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# Chapter 01

Vinodkumar Jagdale
NESGI, E & TC Department, Naigaon, Pune

Important energy bands are, Valence Band Conduction Band Forbidden Band

 Semiconductor fundamentals  What is a Semiconductor ? .

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A pn junction .

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Forward.and reverse-biased pn junctions .

Semiconductor diode v-i characteristic .

The v-i characteristic of the semiconductor diode .

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Forward bias Biasing polarities Reverse Bias (+) IF ON (-) (-) OFF (+) Equivalent switch state Device resistance Zero Infinite Device current A-to-K current todetermined by external resistance and voltage Zero Zero A-to-K voltage to- Equal to the applied voltage .

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y What is rectification? y What is Rectifier? y Types of Rectifier. y Half Wave Rectifier y Dual Polarity Half Wave rectifier y Full Wave rectifier(Center Tap) y Dual polarity Full Wave Rectifier(Center Tap) y Full Wave Bridge Rectifier .

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V V L ( p k ) ! V ! ! S ( p k ) S P  V F S ( p k ) N N V P ( p k ) V p k V rm s 0 .7 0 7 ! 2 V rm s .

C. or Average Load Current (Idc) . D.

or RMS Load Voltage (Vrms) . C. C. or Average Load Voltage (Vdc)  A. C. or RMS Load Current (Irms)  A. D.

 Ripple Factor(r)  Voltage Regulation .

 D.C. Output Power Pdc

Pdc = I2dc * RL 
A.C. Input Power Pac

Pac = Is2rms * (RS+RF+RL) 
Rectification Efficiency

 Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) 

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

PIV = Vm Volts

 D. C. or Average Load Current (Idc) .

C. or RMS Load Voltage (Vrms) . C. or RMS Load Current (Irms)  A. D. C. or Average Load Voltage (Vdc)  A.

 Ripple Factor(r)  Voltage Regulation .

C. Output Power Pdc Pdc = I2dc * RL  A.C. D. Input Power Pac Pac = Is2rms * (RS+RF+RL)  Rectification Efficiency .

 Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)  Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) PIV = 2 Vm Volts .

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C. D. or Average Load Current (Idc) .

 D. or RMS Load Current (Irms)  A. C. C. or Average Load Voltage (Vdc)  A. C. or RMS Load Voltage (Vrms) .

 Ripple Factor(r)  Voltage Regulation .

Output Power Pdc Pdc = I2dc * RL  A. D. Input Power Pac Pac = Is2rms * (RS+2RF+RL)  Rectification Efficiency .C.C.

 Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)  Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) PIV = Vm Volts .

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 Peak Diode Current (Ip) Where T1 is charging time & T2 is Discharging time  Ripple Factor (r)  RMS Ripple Voltage (Vr(rms)) .

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 Peak Diode Current (Ip) Where T1 is charging time & T2 is Discharging time  Ripple Factor (r) .

 RMS Ripple Voltage (Vr(rms))  Average Load Voltage (Vdc) .

. y In more critical applications. y Pi(CLC) filters.y Simple capacitor filtering is adequate for many electronic applications. more complex filter networks are required to reduce or eliminate ripple voltage y Examples of more complex filters are: y LC filters.

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. voltage remains at VZ Zener acts like an automatically varying resistor.For a large change of current.4 ± 200 V. Can be obtained with VZ from 2.

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2v 1.5v 3.6v 4.Typical LED Characteristics Semiconductor Material GaAs GaAsP GaAsP GaAsP:N AlGaP SiC GaInN Wavelength Colour VF @ 20mA 1.0v 2.2v 3.0v 850-940nm 630-660nm 605-620nm 585-595nm 550-570nm 430-505nm 450nm Infra-Red Red Amber Yellow Green Blue White .8v 2.

y When forward biased. electrons from the N-type material may recombine with holes in the P-type material. y System energy is decreased y Excess energy emitted as light y Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) semiconductors have been used to make colored LEDs y Stop lights y Progress toward white LEDs is promising .

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y Other Types of LED y Advantages OF Using LEDs y Disadvantages OF Using LEDs y LED Applications .

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Dot Matrix Display  Introduction  Features  How to drive Dot Matrix Display .

2 2 .Structure of Dot Matrix Display p in c o lu m n 13 1 3 2 4 3 10 4 6 5 p in c o lu m n 13 1 3 2 4 3 10 4 6 5 ro w 9 1 ro w 9 1 14 2 14 2 8 3 8 3 12 4 12 4 1 5 1 5 7 6 7 6 2 7 F i g u r e 1 0 .2 3 . A n o d e r o w m a tr i x L E D s (F a i r c h i l d G M A 8 X 7 5 C ) 2 7 F ig u r e 1 0 . C a th o d e r o w m a tr ix L E D s (F a ir c h ild G M C 8 X 7 5 C ) .

. y Dedicated driver chips such as MAX6952 (SPI interface) and MAX6953 (I2C interface) are available for cathode-row matrix LED displays to simplify the interfacing. timemultiplexing technique needs to be used. y One port drives the column whereas the other port drives the rows. y For multiple matrix LED displays in the application. y One needs to scan the matrix LED displays one row at a time.y Two parallel ports are needed to drive the matrix display. from top to bottom.

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y Concept of Multiplexing y Types of multiplexed Display y Character-Oriented Displays y Pixel-Oriented Displays .

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