TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS HERBAL MEDICINE

Disusun oleh : Aulia Septicharah Ayunda Budisetya Bil Islahi Gesit Anggoro Wati Mita Fitriani Rifa’atul Huda Syaiful bahri Siska Budi Utomo

FAKULTAS TEKNIK JURUSAN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH JAKARTA 2010

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herbal medicine took a very much part of medical practice) This kind of herbal discovery has been made since the dawn of civilization. to be used in medicine. They collected and brought back a huge raw sample of ingredients. Ibn Sina in his ‘Canon’ listed 142 properties of herbal remedies. became available. Mesopotamia. He remains the only known authority amongst the Greek and Roman herbalists. (since a thousand years ago. The discovery and wide use of paper also meant that on—the—spot detailed recording of their journeys and observations could be made. (herbal discovery has been made since the dawn of civilization) As the muslim lands grew. the first herbal was Greek and written in the 3rd century BCE by Diocles of Carystus. seeds and spices previously unknown to them. wrote ‘Collection of simples. many new medicines. merchants and travellers came across exotic plants and trees. (As the muslim lands grew. and herbal medicines. medicinal plants and resulting medicines’. The only work that has survived was done in 65 CE by Dioscorides called ‘De Materia Medica’. seeds and spices previously unknown to them) With this vast amount of data and material. and new drugs were discovered and administered. going as far a field as the Steppes of Asia and the Pyrenees. China and India to reflect a tradition that existed before we discovered writing. looked after by eminent scientists who wrote manuals on the medical properties of plants. coupled with their scientific medical knowledge. followed by Crateuas in the 1st century CE. Also in the 11th century. There are records from Egypt. who died in 1002. Herbal medicine wasn’t seen as an alternative medicine but very much part of medical practice with many hospitals keeping gardens full of herbs. merchants and travellers came across exotic plants and trees. combing the world and its harshest of environments. In the west. This was a classification of plants and their medical properties based on work of his predecossrs. All these discoveries meant that a huge amount of informatlon built up and spilled out of colossal encyclopedic works (All these discoveries meant that a huge amount of informatlon built up and spilled out of colossal encyclopedic works) Ibn samajun. knowledge and information.Herbal medicine A thousand years ago gardens were also scientific ‘field’ laboratories. .

the scientific study of plants . were compling vast lists of plants in books like his ‘A Treatise on plants’ . but the basis for his work 'Dictionary of Simple remedies and food'. the scientific study of plants . called ‘the father of modern botany’. In 11th century Toledo. a 10th century medical scholar used colchicum as a drug for treatment of got. but they also functioned as trial grounds for the acclimatization of plants brought from the Near and Middle East. experimental gardens sprouted and herbs were cultivated. (Botany. this was called 'the Book of Simple Drugs'. (All of part of this paragraph are the main idea) one of the best herbal medicine books was produced by al-Ghafiqi who died in 1165. (As botany became an academic science. (Al-Andalus or Muslim Spain was a springboard for herbal development. and the use of plants in medicine went hand in hand. and later in Seville.) Al-Andalus or Muslim Spain was a springboard for herbal development. Coupled with the appearence of 10th century improved water raising machines and new irrigation techniques.) As botany became an academic science. The first royal botanical gardens of Europe made their appearance) you can read about Ibn al-Baytar of Malaga in the 'Pharmacy' section. like alRazi. the first royal botanical gardens of Europe made their appearance. Spain . and both these developments helped to propel herbal medicine into the mainstream. While men like Abu Hanifah al-Dinawari. it was exceptionally accurate and was republished by Max Meyerhof in Egypt in 1932.(‘Collection of simples. and both these developments helped to propel herbal medicine into the mainstream. ‘Canon’ from Ibn Sina listed 142 properties of herbal remedies) Botany. medicinal plants and resulting medicines’ was a classification of of plants and its medical properties. others. chemistry was advancing at an incredible rate. reflects his botanical skills which meant he studied three thousand different plants and their medical properties. and the use of plants in medicine went hand in hand. (‘the book of simple drugs’ which produced by Al-Ghafiqi was one of the best herbal medicine books) . chemistry was advancing at an incredible rate. Initially they were pleasure gardens. an enormous pharmacological encyclopaedia.

The once great Salerno school was in decline because of a lack of language ability in Latin. faults in earlier bad translations and also from not being aLIe to correctly identify ingredients because they were described in local dialects. (In medieval Europe. (The success of the European scholars was measured by what they borrowed from Muslim botanists and how they made dioscorides more prominent. malpractice. sandalwood and cardamom. All this led Sir ‘I homas Elyot. He also identified many new plants and their properties along with their medicinal values in varioust diseases. Greek and Arabic. books on herbals were rare and known only amongst a small number of schoolars. a 16th century . (A very simple but major breakthrough the Muslims made in herbal medicine was watching how the herb affected the patient. (Ibn Juljul Translated his commentar on Dioscorides’s into Arabic adding many new substance and he also identified many new plants and their properties along their medicinal values) A very simple but major breakthrough the Muslims made in herbal medicine was watching how the herb affected the patient. and until the end of the 15th century many Europeans were using the Arabic texts) The success of the European scholars was measured by what they borrowed from Muslim botanists and how they made dioscorides more prominent.) European herbalists were frustrated by ignorance. ) elsewhere in medieval Europe. So between 1500 and 1600 there were about seventy-eight cdii ions of Dioscorides. and until the end of the 15th century many Europeans were using the Arabic texts and Arabic versions of greek texts translated into Latin. books on herbals were rare and known only amongst a small number of scholars. and they did not fully understand the Greek texts as most of the time they were second hand translations. the Greek scholar. Now this seems quite an obvious thing to do. but they were the only ones using and relying on scientific methods of experimentation and observation at that time. camphor. but things were not going well. but things were not going well.In the 10th century Ibn Juljul wrote a commentary on Dioscorides’s nine hundred—year—old book and translated it into Arabic adding many new substances such as tamarind.

to inform his readers that he derived no understanding from the ancients and that they gave ‘no little profyte concernynge myne owne he1the (European herbalists were frustrated by ignorance. and the complementary and alternative medicine industry is estimated to be worth €1. which was sometimes added in certain medieval european recipes.English diplomat and scholar.) For Muslims today herbal medicine is regaining its importance as many herbal physicians have started to emerge. although in villages and rural areas herbal medicine has persisted over the centuries. and according to a recent survey one in ten uses herbalism or homeopathy. potions and pills every year in Britain. (Fortunate1y.) Fortunate1y. herbal medicine has done away with using mummy’s blood. as an integrated part of tradition. Today in the United Kingdom. Around €130 million is spent on oils. (All of part of this paragraph are the main idea) New word :  Eminent  Merchant  Spices  Harshest  Build up  Spilled out  Hand in hand  Treatise  Propel  Mainstream  Cultivated : istimewa.6 billion. malpractice. which was sometimes added in certain medieval european recipes. one Briton in five uses complementary medicine. faults in earlier bad translations and also from not being aLIe to correctly identify ingredients because they were described in local dialects. tinggi : pedagang : bumbu : sangat keras : membangun : tumpah : berjabat tangan ( dlm kalimat tsb dpt berarti menyatu) : uraian : mendorong : Arus utama : diusahakan . herbal medicine has done away with using mummy’s blood.

and the use of plants in medicine went hand in hand. Botany. faults in earlier bad translations and also from not being aLIe to correctly identify . and both these developments helped to propel herbal medicine into the mainstream. Al-Andalus or Muslim Spain was a springboard for herbal development. merchants and travellers came across exotic plants and trees. Springboard  Acclimatization  Enormous  Obvious  Elsewhere  Medieval  Prominent  Ancient  Briton : batu loncatan : aklimatisasi : besar : jelas : di tempat lain : abad pertengahan : menonjol : kuno : orang inggris The conclution… since a thousand years ago. chemistry was advancing at an incredible rate. books on herbals were rare and known only amongst a small number of schoolars. and until the end of the 15th century many Europeans were using the Arabic texts. the Muslims made in herbal medicine was watching how the herb affected the patient. but things were not going well. As the muslim lands grew. the book of simple drugs’ which produced by Al-Ghafiqi was one of the best herbal medicine books. ‘Canon’ from Ibn Sina listed 142 properties of herbal remedies. herbal discovery has been made since the dawn of civilization. As botany became an academic science. The success of the European scholars was measured by what they borrowed from Muslim botanists and how they made dioscorides more prominent. In medieval Europe. Ibn Juljul Translated his commentar on Dioscorides’s into Arabic adding many new substance and he also identified many new plants and their properties along their medicinal values.European herbalists were frustrated by ignorance. All these discoveries meant that a huge amount of informatlon built up and spilled out of colossal encyclopedic works. seeds and spices previously unknown to them. A very simple but major breakthrough. medicinal plants and resulting medicines’ was a classification of of plants and its medical properties. the scientific study of plants . herbal medicine took a very much part of medical practice. The first royal botanical gardens of Europe made their appearance. malpractice. Collection of simples.

Fortunate1y. herbal medicine has done away with using mummy’s blood.ingredients because they were described in local dialects. . which was sometimes added in certain medieval european recipes.