHTING .518 .251 .289 2.064 .045
SAFETY .175 .240 .103 .729 .470
a. Dependent Variable: Welfare Condition
CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS &
SUGGESTION
67

3.2 RESERCH FINDINGS

 Majority of the respondents 92% belong to the age group of more than 30 years.
 44% of respondents had their education at 10th level and 36% of the respondents at +2
level and only few of them are UG level.
 94% of the respondents are married persons
 90% of the respondents are well experienced persons
 66% of them have been taken leave and remaining of them due to their family members
ill
 68% are in good relationship with their supervisors.
 80% are in good relationship with their co-worker.
 78% of the respondents are satisfied with their welfare facilities.
 85% of them were members in union.
 52% of the respondents are satisfied with the welfare facilities.
 69% of the respondents are satisfied with the nature of work.
 76% of the respondents feel that the cleaning facilities in the organization is excellent.
 50% of the respondents feel that the ventilation facility is bad.
 82% of the respondents are satisfied with safety measures.
 78% of the respondents are satisfied with lighting facility.
 70% of the respondents are suggest that salary is not enough to run the family need
more.
 66% of the respondents wants uniform.
68

3.3 SUGGESTIONS:

 The respondents have more expenditure and this leads them to debts.
As this is one of the causative factor for absenteeism. It is suggested that the
management may take special efforts for educating the employees in budgeting and to
lead their life based on their income.

 Trade union may also give training programs to their workers on family budgeting or
another way to increment in the salary.

 Majority of the respondents and their family members have health problem. Sickness is
one of the causes for absenteeism. So it is suggested that the management may arrange
health checkup for their employees periodically.

 The workload is one of the causes for absenteeism. So management should appoint the
considerate number of employees to reduce the workload as well as absenteeism.

 The respondents need more welfare and wealth facility like water, ventilation, etc to
reduce absenteeism.
69

3.4 CONCLUSTION:

Through this study, the researcher was able to understand the causes of
the absenteeism and why an employee is frequently (or) occasionally absenting.
The researcher hopes that the report gives correct and suitable information to
the management for the improvement in their activities and maintain their rules
and regulations.

The researcher was able to study not only absenteeism but also other personnel
department activities. So this study will be helpful for future.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
70

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1) Mamoria C.B and Mamoria S.B Dynamic Of Industrial Relation in India, Himalaya
Publication, Mumbai 3rd edition,1991
2) Mamoria C.B Personnel Management, Himalaya House, Mumbai 4th Edition, 1985
3) Reddy Subbi. T and Rao Appa B.P Absenteeism In Industry, Deep and the publication
New Delhi,1989
4) Prasad L.M principles and Practices Of Management Sultan chand and Sons, New
Delhi,1993.
5) Tripathi P.C Personnel Management, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi,1980
6) Balder Sharma, Indian Journal Of Industrial Relation 1970.
7) Industry Profile from www.textileindutrialprofile.com
8) Company Profile from the company itself collected.
ANNEXUR
E
71
Questionnaire Approval:
QUESTIONNAIRE

STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF MADURA


COATS PRIVATE LTD, MADURAI

PERSONAL DATA:

1. NAME :
2. AGE : A) 18-20 B) 20-25 C) 25-30 D) 30 Above
3. Gender : Male/female
4. Department :
5. Educational : A) 10th B) up to 12th C) UG D) if other
6. Experience : A) 0-2 B) 2-4 C) 4-8 D) more than 8
7. Marital Status : A) Married B) Unmarried C) Widower
8. Mode Of Conveyance : A) Walk B) By-Cycle C) Two wheeler D) Bus

ECONOMIC STATUS:

1. What is your monthly salary?

A) 2000-3000 B) 3000-4000 C) 4000-5000 D) more than 5000

2. What is your monthly expenditure of your family?

A) 2000-3000 B) 3000-4000 C) 4000-5000 D) more than 5000

HEALTH:

2. Do you absent due to ill health of yourself and your family members

Yes/NO
WELFARE FACILITIES:

1. How is your welfare condition in your mill?

A) Excellent B) Good C) Fair D) Poor E) Very Poor

72

WORKING CONDITION:

1. Please state your satisfaction level toward the following condition:

SATISFI
S.NO CONDITION HIGLY ED NEITHER DISSATISFIED HIGLY
SATISFIED SATISFIED/ SATISFIED
NOR
DISSATIFIED

1. CLEANING

2. VENTILITATION

3. LIGHTING

4. SAFETY

2. Do you absent because of your supervisor not sanctioning leave :

A) Always B) Sometimes C) Never

3. Do you absent because of participation in union activities:

Yes/NO
***THANK YOU***

Yours Truly,