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GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT: The physical environment: the geographical setting, natural features and resources of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The physical environment of Campania: Pompeii and Herculaneum were located in the fertile region known as Campania, referred to as ‘Campania Felix’ (productive Campania, in Southern Italy: a crescent-shaped volcanic plain at the foot of the Apennine escarpment. The slopes of Vesuvius and surrounding Campania region produce a wide variety of natural vegetation (oak, beech, alder, poplar, and herbaceous plants) and agricultural produce (Including their famous grapes, as well as, olives, peaches apricots, lemons, cherries, plums, pears and figs) and made for excellent grazing grounds for flocks of sheep. Along the coast of the bay of Naples were safe anchorages for trading vessels and fishing fleets (fishing was important to the economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum). The climate varied from hot, dry summers to cold, wet winters. SOURCES: Pliny the Elder. “How am I to describe the coast of Campania. A fertile region so blessed with the pleasant scenery that it was manifestly the work of nature in happy mood? The indeed there is that wonderful and life-sustaining and healthy atmosphere that lasts all the year through. Embracing a climate so mil. Plains so fertile. Hills so sunny. Woodlands so secure and groves so shady. Campania has a wealth of different kinds of forest. Breezes from many mountains. An abundance of corn. Vines and Olives. Splendid fleeces produced by its sheep. Fine-necked bulls. Numerous lakes. Rich sources of rivers and springs that flow over the whole region. Its many seas and harbours and the bosom of its lands are open to commerce. While even the land eagerly runs out into the sea as if to assist mankind.” Ancient geographer Strabo: AD 19 “A mountain covered with fertile soil, which seems to have had its top cut off horizontally, forming an almost level plain which is completely sterile and ash covered with caverns full of cracks and blackened rock..” Plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pompeii: The earliest areas of Pompeii show heavy influence of Greek principles of urban planning. The grid pattern, developed in other Roman towns, was not precisely applied and the Greek influence can be seen in the regular layout of the streets and roads which divided the towns into insulae. However, Pompeii demonstrates Roman skill in road making and Roman paving techniques, such as polygonal blocks of basalt and raised footpaths, were applied. Stepping stones were provided for pedestrian use so that Pompeians could cross the roads without stepping in sewerage that overflowed in the
gutters when it rains, while still allowing access of wheeled traffic. Deep grooves and impressions in Pompeian roads are evidence of Pompeii’s lively economy. Pompeii was surrounded by a series of defensive stone walls. When Pompeii became a Roman colony, defensive walls lost their purpose and some sections were demolished to make way for housing. The magistrates responsible for the maintenance of streets and roads were the aediles. Herculaneum: Herculaneum followed the classical layout of Greek towns. The streets were narrow, and show evidence of having less traffic than Pompeii, and more efficient sewerage systems. Like Pompeii it also had walls, a sea wall, with large vaulted chambers for boats. THE NATURE AND SOURCES AND EVIDENCE: The range of available sources, both written and archaeological, including ancient writers, official inscriptions, graffiti, wall paintings, statues, mosaics, human and animal remains.
The epigraphic archives of Pompeii and Herculaneum include formal inscriptions, public notices and graffiti. Formal inscriptions: are sources of evidence for the structure of Pompeian government, prominent families, and financial contributions to the construction of public buildings as well as evidence of economic, political and social transformations in society. Public notices and graffiti: public notices were electoral manifestos or slogans known and programmata that urged citizens to vote for a particular candidate. They were written in red or black ink on whitewashed walls and were painted by professionals called scriptores.
Literary sources: Apart from the account of Pliny the Younger of the eruption of Vesuvius, most of the written texts from the time, while containing useful information, had a particular focus: - Strabo – geography - Vitruvius – Architecture - Seneca – details of the earthquake in AD 62 - Pliny the Elder – natural history - Tacitus – annals of Julio/Claudians Pliny the Younger: Letters to Tacitus The letters are valuable because: - Pliny was an eyewitness to the eruption of Vesuvius - He personally experienced the effects of the eruption at Misenum - His account has been tested and largely reconciled with the geographical deposits across the Vesuvian plain However, despite their invaluable nature as historical and scientific documents and their contribution to our understanding of the eruption, the letters lack important information and raise questions about their reliability.
Human skeletal remains from the beach at Herculaneum. Wallace-Hadrill) .And the attempts at rebuilding the cities after the earthquake of 62 AD Human.Exact cause of death (e. .- Problems: His description of his uncle’s experiences.The standard of living among certain groups in society . if at all.A great deal of the material recorded about the buildings was based on ‘subjective impression and uncontrolled conjecture’ (A.The stages of occupation of the city .Many of the 800 houses and 600 shops were not documented accurately.Early interpretations of the material remains were based on the politics and ideologies of the time.Type of vegetation and plant species in the area The limitations. . behaviour and death were second-hand.Sex. He did not document the events until AD 103-7.Probable occupations and social status . Animal and Plant remains: Included: .The lack of distinction between upper and lower classes and residential and commercial areas . about a quarter of a century later (25 years) His purpose of the letters was to commemorate Pliny the Elder’s bravery. Although there are problems with archaeological sources they still give us great insight into: .Disarticulated bones from Pompeii. animal and plant remains have provided evidence for: . Human. . . appearance and general height of the population . reliability and evaluation of sources. He would have had to rely on the reports of those who survived.The plaster/resin casts from Pompeii. .The eruption.thermal shock) .Influx of wealth and the influence of the Hellenistic world . suffocation from ash.g. He also fails to mention the year of the eruption. there are many discrepancies and problems involved.Population affinities . Archaeological Sources Architecture: Despite the abundance of architectural evidence. or unable to stand extreme temperatures. age.asphyxiation.Defences. The evidence provided by the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum for: . transport and water supply structures .
dry avalanche of ground-bound molten rock. Seneca: “Pompeii. Pagano. The first reached temperatures of over 400*C and would have instantaneously killed all the inhabitants of Herculaneum. Subsequent surges and flows destroyed buildings and carbonised organic matter. The bodies’ vaporised and soft tissue disappeared. pumice and gases. replaced by ash. The plaster casts made from the moulds left from the bodies of the victims in Pompeii lend further evidence to the claim that they suffocated as most were found with their mouths open. This geological evidence has led historians to revise their theories about how the inhabitants of Pompeii and Herculaneum died. their brains boiled and skulls exploded. Herculaneum bore the full brunt of the succession of pyroclastic surges. rock and gas that billows over the terrain at incredibly high speeds. The destruction of Herculaneum: Pompeii and Herculaneum suffered different fates on account of their geographical location in accordance with Mt Vesuvius. Herculaneum was upwind of Mt Vesuvius. the famous city of Campania. and even the structures which are left standing are shaky” Phases of the eruption: Vulcanologists have made a close study of Mt Vesuvius. hotter. The eruption was unique in the fact that there were six layers in the strata indicating that there were six pyroclastic surges. Thin black layers in the geological strata have been identified as pyroclastic surges. Evidence for cause of death at Herculaneum: Italian scholars. and Patrone working on the bodies at Herculaneum believe that the inhabitants died of thermal shock.Also part of Herculaneum is in ruins. A pyroclastic surge is a low-density cloud of hot ash. including a detailed stratigraphical analysis to determine the main phases in the AD 79 eruption. .. Skulls were blackened with reddish discolouration. Mastrolorenzo. Scientific tests conducted on the ash reveal it was spongy and porous and as it was breathed in it mixed with the moisture in the lungs to form a fine paste that caused them to suffocate. indication that. However. which was found to be brain matter. has been laid low by an earthquake which also disturbed all the adjacent districts. based on the evidence that the skulls provide. therefore the pumice fall in the first few hours of the eruption was moderately light. Evidence for cause of death at Pompeii: Those who chose to remain in Pompeii perished either when roofs collapsed under the weight of pumice which rained down on Pompeii during the eruption or died of asphyxiation in pyroclastic surges. A pyroclastic flow is a much slower denser. and the bodies became skeletons immediately and the lack of oxygen in the air caused the bones to carbonise and be thus preserved. under the intense heat of the pyroclastic surge..Warning signs: The earliest sources of evidence of Mt Vesuvius becoming active were the earthquakes recorded by Tacitus and Seneca in 62 AD.
Empty vine vats found at Pompeii that indicate the eruption occurred before the grape harvest (August) . sometimes blotched and dirty. The economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum were complex. and central Italy) Olive oil (from Libya and Spain) Garum (from Spain) Commerce: Exports: Garum Wine (Pompeian wine has even been found in the United Kingdom) . was described by Pliny the Younger in following way: “My uncle was stationed at Misenum. according to the amount of soil and ashes it carried with it.its general appearance can be best described like an umbrella pine. in active command of the fleet. Septembres (24th of August). industries and occupations. comprising of trade. I imagine because it was thrust upwards by the first blast and then left unsupported as the pressure subsided. Evidence exists to support both theories. my mother drew his attention to a cloud of unusual size and appearance. Through evidence of trade. Sometimes it looked white. Palestine. based on the early codex of Pliny’s Letters which give the date as Nonum Kal. Rhodes. Imports: Tableware (from Puteoli. commerce. Crete. as well as agriculture.. or ‘Plinian’ stage of the eruption. Trade: Strabo tells us that Pompeii was the port for Nuceria and Nola making it a trading centre mostly for agricultural produce. for it rose to a great height on a sort of trunk and then split off into branches. commerce. Gaul.Conflicting perspectives about the date: There are conflicting views concerning the date of the Eruption. historians are able to determine Pompeii’s foreign relationships. and Cypress) Wine (from Kos. On August 24.. occupations. or else it was born down by its own weight so that it spread out and gradually dispersed. such as: . Sicily. While the general consensus is for August. industries. Herculaneum’s economy served purely local needs. Turkey. Pompeii played an affluent role in the economy of the Campania region.” The economy: Trade. some believe it may have occurred in November based on later codices which read Nonum Kal Decembres (33 November).The discovery of late-ripening fruit which had just been picked (November) Eyewitness accounts: The first. Northern Italy. There is archaeological evidence to support both views. Implications about the size and nature of the port have arisen based on whether it was a sea port (as originally thought) or a river port (according to recent theories). Regardless.
construct buildings and tombs and hold priesthoods. slaves. Julia Felix). women. and fruits and vegetables. innkeepers/shopkeepers. Pompeii had a large community of artisans (artists. . Fish bones and scales indicated that it was a fish market.g. freedmen. There were tradesmen. cloth. metalworkers. merchants. Such stalls would have been likely to be set up in the Forum – Pompeii’s economic centre of commerce. Freedmen: The freedmen were men and women who were freed from slavery. bath attendants and brothel keepers. such as the wall paintings in the House of Vettii.There was an abundance of shops in on the main thoroughfares of Pompeii. Women fell under the legal control of their fathers and husbands. There is little evidence about their lives available and their insignificant status in Pompeian society can be seen through the lack of tombstones attributed to them. Evidence in the artwork of Pompeii depict cupids (putti) engaged in various crafts and occupations. and slaves. Freedmen (liberti). Women of Pompeii and Herculaneum. but could not hold political office. The social structure of Pompeii and Herculaneum was organised into three distinct classes: Freeborn. Men were allowed to own businesses and vote in political elections. Evidence from the estate of Julia Felix makes it clear that there were temporary stalls where vendors sold goods such as shoes. while others became wealthy and influential members of society. Occupations: There is a wealth of evidence in both Pompeii and Herculaneum concerning the varied occupations of the population. The opposite side of the Forum was the dry food market where citizens could buy cereals and pulses such as lentils and beans. but had legal duties and would support electoral candidates. Some continued to work for former masters. however. They could participate in some religious cults and were admitted to become an Augustalis (priest of the cult of the emperor). had considerably more rights than women in other ancient societies and could own properties and businesses (e. Slaves: Approximately 40% of the population of Pompeii were slaves. The Macellum was located in the Forum and was the meat and fish market of Pompeii. manufacturers. Another important industry in Pompeii was cloth manufacture. potters and glassblowers). The men of the freeborn class had full legal rights and could hold political office. Women of the freeborn class could not hold formal political office. Markets played an important role in the commerce of the city. men. Industry: Industry played an important role in the economics of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Freeborn: Freeborn men and women were the social and political elite of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Social structure. bakers. The agricultural industry (wine and olive oil production) was predominant.
is referred to as ‘the heart throb of the girls’. This can be seen in the evidence of their active role in politics. Evidence for the popularity of the games can be found in the form of graffiti. A major archaeological find was the gladiatorial equipment uncovered in 1766-7 including: helmets. Local political life. Its aediles. The gladiatorial games originated in the time of the Samnites and featured combats between pairs of gladiators or between gladiators and animals. inscriptions and frescoes show Herculaneum and Pompeian women actively engaged in public life.Women: Women of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The restoration of the . had a constitution imposed on it.g Julia Felix) and their opportunity to hold priesthoods. food and clothing to leisure pursuits (including sports and public entertainment) Leisure Activities: Gladiatorial Games: The palaestra is one of the richest sources of evidence for government orientated public entertainment. baths. Gladiatorial games were conducted in the amphitheatre and were often funded by electoral candidates as political campaigns. Supervised the markets and public works. For example Thracian Celadus. political and religious rights than women in other ancient societies. clothing. however. sanitation. Evidence of prominent female individuals in Pompeii include Eumachia. had considerably more social. It was run by two annually elected duumviri. but still maintained an active political role through public declarations supporting particular candidates in programmata – it was acceptable and legitimate for women to do this. The artefacts left behind by the people of Pompeii and Herculaneum provide a plethora of information about their everyday lives. Evidence of wall paintings. Pompeii. Pompeii and Herculaneum were ultimately selfgoverning (autonomous) in local matters. greaves. When it comes to politics. their ability to own land and businesses (e. while some inscriptions tell the results of the games. as a Roman colony. and sanitation. Due to poor archaeological methodology in place at the time. The political organisation of Herculaneum was similar to that of Pompeii. like those of Pompeii. from aspects such as water. Everyday life: leisure activities. In Pompeii they trained at the palaestra next to the amphitheatre in the gladiator’s barracks. The women of Pompeii and Herculaneum could not hold political office (regardless of class). From inscriptions we learn that there were wealthy women in Pompeii and Herculaneum who were able to own property in their own right and manage their affairs without the supervision of male relatives. health. who constructed a large public building in the Forum which bears her name: the Eumachia building. and weapons. food and dining. but subject to imperial decree from Rome. water supply. much of the find has been lost.
Women of rank (such as Eumachia) are depicted wearing the Stola. salty fish sauce. where the host would throw parties and entertain guests with food and drink. .amphitheatre that took place after the earthquake of AD 62 is evidence of the social and political importance of the amphitheatre and the gladiatorial games. and representations of clothing on statues and in frescoes must be treated with caution as they may not necessarily be an accurate depiction of fashion in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Clothing: Most evidence of clothing in Pompeii and Herculaneum comes from artistic representations as most remnants and articles of clothing were destroyed in the eruption. Health: . however. cockles. a thick. Men of rank commonly wore a knee-length belted tunic. Seeds and pips from foods such as dates. . fish. Carbonised eggs. They have painted labels with information including the contents. There are many implications with this. Mosaics depicting cock fighting are evidence for its popularity in both cities. Evidence of seafood comes from fish bones. figs.A scene depicting women playing with astragals (knuckle bones) has been found at Herculaneum. loaves of bread and nuts have also been found. The houses of the Wealthy had a specific dining room called the triclinium. shells of scallops. A team at Oxford University have been investigating the remains from latrine pits and sewers at Pompeii. the shipper and the recipient (evidence for commerce and trade). Garum: Pompeii was famous for its Garum. feature foods such as fruit.Theatres are a rich source of archaeological evidence of popular leisure activities of the women and men in Pompeii and Herculaneum. The lack of kitchens in most Pompeian and Herculaneum homes and abundance of restaurants and dining areas indicate that the majority of the population ‘ate out’ and ready-cooked food would have been available at the many thermopolia or food stalls in Pompeii and Herculaneum. poultry and game provide information about the diets of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Dining out in Pompeii: Wall paintings suggest that banquets were popular in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Other Leisure activities: . including frescoes and mosaics. Small terracotta jars that once held garum have been found in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Food and Dining: Archaeological evidence has enabled modern scholars to indentify the foods that were available to the populations of Pompeii and Herculaneum. a long sleeveless tunic usually suspended from the shoulders from a short strap. sea urchins and cuttlefish. Artworks.Cock fighting was a popular pastime for men in Pompeii and Herculaneum. manufacturer. figs and olives have been preserved in the volcanic ash.
located beneath the bathhouse. Butterworth and Laurence report that the death rates from these diseases were higher in the wealthy areas where water features provided breeding grounds for mosquitoes. heated boilers that sent water in pipes to the baths. not just a matter of hygiene.The main evidence for the health of the residents of Pompeii and Herculaneum comes from the remains of the humans themselves. Water Supply: . Other studies on the human remains from both Pompeii and Herculaneum reveal that Tuberculosis and Malaria were common diseases. an archaeologist and physical anthropologist from Sydney University. Five skeletons have been found in the men’s dressing room of the Forum Baths in Herculaneum. Baths: Bathing was a social and leisure activity. has studied the pathology of the human remains at Pompeii. the Forum Baths. The Stabian Baths: The Stabian Baths are the oldest and largest baths in Pompeii. The baths themselves are in an excellent state of preservation but have been difficult to excavate due the dense volcanic rock that covers them. Dr Estelle Lazer. The earthquakes of AD 62 severely damaged these baths and some sections were not in use at the time of the eruption. Her examination of about 300 skulls concluded that the populations were generally well nourished. They had the design of a huge triton with serpents intertwined around his legs and surrounded by frolicking dolphins. The Forum Baths: An interesting feature of the Forum Baths in Herculaneum was the mosaic floors in both the men’s and women’s dressing rooms. This accounts for the vast number of baths in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. They are thought to have been attendants who believed that the strong vaulted roof would protect them from the eruption.a system where furnaces. Pompeii had four main public baths: The Stabian Baths. An inscription found in the entrance courtyard states the baths were donated and run as a kind of municipal country club for the rich and wealthy. They had the earliest know hypocaust. and the Amphitheatre Baths. Most houses did not have bathrooms. instead people frequented the public baths. the Central Baths. The Suburban Baths: The Suburban Baths were located outside of the walls of the town near the sea and have proved to be of great value to our understanding of this leisure activity. Baths at Herculaneum: Herculaneum had two main public baths: The Forum Baths and the Suburban Baths.
Public latrines were located at public baths and palaestra. Features: The North side: the temple to Jupiter. Town councils were responsible for many public buildings in Pompeii and Herculaneum. During the time of Augustus. These public fountains provided a continuous supply of water for the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum.One of the major prerequisites for any city is a regular water supply. sometimes referred to as the hall of Duumviri The West side: the Basilica was located here. The Forum of Pompeii: The Forum was the centre of public life in Pompeii. The temple of Apollo was built here. theatres. Sanitation: Pompeii was generally unhygienic with rubbish in the streets. Water from this channel flowed into the main tank near the Vesuvian gate and was siphoned off into three main pipes that fed different areas of the city and dispersed them in various tanks all over Pompeii. Pompeii had public latrines which required a continuous flow of running water to wash away waste matter through a drainage channel. deep wells and rain collecting cisterns for their water supply. administrative. The south Side: the location of government buildings. This was where the majority of political. The temple of public Lares. election of magistrates. the imperial aqueduct at Misenum had a branch built to supply Pompeii. fora. trades and markets). theatres.g. Evidence of the importance of the Forum at Pompeii can be seen in its central location of the town – located at the crossroads of the two main streets in Pompeii. Location of cereal markets. There is evidence of 3 fountains at Herculaneum. The East side: Macellum (fish and meat markets) decorated with Corinthian columns. These included: buildings within the Forum. Basilica: The most elaborate structure in the Forum was the Basilica. a platform where political candidates gave speeches and rallied supporters for elections. where legal and business activities were conducted. the temple of Vespasian and the building of Eumachia. legal. In the centre of the west side was the suggestum. Fourteen of these tanks have been uncovered. amphitheatres. One of these pipes supplied water to the 42 public fountains in Pompeii. religious and social activities took place (e. Public Buildings at Herculaneum: . temples. There was not toilet paper. temples. only a sponge on a stick. The early inhabitants of Pompeii relied on water from the Sarno River. Public buildings – basilicas. palaestra and amphitheatres. religious ceremonies. Juno and Minerva dominated this side. palaestra. commercial. Baths.
freestanding houses or estates. The palaestra at Herculaneum was slightly smaller than Pompeii’s and surrounded on three sides by colonnades. shops. The Forum has been located. Performances included plays. The houses that have been excavated at Pompeii and Herculaneum are valuable archaeological sources on Roman domestic life.The public buildings at Herculaneum still remain beneath the volcanic debris that buried the city. In the centre there was a rectangular swimming pool fed with fresh water from the aqueducts. Although the houses vary in size and levels of wealth they show a regular plan and systematic use of space. like the Large Theatre. One building has been identified as the Basilica. Herculaneum: Herculaneum’s theatre is still located 24 metres underground. It was a freestanding structure with a capacity of about 2000 and there was a small temple located at the centre. tiered seating with a capacity of up to 5000. Poetry readings and concerts were held here. Palaestrae: The palaestra was used as exercise grounds for the military and for youth organisations promoted by the emperor.Villas The domus or atrium house: This was the most common form of housing and consisted of independent. The wealthy inhabited multi-roomed dwellings while the poorer inhabitants of Pompeii and Herculaneum lived in one-roomed apartments. In the centre was a cross-shaped pool featuring a fountain in the shape of a serpent with five heads. Theatres: Pompeii: Pompeii had two theatres: the Large Theatre and the smaller Odeion. houses.The atrium-peristyle house . A swimming pool was located in the front of the covered walk way.The domus or atrium house . the fourth being a covered walkway.Insulae or apartment/lodging houses . and evidence of its importance comes from the fact that its entrance was most probably located on the main street (decumanus maximus). the seating was arranged according to social status. The focus of the domus was the atrium which was the first open space one entered from the street and was generally considered . In Pompeii it was a spacious open-air arena bounded on three sides by graceful colonnades and shaded by plane trees. farces and pantomimes. The large theatre was constructed on the Greek model with semicircular. Housing Styles: There are four main styles of housing that have been indentified in Pompeii and Herculaneum: . Private buildings – villas. The Odeion was of a smaller capacity and.
g. while the excavations at Herculaneum have uncovered house of this type that had two storeys. which suggests that it was not a common form of housing. peristyle . religion. The atrium-peristyle house: By the 1st century AD the peristyle (garden) had become the centrepiece of wealthy homes. the statue of Doryphoros) ARCHITECTURE Theatres – the Large Theatre features Hellenistic design Greek plays and pantomimes performed. In Pompeii. Images of Hercules found in Herculaneum in a public fountain Temple of Apollo in the Forum of Pompeii – evidence of worship of Greek gods.g. Greek influences: ART Statues – many were copies of Greek originals (e. Their facilities varied from spacious apartments with multiple rooms to tiny rooms suitable only for sleeping. in his study of housing at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Mosaics – such as the Alexander Mosaic in the House of the Faun. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill. suggests “we are witnessing a change over time” with a movement from larger free-standing houses to small independent units. (such as the scenes from Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey in the House of the Tragic Poet) Palaestrae – large open colonnaded spaces reflect Greek design Many buildings feature Greek architectural elements e. Sanctuary to Dionysus found near the amphitheatre. RELIGION Herculaneum’s name was derived from that of the Greek god Herakles (Hercules).the religious and social centre of the house. The peristyle gave access to the dining room and all living rooms. the domus was usually single-storeyed. luxurious and elaborate. Insulae or apartment/lodging houses: Insulae consisted of multi-storeyed apartments or tenements. architecture and religion. architecture. Many murals depict characters and scenes from Greek mythology. Images of Hercules found in the Temple of Isis in Pompeii. multi-roomed dwellings on the outskirts of Pompeii and Herculaneum. More examples of multi-storeyed buildings have been found in Herculaneum than Pompeii. Villas: Villas were large. Pompeii and Herculaneum were cosmopolitan cities that reflected the influence of foreign cultures in their art. Influence of Greek and Egyptian cultures: art.
not faith. A carving found on an altar in the Temple of Vespasian. household gods. Isis ARCHITECHTURE Garden art – a water feature in the praedia (estate) of Julia Felix represents a Delta branch of the Nile Villa of Mysteries – contain murals thought to depict initiation rites into the cult of Dionysus RELIGION The cult of Isis – the Egyptian goddess was represented in statues. depicting the sacrifice of a bull. - Religion: Temples. They were polytheistic and did not have a personal relationship with their gods. It gave citizens the opportunity to publicise their loyalty to the emperor as well as move upwards socially. membership of the Augustales. nor did their religion offer them an explanation of the world. tombs. was a way for wealthy freedmen in Pompeii and Herculaneum to advance their status when other public office was denied to them. or priest of the imperial cult. Harpocrates. There are two Temples in Pompeii specifically related to the imperial cult: The temple of Augustan Fortune opposite the Forum Baths and the Temple of Vespasian located in the Forum. foreign cults. The temple of Isis was the centre of the cult of Isis. They viewed their gods as spirits at work in every aspect of life. Egyptian gods are depicted in household shrines – House of the Golden cupid features Anubis. Temples: TEMPLE TEMPLE OF JUPITER (Capitolium) DETAILS Located in the Forum . paintings and household shrines. Isis and Sarapis The cults of Isis and Sarapis were popular because they offered the possibility of and afterlife. The Romans viewed the gods as superhuman. For example. Roman religion was largely concerned with ritual. Roman religion: The citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum largely followed Roman religious practices in the 1st century AD. gives us evidence of sacrifice.The layout of the street scrapes show heavy influence of Greek suburban planning Egyptian influence: ART Nile scenes in mosaics (Threshold mosaic from the house of the Faun) Wall paintings in the Temple of Isis has scenes from Egyptian mythology Statues of Egyptian goddess. immortal forces that controlled particular spheres of nature. the imperial cult became especially prominent in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Imperial Cult: From the time of Emperor Augustus.
located in the atrium. INVESTIGATING.TEMPLE OF VESPASIAN TEMPLE OF APOLLO TEMPLE OF ISIS SANCTUARY OF THE PUBLIC LARES Dedicated to Jupiter. Juno and Minerva Centre for state religion Located in the Forum Centre of the Imperial cult of Pompeii Located in the Forum Associated with Venus as patron deity of the city Located in the theatre district of Pompeii Dedicated to the worship of the Egyptian goddess Isis. The late 19th and early 20th centuries ushered in a change in the archaeological methods at Pompeii and Herculaneum. items were removed and . There are few tombs of slaves. The rich had imposing sepulchral monuments demonstrating their important place in the public life of Pompeii. seeing a shift away from the early archaeological practices that were little more than treasure seeking expeditions that witnessed a plethora of artefacts disappear into private collections. The early archaeology carried out at Pompeii and Herculaneum was destructive. Tombs: Our main source of evidence about death and burial at Pompeii are the tombs and their inscriptions in the cemeteries located outside the city gates. carried out essentially in search of valuable artefacts. Past archaeology at Pompeii: Early excavations of both Pompeii and Herculaneum began in the 18th century. indicating that rich and poor were buried together alike. The philodemus project is an international effort that is dedicated to the reconstruction of the literary works of Philodemus found in the villa of papyri in Herculaneum. The lares: household deities who protected the family. Richard Janko and Dirk Obbink. Today. The tombs at Herculaneum have yet to be excavated. Located in the Forum Where town lares were worshipped and important statues displayed Household gods: Every home had its own shrine. modern archaeology has adopted a more scientific approach that focuses on the acquisition of knowledge. Perhaps one of the best examples of this is the Philodemus Project currently under the direction of David Blank. These tombs were decorated in a variety of styles showing GreekHellenistic and Roman-Italic influence. The tombs are of various types. rather than wealth. RECONTRUCTING AND PRESERVING THE PAST: Changing methods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
conservation and preservation. collecting data to help restore the ancient buildings and interiors. It was during the period of French control of Naples (1806. Giuseppe Fiorelli: • Introduced a uniform numbering and naming system by dividing the topography of the site into 9 regions (insulae) and numbering idividual buildings within each insula. Changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies. It was . Archaeology is a constantly changing science. like that of the Bourbon King Charles III in Naples. ushered in an improvement in the methods of archaeology practiced in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. It was carried out essentially in search of valuable artefacts – which were removed and transported to private collections. Developments and improvements to technology and the continuous emergence of new and revolutionized ideas are continuously invoking change in archaeological methodology. In the rush and excitement to remove these ‘items of value’ other artefacts of immense archaeological significance were irreparably destroyed and vast amounts of knowledge and information were lost. • Discovered cavities in the deposits of hardened ash and recognised them as impressions of victims bodies. The 19th century ushered in an improvement in the methods of archaeology practiced in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. This system made it easier to draw up plans and locate individual structures. Early Archaeology undertaken in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the 17th and 18th centuries was destructive rather than productive. In the rush and excitement to remove these items of ‘value’ others were destroyed irreparably and vast amounts of knowledge and information was lost. • Cleared the unexcavated portions of the site to link excavated sections • Introduced a stratigraphical approach by uncovering by slowly uncovering the houses from the top down. rather than wealth. Contribution of Archaeologists: The apex of change in excavation methodology came with the 19th century archaeologists such as Fiorelli. however. who changed the face of archaeology and began to shift the focus over the next few years towards restoration. The late 18th and 19th centuries.1815) that the excavation methodology began to change and archaeologists working on these sites adopted a more systematic approach. Spinazzola and Maiuri. • Devised a method of injecting liquid plaster into the cavities to produce casts of the bodies.transported to private collections (like that of the Bourbon King Charles III in Naples). adopting a more scientific approach that focuses more on the acquisition of knowledge. How archaeology has changed: Today the focus of archaeology has changed.
Spinazzola and Maiuri. One of the current undertakings of the Philodemus Project is to arrange and catalogue the fragmented pieces of the papyri scrolls which were separated in the early archaeological procedures. which are of inherent value to the scholars of the societies of Pompeii and Herculaneum. modern archaeology has adopted a more scientific approach that focuses on the acquisition of knowledge. determining to which original scroll the . which would have been otherwise lost. that brought about a more scientific approach to archaeology at Pompeii and Herculaneum also saw a return to the examination of these invaluable scrolls that. also have a vital impact on the understanding and interpretation of the literary works of other cultures too. conducting research from digitally enhanced photographs. Today. but their importance was disregarded for some time. The philodemus project is an international effort that is dedicated to the reconstruction of the literary works of Philodemus found in the villa of papyri in Herculaneum. The apex of change came with the 19th century archaeologists such as Fiorelli. Richard Janko and Dirk Obbink. It is for these reasons that the texts are invaluable to modern archaeologist and the desires to conserve and preserve the texts are immense.during the period of French control in Naples that the excavation methodology began to change and archaeologists working on these sites adopted a more systematic approach. The initial attempts to read the documents failed and were abandoned due to their extreme fragility of the texts and numerous scrolls and the information they contained were lost due to nescient and rudimentary archaeological practices. who also stresses how important these centuries were. The scrolls are of eminent significance to scholars studying Pompeii and Herculaneum because of the scarcity of textual evidence from the time and are they are the only literary evidence currently available. Frustrated archaeologists began dissecting the scrolls with knives. are “comparable to the Dead Sea Scrolls in the insight they give into the ancient world”. The application of advanced and meticulous methods of unravelling the scrolls without inflicting damage to them. also allows them preserved in their original condition. which did not suffer the same extent of damage and could be unravelled and examined. Today. and multiple-imaging photography. The exterior portions of the scrolls were removed exposing the central windings. rather than wealth. which were referred to by Philodemus. conservation and preservation. The scrolls were excavated 1752. who shifted the focus of archaeology in the two cities towards restoration.C to the time of Christ” states professor Janko. The texts. The archaeological revolution. however. Perhaps one of the best examples of this is the Philodemus Project currently under the direction of David Blank. “Philodemus is virtually our only source on poetry and literary criticism from 300 B. infa-red. as Blank states. archaeologist working under the Philodemus Project utilize modern technology to help conserve the scrolls. Consequentially the exterior portions of the texts were mostly destroyed the process.
Although it is tedious work. They are now being translated into English and analyzed by a team of scholars led by UCLA. are “comparable to the Dead Sea Scrolls in the insight they give into the ancient world”. but the archaeological revolution that brought about a more scientific approach to archaeology at Pompeii and Herculaneum also saw a return to the examination of these invaluable scrolls that. conducting research from digitally enhanced photographs. subsequently large portions of the scrolls were destroyed in this process as well. The Philodemus Project: The Philodemus Project is perhaps one of the best examples of how modern archaeology has turned its focus on the acquisition of knowledge rather than wealth. allowing them preserved in their original condition. Currently under the direction of David Blank. . and multiple-imaging photography and the application of advanced and meticulous methods of unravelling the scrolls without inflicting damage to them. Richard Janko and Dirk Obbink. but their importance was disregarded for some time. the philodemus project is an international effort that is dedicated to the reconstruction of the works of Philodemus found in the villa of papyri in Herculaneum. it is necessary for those working under the Philodemus project to help rectify the careless proceedings of previous archaeologist in order to attain a complete and accurate record of the texts. As professor Janko states: “Philodemus is virtually our only source on poetry and literary criticism from 300 B.C to the time of Christ”. infa-red. as Blank states.excerpts belong and their correct position within them. archaeologist working under the philodemus project utilize modern technology to help conserve the scrolls. Today. The project is aimed at reconstructing and conserving the texts to preserve their content for the use of present and future generations and is just one example of recent actions that are being taken in Pompeii and Herculaneum to prevent further the destruction and loss of the vast array of knowledge the cities have to offer our own and succeeding generations about the past. The scrolls are of eminent significance to scholars studying Pompeii and Herculaneum because they are the only literary evidence currently available. Frustrated archaeologists began dissecting the scrolls with knives and separating fragments. archaeologists are using modern technology. to avoid handling and possibly damaging the texts themselves. The two thousand year old scrolls were excavated 1752. The initial attempts to read the documents failed and were abandoned due to their extreme fragility and numerous scrolls and the information they contained were lost due to nescient and rudimentary archaeological practices. aided by photographs and digital images. Due to the delicate nature of the scrolls. He also stresses how important those centuries were. however.
Poor site protection: Both sites have been subject to looting since their earliest excavations. There is no requirement. these structures actually damage them. determining to which original scroll the excerpts belong and their correct position within it. Many objects have vanished from the public domain and into private collections. which have long rested in the ruins. Recently. Issues of conservation and reconstruction: Italian and international contributions and responsibilities.One of the current undertakings of the Philodemus Project is to arrange and catalogue the fragmented pieces of the papyri scrolls which were separated in the early archaeological procedures.Poor site management -Tourism Poor restoration work: Much of the restoration work on the sites has been done by local firms with little specialised knowledge of restoration techniques. falcons have been employed at the site to scare away the pigeons to reduce the amount of damage cause by their droppings. on the tops of walls. The seismic activity shakes the foundations of the ancient sites.Damage from vegetation . Exposure to sun and rain has faded the paintings and frescoes. impact of tourism. Without adequate roofing features such as frescoes are exposed to sunlight and weather and drainage becomes a problem. Instead of protecting the sites. 400 pigeons at the site each day. It is estimated that between 1975 and 2000. With an est. There have been much thieving and robbery from both sites of artefacts and frescoes whose removal also cause damage to nearby frescoes. As the roots of these plants grow they open up more cracks. They take root in bare patches of earth. Pigeons. are another serious threat to the site because their droppings contain a level of acidity that damages wall decorations and floors. more than 600 items were stolen from the sites. Poor site management: Lack of appropriate site management is apparent. In some places incorrect construction methods have been used.Poor site protection . causing damage to excavated and unexcavated ruins. and in cracks in the ruins and gaps in mosaic floors. Damage from vegetation: Over 30 different varieties of weeds have invaded the ruin on both sites and are hastening decay. Vines and brambles attach themselves to walls. Visitors are allowed to wander unsupervised through the site and the absence of vigilant guards leaves the site vulnerable to theft and vandalism. nor provision. Environmental factors: Campania is subject to frequent earth tremors. penetrating the plaster surfaces. Main risks to Pompeii and Herculaneum: -Poor restoration work .Evironmental factors . the harm they cause is considerable. for visitors to check in large bags and backpacks before entering. Tourism: .
Revenue from tourism: In 1997 the International government introduced a new policy towards the management of the sites. although it doesn’t attract as many tourists as Pompeii. it was accepted practice in scientific circles to collect and study human remains. All admission fees and tourist-related revenue is now kept in the superintendent’s budget for the sites which has greatly improved management ant conservation issues. further decisions still need to be made about the type of conservation. • From the 1980s onwards a computer database has been set up to record all the findings at the sites. Over the past 50 years attitudes toward the display of human remains . • There has been a re-examination of the early excavation reports and a reevaluation of some of the building at Pompeii.Pompeii is one of the most popular tourist sites in the world. Museums and other institutions had extensive collections and displays of bodies and skeletons in various states of preservation were relatively common. . restoration involves repair of a damaged object or site and the replacement of missing parts to make it as it was originally. What has been done at Pompeii and Herculaneum? Since the 1970s a number of projects have been undertaken to address the issue of the deterioration of Pompeii and Herculaneum. • Since 1995. In the nineteenth and for most of the twentieth centuries. One of the major ethical issues in archaeology today relates to the study and display of human remains. lean against them and touch them. The debate now remains between conservation and restoration. including: • Pedestrians cause roads to wear ( e. the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei (the Italian authorities responsible for the site) have emphasised the need to preserve the site rather than conduct further excavation.In many places ancient water pipes laid under the foundations of footpaths have been exposed and damaged) • Souveniring • Vandalism and graffiti on walls and other surfaces • Entering forbidden areas • Damaging frescoes when backpacks and other items scrape them • Causing wear and damage to walls and entrance ways as tourists brush past. the Via dell’ Abbondanza in Pompeii – footpath worn down to the same level as the road. To conserve something is to preserved it in its existing state. • From 1975 onwards there has been a project by international scholars to record the most notable houses at Pompeii and their decorative features. Ethical issues: study and display of human remains.g. Herculaneum is also very popular. Even thought the decision has been made to conserve rather than excavate. Conservation: (Conservation or restoration?) The choice between excavation and conservation at Pompeii and Herculaneum has been made in favour of conservation for now. It attracts around two million people every year. Tourists cause a multitude of problems.
The skeletons from both cities have been examined to reveal valuable information about the general health of the population. In Pompeii the plaster casts which vividly capture the last moments of the victims of Vesuvius have been a popular attraction for more than a century. In Italy. but most were disarticulated and stored in one of the bath houses.have changed in many western countries. . The skeletons have also revealed information about the circumstances of their deaths which has contributed to our understanding of what happened during the eruption. codes of ethics regarding the ownership and display of human remains were developed by museums. cultural sensitivity about the display of human remains varies from community to community. there is a long tradition of displaying the bodies and body parts of saints in religious contexts. The debate still continues about what should happen to the skeletons now. In the last decade of the twentieth century. Some of the skeletons excavated at Pompeii are displayed in situ. however. universities and relevant associations of archaeologists. In Herculaneum most of the skeletons were found crowed together in the boat houses along the shoreline.
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