LEUNG’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMMON NATURAL INGREDIENTS
USED IN FOOD, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS
Third Edition IKHLAS A. KHAN
Research Professor and Assistant Director National Center for Natural Products Research Professor of Pharmacognosy University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi

EHAB A. ABOURASHED
Assistant Professor College of Pharmacy Chicago State University Chicago, Illinois Adj. Res. Associate Professor National Center for Natural Products Research University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi

LEUNG’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMMON NATURAL INGREDIENTS
USED IN FOOD, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS
Third Edition

LEUNG’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMMON NATURAL INGREDIENTS
USED IN FOOD, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS
Third Edition IKHLAS A. KHAN
Research Professor and Assistant Director National Center for Natural Products Research Professor of Pharmacognosy University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi

EHAB A. ABOURASHED
Assistant Professor College of Pharmacy Chicago State University Chicago, Illinois Adj. Res. Associate Professor National Center for Natural Products Research University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi

Copyright Ó 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permission. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Khan, I. A. (Ikhlas Ahmad) Leung’s encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics / Ikhlas A. Khan, Ehab A. Abourashed. – 3rd ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics / Albert Y. Leung, Steven Foster. 2nd ed. c1996. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-471-46743-4 (cloth) 1. Natural products–Encyclopedias. I. Abourashed, Ehab A., 1964- II. Title. QD415.A25L48 2010 660.6’3–dc22 2009015927 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

From I. A. Khan Dedicated to My Parents and My Family, Shabana, Farjad, and Sariya For Their Love and Support

From E. A. Abourashed To Abir and Our Two Daughters Ayat and Nada For Their Love, Patience, and Support And . . . to My Parents

Contents
FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION, BY ARA G. PAUL, PH.D. FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION, BY DONALD A. DAVIS PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION NATURAL INGREDIENTS INDIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE CHINESE COSMETIC INGREDIENTS APPENDIX A–GENERAL REFERENCES APPENDIX B–GLOSSARY/ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX C–BOTANICAL TERMS APPENDIX D–MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT ORGANS GENERAL INDEX CHEMICAL INDEX ix xi xiii xv xxi xxv xxvii 1 637 657 687 695 700 706 711 779

vii

Foreword to the First Edition
The publication of Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics is a welcome addition to the libraries of those of us interested in natural products. The reasons for publishing this unique encyclopedia are aptly dealt with by the author in the Preface, and the principal audience has been identified as practicing technologists in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries and their purchasing agents and marketers. But, as well, it should prove to be an important reference for teaching and research in economic botany, food technology, natural products chemistry, and pharmacognosy, for it brings together information about a variety of substances that, for various reasons, are not included in recent compendia dealing with one or another of these disciplines. Yet, as the author points out, these are materials that find significant usage in our society. Dr. Albert Y. Leung’s education as a pharmacist and pharmacognosist, coupled with his extensive experience in natural products industries, provide him with a unique background that accounts for his successful synthesis of this information into a practical compendium. The material is accurately and succinctly presented, the individual monographs are selectively supplemented with a current bibliography that allows for further reading on a particular product, and the selection of products included has been skillful. Dr. Leung is to be commended for his efforts in bringing us this most worthy publication. ARA G. PAUL, PH.D.
Professor of Pharmacognosy and Dean College of Pharmacy The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

ix

Foreword to the First Edition
By some peculiar irony, the rapid technological advances made by the chemical industry since World War II have worked to obscure the solid basic knowledge the industry once had of some of its natural building blocks, the botanicals that were (and still are) the prime ingredients in so many drugs, cosmetics, flavors, industrial reodorants, and so on. The recently trained chemist, pharmacologist, or food flavorist (or, for that matter, the person involved in sales, marketing, or purchasing of these materials) in all likelihood has missed the fact that these materials have considerable historical significance, that they still have application in so diverse a list of products, and even what specific role they play in familiar products. After all, these older, possibly no-longer-glamorous natural substances may seem unsophisticated and awkward to handle to those trained in the glories of what might be called synthetic chemistry—the molecular juggling of carbons, hydrocarbons, acids, and alcohols to evolve pristine crystals and powders. Many of the veteran bench chemists with experience in natural materials have retired or passed on to their ultimate reward (hopefully, a golf cart or a fishing boat in some warmer clime), so the time is coming when there will be less use of such fascinating ingredients as bloodroot, horehound, or ylang ylang oil. The veteran chemists used these materials to make cough remedies or perfume oils before there were synthetics, and when they are gone, the individual little pockets of knowledge have been in danger of dying out. They appreciated that these unique materials provide special product attributes, in the same way that classic spices do for a good chef. Then too, much of the chemical and biological information has been buried in foreign scientific literature, thus making it unavailable to the average technologist. Dr. A. Y. Leung has been observing this widening information gap for several years, perceiving that one logical way to bridge it was to put together a compendium of materials of natural origin. He has gone about the task with logic and a sense of order, selecting the cardinal facts without deluging the reader or peruser of the book with a veritable mountain of biological data. As befits the only reference book that covers food, drug, and cosmetic aspects of common natural ingredients, Dr. Leung has identified each entry according to biological name, its alternative or slang description, a general description of the plant from which it is derived, chemical composition, pharmacological or biological activity, and uses and commercial preparations. And for those needing more information, he has included a comprehensive list of references. Such handy organization of material makes this book especially useful to the working chemist or technologist, to the purchasing director, and to the person in sales or product development or marketing, for in one fell swoop he or she is given clear, comprehensive information with no unnecessary embellishment. Exotica become less exotic, the strange becomes more familiar. Because of the ongoing work of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review and the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, it is a safe bet that in the not-so-distant future there will be a demand for a second edition of this monumental work. These efforts will produce much information about the toxicity or safety
xi

xii

Foreword to the first edition

of these materials, information that will give better clues as to whether it may be opportune or diplomatic or safe from a regulatory standpoint to persist in using a material that may be allergenic or sensitizing. Also, Dr. Leung has tried to emphasize the quality of commercial preparations, with an eye toward the purchasers and end users who will ultimately find the volume so useful.

Anyone with a sense of romance will cherish the names of these materials, and anyone with an appreciation for order and thorough documentation will regard this book as useful and to the point. DONALD A. DAVIS,
EDITOR

Drug and Cosmetic Industry New York

Preface to the Third Edition
Ten years after the publication of the second edition, we accepted the invitation to complete the third edition of this encyclopedia. As it turned out, it was a massive task that took more than three years to accomplish even though many of the initially planned new ingredients were eventually left behind. The reader may notice that the included ingredients are almost the same as those of the second edition (ca. 300 main entries and about the same number of related species and varieties) and that the new ones are included under a new section entitled ‘‘Indian Traditional Medicine—Ayurveda.’’ Nevertheless, the total number of pages of this edition has increased by at least 50% from the previous one. The reason for this is the fact that since the inception of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), interest in dietary supplement/herbal medicine research has witnessed an unprecedented revival resulting in an exponential increase in scientific/industrial journals on herbals and alternative medicine and reports published therein over the past decade, not only in the United States but all over the world as well. Faced with such a massive body of data, we had to make a decision to focus our efforts on updating the literature related to the currently included ingredients rather than diverting our attention to the inclusion of new entities. Pursuing this strategy, we ended up searching Medline as our main online source, reviewing thousands of published reports for quality and content, and summarizing the findings of those satisfying our evaluation criteria. This resulted in the inclusion of more than 6500 references in the current edition. A number of the most prominent textbooks published in the field during the same period have also been added to the general references. Of these, two textbooks focusing on clinical trials with herbal products (BARRETT; BLUMENTHAL) and a translated atlas of phytopharmaceuticals (WICHTL) are worth mentioning. The general format of the previous edition has been generally maintained (Source, Description, Chemical Composition, Pharmacology, Uses, Commercial Preparations, Regulatory Status, and References) with minor updated headings for ‘‘Toxicology’’ and ‘‘Dietary Supplements/Health Foods’’ to reflect the latest trends and regulations. The reader should refer to prefaces to the first and second editions for a thorough description of each heading. The newly added section includes a background on Indian traditional medicine and lists information on nine commonly used herbal ingredients. The general references and glossary have been updated and moved to the end of the book and assigned as Appendices A and B, respectively. Two new appendices (Appendices C and D), explaining and illustrating the botanical terminology frequently encountered in the text, have also been added. It is our hope that this new edition will provide updated information on classical herbs and/or their common ingredients included in

xiii

nutrition. Such information should continue to be useful to readers with various backgrounds who share an interest in natural product applications in medicine. KHAN AND EHAB A. and cosmetics and who are looking for a comprehensive compilation of the recent liter- ature summarizing the most prominent findings in this field.xiv Preface to the third edition the previous edition. Mississippi March 2009 . IKHLAS A. ABOURASHED Oxford.

Thus.) have joined forces with herbalists and manufacturers and developers of health foods and herbal teas to promote research and information dissemination in the field of medicinal plants and herbal products. However. I have included information to support the ‘‘new’’ uses in this edition. etc. many books on natural products have appeared since the first edition was published. these rapidly expanding fields of health foods and herbal teas have made it very difficult for one to ignore. new ingredients described in this second edition reflect this trend. are not included in the general references. pharmacology. usages and use trends of many of these ingredients have changed. and/or misleading data.Preface to the Second Edition Fifteen years have passed since the publication of the first edition. In order to help minimize the spread of dubious data. and food establishments have so far chosen to ignore them. has been engaged in promoting research in the various aspects of herbs. loosely categorized as ‘‘health foods. Due to other commitments that limited my availability for this revision. I enlisted the capable assistance of Steven Foster who has earned a reputation for his writings. up-to-date and accurate information on their ingredients should be made readily available. while others are simply indiscriminate compilations of data. An unusual. which have increasingly found their way into American cosmetic.’’ has established itself in North America. and herbal tea products in recent years. alliance emerged during the past decade. Some of these books contain well-researched information. which only help to perpetuate the confusion relating to information in the herbal products field. pharmaceutical. the Herb Research Foundation. Along with the more recently xv . Concomitant with the development of health foods and herbal teas. as well as negative information from opposing interest groups that is based on bias and self-interest and not on relevant traditional and scientific data available. so has the use of herbal teas. However. most members of the medical. secondary. botany. Consequently. chemistry. Although a few conventional food and drug companies have tried to capitalize on the market generated by these new fields. He has been instrumental in updating much of the information in the original entries of the encyclopedia as well as introducing most of the new non-Chinese ingredients in this revision. but positive. books containing excessive outdated. medicine. not only to provide useful data for technologists and consumers interested in these ingredients. including some English titles on Chinese medicinal plants (even though aggressively marketed). basic information on most of the traditional ingredients in the encyclopedia has remained essentially the same. As Chinese herbs constitute a majority of all natural products used in the world. established in 1983 with an advisory board of respected scientists in various fields. as well as those consisting primarily of indiscriminate compilations of data. A whole new field of food/drug products. Numerous scientists and practitioners from traditional fields (pharmacognosy. health food. During this period. For this reason. but also to counterbalance the proliferation of promotional literature from marketers that is often grossly inaccurate and misleading.

gingerols). is the failure of the investigators to identify correctly and quality control the material they are studying. which would invariably result in publications that in turn would boost the political and financial status of the researchers involved. Some of the answers seem to lie in the complex chemical nature of these products. Along with the greatly increased availability of information and books on natural products. it is very easy for a chemist to discover new chemicals or find known active chemicals in trace amounts in any plant material or for a pharmacologist to test the pharmacological activities of chemicals that are isolated only in traces from plant drugs. myrcene). anti-inflammatory (acurcumene. ginseng has still not been ‘‘proven effective’’ by modern science. chavicol. the most common flaw in publications on natural products. and yet despite extensive research over the past 30 years. geraniol. could easily be turned into a panacea as it contains dozens of active compounds. the extensive use of information from the Chinese literature in this new edition reflects the greatly increased availability of data on natural products from China during the past decade. This may be one of the major reasons why ginseng and other tonics have been used for so many centuries in China for so many different conditions. we have selected as general references some of the books that we find useful and that we believe had an impact in the industry in recent years. and others. However. geraniol. ginger. each of which by itself has been shown to have various biological activities. spasmolytic (borneol. Also. irrespective of the amount present.). the challenge is to refrain from over-interpreting the results that are often blown out of context by proponents or opponents of the herbal drug as ‘‘preliminary evidence’’ to promote or restrict use of this particular herb. shogaols). which consequently should not be taken seriously.xvi Preface to the second edition founded American Botanical Council (1988). which is by far the more abundant than that originating elsewhere. borneol). generating thousands of research publications. shogaols). cardiotonic (gingerols). In this new edition.8-cineole). nutrient (vitamins. However. it publishes HerbalGram. The pin-yin system of transliteration has been selected over the Wade–Giles system because the former is now standard in Chinese literature originating in the People’s Republic of China. antitussive. narcotic (cumene). As there is no standard translation of Chinese pharmaceutical and biomedical titles. myrcene). and expectorant (1. The bioavailability of these chemicals in a herbal formula or in an ingested herb is most likely very selective and dependent upon the physiological state of the individual consumer. These activities include antimicrobial (essential oil components such as linalool. hypertensive (shogaols). antibronchitic. diuretic (asparagine). There is nothing wrong about such research. I have observed a tendency in both the professional and lay press in the overly simplified interpretation of this information. It is tempting to assign the biological activity of a compound present in a natural product to the product itself prematurely. . amino acids). gingerols. in my opinion. sedative (gingerols. antihistaminic (citral). But to say that the spice ginger is narcotic or hypotensive is an oversimplification in interpretation. especially in Chinese herbs. taking this approach. gingerols. For example. insect repellent (p-cymene. which is to make sense out of their myriad of traditional uses. shogaols). In our current state of specialization and advanced instrumentation and analytical and biological technology. minerals.8-cineole. a quarterly journal that provides accurate information on many commonly used natural products. lipotropic (lecithins). I have used the transliterated titles of such references whenever there is a possibility of confusion. 1. antipyretic (borneol. ginger could indeed exert some of these effects. a good amount from ‘‘advanced’’ countries. the common spice. hypotensive (1. There is also a general tendency to consider biomedical publications from Chinese sources as of inferior quality. analgesic (borneol. liver protectant (borneol).8-cineole. etc. This brings up one of the major challenges in natural products research.1 Under certain conditions or in specific dosage forms.

and stressrelated conditions. in reality. use of these ingredients in drugs was on the decline. German health authorities have . particularly in developing countries. Rather. many of these formulations contain ingredients that can truly be considered as food ingredients while others fall under the category of drugs. as well as to recognize the role that traditional medicine now plays in primary health care delivery. Now. This information is not intended to confirm efficacy or safety for a given indication. primarily in the form of plants. Based on traditional consumption patterns and use history. lies somewhere in between. I expect this ongoing debate to continue for a long time. and active principles. In the meantime. Observing traditional. However. and still others can be considered as either food or drug.Preface to the second edition xvii This leads to results that cannot be duplicated and contributes further to the overflow of misinformation or useless information in this field. they can provide valuable leads for new or expanded utilization in the future. we simply report on perceived uses of individual ingredients in the health food/herb tea category. most of which are related to side effects of our modern lifestyle or are common diseases that normally will resolve themselves with adjustment of lifestyle and without drug treatment. historic. While health food and herbal tea companies consider their products as composed of food ingredients. the information reported here should in no way be construed to be an endorsement of the reported usages. that is. while the latter include some digestive problems. 74% were discovered following chemical studies to determine the active compounds responsible for the use of the plant in traditional medicine. folkloric. While use of natural ingredients in processed foods and cosmetics was at its peak when the first edition was published. or ethnobotanical uses of plants is regarded as a useful approach for targeting research leads in the development of new drugs from plants. Most of the original entries in the first edition serve as ingredients in both foods and drugs in conventional usage. Since 1978. the ‘‘Folk Medicine’’ category has been changed to ‘‘Traditional Medicine’’ to accommodate Chinese traditional medical usages of the new Chinese drug and cosmetic entries. More and more natural ingredients are being used in ‘‘herbal formulations’’ for the prevention and often the treatment of illnesses.’’ information has been included on German regulatory monographs. Also. The debate whether health foods or herbal teas should be classified legally as genuine foods/teas or as drugs still goes on. the trend is reversed. the truth. WHO has estimated that as much as 80% of the world’s population rely chiefly on traditional medical systems. hyperlipemia. and the common cold and its related symptoms. minor aches and pains. plant extracts.’’ In this section. the medical and pharmaceutical industries generally view them or prefer to classify them as drugs requiring strict federal control.’’ All food and drug uses of commercial products that do not fall under conventional processed foods or cosmetic or OTC drug categories are grouped under ‘‘Health Food/ Herb Teas. the new ‘‘Health Food/Herb Teas’’ category should be adequate in covering reported uses in these areas. depending on usage. A recent survey of medicinal plants used in therapy worldwide found that 119 distinct chemical substances derived from 91 species are used as drugs in one or more countries. In the second edition. Although these opposing views are obviously dictated by economic and political considerations. it is meant only to indicate for what purposes consumers may be using these products. processed foods and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Of these plant-derived substances. Under ‘‘regulatory status. I have added over 70 new entries and included a new category of usage called ‘‘Health Food/Herb Teas. the World Health Organization (WHO) and dozens of collaborating institutions worldwide have sought to assess the value and extent of the use of plants in health care systems. The former include obesity.2 While many traditional uses may not be validated as safe or efficacious by current scientific methodology.

Some of these new ingredients can be found among the more than 24 main entries that I have included in this revision. contraindications (if any). It has produced nearly 300 ‘‘Therapeutic Monographs on Medicinal Products for Human Use. manufac- turers. eleuthero. it is obvious that much remains to be done in assuring the identity and quality of natural ingredients in the health foods/herb teas field.’’ Each monograph. interactions with other drugs or agents (if known). no meaningful assay standards or quality assurance methods have been introduced to guarantee purity and quality of many natural ingredients. side effects (if known). use of natural ingredients in cosmetics had been slowly declining until more recently. when a new surge of interest in Chinese cosmetic ingredients prompted the introduction of a number of Chinese natural products into American cosmetics. Thus. ‘‘ginseng capsules’’ or ‘‘aloe vera’’) are irreproducible and mostly worthless. These include echinacea. This adulteration/misidentification has caused a major problem in the research on commercial natural products. ginseng. Since the publication of the first edition.’’ This section describes in brief some of the more commonly used natural ingredients in Asia. trade practices in this industry have not changed significantly during the past decade.4 This study has been repeatedly quoted worldwide for the past 16 years both in scientific journals and in the lay press. None of the people who quoted this study seemed to have read the original publication. are misidentified. indications (including those for the crude drug or preparations). The practice of this intentional adulteration is implicitly encouraged by manufacturers who purchase only low priced ingredients and who will simply accept dubious ‘‘certificates of purity’’ from suppliers as the sole proof of quality and by the common practice of employing ‘‘label claims’’ in the cosmetic industry. published in the German Federal Gazette (Bundesanzeiger). still lack meaningful assay standards and are frequently adulterated. Only a very small number of companies have their own programs to standardize and control the identity and purity of the herbal ingredients used in their products. Although used for centuries in China. noticed. the method of administration.3 It also serves as the model for the development of a European phytomedicine monograph system produced by the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP) for use by European Union member countries.. And irrespective of claims by individual suppliers.xviii Preface to the second edition established a separate expert commission (‘‘Commission E’’) to develop standardized therapeutic monographs on herbal medicines. due to ignorance. for example. one should exercise extreme caution when quoting results of these studies. even some wellknown herbs. A wellpublicized example is an uncontrolled study on ginseng (?) resulting in the so-called ‘‘ginseng abuse syndrome. and associated trade groups on quality. and the general properties or therapeutic value of the herb or herb product. Others (more than 22) can be found under the new section titled ‘‘Chinese Cosmetic Ingredients. which may now be found in new cosmetic products on the domestic market.’’ which was published in a reputable journal. details on dosage of the crude drug or preparations.g. such as aloe vera and ginseng. Because of this problem. In addition. yet distributed as genuine in the industry. Due to the failure of researchers to recognize the importance of identifying the correct source of test materials. especially in their powdered forms. The German monograph system is considered to be the best governmental information source on medicinal plant usage produced by a Western industrialized nation. results of studies on unidentifiable commercial herbal products (e. or cared that the results of that study were based on uncontrolled test materials . constituents. includes details on the name of the drug. Thus. these ingredients are new to most American cosmetic formulators. Despite renewed talks in the herbal/botanical industry to standardize quality and to assure purity of herbal ingredients. the most commonly used ingredients. and numerous Chinese herbs such as fo-ti. realized.

as there is normally more than one (or one type of) active component in a natural product. especially where Chinese herbs are concerned. This clearly demonstrates the need for experts of otherdisciplines tobe aware ofthe intricacies of natural products when investigating. these arbitrarily selected components can only be useful as a ‘‘marker’’ of product quality. Conversely. Another important point to remember when studying natural products is that it is sometimes not enough just to identify correctly the botanical source of the natural product to be studied. It is obvious the Western term for it. while mahuanggen (root) is antiperspirant. it is increasingly apparent that scientific evaluation of individual purified components from these natural products has rarely produced results that are consistent with the property of the products in toto. A recent trend in the herbal industry is to market the so-called standardized extracts. one should not be overzealous in trying to equate a chemical constituent to a traditional herbal drug. As more and more biological and toxicological research is performed on commercial natural products. To be fair to both traditional and modern science. Consequently. And these ‘‘markers’’ are only valid for extracts that are total extractions of the herbs concerned. each with distinct medicinal characteristics: stem. and evaluating these products. Another example is Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is meaningless. While in most cases with Western medicinal plants it is sufficient to simply assure their botanical identity. they would be rejected outright. Thus. it is not so with Chinese herbal materials. caffeinated drinks. Extraction processes designed to extract these ‘‘markers’’ selectively would produce extracts that are not representative of the original herbs. other drugs the subjects happened to be taking.. non-ginseng source (see ginseng). Thus. this is not the only incidence of such publications or research by researchers and editors who lack expertise in the natural products area and who otherwise are eminent in their own fields. reporting. In addition to their correct botanical sources. desert ginseng (canaigre) (?). simply identifying an herbal drug as Ephedra sinica Stapf can mean one of the at least two different drugs with distinctly different medicinal properties: mahuang (stem) is diaphoretic. Siberian ginseng (?). raw root tuber (heshouwu). fo-ti. such as ginseng extract standardized to ‘‘ginsenosides’’ content or Siberian ginseng extract to ‘‘eleutherosides’’ content. standardization based on one particular type of chemical component is not representative of the total activity of the product. This is especially true if this component . and cured root tuber (zhiheshouwu). Planta Medica. among other properties. as well as other unidentified materials (could be anything) in commercial ‘‘ginseng’’ products! Unfortunately.butalsoAmericanginseng (?). one should not be overoptimistic in claiming a particular herb or natural product as ‘‘cure’’ for a certain disease after studies have indicated that one of its numerous chemical components exhibits a positive effect on the disease. the ginsenosides in a ginseng extract may not be from ginseng itself but rather from another much cheaper. and Journal of Natural Products. Consequently. If such papers were submitted to journals of natural products such as the HerbalGram. one should not be prematurely alarmed if one of numerous components in a long-used natural product is shown to have toxic effects in the laboratory. Chinese herbal materials require further clarification. including plant parts used and whether or not the materials are simply cleaned and dried or are specially treated with other herbs and/or boiled in water or wine. However. a ‘‘standardized’’ ginseng or Siberian ginseng extract may be devoid of polysaccharides that are also biologically active.Preface to the second edition xix that included not only Asian ginseng (identity andpuritydoubtful). A voucher specimen of Polygonum multiflorum to go with fo-ti would further add to the confusion and would not determine whether the fo-ti shipment in question is the laxative (raw root) or the tonic (cured root). from which at least three different herbal products are derived. unless further research on the product in its complete form produces the same effects. Also.

It is widely distributed in nature. In this second edition. J. and delayed hypersensitivity).. the so-called ‘‘ginseng abuse syndrome’’ not cited under ginseng) for the same reason that results of research on an unidentified ‘‘yellow powder’’ as due to riboflavin or curcumin would not be reported in a medical or pharmaceutical journal. R.. JAMA. Sun et al. E. HerbalGram. V. all this does not mean eating cloves and olives. Duke. World Health Organ. Farnsworth et al. A.. much of which either has not been evaluated or is of dubious value.5 However. 17. We are currently being literally choked by an overabundance of data on natural products. 63 (6). as in the first edition.g. Appearing in the English literature mostly for the first time. Y. Bull. Preliminary studies have also indicated it to be effective against hepatitis and HIV. LEUNG Glen Rock. the information on the new Chinese natural products in this second edition has been gathered from dozens of major Chinese classical and modern works and from over 50 Chinese journals on traditional and herbal medicine. HerbalGram. Siegel. Tyler. Oleanolic acid is a typical example. 1. J. 241. Papers reporting on results of studies based on unidentified or unidentifiable test materials are not cited under the respective entries (e.xx Preface to the second edition is present only in minute quantities whose effect may be overshadowed by those of other compounds present. 4. 24 (1994). The new ingredients selected for this new edition generally reflect the trend in current commercial use of natural products in America. both containing oleanolic acid. 30. Clin.. New Jersey July 1995 . 3. thus making the herb (in its original form) inactive as a cure for the disease. 5. improving the general condition in two-thirds of the patients. I hope this new edition will provide the readers with an accurate update on the original entries of the first edition as well as an overview of the huge resources in Chinese herbal ingredients. I have tried my best to present a balanced view of the traditional and modern aspects of Chinese herb use. E-rosette formation. ALBERT Y.. 965 (1985). Chin. will necessarily produce such an effect. And I have paid particular attention to the identity and quality control of the test materials. every effort has been made to evaluate all original publications available to assure that the research methods and findings are of decent quality. 20 (1988). 1614 (1979). Pharmacol. 2. 6. K. 72 (1990). R. N. A recent double-blind study involving 152 cancer patients demonstrated it to have immunomodulating effects (enhanced phagocytosis.

Since many natural flavor ingredients and food additives are also drug and cosmetic ingredients when used in higher concentrations. where higher concentrations are involved. saving the reader much time and effort that otherwise would have to be spent in consulting various handbooks and journals. Since these botanicals are very much a part of our culture and daily life. There is still ongoing. and witch hazel are still widely used today in foods. Presumably. XIX) or the National Formulary (N. Many of the substances used in foods are also used in drugs and cosmetics. drug. Yet they are largely neglected or ignored by editors or authors of readily available handbooks. Second.S. These do not include antibiotics. Three major reasons have prompted me to compile this encyclopedia. or cosmetic ingredients contain limited and out-of-date information regarding naturally derived substances. rhubarb.P. no reference books are presently available that specifically and simultaneously deal with commonly used natural ingredients in processed foods. most of the currently available technical reference books in the English language on food. and cosmetics. up-to-date information on these materials. drug. active research on many of these natural products. drug. valerian. particularly outside the United States. and cosmetic products. XIV) are still widely used in nonprescription pharmaceutical preparations and in food products. chamomile. with each natural ingredient being cross-referenced with its xxi . and many other natural substances that constitute prescription drugs nor medicinal herbs that are not readily available in commerce. there should no longer be any interest in it. One of the objectives of this book is to try to bridge this gap by supplying information that would make different groups more aware of the practices and happenings outside of their own circle regarding the use of natural ingredients. Some of these ingredients are pure chemicals isolated from natural sources while others are extracts of botanicals. Our daily food. there has been an acute need for a compact reference book that provides condensed and accurate information on these substances. This encyclopedia is intended to furnish correct.Preface to the First Edition About 500 natural ingredients are currently used in commercial food. so are many plants that have never been admitted as official drugs. In this encyclopedia. overthe-counter drugs. Many formerly official botanical drugs that are no longer official in the United States Pharmacopoeia (U. white pine. between members of the academic and research communities and those in industry. and cosmetic industries. and cosmetic items often contain these ingredients. and cosmetics. First. drug. vitamins. drugs. as well as between the consumer and the industry concerned. Information readily available to one group is often not available to the others. Formerly official drugs such as arnica. when a botanical drug is deleted from a currently official compendium. there is a general information gap regarding natural products between technologists of the botanical industry and those of the food. information on them should be readily available. ginseng root. Third. chicory root. annatto seed. and rose hips. examples of which are alfalfa herb.F. fenugreek seed. each natural product is presented in alphabetical order according to its most common name.

etc.) are they specifically mentioned in this book. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses refer to current uses in commercially available products mainly in the United States. habitats. the mere presence of a toxic chemical in a natural ingredient does not necessarily make this ingredient toxic. as in the report on ‘‘Average Maximum Use Levels’’ published by the Flavor and Extracts Manufacturers’ Association of the United States (FEMA). Uses are categorized into four major areas: (1) pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic. and Chinese languages. Furthermore. yucca extracts as foaming agents in root beer. pharmacology or biological activities.xxii Preface to the first edition scientific name (Latin binomial) in the Index. Purity of the test material (which is often not sufficiently stressed) should also be taken into account when evaluating such data. the absence of a particular compound in a natural ingredient does not necessarily mean that it is actually absent. Data on chemical compositions of natural ingredients are constantly increasing as analytical techniques keep improving. its reported presence in a natural ingredient means only that someone has investigated it in this particular ingredient using a particular analytical technique for whatever reason. method of preparation. Under folk medicinal uses are listed only those traditional uses that are reported in reliable sources available to me. Only in cases where the functions of the ingredients have become widely known in the trade or otherwise in open literature (e. Also. parts used or derived from. yet only a few (occasionally arbitrarily selected) are listed in this encyclopedia. fenugreek extract as a major flavoring agent in artificial maple syrup. They are included in this volume because of their popular interest. making it an impossible task. as often there are over a dozen botanical components present in a single preparation.. The specific function and use level of a particular ingredient in a flavor formulation are often proprietary information. Consequently. Information included in each item includes plant or other sources. and their qualities. whenever applicable. it may simply mean that nobody has analyzed for it in this particular ingredient. No attempt has been made to identify the function of each ingredient in a product. As a natural ingredient often has several common names (synonyms). the reader is referred to the original references cited. common commercially available forms in the United States. The data on pharmacology or biological activities (be they favorable or unfavorable) reported in this book should be viewed with caution as often they were single reports or reports from a single laboratory or research group that have not been substantiated by other studies. This appears to be a typical case of information dissemination lag. Sometimes an ingredient is reportedly used in various types of food products. primarily in the English. uses. Incidentally. a manufacturer may foreseeably use an ingredient in an amount five times the average maxi- . (2) food. it should be kept in mind that results from animal studies are not necessarily applicable to humans. Under the fourth category (‘‘others’’) are listed potential or unusual uses that do not fall in above categories. Use levels in foods reported in this encyclopedia are based on the FEMA report. and regulatory status. (3) folk medicine. chemical composition. Its concentration and biological availability should be taken into account when the toxicity of the ingredient is considered. Data on about 310 natural ingredients are furnished. they are by no means complete and they should not be regarded as endorsement of such uses. Often an ingredient contains hundreds of chemical constituents. On the other hand. The same situation applies to the food area where the majority (200–250) of the ingredients used in food products are broadly identified only as flavor ingredients. and (4) others. For further information on other compounds. the reader is advised to use the Index if an ingredient cannot be found in the text under a particular synonym. food uses are reported in this encyclopedia by food categories. German. absinthium as a flavor ingredient in vermouths.g. brief physical description. yet federal regulations have approved its used in only one particular type of product. which is seldom publicly available.

g.1163). numbered according to their order of citation in the text. New Jersey January 1980 .Preface to the first edition xxiii mum use and still be considered within good manufacturing practice. the reader is referred to §182 and its appropriate sections under Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (formerly §121.101). the number refers to the order of appearance of this author’s books in the list. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. and if there are more than two authors.510 (formerly §121. ALBERT Y. Under regulatory status. Use levels reported for cosmetics are based on values reported in the Monographs on ‘‘Fragrance Raw Materials’’ prepared by Opdyke of The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials. theoretical considerations and basic principles in the fields concerned are omitted. Since the primary purpose of this encyclopedia is to serve as a practical reference guide for practicing technologists in the food. drug. and to other appropriate sections. In the General References are listed textbooks and handbooks from which general and sometimes specific information was obtained. it is identified by a number such as 1 or 2 immediately following the author’s name (e. and cosmetic industries and their purchasing agents and marketers. A glossary of terminology commonly used in the botanical industry is found in the Introduction. LEUNG Glen Rock. If an author has more than one book. FURIA. HARBORNE. listed in the General References. to §172. and published in Food and Cosmetic Toxicology.. and TYLER. and cosmetic industries. an ingredient described as having been approved for food use is not necessarily GRAS. to teachers and students of corresponding sciences and related fields. drug. For these topics. Inc. Specific references are cited under References immediately following each entry. It is hoped that this encyclopedia will serve as a handy and useful reference to technical and nontechnical members of the food. GRAS means generally recognized as safe as sanctioned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). to the FDA. and to the general public who want to know more about natural ingredients. by the name of the first author. BAILEY 2). and to the latest notices and rulings published in the Federal Register. the reader is referred to standard texts on these subjects such as BALSAM AND SAGARIN. They are identified in the text by the names of the authors in small capital letters. For more precise and up-to-date information. REMINGTON.

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Without their support the preparation of this book would have been a daunting task. for her help with the pharmacology sections and proofreading the manuscript. National Center for Natural Products Research. In addition. for botanical description and help with monograph preparation and literature searching. Thanks are also due to Dr. School of Pharmacy. University of Mississippi.Acknowledgments Our thanks to Dr. Shabana Khan. National Center for Natural Products Research. Vaishali Joshi. xxv . Dr. University of Mississippi. Joshi’s major contribution to the Indian Traditional Medicine chapter cannot go unnoticed. School of Pharmacy.

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for. drug. especially after the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994. have we started to know something about the chemistry of some of these products. as is the case with certain flavor chemicals. These effects may not be immediately apparent. To define a natural product is not a straightforward task. then the impurities would be different from one synthetic process to another. cosmetics. whether it is a natural or synthetic chemical. before this range becomes negligible. Nevertheless. Consequently.Introduction People have been using natural products since the dawn of human history. In the case of flavoring substances. and their sources should be indicated. as it is impractical to set absolute purity standards for these ingredients. The implementation of DSHEA in the United States opened the market to a new class of natural-based products that are collectively known as dietary supplements (more below). if not all. There are several definitions of a natural product. some definitions of a natural product (flavor) limit the product to be one obtained from natural sources by physical processes only. Most. drug. and complementary medicine. strictly speaking. it must be pointed out that unless this chemical is absolutely pure (which it seldom is). Only toward the end of the 19th century. especially with reference to botanicals. The relative toxicities or merits of these small differences have not been determined. With our increasing knowledge of chemistry and related sciences. a minute quantity of it present in a chemical would produce physiological effects besides those elicited by the pure chemical itself. many natural drugs have been replaced by synthetic ones. however. since the advent of the Synthetic Era several decades ago. This number has not changed appreciably for the last two decades. one should not equate a naturally derived chemical with its synthetic counterpart. particularly in foods. or cosmetic ingredient are bound to be different from those of its synthetic counterpart. the number of natural products/natural productderived drugs used in pharmaceutical products is still sizable. we have begun to duplicate some of the natural chemicals and at the same time make modifications in these compounds. However. However. this range has become progressively narrower. However. In some cases. has unusually high latent biological activity. and cosmetic ingredients do not have provisions for pinpointing small amounts of impurities. or sometimes produce completely new ones. Over the past decade. a natural chemical is the same as its synthetic counterpart in every respect. This range of errors can be due either to the assay methods themselves or to actual impurities present in the chemical. it would contain different impurities. natural flavors and fragrances have been duplicated or simulated by manufactured chemicals. amounting to ca. The impurities present in a naturally derived food. Consequently. If an impurity. in practice. of existing standards for food. Theoretically. Other definitions allow hydrolysis and fermentation xxvii . there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural products. and if there is more than one way to synthesize this compound. as analytical methodology advances. depending on its sources. most of these materials are permitted to have a range of errors built into their purity assays. everything is derived from nature. At least 250 plants or their extracts are currently used in commercial food products broadly classified as flavoring ingredients (FEMA). by natural products it is generally meant that products are not made by chemical synthesis. 25% of the total number of medicines approved by the FDA.

and cosmetic ingredients in this encyclopedia is about 310 (first edition). 5. animal. constituent. Many of these food additives are also drugs when used in larger quantities. (c) a herb or other botanical. drugs. Many natural drugs formerly recognized by the United States Pharmacopeia (U. sophistication. The total number of the more commonly used natural food. or microbial sources. only a relatively few plants or plant products are currently officially recognized in the United States as effective drugs. and milk are not included in this book. active and inactive. These chemical reactions do not drastically alter the chemical structure of the natural product to be isolated. premature publicity on unconfirmed research data has tainted the reputation of many botanical drugs. or processing of foods for one or more of the following purposes: 1. 6.) and National Formulary (N. or combination of any ingredient described above. This has led to inconsistencies in drug potency. 3. and many natural drugs have probably been removed from officially recognized status as a result. or substitution has been common.) are no longer official in these compendia. Their primary function is to act as diluents (fillers) and/or to facilitate the ultimate intake or utilization of the active ingredients. Only food additives are considered. a natural product is defined as a product that is derived from plant. As mentioned above. yet many of these continue to be used in pharmaceutical preparations. do not exert physiological actions when ingested or applied to the body.xxviii Introduction as permissible processes. 4. 7. the term “dietary supplement” means a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: (a) a vitamin. This is largely due to the difficulties encountered in plant drug research and the limitations of scientific methodology employed. although they are considered active ingredients. 2. (b) a mineral. Out of this number. the label of any dietary supplement marketed in the United States should have the statement: . both active and inactive substances are included. basification. perhaps 12–15% are natural products. Improve or maintain nutritional value Enhance quality Reduce wastage Enhance consumer acceptability Improve keeping quality Make the food more readily available Facilitate preparation of the food There are about 2500 direct food additives currently used by the food industry. in drug and cosmetic products. metabolite. As partially defined under DSHEA. starch. As mandated by the FDA. and cosmetics can be divided into two main categories. Food additives are a large group of substances that are added to foods either directly or indirectly during the growing. Quite often. namely.P. basic foodstuffs such as flour. based on prevalent data. sometimes facilitated by simple chemical reactions such as acidification. and salt formation as well as microbial fermentation. ion exchange. adulteration. drug. However. Among food products. (d) an amino acid. Active ingredients can be considered as those that supply energy to the body or serve as its nutrients (foods and some food additives). Some of these are also used in cosmetics.F. hydrolysis. In spite of the fact that plants have been used for therapeutic purposes for millennia. extract. or cause physiological changes in or on the body (drugs and cosmetics) when taken internally or applied externally. For all practical purposes in this book. storage. Ingredients used in foods.S. Inactive (inert) ingredients are substances that. primarily through physical processing. the implementation of DSHEA has imparted a new status to the majority of natural formulations currently available in the United States market. Since many drug plants have rather complicated chemical compositions and analytical technology has not been adequate in determining their identities and qualities once extracts are made from them. (e) a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. or (f) a concentrate.

html#sec3. cure. 4. 103rd Pharm. http://www. REMINGTON. 2033 (2006) Processing. K. 148. 5. Congress. I. 78. 46 (1976). and volatile oils.P. FURIA AND BELLANCA. of Chemicals in Food Production. D. Prod.. 461 (2007) . Dietary Supplement Health and Education 1. or microbes. Public Law 103–417. The included appendices contain most of the commonly encountered terms used in the botanical industry. This product is not intended to diagnose. W.” The unevaluated “statements” include any structure/function claims introduced by the manufacturer for a particular dietary supplement.. N. and cosmetic ingredients are pure chemicals isolated from plants. or prevent any disease. among others. FEMA. Some of the food. J. Storage and Distribution. fixed oils. 1973.Introduction xxix “These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Khan. National Academy of Sciences .. oleoresins. Newman and G. 3. FURIA. Morris. Nat. Act of 1994. drug. M.gov/opacom/ 2. The Use laws/dshea. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER.S. Farnsworth and R. Am. most are in the form of extracts. J. Washington. Cragg. Life Sci. R.fda. 70. DC. XIX. J. XXI AND XXXIII. treat. U. animals. However.

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DRUGS. AND COSMETICS Third Edition .LEUNG’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMMON NATURAL INGREDIENTS USED IN FOOD.

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16 coumarins (scopoletin. umbelliferone). and geraniol (<1% each). hairy. including an antipyretic sterol (24zethylcholesta-7. and 5. or (À)-epoxyocimene (EVANS). 1.11–13 Cadinene. (À)-sabinyl acetate. and deacetylglobicin (monomeric guaianolides).34% athujone). Common/vernacular names: Absinthe. chrysanthenyl acetate. (À)-epoxyocimene (1.10 Other constituents present in relatively high amounts in the oil include PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Despite the postulation that thujone and tetrahydrocannabinol.7%).7% volatile oil composed mainly of thujone (aand b-) and b-caryophyllene. and chrysanthenyl acetate. sabinyl acetate (18. odor aromatic.9. trans-sabinyl acetate.6-dihydrochamazulene. bisabolene.48%).40 -pentamethoxyflavone). northern Africa.23 GENERAL DESCRIPTION Artemisia absinthium is a shrubby perennial herb with grayish white stems covered with fine silky hairs. flavonoids. harvested just before or during flowering. 30–90 cm high. and exposures affect qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil. neryl propionate.21 and sterols.1 Bitter principles include artabsin (analogous monomer of absinthin). neryl acetate.7.22-dien-3b-ol). 3. a-terpineol.22. mostly obtuse. trans-sabinyl acetate þ lavandulyl acetate. with trace amounts of a-pinene.3 artabsinolides A–C (EVANS). artemoline.9% b-thujone (2. extensively cultivated.15%).5.4 other isolated lactones include arabsin. among others.30 .3. (Z)-epoxy-aocimene.7 artenolide.13 Chamazulene at concentrations of up to 0.7 pipecolic acid. myrcene. thujyl alcohol. leaves also silky. nerol. phenolic acids.0–7.Natural Ingredients ABSINTHIUM Source: Artemisia absinthium L. and isoabsinthin (dimeric guaianolides). (À). wermut.6 ketopelenolide a (a germacranolide). taste bitter. naturalized in North America.20 lignans (3.11.g.7-dioxabicyclo[3.8-cineole. germacrene D. and western Asia. geranyl propionate.6dihydrochamazulene)are also found. from these a volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation (EVANS.13 Miscellaneous constituents of the plant include inulobiose (an oligofructoside). linalool (1.11. YOUNGKEN). chamazulene.2. native to Europe. and wormwood.17–19 amino acids.92%). caryophyllene (1. absinthium. altitude. chrysanthendiol ( þ ).6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Artemisia absinthium contains up to 1.and trans-epoxyocimenes were isolated from anItalian absinthium oil of which they constituted 16–57%. and glandular. 2–3-pinnatisect. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). FERNALD. wermutkraut.14 PlantmaterialcollectedinArgentina(Patagonia) was composed of 59. camphene. absinthe grande.09%). and artemetin (5-hydroxy-3.7.0]-octanes).11%).14 Also. active principles of 1 . and sabinene (1.5 artabin.19 tannins (4. The volatile oil of different chemotypes can contain >40% of either p-thujone.29% was detected in the flowers at the beginning of flowering.15 Varying geographical origin. sabinene. common wormwood.. spicy. Parts used are the leaves and flowering tops (fresh and dried). and azulenes (e. armoise. dimeric guaianolides (absinthin and absintholide). petiolate lobes.8 anabsin.

and as choleretic for liver and gallbladder disorders. Its sale persisted in France until 191542 where it was popular among writers and artists.01% in detergents and 0. artemisetin. Absinthe was banned in many countries soon after the turn of the 19th century (1907 in Switzerland.25% in perfumes. absinthe. restlessness.33 and antimalarial activities. antidyspetic (EVANS). also used in the form of an aqueous extract at doses equivalent to 2–3 g of herb for the treatment of anorexia. creams. cut and sifted herb as tea (infusion or decoction) reportedly used as a bitter digestive stimulant (HOFFMAN). distilling the spirit. vomiting. fleas.31 TOXICOLOGY The toxicity of A.31 nematocidal.2 Absinthium absinthe and marijuana.36 and topically for contusions. antianorexic. hallucinations.000) (BLUMENTHAL 1). The oil and extracts are also used in alcoholic beverages as well as in other categories of foods such as nonalcoholic beverages.37 Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.44 The dried and fragmented leaves are used in the Philippines to treat herpes.35 The oil was shown to repel mosquitoes. The popular 19th century alcoholic beverage.27.32 acaricidal. and perfumes.43 anthelmintic activity is probably the result of lactones related to santonin found in wormseed (A. usually in the form of a dilute extract. epilepsy.39 how many of these observed toxic effects were caused by the plant remains unknown. dyspeptic symptoms. baked goods. ulcers. and for a time was the most heavily consumed alcoholic beverage in the country.26 The essential oil and extracts of the plant have shown in vitro antimicrobial. Not commonly used.006% in the last four food categories. tremors. no evidence of such activity was found. candy.34In vitro antimaliarial activity was found from two homoditerpene peroxides isolated from the aerial parts of the plant. is made by macerating absinthium and other aromatic herbs in alcohol. with maximum use levels of 0. vertigo. The oil has been used as a fragrance component in soaps.024% reported. as an antiseptic18 and a vermifuge. absinthium have been associated with brain damage. nightmares.42 . Habitual use or large doses of alcoholic drinks containing A. and gelatins and puddings. extracts now rarely used internally. Used as an aromatic bitter for promoting appetite. edema. cina Berg. Artemisia absinthium is widely used in flavoring alcoholic bitters and in vermouth formulations. and eczema and to speed the healing of wounds.and b-thujones. and flies. suicide. Pharmaceutical.41 Food. purulent scabies. including Toulouse-Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh. and then adding flavorings or coloring.38 With the likely exception of the latter owing to GABA-modulating activity of a. frozen dairy deserts.45 USES Medicinal. febrifuge. insomnia. respectively. detergents. 1912 in the United States). interact with a common receptor in the central nervous system.24 Antitumor activity has also been reported25 and attributed to a flavonoid. Thujone is porphyrogenic and may therefore be hazardous to patients with defective hepatic heme synthesis. absinthium and thujone remains poorly understood.40 Applied externally the essential oil is nontoxic. and convulsions. lotions.) and other Artemisia species. Reported average maximum use levels for the oil is about 0. for strengthening the system in colds and flu.36 however.37. except in some bitter tonics for anorexia and dyspeptic symptoms (bitter value of at least 15. average maximum use level of 0. also as emmenagogue. mental restorative (GRIEVE). Oil is used as an ingredient in certain rubefacient preparations. and Cosmetic. Traditional Medicine. and so on (BLUMENTHAL 1).27–31 antifungal. ingestion of large doses of thujone causes convulsions.

. Beauhaire et al. 2. Tetrahedron Lett.P. G. D. 3. 24. J. 54. 43 (1975). Lombard. K. Chialva et al. Soedin. The herb is subject of a German Commission E monograph (BLUMENTHAL 1). Swiatek et al. through Chem. Ital. EVANS. Sci. GUPTA. absinthium was formerly official in U. Dermanovic et al. 5. S. Lawrence.. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Drus. 323 (1980). G. M. Gribel and V. Rosetti and A. Austria. Liet. 12. Riv. 8. 11. J. 21. Prir. FEMA. V. Khim. Sci. C. 40.. ed. 13. Venkataraman in L. B. .. 1. 1. V. Regulatory Status. 26. 3191 (1980). Darb. Pharmacol. H. Chialva. 1. 93 (1988). Planta Med. 17. Fortschritte der Chemie Organischer Naturstoffe. L. 25. Soedin. Soedin. Khim. APPLEQUIST. GRIEVE. Behav. Nauch. 27. C. Slepetys. Soedin.. Ito in L. Mater. Aromi. Darb. 6.510). 19. M. Phytochemistry.. Pharm. Profumi. Polez. Zechmeister. Rastitel’Nye Resursy. 667 (1987). 17. L. 16... 6. Nat. Beauhaire et al. M. Z. 1467 (1975). BRUNETON. REFERENCES See the General References for APhA. Prir. J. p. J.. Chemesova et al. MASADA.. Ovezdurdyev et al. 4. 548 (1976). Kasymov et al. 62. I. Prir. Glas. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 7. 473 (1999). Lett.. Aerosol. Rastitel’Nye Resursy. Biochem. Tourn and A. Perf. D. Cl. (1830–1890) (BOYLE). 23. Springer-Verlag. Flav. Atti Acad. L. 158 (1998). Sci.. provided the finished food is thujone-free (§172.. Pharm. 58. 5. including the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) and EP (EVANS). T. Fis. Hem. 5. 289 (1973). Priblat. (1970). Sayed et al... J. 729 (1984). Slepetys.. 522 (1976). 17. 39 (1992).. M. Meschler and A. J... K. p. BLUMENTHAL 1. A. Nozoe and S. 19. KARRER. Vol.. 5–6. Vienna. F. 667 (1987). 18.. HOFFMAN. Piante Off. YOUNGKEN. 1. Cosmet.. N.. Zechmeister. ed. dilute extracts (tincture and fluid extract) and the essential oil. Soedin. Beloruss. 41. Fortschritte der Chemie Organischer Abstr. 14. Planta Med. 4. 21. M.. Respub. 29 (1974). Torino. 10. 2751 (1984). I. Egypt J. TSR Mokslu Akad. 161105d (1977).. Konf. 287 (1976). GUENTHER. A. Khim. Bertelli and J. SAX.. A.. 23. Dombrowicz. Timofeev.. Tetrahedron Lett. FERNALD. Khim.. 2079 (1968). 3.S. S. Howlett. 20. Slepetys. 86. 447 (1987). 53. Zakirov et al. Prir..Absinthium 3 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. Saponi. Essenze. Garrone. 65 (1991). 19. STAHL. Crabtree. 15. 14. Zhukov and V. Ser. Tetrahedron. Austria. MERCK. Ikram et al. Naturstoffe. Vol. TSR Mokslu Akad. Springer-Verlag. Ser. Sacco and F. absinthium is found in various European pharmacopoeias. 1959. 389 (1987). TUTIN 5. 9. Prir. Pol. Pharmacol. 25. 941 (1974)... A. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring substance. Mater. 2. 8. T. P. Khim. V. Farm. I.. S.. 4. 1959. J. Liet. Pashinskii. C.. Akhmedov et al.. Beogard. Swiatek and E. 100 (1987). Vienna. 24. 22. Rast.

721 (1975). M. G. 29. 39. et Perr. 319. Other suppliers include Senegal. 36. 45. D.. 223 (1990).. Gum acacia is one of the most water-soluble plant gums. Melai.. Int. G... 40. M.. in its range. Med. Natl. Ethnopharmacol.. Biol. 80. 32.. 223 (2003). M. Entomol. eds. K. 66.. usually in 2 or more weeks. T. The gummy exudates form as tears on the surface of the wounds and are collected after they have hardened. J. J. Acad. Anzeiger Schaedlingsk Pflanze Umweltschutz.4 Acacia (gum arabic) 27. Pharm. 31. in P. 35.5. and kher. Forensic Sci. The trees are tapped by making transverse incisions in the bark and peeling off a thin strip of the bark. 337 (1981). 2359 (1992). M. D. 30. 14. Int. C. Food Cosmet. Ruecker et al. A. 21 (1975). Bonkovsky et al. H. Aburjai and F. V. J. gomme de Senegal.) Willd. 43. 158 (2003). 130. Natsheh. J. Kaul et al. 269 (2002). Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs.. Econ. Ethnopharmacol.. Gum acacia contains a peroxidase that. Nigeria. Vol.) Willd.. 44. 377 (1999). Phytother. 13(Suppl. Nakahara. Common/vernacular names: Gomme arabique.. M. A. 340 (1992). 15.. Toxicol. ether. forming a weakly acidic solution with pH 4. Zafar et al. forms colored compounds with certain amines . Turk. J. and other Acacia spp. J. 17. verek Guill. Alzoreky and K. Biol. unless destroyed by heating briefly at 100 C.5–5. Tanzania. Chad. 28. 30. 94. K. G. 43. Opdyke. which distinguishes it from many other Acacia spp. gummae mimosae.. 167 (2001). Springer-Verlag. Berlin. 23.. Its solutions have lower viscosities than those of other natural gums. chloroform. J. B. Woerdenbag et al. De Smet et al. 38.. Juteau et al. Basaran et al. 4. J. A. It is insoluble in alcohol.). Indian J. Mauritania. o USA. Sci. N. Khattak et al. J. Pharm. Strang et al. 31. 34. Ethnopharmacol. D. A. Biochem. Pharmacol. Phytochemistry. Acacia senegal has triple spines at the base of its branchlets. 69. Br... one part acacia can dissolve in two parts water.. Quinlan et al. Planta Med. Res. GENERAL DESCRIPTION The dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of Acacia senegal (L. 42. 38.. D. O. Vogt.. 37. J. gum arabic. south to Mozambique. 97. gum Senegal.. 41. Chiasson et al.. Proc. F. Gambelunghe and P. M. L. Food Micriobiol.. Korayem et al. S. 3826 (2000). 32 (1993). 183 (2002). 1590 (1999). S.. 1997. Turgay. 33. M. L. 80. E. (syn. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae).. 75 (2002). 3. H€ld et al. ACACIA (GUM ARABIC) Source: Acacia senegal (L. gum acacia.... 40. 987 (2003). Ethnopharmacol. The Republic of Sudan supplies most of the world’s gum acacia and produces the best quality product. H. H. senegal rangesfrom Senegal to northeastern Africa. p. J. It is almost odorless and has a bland mucilaginous taste. and oils and very slightly soluble in glycerol and propylene glycol. 45 (1985). and Ethiopia.) or other related African Acacia species.

which destroy the gum by precipitation. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. REMINGTON. frozen dairy desserts. REFERENCES See the General References for DAVIDSON. GUPTA. aminopyrine. including urea. Gum acacia is incompatible with heavy metals. . powdered. homatropine. and flavor fixative and to prevent crystallization of sugar. where it performs many functions.4–7 In rat models of chronic diarrhea. LAWRENCE. It also causes partial destruction of many alkaloids. imitation dairy products.004% (40 ppm) in soups and milk products to 0. MARTINDALE. scopolamine. gum acacia enhanced electrolyte. eugenol.g. granular. stabilizer. vanillin.C. SAX. It is used in practically all categories of processed foods. tannins. YOUNGKEN. the major use of gum acacia is in foods. and physostigmine. also as a film-forming agent in peel-off facial masks. guaiacol.9% in nonalcoholic beverages.1330). phenol. KEAY.3 Studies of gum acacia in rats as a potential hypocholesterolemic agent have shown conflicting results. GRIEVE. KENNEDY. glucose. guinea pigs and rabbits also seem to use it for energy. Pharmaceutical. senegal gum is a complex polysaccharide that consists of varying numbers of polysaccharide units of molecular weight 200. as a demulcent for inflammations of the throat or stomach and as a masking agent for acrid-tasting substances such as capsicum (MARTINDALE)..7–2. epinephrine. Hypersensititivty reactions to the dust or from ingestion of gum acacia are rare and consist of skin lesions and severe asthmatic attacks.). Its use levels range from <0. and snack foods to as high as 45% in candy products. thymol. TERRELL.Acacia (gum arabic) 5 and phenols (e. USES Affirmed as GRAS Acacia gum has been in use since ancient times. gum acacia is nontoxic.10. and water absorption in rat models of chronic diarrhea and in healthy rats. cocaine. morphine. Crude A.11 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available in crude. as do humans to a certain extent. and fats and oils. GLICKSMAN. baked goods. FURIA. It is official in N. gelatins and puddings. FEMA.C.8. alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. etc. (§184. Borax and alcohol also precipitate it. antipyrine. MCGUFFIN. Mainly in the manufacture of emulsions and in making pills and troches (as an excipient). and spray-dried forms. and F. adhesive.9 Chronic renal failure patients administered gum acacia have shown increased fecal nitrogen excretion and lowered concentrations of retained metabolites.000 linked to a protein core. Currently. among others. imitation dairy. apomorphine. hyoscyamine. GOSSELIN. snack foods.1 forming an arabinogalactan–protein complex. including candy. Regulatory Status.2 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Ingested orally. WHISTLER AND BEMILLER. flake.F. Food. as a suspending or emulsifying agent. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION USES Medicinal. breakfast cereals. for example. including atropine. Gum acacia can be digested by rats to an extent of 71%. but the process can be prevented or reversed. cresol. among others. and Cosmetic.

J. which makes up about 80% of the fruit. Am.. and huesito. M.. and sucrose. U. slightly resembling cherries. G. C. riboflavin.1–3 However. Y. Vitamin C content varies with ripeness of the fruit (highest in green and lowest in fully ripe fruit). 390 (2002). and niacin in concentrations comparable to those in other fruits. 235 (1984). Pediatr. Nutr. S. Pediatr.1 Both M. and alcohols (13%) made up the major components. ACEROLA Source: Malpighia emarginata DC. M. 392 (1996). retusa Benth. 23 (1988). Malpighia emarginata is native to the West Indies and is also found in northern South America. A. climate.. resulting in carbon dioxide buildup.. Dig. 17. bright red. aliphatic esters (31%). Dis. Polym. 106.. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Acerola is the fruit of a shrub or small tree that grows to a height of 5 m. Ser. 9.. berteriana Spreng.1 Its fruit is among the richest known sources of natural vitamin C. S. Central America.1. 2. iron. A. J.. Tsai et al. emarginata cultivated in Cuba. or subglobose. Teichberg et al.. Common/vernacularnames:Acerola. 97. 8. (M. 5. S. punicifolia have been reported in the literature as a source of acerola with high vitamin C content. Kiriyama et al. emarginata (USFISB).. A. M. Annison et al. A. 336 (1975). 15. Rehman et al.. ACS Symp. thiamine. and phosphorus in comparable concentrations to those of apple.. Jeanes. J. and West Indian cherry. 29. and Texasand and now increasingly grown worldwide (e. mainly the former. J. Jamaica.. Carbohydr...000 IU/100 g for raw carrots). season.g. USA.. 283 (1995). 63.6 Miscellaneous constituents include calcium.. Food Chem.6 Acerola 1. 6.1. Nutr. Al-Mosawi. 48. punicifolia L. dextrose. glabra L. umbellata Rose) (Family Malpighiaceae).. 4. in dietary supplements. terpenoids (24%).500 IU/100 g vitamin A (cf. Al-Othman et al. Brazil. evidence of a heat-resistant enzyme (not completely deactivated at 103 C) that breaks down ascorbic acid during storage of pasteurized juice. Akiyama et al. and Australia) for use Contains 1–4.. WATT AND MERRILL). 48.Barbados. Chem. punicifolia or its hybrid with M.3–5 Other vitamins present include 4300–12... Puerto Rico.2 . l-malic acid. Biol. glabra appears to be the correct source (MORTON2. fructose. Bliss et al. J. Nutr. and locality. M.. 3.. Nephrol. Nutr. 11. which was also found to contain over 150 other volatile constituents.05% in peeled orange). 125. J. 1–2 cm in diameter. Florida.1 Furfural was found as the main volatile flavor constituent in the fruit of M. 7.. 8. K. Nutr.5% vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and dehydroascorbic acid. 411 (1999). 10. lanceolata Griseb. Mature fruits are juicy and soft. with a pleasant tart flavor. Connolly et al. 62. 11. 382 (1969). Agric. 0. causing swelling of cans or explosion of bottles. M. Clin. the plant species that supplies acerola has been renamed M. in edible portion of fruit (cf. 755 (2003). glabra and M. 118 (1976). D.. ketones and aldehydes (15%). M.. ovoid. among them. Gastroenterol. Z.1 More recently. 69 (1998). Sci.. A. Fruits (drupes) are globose.

and grape juice.. 109 (1977).7 Acetone and hexane fractions of the fresh fruit have shown in vitro cytotoxic activity against a human tumor cell lines (oral squamous cells and submandibular gland carcinoma). 18. Y. J. Germany. Schillinger. (Family Ranunculaceae). Forsch. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ACONITE Source: Aconitum napellus L. J. MORTON 4. The fruits have reportedly been used for the treatment of dysentery. L. Motohashi et al. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. naturalized in Asia. 89 (1966). Moscoso. 14.5 m high with tuberous roots that resemble turnips. TERRELL.. E.. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Acerola cherry extract inhibits the oxidation of LDL cholesterol in vitro. H. C.. and North America. C. up to 1. Berry et al. Total alkaloids 0.. and napelline . 49. 71. and France. 10. 1. diarrhea.8 USES Food. 131..2–2%. such as pear. clones. Agric. 5880 (2001). and wolfsbane. 89.. 308 (2001). Z. As a source of natural vitamin C. A. Part used is the dried tuberous root. native to mountainous regions of central Europe. A. or capsule. 195 (2000). Trugo. Africa. often combined with other herbs and vitamin C. varieties. Food Prod. in the form of juice. 7.. Res. and forms. has been used in the tanning of leathers (MORTON 4). Vendramini and L. cultivated in Russia. consisting mainly of aconitine (acetylbenzoylaconine). Marbot. Unters. R. picraconitine (benzoylaconine). J. Nakasone et al. 212 (2004). Phytother. capsules. however. Canned juice of the fruits has been used to enhance the vitamin C content of other juices. 35 species in China have been investigated chemically. 6. Bot. Hort. also in juice and spray-dried form. most of the vitamin is destroyed during processing (see rose hips). which contains 20–25% tannin. Agric. Pino and R. MORTON 2. J.. or other products. 280 (1956). Tablets. Of the 100 northern temperate species in the genus. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 49. 3. The bark. See the General References for CSIR VI. Sci. apricot. and liver disorders (CSIR VI).. monkshood.. 5. REFERENCES Available as fresh fruit for home consumption in certain East Coast supermarkets and ethnic stores. Common/vernacular names: Aconite. tablet. G. Am. Econ. Soc. Others. Hwang et al. Food Chem. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herbs consisting of many subspecies. 8. N. 4. Food Chem. WATT AND MERRILL. Dev.Aconite 7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Traditional Medicine. aconitum. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.. 2. A. aconine. 161 (1966). Proc. Lebensm. and other Aconitum spp. Food Chem. Spain.

1. carmichaelii Debx. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES USES Extracts of A. rheumatism. fructose. and A. antipyretic. Used internally as a cardiac depressant and mild diaphoretic. One method involves soaking and washing in clear water for several days and treating with licorice. When applied to the skin. These cardiotonic substances are heat resistant. affecting both the heart and the central nervous system. sciatica. others show antibacterial. Aconitine content is greatest in winter-dormant tubers (FROHNE AND PFANDER). mannitol. maltose. starch. . mesaconitine. Hyoscine potentiates the action of aconitine.allofwhichhave been implicated in cardioactivity of the tubers. carmichaelii (considered a separate drug in Chinese tradition). These and other Asian Aconitum spp. neoline. and their activities are realized after prolonged decocting. The methods used for treating these crude drugs (roots) are numerous and quite different from that for A. aconosine. malonic acid. others include 12-epidehydronapelline. anti-inflammatory (antirheumatic).9 higenamine (dl-demethylcoclaurine) and Medicinal. a component of prepared (processed) lateral rootlets of A. including inotropic and chronotropic activities. chinense Paxt.82% of fresh root of plants grown at 1750 m to 0.4 On hydrolysis. are widely used in Chinese medicines for rheumatoid arthritis. kusnezoffii Reichb. senbusine C.29% at 2500 m.8 During the past decade. While hypaconitine is found to be the active neuromuscular blocking agent in Asian aconite. carmichaelii have shown cardiotonic activity. aconite produces tingling and then numbness. which in turn yields aconine on further hydrolysis. Related species such as A. other chemical components (including a nonalkaloidal fraction) are the cardiotonic principles.1–3 Alkaloid content decreases with altitude from 0. antifungal. TOXICOLOGY Aconite is a strong and fast-acting poison. antibiotic (antiseptic). and resin. chronic nephritis.7 Certain Aconitum species are reported to have antitumor activity in laboratory animals. senbusine A. extensive studies have been carried out on the chemistry and pharmacology of aconite in general. Analgesic and anesthetic activities have been reported. include aconitines. whereby the deadly aconitine is hydrolyzed to the much less toxic aconine (WANG). succinic acid. melibiose. pseudoaconitine.5 Aconitine and related compounds exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in experimental animals.5 Other constituents include aconitic acid.12-epiacetyldehydronapelline. As little as 2 mg aconitine may cause death from paralysis of the heart or respiratory center. Extracts of various species also have antipyretic properties (FARNSWORTH 3). black beans. its current use is mainly in liniments (rubefacients). have been valued for their analgesic. Now rarely used internally in the United States. poisoning may result from percutaneous absorption. Traditional Medicine. Compounds identified from raw (dried) A. has been shown to raise the heart rate in sinus arrhythmia patients. coryneinechloride. and other ailments.8 Aconite (isoaconitine. for external applications only. Its active principles are aconitine and its related alkaloids.andhigenamine. and songoramine. and Cosmetic. The lethal dose for adults generally ranges only from 3 to 6 mg of aconitine. externally as local analgesic in facial neuralgia. readily contained in a few grams of plant material (FROHNE AND PFANDER).14-diacetylneoline. and cardiotonic activities. and sciatica. 14-acetylneoline. aconitine yields picraconitine. leading to hypotension and/or hypertension. fat. ginger. often with belladonna. and antiviral activities.6dlDemethylcoclaurine. napellus. itaconic acid. N-deethylaconitine. hokbusine A. Pharmaceutical.

Regulatory Status. Ahnfeltia. MARTINDALE. 8. MERCK. 3. New Zealand. 2.. 9. Gelidium amansii Lamour. and rhythmic heart disorders) (BLUMENTHAL 1). M. 7. Hartwell.. N. Gelidium amansii Lamour. FERNALD. A. and Mexico. Ethnopharmacol... Nat. also.Agar 9 and other drugs. Pharmacol. L. M.) Grev. 6. 190 (1984). other Gelidium and Gracilaria species as well as species of the genera Pterocladia. Xiao and K. The solution (sol) on cooling to 35–40 C forms . Agar is insoluble in cold water but readily soluble up to 5% in boiling water.. WANG. dizziness. 5 (1987). acol. NANJING. Common/vernacular names: Agar-agar. Crema. 247 (1981). (1850–1936) and N. and Suhria. gelosa.. GUPTA. 50. G. Argentina. Portugal. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight REFERENCES See the General References for BLUMENTHAL 1. Prod..F. 135 (1991). hypothermia. CLAUS. Bisset. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Pharm. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. Phytother. Kimura et al.. Prod. 1. Taiwan. The resulting product therefore cannot be compared directly with the American or European product or any other unprocessed product (JIANGSU. Chen. and vegetable gelatin. P. J. (1942). muscle spasms. Chinese gelatin.P. 4. gelose.S. J.. paralysis of respiratory system. Agar is extracted from the algae by boiling them in water at a neutral or slightly acidic pH. AGAR Source: Red algae. NANJING. KARRER. JIANGSU... Hikino et al. 27. GOSSELIN. Nat. G. FROHNE AND PFANDER. Acanthopeltis. 7. Pharm1. the more commonly used red algae are Gelidium cartilagineum (L. Gracilaria confervoides (L. The hot liquor is filtered and on cooling forms a gel that is purified by freezing and thawing followed by drying. Ital. FARNSWORTH 3. Jpn. 48. FOGARTY. J. 47.. due to toxicity that can occur within the therapeutic dose (including vomiting.. Chile. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Agar is the dried hydrophilic. other Gelidium and Gracilaria species as well as species of the genera Pterocladia. Japanese gelatin. ratios. E. J. Subject of a negative German therapeutic monograph. 1109 (1980). 35. 290 (1988). colle du Japon. 937 (1987). and Japanese isinglass.. colloidal extract of various red algae (Class Rhodophyceae). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 103 (1971). Acanthopeltis. including Gelidium cartilagineum (L. Australia. Ahnfeltia. 34. WANG). Crude was formerly official in U. Arlandini et al.. 4. and Suhria. Other producing countries include the United States. Arch. J. Korea. Gracilaria confervoides (L.) Grev. BRUNETON. G. 119 (1957). Res. J. Lloydia... The major agar producer has been and still is Japan. Spain. followed by boiling or steaming and then drying.) Gaill. layor carang. Heterocycles.) Gaill. Murayama et al. Sci. de la Fuente et al. GRIEVE. Farmacol. H. 5.. Morocco. 2. J. SAX.

1%)11 and various inorganic cations (Na þ . Quality is largely affected by extraction procedures. sulfate. resilient gel that does not melt below 85 C. sucrose. gelling temperature. K þ .2–6 Agarose is the gelling fraction and agaropectin is the nongelling fraction. It is generally believed that all agars consist of two major polysaccharides (neutral agarose and charged agaropectin). aspartic acid. algin. their degree of clarity and color (yellowish to colorless) depend on the quality and source of the agar. starch. Physical and rheological properties of agar that provide the greatest determinations of quality are the average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Mg2 þ . tasteless powder can absorb up to 200 times its volume of water when forming a gel. and threonine) and free sugars (galactose and Medicinal. gels. agar impaired protein utilization. Food. As a bulk laxative. Agar has been used as a food in the Far East for centuries. commonly called hysteresis lag. and pyruvic acid residues.1 Agar is insoluble in organic solvents and is precipitated from aqueous solution by alcohol and tannin. Pharmaceutical. Agar-fed animals also showed decreased levels of fecal neutral sterol and bile acid concentrations.6-anhydro-a-L-galactopyranose residues. while it tends to weaken with gelatin. Ca2 þ .12 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Agar is nontoxic and can be ingested in large doses without much distress. This ability to gel at a much lower temperature than the melting temperature of the gel.16 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION USES The structure of agar is still not fully determined. . Highest average maximum usage level usually about 0. and hydrophilic suppositories. and in confectionery. suspensions. glutamic acid. in dentistry as basic constituent of reversible impression and duplicating materials. with agaropectin having a higher proportion of uronic acid.13 When fed to rats at 5% and 15% levels of the diet. dairy products.15 TOXICOLOGY Mice fed agar showed significantly more colon tumors per animal (twice as many) as those fed diets without agar. and karaya gum. among others. Agar gels also have the property of shrinking and exuding water from their surface (syneresis).). in the manufacture of emulsions. etc. and the degree of syneresis. as do their gel strength.13 Agar has shown in vitro antipeptic activities14 and the results of a study in rats suggested that it may elevate serum or tissue cholesterol levels. The colorless. and Cosmetic. and many of its uses depend on this property. gluconic acid). although several studies have indicated a much more complicated structure. Both are composed of a linear chain of alternating b-D-galactopyranose and 3. and reconstituted vegetables. the problem being complicated by the large number of commercial sources of agar. particularly in chronic constipation.8–10D-xylose.7 It may also contain other sugar residues including 4-O-methyl-L-galactose. and locust bean gum.6 Commercial agar may contain free amino acids (arginine. is uniquely long in agar. and Omethylpentose. It passes through the intestinal tract mostly unabsorbed.4% in baked goods. particularly when broken. The gel strength of agar can be increased by addition of dextrose. Used in canned meat and fish products as gel filler or gel binder. sweet sauces. 6-O-methyl-D-galactose. Agar solutions have low viscosity. in baked goods (icings and glazes). as well as boric acid (approximately 0. processed fruits.10 Agar a firm.

Y Shiau et al. Araki et al. aletris. unicorn root. and whitetube stargrass. (Family Liliaceae). native to North America from southern Maine south to Florida and west to .. 42 (161). WREN. Planta Med. H. Guiseley in A. Zanetti et al. B... 3. p.. Bull.. Res. with the bacteriologi- REFERENCES See the General References for FEMA. 5. P Glauert et al. 9. 183. 189 (1971). K. 227 16.. 1968. 446 Pharm. Res. 435 (1971).C.. 118 (1976). Res. Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. GLICKSMAN. 18. 8. 763. 10. Young et al. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Wiley–Interscience. Jpn. Soc. Can. 93 (1989). Nutr. FURIA.. formed as a rosette around a slender. Food Cosmet. Agar is GRAS as a stabilizer (§582. naked flowering stem that grows up to almost 1 m high. grades and quality vary. Nippon 17. M. K. Carbohydr.Aletris 11 Others.. Int. 355 (1988). K. (1971). 4 (1977). 106. M. J. (1989).. Hayashi et al. A696 (1992). 4. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb with grasslike leaves up to 20 cm long. Yaphe. and powders. Toxicol. Biochem. REMINGTON. 14.. Duckworth and W. 11. strips. 6.. Vol. H. UPHOF. 15. 2. Hayashi and K. 29. 58 (S1). stargrass.. 7. ALETRIS Source: Aletris farinosa L.. Res.. Izumi. flowers white. A.. W. PHILLIPS. Rep. Fed.. and N. mealy at base... Carbohydr. 66 (1977). H. A major use of agar is in culture media for microorganisms. 17.. Some high-quality agars from certain commercial sources have higher congealing temperatures than that required by the F. Common/vernacular names: Ague grass. 19.F. WHISTLER AND BEMILLER. Res. Sci. C. 959 (1967). Duckworth and W. J. 1 (1971). A. 13. 281 (1981). F. Regist. blazing star. (1967). starwort. Pflanz. ague root. Anon. Y. 14. ed. tubular. Zasshi. Karamanos et al. Regulatory Status. New York. Kirk187. TYLER 2.17 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available in flakes. Carbohydr. MARTINDALE. Res. Kordan. C Tsai et al. Duckworth et al. S. Yaphe. Gouda and G. M.. 39. 16. Carbohydr. M. which is due to the source of algae used. It is one of the most widely used media for biotechnology purposes. Standen.C. 16. Nonaka. Chem. true unicorn root... 40.7115) and red algae is affirmed as GRAS (§184. 390 (1988). Physiol. S. colic root. 1.. 12.. Carbohydr. 2nd ed. Nutr. 17.1115). Godhka. 12. 41876 Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. LAWRENCE.. GOSSELIN. Carbohydr. cal grades demanding the most stringent quality. K. 16.. 281 (1971).

and painful urination. grows to a height of 1 m with mostly bluish purple flowers in the typical subspecies. tinctures. Portland. Common/vernacular names: Alfalfa and lucerne. Rappahannock Indians used tea made from the plant for female problems. jaundice. 62. MERCK. cough.1 which. FERNALD. J. GRIEVE. along with gentrogenin.. 177 (1944). (1916–1942). in laxatives. Traditional Medicine. 33..S. Bull. T. (1820–1860) and N. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb with a deep taproot. 55–56. REFERENCES See the General References for CRELLIN AND PHILPOTT. coughs. ALFALFA Source: Medicago sativa L. which are collected in the fall (FOSTER AND DUKE. Pharm. Moerman. Native American 1. It has been and is still used in proprietary preparations for the treatment of female disorders such as dysmenorrhea and other COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. FOSTER AND DUKE. 3. Soc. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Timber Press. OR. and a saponin-like glycoside that yields diosgenin on hydrolysis. YOUNGKEN. Micmac used the root as an emmenagogue and stomachic. was isolated from whole plant samples of two Japanese Aletris species: A. Am. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Aletris has shown estrogenic activity. teas. Ethnobotany. often in combination with other herbs for menstrual disorders and as a bitter digestive tonic (CRELLIN AND PHILPOTT).. leaves resemble those of clover. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION menstrual discomforts. lung diseases. Chem. or cut and sifted used in tablets. 575 (1975).. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 2620 (1940). KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. E.2 Other constituents found in aletris include an amber volatile oil said to be pharmacologically active. and Cosmetic. J. Pharmaceutical. pp. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. Crude was formerly official in U. powdered. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Okanishi et al. 1998. H.P. fever in children. Native to the Near East (western Asia and east Mediterranean . 2.3 USES Medicinal. Pharm. Chem. 23. and also as an antiflatulent. the Cherokee Indians ingested the leaves to treat rheumatism. 4. Tea made from the leaves was used by the Catawba Indians to relieve colic and stomach disorders and to treat dysentery. D.. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). C. formosana. Marker et al. Am. L. E. YOUNGKEN). Assoc. flatulent colic. Costello.4 Diosgenin was detected in the roots. capsules. Parts used are the dried rhizome and roots. Crude root.F. a resinous material. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios.12 Alfalfa Wisconsin and Texas. Butler and C. R. foliata and A.

etc. coumarin derivatives (coumestrol. and hederagenin and the glycones glucose. and threonine. D. P.21 and a new amino acid. and daphnoretin). C. lauric. G. oxalic. caffeine. galactose. and campesterol. and glucuronic acid. falcata L. medicanine. B12. traces of cannabinol. leucine. Fe.13 Flavones and isoflavones (tricin. amino acids (valine. crude fibers (17–25%).17–19 three phytoalexins. sugars (sucrose. corn. falcata (L. falcata. now cultivated extensively throughout the world. and (À)-50 -methoxysativan). biotin. isocoumarin.22 In commercial solid extracts of alfalfa and red clover. B. The former is a purple-flowered form with strongly coiled legumes. (S)-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid from seedlings.3–8 sterols (b-sitosterol. scopolamine. trapping gases produced during digestion). folic acid. and daidzein have estrogenic activities on ruminants. and quinic. pantothenic acid. and homostachydrine). originating from an arid continental climate in alkaline soils.12 b-Sitosterol also occurs as esters with fatty acids (mainly palmitic.Alfalfa 13 regions). stigmasterol. a-spinasterol.20 medicosides A. stachydrine. Saponins (2–3%) that on hydrolysis yield the aglycones medicagenic acid.23 Whether or not these compounds were results of contamination or adulteration remains to be confirmed. Its chemical constituents include the following. galactose. niacin. upland. lucernol. maleic. Wild and cultivated M. J.) Arcangeli (syn. and nepetalactone have been reported.14.24 . humid climates in acidic soils and is comparatively higher in hemolytic saponins. originating from cool. and benzoyl-(S). Medicarpin-b-D-glucoside (in roots). triacontanol). xanthophyll. and trace elements (Ca. isoleucine. The species has several distinct variants including M. Parts used are the aerial parts. medicagol.(À)-malic acid. proteins (15–25% in dehydrated alfalfa meal). Cu) (KARRER. plastocyanins and ferredoxins. plant pigments (chlorophyll. phenylhexadiene. hentriacontane). daidzein.).9–11 high molecular weight alcohols (octacosanol. E. sativa and their progeny are relatively low in hemolytic saponins.). PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Coumestrol. mannoheptulose. phenylpentadienal. sativol. formononetin. C. biochanin A. methionine. and L (triterpene glycosides) in roots. arginine. anthocyanins). genistein. K. which is in seeds only. Mn. xylose.1 Modern western European and North American cultivars have intermediate levels of hemolytic alfalfa saponins due to hybridization and introgressions involving M. genistein. M. triacontane. Zn. trifoliol. lysine. malonic. arabinose. ribose. and D-glycero-D-mannooctulose). biochanin A. cerebrosides (sphingosines). Both taxa are involved in the parentage of numerous commercial alfalfa cultivars. falcata has yellow flowers and uncoiled fruits. principally from Turkey. rhamnose. benzoylmesotartaric acid. and E. M. b-carotene.4. plant acids (malic. asparagine in high concentrations in seeds). fructose. and paraffins (nonacosane. LIST AND € HORHAMMER). B1. sativa (sensu stricto) and subsp. sativa subsp.15 Studies have also demonstrated that coumestrol when fed to pullets increases the age of maturity and depresses egg production. and K1. sativa subsp. xylose. soyasapogenols A.). vitamins and growth factors (vitamins A.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Alfalfa has been one of the most studied plants. arabinose. and lettuce. minerals. with b-sitosterol as the major component). and pectin methylesterase (an enzyme present in significant quantities believed to be one of the causes for bloating in cattle by releasing pectic acids that combine with calcium in the rumen to form a resinous material. and barley as well as the yield of tomato. I. tryptophan. phenylalanine.14–16 Alkaloids (trigonelline. sativa subsp. cycloartenol. B6. C. etc. and myristic). Triacontanol has been shown to be a plant growth regulator that increases the growth of rice. cucumber.

Incorporated in the diets of male rats for up to 6 months.30 Male rats fed a complex of alfalfa top saponins (1% of diet for 6 months) showed reduced levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides.4. stimulating appetite.2 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts.29 Saponins derived from the root of the plant have shown hypocholesterolemic activity in monkeys on a high cholesterol diet (also see quillaia). The unsaponifiable extract has been claimed to be beneficial in treating skin conditions. treating diabetes. Traditional Medicine. capsules. and Cosmetic. minerals. and so on reported as a source of chlorophyll. Alfalfa top saponins have also shown hypocholesterolemic activity and prevention of atherosclerosis. vitamins. tinctures. . teas.14 Alfalfa Alfalfa saponins are hemolytic. and as a general tonic (TYLER 1). and growth of the cells as well as inducing cell death. lowering mitotic index. and protein. swine. and meat and meat products. Food. galactogogue. viability. Pharmaceutical. antimicrobial. and to increase peristaltic action of the stomach and bowels. has shown potent in vitro inhibitory activity against medically pathogenic fungi. also as a diuretic. Alfalfa meal is used extensively as a poultry and cattle feed and as a source of raw material for the manufacture of leaf protein intended for human consumption.25 they also interfere with vitamin E metabolism and are believed to be one of the causes of ruminant bloat.27 Medicagenic acid and its glycoside (but not soyasapogenol and glycoside) are toxic to Lcells in culture. candy. gelatins and puddings. frozen desserts. including damage caused by radiotherapy and in the healing of gums after orthodontic operations.28 When administered intramuscularly to Wistar rats. alfalfa saponins are highly toxic to mammals. and poultry. Medicagenic acid. Alfalfa is also a source of chlorophyll manufacture. to prevent absorption of cholesterol. Dried leaves used in tablets. and weight in humans. insecticidal. including nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.25 Oral toxicity of alfalfa saponins in humans is considered low because they are not absorbed by the gut and then enter the bloodstream. Extract used as a flavor ingredient in most major categories of food products. with highest average maximum use level of 0. more recently for the treatment of asthma and hay fever (JIANGSU).31 USES Medicinal. baked goods. resulting in increased appetite. Others. piscicidal. appetite. Alfalfa sprouts are a favorite salad ingredient among health food enthusiasts.v.33–35 Persons with or predisposed to SLE are cautioned to curtail or eliminate alfalfa product intake (TYLER 1). TOXICOLOGY Ingesting large amounts of alfalfa seeds can produce reversible pancytopenia with splenomegaly in humans.05% in the last category. Administered i.32 The seeds or sprouts may induce systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)..26 Alfalfa saponins are reported to be fungitoxic.9 Alfalfa is also reportedly used in peelable facial masks (DE NAVARRE). alfalfa saponins produced no evidence of toxicity. with unsubstantiated benefit in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. probably due to the activity of canavanine. especially the kidneys and liver. while attractive to rabbits. they caused pathological changes in internal organs. isolated from the roots of alflafa. Reportedly used as a nutrient to increase vitality. with no evidence of toxicity. and taste repellent to rats.

George. E. 38. Physiol. Food Chem. J. Mariae CurieSklodowska. Ries et al... B. Marie Curie-Sklodowska. Pfanz. S. Levy et al. Alfalfa herb and seed are GRAS as natural seasonings and flavorings (§ 582. M. KARRER. P. 1198 (1985).. E. Univ. Nauk Arm. Poultry: Feeds and Nutrition. 6.. E.. 2427 (1977)... J. Miller et al. F. Timbekova and N. 2253 (1974). 77. 7. E. Indian J. Engl. 226 (1990). Med. 15. JIANGSU. Small and B. . 177 (1986). R. 52. 9.. Morton. 9. Ann. Prete. J. 27. Yoshihara and S. 229 (1973). REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. Jurzysta. M.. S. Y. S. 169. J. L. Food Cosmet. 34. C. Martin. Comm. Gorski et al. 62. alfalfa essential oil. K. 34. Steroids. BARNES. C. 22. Prod. 298 (1990). Mohsin and A. Nat. Akad. A. Bot. Schaible. 23. 24. 41. Science.. Biol. G. 19. 415 (1982). L. Srinivas.. Nowacki et al. F. 76 (1977).. 3. M. N.... oleoresin (solvent-free) and natural extractives are GRAS (§182. M. 5. Westport. 4. FEMA. 38. A.20). K.. Mahgoub.187. Hayashi. Agric. Chem. 24 (1975). 14. 19. 31.. Pulawski. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi. Slotwinska. Baxter. 53. Small et al. p. Dokl.. 343 (1988)..10). ¨ LIST AND HORHAMMER. Chem. Demande 2. E. 183 (1976). Roberts and J. Berrang et al. Econ. Phytochemistry. Exp. 358. R. M. 960 (1986). Dewick and M. E. 18. Soedin. Prir. Ito and Y. S. 26. B. Morris Arboretum Bull. 64. J. M.. Biol. 20. Econ. A. 31. P. AVI.. 11. 10. 26. 38.. 25. TYLER 1. Food Cosmet. S. 22. Fushiya et al. 2221 (1971). Malinow et al. M.. J.. M. Food Sci. Sarukhanyan et al.. 646 (1980). Soc. SSR. R. P. 2. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Malinow et al.. (1981). 1. 3. Sakagami et al. 8. Choichiro et al. Fr. K. 21. de Froment. Prod. J. Agric. Science. 38. 1039 (1984). M. CT. Fujino. Agric. T. Pamiet. WILLAMAN AND SCHUBERT. Pal. Toxicol. 167 (1980). Biochem. Hudson and S. Ito and Y.. 12. 47. 1970. Toxicol. 32... 18. 308. 112 (1977). 637 (1976). Chem. R. 99 (1975). 5. Sakamura. 83 (1984). 29. 10. Malinow et al. 1.. H. Dev. Phytochemistry. Dai-I-Bu.. 35.. Nat. 1247 (1956). 28. B. Sect. Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaisha. Lloydia. 56 (1975). Lancet. Sci. R. 33. 1361 (1983). 35. 216. 443. Keeler. Heterocycles. Khim. 29. Chem. Abubakirov. 85 (1965). 44... 28. 615 (1981). Gestetner. 17. 13. J. 1031 (1974). 15. P. Malinow et al. J. R. S. Obihiro Chikusan Daigaku Gakujutsu Kenkyu Hokoku. 105 (1977). R. 607 (1986). 13. Ann. 634 (1989). R. M. Sect. 30. Food Agric. 817 (1976). 1339 (1977). Brookes. Fujino.328 (1974).Alfalfa 15 Regulatory Status. 195. Univ. Biol. Arthritis Rheum. W. Bot. 16. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. J. J. E.

and presence of polyvalent metal ions. A major source of algin in the United States is Macrocystis pyrifera (L. The viscosity of algin solutions depends on various factors including concentration. sodium. it decreases with increase in temperature but will regain its original value on cooling to its initial temperature. and the sodium alginate with the highest proportion of guluronic . Alginic acid and its calcium salt are insoluble in water. and Ascophyllum.) C. salts of alginicacid(alginates).6 Molecular weights of alginates range from 10.1. or “giant kelp” that grows along the West Coast of North America. Laminaria species are also used by Japanese producers.2–4 The homogeneous blocks (those composed of either acid residues alone) are less readily hydrolyzed than the interconnecting heterogeneous blocks.4)-linked residues of b-D-mannopyranosyluronic acid and a-L-gulopyranosyluronic acid. Other sources include Ascophyllum nodosum (L. Its solutions are stable below pH 4 (down to pH 2.000 depending on algal sources and methods of analysis. Algin solutions form gels with calcium ions due to the formation of insoluble calcium alginate.) Edmonson and related species that are used by countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean. temperature.andparticularlysodium alginate.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Alginic acid is a linear polymer consisting of (1. These gels are not thermally reversible but may be liquefied by calcium sequestrants. potassium. Laminaria.1.3. The process for algin manufacture basically involves a prewash of the seaweed whereby undesirable salts are leached out and removed.870.2 The major producing countries include the United States. Laminaria.6). Propylene glycol alginate is more acidtolerant than the other alginates. for some alginate samples. Norway. commonly including members of the following genera: Macrocystis. The alginic acid can then be converted to sodium alginate. Agardh. These D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid residues are arranged in the polymer chain in blocks. A. pH. and magnesium salts as well as its propylene glycol ester are readily soluble in cold and hot water in which they form viscous solutions.6–8 These values can be readily determined by infrared spectroscopy.3 to 2.16 Algin ALGIN Source: Brown algae. UK. values of mannuronic acid to guluronic acid ratios range from 0. Sodium alginate is the major form of algin currently in use.5 Alginates from different sources vary in their proportions of blocks of mannuronic and guluronic acid residues. The most commonly used algae include members of the following genera: Macrocystis. provided the solutions are not held above 50  C for long periods.) LeJolis and Laminaria digitata (L. Between pH 4 and 10 the viscosity of algin solutions is generally stable. and Japan. and Ascophyllum. The resulting thick and viscous mass is clarified and the algin is obtained as free alginic acid on treatment with mineral acids. followed by extraction with a dilute alkaline solution that solubilizes the alginic acid present in the seaweed. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Algin is a collective term for the hydrophilic colloidal substance isolated from certain brown algae (class Phaeophyceae). Common/vernacular names: Algin. France.000 to 1.8–11 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Sodium alginate has the ability to reduce strontium absorption. Viscosity increases with DP. Blocks of mannuronic acid are separated from those of guluronic acid by blocks made up of random or alternating units of mannuronic and guluronic acids. degree of polymerization (DP). but its ammonium.

baked goods. calcium salts of alginic acid. and imitation dairy products. Food. Standen.C. REFERENCES Sodium.1011). Pharmaceutical..12 Sodium alginate can also decrease the retention of other radioactive divalent metallic ions in rats in the following order: Ba > Sr > Sn > Cd > Mn Zn > Hg >. R. puddings. snack foods..14 TOXICOLOGY lotions. with Ba levels being reduced to 3% of control values and Cd and Mn levels to about 50% in 3 weeks. and brown algae is affirmed GRAS (§ 184. and propylene glycol alginate) is generally nontoxic. Alginic acid is official in N. Average maximum usage level is about 1% in such products as candy. fish products. FEMA.C. § 582. and creams.16. potassium.. and others. propylene glycol. Kirk(1973). A. 217 science. gelatins. milk products. possibly as the result of interference by algin with absorption and digestion of dietary nutrients.. a binding agent and demulcent in lozenges. UPHOF. potassium alginate (in conjunction with calcium sulfate and sodium phosphate) is used as an irreversible dental impression material. Algin is GRAS for use in foods (§ 182. See the General References for DER MARDEROSIAN AND LIBERTI.F. 768. Algin is used in virtually every category of food products. New York. gel-forming. p. Health J.30.C. K.13 Studies have shown that orally fed alginic acid and sodium alginate depress plasma and/ or liver cholesterol levels in rats. MARTINDALE.14. Carbohydr. Others. a suspending and thickening agent in water-miscible gels. Medicinal.1120). cheese. . Vol.40).7133. 309 1. § 182. and F. Guiseley in A.Algin 17 acid is the most effective.19 Alginic acid is used as a sizing agent for textiles and in adhesive formulations. PHILLIPS. alginic acid (§ 184. and a stabilizer for oilin-water emulsions. (1974). and Cosmetic. Other products in which it is used in lower levels include alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Regulatory Status. WHISTLER AND BEMILLER. Haug et al. and sodium) are official in F. relishes. processed vegetables.C. B.7187. condiments. § 582.17 Rats fed sodium alginate as 5% of the diet for 2 weeks showed elevated pancreatic-bile secretion and enlarged digestive organs. 17. Wiley–Inter3.15 only algin with a high DP is active. Its applications generally depend on its thickening. Calcium alginate is used as absorbable hemostatic. egg products. frozen dairy desserts. 93. Hypocholesterolemic activity was attributed to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption from the gut. alginates (potassium. Wylie. 2. and propylene glycol alginate. ed. FURIA.. Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. A 0.. Soc. ammonium. fats and oils. though this remains to be confirmed. soups.2% sodium alginate spray as an effective fungicide against fungal infection of rice by Pyricularia orysae Cav. and stabilizing properties. A.18 USES Algin has been available commercially for several decades and currently is widely used. Res. Sodium alginate has many uses: a binding and disintegrating agent in tablets. was claimed by a Japanese patent. 32.16 Algin is apparently not digested. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Animal studies have shown that algin (alginic acid and its sodium and calcium salts. meat and meat products. 1968. 2nd ed. a film former in peel-off facial masks.

M. Int.. Greece. particularly Hungary. 273 (1975). 5. Carbohydr. A Rees. Eiyogaku Zasshi. A. Ito and Y. methyl esters.. J. has immunomodulatory effects at low dosage and is immunosuppressive in higher doses (HARBOURNE AND BAXTER). Nagumo. 269 (1975). Proc. R Howells. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Biennial or perennial herbabout 0. 18. 15. A. In lipsticks and hair dyes. 6. in patients with leg ulcers. E. Smidsrød. purple at pH 8. 11.9 USES Medicinal. S. 10. 259 (1988). Chromatogr. 120.. and Spanish bugloss. Sanderson. anchusic acid. J. 65 (1971). M.. and alkanna red). W. R. 353 (1990). S Quatrano. Macromol. 465. D. Chromatogr. which occurs mainly in the cortex.. 15. Seaweed Symp.18 Alkanet 4. Phycol. Penman and G.5. H. T. Common/vernacular names: Anchusa. Res.. R Humphreys and G. 76. Alkannin angelate and alkannin isovalerate are claimed to have 80% and 85% healing effects. Silva et al. 12.S... Misato et al. the 10 R-isomer of alkannin. 7.6 in the root are alcohols. 9. alkanet. Its buffered aqueous solutions are red at pH 6. Carbohydr. Res. 386 (1989). ACS Symp. 107 (1973). Mackie. 19. 264. alkannin showed no toxic effects. 413 (1971). Carbohydr. 20.)Tausch(Family Boraginaceae)..8. K. Kokai.8 Shikonin. and the Mediterranean region. alkannin angelate. 33. Res. Int. Viola et al. Ball et al.2 tannin.1 Alkannin is soluble in organic solvents but almost insoluble in water.15-octadecatrienoic. 19.. Other constituents present include pyrrolizidine alkaloids (7-angeloylretronecine. orcanette.. 273 (1972). Carbohydr. Nutr. Health Phys. 479 (1983). Rep.. and Cosmetic. 7. J. respectively. 9. 27.4 waxy substances. 1..0. Pharmaceutical. R.. 25. 296 (1969).3 and Fed to mice for 15 weeks at 1% of the diet.. E. indigenous to southeastern Europe. 245 (1970). Chem. alkannan. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains polymeric and napthoquinine pigments (isohexenylnaphthazarins). 16. McNeely and P. 24. J. 393 (1983). 16.7 Alkannins have shown antimicrobial and wound-healing properties and have been used externally for the treatment of ulcers.1 up to 5% alkannin (coloring principle also known as anchusin.. dyer’s alkanet. 10. and dihydroxytriangularine).022 (1976). Res. W. Carbohydr. Biol. Symp. Kovacs. oleic. H Ji et al. 558 (1972). 17. Ikegami et al.. Joint China–U. S Doubet and R..2. Part used is the dried root. 367 (1970). Jpn.1. Fujihara and T. 13. and g-linolenic acid.. 110. Biochem.10 . Proc. Ser. palmitic. Int. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES ALKANET Source: Alkannatinctoria (L.. A. O. S. Adv. and blue at pH 10. Nutr. Tsuji et al. triangularine. alkannin isovalerate. and fatty acids including linoleic. Tsuchiya.5 m high with hairy leaves and blue or purple trumpet-shaped flowers. alkanna.. 14. 8. J.

Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants.) Merr.) (Family Myrtaceae). GRIEVE. McGill-Queens University Press. 1974.872 (1981). Ger. 8. and shortening. but they have stronger and smoother flavor.Allspice 19 Food. 50. P.. ALLSPICE Source: Pimenta dioica (L. 5. Demande FR 2. Phytochem. Fr. leathery. USD 23RD. 3. Planta Med. Nahrung. 365 1.. Jamaica pepper. Gibbs. Formerly used mainly as dye for sausage casings. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Part used is the dried. P. native to the West Indies. The relatively harsher flavor and aroma of Central American and Mexican berries are due to their relatively high content of .829. also as ink to mark food products.1 West Indian allspice berries are smaller than Central American and Mexican berries. Offen. 1. 10. See the General References for BISSET. UPHOF..WREN. V. WICHTL. L. MERCK. R. oleomargarine. P. 6. A. Papageorgiou. and Mexico. 2. B. 83 (1995). Formerly approved by the USDA Meat Inspection Division as a food dye with specific limitations. Others. A. Varvoglis. Central America. 15. A tincture of the root is used in microscopy for the detection of fats and oils (EVANS). 156 (1972). V. (syn. REFERENCES COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Not widely available either in crude or in extract forms. TERRELL. Major producers include Jamaica and Cuba. 2. (1977).P. p. 39. oblong leaves 5–15 cm long. Papageorgiou. tinctoria root was used to stain woods and marble and to impart a red color to salves and port wines (GRIEVE). pimenta. Chem. leaves are also used. Eugenia Pimenta DC.744 (1979). and pimento. Papageorgiou. POUCHER. Alkannin is used as a pH indicator. Papageorgiou and G. N. Hatinguais and R. P. 505 (1971). FURIA. Regulatory Status. Roeder. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. fruit globose. Vol. also used for coloring oils and tars.. Planta Med. 6.. also grown in India. about 6 mm in diameter. Majlathova. officinalis Lindl. full-grown but unripe fruit. crude was formerly official in U. Chron. MARTINDALE. 193 (1980). Anal. HARBOURNE AND BAXTER. Traditional Medicine. the source of allspice. Common/vernacular names: Allspice. G. is a neotropical tree 8–20 m high. Pharmazie. 251 (2003). V. 700. 39. with opposite. V.S. D.. Digenis. Assimopoulou. P. 7. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Pimenta dioica. old ulcers. 9. Belle. 81 (1980).477. GLASBY 2. 14. root and extract thereof not currently approved by the FDA as food colorant. Used to treat burns. Chem. E. A. HOCKING. Papageorgiou and A.1 and as an astringent in diarrhea and abscesses. YOUNGKEN. P. Chron. Montreal. 4. 2.

3 However. antiulcerogenic. and minerals. meat and meat products. The highest average maximum use level of the berry oil is in candy (ca. and for painful menstruation. fever. along with numerous other spices and their volatile oils. Traditional Medicine. 0.7 Other constituents of the berries include pimentol.12 The leaf oil (pimenta leaf oil) contains more eugenol (up to 96%) than the berry oil and is similar in composition to clove leaf oil. caryophyllene.17 they also exhibit larvicidal properties. and allspice oil. and carminative. hyperglycemia. especially myrcene. its oil. Eugenol has shown central nervous system a depressant activity and inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in human colonic muscoa (HARBOURNE AND BAXTER). Allspice oil has been used medicinally as an aromatic carminative at dose of 0. and Asian countries include the treatment of obesity. for stomachache. candy. The leaf oil is also used for flavoring in food products. Other constituents include methyleugenol. antipyretic.15 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Eugenol.16 Eugenol. and high blood pressure. lipids. toothache.14 Annual leaf oil production exceeds that of the oil of the berries. Oral administration of an aqueous suspension of allspice to rats and mice produced anti-inflammatory. 1. Formerly. for spicy. gelatins and puddings. menstrual cramps. and others. In Jamaica. the fruits. Food. or allspice oil) is eugenol. Other uses in Middle Eastern. riboflavin. frozen dairy desserts. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. clove-like notes.15 When pimento oil and eugenol were applied on intact shaved abdominal skin of the mouse. has local antiseptic and anesthetic properties. South American.18 USES Medicinal. and guaiene.20 Allspice monoterpene hydrocarbons.05–0. present at 60–80%.5.8 phenylpropanoids. proanthocyanidins. Allspice. the fruit is used to treat influenza and stomachache. Pharmaceutical. and spasmolytic.13. carbohydrates.10 catechins. decocted with salt. abdominal pain. and its oleoresin (less so) are currently extensively used in food products. are also used as an antiemetic (WENIGER AND ROBINEAU).8cineole. C. vitamins (A. l-a-phellandrene. in their essential oil. analgesic activities and on ex vivo gastric mucosa.5 b-phellandrene. baked goods. condiments and relishes. aqueous extracts of allspice.9 quercetin glycosides. epimeric 10-cadinols (2%).6 Total identified constituents number more than three dozen. In the Dominican Republic. It is considered anticonvulsant. have been demonstrated to enhance trypsin activity.11 protein. the berries were used as an appetite stimulant. . antioxidant.025%). camphene. the major component of both allspice berry and leaf oils. gallic acid. leaves used for pain.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Allspice contains about 4% volatile oil. inflammatory conditions. astringent. thiamine. galloylglucosides. there is evidence that storage of the undried berries under conditions that prevent rapid removal of moisture can increase the volatile oil content by up to 50%. pimento. antimitotic. which is rather stable compared with those of tarragon and black pepper. no percutaneous absorption was observed. used in Guatemala to treat rheumatism. niacin). cold remedy. anodyne. it appears that enzymes released in the fruit after harvest are responsible for producing volatile components from their precursors. It is also used in cosmetics as an ingredient in fragrance formulations. and Cosmetic.4 The major component of the volatile oil (known as pimenta. digestive ailments. Eugenol is used as a dental antiseptic and anesthetic. a protective effect.2 mL. vanillin.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION ALMONDS Source: Sweet almond Prunus dulcis (Mill. 107 (1996). 24. C.. 86. 273 (1976). ROSENGARTEN. 3. Pharm. M. HARBOURNE AND BAXTER. 12. Kato. Sci. Farm. P. Perfum. Prunus amygdalus Batsch var. Robinson. Econ. A. Indian Food Packer. 516 (1959). Nahrung. 16. M. 204 (1980). 171.. 1241 (1974). H. Ramos et al. J.. 30. J. 3 (1988).. Oishi et al.. 24 (1975). A. Acad. amara (DC. Voesgen et al.8 phenylpropanoids.. MARSH.10) and essential oil. Prunus dulcis.. eugenol. Quim. Schulz and K. 37 (1974). 717 (1989). Biol.Almonds 21 Others. 5. M. Am. TERRELL. amara (DC. Prom. Espinosa.. Lebensm. 9. 8. GUENTHER... Prod. 40. F. E.) D. Prunus amygdalus The almond tree. Bot.) Koehne). FEMA. Chinenova et al. Colomb. G. 18. oleoresin. L. Rodriguez et al. Nabney and F. natural extractive. and leaf oils. 7. galloylglucosides. 49 (1987)..) Focke) (Family Rosaceae). Hogg et al. Food Sci. 4. Ilyas. Solvent extracts of allspice have shown potent in vitro antioxidant activity9. Lebensm. Meyer. 19. 33 (1971). M. F. is also known as P. 17.Forsch.. Forsch. Cienc. Veek and G.. W. Webb (syn. 749 (2000). AYENSU. Dev. Moore (syn.20). WENIGER AND ROBINEAU. Ind. Meyer and E. 63. B. Unters. Cosmet. 241 (2003). 33. H. 31 (1969). REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. 18..) D.. 13. 9. FURIA. Russell. J.. Herrmann.. V. dulcis (DC. communis (L..) Arcang. 113. Alimentaria. Bitter almond Prunus dulcis (Mill. 38. Kikuzaki et al.. Koryo. 41 (5). Kikuzaki et al. Forsch. J.. Ethnopharmacol. 2.) H. A. An. Amygdalus . J. 1. Webb var. J. berry.19 and antimutagenic activity. J. A. 44 (Suppl. and vanillin.9 A fluidextractofthe berries hasshown in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. M. Bras.. 10. Y. Rev. 14. Regulatory Status. GOSSELIN. Green and F. Phytochemistry.. Teotia et al. Calderon Gomez et al.20 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. MARTINDALE. R.19 Radical scavenging activity was found from various constituents of the berries including gallic acid. 200 (2002). 17. Allspice and allspice oil were formerly official in N. 1307 (1999). 1028 (1973). 50 (1972). 20. Ashurst. E. Z. BAILEY 1. BAUER. Cienc. BARNES.. J. 52. 278 2. Flav. 3.. Unters. Batsch var. 87.. Konserv.. 11. E. 15. E.C. 40. K. Z. Nat.C. Al-Rehaily et al.F. Food (1980). Pino et al.. and solvent-free oleoresin are GRAS for use in foods (§182.). 34. KARRER. 170. 6. 198 (1972). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. allspice oil and pimenta leaf oil are official in F. Arzneim. Ovoshchesush. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Herb as natural flavoring or spice (§182.

B complex. yield sweet and bitter almonds.10 Expressed almond oil has been reported to contain 53 individual triglycerides of which triolein and dioleolinolein make up 32% and 33%. raffinose. linoleic (18–22%).3. and E. communis L. it is made from both sweet and bitter almonds by pressing the kernels.22 Almonds dulcis Mill.8. demulcent.17 Expressed almond oil has emollient. except that its outer portion is leathery. For food and flavor uses the HCN is removed. not fleshy and edible like the peach. citrostadienol. palmitic (5. expressed almond oil. It is a weak antibacterial.10 Based on prevalent data.14–16 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Both sweet and bitter almonds have similar chemical composition and contain 35–55% fixed oil (MERCK). the enzyme (emulsin) present hydrolyzes the amygdalin into sugar. Sweet almond does not yield a volatile oil. outdated term for HCN). and palmitoleic acids (MERCK). armeniaca L.2.).9%). (e. the last two being distilled by steam.2 The only difference appears to be the presence of amygdalin (3–4%) in bitter almond and its absence or presence in trace amounts in sweet almonds. this is due to the presence of amygdalin in bitter almonds that can be hydrolyzed to yield deadly hydrocyanic acid (HCN).. It is obtained by water maceration and subsequent steam distillation of the expressed and partially deoleated bitter almonds or kernels of other Prunus species that contain amygdalin. and plum (P. respectively. The tree is native to western Asia and is now extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean countries and in California. and arginine. domestica L. aspartic acid. dulcis and amara. and amino acids.005% in bitter almond)..18 .. Almonds also contain varying amounts (3.). ingestion of 50–60 mL can be fatal due to central nervous depression with respiratory failure (GOSSELIN).10 Bitter almond oil. FFPA (free from prussic acid. It does not contain benzaldehyde or HCN. these species include apricot (P.25%) of soluble nonreducing sugars (sucrose. almond oil and almond meal are nonirritating and nonsensitizing to the skin and are considered safe for cosmetic use. but bitter almonds are not. myristic. sitosterol.9 trace amounts of vitamins A. it has antipeptic. and A.4 Other constituents reported to be present in sweet and/or bitter almonds include protein (18–25%). and HCN.5 daucosterol. and other sterols The results of a clinical study in men and women suggest that combined with a hearthealthy diet. local anesthetic.).1.) Batsch. respectively. lauric. Sweet almonds are used as food.6 calcium oxalate. prunasin (0. The fixed oil is commonly called almond oil. the almond is its seed.12. and fatal poisoning of an adult after taking 7. depending on the variety. it also has narcotic properties at high doses.11–5. During maceration.7 tocopherols (mostly a).7–7. It grows to a height of about 7 m and has several varieties.11 fatty acids present include oleic (66–72%). and the resulting oil is almost pure benzaldehyde. and stachyose). namely a fixed oil and a volatile oil. and antispasmodic properties. While easily absorbed and digested orally. containing 2–4% HCN. is poisonous. var. can be regarded as pure benzaldehyde. the addition of 100 g of dryroasted or raw almonds per day may significantly lower LDL cholesterol. benzaldehyde. including glutamic acid.13 Bitter almond oil contains mostly benzaldehyde (95%) and HCN (2–4%).g. two of them. and mildly laxative properties.5 mL has been reported. emulsin. The volatile oil is called bitter almond oil. stearic.7. Two major types of products are derived from the almond. it is slowly absorbed through intact skin. 24-methylenecycloartanol). or sweet almond oil. in addition to the above synonyms. The fruit is botanically classified as a drupe (same as peach or plum). Bitter almond oil. peach (P. persica (L.

Sweet almond oil is official in N. In traditional Chinese medicine. Ser Biol. potassium. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Regulatory Status. among others. Tadzh. It is used in cosmetic formulations in concentrations up to 50%. 634 (1975). Sweet almonds have been used as food for thousands of years. and Cosmetic. suntan gels. apricot (P. Apricot tree inner bark in the form of a decoction is used in treating apricot kernel poisoning. USES Medicinal. Bitter almond essential oil natural extractive and solvent-free oleoresin (free from prussic acid) are GRAS for use in foods (§182. BRUNETON.Almonds 23 Low molecular weight peptides (mol. Babekova and V. and uterine cancers. and others. candy. baked goods.20 Almond oil is often used as a base for massage oil products. Lipids. Kenkyusho Kenkyu Nempo. 257. 1000–10. phosphorus. 4. They are a good source of protein.. 10. Y. frozen dairy desserts. E. 3. TYLER 2. Jeong et al. Traditional Medicine.000) have also been isolated from Chinese almonds (peach kernels. Bitter almond oil (FFPA) is widely used as a flavor ingredient in most categories of food products. (1975).000) with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities are described in a Japanese patent. FEMA. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Phytochemistry. calcium. CLAUS. 24. Pharmaceutical. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.14 0. M. Zakl. DUKE 3. 703 (1973). Lipids. FFPA). 24 (1969). M. Rocz. and as an ointment base. creams.. Prunus persica). and trace minerals such as zinc and copper. T. T. I. Sb. NANJING.20).F.10 It is also used as an emollient and emulsifier for chapped hands. 3. Univ. It is no longer used commercially for these purposes. M. in lotions (both moisturizing and night skin care preparations). BAILEY 2. iron. and bitter almond oil (FFPA) is official in F. 2358 (1972). Food. 921 (1974). armeniaca) kernels are used as an antitussive and antiasthmatic and in treating tumors. TERRELL.. 5. Almond meal is used as a skin cleanser and in medicated soaps. Sweet almond oil is used as a laxative in doses up to 30 mL as well as a solvent for parenterally administered drugs and a solvent for hemorrhoid injectable solutions.05%. JIANGSU. reportedly with great success (JIANGSU). 25% in lipstick formulations. Nishijima et al. . wt. Aspirantov.C.. 11. U. Panstev. WATT AND MERRILL. blushers.. 9. Nauk. spleen.000 and 19. MARTINDALE. and other related fruits (TYLER 2).19 Two anti-inflammatory peptides (mol. Shcheglova. skin cleansing preparations. peach. 2. makeup bases. gelatins and puddings. Schwarzmaier. Synthetic benzaldehyde is even more widely used for the same purposes. 6. Higi. Jeong et al. Sweet almond seed or seed oil has been used as a folk cancer remedy for bladder. The controversial unofficial anticancer drug laetrile is mainly amygdalin isolated from kernels of apricot. F. breast. mouth. 26. Tokyo Toritsu Eisei 1. SAX. GUENTHER. generally at use levels below COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oils (sweet and bitter.10 Bitter almond oil was formerly used in the United States as cough sedative and as an antipruritic. wt. 183 Rab. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Karkocha.C. fats.

11. L. An. natalensis Berger. 37 (1986).198. there are more than 360 accepted species of Aloe. 2.. 22. a glucoside of aloe-emodin. J. D. Currently. which is obtained from all above species. 11. mostly C-glucosides such as barbaloin. Technol. Corps Gras.. Ann. Fr. Burman’s Aloe vera binomial was published in 1768 and therefore has priority over Miller’s A.198. 8. Bonaire). 693 (1976).24 Aloe (and aloe vera) ¨ 7. The yellow bitter juice present in specialized cells beneath the thick epidermis yields the drug aloe. Zhongyao Tongbao. Sci. 29. 14.Jpn. Opdyke. Wachse. 99. 115 (1986). Konditer. which is currently obtained from A. J. africana Mill. The parenchymatous tissue in the center of the leaf contains a mucilaginous gel that yields aloe gel or Aloe vera gel.. A. 14. Rev. Commercial aloin is a concentrated form of aloe containing high concentrations of anthraglycosides (mostly barbaloin). Delaveau. 302 (1973). K. barbadensis. D. Lopez Andreu et al. Calicto et al. 19. J. J. perryi Baker (Family Liliaceae). Ihrig. 617 (1962). and A.). GENERAL DESCRIPTION There are two major products derived from the leaves of Aloe spp. 15. Coll.. 18.. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 62..3–6 These methods essentially involve expression and/or solvent extraction. Farines et al.. Fette Wiss. Aitzetmueller and M. vera L. 195 (2003). Toxicol. 438 (1978). Khlebopek. Lambersten et al. J.. The water is evaporated off from the juice by heat and the resulting light to dark brown mass is the drug aloe. N. F. (syn. Fisher. f. 9.. Kubo. 495 (1972). Seidemann. Aruba. Pharm. Toxicol. T. N. 12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Aloe contains cathartic anthraglycosides.. Sci. Seifen. 90. Aloe barbadensis Mill. Fette. often with harsh physical and chemical treatments.). 10. Other Aloe species yield aloes of lesser importance.. M. 509 (1981). They are not cacti and should not be confused with the American aloe or century plant (Agave sp. Am.). A. Nutr. which is produced in the West Indies (Curacao. F. Jee et al. J. 67. 85 (1983). 13. Food Cosmet. Considerable confusion has arisen over the nomenclature of Aloe species. some patented and others proprietary. 17. Hotellier and P. Ole. 20. Food Agric. G. var.399 [87. 25 (1975). J. 30. Aloe vera yields Curacao aloe or Barbados ¸ aloe. Coll.. A. 464 (1988). 16. 8. 207 (1985). Aloes from most .. 44. vera. J. Pharm. Fang et al. A.399] (1987). Agric. Aloe ferox and its ¸ hybrids yield Cape aloe that is produced in South Africa. This commercial product is not pure aloin. L.1 All the above species are perennial succulents native to Africa that later spread to other parts of the world. Geiko et al. 13. Aloe vera gel is prepared from the leaves by numerous methods. ferox Mill. spicata Baker. Agribiol... the resulting gel products vary considerably in properties and generally are not representative of the fresh gel. S.. Am.) Burm. ALOE (AND ALOE VERA) Source: Aloe vera (L. Prom-st. Aloe is obtained by cutting the leaves at their base and letting the yellow bitter juice drain out. J. perfoliata L. Spiller et al. G. M. 33. and its hybrids with A. Fr. X. Edafol. S. Food Chem.2 Aloe vera is also a common name.. F. A. K. arborescens Miller var.

The composition of aloe vera gel is still not clear. organic acids.28 In laboratory studies.3–5. and/or glucogalactomannan.2% of dry matter content).24 A phthalate (diethylhexylphthalate or DEHP).7 The concentrations of anthraglycosides vary with the types of aloe. amino acids. The gel polysaccharides. wound healing. saponins.2–0. antiulcerogenic. with a decrease in glucose content and an increase in mannose:glucose ratio to >10. Aloin induces secretion of electrolytes and water in the intestinal lumen. as do their molecular weights. vera produced cancer chemopreventive activity in mice. vera plant from Sri Lanka was found to contain 57% barbaloin in its exudate.34. vera are lectins29–31 and polysaccharides.35 . the leaf gel or extracts of A.10–13 The polysaccharides constitute 0.14 Other constituents reported in A. lectins. aloin. burn healing. and resins. hypoglycemic.3% of the fresh gel (0. acemannan15.17 and a water-soluble polysaccharide named aloeride. carboxypeptidase showed analgesic activity (comparable with bromelain) and dermoprotectant activity against burns in rats. vera.33 From A. arborescens and other species of Aloe. Other constituents include aloesin and its aglycone aloesone (a chromone). is suggested to be a primary antithermic agent.26 Antiviral (herpes simplex types 1 and 2) activities were found from a methanolic extract of the whole leaf of A. dermal protectant. Postproduction autodegradation of the glucomannan polysaccharides produces mainly mannans. The ratios of hexoses in each polysaccharide differ widely among the studies. aloin content ranges from 4. While one study showed it to containatleastfour differentpartially acetylated linear glucomannans with (1.25 Daily oral administration of the fresh leaf pulp of A. steroids. vera leaves have shown anti-inflammatory32 and antioxidant activities. which thereby increases intestinal volume via increased filling pressure.17 The principle immunoactive constituents identified in A. anti-inflammatory. and minerals. including in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo hypocholesteremic. frostbite healing.17. inhibiting reabsorption of electrolytes and water from the large intestine. glucomannan. a serine carboxypeptidase enzyme found in A. can degrade in 48 h at room temperature. though some contain levels of 30% barbaloin. decreasing in older leaves toward the base of the plant. mannan. consisting mainly of mannose and glucose in a 1 : 3 ratio. Highest concentrations of barbaloin are found in young mature leaf exudates.. has shown in vitro activity against the growth of several human leukemic cell lines.5% to 25%. aloe-emodin).p. and others. which in turn stimulates peristalsis (BLUMENTHAL 1).Aloe (and aloe vera) 25 species contain cathartic anthraglycosides at concentrations between 10% and 20%. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Drug aloe and its purified form.17 A number of studies have explored the immunoreactive or immunomodulatory activity of various Aloe species. arabinan.) has shown antitumor activity in immunodeficient mice and in vitro cytoxicity against tumor cells.4)-glycosidic linkages. vera. A single A. MARTINDALE).g.13.1.27. enzymes.8 free anthraquinones (e. chromones. in particular. They are extremely bitter and are considered the least desirable among the plant purgative drugs (see cascara and senna) due to their bitterness and their tendency to produce more griping and irritation (GOSSELIN.8–1.15 Chromones isolated from A. have cathartic properties through action on the colon. vera leaf have shown diverse activities. Aloe-emodin (see buckthorn) administered intraperitoneally (i. vera include other polysaccharides.Studiestodateindicatethatthegelconsists of more than one type of polysaccharide and that their compositions vary from one season and source to the next. polypeptides.9 others revealed an acidic galactan. in part by inducing the phase II enzyme system and by increasing levels of endogenous antioxidants in the liver. arborescens. isolated from A.15–23 Carboxypeptidase. An alcoholic extract of drug aloe was reported to show antitumor activity (JIANGSU).

40 TOXICOLOGY stituents include aloeresin A and anthraquinone glycosides (aloinosides A and B and aloins A and B) not found in A. suggesting a topical antiaging effect.36 Oil-in-water aloe extracts significantly increase soluble collagen levels. presumably for its beneficial properties on the skin. These effects have been mild. In mice or rats.41. vera gel preparations by humans include allergic contact dermatitis. and Cosmetic. menstruation.g.41 No severe pathology was evident in mice fed dry aloe extract (50 mg/kg). diarrhea. vomiting. cascara.17. hemorrhagic gastritis. and no toxic effects were found from a dose of 5 g/kg p. Aloin is also used in antiobesity preparations.45 USES Medicinal. vera gel in rats are partly attributed to their ability to increase the contents of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in the wound matrix. cascara.37 Dermal wound-healing effects of oral and topical A. vera preparations in the treatment of various dermatologic conditions up to 2000 concluded that evidence for its efficacy remained unconvincing.. contraindicated for use by children of age 12 years and under and in pregnancy. appendicitis. however.42 Aloe is not to be used for longer than 8–14 days. postanor- Overdosage of drug aloe fluid and electrolyte imbalance. skinned (filetted) A. active hemorrhoids. Use with diuretics could or other potassium-depleting substances (e.. either topical or oral effectiveness of its preparations remained insufficiently defined. Currently the only officially recognized use of aloe is as an ingredient in compound benzoin tincture.g.o. hemorrhoids. Aloe and aloin are extensively used as active ingredients in laxative preparations. the preserved or fresh gel failed to cause any toxicity at doses up to 20 g/kg p. In Germany.p. belladonna extracts are often included to lessen griping.42 Use with other laxatives. and sometimes nephritis (BLUMENTHAL 1.o. especially those containing anthraquinone glycosides (e. per day for 45 days. breast feeding. evidence suggested that it might be effective in the treatment of psoriasis.44. vera leaf at 1% of the diet showed significantly fewer instances of death from disease.26 Aloe (and aloe vera) Male rats fed freeze-dried. and reversible when use was stopped. and in lowering cholesterol levels. Use may temporarily color the urine red. thiazide diuretics. bloody diarrhea. of rare occurrence. as an adjunctive in the management of diabetes. metrorrhagia. the latter also associated in case studies with prolonged use of Cape aloes containing aloesin and aloeresin A. Aloe vera gel (freeze-dried) produced no toxic effects in rats from either acute or sub-chronic oral doses (1–64 mg/kg p. Toxic con- . abdominal pain. and senna. BRINKER). licorice root. anal fissures. menorrhagia. twice daily). intestinal obstruction or inflammation.38 A systematic review of controlled clinical trials on aloe vera preparations up to 1999 concluded that it is not clear whether A. mild itching. often with other cathartics such as buckthorn. for example.36 Reported adverse effects of topical use of A. MARTINDALE). genital herpes. or i. GOSSELIN.43 Life-long dosing of a freeze-dried filet of the leaves at 1% of the diet also failed to produce any deleterious effects. and burning sensation. Pharmaceutical. concentrated dried aloe leaf juice is used for conditions in which ease of defecation and soft stool are desired.o. vera gel (BLUMENTHAL 1. corticoadrenal steroids) could result in hypokalemia. vera promotes wound healing and that overall. and abdominal pain.42 Aloe is potassium-depleting.39 A further critical review of clinical trials on A. inflammatory bowel disease. kidney disease.. senna) should be avoided owing to potentiating effects.

ferox dried leaf juice (and preparations) calculated to contain at least 18% hydroxyanthracene derivatives (as anhydrous barbaloin). and refractory constipation (BLUMENTHAL 1).g. It is also sometimes mixed with fruit juices and/or herbal extracts. or wound-healing agents. and/or others. Dried concentrated aloe gel can be evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. guar.05% in candy.1 Despite claims to be 200X concentrated pure aloe gel. which do not require specific assays for anthraglycosides. Aloe extracts are used as a flavor ingredient primarily in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and in candy to impart a bitter note. Aloin was official in N. its current quality is generally governed by standards set forth in this compendium. Based on the reported average maximum use levels of about 0. instead. Crude Barbados and Cape aloes are official in U.Aloe (and aloe vera) 27 ectal surgery.1 Regulatory Status. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. it contains only a minor percentage of A. are the subject of a German BGA monograph (BLUMENTHAL 1). the extracts used must be tinctures or greatly diluted extracts. lactose.1 Aloe gel products are available in liquid and solid forms.46 and the more highly concentrated they are. 20X. vera gel.02% in alcoholic (186 ppm) and nonalcoholic (190 ppm) beverages and 0. Aloe vera gel is used in nonalcoholic beverages that are commonly known as “aloe vera juice. as evidenced by their lack of viscosity..510) and is regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. while spray-dried Aloe vera gel extract is the most popular solid product.S. Food. locust bean). Dried Aloe vera leaf juice (and preparations) calculated to contain at least 28% hydroxyanthracene derivatives (as anhydrous barbaloin).47–49 widely used to relieve thermal burn and sunburn and to promote wound healing.1 It is the most widely used herbal folk remedy among the general population in the United States (LUST). hydrolyzed starch.16 Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. The most popular liquid products are the 10X. XI. mannitol. and 40X concentrates. and A. as standard extracts (e. “pure” aloe vera juice is rarely pure. Fresh Aloe vera gel is a well-known domestic medicine.16 Extracts of aloe or aloin are also used in sunscreen and other cosmetic preparations. Aloe gel products are available in liquid and solid forms.” It is normally produced from A. Aloe gel and sometimes drug aloe are used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations as moisturizers. solid products normally contain high proportions of carriers such as gums (acacia. and extracts in various forms.1 Commercial liquid concentrates are not always genuine. emollients. Aloe has been approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172. these gums are frequently mixed with aloe gel to increase its viscosity and yield. The most preferred commercial aloe exudates used in bitter spirits (Port Elzabeth and Mossel Bay aloes) show a balance of major aromatic constituents not found in many other aloe extracts. Despite label claims.46 Because the principal component in the gel is a glucomannan similar to guar and locust bean gums.F. vera gel by diluting with water and mixing with citric acid and preservatives.1 Traditional Medicine. . aloin. The fatty fraction of the leaf is used in the cosmetics industry as a pigment carrier. solid extract or fluid extract) would contain too much active anthraglycosides to be safely used. qualities vary greatly depending on suppliers.P. the more degradation they have undergone.

Rowe and L. 35. 3248 (1948).. Soc. Pat. R. Ernst. 41. 54 (1972). USD 26TH. Plant Sci. Am. Arom. J.. Phytother. Nat. Holdsworth. 68. Sci. 14. Karim. Cancer Res. G. U. 25. Dweck. Hutter et al. 8. J. 3. Res. 36. 345 (1987). 341 (2002). 28. Pharm. Q. Imanishi. 60. Phytother. 261 (2000). 53. Pat. S14 (1993). Res. L. 768 (1998). D. Reynolds and A. 59. Parks. Haq and A. 30. S53 (1993). Ethnopharmacol. Food Chem. 30. Phytother. Matsui and T. 17. S11 (1993).. 37. Singh et al. FEMA. 7. LUST. Yaron. E13 (2002). Owen. 27. Kupchan and A.. L. Res.... Danhof et al.. 6. Pugh et al. Luyckx et al.. 1030 (2001).664 (1975). Pharm. S. Phytother. 13. R. Pharmacol. 2600 (2000). 17. 16.... 179 (1998). Pat. A. Mandal and A. M. 210 (1979). Med. J. S. Saccu et al. Chem. APhA. 11. Sci. K.466 (1963). K. Saito. 120 (6). B. 249 (1980). K. 1445 (1969).. 15. D.265 (1987). J. Y... Gjerstad. U. 4526 (2001). Pecere et al. 9. GUPTA. Y. Carbohydr. J.. Pract. Bot. 3. BLUMENTHAL 1. 3. J. 3 (1999). J. I.... H. Ethnopharmacol. 1037 (2000). Hannan.S. H.. T... 712 (2002). 22.. 39. Ito et al. 262 (1941). 49. 49. 38. Sect. Kokai 75 155. K. J. Cobble. Haagen-Smit.S. Carbohydr. JIANGSU.. M. 49.. MERCK. Gjerstad. Vogler and E. Res. 7. Chithra et al.. 4.. Planta Med. J. 20.103.. Res.. H.. E. Ind. Lee et al. D. Res. Am. 1287 (1964). E.. 823 (1999). 21. Agric. T. Q. T. Lee et al. 16.. D. 20. Mandal et al. Agric. G.. 117 (1986). TERRELL... J. ’t Hart et al. D.S.. Das. Joshi. 541 (1996). Q. Planta Med. Reynolds. 209 (2000). Y. 68 (1981). 7. J. A. 59.. L.S.. B.. 28. 19. J. Mayer. H. 9.. J.892. A. Am.. J. Ethnopharmacol. J. Roboz and A. 4. A.. Ikeno et al. Res. 33. D. Drug Cosmet. Ind. 223 (1976). 3. Prod. Med. 2. K. J. 3.. Chem. S30 (1993). 70. 34 (1977). 28. Pharm. Plant Sci. U.. 52. 22.. . Phytother. Am. U. Grindlay and T. Sydiskis and D. Indian J. G. Ernst et al. Phytother. 16. 31. ` 16. Food Chem. 26. Matsukura. J. 7. Biol. J. 10. Farkas and R. 18. Crude Drug Res. Kidney Dis. H. 61 (1988). Gen. J. Assoc. Econ.670. Free Radic. 890 (1983). Leung. 72. Ethnopharmacol.. Dermatol. G. Groom and T. B..28 Aloe (and aloe vera) REFERENCES See the General References for AHPA.. A. A.. P. Res. J. 22B. S20 (1993). J. Phytomedicine. 7. 23. P. E. 46 (1963). Jpn. G. 40. N. S. 7. Front. M. Clin. Farkas. 5. 39. 12. 24. 39. Lloydia.. 34. Bouchey and G. C.. Phytother. Adv. DUKE 4.951 (1968). Kiem. A. A. Lorenzetti et al. Res. Gowda et al. Fly and I. P. 311 (1971). YOUNGKEN. 7. 7. S26 (1993). 23. Reynolds.853 (1975). 29. Obata et al. N. 87.362. Res. 32. Bangladesh J.. Pat. Br. V. 1. 53. C.

). 48.. 1. 3. 15.o. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains starch.. . PA. Bee J. grows in marshes and moist places. F. R. 143. A. equally effective compared to a syrup made from the root (1000 mg/kg p. Plant Sci. H€rmann and H. The mucilage content changes considerably with season (6. marshmallow. sugar. C. asparagines.o. 114.2–11. It is believed that these properties are mainly caused by the mucilaginous substances. The mucilage content is generally considered to be 25–35%. asparagine. soothing properties on the mucous membranes and an antitussive effect. and more effective than prenoxdiazine (30 mg/kg p. velvety hairy. up to 1. G. H. pectin. robusta) showed significant antitussive activity in a cat model of cough. 15 (1974). locally elsewhere. whole dried root and dried leaves enter commerce. Pharm. officinalis L. J. D. var. (Family Common/vernacular names: Althaea. and calcium oxalate. E. Gjerstad and T.6 TOXICOLOGY Crude root may delay absorption of other drugs taken at the same time (BLUMENTHAL 1). native to Europe and naturalized in the United States in salt marshes from Massachusetts to Virginia. kaempferol. Preferred part is the peeled root collected in the fall.3 Roots also contain scopoletin. hypolaetin 8-glucoside.5 m high with three-lobed coarsely serrate leaves. tannin.). acid in the molar ratio of 3 :2 : 3 : 3. with a molecular weight of about 34.5 The polysaccharide fraction (50 mg/kg p. is composed of L-rhamnose: D-galactose: D-galacturonic acid: D-glucuronic Althaea root extracts reportedly have demulcent. J. 43.Althea root 29 42. Am. The 5-Minute Herb and Dietary Supplement Consult. 1 (1998). It was more effective than the crude extract of the root (100 mg/kg p. Subtrop. o Phytomedicine. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. caffeic. 44. parahydroxybenzoic acid. Econ.o. F. J. S. Nieberding. mucilage. Pelley et al.2 The sequence of the component sugars and the configurations of the glycoside linkages have also been examined.. Dermatol. pink 3 cm wide flowers in peduncled clusters. J. Ernst. 241 (1996). 923 (2000) 45. 46.o. Am.1 A purified. syringic. ALTHEA ROOT Source: Althea Malvaceae).) isolated from the root (A. P. and chlorogenic. Yongchaiyudha et al. fats. Philadelphia. 50. Korting. 140.4 GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb. Morton. Br..). but that of the homogeneous mucilaginous polysaccharides is much lower.. 58 (1968). Phytomedicine. Fugh-Berman. Riner. 8–9. Althaea-mucilage O has shown potent hypoglycemic activity. althaeamucilage O. under cultivation adaptable to drier soils. althea. homogeneous mucilage. P.. pp.. 161 (1994). officinalis L. and p-coumaric acids (BRADLY).000 (as the ammonium salt). 2003.6%) and is highest in winter. 49. 311 (1961). Bot. 47. quercetin.

Root is used crude or in formulations at a daily dose of 6 g. MERCK. approved for irritation of the oral or pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. FOSTER. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. particularly cough medicines. Chem. seeds musk fragrant. In Europe. Planta Med. KARRER. M. 6. 824 (1980).. crimson centered. (syn. Extracts of the root are used in confectionaries. baked goods. 63. Bull. 224 (1992). about 10 cm across. GRIEVE. root and leaf preparations are used to treat irritation of the oral or pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Food. and musk seed. 1357 (1977). Tomoda et al. 5. in ointments to relieve chapped hands and chilblains (BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. AMBRETTE SEED Source: Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. root also used to treat mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa (BLUMENTHAL 1). Used for more than 2000 years in Europe both internally and externally as a wound healer. widely cultivated in tropical countries. Pharmazie. Reported use levels are very low. GENERAL DESCRIPTION An annual or biennial herb with bristly hairs. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. root and flowers approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172. including the West Indies. Regulatory Status. Tomoda et al. In Germany. Bull. and U. 2. Mainly used as a demulcent in various pharmaceutical preparations. Nosal’ova et al. Traditional Medicine. usually below 0.002% (20 ppm). . the leaf and root are the subjects of therapeutic monographs. GLEASON AND CRONQUIST.510). BAILEY 2. Hibiscus abelmoschus L. candy. Kolev. WICHTL). frozen desserts. Pharmaceutical.. Common/vernacular names: Ambrette. 824 (1987). indigenous to India. 90 (1966). Fitoterapia. and Cosmetic. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. 53. root also for mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa (BLUMENTHAL 1. Pharm. 28. leaf used in 5 g daily dose or equivalent in formulations (BLUMENTHAL 1). MARTINDALE. a remedy for coughs. Used to a limited extent in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. St. BLUMENTHAL 1. 3. up to 2 m high. BARNES.S. Franz. 474 (1992).. USD 23RD. FOSTER). 47. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.P. sore throat..F. 4. G. and kidney shaped. Pharm. GOSSELIN. 14. among other ailments. Chem. 25. 1..30 Ambrette seed USES Medicinal. L. flat. Ionkova and D. BISSET. and gelatins and puddings. TUTIN 2. Planta Med.. Crude was formerly official in N. YOUNGKEN. Tomoda et al. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. showy flowers yellow. Java.. M. N. M.. I. musk mallow. G. FEMA.) (Family Malvaceae). GUPTA. and stomach troubles.

2-cis. one of the most expensive essential oils. floral. oil is official in F. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION USES Medicinal. creams. dried seeds (CSIR I). stigmasterol. rich wine or brandy-like.001% (10 ppm). and (Z)-5-tetradecenyl acetate were isolated from the absolute in yields of 0.3 Other compounds found in the seeds include methionine sulfoxide. C10. candy. and phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen). the fatty acids. maximum use level reported is 0. C12. sitosterol. Pharmaceutical. Food.4%. Seed GRAS as a natural flavoring or seasoning in foods (§182. An aromatic oil is obtained via steam distillation of the crushed. phosphatidylserine plasmalogen. dilute alcohol. absolute.Ambrette seed 31 Indonesia. extractive. and lotions. in Western traditions as a folk medicine with stimulant. frozen dairy desserts.01%. palmitic. antispasmodic actions and as an insecticide for protecting woolen garments from moths (CSIR I). including nonalcoholic beverages.4. Reportedly used as a stimulant and an antispasmodic.7 The oil is valued for its sweet. The use levels are usually very low.5 sterols. (Z)-7-hexadecen-16-olide). Traditional Medicine.2% to 0. The floral musky odor of the oil is primarily the result of ambrettolide and (Z)-5-tetradecen-14olide. Regulatory Status. Oil and absolute are used in sophisticated types of perfumes and in soaps.C. and tincture. ambrettolide.10). Others. detergents. Part used is the seed. and Africa. or lithium salts. C16. are nontoxic. ambrettolic acid. C18). <0. The oil and absolute are also used in vermouths and bitters. Based on available data. baked goods. including campesterol. seed essential oil. calcium. depending on the method of manufacture (ARCTANDER).2. 0.7 . phospholipids (a-cephalin. phosphatidylserine.20).13epoxyoleic acid.1 (Z)-5-Tetradecen-14-olide. While resembling animal-derived musk scents. and 0. ergosterol. (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate. TOXICOLOGY COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Seeds. and gelatins and puddings. and cholesterol. removed with alkali. and farnesol as well as 12. The long-chain fatty acids of the seeds result in a crude product of a waxy nature (Ambrette beurre). grayish brown. oil. 2-trans.12% for the oil in perfumes. sterculic acid. malvalic acid. and C10–C18 acids (oleic.6-trans-farnesylacetate. but they are more commonly used in flavoring other types of food products. Compounds isolated from the seed oil include ambrettolide. concrete. and Cosmetic. and solventfree oleoresin GRAS for use in foods (§182. and about 3 mm in diameter.6 Sizable amounts of palmitic and myristic acids may also occur in ambrette seed oil or concrete.5%.6%.6-trans-farnesylacetate. ambrette seed oil and its major odor principle. Yield of the oil is from 0. Ambrette seed and its tincture are used in preparing vermouths and bitters.C. The seeds are traded as musk grains or musk pods. ambrette seed oil lacks the fecal note sometimes found in the former (CSIR I). in addition. and oxacyclononadec-10-en-2-one (an ambrettolide homologue) were found in the seed coat. C14. produce a yellow clear to amber liquid that possesses the musky fragrance of ambrettolide (BAUER). musky scent with a unique bouquet and roundness. used in Chinese medicine to treat headache. which are kidney shaped. respectively. The stem bark has been used as a fiber (78% cellulose) and the root mucilage as a paper sizing material (CSIR I). aromatic.

. and w-heptadecanolide).). GUENTHER. India. and behenic acids. KARRER. eastward to Siberia. India. Planta 1. umbelliprenine. 4. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Stout biennial or perennial herb. 54. TERRELL. himalaica (Clarke) Krishna & Badhwar. B. and four macrocyclic lactones (w-tridecanolide. archangelicin. Phytochemistry. Grieder. phellopterin. myristic. Acta. . with the stem less extensively used. J. Peyron. Hashmi et al. bcaryophyllene. 1155 (1977). Sci.11 coumarins. w-pentadecanolide. 46 (1961). 7. archangel. xanthotoxin. are also used. malic. Chauhan. 25.4. 14. The root (root and rhizome) contains 0. imperatorin. 17. chlorogenic. Helv. and 20 -angeloyl30 -isovaleryl vaginate. linolenic. USD 23RD. and arachinate (KARRER). Parts used are the rhizome and roots. var. palmitoleic.9 Other constituents include resin.3–1% volatile oil composed mainly of d-a-phellandrene. consisting mainly of b-phellandrene and other terpenes similar to those found in the root oil (MASADA). 2. Srivastava and S. fruits.1.3–7 acids (angelic. D. ostruthol. palmitic. archangelenone (a flavonone). bergapten. 6. fruit with thick corky wings. Y. Opdyke. which occur throughout the plant. linalool. byakangelicol. Assoc. K. sugars (sucrose. Fr. (syn. 5.9. oreoselone. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 7. including imperatorin. Nee et al. archangelica L. caffeic. among others (MASADA). B. native to northern and eastern Europe and Iceland. Natl. oxypeucedanin. Proc. etc. 236 (1984). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Angelica is very rich in coumarins. 64 (1982). malonic. xanthotoxol. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. umbelliferone. European angelica. K. Veg. Common/vernacular names: Angelica.2% of root). 0. Other Angelica spp. Bull. borneol.5% and 0. Physiol. Hungary. quinic. fumaric. Chim.. L. Archangelica archangelica Hoffm.) (Family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae). bergapten. cultivated in Belgium. oxalic. acetalde- hyde. 189 (1969). pentadecanoic. ANGELICA Source: Angelica archangelica L. linoleic. fructose. JIANGSU. naturalized elsewhere. C. starch.4. GUPTA. with osthol in major concentration (ca. with imperatorin and bergapten in larger concentrations (0. Germany. lauric. petroselinic.. T. glucose. CSIR I. and xanthotoxin. 13. stearic. J. Rastogi. and other countries. 8-hydroxy5-methoxypsoralen. tridecanoic. Oil Technol. xanthotoxol. iso-pimpinellin. umbelliferose). M. 705. and stem. 12-methyl-w-tridecanolide. succinic. L.. Acad. oleic.12. Med.8. 3. and Garden angelica. including osthol. currently the roots and rhizome are the most frequently used. Maurer and A. WREN. Toxicol.1%. a-pinene. Soc. b-sitosteryl palminate. Food Cosmet. iso-imperatorin. phellopterin. BAUER. respectively) (KARRER). limonene. C. 60.32 Angelica REFERENCES See the General Reference for ARCTANDER. BAILEY 1. aconitic. but infrequently.2 coumarins.. marmesin. Sect. osthenol. 4-methoxy-7-hydroxypsoralen.10 The fruits (commonly known as seeds) contain about 1% volatile oil. 2157 (1986). citric. FEMA. A. 707 (1975). U. angelicin.. up to 2 m high with a large rhizome.13 The seed oil of a Pakistani variety.

fluid extract) may contain them. The roots and seeds have been used in the treatment of arthritic disease. anomala Lalem. A. including alcoholic (bitters. and A.15 A number of Angelica species have shown calcium-antagonist-like effects in vitro. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. bergapten. and stomach troubles caused by indigestion. Angelica root and seed oils are obtained by steam distillation and are not expected to contain these coumarins.) Benth. formosana Boiss. and N.g. Calcium-antagonist activity was found from coumarin-rich fractions of angelica root extracts (A. hyperacidity. Pharmaceutical. baked goods. Root and seed were both formerly official in U. including A. coughs. at least 10 Angelica species are used. and an increase in the release of prostaglandin E2.11 USES Medicinal. frozen dairy desserts. colds..P. both root oil and seed oil are official in F.17 Orally administered. extracts (e. Now rarely used in pharmaceutical preparations.2% in alcoholic beverages. average maximum use levels are low. The dried seeds and root powder are used in tinctures or oral formulations. Reported maximum use levels for both root and seed oils are usually very low. also used in cosmetics for its allegedly quieting and soothing effect on the nerves of the skin (DE NAVARRE). et Hook. and gelatins and puddings. liqueurs. an effect partly attributed to an increase in mucin secretion. insomnia. the latter. vermouths) and nonalcoholic beverages. known as danggui or dong quai (see following). solid extract. NANJING). which is reported to be 0. diuretic. dahurica (Fisch. Angelica has a long history of use in Europe in the treatment of bronchial ailments.1. calcium-antagonist activity is a topic of interest in cardiovascular disease research.16 In Chinese medicine. archangelica also ameliorated ethanolinduced hepatotoxicity in mice and inhibited malondialdehyde formation in mouse livers.S. dried seeds and cut and sifted or powdered root occasionally used as tea flavoring (FOSTER). The root oil (but not seed oil) is reported to be phototoxic.1. A. sinensis (Oliv. a decrease in leukotrienes. FOGARTY. archangelica)..F. The seed and root oils and the root extract are more commonly used. As an activity involving relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Traditional Medicine. absolute.1% in the perfume category. xanthotoxin) are known to be phototoxic (see bergamot oil).14 the highest for either being about 0. and diaphoretic effects.Angelica 33 contains hexylmethylphthalate as its major component (36%).) Diels. is widely used in treating female ailments in China (FARNSWORTH 1–4. also used as a flavor ingredient in most major categories of food products.11 Food. detergent. A. primarily for menstrual regulation and as an expectorant (FOSTER).1. extracts..16 The root extract has shown dose-dependent antiulcerogenic activity in rats with indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. .C. as well as for anti-inflammatory. except for the seed extract. and perfumes. creams.01%. in vitro and in vivo. Leaves used as vegetable (MABBERLY)..g. JIANGSU. usually below 0. lotions. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. and oils. Its major current use is as a fragrance ingredient in soaps... candy.C. nervous conditions. and Cosmetic. however.18 TOXICOLOGY Certain coumarins in the plant (e. and intestinal disturbances. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The root oil has shown antibacterial and antifungal activities.

B. 821 (1974). Nielsen and H. 2425 (1969). 5. Res. 13. A. 162 (1982). J. D. M. J. D. Planta Med. 11. A. FOSTER. C. Ashraf et al. H€rm€l€ et al. J. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. FEMA. the fruit and roots are subjects of official monographs. Khayyal et al. I. 23.. ANGOSTURA BARK Source: Angostura trifoliata (Willd. M. angostura bark was believed to be the bark of Cusparia trifoliata Engl. 13(Suppl. Indian J. Svendsen. Can. S. Opdyke. Galipea officinalis Hancock) (Family Rutaceae). P. Khim. 47... 355 (1971). Ind.. and cusparia bark. 12. 3. 415 (1968). 243 (1985). Steck and B. Scand. 672 (1965)..10). 15.. 51. Food Cosmet. (London). Saksena and H. L. In Germany. 11. WICHTL). TUTIN 2. BRUNETON. DE NAVARRE. J..5 g and galenical preparations are indicated for internal use for appetite loss and digestive ailments. Acta Chem. Soedin. Prir.-Forsch. Tripathi. Molho. 713 (1975). 816 (1976).. Indian J. Chem. Fitoterapia. H€rm€l€ et al. it grows in mountainous areas at an altitude of between 200 and 300 m above sea level (USD 23RD). L. Dutta. 29. Ser. Bailey. seed. T. Formerly. 1161 (1963).. 288 a aa (1992). 8.. 73 (1980). DE NAVARRE. Crude fruit (seed) and preparations are not recommended for use as diuretics and diaphoretics because efficacy and safety have not been established (BLUMENTHAL 1.. Common/vernacular names: Angustura.. E.. 70 (2003). BISSET. Chatterjee and S. TERRELL. 17. J. essential oil. Scand. Opdyke. W. 68. 14.. GRIEVE. Blyttia. Basa et al. 6. 4. (syn. 12(Suppl. Regulated as a dietary supplement in the United States. GUPTA. REFERENCES See the General Reference for BARNES. H. B. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. S. Patra et al.. ex DC.). extract. G... Acta Chem. (syn. In Venezuela. Ind. 2. Planta Med. and solvent-free oleoresin of the root. carony. Food Cosmet. 58. Taskinen. 545 (2001). Sci. UPHOF. T. Toxicol. K. 176 a aa (1992). or stem are GRAS for use in foods (§182. . Kas’yanov et al. 1. 9. 637 (1975).. Pharm. The crude root at a daily dose of 4. 16. Arzneim. Arch. BLUMENTHAL 1. 96 (1953). BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 18. J. S. 7. 13. Yeh et al. MARTINDALE. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Angostura trifoliata is a shrubby tree native to northern South America. Beyrich. GUENTHER. Chem..). A. Kofod. 10. Planta Med... 56. L. Carbonnier and D. M. 108 (1977). B. 1.) T. 17. P. root and seed are GRAS for use in foods as a spice or natural flavoring (§182. Chem.20). 14B. 298.. 44. 6.. JIANGSU.34 Angostura bark Regulatory Status. N. including mild gastrointestinal tract spasms and flatulence. Cusparia febrifuga Humb. Toxicol. Pharmacology. Chem. BARRETT. 58. Pak.

4 Also used as a febrifuge and bitter tonic in doses of 0. galipoline.10 TOXICOLOGY Large doses may produce nausea. and galipein (coumarins).3–1 g. and G. The well-known “angostura bitters” does not contain angostura bark at all and is made from a mixture of gentian root and other botanicals.5-dihydroxy5-ethoxy-2-syringoyl-1-methyl-4-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcyclopentane and 3. Galipea trifoliata Aublet.) (GLASBY 1).3%. have shown antispasmodic activity8 and in dogs. baked goods. and Cosmetic. ramosin. Algonac. respiration–excitation effects. 2000. and dysentery. Reference Publications. Beck. particularly cusparine and galipine. quinoline. galipoidine. a tree related to Galipea officinalis reported to grow in Brazil. galipine. and gravies. .).7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES USES Medicinal. contains phebalosin.. Pharmaceutical.. Extracts used in most categories of food products such as alcoholic (bitters) and nonalcoholic beverages. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS The alkaloids. 2-n-amyl-quinoline. H. 3205 (1971). Regulatory Status. quinaldine. and extractive are GRAS for use in foods (§182. FEMA. Food. multiflora Schult. GUENTHER. Phytoche1.20).9 The alkaloidal fraction has shown in vitro activity against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. WREN. 40%. cuspareine. WREN) and various sesquiterpenes (e.g. W. large doses cathartic and emetic. Mors et al. febrifuga Humb. Brieskorn and V. cadinol T.Angostura bark 35 C.1) Much of the scientific literature before 1960 was based on this species.5 The stem and root bark of a related species. Bark essential oil. allocuspareine. has shown in vitro activity Crude and extracts. UPHOF. C. galipinine. chronic diarrhea. candicine. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. MI. d-curcumene) also found in the trunk bark. (Related species found in Brazil include Galipea dichotoma Sald.6 Galipinine. Traditional Medicine. gelatins and puddings. germacrene D. solvent-free oleoresin.10).2 a high content of alkaloids (ca. 2. b-bisabolene. Medicinal Plants of mistry. bark GRAS as natural flavoring or spice in foods (§182. GLASBY 2. Used in bitter tonics. 10. candy. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. galipidine. 4-methoxyquinaldine. frozen dairy desserts. The bark contains two unstable bitter principles: angostura bitters 1 and 2 (3. Used in treating dyspepsia.2–6 and a volatile oil (1–2%) containing some 15 alkaloids (KARRER. Brazil. etc. B. MARTINDALE.5-dihydroxy5-ethoxy-2-vanilloyl-1-methyl-4-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcyclopentane). largely quinoline type) (cusparine. Average maximum use level in alcoholic beverages is reported to be about 0. a tetrahydroquinoline alkaloid.

phenylpropanoid glucosides.4 flavonoid glycosides (quercetin3-glucuronide. I. officinarum Moench.. Anisum vulgare Gaertn.. C. Kraukau. Foerh. 4. leaves alternate. Fysiograf. Japan. GENERAL DESCRIPTION often confused with that of licorice. native to Greece and Egypt.. 3372 (1987). R. and stigmasterol and its salts (palmitate and stearate) (MARSH). among others. a-pinene. In Chinese. carbohydrate (ca. b-amyrin. L. isoorientin. Therapie. 10.9 protein (ca. 50%). f. Saellskap. (syn.4-cineole. luteolin-7-glucoside.6–8 myristicin. anisum). g-himachalene.. particularly among the public. and therefore. 15. China is the major producer of star anise.1. 16%). and star anise (Illicium verum). P. 605 (2000). Chinese star anise. indigenous to southeastern Asia. usually less than 0. 68. now widely cultivated. Fitoterapia. Common/vernacular names: Anise seed.13 lignans. creosol. umbelliprenine. and is erroneously described as licorice-like.). Jacquemond-Collet et al. and ar-curcumene (KARRER). 8. aniseed. ANISE (AND STAR ANISE) Source: Anise: Pimpinella anisum L. ripe fruit that consists of 5–13 (usually 8) seed-bearing woody follicles (one seed per follicle) attached to a central axis in the shape of a star. Jacquemond-Collet et al. hydroquinine.3 lipids (ca. 7.” referring to the usually eight-follicled fruit. the name star anise. limonene. E. coumarins (bergapten. and others (MARSH). acetaldehyde. . 26.14 catechins and proanthocyanidins. below. 71. neophytadiene. Anise oil contains trans-anethole (75–90%). C30. also in Vietnam. I. Part used is the dried ripe fruit.. 8. the plant is also called “eight-horned anise” or simply “eight horns.2. rutin. 250 (1999). 5. anise oil is obtained from it by steam distillation. Anal.15 Chinese star anise oil contains trans-anethole (80–90%) as its major component. C24. 12. a Pharm.) (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). Brieskorn and V.5% in seeds) (NANJING). Planta Med. 68 (2002). opposite above. 1.). Houghton et al. estragole (methylchavicol) (1%). V. 18%). Phytochemistry. C26. Planta Med.. 177 (1970). including fatty acids (C16. H. etc.2. extensively cultivated in southern China. umbelliferone. Chinese star anise: Illicium verum Hook. C. Part used is the dried.. anise ketone (p-methoxyphenylacetone).. Chinese star anise oil is obtained by steam distillation. I.10–12 Chinese star anise contains about 5% volatile oil (ca. 312 (2001). Binet and M. anisic acid (oxidation products of anethole). Phytochem. 65.. p-cresol. 289 (1945). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Anise is an annual herb. the flavor of anise is Anise contains 1–4% volatile oil (FURIA AND 1 BELLANCA).36 Anise (and star anise) 3. J. 6. etc. 6. isovitexin. illicium. scopoletin). Jacquemond-Collet et al. 9. Other constituents include estragole. A. apigenin-7-glucoside [apigetrin]. K. (Family Illiciaceae).5 phenylpropanoid glucosides. Lund. Due to the traditional use of anise oils with licorice in licorice candy. Pr€p. India. C20.6 m high. b-farnesene.. and b-caryophyllene. linalool. Strumza. 669 (1953). Wirasutisna et al. Other compounds in minor concentrations include anisaldehyde. C18. Beck. Chinese star anise is an evergreen tree usually 4–6 m high but may reach 12 m. Kgl. 10% in follicles and 2. C22.. sweet cumin (P. T.

and nasal and oral challenge tests. a-copaene. with the cis isomer being 15–38 times more toxic to animals than the trans isomer (MERCK). the major (56% by weight) active insecticide in the oil from anise tops was shown to be trans-anethole. scaling.20 Water and ethanol extracts of the fruits (seeds) of anise have shown greater in vitro antioxidant activity than some common antioxidants (a-tocopherol.S. Use of the former as a culinary spice could result in fatality. 3-carene. religiosum Sieb. and myristicin (in aniseed). (À)and trans-a-bergamotene. hydroquinine. caryophyllene.05 mg/kg. et Zucc.30 and against the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.25 Anethole. or I. and F. Anethole (no isomer given) has shown mutagenic activity in Ames Salmonella reversion assay. foeniculin.36 Anethole has two isomers (trans and cis). such as dianethole and photoanethole. anisum plant). C.Anise (and star anise) 37 b-bisabolene. specifications for anethole do not require differentiation between the isomers. further research suggests that the active estrogenic compounds are polymers of anethole.C. has been reported as the cause of dermatitis (erythema.21In vitro estrogenic activity was found from the essential oil of anise in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells).24 A randomized controlled trial of a preparation containing anise oil and ylang ylang oil found that topical application was equally effective in the treatment of head lice in children as a spray composed of various insecticides. d-a-pinene. along with d-carvone (present in P.36 and estragole is a known genotoxic carcinogen with a recommended limit in food of 0.16–19 although the presence of safrole is disputed. and safrole (KARRER).32 Oil of anise and Chinese star anise has carminative and expectorant properties.22 A relaxant effect of the essential oil on isolated.) should not be confused with true star anise (Chinese star anise) (I.11 Japanese star anise (Illicium lanceolatum A. b-farnesene. have shown mild insecticidal properties. Smith.26 In houseflies. placebo-controlled allergenicity study using aniseed in spice industry workers found positive results in skin prick.17. precontracted guinea pig tracheal chains suggests bronchodilatory activity and was due to inhibition of muscarinic receptors. and vesiculation) in some people.29 A methanol extract of the fruits of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) showed in vitro growth-inhibitory activity against the periodontopathic bacteria. formerly identified as Illicium anisatum L. a-terpineol. methylanisoate. BHA.31 In vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Chinese star anise are largely attributed to the presence of anethole. cadinene. the major component of the oil of both anise and star anise. anisaldehyde. nerolidol.37 Its mistaken identity in Europe . Anisaldehyde and anethole increased the toxicity to houseflies when applied at the same as various common insecticides.C. However.27 Anethole also inhibits growth of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus species in culture.19 Current U.05%) in drinking water and was attributed to an increase in Na þ –K þ ATPase activity. traces of cis-anethole.28 Anethole was formerly considered an active estrogenic agent of the essential oil of TOXICOLOGY A double-blind.23 An antidiuretic effect was found in rats administered the essential oil (0.P.33 Other case reports of occupational allergic reactions to anise include a psoriasis-like allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to the seed oil34 and allergic asthma from exposure to the seed dust. verum). and BHT). Eikenella corrodens. trans-methylisoeugenol.35 Anethole. phellandrene.18 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES anise.

or ground crude drug is used for infusions and other galenical preparations (BLUMENTHAL 1). and liqueurs. . anisum are GRAS for use in foods (§182. both being officially recognized as anise oil in the U.39 Symptoms in infants included vomiting. verum are GRAS as natural flavoring or spice for use in foods (§182. Both anise and Chinese star anise are widely used as domestic spices.C. Anise seed and Chinese star anise seed are subjects of German official monographs. P. Taiwan.41 USES Anise oil and Chinese star anise oil are used interchangeably in the United States. and F.06% (570 ppm) in alcoholic beverages and 0. Both anise and Chinese star anise oils are used as carminatives. and expectorants in cough mixtures and lozenges. licorice candies).C. and alleviate symptoms of male climacteric. it looks like a smaller.38 Anise (and star anise) resulted in epidemics of epileptic seizures38 and poisoning in infants (after being traditionally treated with “star anise” for colicky pain). anisum and I. Medicinal. 3. deformed version of Chinese star anise and is highly poisonous.20). Anise has also been used as an appetizer.0 g of seed or 0. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and essential oils are official in N. creams. laxative. and abnormal movements.F. WICHTL). while the latter is used primarily by Asians. perfumes. preparations of anise seed containing 5–10% essential oil are used as a respiratory inhalant. facilitate child birth.20 Food. anisette) and nonalcoholic beverages. Toxicity is attributed to the sesquiterpene anisatin. Whole. Regulatory Status. Traditional Medicine. Anise and Chinese star anise have been used as aromatic carminatives. the former is mainly used by Westerners. stimulants. crushed. and Cosmetic. extractives. detergents.21 antiseptic. among other preparations. whereas Chinese star anise is used internally for peptic discomfort and catarrh (BLUMENTHAL 1). weak antibacterials. Both oils are used to mask undesirable odors in drug and cosmetic products and as fragrance components in toothpastes.25% anise oil and 0. increase libido. In Germany. and F.4% star anise oil in perfumes.. A 10–15% aqueous extract is used in China as agricultural insecticide.g.24 and as a treatment for epilepsy and seizures. soaps. mild spasmolytics. nystagmus. especially in Chinese foods. and lotions. anise oil. Chinese star anise (to a lesser extent). including alcoholic (bitters. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. tranquillizer. stimulants. Pharmaceutical. with maximum use levels of 0. promote menstruation.S. e. frozen dairy desserts.07% (681 ppm) in candy.10). brandies.C. and Japan.C. baked goods. externally as an inhalant for congestion of the respiratory tract. gelatins and puddings. candy (e. and expectorants. diuretic.P. and star anise oil are widely used as flavoring ingredients in all major categories of foods.g. and meat and meat products. essential oil. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. also as estrogenic agents to increase milk secretion. Highest average maximum use levels for anise oil are about 0. Anise.. internally used for dyspeptic complaints.40 Japanese star anise grows in southern China.3 g essential oil (mean daily dose) allowed as a bronchial expectorant for upper respiratory tract congestion and as gastrointestinal spasmolytic (BLUMENTHAL 1. and solvent-free oleoresin of P.19.29 Chinese star anise has been used in Chinese medicine for similar purposes for 1300 years (JIANGSU).

11.. MASADA. 146.. 19. Geneeskd. M. 16.. Phytother. Toxicol. 71.. 4. Herrmann... Appl. Pediatr. Sy and G. E.. Chim. Phytochemistry. 24. M. Pharm. 31.. 57. Res. Embong et al. M. 87 (1974).194(1977). Chim. 766 (1976)... 1729 (1969). P. Kartnig et al.. Harborne et al.... J. NANJING. Plant. Iauk et al. TERRELL. 4. Steinegger. 51. . 7... Bull.. J.Unters. Kaempf and E. Pharm. Lichtenstein. 162 (2002). 33. Daru.. E. J. 57. G. S. Food Chem. P.. Mutat. J. 9. REMINGTON. 61. J. J. Phytother. 1157 (1971). Seifen. GUPTA. 42. 987 (1998). Pharm. L. Soc. J. UPHOF. De et al. 1460 (2002). 39.. Acta. 6. Forsch. Res. 8. J. MARTINDALE. Bull. G. 88. Clin. 2. M. G€lcin et al. Phytother. Lee et al.Anise (and star anise) 39 REFERENCES See General References for APPLEQUIST. Carter. Small. Int. Lebensm.. Dermatol. Fr.. Burkhardt et al.. Ital. J. Chem. Ned. 619 (2003). 8. Fitoterapia. Z. (2003). Arch.. 74.. Environ. 30. Johanns et al. J.. Fujimatu et al. 591 (2003).. 337 (1996). 50. M. Weekbl. 24. Anstrichmit. Allergy. 37. 25. T. Hung. Unters.Forsch. 40. Assoc. Food Cosmet. A. Tijdschr. F. ARCTANDER. D. Lebensm. L. I.. Planta Med. H. 26. 115 (2003). 11. H.. Scholz. Y. 49. L.. T. Mumcuoglu et al. 26. G. 94 (2002). Helv. Ann... 609 (2003). 599 (2003). W. 211 (1999). Albert-Puleo. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 16. Bricout. 36.. J. 818 (1980). D. 14. BISSET. M. BLUMENTHAL 1. Schulz and K. 10. Pourgholami et al. Melzig et al.. Food Chem.. 1 (1975). D. 1901 (1974). Abstr. Allergy Asthma Immunol. Ethnopharmacol. Shahidi et al. BRUNETON. 71.. J. 865 (1973). Fraj et al. Hitokoto et al. F. 37. Chem. Isr. S. 8. 19. 57. Fette. Kreydiyyeh et al. 83 (2001). 63. Food Cosmet. 34. 17. 62. 12. 725 (2000). Pediatr.. Garcia-Gonzales et al.. H. 27. Garzo Fernandez et al. 112 (2003).164. 518 (2002). 83. J. C. Hermann. 715 (1975). Ann. 13. 21. B. Pharm. An. Shibamoto. 41. T. Assalve et al. Kitajima et al. Agric... Soc. 337 (1996). J. Opdyke. Esp. 9–10. 10. 1217 (1979). R. H. 849 (1974). Diss. K. Life Sci. 35. 101. Sci. D. Toxicol. 15.). 23.. 5. Grundon. 813 (2002). LUST.. Brown. 18. I.. 50. GRIEVE. M.. 276 (1969). YOUNGKEN. 278 (1980). 20. WICHTL. GUENTHER... BAILEY 2. S. Minodier et al. 271 u¸ 1.. B.. M. 2.. J. Ethnopharmacol. 27. J. Sper. Ishikawa et al. R. 663 (2003). 29. 337 (1980). Boskabady et al. B. Opdyke. E. JIANGSU. K. 39. Kartnig and G. 28. Phytochemistry. 127 (1982). Med. 681 (1977). J. Res. J. 22. 38. 162 (1972). Tabacchi et al. Res. 41. Kunzemann and K. Sci. Microbiol. T. 32. 27. Szegfu et al... 66.. Sekizawa and T. Okely and M. 74. De Vincenzi et al.... M. 190 (1986). Nat. J. Acta Helv. H. 17. Marcus and E. Arch. Z. 3.. 171. Z... 13(Suppl. Bot. 790 (2002). Phytochemistry. 411 (1987). Econ. D. 290 (2002). Ethnopharmacol. Prod. BARNES. L. 10. G. Can. Acta Pharm..

protein (13–17%). (À)-Bixin (syn. Part used is the seed. arnotta. diapocarotenoids.o. Therefore. Common/vernacular names: Achiote. and Peru.). a-bixin) is unstable and during extraction is usually converted to trans-bixin (syn. suggesting a possible antiallergic effect. others report a narrow spectrum of antibacterial activity from the leaves.10 Although bixin and norbixin are carotenoids.9 Awater extract of the leaves showed platelet antiaggregant activity in vitro. they do not have vitamin A activity. (Family Bixaceae). Major producers of annatto seeds are India. it is readily hydrolyzed by alkalis during alkali extraction of annatto to the dicarboxylic acid. an essential oil (with the sesquiterpene ishwarane as the major component). native to northern South America. bixin (200 mmol/kg p.40 Annatto ANNATTO Source: Bixa orellana L. Norbixin exhibits antioxidant activity against the deterioration of lipids in bulk olive oil and in olive oil-in-water emulsions. Kenya.8–11.5% dry wt. the process being accelerated by light and heat. apocarotenoids. Bixin is a monomethyl ester of norbixin (a dicarboxylic acid). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Both bixin and norbixin in the free acid state are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents (e. while that of water-soluble (usually alkaline) annatto extracts is an alkali salt of norbixin. Annatto is reported to be most stable at pH 8. it loses much of its tinctorial power gradually on storage. Ecuador. Both a.8 However.6 The coloring principle in oil-soluble annatto preparations is free bixin. up to 10 m high. Norbixin is the principle component of the water-soluble dyes of annatto and is formed by the removal of the methyl esters of bixin. qualities differ considerably depending on sources and seasons. which is also known as isobixin.11 Administered to rats during and after whole body irradiation. which contains the coloring principles in an orange-red waxy covering. with decreased stability at pH 4–8. Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activity was found from an ethanolic extract of the dried seeds. Annatto also contains b-carotene (6. and others (EVANS). Tinctorial strength of bixin is comparable to that of b-carotene. extensively cultivated in tropical areas of Africa.g.13 TOXICOLOGY An acute (3-week) oral toxicity study of an extract of annatto seeds containing 50% . acetone. 1. and with activity only found against Gram-positive bacteria. norbixin (EVANS.3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Shrub or small tree. the stable isomer. and both extracts were also active against Candida albicans. b-bixin).5. An extract of the dried leaves showed greater potency. However. annatto.7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The coloring principles are carotenoids.3 mg/100 g).2 MERCK). the fresh seeds are preferred in manufacturing processes. pectin. pentosans. and lipstick tree. with bixin (especially the cis isomer) in major concentration (2. bixin inhibited the activity of IgE.) significantly reduced levels of lung collagen hydroxyproline and liver and serum lipid peroxidation values.12 At concentrations of 1–100 mM in vitro in rat spleen lymphocytes.and b-forms of norbixin are found in watersoluble annatto dye. commonly the potassium salt. mostly bixin (oil-soluble) and norbixin (water-soluble). Asia. and enhanced the production of IgM. but bixin is the more stable. tannins. alcohols) and aqueous alkaline solutions. achiotillo. Bixin is one of the more stable natural yellow colors. and in the West Indies..

and for oral hygiene.1% of the diet (76 and 69 mg/kg p. butter. albumin. as a gargle for sore throat.9% of the diet.and water-soluble extracts and spray-dried powders. Also available for domestic use as ground or whole seeds in supermarkets or ethnic stores in metropolitan areas in the United States. . with highest average maximum use level reported for the extract in baked goods (ca. Oil-soluble extracts are used in oily food products such as salad oils. norbixin (8. the NOEL of norbixin was 0. increases in albumin/globulin. margarine.o.670 ppm for 7 days failed to produce any mutagenic effects. meat and meat products.1030). respectively). Traditional Medicine.30).14 Administered to pregnant rats. and phospholipid ratios.15 At high oral doses in rats. and cosmetics (§73.17 Similar results were found from in vitro tests in which low concentrations of norbixin (10–50 mM) protected DNA against oxidative damage.20 USES The current major commercial uses of annatto colors are in foods. as a purgative. norbixin produced a pronounced elevation in liver weights.o. and herbal preparations.16 In the micronucleus test in male mice.19 Human allergic reactions to annatto food coloring include IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in a man who consumed a breakfast cereal containing the dye. 5330.2030).24%). tablets. per day. The pulp that surrounds the seeds is topically applied as a mosquito repellant.g. fats and oils. and 68 mg/kg produced hyperinsulinemia in rats and that doses of 56 and 351 mg/kg produced hypoinsulinemia in mice.8. annatto food colorant at dietary levels of 1330. as well as in cosmetics (e. 0. However. popcorn oil.18 Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes of the liver (CYP2B and CYP1A) was found from oral dosing of female rats with an extract of the seeds containing 28% bixin. the highest concentration increased the mutagenic effect of a mutagen (cyclophosphamide). condiments and relishes. and gravies. or 10.22 Preparations of the leaves are traditionally used in treating gonorrhea.14 However.o. Other clinical reports suggest the possibility that angioedema and urticaria occur as allergic reactions to the dye in some individuals.8 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. Major food categories in which annatto color is used include alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. for males and females. and in blood work. antipruritic. while at higher concentrations it enhanced oxidative damage to DNA. at least 140 mg/kg p. The seeds have been used in treating tumors of the oral cavity. At 0. frozen dairy desserts.8 and in the treatment of venereal diseases. Approved for use as a colorant in foods (§73.5 and 74 mg/kg) produced hyperglycemia. hepatocyte hypertrophy. the extract also caused a significant decrease in globulins and plasma total protein levels without evidence of any adverse effects on the liver or plasma chemistry. total protein. especially dairy. In the rats.21 also used in drugs as color coatings for granules.23 nausea.. Aqueous alkaline extracts are extensively used in coloring cheeses (especially cheddar) and to a lesser extent in ice creams and other dairy products.Annatto 41 norbixin found that doses of 0. Regulatory Status. pills. per day or greater and for bixin. 95% pure bixin showed only weak inducing activity. oil. A developmental and maternal NoObserved-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOEL) for the extract was proposed as 500 mg/kg p. alkaline phosphatase. drugs (§73. snack foods. annatto food color containing 28% bixin caused no adverse effects to the mothers and none to the fetuses. lipsticks) and hair dyes. baked goods.5. and sausage casings. in a subchronic (2-week) toxicity test in rats of either sex. 7.3% and 0.

F. V. The Chemistry of Natural Coloring Matters. 4hydroxy-thymol dimethyl ether. leopard’s bane. 60. Food Chem. Kovary et al. 85. FEMA. 11.. 23. UK. Nutr. 431 6. Int. Kiokias and M. X. Res. Indian J. thymol methyl ether. Biosci. 3. H. O. 1 (1995). J. Latinoam. Gupta et al. E. 11. 1943.. Drug Cosmet. Biochem.). Med... Nish et al. Bressani et al. E. Biotechnol. New York. 34. Barking. GRIEVE. A. Ann.. ARNICA Source: Arnica montana L.. Carotenoids. Nutr. 33. Jucker.. 845 (1996). Monograph Series 89. 1157 (2003). 411 (2002). K. Z. (1997).. Nutr. Res. R. Food Chem. 89 (1980). 189 (2003). 121 (6). Irobi et al. 129 8. Toxicol. Latinoam. 17. J. MORTON 2.. Nutr. 18. Phytother. D. S. Mayer and A. R. Br. Cook. 1950. 523 (2003). Allergy. Fleischer et al.. 11. 5. Alves de Lima et al. 136 (1991). 74. 66. Gordon. Hagiwara et al. 20. C. TERRELL. Braz. myristic... (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). 36. 21.3%) of a viscous volatile oil. 13. Biochem. (2003)... Lancaster and J. (2001). A.. 41. 41. J. 85 (1995).. and A. Contains up to 1% (normally about 0. 113 (2003). 15.6 m high. thymol. fulgens Pursh. 83. Pharmacogn. Addit. all of which are native to the region of the western Rocky Mountains.. 26. Aromatic constituents present include terpenes. Part used is the dried flower head. Colet. up to about 0... K. Fernandes et al. FURIA. Srinivasulu and S. 87 (1996).. Paumgartten et al. cordifolia Hook.. Kuramoto et al.42 Arnica REFERENCES See the General References for EVANS. F. 19. De Oliveira et al.. C. 16.. A. F. Mahapatra. 10. 34. European arnica. Thresiamma et al. C.. Food 9. 12. Y. O.). Chem. J. A. linoleic.. Tecnol. Contam. Toxicol. Indian Perfum.. R.. N. Biol. Food 48. 7. Inst. cultivated in northern India. F. and wolf’s bane. ACS 14. Caceres et al. 55 (1977). Aliment (Campinas Braz. 132 (1982). Exp. native to mountainous regions of Europe. 441 45 (1997). A. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Ethnopharmacol. A. Toxicol. C. J. Angelucci et al. Karrer and E. H. Auslander et al. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb.. 1595 (2002). C. W. sororia Green.. Ind. Several American Arnica species (“American arnica”) have also been used (A. 68. Rheinhold. UPHOF. S. 356 (1983). mountain tobacco. Villar et al. A.. Food Chem. 12. about half of which is composed of fatty acids. 22... R. 40. and linolenic acids predominant. 4. J. N. Fitoterapia. Lawrence. and isobutyric .. T. Fitoterapia. Bressani et al. 356 (1983). 1. 33.. 1712 (1996). C. Arch. Arch. R. with palmitic. Biol. 2. Common/vernacular names: Arnica. P. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. 13..

and thromboxane formation-inhibiting. 11a. and death. diarrhea.g.22 Helenalin has also shown in vitro antitrypanosomal activity (Trypanosoma cruzi and T. 30 mL) of the tincture (1 : 0. helenalin and 11a. an effect attributed to the flavonol content. and symptoms of acute trauma. pectolinarigenin.14. sunflower. lutein. B. and D. montana have shown immunos- Arnica montana is not recommended for any internal uses.13 Pseudoguaianolides have been reported in leaves of A.and b-carotene.37 USES Medicinal.12 and phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic. Pharmaceutical. carotenoids (a.30 muscle soreness.32. are lacking. and Cosmetic. Cross-reactivity with other plants is also reported (e. Chrysanthemum).29 wound healing.). including arnifolin. etc. caffeic.15 timulating activities in vitro. jaceosidin. montana..28. brucei rhodesiense). vomiting.33 post-laser treatment bruising. pain.16 The sesquiterpene lactones helenalin acetate and 11.Arnica 43 acid thymyl ether.32 TOXICOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES An extract of Arnica montana was shown to increase the resistance of animals to bacterial infections by stimulating phagocytosis of the bacteria involved. especially helenalin and its derivatives. No longer (or rarely) used in preparations intended for internal use. 6-methoxykaempferol. intense muscular weakness.6.) (KARRER. An extract made from the dried plant showed mutagenic activity in the Ames test. The plant is an irritant to mucous membranes. betuletol. are known sensitizers. tannin.25 Acidic polysaccharides derived from an extract of A. edema. decrease or increase of the pulse rate. arnisterin (a sterol).13-dihydrohelenalin have shown platelet aggregation.12 Sesquiterpene lactones. collapse. montana have shown questionable or no benefits in the treatment of postoperative pain.28 postoperative bruising.34–36 Data on the safety of Arnica Montana extract. vanillic. arnicin (bitter principle). 5-hydroxytryptamine secretion. 2b-ethoxy-6-O-isobutyryl 1-2.18 Helenalin also showed immunostimulating activity in a preliminary screening. stroke. hispidulin. etc. cryptoxanthin.g.13dihydrohelenalin.29. It has an oral LD50 of >5 g/kg in rats. C. MERCK). gentisic.23 and antitumor activity against human colorectal cancer (COLO 320 cells) and human small cell lung carcinoma (GLC4 cells).24 It also induces apoptosis in leukemia (Jurkat T cells). which is made from the dried flower heads of A.).10–12 coumarins (umbelliferone.2 or 20%) has been reported to produce serious but not fatal symptoms (USD 23RD). helenalin. particularly Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium.1–5 Other constituents include resins. arnicolides A.3-dihydrohelenalin and 6-O-isobutyryltetrahydrohelenalin6–8). One ounce (ca.30 postoperative hematomas. placebo-controlled clinical trials of homeopathic preparations of A. p-coumaric. giddiness.o.27.. isoquercetin.18 Numerous esters of helenalin have shown anti-inflammatory activity in mice and rats.26 Double-blind.19 The anti-inflammatory activity of A. if not all. shortness of breath. Current use is mostly . ferulic. scopoletin). montana preparations are numerous and date from as early as 1844.20 which has the ability to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression21 by directly modifying the transcription factor NF-kB in vitro.34 Reported cases of contact allergic reactions to A. etc. Tagetes. and loliolide. whereas in mice the LD50 was 123 mg/ kg p. of these toxic effects.17 and antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. montana flowers is attributed to helenalin.31 postoperative swelling.9 flavonoids (astragalin.34 Evidence suggests that helenalin is responsible for many.13-dihydrohelenalin esters. montana. and ingestion may cause burning pain in the stomach. sesquiterpene lactones (e.

Gora. injuries. Herrmann et al. 34.. 24. and creams for external application to sprains and bruises26. BARNES. Arnica Montana extract was reported to be used in close to 100 body care formulations including bubble baths. 7. 31. Planta Med.510).44 Arnica as a local anti-inflammatory in the form of a tincture of the dried flower heads as a component (5–25% v/v) of salves.. diuretic. except perhaps alcoholic beverages because of their limited volume of intake. 1 (1972). Planta Med. I.32 also used in hair tonics and antidandruff preparations.. with reported average maximum use levels in parentheses. WICHTL. externally antiphlogis- tic. 35 (1984).. hematomas. Vanhaelen. 4. and insect bites. compressed. frozen dairy desserts (0. 11.37. BLUMENTHAL 1. fracture-induced edema. External applications of preparations containing A. DER MARDEROSIAN 1 & 2. Planta Med. Willuhn. Planta Med. 13.03%) and nonalcoholic (0.. antiseptic. G. G. BISSET. Swiatek and J. Willuhn et al. and extracts. and gelatins and puddings (0. 23.03%).38. Planta Med. Flowers GRAS as a natural flavoring (§172. Herba Pol. 1. 18. 434 (1987). These figures apparently cannot apply to the crude flowers as they are too high to be safe in all categories. Wendisch. and edema resulting from bone fractures (BLUMENTHAL 1). skin fresheners. 107 (1984). LUST.S. 8. 247 (1988). hair conditioners.. C. contusions. gels. montana flower are the subject of a positive German monograph that includes inflammatory conditions (superficial phlebitis. FOSTER AND CARAS.. I...04%). LUST. D. 5. (1970).26 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. 54. deodorants.02%) beverages. Merfort and D. salves.08%). G. and homeopathic products for external use only (FOSTER AND CARAS. o Phytomedicine. tincture. Willuhn. 12. Korting. and various others such products. stimulant. 221 (1972). REFERENCES See the General Reference for APPLEQUIST. Planta Med. Planta Med. Traditional Medicine. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. 9. ointments. Planta Med. 21. oral cavity. tinctures. H. lotions. 6.F.04%).40 Food. 53. and fluid extract were formerly official in N. Kating. shaving creams. vulnerary for hematomas. 130 AND BEUTLER. Kating et al. 187 (1978). 21. crude flowers and root formerly in U. oil occasionally used in perfumes and other cosmetic preparations. Planta Med. tincture. rheumatism. 1. furunculosis. 310 (1977). Planta Med. and throat conditions). Used as a diaphoretic. WREN.37 Regulatory Status. 226 (1983).. MARTINDALE. 50. WREN). Merfort.. GRIEVE. 22. baked goods (0. dislocations. G. 308 (1973). R. Schmitz and H. contusions. H€rmann and H. moisturizers. In the United States in 1998. Willuhn. H. MCGUFFIN 3. Used (though not widely) as a flavor ingredient in alcoholic (ca. insect bites. H. 10. 0.. L..39 and in various dilutions in homeopathic preparations. hair dyes.P. .. FEMA.. 329 (1972). YOUNGKEN. ARCTANDER. 299 (1978). joint problems. Planta Med.. 49. candy (0.. P. Crude. Willuhn et al. G. Various ointments. 50. M. 161 (1994). 2. analgesic.

Komplementarmed. Munich. Klass. Pharm. Surg. 93. J. A. Willuhn. 14. Lyss et al. Veterin€rmed. V. Forsch. 2183 (1982). 1 (2001). Fioume. Apoth. Ramelet et al. 68.. 60 (2003). 98 (1974). the immature flower heads with fleshy bracts are eaten as a vegetable. Contact Dermat. J. C. widely culti- The leaves contain cynarin (1. 73 (1997). Res. Germany. Med. cynara. Woerdenbag et al. J.. C. 1970. Bilia et al. 30. Pharmacol. Willuhn et al... Dermatology.. 9. Surg. 201. 2141 (2003).. 35. H. hesperidoside. R. Klaas et al..Artichoke 45 14. M. Wagner et al. 38. H€rhammer. 385 (2002). 49 (1998). Planta Med. Pharm. 36. Buschmann. Toxicol. J.. 125...... H. Z. MacKinnon. Pharmacognosy and o Phytochemistry. J.. Soc. 14.. Berlin. Pharm. up to about 1 m high. 839 (1990).. Pain. Clin. J. 50. which is the tuber of Helianthus tuberosus L. E. J.. Hall et al. J. H. 273. Stevinson et al. 27. O. 153 (1987). 1187 (1998). 24.. Herout. SpringerVerlag. Biomed. 5817 (2001). Dermatol.. Biochem.. Parts used are the leaves. H. 66. 139 (1985). vated.. Planta Med. 31. 90. Cancer Res. 39. R. R. 17.. p. 20(Suppl. caffeic acid. 20. Int. rutin... 37. luteolin. 96. Hart et al. cynaroside. I. 19 (1977).. J. 28. maritimein. 242 (2003). Schmidt et al. Chem. apigenin. North Africa. Alonso et al. Naturheilkd. Am. Common/vernacular names: Globe artichoke. 33. 10. ARTICHOKE Source: Cynara scolymus L. Can. D. 2). 29. 60. Planta Med.. H. Pittler. G. Thromb.. G. 126. hesperitin. 33508 (1998).. Dtsch. in H. Soc. 21. 1971. 434 (1994).. Gertsch et al.. A. 35. H. 57. 68..-Forsch. E. Ztg. Spettoli et al. It should not be confused with Jerusalem artichoke. Toilet. Phytochemistry. 125 (1992). M. B. M. Vickers et al. 686 (2002). A. Wolf et al. 32.. Anal.1 .. chlorogenic acid. H.. 127. T.. 18. Ernst and M.. 321 (2002). 25. Fortschr. H. 30. 227 (1998).. G. 53. Wagner and L.. eds. 1st International Congress. 1659 (1975). (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). a 20. 61. Wagner et al. 28. 2038 (1986). J. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Large thistle-like perennial herb. S. 16. 1069 (1985). 15. 750 (2002). cosmoside. Med. J. Planta Med. Dirsch et al.3-dicaffeoylquinic acid).. Heath. Cosmet. 26. A. A. Planta Med. 40.. and the Canary Islands.. 34.. Ztg. Arch.. M. esculetin-6-O-b-glucoside.. Schroder et al. V. 133. 347 (2000). Biol. J. 23. Holub et al. 19. 92. native to southern Europe. quercetin. 22. Arzneim.

21 Anticlastogenic activity was shown in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay from the leaf homogenate or concentrate. 1-.13. and the effect was accompanied by a decrease in plasma uric acid. including glycosides luteolin7-b-rutinoside (scolymoside). and narirutin. 1-caffeoylquinic acid. and by the oral route the LD40 was 2000 mg/ kg. Pharmaceutical.15.39 Use is contraindicated in individuals with known allergies to the Composite plant family. luteolin-7-O-glucoside. glycolic and glyceric acids.35 bronchial asthma. 4-. and 4-b-D-glucoside.2 apigenin-7-rutinoside.10.26–28 and symptomatic improvement of patients with functional dyspepsia. however. and in gallstones (except under medical advice) (BLUMENTHAL 1).33 food allergy.25 Sesquiterpene constituents of the leaves.14 Cynaropicrin. cynarin. without any effect on cholesterol or phospholipid levels.6–12 and a volatile oil consisting of b-selinene and caryophyllene as its major components.38 In rats. the latter attributed to caffeic acid.16 The maximum content of cynarin. luteolin-7-rutinoside. and allergic rhinitis. cynaroside.p. and 1.22 and topical administration of taraxastanetype hydroxy triterpenes isolated from the leaves (faradiol and taraxasterol) inhibited Side effects from artichoke are mild or absent26–28. flavonoids (0. luteolin-7-bD-glucoside. apigenin-7-O-glucoside. guaianolides (cynaropicrin. with a-cadrene.p.46 Artichoke sesquiterpenes (aguerin B. LD50 of an extract containing 46% caffeoylquinic acids was 265 mg/kg i. B.5 sugars. narirutin.17 the development of skin tumors in mice.3-dicaffeoylquinic acid). 3-.16. sesquiterpene glycosides (cynarascolosides A. 3-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid).3 is obtained by aqueous ebullition of the drug.19.23 Although more than one study showed no cholerectic activity from either cholorgenic acid or cynarin in rats. lowered serum triglyceride levels in rats when administered orally following olive oil.36 Potential allergens in artichoke are sesquiterpene lactones. cynaratriol. and 5-caffeoylquinic acids.37.32 and drug interactions are unknown (BLUMENTHAL 1).3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. and C). inulin. including cynaropicrin. and eugenol as the major aromatic principles. grosheimin).20 Antioxidant activity was also shown in the erythrocytes of rats fed diets containing the edible portions of artichoke. taraxasterol.3 artichoke also contains up to 2% O-diphenolic derivatives such as caffeic acid. enzymes (KARRER). phenylacetaldehyde. Y-taraxasterol.29 Cynarin has shown inconsistent hypolipidemic effects in humans (MARTINDALE). Allergic reactions to artichoke are rare.2. luteolin. Artichoke leaf extracts have been widely used in Europe for the treatment of digestive com- . including allergic contact dermatitis. 8-epigrosheimin). oct-1-en-3-one.2 Hepatoprotective activity has been shown in both animal and in vitro studies with artichoke extracts. cynarin (1. notably cynaropicrin.0%). cynaropicrin. decanal. in bile duct obstructions. USES Medicinal. The LD50 of a hydroalcoholic extract of artichoke containing 19% caffeoylquinic acids was 1000 mg/kg i. the major caffeoylquinic acid derivative in the artichoke heads. chlorogenic acid.26 Placebo-controlled clinical trials of artichoke leaf extracts have shown cholersterol-lowering effects15. hex-1-en-3-one. non-trans-2-enal.4.30. and scolymoside are among various active constituents identified so far.1–1.24 acute and repeated oral administration of an artichoke leaf extract in rats produced increases in total bile acid levels.34 acute edema of the tongue. and Cosmetic.31 TOXICOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Artichoke leaf extract has shown in vitro antimicrobial18 and antioxidant activities.

501. V. J.. Phytomedicine. Cynarin and chlorogenic acid can be used as sweeteners (LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS). 10. D. 181 (1967). 86. 15. G. 202 (1985). Leaves subject of a German therapeutic monograph indicated as a choleretic for dyspeptic problems (BLUMENTHAL 1). 1 (1966). 3 (1979).. there are no uniform standards for extracts. 5. Bioorg. 107 (1994). G. H. Med. 21. WREN. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. ACS 175th National Meeting. Funkts. 1647 (1982). 111 (1999).. 19. Chem. Stud. Acta. L. 13. Bernhard et al. UPHOF. 104.Artichoke 47 plaints (e. .. 143 (1977). 1978.. 203 (2003). 20. 6. P. 1. Martino et al. Constatninescu et al. 20.. Reported average maximum use level for leaves is 0. Division of 601 (2003). liqueurs...32 Food. Scarpati. 35. E. 53 (1968). Agriculture and Food.. Michaud. Regulatory Status. Has reportedly been used in Europe since Roman times as a cho- leretic and diuretic. 8. Plant.. Phytochemistry. 106. Perez-Garcia et al. Leaves and their extracts used mainly as a flavor ingredient in alcoholic beverages (bitters. and to lower cholesterol levels.. Med. MacLeod et al... nausea. abdominal pains. tincture. 1288 (1979). hepatobiliary dysfunction. Pharmacol. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 11. 62. 48.. 17. Nature. J. Shimoda et al. Ber. LIST AND HORHAMMER. J. 22. 2. BARNES. leaves are GRAS as a natural flavoring (§172. Soc. dyspepsia. Carciofo Congr. 144 (1976). Pharmazie. 16. Fr. 51. E. H. 19. 174. Wagner et al. 9. Acta Hort. Betancor-Fernandez et al. Free Radic. Res. 2118 (1971). tablets. Mater. Ann. 95 22. 1062 (1954).. Vses. Agric. I. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. R.. H. Panizzi and M. Fenolnye Soedin. Barbetti et al. J. Lett. (1989). J. A.. Food Chem. J. Simp.. or expressed juice of fresh plant. Herba Pol. Bordeaux. in capsules. Buttery et al.. Paper no. Jaruzelski et al. Chem. 77 (1981). O. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. etc.. 1. Ingelsias.. 14. Pharm. 223 (2003)..g. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Hinou et al. Bombardelli et al.0016% (16 ppm). 661 (2000).. Traditional Medicine. Int. FEMA. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. 981 (1003). 55. Chim. 47. Speroni et al. Ethnopharmacol. BLUMENTHAL 1. among other uses (BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA).).. Pharm. GRIEVE. paper presented at the 3.. M. WICHTL.. et al. M. 7. Bull. Kirchoff. R. A. 18.510). loss of appetite).. L. Dranik. Phytother. Helv. MARTINDALE. F. Ikh Biol. L. 4. 33. 176 (1967). Fitoterapia. DER € MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.. Dried or ground leaves. Pharm. J... 12. or other products for oral use (WREN). Wang et al.

Phytomedicine. asadisulfide11 and other sulfides12). 537.. Gadban et al. 34.. W. 58 (2001). p. 601 (1973).. native to southwestern Asia (eastern Iran and western Afghanistan). Aliment. CD003335 (2002). Wien. farnesiferols A. Heckers et al. 22. 24.. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry.. C. Yasukawa et al. 9.. 25. Rook. gummosin. Phytother. 123. with monoterpenes (a. and umbelliferone ethers (e. 687 (2002). . Plenum Press. 1099 (2003). 48. H.. Arzneim. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). Sci. ed.. free ferulic acid. Romano et al. Med. 33. 169 (2003). 1975. assafoetidnols A and B. H. Laryngol. rhamnose. 18. 4. J. H. 341 (1996). 27.. T. K.. Greengrass. B. Res. 29. Runeckles. Lietti. J. and I. C. A. up to 3 m high. 26. L-arabinose.-Forsch. Allergol.g. Contact Dermatitis. 26. A. J. Mitchell and A. 28. H. Mitchell in V.. B.. 260 (2000). Englisch et al. Res. R.9 3-O-acetylepisamarcadin. neveskone. asafoetida. 1979.. galbanic acid. assa-foetida. E. usual range 7–9%) consisting of disulfides and polysulfides as its major components.. 23. 5540 (2003). Rhinol.9 Sulfur-containing compounds are responsible for the characteristic flavor and odor of asafetida (e. Otol. kamolonol) among others. and glucuronic acid. 31. Invest. 51. Altman Jr.. 9. Wochenschr. 32.. 61.48 Asafetida 21. Saenz Rodriguez et al. It is a solid or semisolid with a persistent alliaceous (garliclike) odor and bitter acrid taste. (3). asaresinotannols. K. Rev. New York. C. 91.. valeric acid.and Z-isomers).and b-pinene.. 53.1–8 A chloroform extract of the resins from the roots yielded sesquiterpene coumarins. Common/vernacular names: Asafetida. Hammerl et al. and traces of vanillin. 9. 153 (1977). Walker et al. 35. giant fennel. Oncology. 119. Agric. W. Jimenez-Escrig et al. Holtmann et al. volatile oil (3–21%. Edenharder et al. are also present. ASAFETIDA Source: Ferula assa-foetida L. and gum asafetida. 30. 610 (1972). Ann... food of the gods. G. M. Ann. C. Botanical Dermatology—Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin. A. F. J.10 samarcandin. 50.. Ther. J. An essential oil (asafetida oil) is obtained by steam distillation.. Food Chem. Atherosclerosis. P. umbelliferone. 112. oleogum resin of the plant: devil’s dung.). 92 (2003)... Kraft. notably 2-butyl propenyl disulfide (E. L. Vancouver. 37. and polyanthin. Mutat. 102 (2000). and C. J. 249 (1977). 369 (1997).g. Pittler et al. GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Asafetida is the oleogum resin obtained by incising or cutting the living rhizomes and roots of F. BC. 651 (2003). F. assa-foetida is a large branching perennial herb. Fitoterapia.. bradrakemin. Immunol. Clin. Phytomedicine.. 36. Meding. Cochrane Database Syst. Vol. 15. 38. Pharm. 10. 314 (1983). Contains 40–64% resinous material composed of ferulic acid. approximately 25% gum composed of glucose. galactose. Honigberg. Pharmacol. Miralles et al. etc. 39..

3.19 used in Chinese medicine (since the 7th century) as a nerve stimulant in treating neurasthenia. Now rarely used in pharmaceutical preparations. Crude.20 Regulatory Status. and catalase). USD 23RD. A. inhibited lipid peroxidation. in chronic bronchitis. 119 (1975). Chim. 2.18. candy.F. extractive. JIANGSU. Used in Iranian folk medicine to treat abdominal cramps and diarrhea. CLAUS. B. NANJING.13 The essential oil showed a relaxant effect on isolated rat ileum. 15 g) has reportedly produced no untoward effects (GOSSELIN). 41. Asafetida is regularly consumed in Nepal and India as part of the daily diet. and extracts.5% of the diet of female rats subjected to carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis. antiflatulent. and ingestion of 0.19 it is reported to be an ingredient in Worcestershire sauce. Fac. Mahran et al.5 oz (ca.Asafetida 49 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Administered at 1. BAILEY 2. GUENTHER. Acta.. depending on sources and is not necessarily derived from Ferula assa-foetida. mainly use in cosmetics is as a fixative or fragrance component in perfumes. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. frozen dairy desserts.. Pharm. GRIEVE.004%). MORTON 1. Caglioti et al. anthelmintic. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. L. Essential oil. bronchitis. or flatulence in adults. Ser. LUST. Use levels are usually very low (<0. Tests showed that only the gum portion of the formulation had an oxidative effect on fetal hemoglobin in vitro and that adult hemoglobin was unaffected. Chim. and pneumonia in children.. and Cosmetic. and reduced the size of tumors. emmenagogue. Helv. Scand. G. Bull.14 in Nepalese folk medicine as an aphrodisiac.15 It has also been demonstrated to increase blood coagulation time. and asthma. it is reportedly used in nonalcoholic beverages. among others. diuretic. Caglioti et al. bronchitis. antispasmodic. L. gelatins and puddings. 4. MERCK. superoxide dismutase. tincture.14 Asafetida has also shown hypotensive activities in animals..20).17 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS USES Medicinal. HUANG.. .. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Helv. 2557 (1959). expectorant. and as an expectorant. Pharmaceutical.. delayed tumor appearance.25% and 2. 1. Commercial crude asafetida differs widely in quality. 2278 (1958). Traditional Medicine. Together with the oil and fluid extract. Use of the gum was associated with a case of methemoglobinemia in an infant treated for colic with glycerated asafetida. cough.16 Food. and sedative. and condiments and relishes. BARNES. H. FEMA. asafetida increased activity levels of endogenous antioxidants (glutathione-S-transferase. Crude and tincture were formerly official in N. Kjaer et al.18 in India to treat nervous disorders of children and women. TOXICOLOGY Available data indicate asafetida to be relatively nontoxic. meat and meat products. baked goods. reduced glutathione. 12. 30. 41. and solvent-free oleoresin GRAS for use in foods (§182. Acta Chem. Cairo Univ. and laxative. Acta. oil. 137 (1976).

Phytochemistry. lignans (asarinin. Pediatrics. 23. 9. Kajimoto et al. 6.. americanum) grows from Quebec south to Mississippi and west to Oklahoma. J. K. 7. 136 (2003). Ashraf et al.50 Ash. 1289 (2001). Phytochemistry.3. M. 41 (1998). Ind. 16.. India. M. 1976.. Collect. magnoflorine. 81. Breast Cancer Res. Eigner and D. 128 (1979). 1207 (1984). Phytochemistry. Northern prickly ash (Z. nitidine. 18. lignans (asarinin and sesamin) (KARRER). Saudi Pharm. Scholz. sesamin). Zh. tannins. Common/vernacular names: Angelica tree. 899 (1984).. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Both species are shrubs or small trees growing to about 3 m high with prickly stems and petioles. Abd El-Razek et al. and an acrid volatile oil. K. 28. xanthoxyletin.3 resins. Res. H. and candicine in root bark. Mallikarjuna et al. Treat.1 alkaloids (laurifoline. and perhaps Mexico. chelerythrine.. 23. Sci. Kelly et al. 10.. northern prickly ash. Med. and an acrid volatile oil. with first two in major amounts). M. 67.g-dimethylallyl ether. 13. alloxanthoxyletin. native to North America.. G. 6. Indian Materia Medica. A.. 23.5 although it has been reported as a major alkaloid in another Zanthoxylum species. clava-herculis L. J. U. H. Chem.. magnofoline. 717 (1984).. xanthotoxin. (sometimes erroneously spelled Xanthoxylum) (Family Rutaceae). 58. I. Hercules’ club. and southern prickly ash (Z. berberine was not detected in later studies. D. Rajanikanth et al. toothache tree and xanthoxylum. J. T. americanum). Popular Prakashan. Sarkis’yan. 68 (1980). 17. Z.. Sadraei et al. cnidilin. G. M. prickly 5.amides(herculin. Previously thought to be present in prickly ash bark. Chem. tembetarine.. PRICKLY Source: Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. Monatsh..2. and candicine. R. 36. neoherculin.6 tannins. and isoimperatoin).3-dimethylallyl)-alloxanthoxyletin (a coumarin) from the root bark and two furoquinoline alkaloids (g-fagarine and skimmianine) from the leaves. 73. 20. N-acetylanonaine. 37. M. Nadkarni. andtembetarineinstembark). imperatorin. Uzb. chelerythrine. Phytochemistry. B.. Texas. toothache tree. monophyllum Lam. Nassar and T. sea ash. 19. and a cinnamamide). Northern prickly ash contains coumarins (xanthyletin..7 . Vol. 12. Mansurov. O. 14. Pak. 1. Hofer et al. Bombay. and yellow wood (Z.4 Southern prickly ash contains alkaloids (laurifoline. H. Czech. Fitoterapia. Uzb. Ethnopharmacol. 115... Commun.5. Unger. 23 (1969). M. K. Planta Med. Rajanikanth et al. resins. dipetaline). 1761 (1989). 8. 69. M. 899 (1984). Part used is the dried bark. tembetarine. 1166 (1972). J. clava-herculis).2. nitidine. Mohamed. or Z. Zh. while southern prickly ash (Z. Naimie et al. ASH.. 15. 9. Med. pepper wood. clava-herculis) grows farther to the south. 1 (2003). Other compounds isolated include 8-(3. 11. R. from southern Virginia to Florida. Samimi and W. 1 (1999). pluviatilol g. prickly yellow wood. 46 (1967).. 11.2 The berries contain furanocoumarins (psoralen.

01%. Bowen et al. and as “blood purifier” (FOSTER AND DUKE. FOSTER AND DUKE. Lloydia. Activity was largely attributed to the alkaloid chelerythrine.. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. J. and solvent-free oleoresin of bark are GRAS for use in foods (§182. Vet. FERNALD.10. Res. Y. 10. Res. Extract is reportedly used as a flavor component in major food categories such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic bev- REFERENCES See the General References for BARNES. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. 49. 340 (1986). J. . and U. arthritis. 103 6.4 The bark of southern prickly ash has shown in vitro growth inhibition of a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Assoc. A. F. R. 216 57. Stermitz and I.. 11.. frozen dairy desserts. and xanthoxtoxin).9 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. Morton. S. tinctures. 3. CLAUS.11 Southern prickly ash bark has shown toxic effects in cattle. J. 34.1 Cytotoxic effects on human tumor cell lines were also found from crude extracts of the berries and furanocoumarins isolated therefrom (psoralen. Essential oil. 5.. antispasmodic in colds. ulcers. B. Waterman. 25(Suppl. 35.. Abstr. Fish and P. Diss. V. 4.F.. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. USD 23RD. 16. which showed activity against various other methicillin-resistant strains of the bacteria. Hartwell.. 274 (1975). fluid extract.P. Pharmacol. 17. as a diaphoretic in fever. Bull. M.8 TOXICOLOGY erages. J. and gelatins and puddings. and others. Ju et al. poor digestion. (2003). Res. MERCK. 38. G.). Prod. 441 (2001). 7. 1.20). both internally and externally to treat rheumatism.. Saqib et al. Phytother. J. (1990). prickly 51 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES In vitro cytotoxic activity was found against human leukemia (HL-60) cells exposed to coumarins (especially dipetaline) and lignans (asarinin and sesamin) isolated from the root bark and fresh stems of northern prickly ash. as a tonic and a stimulant. 1239 (1996). Regulatory Status. 2. isoimperatoin. USES Food. 161 (1968). Sharifi. tablets. F.. candy. to treat sores. L. 5826 8. Used to treat toothache. G. Gibbons et al. Fish et al.. F. rheumatism. J. F. Phytochemistry. or decoction for increased circulation. K. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL).. Lloydia.. Med. extractive.S. Sun. Am. Q. 268 (1975). Rao and R. 115P (1973). 2003 (1977). 15. N. Davies. Highest average maximum use level is approximately 0. Int. and cancer (as an ingredient in Hoxsey “cure” in the 1950s). 9. 4. C. baked goods. crude was formerly official in N. Libr. Traditional Medicine. (1971). Used in combination with other herbs in capsules. Phytother. Pharm. FEMA.Ash. Nat. Phytother. Res. 56. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.

widely cultivated. JIANGSU.13 large amounts of NaOH-soluble polysaccharides.6 a-amino-dimethyl-g-butyrothetin (an S-methylmethionine derivative). and 1.9 has shown in vitro cytotoxic activity against herpes simplex virus type 1. renal and CNS cancer cells. antheraxanthin. cosmosiin.17 Fibers isolated from the vegetable are claimed to have mutagen-adsorbing (cancer-preventing) properties. 11. capsanthin 5.7 a glycosidic bitter principle that is different from the two found in roots.13 colon cancer cells. b-cryptoxanthin. violaxanthin. 5. Common/vernacularnames:Gardenasparagus.23 TOXICOLOGY Allergic reactions to asparagus have occurred from ingestion or handling of the plant and commonly result in severe asthma or anaphylaxis.18 An antifungal deoxyribonuclease was isolated from the seeds19 and the saponin fraction has shown antifungal activity. and S-acetyldihydro-asparagusic acids. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A dioecious perennial herb with erect and much branched stem. quercetin.52 Asparagus ASPARAGUS Source: Asparagus officinalis L.52% palmitic.9 flavonoids (rutin. etc. 11. capsanthin.5 Methylmercaptan (a hydrolysis product of the S-containing compounds) or asparagine–aspartic acid monoamide is believed to be The roots are reported to have diuretic and hypotensive properties (JIANGSU). kaempferol.4 asparagusic acid.16% oleic. kaempferol-3-O-Lrhamno-D-glucoside.5 and others. lutein. Shoots (spears and tips) contain sulfur-containing acids. in order of their increasing polarity). inhibiting the growth of lettuce. Allergens from asparagus have been identified as lipid transfer proteins24.78% behenic. succinic acid. MERCK). and others (KARRER. 3. sarsasapogenin.3-trithiane-5-carboxylic acid.12 Asparagusic acid and its derivatives are plant growth inhibitors.6 it also has nematicidal properties.21 human leukemia HL-60 cells. zeaxanthin).15 and 15. hyperoside.22 Protodioscin has also shown proerectile activity in rabbits. glioma cells.3.11 asparagine.8 protodioscin. Animal experiments with the roots indicate diuretic activity (BLUMENTHAL 1). a sulfurcontaining plant growth inhibitor. oligofurostanosides). isoquercitrin.6-epoxide. 2. capsorubin.59% stearic. and steroidal glycosides (named asparagosides A to I.5.14 carotenoids (mutatoxanthin epimers. neoxanthin. tyrosine.2 b-sitosterol.). present in urine after eating asparagus.1 glycosidic bitter principles (officinalisnin-I and officinalisnin-II). sugars.43% unsaponifiable matter consisted mostly of b-sitosterol. arginine. 22.34% linoleic. (Family Liliaceae). b-carotene. among others. dihydroasparagusic.25 and 1.16 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Roots contain inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides. protodioscin. melanoma. Extracts of the spears have shown in vitro antioxidant activity.10.14% linolenic acids. found in larger quantities in the bottom of the stalks than the tips. b-sitosterol.26 .20 Among the saponins. including asparagusic.3% oil composed of 43.47% arachidic. native to Europe and western Asia. Seeds contain steroidal saponins (protodioscin. thus being responsible for the resistance of asparagus to several plant parasitic nematodes.2. up to 3 m high. causing its peculiar odor (MERCK). leaves scale-like. sarsasapogenin.

and in neuritis and rheumatism. Food Chem. . Chem. WREN. 25. 151 (1974). Goldberg. BAILEY 2. although claimed efficacy is not substantially documented (BLUMENTHAL 1). Unters. Agric.. 6. N. Kintya. 12. Sect. 400 (1976).. tonic. 48. 8. Prir. 1783 (1969). Seeds have been used as coffee substitutes (UPHOF). M. 3. K. Tressl et al.. Sci..27 used in Chinese medicine as an antitussive. 40. 1. 14. and Cosmetic.. Food Chem. Prir.. 4. 5. antifebrile. REFERENCES See the General References for UPHOF. M. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 51. Biol. 6.. Seed and root extracts reportedly used in alcoholic beverages at an average maximum use level of 0. 9. 8. Forsch. 10.. 3. J. Soedin. 2. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Crude and extracts. Undetermined in the United States. Planta Med. Soedin. Tressl et al.. diuretic. 7. GRIEVE.28. FEMA. M. J. Chem. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. 63.. 2549 (1972). 762 (1976). A positive therapeutic German monograph exists for use of root preparations in irrigation therapy for inflammatory disease of the urinary tract and prevention of renal gravel (contraindicated in inflammatory kidney disease or edema caused by cardiac or renal disease) (BLUMENTHAL 1). Food Chem. Goryanu and P. Prasad and S. R. Y. Roots are used in diuretic preparations. 288 (1985). J. Him.Asparagus 53 USES Medicinal. T. Chem. 2793 (2000). M. Agric. Lebensm. BAILEY 1. 43 (1975).. 52. Takasugi et al. Traditional Medicine. 491 (1967). and hair growth stimulator.. R. Kawano et al.. G. K. 1999 (1975). GUPTA.29 Shoots are used in homemade preparations to cleanse face and to dry up pimples and sores (ROSE). 396 (1982). 11. Z. Pharmaceutical. Planta Med. 16. Herb is used in diuretic galenical preparations in Germany.. laxative. 15. Biol. 258 (1997). 1. J. also reportedly used in treating cancer.13 Fruits (berries) have been reported to be used as contraceptives. JIANGSU. Yanagawa et al. 455 (1977). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.. Shao et al. A. KARRER. 6132 (2003). Deli et al. Kartnig et al. J. Fleshy fibrous roots and to a lesser extent seeds are used for medicinal purposes. H. M. 459 (1977). Herb subject of a German therapeutic monograph. Regulatory Status. Khim. Y.. 25. Food Chem. Tetrahedron Lett. G. Herrmann. 155. 25. Agric. S. Shiomi et al. Aerial stems (asparagus spears) arising from rhizomes are used as vegetable. R. 14. 13. R. Natl... Lett. Sakamura et al. Nigam.0016% (16 ppm)... Roots are used as diuretic. BLUMENTHAL 1.. Wang et al. Phytochemistry. Goryanu et al. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS.. Proc. Agric.. GOSSELIN. S. 39. India. Agric. Acad. 567 (1976). Food. though therapeutic use is not recommended (as diuretic) due to insufficient scientific evidence.. 51. Woeldecke and K. Agric..

.) Gray (Family Polypodiaceae).5 Extracts of D. and others. 167 (1973). 19. Dryopteris filixmas is found in Europe. Allergy. A. Singapore. V. Asia. P. Biophys. filix-mas are active against vesicular stomatitis virus in monkey cell cultures. B. Hausen and C. Biol. Ng. T. 120 (2001). 24. 22. triterpene hydrocarbons (12-hopene. Margaspidin has been reported to have antiinflammatory activity in rats. Common/vernacular names: European aspidium and male fern (D. 23. coma. phloraspin. 27. Jpn. dcsaspidin. Ann. 3216 (2001)..13 (18)-hopadiene.) Schott or D. Sori in D. Shimoyamada et al.1.. Lloydia. vaspidic acids. 49. 28. Biol. Wang and T. 29. filix-mas is the larger of the two. tremors. M. 22 (2000). Chem. bloody diarrhea.9 . dizziness. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Most studies were done on D. Barnes et al. M. marginalis are small and near the margin. 97 (1970). Ikeda et al. J. L.Presenceofaspidinol and desaspidin was not observed in one study. B. D.2 Dryopteris marginalis contains margaspidin. Contact Dermat. 23. 110. filix-mas. Hu and X. J. 54.6 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION Both are stout perennial ferns with fronds up to about 1 m long. 26. 68. K. Wolf. Diaz-Perales et al. U14. 38. Hartwell. Castor oil promotes its absorption in the gut and should never be used with it as a laxative. flavaspidic acids. Adaikan et al.. North America. etc. 21..filix-mas (L. Agric. filix-mas). Y. C. Tabar et al. South America.. visual disturbances leading to temporary or permanent blindness. Sasaki et al. while those of D. Parts used are the dried rhizomes and stipes... B22. Agric. J. Allergy Clin. P.2 aspidinol. and others. Exp. which is a collective term for several ether-soluble phloroglucides (filixic acids... marginalis). G. albaspidin. 9(11)-fernene). S. 29.. paraaspadin. Acad. 131 (2004).4 volatileoil. and South and northern Africa.3 lignins. n-alkanes from C27 to C33. Bull. 790 (2002). Lloydia.andothers. 11. Pharm. filix-mas are large and near the midvein. convulsions. Immunol. fla- Filicin is anthelmintic (especially against tapeworms). respiratory or cardiac failure. Planta Med.7 Extracts containing phloroglucinols from Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai have antimicrobial activities in vitro8 and antitumor activities in transplanted tumors (ARS.. but it is a violent poison if absorbed. marginalis (L. S180. Brondegaard. Am.54 Aspidium 17. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 6140764 (1986).5–15% oleoresin. Commun. D. 34. with C29 and C31 in major concentrations. Food Chem. vomiting. which contains 6. 363 (2000). 7. The oleoresin contains not less than 24% of the active principles filicin. 25.. Res. 20. 23. 297 (2002).. 41 (1996). Planta Med. Biochem. D. Clin. paraaspidin. Med. J.) in rats and micc.. 18.5. Yao. etc.resins. ASPIDIUM Source: Dryopteris. 2553 (1990). 135 (1975). marginalis grows in eastern and central North America from Nova Scotia to Georgia and Kansas.. American aspidium and marginal fern (D.). Poisoning symptoms include nausea. delirium. A. Makris et al. 33. J. H. 289.

Although several Astragalus species serve as source of astragalus root. 30. Li et al. membranous milk vetch (A. Chim. Univ. Oleoresin is used for expulsion of tapeworms along with a saline laxative such as magnesium or sodium sulfate. Yunnan. A. CLAUS. 2824 (1975). astragalus. Ankara 41 (1986). Holzforschung. GRIEVE. H. Traditional Medicine. USD 26TH. P. 18. 11. mongholicus). propinguus B. D. 33. K. membranaceus and A. the former usually comes in slices (size and shape like tongue depressors).P. F. Pharmaceutical. and Tibet. A. A.to 7-yearold plants collected in the spring before leaves appear or in autumn after they have fallen. extensively cultivated. 10. G. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 4. Faix et al. O. Lloydia. Takeka Kenkyusho Ho. are perennial herbs. Acta. 177 1. Mecm. 33. which is produced by thoroughly moistening the raw root. J. Was formerly official in U. Otsuka et al. J.). 5. cutting into thick slices. mongholicus (Bunge. 31(5). Bottari et al. 3.. S. and other Chinese Astragalus spp. (1971). up to about 1 m high (normally 0..8 m). After the root is dug up. 93 (1982). Zhongcaoyao. 137 (1977). ex Link) Bunge. 6. Phytochemistry.. Eczacilik Fak.1 Part used is the dried root from 4. S.andmilkvetch(Astragalusspp. Hartwell. Guley and T. The most commonly used forms are raw astragalus (dried root) and cured (honeytreated) astragalus.) P. and the latter is produced by frying .) (Fish. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 1. 17(6). Puri et al. ASTRAGALUS Source: Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. mongholicus Bunge. Schischk. GOSSELIN. Soylemezoglu. Pharm.S... M. Vichkanova et al.. membranaceus). A. and Cosmetic. Helv. Widen. 44. Resur. mongholicus yield most of the root in commerce and on which most the chemical and pharmacological research has been performed. KARRER. Mongolian milk vetch (A.. Ann.. membranaceus (L. YOUNGKEN.. 9. and drying. (syn. H. Common/vernacular names: Astragalus.. Most are native to northern China and some to high regions such as Sichuan. MERCK.. 54. L. Planta Med.) A. ex Link) Bunge.10 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oleoresin. the crown and rootlets are removed along with dirt and then usually sun dried. H. S. 8. 225 (1971). (syn.5–0.Astragalus 55 USES Medicinal. var. MARTINDALE. C. Has been reported to be used in treating tumors. 214 (1976). 2. Rast. Hsiao). 6. huangqi. 14 (1986). Husson et al. 2519 (1972). 288 (1970). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 7. Fr. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Astragalus spp.

23 and antiviral. prolonging life span of silkworm and of cells in vitro. Soyasapogenol B is the aglycone of soyasaponin I and astragaloside VIII and cycloastragenol (cyclogalegigenin. III. and astragalan III (mol. a-(1. phenolic acids (ferulic. isorhamnetin.63 : 1. astragalan II (mol.formononetin. rubidium (11–13 ppm). astramembrangenin).300.56 Astragalus the sliced root with honey (from 25–30 parts to 100 parts of root) over medium heat until no longer sticky to touch. II.7 Polysaccharides (from A.6)-glucan).2.4)-glucan). and soyasaponin I.300. glutamic acid. g-aminobutyric acid (GABA). hepatoprotective against . V.39 melanocyte proliferation-stimulating in vitro. III.28. including astragalus saponins I. alcoholic extracts.). quercetin. D-glucose: D-galactose: L-arabinose ¼ 1. and trace minerals. among others. proline. VIII (astragaloside II).). including immunopotentiating effects. and alanine are present in the highest concentrations. arginine. aspartic acid.6) ratio of 5 : 2).).37 antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma cruzi). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The main constituents of the root are saponins. AH-1 (acidic.. astrasieversianin I.30 -dihydroxy-7.33 cardiovascular effects (hypotensive. etc.rhamnocitrin. V.23 cyclooxygenase2-inhibiting in vitro. zinc (11–23 ppm). mongholicus root) include astragalan I (mol. the aglycone of the other saponins. acetylastragaloside I.4 More than 40 triterpene glycosides (saponins) have been isolated from roots of A. 9. etc.3–0. betaine. (3R)-20 . polysaccharides. (6aR.38 inducing the release of growth hormone in rat pituitary cells in vitro.28 improving learning and memory. and IX–XVI. isoflavonoids. asparagine.50–1. IV (astragaloside I).9-dimethoxypterocarpan. VII. elevating and/or reducing cAMP and cGMP levels in blood.36 larvicidal (Lymantria dispar L. membranaceus.8 ppm). wt. and linoleic and linolenic acids (HU. and other Chinese Astragalus species.8.15).2.17 Among more than 20trace mineralsfoundin astragalus are magnesium (1108–1761 ppm). promoting cartilage growth in vitro. b-aminobutyric acid. AG-2 (water-insoluble a-(1. astrasieversianin XIV) and astramembrannin II (cyclogaleginoside B).2.21–30 tumor-inhibiting. VI. liver. sitosterol.10–15 Of over 20 free amino acids identified. sucrose. Decoctions. 12. iron (94–694 ppm). and AH-2 (glucose:arabinose ¼ 1 : 0. manganese (8–52 ppm).calycosin. 34.10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-b-D-glucoside and 20 -hydroxy-30 . wt.2. calycosin glucoside. free amino acids. with a trace of pentose).4)(1. cyclogaleginosides A and B.28 promoting nucleic acid synthesis in liver and spleen. kumatakenin.6 and AG-1 (a-glucan with a-(1. and spleen of mice. canavanine.40 -dimethoxy-isoflavone-7-O-b-D-glucoside. isoferulic. and/or powders of the root have shown numerous activities in humans and experimental animals. folic acid. astramembrannin I (astragaloside IV.3. antimutagenic in vitro. mongholicus. II.4–6 Huangqiyenins A and B were isolated from the leaves.2.2. and VIII. JIANGSU).4)(1.40 antioxidant effects41 (e. copper (5–9 ppm). vasodilating. A.04 : 0. nicotinic acid.34 inhibiting experimentally induced hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in mice. VI.4) : a-(1. L-3-hydroxy-9-methox- ypterocarpan. choline.2. VII (isoastragaloside II).31 antibacterial. they make up 0. a-(1.6)-glucan).4dimethoxy-isoflavone. isoastragalosides I and II.11aR)-10-hydroxy-3. wt.75 : 1.01).600.18–20 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Astragalus root is a highly valued Chinese herbal tonic with diverse pharmacological properties.35 contracting smooth muscles.32 anti-inflammatory.9 Flavonoids include kaempferol. and III. caffeic and chlorogenic acids. astragalosides I. IV. galacturonic acid/glucuronic acid:glucose:rhamnose: arabinose ¼ 1 : 0. depending on sources.26% of astragalus root.21. increasing superoxide dismutase activity).1–10 ppm) and chromium (0.3 Other constituents include coumarin.g.16.02 : 0. molybdenum (0. II. 36.

43 Its effects are not due to a single compound or one single class of compounds but rather to different types of components.46 neurodermatitis. A placebo-controlled study on A. and uterine bleeding. rectal prolapse. and powdered astragalus may contain adulterants such as starches and pre-extracted plant materials.. fatigue. tuo du). diarrhea caused by spleen deficiency (pi xu xie xie). hydroalcoholic. with a recorded use history of 2000 years. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. promote diuresis. The former oral doses are 375 and 500 times the usual effective diuretic dose in humans (WANG. improving stamina. Pharmaceutical. edema. REFERENCES See the General References for CHP. Uses of the two occasionally overlap. Modern/recent uses include prevention and treatment of the common cold and influenza. Most extracts come without standardized strengths. polysaccharides. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. HU. unhealing wounds and ulcers. AND BEUTLER. and Cosmetic. membranaceous found that blood leucocytes of subjects treated with the root showed a significantly greater level of interferon induction. promote suppuration (drains pus. Powdered crude and/or extracts are used singly or in combination with other herbs in capsule. also used in hair tonics for similar effects (ZHOU). diuretic. lack of appetite.o. ZHOU. chronic sores and abscesses. reduce swelling. WANG. USES Medicinal. FOSTER AND YUE.28. powdered crude. DER MARDEROSIAN HUANG. JIANGSU. Extracts of astragalus root are used in skin care cosmetics (e. with the saponins. and painful joints. One of the major Chinese qi (energy) tonics. . also used in sliced or tea bag cut form in tea or soup mix packets (FOSTER AND YUE). ZHOU AND WANG.45 TOXICOLOGY Toxicity of astragalus root is very low: a crude water extract (75 and 100 g/kg p. and extracts (aqueous. stomach ulcer. hand and facial creams and lotions) for its traditional healing and nourishing as well as vasodilating properties.p. Raw root is traditionally considered to benefit the body’s resistance (yiwei gubiao). Regulatory Status. Cured root is said to reinforce the Middle Burner and replenish the vital energy (buzhong yiqi). ZHOU AND WANG). and others (JIANGSU. WANG. tablet. JIXIAN.42.21–44 and isoflavonoids3 appearing to play a major role. HONGKUI. Traditional Medicine. reducing urinary protein in chronic and in experimental nephritis. ZHOU AND WANG).47 Usual daily oral dose for adults is 9–30 g. LD50 in mice: 40 g/kg i. Raw astragalus used mainly in spontaneous and night sweating. for which high doses (>60 g) are sometimes used (CHP. Astragalus root has also been studied as one of the fuzheng guben (strengthening body defense therapy) herbs used in treating AIDS. and diabetes.Astragalus 57 experimental liver toxicity. JIANGSU). glycolic).g.) produced no adverse effects in mice within 48 hours. cured astragalus primarily as an energy (qi) tonic to treat general weakness. or liquid (syrup or drink) form primarily as a general (qi) tonic to improve body resistance (immunity). and regenerate tissue or promote muscle growth (sheng ji). COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Raw astragalus (readily available as sticks or slices in several grades).

Zhongcaoyao. 148 (1989). Entomol. X. Cancer Chemother. 27 (1989). Kajimura et al. B. Pharm. 643 (1990).. 4. Zhongyao Tongbao. 62 (1986). Y. H. Chem. G. Yaoxue Xuebao. 27. Res. Chu et al. 42. 32. 876. Clin. 13. 9. D. 21. 18. Zool. Chin. Med. G... 22. Agric. Chin. A. Med. 10. 31. K. 26. J. C. 21 (1989). Oncol. X. Korean J. Bull.. 28.. Gong. R. 30. Y. 55. M. 23. J. S. H..... J. 34 (2003).. 5. Acta Bot. 23. 19. Sin... Lai. Kim et al. 37. S. 22. Biol. Wagner. Lin et al. 14. Zhao et al. 41 (1985). 17. Du and J. Sin. J. L. C. Ethnopharmacol. Zhongcaoyao. Liu et al. 333 (1984). 25. 25. M. Lu et al.. S. 41 (1987). 311 (2001).. M. J. J. 11. 141 (1999). R and P. Grujic-Vasic et al. 1. Chromatogr. Immunol. 19. 26.. R. 125 (1988).. 18. 689 (1983). 649 (1989). G. Pharm. 18. Parks et al. S. Med. J. Wang et al. Zhongcaoyao. S. 7. Lin et al. R. Hou et al. Trad. Phytother. E. 29. Planta Med. Kang et al. Chin. X. X. 39. Bull. 11. Chromatogr. Appl. Ma et al. Pharm. D. 32. Ma et al. 3. 411 (1997). 12. Shon et al. Clin. 41. L. 3(4). D. 87 (2000). 2. 873 (1988). Cui et al. 180 (1989). 453 (2002). 359 (1997). Kim et al.. 10. 17. R. Ma et al. B. Bull.. Wang et al. Huang et al.. 716 (1983). B. Phytother.. 235 (1985). J. Zhongcaoyao.. X. 12. He and H. . Biol. 39. 37 (1987). Pharm. Phytother. 4 (1985). Q. 34. 77 (2002). Q.. Song et al. Chem. Chem. S. 15.. 51. 11. 25. Kitagawa et al. R. Med. Zhongcaoyao. X. 243 (2002). 6.. West. 764 (1997).. Naturheilpraxis. Res. Song et al. Zhongyao Tongbao. J. Y.. 73. C. Trad. K. 11.. 603 (1997). 19. 26 (1982). Y.. Z. Y. 8. Integr.. Res. 24. 75 (2003). Bull. Arch. Qi. Acta Bot. J. 15. 32.. Chromatogr. Wang. Q.. Z.. Toda and Y. 5. Y. 35 (1981). 9. 256 (1983). Schinella et al. 31. Shirataki. Li et al. Zhongcaoyao. 20(11). 95. West. Z. A. Yaoxue Xuebao. 16.. 8. K. Fang et al.. X... 962. 486 (1997).. 30 (1984). J. Li et al. C. Y. She. 33. 419 (1988). Z. 40 (1988). C.. 20. Immunol. 119 (1988). Du and Y.. 6. 38. 36.58 Astragalus 1. 11 (3). 46. Zhongchengyao. 32 (1989). Chin. 47. 601 (1997). 66. Food Chem. T. Zhongyao Tongbao.. Geng. Pharmacogn. Trad. 39. K. Zhang et al. S. Lab. 4861 (2002). R.. Zhongchengyao. D. Kitagawa et al. T. 16. Ma et al. Bull. S. Pharmacol. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.. 3. Lab. A.. 45. Waterman. Sun et al. Y. Ma and S. Q. 43. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi. Pharm. Lau et al. J.... 193 (2003). 20.. Bao... Youji Huaxue. 569 (2002). L.. 50. 200 (1982).. S. 14. Yaoxue Xuebao. Fitoterapia.. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. J. 35. 992. Zhang. S. 20 (1984).. ıos Res. I. J.. D.. 59 (1989). 25. Chin. J. Z. 31. I. C. H. 1178 (1997). 40. Wang.. D. T. X. 45. Chu et al. 25. Pharm. X.. 53 (1987). 11. Xiao et al. West.. Integr.. J. 44. Integr.

D-erythro-D-galacto-octitol. riboflavin. isoavocadienofuran. niacin.8 consisting of sterols (b-sitosterol. D-mannoheptulose.800 -biscatechin (a condensed flavanol). The Mexican avocado (P. Laurus persea L.) (Family Lauraceae). citrostadienol. and superoxide radical generation in vitro. biotin (each in higher quantities than any of the more frequently consumed raw fruits in the United States). americana var.4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene. avocadyne. P. including the Mexican avocado and the West Indian avocado. campesterol.). galactitol. and an alloheptulose). carnitine. folic acid. and avocado. (syn. alligator pear. Common/vernacular names: Ahuacate. etc. climate. widely cultivated..).4-dihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene and 1. including protein and fats. two bitter substances (1-acetoxy-2. cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). but usually about 16%).2. campesterol. Parts used are the fruit and seed.24 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Antioxidant activity was shown from the fruit pulp against hydroxy radicals in vitro.4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene). native to tropical America (Mexico. rare sugars (D-mannoheptulose. americana) is produced in Florida. avocadynofuran.1% of an essential oil consisting of 95% estragole (see sweet basil for toxicity) and 5% anethole. avocadienofuran. Central America). fruit large (5–20 cm long) and fleshy. and vitamin D (higher than in butter or eggs). and 20% unsaturated).6–11.).11 and more common constituents.4 mg/100 g). avocadenofuran. etc.).3%)7.2.1 Avocado oil (a fixed oil) is produced by expressing the dried pulp of the fruit. avocadynone acetate.26 Constituents isolated from the fruit pulp (persenones A and B) inhibited the production of NO. etc. avocadenone acetate.19 avocatins (avocadene.25 A methanol extract of the pulp was shown to inhibit the in vitro generation of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages. gratissima Gaertn. the other major fatty acids in the oil are palmitic and linoleic acid. with a thin to thick sometimes woody skin.10. a taloheptulose.7 mg/100 g).Avocado 59 AVOCADO Source: Persea americana Mill.6–14 proanthocyanidins. etc.10.5 approximately 2% protein. vitamin K. 6–9% carbohydrates and sugars (glucose.21 C17 oxygenated aliphatic unsaturated compounds (1.15 persenones A and B.4 and others. location. depending on season. valeric. myoinositol.11. fructose. butyric. drymifolia) is grown in California. glycerol). vitamin E. ovate.16–18 Seeds contain polyhydric alcohols (volemitol. potassium.23 The fruit peel contains l-epicatechin. perseitol. etc. americana var. amino acids. Steam distillation of Mexican avocado leaves yielded 3. thiamin. high amounts of bsitosterol (average 76. pantothenic acid.6–14 The pulp oil (avocado oil) consists mainly of glycerides of oleic acid. hydrocarbons. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Large evergreen tree up to about 20 m high. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).2.3 fatty acids (approximately 60% monounsaturated. pyriform. or spherical. There are several commercial varieties in the United States. etc. arabinitol. 20% saturated. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Pulp contains a fatty oil (4–40%. among others.20 4. 24methylenecycloartanol. volatile acids (propionic.. while the larger West Indian avocado (P.4 high amounts of glutathione (27. It also contains highly variable amounts of unsaponifiable matter (1. Hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse skin was inhibited by persenone .).22 some of which have an unpleasant bitter flavor.16 magnesium.

5.22. The unsaponifiable fraction is combined with those of soy beans for use in the treatment of osteoarthritis.37 Food. and Cosmetic.29 In rabbits fed a high-fat diet. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2.2. Duester. and levels of hepatic total fat.5E. the fruit pulp showed hepatoprotective activity. 39 (1978). Nutr.12Z. . fruit. TOXICOLOGY Avocado is a known cross-reactant in individuals with latex allergy. and as an aphrodisiac and emmenagogue. Am. goats. K. Pulp of Persea planifolia (American avocado) used by Guatemalan Indians as a hair pomade to stimulate hair growth. especially Staphylococcus aureus. Avocado oil is believed to have healing and soothing properties to the skin and the pulp oil is used in massage creams..12. AND USES Medicinal. POUCHER. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Fruit and pulp oil. Gardner.4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene) isolated from avocado (pulp and seeds) have shown in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.28 A methanol extract of the fruits showed in vitro inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. 151 (2000). MORTON 2. to hasten suppuration of wounds. 2.15-tetraen-4-one). 2E. BRUNETON. Weihrauch and J. powdered seeds used by American Indians (Mahuna. A pharmaceutical preparation containing the seed oil (unsaponifiable fraction) has been patented for use in the treatment of sclerosis of the skin.35 The fruit pulp is used in face creams..4 Traditional Medicine. Pulp has been used as a food for thousands of years in tropical America and is today consumed internationally. J. Bot. and others. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.15Z)-1-hydroxyheneicosa-2. arthritis. M. hair products. atherogenicity of avocado oil in the diet was not significantly different from that of olive or corn oil. southwest California) to treat pyorrhea. (1977). infusion used to treat toothache. O.60 Avocado A. seeds) have been reported (LEWIS ELVIN-LEWIS).15-trienyl and several other related compounds. Econ. a condensed flavanol isolated from avocado seeds. Assoc. Activity was attributed to 5E. 101. 4.800 -Biscatechin. Williams. 78. 1. compared to rats fed the same diet with added cellulose instead of avocado. 3. J. WATT AND MERRILL. UPHOF.. C. and fish by avocado (leaves. MOERMAN. pyorrhea. Duester. L. Assoc.34 Poisoning of cattle. canaries. Diet. horses. seeds used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. J. Today. Pharmaceutical.32 bark.30 Rats fed a high-cholesterol diet with the addition of defatted avocado fruit pulp showed lower food consumption. C. an enzyme involved in fatty acid biosynthesis.. rabbits.36.33 Severe allergic reactions can occur in these patients after eating avocado.27 Fed to rats with toxin-induced liver injury. body weight gain. an effect attributed to various fatty acid derivatives (e. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 35.12Z.15Z)-2-hydroxy-4-oxoheneicosa-5. K.31 4. has shown antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 in mice and Walker 256 in rats. and others.12. 315 Diet. 31. 404 (2001).21 C17 oxygenated unsaturated aliphatics (especially 1.g. muscle oils.16. Am. L.

I. 34. 10.. A.. P. 31. Stepka. 27.. I. J. DeOliveira et al. 22. Murcia et al. M.. Alves et al. 125. Fr. I. Jones et al. 28. J. 887 (1974). Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. 17. Agric. 55. Food Chem. Johansson and N. 7513 (2003). H. 36.. Ann. Soeken. J. J.. 24. 3. . 13 (2004). 1656 (2001).. 468 (1975). Nutr. J.. Kritchevsky et al. J. Food Chem.). Quim. Ital. 2015 (2002). Saponi.. Food Chem. Allergy Asthma Rep. 753 (1972). A.. 199 (1998). M. 30... 44. 37... Food Res. 16. D. Agric. 459 (1949). M. 257 (1967). 470 e (1970). Boll. M.. Nose and N. Isola et al. 35. Argent. Cienc. Neman et al. Appl.. Soc. 30. Biol. 50. 64. J. K. O.. Acad. M. 461 (1970). Microbiol. 285 (2003). 26. Carbohydr. Food Sci. Allergy Asthma Proc. Bertoni et al. K. T. Coll.. Kawagishi et al.601.. 13.. J... 158 (1976). Ernst. 135 (1970). Fujino. 2307 (2001). Food Prot. E. C.. Biosci. Agric. An. D. 687 (1975).. 6. 2504 (2000). Cosmet. Res. Rheumatol. 41 (1972). 7. 19... Ogata et al. O. 20. Clin. 47 (2003). Richtmyer.. H.. J.888 (1966).. 52 (2003). 49. N. J. 45 (1970)... 507 (1982). Richtmyer. M.. Neth. Blanco.. 15... G. 58. 29. Curr. 8.. Profumi. Moreno et al. A.. 193 (2003).994 e (1971). 51. Neman et al.. Riv. Food Chem. Thiers.. Res. Agric. 11. 65. 57 (1992). Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi. 29. 2215 (2001). 207 (1975). Demande 2. Essenze. Cienc. Piante Offic. Ital. 12. L. 51.. Asoc. Cancer Lett. 64. Bras.. 13 (1984). 22. 9. 14. L. I. Food Chem. Sci. Biotechnol. G. Aromi. Agric. 24. N. Clin. 132. Sper. 113 (1972). 21. Appl. G. B. 13. K. 38. Aerosol. 23. Naveh et al. Biotechnol. Tada et al.Avocado 61 5. Slater et al. 26. Biosci. Hashimura et al.. S. Brown. Ben-Et et al. K. Bras. Am.. Biochem. 14. Pearson. Kim et al. 20. Carbohydr. Pain. 23.. Cancer.. 33.075. Food Chem. Acostade Iglesias et al. 20. Kim et al. H. 20. 25. M. 19. Gu et al. E. Itoh et al.. Fruits. Agric. 37. Acad.. J. D. Food Agric. Nutr. 2216 (2003). 546 (1973). J.. M. Joslyn and W. I. 12. H. 22. 32.. J. A. 18. H. 6. An. 42 (Suppl. Zanobini et al. K. 17. O. Nutr. D.. Biochem.

).14In vitro CNS receptor binding studies of lemon balm extracts have found nicotinic25 and muscarinic receptor activities. lemon BALM. eugenol. Both the essential oil and citral inhibited acetylcholine. citronellal. luteolin 7-O-beta-Dglucopyranoside and other luteolin glycosides. an essential oil is obtained from these by steam distillation.12. randomized double-blind trial examined the benefits of a liquid extract preparation of lemon balm (60 drops/day) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.2% volatile oil composed mainly of oxygenated compounds such as citral (a mixture of neral and geranial). protocatechuic acid. placebo-controlled clinical trial of the essential oil as an aromatherapy in the treatment of patients with severe dementia found significant improvements in quality of life and agitation scores from the oil compared to placebo.20 Balm oil has shown in vitro antitrypanosomal21 and antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei and Streptococcus hemolytica. widely cultivated. double-blind study found significant improvement in their accuracy of attention and memory functions and increased calmness. among others (KARRER).18.23In vitro antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities from the oil have also been reported. Bees are attracted to the plant and bruising the leaves releases a lemony odor. a tannin composed of caffeic acid units. copaene.8 Extracts of balm have also shown in vitro antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation. common balm. an acute 1600 mg dose increased calmness and . CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains about 0. b-phenylethyl alcohol. and b-bourbonene.16 Newcastle disease virus. and northern Africa. (Family Lamiaceae).14 Extracts of balm have shown in vitro antiviral activity against HIV-1.11 rosmarinic acid.29 In a similar study. apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside). paramyxovirus (mumps virus). Parts used are the dried leaves often with flowering tops. neric acid. and glucosides of geraniol. melissa.27 Another placebo-controlled.).9.6. etc.22 including activity against food spoilage yeasts.24 and to citral.10 luteolin. eugenol acetate. plus smaller amounts of terpenes. Antispasmodic activity is attributed to the presence of eugenol acetate5.and serotonin-induced contractions of rat ileum.7.6–9 flavonoids (rhamnazin. and other viruses. LEMON Source: Melissa officinalis L.and (À)-b-ocimene.10 triterpenoids (ursolitc acid. western Asia. caryophyllene.13 The main constituents of the essential oil are geranial. a-cubebene. Common/vernacular names: Balm.5 as well as antifungal activity.62 Balm. and geranic acid.1–0. bee balm. citronellal.1–5 Other constituents of lemon balm include polyphenols (caffeic acid. vaccinia. benzyl alcohol.17in vitro antithyrotropic activity. caryophyllene oxide.28 An acute 600 mg dose of an encapsulated extract of lemon balm in healthy young adults in a placebo-controlled. nerol.15 herpes simplex. including trans. and b-caryophyllene. up to approximately 1 m in height. geranyl acetate. Patients in the active treatment groups showed significantly less agitation and improved cognitive function compared to placebo. lemon balm. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION An aromatic perennial herb with yellowish or white flowers. southwestern Siberia. neral. growing in the Mediterranean region. and geraniol.26 A randomized double-blind. The active constituents include polyphenols (other than caffeic acid) and tannin. and melissa balm. etc. citronellol.19 and antiulcerogenic activity in rats against indomethicin-induced ulcer formation.

Rast... GUENTHER. 5. and Cosmetic. Proc. Pharmaceutical. Ztg. often used in combination with other herbs (BLUMENTHAL 1).. extractive. infusions. 8.S. Exp. MARTINDALE. Kitze. (Weinheim). etc. 869 (1967). Dtsch. diuretic. Priblat. ARCTANDER. digestive. Proc.10) and the essential oil. both lemon balm (§182. Herrmann Jr. Med. BLUMENTHAL 1. Respub. LUST. 1159 (1973). and functional gastrointestinal symptoms (BLUMENTHAL 1). 303. and carminitive effects. vermouths.) and nonalcoholic beverages. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. W. and oil. candy..20). 124. Acta Pharm. REFERENCES dried leaves used for tea in doses of 1. Soc. Food. YOUNGKEN. Biol. Konf. 2 (1973). sedative. Cut and sifted herb. H. Beloruss.14 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. Traditional Medicine.. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. The monoterpene derivative citral.S.31 USES Medicinal. frozen dairy desserts. Dugumovic.. Arch. Soc. UPHOF. 865 (1967). WICHTL. 127 (1968). Mater. ROSE. and solvent-free oleoresin are GRAS for use in foods (§182. 1. GRIEVE. and gelatins and puddings. oil is seldom unadulterated. lemon 63 improved memory scores. (ARCTANDER). and L. 54. Used in numerous European pharmaceutical preparations as a carminative and mild tranquilizer. L. 7. Sprinkmeyer. 124. See the General References for APPLEQUIST.26 Placebo-controlled. F. Regarded in European folklore for the treatment of melancholy and for enhancing the memory. 3. Formerly official in the U. FEMA. composed of neral and geranial. Greek physicians used the plant to treat wounds (GRIEVE) and in Iranian folk medicine lemon balm is used in treating gastrointestinal disorders and for analgesic. and so on. Pharmazie. Enjalbert et al. GOSSELIN. extracts.5 g of the herb in infusion. S. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Wagner and L. C. double-blind randomized clinical trials of topical lemon balm cream preparations (1% dried extract of the leaves) showed significant benefits in the treatment of herpes simplex.. Highest average maximum use level reported is 0.P. (1983). liquid and dried extracts. BARNES. tinctures.. 6. . baked goods. is widely used in cosmetics and foods to lend a lemonlike aroma and flavor. Fitoterapia. Pharm. Herrmann Jr. 28. Exp. The leaves and preparations thereof are the subject of a positive German therapeutic monograph. Nauch.Balm. 345 (1970). Kucera. C.5–4. S. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. powdered herb. H. Biol. Polez. Regulatory Status. Kapetanovic and S. indicated for difficulty in falling asleep caused by nervous conditions. 113. Med. 4. Crude formerly official in U. Thieme and C. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. asntispasmodic. N. E. 59 Apoth. 18(304). 69 (1973). 264 (1973).1 Balm extract and oil are used in major categories of food products such as alcoholic (bitters.5% of extract in baked goods.. also used in cough drops oil more often used as a component in perfumes. 2. F. Kucera and E.P.30. used as mild sleep aid as well as a stomachic. S. Stankeviciene et al. from 1840 to 1890. BARRETT. commonly used in lip balms. Jugosl. Hefendehl.

1871 (2003). H. 527 (1984). 14. XI.. Akhondzadeh et al. Khayyal et al.. . 1628 (1983). Behav. Acta Helv. D. Burgett. Balm of Gilead has also been used as a synonym for Canada balsam (Abies balsamea) and Mecca balsam (Balsamodendron opobalsamum Engl... tacamahacca Mill. balsamifera Du Roi) or P. In N.. Dimitrova et al. Pharmacol. Auf’mkolk et al. D. 59.. 72. Patora et al. Carnat et al. Bulg. with stout. 27. 26. 10. 25 (1994). J. R. A. J. Common/vernacular names: Poplar buds and balsam poplar buds.. 225 (1999). 576 (1999). BALM OF GILEAD BUDS Source: Populus tacamahacca Mill. Pharm. G.. Populus balsamifera L. A. 950 (2003). Hohmann et al.. Planta Med. Mikus et al. J. J. trunk about 3 m in diameter. Endocrinology (Baltimore). 863 (2003). R. M. I.. 21. M. balsamifera Du Roi as the synonym for P. Farm. O. Endocrinol. Boll.. (syn.F.. M. 21... 25. 545 (2001). tacamahacca. (Family Salicaceae). 334 (1977). 23 (1967). 44 (1980). 66. tacamahacca Mill. M.. Phytother. is described as a large tree with massive spreading branches and stout yellow-brown. 116. 69. Yamasaki et al. 12. Clin. Bee World... erect branches. 276 (1985). Kennedy et al. P. Invest. Leonhardt. 553 (2002).. S. but is a different species. balsamifera L. 22. Morelli.) or from P. GENERAL DESCRIPTION There has been much confusion regarding the sources of this botanical.64 Balm of gilead buds 9. Araujo et al. Debelmas and J. 29. Sadraei et al. Koytchev et al. 366 (2000). is not the same as P. 19. Ethnopharmacol. 18... 17. 28. Chim. Acta Microbiol. 625 (2003). Biochem. Z. Fitoterapia. C. Biol. Neurosurg. 23. A. 24. Phytomedicine. 51. Ballard et al.. Pharm. Mulkens et al. 445 (2003). 60 (9–10). Pharm. he listed P. 66.. 1. 74. 829 (1998). J. P. according to SARGENT. O. 28. 953 (2002). often angular branchlets. 65. 26. Schroeter. 139 (2002). Food Prot. Neurol.. 30. candicans Ait. J. Populus candicans (true balm of Gilead) has been considered as a variety of the balsam poplar. 6. H. Neuropsychopharmacology. only the pistillate tree is known. Plant Med.. Bull. 105 (2000). 15. K. 65 (1993). Acta Pol. Wake et al. U. Kennedy et al. 13... 20. o Phytomedicine. P. All above three species are native to North America (SARGENT). F. C. Arzneim. Gerhardt and A. 74. 29. Rochat. T. (syn.-Forsch. J. Psychiatry. W€lbling and K. 1.). 63. 11. balsamifera L. 301 (1998). 115.. J. Acta Helv... G. it was officially described as derived from P. among others.. Fleischwirtschaft. Pharm. 31. 63.. However.. candicans Ait. 16. 61(2). 72. Santini et al. Populus tacamahacca (balsam poplar) is a tree often up to 33 m high. P. Planta Med. Psychiatry.

b-phenethyl alcohol. Wollenweber and W. A. UPHOF.S. MARTINDALE). LUST. Collect. Its major use is in cough preparations often together with white pine and wild cherry barks. YOUNGKEN). as in white pine compound or its variations. It is a light greenish-yellow.510). (1968). Monograph Populi gemma. Isaac et al. Chem. Weber. Has been approved for food use in alcoholic beverages only (§172.. Commun. balsamea is an evergreen tree up to 20 m high with trunk usually 30–45 cm in diameter. salicin and populin. and other properties as well as toxicity of salicylates (GOODMAN AND GILMAN. Pflanzenphysiol.g. 22 (February 1. bruises and cuts. balsam fir Canada. native to . Apoth. cineole. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Crude and extracts. YOUNGKEN. 2.1–3 and humulene (a-caryophyllene) (CLAUS. no. Precise source is not certain. POUCHER..4 Is considered to have stimulant and expectorant properties. and spikenard root. 69. 4. Bundesanzeiger. Regulatory Status. MERCK.F. S. Common/vernacular names: Balm of Gilead. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Balsam Canada is an oleoresin occurring normally in the bark of Abies balsamea. ROSE. Compounds reportedly present in the volatile oil include d-cadinene. GOSSELIN. and Cosmetic. and for healing pimples. (Family Pinaceae). Czech. 364 (1953). in colds and coughs. antirheumatic.) Mill. hemorrhoids. E. 18. and Canada turpentine. C27. Canadian balsam.. Bark and leaves are also similarly used. analgesic. and U. Canada balsam. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. collected by puncturing the vesicles on the bark. Ztg. Traditional Medicine. phenolic acids (e. balsam fir. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Contains about 2% volatile oil. O. locally for sores.P. farnesene. viscous liquid that solidifies on exposure to air. 293 1. all above species as well as other Populus species are probably used. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. d-a-bisabolol. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. and sunburn.. 1990). C25. bloodroot. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION USES Medicinal. frostbite. balsam of fir. BALSAM CANADA Source: Abies balsamea (L. Used for relieving minor aches and pains. SARGENT. 3. FURIA AND BELLANCA.. CLAUS. allowed in external preparations for superficial skin injuries.. 125 (1973). Subject of a German therapeutic monograph.Balsam canada 65 Balm of Gilead buds are the leaf buds collected in the spring before they open. and C29 n-alkanes. and others. Z. Dtsch. Frantisek et al. 108. acetophenone (KARRER). caffeic). arcurcumene. resins. bisabolene. Salicin (a glucoside of salicyl alcohol) has antipyretic. Crude was formerly official in N. Pharmaceutical. chalcones.

” The bark of A. generally below 0. and 2.6 Others.. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION creams as antiseptic and as treatment for hemorrhoids. Phytother.2 The essential oil (balsam fir oil) extracted from the foliage has shown in vitro cytoxicity against several tumor cell lines.4% b-pinene. frozen dairy desserts... Riechst.15% in soaps and 0. GUENTHER. 16. USES Medicinal. Bark resin used externally by American Indians for burns.5 Food. H. balsamea contains a volatile oil (up to 30%) and an odorless resin. Petrowitz et al. Use levels have been low. 23. Aromen. The volatile oil is composed entirely of monoterpenes (37.4% b-phellandrene.7% a-phellandrene). candy. 12. . 1 (1962).510). reaching Minnesota and Wisconsin. and cuts and to relieve heart and chest pains..5% a-pinene. Both the oleoresin and oil have had limited use in major categories of foods. In vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by abietic acid may be a contributing factor to the activity. Only needles and twigs of A. CLAUS. FEMA. Regulatory Status. SARGENT. Oleoresin was formerly official in U. creams. MERCK. 36. 2. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES In guinea pigs. J. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. and Cosmetic. Maximum use levels reported are 0.001% (10 ppm). Pharmaceutical. N. 1.66 Balsam canada eastern North America. detergents. The main active constituent was identified as a-humulene.4 Formerly used in dentistry as an ingredient in root canal sealers and dentifrices (ADA). Canada balsam (usually freed from volatile oil and dissolved in xylene) was extensively used as a cement for lenses and prepared microscopic slides.. Ulusu et al. N. abietic and neoabietic acids. sores. 88 K€rperpflegem. oral administration of abietic acid (an abietane diterpenoid found in the oleoresin) produced antiallergic activity.g.P. Oleoresin used in certain ointments and Oleoresin and oil.3 TOXICOLOGY COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Oleoresin considered as nontoxic when applied externally. o (2003).2% in perfumes. lotions. Res. Traditional Medicine.4 Internal toxicity data not available. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL.S. UPHOF. Canada balsam is not a true balsam because it does not contain benzoic or cinnamic acid or their esters (see glossary). Its use in some “balsam” hair grooming products probably takes advantage of this property to stiffen hair and give it “body. balsamea and their appropriate preparations are approved for food use as natural flavoring substances (§172. and gelatins and puddings. diterpenoids). including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.. Also reportedly used in treating tumors. clear glass-like residue. Due to its ability to dry to a brittle. as a fixative or fragrance ingredient in soaps. and perfumes.1 The resin makes up the remainder of the oleoresin and contains neutral and acidic materials (e.

Kosti.S. cough medicines. Pharmaceutical. U. K.86 mL/kg). b-bisabolene. g-humulene. Legault et al. Toxicol.2. Lloydia.Balsam copaiba 67 3. SAX).1.9. enantioagathic.1. the rest being resins and acids (ARCTANDER. sialorrhea. 69. D. and Venezuela).) L. Common/vernacular names: Copaiba.10 Food.18-dioic acids. creams. 4. it is not a true balsam (see glossary). L. At lower dosages in rats (1. Food Cosmet. The oleoresin and oil have occasionally been used in pharmaceutical preparations (diuretics. officinalis and is tapped by drilling holes into the wood of the trunk.3 and terpenic acids such as copalic. subacute toxicity was seen in the form of significant reductions in body weight and food and water intake. a-ylangene. Occasionally used as a flavoring component in most major categories of foods. 13.).8 Large doses are reported to cause vomiting and diarrhea as well as measles-like rash (MARTINDALE. and Cosmetic. Opdyke. 5. in addition to diarrhea. copaiva. 288 (1970). Hardwick. Copaiba oil is obtained by direct vacuum distillation of the oleoresin containing large amounts of the volatile oil (60–90%) (ARCTANDER). and Jesuit’s balsam. 402 (2003). at 30 days these symptoms were no longer significant relative controls. Colombia. among others. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The oil has shown in vitro antibacterial activity. copaiferic. J. Maximum use level of the oil or oleoresin in perfumes is 0. Compounds reported in the oleoresin include caryophyllene (major component of the volatile oil)..348. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Copaiba balsam contains 30–90% volatile oil. Hartwell.. etc. bubble baths. Available data indicate that the oleoresin is relatively nontoxic. copaene. and eperu-8(20)-en-15. L. 7-hydroxy-Hardwick.7 and the oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera species has shown anti-inflammatory activity following oral administration in rats. the former primarily as a fixative and the latter as a fragrance component.. lotions. 4. and perfumes). J.1. 33. J. 449 (1975). Both copaiba balsam and oil are widely used in cosmetic preparations (soaps. detergents. or other South American Copaifera species (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae).3–6 . copaiferolic. Planta Med. Pat. caryophyllene oxide.8 TOXICOLOGY GENERAL DESCRIPTION Copaiba balsam is an oleoresin that accumulates in cavities within the tree trunk of C. gastric irritation. officinalis is a tree with a height of up to 18 m found in tropical South America (particularly Brazil. USES Medicinal.8%. 1 YOUNGKEN).378 (1982).79 mL/kg. M. a-multijugenol. C.9 the oral LD50 in rats is 3. however. 6. and symptoms of CNS depression.92 and 2. BALSAM COPAIBA Source: Copaifera officinalis (Jacq.

). Douglas fir... L. The oleoresin has been used for several centuries in Europe in the treatment of chronic cystitis. Chim. balsam Oregon. 59. 14(Suppl. Ann. less than 0. depending on localities. W. C. Food Cosmet. chronic diarrhea. and as an anti-inflammatory for sore throat. L. 3. frozen dairy desserts. J. bronchitis.. Aerosol Cosmet. Assoc. J. dysentery. (Rome). and colic. The tree varies greatly in size. and oil is official in F. vomiting. nausea. Average maximum use levels are usually very low. In large doses. C. mucronata (Raf. J. R. 4. candy. Delle Monache et al.F. 22. Tetrahedron Lett. Opdyke. Traditional uses in tropical America also include the treatment of hypertension. Food Cosmet. copaiba balsam is believed to provoke diarrhea. MARTINDALE. FEMA. douglasii Carr.. (syn. 7. 11. 43. 49. 1. G. urinary tract infections. BALSAM FIR OREGON Source: Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lam. Ethnopharmacol. Douglas spruce. Bras. B.. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Oregon balsam is an oleoresin that occurs in the tree trunk and is usually collected from felled trees.. dressing the navel of newborns... 233 (1970). cancer. J. 7 (1985). and meat and meat products. It is a light amber or yellow. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Mahajan and G. and red fir. TERRELL.. and other conditions for which it has also been used in Latin America (MORTON 1).. Traditional Medicine. 8. M. 659 (1971). Algonac. baked goods. Opdyke. Ferrari et al. Pharm. A. Common/vernacular names: Balsam fir.) Sudw. Am.510). (Rome). 101 (1988).002% (16 ppm). Oregon balsam. 692 (1960). 60.11 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Oleoresin (“balsam”) and oil. Cienc. often up to 60 m high with a trunk of approximately . Phytochemistry. Del Nunzio. Medicinal Plants of Brazil. gelatins and puddings. Chim. J. pneumonia. 6. hemorrhoids. 10. 1075 (1973). YOUNGKEN. L.) Britt. MORTON 1. F. D.C. Sicurella. viscous liquid with a piney odor. GUENTHER. MI. J. Ann. leucorrhea. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Reference Publications. 8. et al. Toxicol. 611 (1971).C. P. M. Basile. 2000.) (Family Pinaceae). Mors et al. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172. 9. skin diseases. J. CLAUS.. P. 5. Copaiba balsam was formerly official in N. blenorrhagia.. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. F. 2. Delle Monache et al. 905 (1971). Acad. 11. A. Delle Monache et al. Ferreira. D. 7(41).68 Balsam fir oregon including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. wounds. 687 (1976). 539 (1969). psoriasis. Maruzzella and N. It is not a true balsam (see glossary). Toxicol. Regulatory Status.. Ann. A. vesical catarrh. 10..

613 (1976). 50. Chem. yielding a volatile oil on steam distillation and has properties and uses similar to those of Canada balsam (ARCTANDER. 6. 4. 41.. Von Rudloff. wood. balsamum var. Peru balsam. viscous liquid. M. E. USES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Although considerable chemical data are available on the needles. E. REFERENCES Similar to those of Canada balsam. it does not dry to a glassy and brittle film as Canada balsam. reddish brown and transparent in thin layers. Chem. Ind. Hergert and E. BALSAM PERU Source: Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch (syn. Can. UPHOF. Klefer. Kolesnikova et al. SARGENT. however. 409 (1949). F. Soedin. H. Von Rudloff. maily benzylcinna- .. See the General References for ARCTANDER. pereirae (Royle) Harms) (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). soaked up by rags wrapped around the trunk that are then boiled with water. E. 183 1. balsam of Peru is a darkbrown. Common/vernacular names: Balsam of Peru. Oregon balsam is not suited for use in microscopy because it is less viscous and slower drying than Canada balsam. In its commercial crude form. YOUNGKEN. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Oleoresin (“balsam”). pereirae after strips of bark are removed from the tree trunk. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Data on its pharmacological or toxicological properties are not available. Tappi. GOSSELIN. Kurth. J. (1972). used as an adulterant of the latter oleoresin. Tappi. 35. particularly the Pacific Coast (California. Washington. Indian balsam. except that it has been reported to be an oleoresin of the turpentine type. 401 (1952). and Peruvian balsam. Graham and E. native to western North America. 59 2. Myroxylon pereirae is a large tree growing up to about 25 m in height and is native to Central America. F. GUENTHER. cultivated in Europe. M.. H. The exudation is Contains not more than 70% w/w and not less than 45% of esters. 5. CLAUS). 34. Pure Appl. D. 33. Bot. (1973). Kurth and H. The balsam sinks to the bottom and is separated. and British Columbia). black balsam. with an aromatic vanilla-like odor and a bitter acrid taste.1–6 chemical information on the “balsam” (oleoresin) itself is practically nonexistent.. J. balsam-of-Peru tree.Balsam peru 69 1 m in diameter. 1025 (1950). 5. It is a true balsam (see glossary). and bark (KARRER). Kurth. F. Oregon. Eng.. L. Prir. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Balsam of Peru is obtained from the exposed wood of M. R. Khim. 3.

Hammershoy. BLUMENTHAL 1. especially for the treatment of dry socket (postextraction alveolitis) and as a component in certain dental impression materials. bruises. burns. Food Cosmet. treating cancer. J.8 Food. 93 (2001).1. frozen dairy desserts. 85 (1987).7 Balsam of Peru is also used in dental preparations. 263 (1980). referred to as cinnamein. Regulatory Status. TERRELL. baked goods. bedsores.. creams. Balsam and oil are extensively used as a flavor ingredient in major categories of foods. Am. placebocontrolled study found that taken orally. and Cosmetic. detergents. with small amounts of nerolidol.20). GOSSELIN. L. See the General References for ADA. and gelatins and puddings. YOUNGKEN. JIANGSU. XII. skin graft healing.70 Balsam peru mate and benzyl benzoate. Y. 3.5 USES Medicinal. 12. eczema. hemorrhoids.6. obtained by high-vacuum distillation and/or solvent extraction of the balsam. vanillin. frost-bite. Traditional Medicine. and cinnamyl cinnamate (styracin). 4. are also used in cosmetics. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES ingredient in soaps. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. in hair tonic and antidandruff preparations. and perfumes. The volatile oil consists mainly of benzoic and cinnamic acid esters such as benzyl benzoate. feminine hygiene sprays. 12(Suppl. also antiparasitic (especially for scabies) (BLUMENTHAL 1). M.F. D. Olumide. indolent ulcers. Contact Dermatitis. and as a fixative or fragrance REFERENCES COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Balsam.1–4 A double-blind. and others. scabies. balsam of Peru caused allergic dermatitis to flare.). Balsam of Peru oil and resinoid. and 50–64% of a high-boiling volatile oil. 17. hemorrhoids (BLUMENTHAL 1. cosmetics and dietary supplements (WICHTL). anal pruritus. Opdyke. and coumarin (KARRER.9 Balsam of Peru has mild antiseptic and antibacterial properties and is believed to promote the growth of epithelial cells. 1. 951 (1974). externally preparations allowed for infected or poorly healing wounds. PHILLIPS. candy. and free benzoic and cinnamic acids also present. 6. ulcus cruris. O. with maximum use level up to 0. Approved in the United States for topical OTC preparations. Other constituents include traces of styrene. diaper rash. .8% in perfumes. Dermatitis as a result of contact with this balsam is documented in many countries. 2. Pharmaceutical. REMINGTON). essential oil. intertrigo. Extractive. GUENTHER. and 20–28% resin. and oil. WICHTL). with the highest reported average maximum use level of about 0.0015% (15. resinoid. lotions. B. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph. Contact Dermat. J. FEMA. Toxicol. ulcers. DERMARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. MARTINDALE. MARTINDALE. benzyl cinnamate. ARCTANDER.33 ppm) for the balsam in candy. TOXICOLOGY Reportedly used in Balsam Peru is one of the most common contact allergens. Hausen. Contact Dermatitis. and solvent-free oleoresin are GRAS for use in foods (§182. Balsam of Peru was formerly official in N. and dentifrices. Balsam of Peru is used extensively in topical preparations for the treatment of wounds. GRIEVE. free benzyl alcohol.

Like balsam Peru. and Cosmetic. free cinnamic and benzoic acids. 9. etc. Lloydia. 12(Suppl. The balsam is a plastic solid with a brown or brownish-yellow color that darkens and hardens on aging.1% in soaps and 0.) (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). BALSAM TOLU Source: Myroxylon balsamum Harms (syn.6 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Balsam tolu is obtained from the tree trunk of M.). among many other compounds (CLAUS. Pat. B. 12. and traces of eugenol and vanillin.g. K. lotions.). syrups. opobalsam resin tolu.. Pharmaceutical. Concentrations of these constituents vary greatly with each report. 104 (1987). KARRER. benzene.2% in perfumes reported. The liquid balsam is collected in gourds and solidifies on aging. M. mildly pungent taste. and minor cuts on the skin and for inhalation to treat laryngitis and croup. Veien et al. Tolu balsam has an aromatic vanilla-like odor and an aromatic. 97 (1970).. U. L. with the exception of some museum specimens that were shown to contain benzyl cinnamate not found in modern commercial samples.348.g. Venezuela). detergents. and K. It has mild antiseptic and expectorant properties. balsamum by making V-shaped incisions through the bark and sap wood. 7. acetone.378 (1982). 953 (1974).S. K. U. Both balsam and its oil (obtained by dry or steam distillation) are used as a fixative or fragrance ingredient in cosmetics including soaps. Contact Dermatitis. Food Cosmet. J. lozenges.. sumaresinolic acid... it is a true balsam. toluiferum H.. S. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. cracked nipples. REMINGTON). Kosti. Common/vernacular names: Balsam tolu. triterpene acids (oleanolic acid. and volatile oil composed mainly of esters of these acids with small amounts of terpenes.3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains resin. with maximum use levels of 0.. 49. Hartwell.g. probably due to the great differences in quality of commercial products and the lack of requirements for determining specific components in official compendia (e.2. M.S. and tolu balsam. creams. 6. 4. 1–5 MERCK. N. also used as an ingredient in Compound Benzoin Tincture or similar formulations for treatment of bedsores. D. N. Opdyke. 33. Other constituents . and perfumes.Balsam tolu 71 5. None of the recent reports identified with certainly the sources of the samples investigated. Carson et al.P. Ostomy Wound Manage. Toxicol.7 USES Medicinal. other triterpenoids (e.). TOXICOLOGY Allergic reactions to tolu balsam occur in some individuals.). 60 (2003). etc. Myroxylon balsamum is a tall tree native to northern South America (Colombia. J. L. cultivated in the West Indies. Peru. Balsam tolu is extensively used as a flavor and mild expectorant in cough medicines (e. 24x2-ocotillone). 8. GENERAL DESCRIPTION present include guaiadienes. 20R. lips. it is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. Thomas balsam.3.

Friedel and R.). Mahonia aquifolium Nutt.. Acta Chem. wounds. 7. berberis. Opdyke. native Berberis spp. L. and trailing mahonia (Mahonia aquifolium). 9. 689 (1976). Scand. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary.. Lloydia. H. Scand. frozen dairy desserts. Dermatol. native to the Rocky Mountains. headache.. bronchitis. Fowler Jr. CRC Press. and fevers. A. 97 (1970). berberis. Harkiss and P. Wahlberg and C. common barberry. Berberis aquifolium is an evergreen spineless shrub. Toxicol. are rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. 1616 (1987). to Europe. I.510).7 Resin used in Peruvian folkmedicine in treating asthma. BARBERRY Source: Berberis vulgaris L. or other Berberis species (Family Berberidaceae). and European barberry (B. Food Cosmet. Am. 3285 (1971). Wahlberg et al. 8. J. 33. columbamine. vulgaris). 6. jatrorrhizine. Oregon grape. aquifolium) and barks of stem and root (B. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. 3. (syn. J. A. catarrh. N. Linley. Chim. K. Acta Chem.. 14(Suppl.. 70. J. FEMA. and gelatins and puddings. D. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Berberis vulgaris is a deciduous spiny shrub that may reach 5 m in height. candy. extracts. such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. vulgaris include berberine. 1. BLUMENTHAL 1. Reportedly used in treating cancer. baked goods. resinoid. isotetrandine (berbamine . J. p. Parts used are the dried rhizome and roots (B. J. Traditional Medicine. Salam and J. 70 (1971). 25. 1994. 2. sores. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172. Harkiss. L. Regulatory Status. Vasquez.. Duke and R. personal communication. K. oxyacanthine. extending to British Columbia and California. T. 5.).6 g for catarrhs of the respiratory tract (BLUMENTHAL 1). 45.. D. Enzell.F. aquifolium Pursh). 1–2 m high. 377 (2001). Pharmacol. allowed in preparations with a mean daily dose of 0.72 Barberry Food. naturalized in eastern North America. Boca Raton. rheumatism. Tincture is official in N. J. Common/vernacular names: Barberry. 25. veneral diseases. Hartwell. Used as a flavor ingredient in chewing gum and other major categories of food products. and tincture. palmatine. Use levels are usually rather low. berbamine. 4. 121. 25(Suppl. B. colds.8.9 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. 146P (1973). Vulgaris). Pharm. Acta. FL. J. Acad. those in B. USD 26th. Matusch.. R. YOUNGKEN. Helv. UPHOF. CLAUS. I. GUENTHER. sprains. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph. F.

and magnoflorine.10 A study of berbamine in mice infected with influenza viruses yielded results that indicate it to be an immunostimulating agent. root bark or fruits for gastrointestinal.9 Berberine also has anticonvulsant. vulgaris administered i. . berberine chloride showed higher activity than chloramphenicol against Staphylococcus epidermidis. B.4 An aqueous extract of the fruits of B. liver. have bactericidal activities.01% and columbamine chloride at 1.. Berberis is reportedly used as a bitter tonic. uterine stimulant. oxyberberine. and antihemorrhagic. berbamine. Qualities of extracts may vary because the only standards for potency are strengths (see glossary) based on a weight-toweight ratio of extract to crude drug. bronchial. vulgaris. antipyretic. MARTINDALE). urinary tract.p. Crude root. and hydroxyacanthine to have hypotensive properties (GLASBY 1. Escherichia coli.0% killed Bacillus subtilis and Colpidium colpoda. and gallbaldder. teas. sedative. and columbamine. vulgaris is listed as a related drug. spleen. Crude was formerly official in U. sometimes used as an adulterant. vulgaris) is available in crude and extract form. and other organ functions (BLUMENTHAL 1). inhibited acute inflammation in rats more potently than berberine. and Cosmetic. which is widely used in China for its antimalarial and antipyretic activities (NANJING). COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The total ethanol extract of the root of B. Traditional Medicine. oxyacanthine. or three alkaloidal fractions of the roots. various Berberis species are also used for similar purposes. such applications including the use of the bark. and trypanocidal and berbamine. elevating the ventricular fibrillation threshold to electrical stimulation in anesthetized cats.1 those in B. the stem bark and roots of B. Root of B.5 Certain Berberis alkaloidal salts. bervulcine. and other bacteria. usually in eye drops and eyewashes. obamegine. primarily as a bitter tonic (FOSTER AND DUKE). particularly berberine.8 Berberine has antifibrillatory activity. including hypotensive and antiarrhythmic. Berberis is used as an ingredient in certain tonic preparations.P. and oxyacanthine. causing atrophy. vulgaris containing 80% berbamine and three unidentified isoquinoline alkaloids has shown spasmolytic effects on smooth muscles.7 In one study.12 USES Medicinal. and other products. kidney. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.4 In Europe and the United States. to Dichroa febrifuga Lour. Berberine salts have been used in ophthalmic products. usually referring to B. aquifolium include aromoline.6. and numerous other activities (see goldenseal). cut and sifted and powdered used in capsules. oxyacanthine.7 Some reports have stated berberine sulfate to be amebicidal. Pharmaceutical. Neisseria meningitidis. vulgaris are used to treat arthritis and chronic inflammatory conditions of the kidneys.11 It also Barberry (B.3 exhibits various cardiovascular effects.2 Berberine and other Berberis alkaloids were reported to be toxic to seedlings of dog rose and horse chestnut. liver. vulgaris exhibited in vitro anticholinergic and antihistaminergic activity. A fraction of a root extract of B. Regulatory Status.Barberry 73 methyl ether). Oxyacanthine chloride at 0. circulatory. In China. It was also more potent at inhibiting chronic inflammation in a model of adjuvant arthritis in rats. isotetrandine. vulgaris is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph in which the uses for the claimed therapeutic applications are not recommended owing to lack of documented benefits.S. In Bulgaria.

8. 859 (1985). borneol.3. .. Introd. Int. Ikram.74 Basil.5 m high. 12. P. Exp. Morfol. FARNSWORTH 3. some of which have different compositions and flavoring characteristics. Eksp. (1986). eugenol. 10. There are two major types of commercial basil oils. 11. 553 (1996). Z. Z. 24. sweet REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. and estragole (methyl chavicol or 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene). Chem. 9. soil. 33 (1976).. Ekol. depending on the sources (MASADA). SWEET Source: Ocimum basilicum L. FOGARTY. J. which are potent juvenile hormone mimics (JIANGSU). Ethnopharmacol. N. camphor. cultivated worldwide (e. thought to be native to Africa and tropical Asia. common basil. 1. V. Li. anethole. E. Med. geraniol.. L. Naidovich et al. with the former up to 55% and the latter about 70%.. M. 353 (1972). D. True sweet basil oil is distilled in Europe and the United States. There are many varieties. 224 (1972).. Common/vernacular names: Basil. The two differ mainly in their contents of d-camphor. GRIEVE. Clujul Med. F.8cineole.. 18. 40. Oleksevich. 10-cadinols. BASIL.. also the former is levorotatory and the latter is dextrorotatory. namely. 2. Malagasy Republic. Fang et al. and sweet basil. the former does not contain camphor and the latter contains little or no linalool. Ther.. 0. BAILEY 2. M. the Seychelles. a-terpineol. Pap.. Andronescu et al. the true sweet basil oil and the so-called exotic or Reunion. 1. GOSSELIN. F. 46. 20. 20. 28%) of a variety of sweet basil). Eksp.. 41 (1985). Arch. C.2 Parts used are the dried leaves and flowering tops. J. 627 (1973).1.08%) contains d-linalool and estragole as the major components. Farmatsiya (Moscow). Yaoxue Xuebao. Rosl. JIANGSU. The plant is also strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature. Jin and W. 161 (1999). An essential oil is obtained by steam distillation.. Kostalova et al. India. Shamsa et al. 64. 25. Immunopharmacol. about 0. Generally. Sui. BLUMENTHAL 1. and the The volatile oil (ca. GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Annual herb. Ivanovska and S. CLAUS.. Immunol. sesquithujene. Kowalewski et al.. ocimene. NANJING. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 1. linalool. L. 4. Planta Med. Europe.. 5. 7. 353 (1975). b-caryophyllene. safrole. basil oil.4–8 There are great variations in concentrations of these components in the volatile oils from different sources.. DER MARDEROSIAN 3. and amount of rainfall. L.. FOSTER AND DUKE. and 1-epibicyclosesquiphellandrene as well as juvocimene 1 and juvocimene 2. geographic location. Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao. 3-octanone. (Family Labiatae or Lamiaceae). 6. Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao. 321 (1986). 7. 28. and the United States). MERCK.4 Other components include methyl cinnamate (reported to be the major component (ca. P. exotic basil oil is produced in the Comoro Islands. 7. 389 AND BEUTLER. Manalov et al. Philipov.g. methyleugenol. D. 475 (1986).

Regulatory Status. allowed as flavor corrigent at 5% or less (BLUMENTHAL 1. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. hair dressings. K€rperpflegem. and oleoresin. K. Nigam and A. Kosmet. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. and mouth washes. S. Diss. MORTON 1. among other applications (BLUMENTHAL 1).. p. Parf€m. REFERENCES COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. Riechst. Rao. The oil and oleoresin are extensively used as a flavor ingredient in all major food products. C. FEMA. The herb has been used for head colds and as a cure for warts and worms. ROSENGARTEN.7 More widely used as a medicinal herb in the Far East. 58. Paper presented at the 2. it is especially recommended for use before and after parturition to promote blood circulation. and diuretic. NANJING). Pharmaceutical. Traditional Medicine. especially in China and India. BISSET. MASADA. 153.. vitamins A and C in relatively high concentrations (MARSH). o (1967). YOUNGKEN. Used as a fragrance ingredient in perfumes. BLUMENTHAL 1.10). B..20) are GRAS. See the General References for ARCTANDER. N. 18.12 Essential oil has shown antimicrobial and mildly antiseptic activities in vitro. soaps. The Council of Europe currently recommends that the level of estragole in food products should not exceed 0. Sobti et al. claimed efficacies not well substantiated... S.. 28. in foods. Terhune et al. JIANGSU.005%). Abstr. B. 41. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph. and Cosmetic. 4.Basil. carminative. as an appetite stimulant.11 TOXICOLOGY Sweet basil oil is reported to be nontoxic. and the use of the essential oil and extractives (§182. usually in rather low use levels (mostly below 0. The whole herb is also used to treat snakebite and insect bites (JIANGSU. and xanthomicrol (a flavone). It was first described in a major Chinese herbal around AD 1060 and has since been used in China for spasms of the stomach and kidney ailments.17 USES Medicinal.14 Xanthomicrol has shown cytotoxic and antineoplastic activities. 1974.13 Methyl cinnamate.10 thymol. u Oils. 6th International Congress of Essential 3.9. has been shown to produce tumors (hepatocellular carcinomas) in mice16 and genotoxicity.15 Estragole. Pogany. both the use of the herb as a spice. 50 (1978). natural flavoring. D. sweet 75 Other constituents present in sweet basil include protein (14%). 169 (1968). cineole. NANJING. rosmarinic acid. 1. S. 165 (1977). The volatile oil of a variety of sweet basil was shown to have antiwormal activities.11 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Food. among others. Gulati et al. . TERRELL. carbohydrates (61%). J. ocimene. 5. S. Lloydia. essential oil. to a lesser extent. estragole and. a major component in some sweet basil oils. and linalool have insecticidal activities. Used as a spice and in chartreuse liqueur. dental creams. BRUNETON. WICHTL).05 mg/kg. or seasoning (§182. FOSTER. 1871 Aromen. GUENTHER.

and 1. L.. (Family Common/vernacular names: Bay. Cancer Inst. with old leaves containing the most oil. Appl.8-cineole (22.9 and various acids (e. 12%). respectively).8 vitamin E.. isoquercitrin. S. 13. enanthic acids. Schulz et al. 16. W. 2475 (2003). 86.4–7 alkaloids (reticuline. 867 (1973). is produced by steam distillation of the leaves and branchlets. Food Chem. a-terpineol Methyleugenol. Takeda. Its leafy branchlets were used in wreaths by the ancient Greeks and Romans to crown their victors. R. Lebensm. as well as a variety of West Indian bay and other species.. K. 8. Nishida. etc. L. Planta Med. extensively cultivated. boldine. 51. nobilis L. Lett. among others.3–3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION acetate (ca. caproic. methyleugenol (3. Cosmet. 11. 520 (1974). neolitsine. 10%). The word bay in the literature may refer to any one of these botanicals. dehydrocostus lactone. and dehydro-1. reynosin)... catechins. Mediterranean bay. limonene. native to the Mediterranean region. S. 12.13 . Agric. Deshpande and H. sweet bay.. Hogg et al. J. Microbiol. Perfum. sweet 6.. M. a-terpineol. 11%). Tipnis. Unters.. 17. J.8%). eugenol. Opdyke. producing sedation at low doses and reversible narcosis at higher doses.. it prevented the death of mice treated with lethal convulsant doses of strychnine. An essential oil. 10.. 63. 176. Forsch. U. launobine. sabinene. D.4%. J. 11(5). zaluzanin D.10–16 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Contains 0. 54. 11. a-pinene (ca. commonly known as laurel leaf oil.8-cineole.. J. Lachowicz et al. butyric. 1323 (1976). 1628 (1983). 14.g. has been reported to have sedative and narcotic properties in mice. 209 (4460). Agric.2 Oil content is highest in autumn and lowest in spring. b-pinene. Z. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Laurus nobilis is an evergreen tree. O. West Indian bay is Pimenta racemosa (Mill. a-terpinyl acetate (11. 26. 57. nandigerine. p-cymene. P. Reschke.4-dimethoxyallylbenzene). and true bay. W. 22. Moore. Jain and S.4%). Drinkwater et al. Fatope and Y. There are several botanicals known under the name of bay. Natl. and California bay is Umbellularia californica Nutt. Bowers and R. Part used is the dried leaf. Toxicol. camphene. up to 20 m high. 190 (1988). proanthocyanidins.8-cineole (30–50%). 11 (1977). Am. J.). 209 (1998). 9. a major constituent of sweet bay and California bay oils (at 4% and 5. R. J. S. R. Karawya et al. W. Pesticides. Gerhardt and A. 33 (1971).. 66 (1972). linalool (12. quercetin. 116 (1983).76 Bay. SWEET Source: Laurus Lauraceae). H. Grecian laurel. 1030 (1980). laurenobiolide (germacranolides). M. Planta Med. 22. Jain. Food Chem. N..1%). as well as phenyl-hydrazine. isodomesticine. 15. piperidine.1% volatile oil composed mainly of 1. M. linalool (ca. sesquiterpenes (santamarine. Science.5%).1 The essential oil from a supercritical carbon dioxide extraction contained mainly methyleugenol (8. Schroeter. laurel.). bay laurel. Fleishwirtschaft. BAY..) J.3 Other constituents reported include costunolide.. etc. and geraniol. A. Food Cosmet. For example. 7.

Schulz and K. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA.20 analgesic. BRUNETON. DUKE 4. Mol. extractive.10). soaps.21 Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruits have shown gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced ulcers. Int. 1. Hokwerda et al. Sweet bay is a common household spice known as bay leaf. leaves used in Iranian folk medicine as an antiepileptic. Med.20 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oil. J.25 the alkyl peroxy radical scavenging activity of the leaves.. J.27–30 Methyleugenol is hepatotoxic.. Formulations containing sweet bay leaf and its volatile oils have been claimed to have antidandruff activities. Essential oil. M.24 The bark has shown greater antioxidant activity than the leaves. the main constituent of the essential oil of the leaves. 4. is attributed to quercetin and isoquercitrin.7 Growth suppression of various human leukemia cell lines was found in vitro from 1.. Traditional Medicine. In animal studies. YOUNGKEN. J. cineole. Yoshikawa et al.Bay. 47 (1984). and diaphoretic. meat and meat products. 12. 3. carminative. Both the spice and oil are extensively used in processed foods. general stimulant. UPHOF. 5.. sweet 77 Bay leaf and some of its volatile compounds (esp. Has been used in treating cancer32 and as a cholagogic.18 Aqueous extracts of the leaves and flowers have shown toxicity to snails (Biomphalaria glabrata).23 Alcohol absorption-inhibiting activity of the leaves in rats is attributed to various sesquiterpenes. and solvent-free oleoresin of berries and leaves of Laurus species are GRAS for use in foods (§182. (1982). FEMA. and detergents. and antiinflammatory activities.13 Food.. highest reported are in condiments and relishes. The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams. ROSENGARTEN. MASADA.. Regulatory Status.31 REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Food Chem. including alcoholic (oil only) and nonalcoholic beverages. the essential oil of the leaf has shown anticonvulsant activity against experimental seizures. Z.1% for the spice and 0. Lebensm.02% for the oil. Planta Med. Putievsky et al. 1492 (2002). 8.2% in perfumes.. and others. 171. Use levels are generally low.. Allergic reactions (contact dermatitis) to sweet bay have been documented. . and piperidine) have been shown to repel cockroaches. GRIEVE. H.8-cineole.. phenylhydrazine. herb GRAS for use in foods as a natural flavoring or spice (§182. 33. JIANGSU. 50. Med. condiments and relishes. H. Maximum use level reported is 0. 44. Caredda et al. BAILEY 1. which are 0. Isr.20). Hibasami et al. 2. Bot. 116 Unters.. M. Bioorg. Chem. it also depressed the heart rate and lowered blood pressure in animals.. Agric. Hermann. Z. frozen dairy desserts.26 TOXICOLOGY USES Medicinal. lotions. 2071 (2000). and Cosmetic. baked goods. 6. GUENTHER. 147 (2003).22. J. 278 (1980). which was higher than that of 120 other extracts of edible plants and herbs.17. geraniol. perfumes. Forsch.6. Pharmaceutical.19 The essential oil has shown bactericidal and fungicidal properties. TERRELL. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.

H.2-dimethoxybenzene). 315 (1987). 3. Food Chem.. p. L.. 31. 25. J. J. 2001. H. Toxicol. and West Indian bay. L. 45. 24. Nat. Subtrop. Arch. 9. W.. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Venezuela. 613 (2003). Res. Pharm. 58. Council of Europe . Lloydia. Cheminat et al. W.) J. Qual. Int. B. 17. A. 212 (2002). 119. 16. New York. Fitoterapia. Shkencat Natyr. 178 (1984). 84 (1971). J. 9 (1997). Runeckles. BAY. Common/vernacular names: Bay. H. Kul’t. Ethnopharmacol. 5.. Available at: http://europa. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Tree with leathery leaves. Agric.. 303 (1967).. T. C. 19. Tetrahedron Lett. J. 15.. MacGregor et al. European Commission Health and Consumer Protection DirectorateGeneral. L. Phytochemistry.. M.... Re and T. 733 (2003). M. 13 (1995). 5196 (2003). 37. Phytother. H. Univ. Afifi et al. Contact Dermatitis. Inst. 241 (2002). Ozden et al. Moore (syn. M. Brussel. Ethnopharmacol. Res. Food Chem. Belgium.. P. Tori et al. 178 (2001). 41(12. 24. Diss. I. Plenum Press.. 22. Kang et al.int/comm/ food/fs/scf/index_en. Anais Soc. 21. Tada and K. 337 (1976). M.. Oswaldo Cruz. Takeda. Phytomedicine. the commonly used domestic spice is sweet bay (Laurus nobilis).78 Bay. Rep.9% reported.. 757 (2002). Puerto Rico. 11. 1).. WEST INDIAN Source: Pimenta racemosa (Mill. ed. Barbas. Bruneton. D.. M. chavicol (up to 22%). Bull. Bull. 32. W. 29. 868 (1974). 23. 27. Chem.. 32. . west indian 7. Brasil. 14. 560 (1982). Gugunava. Entomol. 9. Pech and J. K. Mitchell in V. 12. 13. Alcohol Alcohol. 82(Suppl. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. Matsuda et al. Prod. J. Bull. M. L. with yield of up to 3.. Kawano. 14. L. D.. V. J. Hartwell. J. Hogg et al. 74. B. 777 (1974). J. 8. acris Kostel) (Family Myrtaceae). 4). M. Pt. Biol. U. 83. Moteki et al.. Sayyah et al.. 28. 45. 102 (2002). A.. Shteteror Tiranes. Stancher. and the Caribbean Islands. eu. Atti Congr. 1975.. 30.1 Although sometimes also referred to as bay leaf in the literature. Pharm. 10.. 23. Agric. G..html. Opdyke. U. Pertoldi and B. C. 387 (1976). J. G. Dermatol. 17. 24. Oncol. N. Abstr. Food Cosmet. bay rum tree. 667 (1976). 25.. Machado et al. 9. 6. 247 (1969). Mem. not West Indian bay. 93 (1969). Verma. F. up to about 8 m high. 121 (2002). 276. Ser. 4514 (1981). J.. Vol. J. 13. 20. Gomez-Coronado and C. native to the West Indies. Part used is the leaf from which a volatile oil (commonly called bay oil or Myrcia oil) is obtained by steam distillation. Simic et al... Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Methyleugenol (4-Allyl-1. 26. myrcia. 9.. Sayyah et al. 22. Gurbuz et al. 51. cultivated in The main components of bay oil are eugenol (up to 56%). 18. Asllani.

was isolated from the leaves of P. a-terpineol. Reportedly used in cancer therapy.Bay. while in the essential oil of P. no allergic reactions in humans have been reported.01%. ozua. racemosa var. oleoresin. Landrum. from the leaves of P. and extract (less extensively) all used as a flavor ingredient in major categories of food products.2%). limonene. a diterpene. while in Haiti a decoction of the leaves made with salt is used orally to treat abdominal pain. The volatile oil is considered moderately toxic on oral administration because of its relatively high content of phenols Myrcia oil is GRAS .9 USES Medicinal. the crushed leaves are used in herbal mixtures to treat toothache.F. racemosa var. racemosa var.8 Food. The essential of bay inhibits the in vitro growth of E. estragole (methyl chavicol).8 Recently. Traditional Medicine. Those present in lesser amounts include 1. also in creams. racemosa var. meat and meat products. west indian 79 and myrcene (up to 21%). candy.4 The leaves also contain abietic acid. methyleugenol (3.C. soaps. lupeol. lotions (particularly aftershave and hair lotions). grisea. R. frozen dairy desserts. Volatile oil. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS TOXICOLOGY Volatile oil (regular and terpeneless). Landrum are 4-methoxy eugenol (12. either anise scented or lemon scented. Pharmaceutical.6%). and in Puerto Rico the leaves are used to treat rheumatism. gelatins and puddings.) Fosberg. methyleugenol should not be allowed in foods at any level.6 and abietic acid from the leaves of P.5 have shown anti-inflammatory activity in rats when applied topically or by the oral route.1–3 The leaves of two other general varieties. and perfumes. ozua (Urban & Ekman) L.C. detergents. grisea (Kiaersk.5 Lupeol. it is currently official in F. and Cosmetic. Regulatory Status. racemosa var. In Curacao.8-cineole.1 The main constituents of the essential oil of the leaves of P. The volatile oil was formerly official in N. the Council of Europe recommended that owing to evidence of heptotoxicity. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. However. coli (nontoxigenic strain 0157 : H7). isoeugenol. and a-terpineol acetate (27%). usually below 0. the leaves are ¸ used to treat toothache and as a stomachic. and condiments and relishes at very low levels. oleoresin.7 In animal models of inflammation. The anise scented variety contains methyleugenol (43%) and methylchavicol (32%) as the major components. and the lemon scented variety contains mostly citral (>80%). terebinthina (Burret) L. with maximum use level of 1.. baked goods.6 (GOSSELIN). a-terpineol (20%). and others. a triterpene.5%) and 4-methoxy-isoeugenol (75.20).4-dimethoxyallylbenzene). Volatile oil used extensively as a fragrance ingredient in bay rum. R.11 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The volatile oil has antiseptic and astringent properties (GOSSELIN).10 In the Dominican Republic. the major constituents are 4-methoxy eugenol (4. linalool. and extracts. have been reported to yield volatile oils with quite different proportions of the above components.5% in certain perfumes. (§182.

. Southern bayberry. http://europa. and starch. also grows in the Bahamas. J. Appl. cerifera showed greater than 80% activity. an oleanane triterpenic acid. Opdyke. J. 7. and paramecicidal activities. GUENTHER. bactericidal. B. Opinion of the Sci2. L. Elements for a Caribbean Pharma162 (2003). Toxicol. 2. and antipyretic properties.. In an in vitro assay for antithrombin activity. 867 (2001). eds.. Available at: (1995). southern wax myrtle. Soejarto. European Commission Health and Con100. (Family Common/vernacular names: Bayberry. Buttery et al. 1988. Pharmacol. 288 (1970). Microbiol. 1. Robineau. D. grayish green. MASADA. a methylene chloride extract fraction of M. A. 53. cerifera L. sumer Protection Directorate-General. 36. Cuba. taraxerol.2 The plant also contains the terpenoids myriceric acids A. Food Cosmet. and D. A.3 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Myrica cerifera is an evergreen shrub or small tree that grows up to 13 m in height.. triterpenes (myricadiol. 335 11. branchlets are waxy. GENERAL DESCRIPTION (a flavonoid glycoside). emetic. Farmaco. Council of Europe. (1977).html. Hartwell. 869 (1973). Enda-Caribe. 56.. J.4 Myricitrin has shown choleretic. 19 11. entific Committee on Food on Methy22. 33. leugenol (4-Allyl-1. Lett. A. myricadiol has shown mineralocorticoid activity. and Bermuda. 9. fruits round. and coated with bluish wax. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Dried root bark has astringent. which can be removed by boiling in water. 773 (1974). FEMA. Gyllenhaal and D. 319 Brussel..3. 10. S. The part used is the dried root bark. Flav. gum. Pharm. 593 (1975). and myricitrin Tannins and phenols isolated from bayberry bark administered subcutaneously to rats have . Agric. Analyst. 2001.5 TOXICOLOGY Contains tannins. 3. The twigs contain myricalactone and myrica acid.. M. in C. Food Chem. Analytical Methods Committee . BAYBERRY BARK Source: Myrica Myricaceae). index_en. D. 6. Food Chem. 10. 8. Fragr. M. Fernandez et al. BAILEY 1. Belgium. Weniger and L.1 Myriceric acid A is a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist. 4. 207. L.1 Other constituents reported to be present include an acrid astringent resin.2-dimethoxybenzene).80 Bayberry bark REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. copeia. Garcia et al. J.int/comm/food/fs/scf/ 5. Fernandez et al. R. (2001). eu. Ministry of Public Health.. cedrifera is native to eastern United States from New Jersey to South Florida and west to Texas. the West Indies. and wax myrtle bark. J.. C. p. Lloydia.. Burt et al. McHale et al.. D. and taraxerone). G. D...

3.6 Myricadiol has shown spermatocidal activity. Micmac Indians used the roots to treat headaches and inflammations. N. LUST. 1427 (2000).. 1. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. W. Pharm. fevers.. Am. Chem. 958 Pharmacol.... leucorrhea. and Cosmetic. Chandler et al.. Chistokhodova et al. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Pollen is composed of microspores (male reproductive elements) of seed-bearing plants. Kapadia et al. J. Chem. Nagai et al. 12. D. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 1. Traditional Medicine. Common/vernacular names: Buckwheat pollen. for chronic gastritis. Known species that . Pharmaceutical. Anthropol. Bull. Paul et al. 277 (2002). jaundice. D. 48. YOUNGKEN. puhuang. Pharm. Eur.8 Other. Wallis. 343 (1996). 207 (1976). K. 24 (1922). COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available generally as crude botanical.. MORTON 2. MARTINDALE. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.F.. Natl. pollen pini.7 External inflammations were treated with the crushed roots soaked in water. B.. Mihara and M. 33 (1993). 2. 5. pine pollen. Regulatory Status.. BEE POLLEN Source: Pollen collected by bees or harvested directly from flowers for commercial use. 44. tonic. 6. Root bark has been and probably still is used as astringent. (1974). 8. dysentery. J. 63. IV–V (1916–1926). externally for hardto-heal ulcers (FOSTER AND DUKE). GRIEVE. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 49 (1979). pollen. J.. Powdered root bark still seen as an ingredient in Composition Powders. Fujimoto. Bee pollen refers to pollen collected by bees that is in turn harvested for commercial distribution. Root bark used historically in the United States as an astringent and in larger doses an emetic. 1. rape pollen.. Bayberry root bark was included in N. J. and as an analgesic. Ethnopharmacol. Cancer Inst. diarrhea. Fruit is source of bayberry wax for candles. and stimulant to indolent ulcers and as an ingredient in Composition Powder used for colds and chills. Pharm. 57. J. Sakurawi et al..1 USES Medicinal. Bull. G. 4. Sci. S. The sources and types of bee pollen are extremely variable. FOSTER AND DUKE. F.. typha pollen. J. MERCK. maize pollen. Ethnopharmacol. 81. songhuafen.Bee pollen 81 shown carcinogenic activity. and so on. 7. R. for colds and fevers (FOSTER AND DUKE). Used in Puerto Rico to treat stubborn ulcers (MORTON 2). M. pollen typhae. 24.

27 As it is a uterine stimulant. tricetin. The following are some examples of specific chemical constituents reported to be present in certain types of pollen but not necessarily in others: pentacosane. etc. vitamins (A. turanose and an oligosaccharide. palmitic acid. and kaempferol-3-O-b-D-gluco-7-O-b-D-glucoside in buckwheat pollen. B2. Typha pollen (puhuang) is collected from Typha species (T. However. nonacosane. floral parts. Pine pollen is collected from numerous Pinus species (including P. rutin (0–17%).13 inhibiting prostatic hypertrophy in aged dogs (rape pollen and pollen mixture). angustata Bory et Chaub. insect fragments. ursolic acid. latifolia L. T. K1. 6-aminopurine. free palmitic and stearic acids. D2. It is sun dried. Commercial bee pollen is collected by means of netlike pollen traps. Bee pollen from China is mostly derived from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and rape (Brassica campestris L). luteolin. etc. angustifolia L.) and dried.8.7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Pollen is very rich in nutrients.11 protecting liver from experimental injury (rape pollen and pollen mixture).9–28. rape. etc.19..21 laxative in humans (maize pollen and unspecified product). TOXICOLOGY Although rare. up to 44% carbohydrates.3% crude protein: 14. dating back to the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. C. The collected pollen is manually rid of impurities (dirt.17. among others (WANG. sitosterol.10. sterols. nicotinic acid. folic acid. pregnant women are advised not to use it (puhuang) (CHP). To collect typha and pine pollen. and a-typhasterol in puhuang (ZHOU AND WANG). massoniana Lamb.6–21.6 b-sitosterol and cholesterol. among others. set up next to the beehives that remove some of the pollen from the hind legs of worker bees as they return to their hives. The following are some of the activities of pollen and its extracts: hypolipemic in humans and experimental animals (puhuang and pollen mixture)..26 including anaphylactic reactions.14–16 immunoregulating and antioxidant (rape pollen and puhuang).12. the pollen is then mechanically separated from the floral parts and other impurities. kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside. P. and pine. K3. its chemistry varies greatly depending on its botanical source and contains: 3–16% water. bee pollen can cause allergic reactions. narcissin. isorhamnetin glycoside.22. C-3/C-800 -biapigenin. thunbergii Parl.) and has been in traditional Chinese medical records since the 7th century when it was first described in the Tang Ben Cao. . B1. 200 BC–AD 100). and P. and uterine stimulant (puhuang) effects.5% flavonoids.25. Major producers are northeastern provinces of China. 19–24 trace elements..1–5 Numerous activity studies have been performed on bee pollen. 2–2.9% amino acids. results of these are extremely difficult to evaluate or duplicate due to the highly variable nature of this food/drug. However. with some in free form.. T.9 antiatherosclerotic in experimental animals (puhuang and pollen mixture). 4–10% simple sugars.). maize.82 Bee pollen yield commercial bee pollen include buckwheat. 1–20% lipids.. 5. tabulaeformis Carr.) and has probably the longest and most extensively documented use history.11. Major bee pollen-producing countries include China and Spain. E. and others. the male inflorescence or flower head is picked in spring or summer when the flowers just start to bloom.23 anti-inflammatory (puhuang).18 antiulcer in humans and experimental animals (puhuang and rape pollen. ZHOU 24 AND WANG).20 antifatigue in mice (maize pollen).

Acta Pharmacol. Chin. V. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. C. Jilin Zhongyiyao. astringent. while the other is pure pollen. B. 12(1). Suppl. 62(1). Extracts (hydroalcoholic and lipoid) of pollen are used in skin care products (facial and hand creams and lotions) for its nutritional and traditional healing and skin-softening properties (ETIC). 8. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph.. ZHU.. Z.. Chen et al.). Yang. 5. 13. 177 (1987). vomiting blood. 7. Tyler. Zhang et al. Integr. 3. Jia and S. L. Phytother. 374 (1992).. Used for centuries by different cultures as a nutrient. NATIONAL. Y. constipation. 14.. Wang et al. one mixed with anthers and filaments. (4).. PA. traumatic injuries. 123 (1987). p. P. Zhonghua Laonian Yixue Zazhi. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Bee pollen comes in powdered or granular form. Atherosclerosis. 141 (1985).. JIANGSU. Pine pollen (songhuafen) also has a long use history. Seppanen et al. Toxicol. Y.. Res.. 53 (1987). REFERENCES See General References for BLUMENTHAL 1. used topically in treating eczema. 121 (1990). X. usually with color ranging from yellow to orange. Traditional Medicine. Chen. Wojcicki et al. 6. M. Philadelphia. ZHOU 2. S. 1(2). Res. 10. regulatory status not determined. 37 (1990). U. Z. 11. C. coughing blood. B. 17. The New Honest Herbal. 18(5). Zhongcaoyao. Used extensively as a food supplement in tablet. chronic diarrhea. allowed as an appetite stimulant (BLUMENTHAL 1). Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Zhongcaoyao. Mao et al. and other skin conditions. diaper rash. etc. 47 (1988).Bee pollen 83 USES Medicinal. Extracts (water. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. J. and externally. 115 (1989). bleeding caused by traumatic injuries. Stickley Co. J. 1987. 15(5). also used internally to treat alcohol intoxication. . bloody diarrhea.. 25 (1987). or liquid (drink or syrup) form (TYLER 1). Pharmaceutical.S. Wojcicki et al. G. JIANGSU). 233 (1986). TYLER 1. 59(7). AND WANG. Traditionally regarded as sweet tasting. J. Med. CHP. L. dating back to the 7th century AD. pustular eruptions. removing wetness (zao shi). and Cosmetic. 19(1).. Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao. T. and having diuretic. L. eczema. Xiao and K. Guo et al. benefiting vital energy. 35 (1990). hydroalcoholic. LU AND LI. mouth sores. Typha pollen comes in two types. painful urination. M. F. and hemostatic. George F. metrorrhagia. dysmenorrhea. 9. and lipoid) are also available. J. In China. 1. S. 4.. J. capsule.. It has since been used to treat bleeding of different kinds (nosebleed. neutral. S. Yin et al. and rheumatism (CHP. 3(3). 6.. abdominal pain.. 184. 8(2). hemostatic and stasis-dispersing properties. typha pollen (puhuang) was first described 2000 years ago as sweet tasting. 39 (1986). Wei et al. WANG.. Phytother. warming. 5. 12. amenorrhea. depending on sources. Yingyang Xuebao. Regulatory Status. E. Qian et al.

17. free fatty acids. 9. They are then melted with hot water or steam. H. Yang et al.84 Beeswax 15.. cerana Fabricius (Family Apidae).3-propanetriol monoesters. 357 (1988)... Integr.2. partly soluble in cold benzene. 19. X. 239 (2001). 125 (1989). BEESWAX Source: Honeycomb of the honeybee (Apis spp. Zhao and E. P. Zhongyao Tongbao. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. 45 (1986). 45 (1990). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Beeswax is the wax obtained from the honeycomb of the honeybee. 7. 86. White beeswax and beeswax absolute are derived from yellow beeswax. S.. Zhongcaoyao. Med. 52. Zhongcaoyao. sweet. Med. and yellow wax. as well as other Apis species. 19(2). slightly soluble in cold alcohol. Zhongyao Tongbao. 26 (1988). and benzaldehyde with decanal .2–4 Oxygenated volatiles in beeswax include octanal. depending on sources.. 18. and beeswax absolute (absolute cire d’abeille). 15(5).). 13(12). 21(4).. 12(8). 148 (1986).. Planta Med. 108. white beeswax (bleached beeswax). fatty acids. Apis mellifera L. M. diesters. P. S. Beeswax is produced worldwide. monoesters. less pronounced than yellow beeswax. strained. Common/vernacular names: Beeswax. 27. Qian. Zhongcaoyao.. Med. fatty acid monoesters. Qian et al.. 20(1). triesters. White beeswax is a yellowish-white solid with a faint. J. it is almost tasteless and translucent in thin layers. F. white wax. and fixed and volatile oils. Puente et al. L. After the honey is removed from the honeycombs. X. bleached beeswax. Yu et al. 16. 25. 20. Am. sunlight. 27 (1989)..1 There are three major beeswax products: yellow beeswax. 44 (1988). B. 48 (1987). Board Fam. 21. alkanes. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Beeswax (yellow and white) contains over 80 different compounds. Both yellow wax and white wax are insoluble in water. Yu et al. J. 8. melts between 62 and 65 C. Integr. 1-decanol. Geyman.. unsaturated linear fatty acids. and oily odor reminiscent of good linseed oil with a trace of honey notes. T. ether. furfural. S. hydroxypolyesters. including A. Kimura et al. J. Ann.). C. and hydroxyacids. and moisture (or with peroxides) and the latter by extraction with alcohol. 20 (1990). B. (Barc.. Yellow beeswax is the crude beeswax first obtained from the honeycombs. 23. characteristic odor. Beeswax absolute is a pale yellow solid with a mild. Q. Y. Yellow beeswax is a yellow to brownish yellow or grayish brown solid with an agreeable honey-like odor and faint but characteristic taste. 1. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 11(8). Clin. C. A.. white beeswax.. J. Zhou et al. yellow beeswax.. 698 (1997). 250 (1994). fatty acid polyesters. and completely soluble in chloroform. fatty alcohols. the combs are washed rapidly and thoroughly with water. and run into molds to cool and harden. 22. J. Zhan. 26. Liu et al. the former from bleaching with the combined action of air. largely made up of hydrocarbons. Greenberger et al. Chin. Chin. it melts between 62 and 65 C. Zhongyao Tongbao. Chen et al. T. 24. J. Pract..

Both yellow beeswax and white beeswax are used as thickener. Pharmaceutical. allergic reactions have been reported (MARTINDALE). hair conditioners. or flavor ingredients in all major categories of foods. .1975). confectioner’s frosting. is currently used as a surfactant in cosmetics at concentrations of up to 11%. creams. including nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. among others. As a source of triacontanol for increasing crop yield. baked goods. also used as a tablet polishing component. antiperoxidative. White beeswax and beeswax absolute are used as thickener.4 High molecular weight di-. Others. TOXICOLOGY COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Although beeswax is generally regarded as inert and nontoxic. mono-. White wax is also used as a candy glaze or polish.21 In animal studies.18. first two are official in F.Beeswax 85 making up close to 50% of their content. JIANGSU. an ethoxylated derivative of beeswax.3 Beeswax absolute contains mostly cerolein. and polyesters compounds make up over 60% of beeswax. cucumber. it is usually dissolved in hot alcohol or wine. Up to 23% of the monoesters is myricyl palmitate. lipsticks.14–16 Ethoxylated derivatives of beeswax known as PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6 and PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax are currently considered safe for use in cosmetics. lotions.12 Triacontanol. emollient creams. and perfumes in levels up to 0. beeswax is used to treat diarrhea and hiccups and to relieve pain.8 antiulcerogenic. a mixture of high molecular weight primary alcohols isolated from beeswax with triacontanol as the main constituent. also known as myricyl alcohol.19 Beeswax absolute is used as a fragrance ingredient in soaps. suntan products. myricin is insoluble in cold alcohol but sparingly soluble in boiling alcohol.17 Food. eye and facial makeups.05%). placebo-controlled clinical studies of the mixture have also demonstrated antioxidant and antiperoxidative activity.1972. double-blind. gelatins and puddings. and others. and sweet sauces.5 The chemical composition of beeswax varies in part according to the bee species that make the wax.C. and N. hair dressings.6 Cerolein is soluble in cold alcohol.14 Polyethylene glycol-20 (PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax). which together with myricyl alcohol has been referred to as myricin (ARCTANDER. emulsifier. Regulatory Status. also aromatic volatile compounds. has also shown antiperoxidative activity13 and is a plant growth regulator that increases yields of tomato. and Cosmetic. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES USES Medicinal.F. shaving products. §582. baby products.1. and beeswax absolute. REMINGTON).4% in perfumes.11. antioxidant. gastroprotective.10 Randomized. bath preparations.20. composed of 35% C46 to C48 monoesters and 12% free acids (cerolein). cold creams. and lettuce (see alfalfa). GRAS for use as adjuvants for pesticide chemicals (§582. For internal use. frozen dairy desserts.C. 0.9 and anticolitis activities were shown.2 Beeswax contains about 57–71% esters of fatty acids3 (mostly palmitic and 15-hydroxypalmitic acid) and C24 to C34 straight-chained monoand sometimes di-alcohols. Use levels are usually low. suppositories. the highest being in candy (ca. lotions. emulsifier. In Chinese medicine. white beeswax.17 Yellow beeswax.7 anti-inflammatory. Traditional Medicine. or stiffening agents in ointments.

Beta vulgaris L. with a small amount of betaxanthins (yellow).. 14. R. 71 1.. Coll. 3(3). Noa et al. 2. Pulco. M.. Opdyke. 4)..86 Beet color. 20 Food Agric. Physiol. Biochem. 9.1. Toxicol. Food. red REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Contact Dermatitis. S. 9. 20. 1970. 13. Garcia et al. 5. New York. 16. 59. Int. Tulloch. 91... Pharmacol.. Betanin and to a lesser extent isobetanin account for most of the betacyanins present. Drugs Exp. Res. e 55.. J. Sci. 13. R. 101 (2003). Devakumar et al. 4. p. K. Menendez et al. J..2 The coloring principles present in red beet juice are known as betalains (quaternary ammonium amino acids). (2001). 329 (2000). Clin. Ramanarayan et al.. L. 744 (1986). They consist mostly of betacyanins (red). 14(Suppl. 33. 440 (1995). 2nd ed. Res. Lanigan et al. 511 (1977). Food. 87 (2002). J.4 Cyclodopa glucoside has recently been found in red beet juice.. 19. FEMA. L. J. Cosmet. Am. E.. (Family CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Red beet color is the coloring material derived from the red beet root.. V. REMINGTON. 5. Junghans et al. Carbajal et al. BEET COLOR. McLoud in A. M. J. YOUNGKEN. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Comp. B. Prostaglandins Leukot. J. 10. Phytochemistry. JIANGSU. J.. 7. 601 (1999). V. 79 18. Toilet. Am. 436 (2001). E. Anon.3. and isobetanin is its C15 epimer. 13 (2000). ed. Food Cosmet. 3. Sci. 27 (2001). 6. R. Essent. 56.. (1987).. M.. 59 (2000). Chromatogr. Standen. 299 (1987). 156. J. Contact 5. J. Ferber and H.. Lipids. Wiley–Interscience. A. 26.... 22. (Suppl.). 855. 4. Toxicol. 12. Res. L. Arch. 581 (1988). 15. 21. C. 1 (1984). 11. There is evidence that betanin occurs in red beet root as a sulfate linked through the sugar moiety at the 3. 28. Huang et al. Nursten. S.. Menendez et al. Blum et al. C. Chromatogr. P. Agric. R. Aichholz et al.. J. M. Med. E. 691 (1976).. 102(6). A. D. strengthening its . Vol. Indian J. Fatty Acids. Z. 57 (2001). D. S. 32. 42. 1007.. 8. J. Toxicol. while vulgaxantin-I and vulgaxanthin-II are the major betaxanthins. 247 (1970). Jimnez et al. RED Source: Beta vulgaris Chenopodiaceae). 17. A. Carbajal et al. Dermat. Beta vulgaris has several varieties with roots ranging in size from small to thick and in color from whitish or yellowish (sugar beets) to deep blood-red (certain garden beets). Molina et al. Med. SAX. 235 (1998). S. Huaxue Shiji. D.or 6position. Med. Betanin is a glucoside of betanidin.... X.

Nutr. V. Ford-Lloyd and J. Delgardo-Vargas et al.13 TOXICOLOGY Red beet color has been reported to have weakly mutagenic activities per Ames test. sorbic acid. J. According to a patented process. Sci.7 Red beet pigments are heat labile. Khotivari. Pergamon..6 Betacyanin and betaxanthin decolorizing enzyme with an optimal pH of 3. the pigment content can be considerably increased. 145. and spray-dried powder are available in different coloring strengths. 67. red 87 role as intermediate in the biosynthesis of betanin. Betanin inhibited lipid perioxidation in vitro more potently than catechin13. the characteristic beet flavor usually is perceptible. Oxford.5–5. 4.16 Red beet color did not initiate or promote hepatocarcinogenesis in rats during a short-term study. eds. 189. Zn). I. 200. betanin is rapidly destroyed.2. Tekhnol. Mabry et al. T. 1977.Beet color. 40.. 7.17 USES Used in coloring various food products. At these high levels. Mn. T. Cu.5. 8. especially in the presence of metals (e. N. The color can be stabilized by sequestrants and/or antioxidants such as citric acid. S.g.. . p. Crit.9 though ascorbic acid has also been shown to decrease the color stability of betanin in aqueous solutions. 4.4 have recently been reported in beet root tissue. Vol. 6. p. New York. Soc. 9. Oragvelidze et al. and ascorbic acid.. 47. 71. Linn. Vyssh.35 and a temperature optimum of 42 C. Wiley. J.. 6.18 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Powdered beet root... Reinhold et al. Uchebn. Progress in Phytochemistry.. A.15 although these results were not substantiated by others. 1348 1. J. 1. J. exempt from certification. concentrated juice. 164 (1981). Mabry and A. Bot. Regulatory Status. 3.40 and §73. There is evidence of an enzyme present in red beet that specifically destroys the betanin chromophore at an optimal pH of 3. F. and at temperatures above 121 C. 1968. it is rather unstable outside this range.049 (1977). V.. Williams.8. B. C. Vol. Food Sci. S. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Shih and R. B. Copper is the most efficient catalyst for the breakdown.12 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Betalains and betanin have shown potent in vitro antioxidant activity. Pishch. Dokl. Isv. 152 (1975). 5.5 Red beet color is most stable at pH 4. Food SSSR. C. C. Rev. its concentration in most commercial beet colors is only 1–2%.10 The tinctorial power of betanin is quite high... 990 (1971). 89 (1975). Nauk 2. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. Fe. Acta. H. Ul’yanova et al. at the same time eliminating the beet flavor and aroma.260). REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2.. M.. Zaved. Beet powder as a color additive is approved for food use (§73. Harborne in L. Chim. making it necessary to use these colors at relatively high levels to achieve the desired color effects. Helv. eds. J. AppletonCentury-Crofts. USSR 565. juice. Fang-Yung and A. 173 (2000).14 and in humans showed have high bioavailability. UK..11. Wyler et al. Akad. F. Dreiding in T. (1984). however.

16. Tesoriere et al.. and increasing heart rate. which is absent in the leaves. 93 (1981). Schwartz. and photophobia. 2. Von Elbe and S. K.975 (1976). Ger.. decreasing gastric and intestinal motility. including the United States. 41.. 14. 13. roots contain cuscohygrine.88 Belladonna 10. and a methylkaempferol are present in leaves (STAHL). now cultivated worldwide. 18. and behavioral (neurotropic) protection. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Leaves and roots contain tropane alkaloids (0. 689 (2003).. J. except that scopolamine is a powerful hypnotic and usually slows rather than increases the heart rate. et al. Food Sci. Adams et al.5 Atropa belladonna is a perennial herb that grows up to 1 m high with black fruit (a berry). including immunoprotective. Its peripheral anticholinergic effects include reducing secretions (e. Atropine is anticholinergic. The specific epithet belladonna is of Italian origin. giving them a striking appearance.g. native to central and southern Europe and Asia Minor.. 17. GENERAL DESCRIPTION include l-hyoscyamine N-oxide (equatorial and axial N-oxide isomers) and l-hyoscine N-oxide (equatorial isomer). 11. M. P.2 Flavonoids scopolin. 5178 (2001).. Kanner et al. BELLADONNA Source: Atropa belladonna L. Nahrung.6 The activity of belladonna is due to its alkaloids. or its variety acuminata Royle ex Lindl. Agric. . and India. Toxicol.5%) that are composed mainly of l-hyoscyamine (95–98%) and traces of lscopolamine (hyoscine) and atropine (dl-hyoscyamine).1. 49. L. Toxicol. Schwartz et al.545. China. Its effect on the central nervous system is first stimulation and then depression. Arch. Schmandke. saliva. Common/vernacular deadly nightshade. H. J. Toxicol. 531 (1983). increase of intraocular pressure. 12. On extraction most of the l-hyoscyamine is racemized to atropine. 623 (1984). Res. Offen.. Ishidate Jr. Other alkaloids isolated Low doses of the plant in mice produced protective effects against the effects of experimental stress. tears. 13. and intestinal). H.. J. primarily atropine. their concentration and proportions vary greatly with age of the plant. J. 27 (1983).. 37. 15. sweat. nasal. 49.3–0.” This refers to the former practice of Italian women in using the juice of the berry on the eyes to dilate the pupils. scopoletin. 22.. J. both central and peripheral. Food Chem. 78 (1976). 7-methylquercetin.. J. names: Belladonna. Kanagawa-ken Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku. Food Chem. A total of at least 14 alkaloids have been found in the root.4 The seeds contain spirostane-type steroidal glycosides (atroposides A through H). (Family Solanaceae). Muschiolik and H. Other activities include dilatation of the pupil. gastric. 22. Kawana et al.. meaning “beautiful lady. Ammundson. Von Elbe and C. J. Food Chem.3. Parts used are the dried leaves (including flowering and fruiting tops) and roots.. J. 21. 637 (1978). G. The activities of l-hyoscyamine and l-scopolamine are essentially the same as those of atropine. gastroprotective. Free Radic. United Kingdom. S.

burning pain in the throat. 91 (1975). indicated for treatment of spasms and colic pains in the gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts (BLUMENTHAL 1). liniments for treatment of muscular rheumatism. Above symptoms have been described as “blind as a bat. 126. Shvests et al.10 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available as crude and as various extracts.. fast heart rate with palpitations and elevated blood pressure. Health. restlessness. Planta Med. Exp. and delirium. Hartmann et al. K. Am. J. 390 6. and neuralgia (often with aconite extract). cold and hay fever remedies. coma. Sci.. Belladonna and its fluid. T. Hyoscine is used in preparations to treat motion sickness (MERCK).7 The berries have been mistaken for bilberries with toxic results. suppositories for hemorrhoids.. dryness of mouth. dilatation of the pupils with blurred vision and photophobia. sciatica. D. GOODMAN AND GILMAN. 53 (1976). J. 5. J. BLUMENTHAL 1. Tijdschr. 2173 (2002). . Med. USD 26th. are the subject of a German therapeutic monograph. USES Medicinal. Geneeskd. Ned. 146. and mad as a hatter” (GOSSELIN). 404.. 52. GUPTA. F. solid. 14. Ethnopharmacol. 2. 9. 475 (1996). Phytochemistry. R. JIANGSU. Seances Acad. also in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and intestinal and biliary colic. Wochenschr. the chief toxic principle thought to be hyoscine. Bousta et al. Southgate et al. 74... R.8. G. Hebd.9 implicated in the death of children consuming a couple of berries. 52. D. Jaspersen-Schib et al. A. Anon.S. 205 (2001). 1085 (1996). laxatives (to lessen griping). Med. Pharmaceutical. flushing with hot and dry skin. 4. Soc... Biol. 7. confusion. red as a beet.R. 282. intense thirst. S.. Med.. Jellema et al. Regulatory Status. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Handa. difficulty in swallowing. Leaves and roots. 513 (1986). and Cosmetic. 127 (2000). hot as a hare. (1986). 1. D. including sedatives. Ser.P. high fever. J. urge to urinate but inability to. dics in bronchial asthma and whooping cough. 999 (1975). 10. calculated to specified levels of tropane alkaloids.Belladonna 89 TOXICOLOGY Symptoms of overdose are typical of anticholinergic syndrome and are known to include acute psychosis. convulsions. 3. Phillipson and S.. Death may result from respiratory failure. hallucinations. S.. Chin. Schweiz. NANJING. Oprach et al. J. constipation. H. Its extracts and isolated alkaloids are widely used in both over-the-counter and prescription drugs.. antispasmo- REFERENCES See the General References for APhA.. Hyoscine from Flos daturae (flowers from Datura species) has been used as a general anesthetic in China (JIANGSU). 8. and powdered extracts are official in U. Hyoscine-containing plants have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine as anesthetics. Clair et al. MARTINDALE. ophthalmic preparations. BRUNETON.. GRIEVE.. 3. 120. Planta Med. CLAUS. JIXIAN.. C. dry as a bone. difficulty swallowing and walking and impaired articulation of speech. excitement.

gum benzoin. coniferyl cinnamate. although the tree also occurs in Laos. the exuded balsamic resin hardens on exposure to air and sunlight. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION acid. benzoin is partly absorbed through the skin resulting in systemic exposure. and styrene. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Benzoin is the balsamic resin obtained from the bark of various Styrax spp. storax.g. cinnamic acid. .1%).. and p-coumaryl cinnamate.. although the tree occurs natively in Borneo. cinnamyl cinnamate (styracin). paralleloneurum Perkins yield Sumatra benzoin.90 Benzoin BENZOIN Source: Styrax spp. benzoic acid. benzyl cinnamate.9 The use of tincture of benzoin as a pressure bandage in enucleation of the eye has resulted in necrotizing dermatitis. but in the United States Sumatra benzoin is more customarily used in pharmaceutical preparations. Sumatra benzoin is largely produced from cultivated trees growing in North Sumatra. Common/vernacular names: Gum benjamin. allyl benzoate. Benzoin-producing Styrax species are mostly small to medium trees (up to 20 m high) growing in tropical Asia. benzoic acid.4 TOXICOLOGY Benzoin contains chiefly esters of cinnamic and benzoic acids together with free acids. which contains. Benzoin resinoid is prepared from crude benzoin by extraction with solvents such as benzene and alcohol. Amounts and types of esters and acids vary widely depending on the source. tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich and other related Styrax species yield Siam benzoin.S.10 USES Both Siam benzoin and Sumatra benzoin are official in pharmacopoeias of many countries. Styrax benzoin Dryand and S. Sumatra benzoin. Following topical application in monkeys. its solutions (e. and others (GOSSELIN. aloe. tincture) have local antiseptic properties. Vietnam. and coniferyl benzoate. probably due to occasional contact dermatitis developed in some individuals when using Compound Benzoin Tincture.1.3 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Benzoin vapor (with steam) has expectorant properties. S. Cambodia. and the Malay Peninsula. p-coumaryl benzoate.g.. pinoresinol. cinnamic Benzoin is regarded as moderately toxic. followed by their subsequent removal.5–7 Use of benzoin as a surgical adhesive has resulted postoperative contact dermatitis in some individuals. pinoresinol.P. Siam benzoin. and China. Benzoin is a pathological product formed when the tree trunk is injured. benzoic acid ester. in addition to benzoin. whereas those in the oil of Siam benzoin are benzoic acid. It is produced by incising the bark. and methyl benzoate. Both types are official in U. MARTINDALE). Java. siaresinolic acid and sumaresinolic acid) (EVANS). however. Other major constituents in Sumatra benzoin oil are cinnamic acid.8 and produced adverse effects in children when used as a circumcision dressing. and is collected. (Family Styraceae). only Sumatra benzoin is found in the BP. Both Sumatra and Siam benzoin contain small amounts of vanillin and approximately 2–3% triterpenoid compounds2 (e. The major component of the oils derived from Sumatra and Siam benzoins is benzyl benzoate (76.1–80. balsam tolu. The major constituents of Siam benzoin are p-coumaryl benzoate. Siam benzoin is produced from trees growing in Thailand in the Province of Luang Probang.2 The major constituents of Sumatra benzoin are p-coumaryl cinnamate.

7. Opdyke. Lens Eye Toxic Res..11 Medicinal. Ind. 5. Tripathi et al. in vaporizer fluids for inhalation to relieve respiratory discomforts. J. J. Oncol. Lawton. REFERENCES See the General References for ADA. 14. and as an antiseptic and styptic on small cuts. Acad. with highest average maximum level of 0. 990 (1992). in Compound Benzoin Tincture. Toxicol. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Brownish-yellow or greenish oil with an aromatic bitter flavor and fragrant odor. D. also as an antiseptic. detergents.12 Food. Fragr. Drug Cosmet.510). Yakugaku Zasshi.. 328 (2003). Phytother. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude benzoin. 3. (syn. Food Cosmet. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Gough and N.. C. 28. 10. Regulatory Status. 2. 11. nearly ripe fruit of . soaps. L.. J.. Gyane. 4. Benzoin is currently official in U.. chocolate glaze). and Cosmetic. Pastorova et al.. Surg. L.. X. has antioxidative and preservative properties and is used in cosmetics for these properties.014% reported in candy and baked goods. Mainly used in friar’s balsam. Res. 418 (1990). Anal.. James et al.Bergamot oil 91 while Siam benzoin is used in flavors and fragrances. 6. 65. 18. which is widely used as a skin protectant or topical adhesive agent. Food Chem. candy (e. 9. EVANS. J. D. TYLER 3. Scardamalgia et al. 871 (1973). Use levels usually quite low.. Resin approved for food use as a natural flavoring substance (§172. Fernandez et al. 118. and lotions.. 8. W. 8. R. subsp. CLAUS. FEMA. BERGAMOT OIL Source: Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit. and gelatins and puddings. 180 (2003).. Australas. Phytochem. frozen dairy desserts. 369 (1990).P. baked goods. ARCTANDER. Bronaugh et al.. Anderson et al.. 104.. 11. Urol. Tincture also used in dentistry to treat inflammation of gums and oral herpetic lesions. especially Siam benzoin. Dermatol.. ex Engl. Nitta et al. D. fluid extract. B. I. 173 (1990). Pharmaceutical. J.. 36 (1976).. 7. C. Benzoin is also used in incense (EVANS) and aromatherapy oils. 18. MARTINDALE. (1984). obtained from the peel of the fresh. D. astringent. 452 (2000). Dermatol. and expectorant. O. Classified as a natural flavor. The resinoid is extensively used as a fixative in perfumes. and resinoid are all readily available. J. 44. bergamia Wright & Arn. R.. L. 592 Dermatol. Flav.8% in perfumes (ARCTANDER). creams. 1. A.S.5.. 11. Br. aurantium L. Lesesne. Am. C.) (Family Rutaceae). used in most categories of foods. C. 847 (1984). in amounts up to 0. 12. Toxicol. C. YOUNGKEN. GUENTHER. benzoin tincture. S.g. Benzoin. 63 (1997).

11–22% linalool and other alcohols. and meat and meat products. extractive.14 Recent cases of phototoxic reactions to the oil have been reported from its use in aromatherapy11 and from traditional medical colognes known as “Florida Water” and “Kananga. . sesquiterpenes (a-transbergamotene.02% in gelatins and puddings.g. however. citroptene.6. MARTINDALE). Earl Grey tea. suntanning preparations to stimulate melanin production. with use levels up to 0. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS 5-Methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) appears in blood serum following topical application of bergamot essential oil to human skin9 and has shown mutagenic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. and furocoumarins (bergaptene.39%). terpenes (limonene.11. the same furonocoumarins have been effectively used in the treatment of psoriasis. 7-methoxy-5-geranoxycoumarin. Formerly used extensively used in highquality perfumes (especially eau de cologne).C.. bergamottin. lotions.13 Topical use of preparations containing bergamot oil Bergamot oil expressed and bergamot oil rectified. g-terpinene.F. and mycosis fungoides. bergaptol. phellandrene.6 Food. and bergapten at 0..C. isopimpinellin. caryophyllene. and solvent-free oleoresin of bergamot orange are GRAS (§182. a small tree native to tropical Asia.1–6 The distilled oil contains a small concentration of coumarins compared to the cold pressed oil. humulene. b-farnesene. and xanthotoxin. aromatherapy oils.10 and in soaps.7 Rectified (terpeneless) oil contains a lower concentration of terpene components than the expressed oil and no coumarins (ARCTANDER).8 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES has caused photosensitivity reactions owing to the presence of certain furocoumarins (particularly bergapten and xanthotoxin. a.25% in creams and lotions and 3% in perfumes (EVANS. vitiligo. or by chromatography (ARCTANDER). including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.‘ Regulatory Status.5.20). b-bisabolene). respectively) in the expressed oil. also known as 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen.12 Use of the oil in foods is restricted to those with coumarins removed. now extensively cultivated in the Calabrian coast in southern Italy. creams. frozen dairy desserts. Allowed for use in foods provided coumarins (e.and b-pinene). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Approximately 300 compounds have been identified in the expressed oil. Highest average maximum use level was 0. bergapten) are removed. formerly officinal in N. p-cymene. the former is official in F. including 30–60% linalyl acetate.10 When used with long-wave ultraviolet light. the use of bergamot oil in cosmetics has caused hyperpigmentation of the face and neck. C20 to C33 n-alkanes. Due to the photosensitizing activity of these constituents. candy. and Cosmetic. Pharmaceutical.30–0. Bergamot oil is obtained by cold expression of the peel.92 Bergamot oil Citrus bergamia. baked goods.10 TOXICOLOGY Use of bergamot oil is banned or restricted in many countries owing to phototoxic effects. Essential oil.”12 USES Medicinal. gelatins and puddings.13 once widely used as an ingredient in flavor formulations with fruity citrus notes in most major food categories. it is also known as expressed bergamot oil from which rectified or terpeneless bergamot oil is produced by vacuum distillation or by selective solvent extraction.

Goretti. Cutis. Cieri. cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Toxicol. M. 719 (1969). Am. moors. Fac. Lakshmipathi et al. Opdyke. cyanidin-3-xyloside. petunidin- Bilberry fruits and leaves exhibit astringent and diuretic activity.. 69 11. protocatechuic. D. 181 (1976). T. Chem. 2. J.3–6 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The fruits contain resveratrol1 and at least 14 different anthocyanins (malvidin-3-arabinoside. L.. (Family Ericaceae).. S. GUENTHER. phenolic acids including caffeic. are absent in bilberry. vitamin C. Biomed. flavonoids including quercitrin. 458 (2001). L. 96. Wang and M.). B. Common/vernacular names: Bilberry. 1–2. p-coumaric.. etc. A. B. 8. B3. Sui Deriv. vanillic. dwarf bilberry. 30. Naz. Pharm. 285. 14.. Econ. flavan3-ols including ( þ )-catechin and (À)-epicatechin. L. H. 11. ubiquitous in other Vaccinum spp. 475 (1977). astragalin. The parts used are the fruits and leaves. Opdyke.Bilberry 93 REFERENCES See the General References for FEMA. 407 (1980). Mammi de Leo. syringic.. Atti Conv. Ashwood-Smith et al. F. 1131 5. 587 (1977). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Bilberry is a deciduous freely branched shrub up to about 35–60 cm high. 67 (1972).. Food Cosmet. also found in N. Mandula et al. gallic. Br. 1031 (1973).. 96. and whortleberry. Studi Messina. BILBERRY Source: Vaccinium myrtillus L.. Anal.. R. arbutin and other hydroquinone derivatives. G. J. Acad. Commer.2 Fruits or fruit juice contain at least 3% anthocyanosides such as procyanidins B1.. Buiarelli et al.. J. Wang et al. Clinical use of anthocyanoside-rich extracts of the fruit is largely . Olii Essenz. delphinidin-3-glucose. Anal. peonidin-3-glucoside. J. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 92. 6. 70. Science. Agrum. 4. J. 12. and a hydroxybenzoic acid derivative. arising from a creeping rhizome. (1974). 10.. chlorogenic. Univ. Essenze Deriv. B4. Liberti and G. Assoc. 363 (2002). 52. ferulic. 45. (1976). 7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 3-galactoside.. Agrum. Chim. Toxicol. J. Calabro and P. 10. T.. 1. J. Dermatol. L. S. 1035 (1973). 46. 29 (2002). quinolizidine alkaloids myrtine and epimyrtine in aerial parts.. m-hydroxybenzoic. Ann. Tso.. 193. Zaynoun et al. Curro. 9. 593 (2002). Nature. isoquercitrin. Asia. J.. 3. Dermatol. Found in heaths. Ann. Kaddu et al. myrtillin. MASADA. Br. D. hyperoside. Dermatol. m-coumaric and o-coumaric acids.. U. B2. 11. 13. Offic. p-hydroxybenzoic. and woods in most of Europe (mountains in southern Europe). Food Cosmet. M.

leaf preparations are used for the supportive treatment of diabetes mellitus. kidney.20 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude berries or extract. Historically. the fruits and to a lesser extent the leaves.11 vasoprotective activity (twofold as active in protecting capillary permeability as rutin).14 Their vasodilating effect stimulates local synthesis of vasodilator prostaglandins. . hemorrhoids. Fruit preparations. significantly reducing permeability of the blood–brain barrier. and triglyceride levels. Efficacy of leaves is not documented. are used for the treatment of acute diarrhea and for localized mild inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat. indicating an angina-protecting effect. have been used for astringent and antiseptic activities in diarrhea. teas.13 The anthocyanins decrease collagen hydrolysis. as well as arthritis.94 Bilberry found in for degenerative retinal conditions. the acute oral LD50 of a bilberry extract (standardized to contain 36% anthocyanins) was greater than the equivalent anthocyanins at 720 mg/kg.10 a hypoglycemic effect (due to neomyrtillin content in leaves). In Europe. Long-term (6 months) oral administration of bilberry extract equivalent to up to anthocyanins at 180 mg/kg/day failed to produce toxic effects. and Cosmetic. Traditional Medicine. intestinal dyspepsia in infants. pastries. cholesterol. However. Food. WICHTL). and for metabolic stimulation of circulation. glucose.7.15. functional heart problems. conserves. dyspepsia.16 they also inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombus formation via stimulation of PGI2-like substances in vascular tissue. no teratogenic or mutagenic effects were found. or eaten raw. calculated at a daily dose of 20–60 g. Pharmaceutical.18 USES Medicinal. prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal.12 A long-lasting increase in capillary resistance produced by the anthocyanins of the fruit is believed to result from their greater affinity for the skin and kidney tissue rather than plasma. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. in Europe.8 Anthocyanosides extracted from the fruit have shown diverse activities in animal studies: a protective effect on the liberation of lactate dehydrogenase in heart and plasma and cardiac isoenzymes. bilberry leaf caused toxicity and eventual death of animals. and antiedema activity. gout.17 Orally administered to rats with experimental type 1 diabetes. poor circulation. Regulatory Status. leaf tea as antidiabetic. Both the leaves and the fruits are subjects of German therapeutic monographs. dysentery. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. inhibition of platelet aggregation was found after 30–60 days in human volunteers taking an extract that provided 480 mg of bilberry anthocyanosides per day. At a chronic dose of 1.19 Prolonged use of the leaves may result in chronic intoxication.9 The anthocyanosides have also shown retinal phosphoglucomutase and glucose-6-phosphatase inhibiting activity. Efficacy of the leaves is not established and their therapeutic use is not recommended (BLUMENTHAL 1). leaf extracts lowered plasma. fruits allowed for acute diarrhea and mild inflammation of mouth and throat (BLUMENTHAL 1. compote. and urinary tract disorders. Side effects of the berries are unknown (BLUMENTHAL 1).5 g/kg/day. used in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. primarily for improved vision (BLUMENTHAL 1). The fruit is best known for its food value. TOXICOLOGY In mice and rats. Dried fruits in encapsulated products. syrups. dermatitis. fruit extracts also used as red coloring in wine.

2. Morazzoni and M. 51. (syn. R. 164 (2000). P. A. 90 (1973).. alba L. 2000. which is not peeling but broken into plates. Sweet birch oil is produced by steam distillation of the warm water-macerated bark. M. Thromb. 1.. 397 (1978). 55. Res. van Breemen et al. 12. B. sweet 95 REFERENCES See the General References for WREN. Eye. J. from Maine to Ohio and south to Florida and Alabama.-Forsch. 3 (1985). Cluzel et al. N. Soc. R. Med. Fitoterapia. 20. which are produced from different species of birch and have different physical and chemical characteristics.. black birch. 69 (1989). DER MARDEROSIAN AND 3rd.. Food Sci. 87 (1975). A. B. HORTUS 1 & 2... DER MARDEROSIAN AND LIBERTI.. Friedrich and J.. Dugo et al.. native to southern Canada and northern United States. 13. J. 8 (1969). Arzneim. 829 (1976). Rev. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. 5. During maceration the enzyme system present hydrolyzes gaultherin. Azar et al. M. A. 163. 5. Mills and K. 147 (1969). P. P. Food Chem. 8. J.. 11 (1986).. Zozulya et al. Marcollet et al. 12. 3. TUTIN 2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Tree up to about 25 m high with dark reddish brown bark. Glovinsky. A. 17.) (Family Betulaceae). Planta Med. Levy and Y. 14. Arzneim. B. Common/vernacular names: Birch. 26.. 5867 (2003). 832 (1976). BARNES. Cignarella et al. Hootel. Robert et al.. setting free methyl salicylate. 301. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Birch oil is almost entirely composed of methyl salicylate (98%). Med. Slosse and C. BLUMENTHAL BEUTLER.. SWEET Source: Betula lenta L. 52... Hootel. C. 7. BIRCH OIL. C.. Biol.) and is used in psoriasis. they are used for quite different purposes..-Forsch.1 Sweet birch oil should not be confused with other birch oils such as birch bud and birch tar oils. 967 (1998). Bettini et al. Slosse and C. birch tar oil is obtained by destructive distillation of the wood and bark of the European white birch (Betula pendula Roth. Fitoterapia. Lietti et al. There are numerous species of birch with habitats spanning several continents. 26. WEISS. P. G. Altern. Tetrahedron e Lett. V.. Y.. Biol. M. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Fitoterapia. Soc. Chruchill Livingstone. 321 (1977). 8. p. AHPA. 16. 56. 11..Birch oil. R. 4287 (1981). 19. 1255 (1987). 60. 84. Edinburgh. STEINMETZ. carpinefolia Ehrh. 57. 3987 (2001). The yield is about 0. Tetrahedron e Lett. 265 (1984). J.6%. 311 (1996). 9. 6. 10. APPLEQUIST. Rast. 4. 11. 34.. Agric. E. J. Resur. eczema. Sch€ert. For example. syn. Pulleirio et al. R. which is the major component of the oil. S.. and sweet birch oil. 15. UPHOF. 37. R. .. Bettini et al. H. Food Chem. cherry birch oil. Agric. 18. C. Lietti and G. Magistretti. Fitoterapia. 49.. Bone. Muth et al. o 24. 163. Forni.. V. and other chronic skin diseases..

A. Nowak. Betula pendula leaves are the subject of a German therapeutic monograph. GUENTHER. Perfum. and pulmonary problems. FEMA. Methyl salicylate has limited use as a counterirritant in antiarthritic and antineuralgic preparations such as ointments. UPHOF.P.96 Blackberry bark PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Like salicylates in general. . 1. anti-inflammatory. synthetic methyl salicylate is mostly used. BLUMENTHAL 1. Side effects of the leaves are unknown (BLUMENTHAL 1). monographed under methyl salicylate together with wintergreen oil.1%). and Cosmetic. Part used is the dried bark of the rhizome and roots collected in the spring and fall. TOXICOLOGY Food. It is a common flavor ingredient in root beers. 0. pneumonia. Methyl salicylate is much more toxic than salicylates. G. methyl salicylate has antipyretic. scrofula. and is currently official in F. liniments. it was formerly official in U.C. used in irrigation therapy as a diuretic (BLUMENTHAL 1). Common/vernacular bramble. and analgesic balms.7 g) methyl salicylate may be fatal in children (GOODMAN AND GILMAN). 81. USES Medicinal. candy. and analgesic properties (GOODMAN AND GILMAN). and neuralgia (FOSTER AND DUKE). Am. bladder infection. Betula pendula leaves are reportedly diuretic. Essential oil reportedly used for rheumatism. gelatins and puddings. REFERENCE COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Volatile oil.. It can be absorbed through the skin. and baked goods. The highest average maximum use level reported is in candy (ca. the bark decoction for diarrhea. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A spiny shrub with an edible black berry. extensively hybridized. names: Blackberry. native to temperate Europe and adjacent countries. BAILEY 2. frozen dairy desserts. BRUNETON.C. and fatal poisoning via this route has been reported. Traditional uses. FOSTER AND DUKE.S. especially nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. American Indians used the bark tea for milky urine and stomachache. Cosmet. chewing gum. Presently. gout. 37 (1966). Pharmaceutical. As little as 4 mL (4. MERCK. used in irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory disease of the urinary tract (BLUMENTHAL 1). and as a fragrance ingredient in perfumes and other cosmetic preparations. but most of it is probably lost during processing. as an antiseptic. Extensively used for its wintergreen (or root beer) flavor in most major categories of foods. (Family Rosaceae). USD 26th. and the leaf tea for dysentery and colds (MOERMAN). MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. BLACKBERRY BARK Source: Rubus fructicosus L. See the General References for ARCTANDER.

1.7 cimigonite. FOSTER AND DUKE. frozen dairy desserts. candy. In flavor formulations in all major categories of foods.4 organic acids and esters (2-hexylcyclopropaneoctanoic acid. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.510).. Jouad et al.6 Other constituents reported to be present include salicylic acid. rattleroot. Regulatory Status. primarily as an astringent (FOSTER AND DUKE). KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL.2 cimiracemosides. gelatins and puddings. and calcium oxalate. REFERENCE See the General References for BAILEY 2. terminal leaflet three lobed. teas. J. H. root and root bark used as topical treatment for sore throat. leaves are three divided. isoferulic acid. west to Ontario and Wisconsin. The root is used by the Micmac Indians as an astringent and antidiarrheal (MOERMAN). black snakeroot. rattleweed.1 Active constituents believe to be tannins. tannin.Black cohosh 97 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION preparations. (syn. fukinolic acid cimicifugic acids. 81. formerly official in U. from Maine Roots contain triterpene glycosides: 26-deoxyactein. and south to Georgia. cimicifuga.08% in frozen dairy desserts. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring substance (§172.) Nutt. and others).S. cimifugoside M. USES Food. flowers.5 caffeic. and sweet sauces.3 and others. BLACK COHOSH Source: Actaea racemosa L. up to 3 m high. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.) (Family Ranunculaceae). ferulic acid. cohosh bugbane. with highest average maximum use level of 0. 351 (2002). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb. villosin. and N. Ethnopharmacol. the leaves are used to treat diabetes. middle lobe is largest. 23-epi-26-deoxyactein (27deoxyactein or actein). inflammation of the gums. tablets. Traditional Medicine. squaw root. with knotted rhizome. and other COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. rattle top. white. YOUNGKEN. MERCK. FEMA.. FERNALD.F. and mouth ulcers (BOWN). Common/vernacular names: Black cohosh. and volatile oils (DUKE 2. other constituents present include gallic acid. baked goods.1 cimicifugoside (cimigoside). . In Morocco.P. Parts used are the dried rhizome and roots. native to rich woods of eastern North America. Blackberry bark in capsules. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. in tall raceme. WREN).

to stimulate menstruation. showed antidepressant activity. Formerly official in N. double-blind.98 Black cohosh PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Extracts of the rhizome have failed to show either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity in either animal or in vitro studies. including premenstrual discomfort.g. MCKENNA. placebo-controlled) have found significant benefits in the treatment of menopause symptoms (MCKENNA). the incidence of adverse effects was 5. coughs.16 An isopropanolic extract failed to increase estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in rats17 and in a rat model of endometrial cancer. Potencies of extracts are expressed only in strength (see glossary) based on weightto-weight ratio of crude and extracts. and kidney problems (MOERMAN). influenza.18 No toxic effects were found in humans admin- Available as crude and extracts (fluid. and powdered). dysmenorrhea. nervous system disorders. Rats administered an isopropanolic extract (up to 5 g/kg) for 26 weeks showed no organ toxicity. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS TOXICOLOGY A critical review on clinical studies of black cohosh in the treatment of menopausal symptoms concluded that specific extracts of the rhizome are safe alternatives to estrogen therapy. support for natural uterine contractions during labor. diuretic. Used in treating amenorrhea. Pharmaceutical. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.13 In a rat model of hot flashes. uterine disorders. lumbago. headache. selective estrogen receptor modulating (SERM) activity has been demonstrated following oral administration of black cohosh extracts (e. USES Medicinal.15 istered a fluid extract of the rhizome at doses of up to 890 mg/day. rheumatic pains. tablets. fluid extract. nervous disorders. and in the treatment of colds.10 In vitro studies have shown that the triterpene glycoside fraction inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. hysteria. No mutagenicity was found from an isopropanolic extract in the Ames test (MCKENNA). crude root in infusion or decoction (BRADLY.12 that extracts of the rhizome show serotonin receptor-binding8 and dopaminergic activity. smallpox. yellow fever.4%. fever. and itch. WREN). and U.. In European phytomedicine. dropsy. the majority (97%) were minor and none attributed to black cohosh were serious. Traditional Medicine.P. pain of acute rheumatism. including an improvement in bone metabolism. The minimum acute lethal oral dose of a tincture of black cohosh in rats was reported to be >1 g/kg. and postoperatively in patients after hysterectomy or ovariectomy in the treatment of functional deficits (BLUMENTHAL 1. and Cosmetic. isopropanol or ethanol extracts of the dried rhizome standardized to triterpene glycoside contents are used in treating menopausal symptoms.8–10 However.9 and that cimicifugoside exhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist activity. a standardized ethanolic-aqueous extract of the rhizome administered orally reduced the symptoms and in a behavioral test in rats. MCKENNA). Used in certain analgesic and tonic preparations. inhibition of pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion11 and estrogenic-like effects in fat tissue and osteoblasts in the bone of rats). Used alone and in herbal formulas to relieve problems related to menopause.S.10 Clinical trials of standardized isopropanolic extracts of the rhizome (randomized. capsules. menstrual disorders. . cough. failed to increase growth or metastasis of the primary tumor. solid.F. postpartum and labor pains. constipation.14 The extract also reduced the loss of bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. among others. tinctures.16 Used by American Indian tribes as a galactogogue. In trials of black cohosh preparations involving over 2800 patients.

S. up to 5 m high. Common/vernacular names: Black haw. YOUNGKEN. FOSTER AND DUKE. citric. Ther. FOGARTY. 44(Suppl. Pharm. Maturitas. 6.Black haw bark 99 Regulatory Status. 1). 425 (2000). 17. Agric. oxalic. 10. 5. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 8. Breast Cancer Res. MCKENNA. amentoflavone. stag bush. 763 (1999). Bedir and L. from Connecticut to Florida and west to Michigan and Texas.4. J. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL.. and others (MERCK). Pharmacol. arbutin. S. S. A. E.. 51.. (Family Caprifoliaceae). Lett. 11.. Planta Med. MERCK.5 Otherconstituentsinclude malic. 1).3-dibutyl hemimellitate was isolated from the stem bark. UPHOF. 3.. Woo et al. W. Nilein and J. Maturitas. 150. J. 13.. H. 65. triterpenes (a. Khan. Food Chem. Freudenstein et al. S31 (2003). Maturitas. oleanolic acid). Winterhoff et al. 1). D. GRIEVE. Phytochem.. Chem.. Maturitas. 62. BARNES ET AL. nanny bush. A. Wende et al.. Jarry et al. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Viburnum prunifolium contains coumarins (scopoletin. Exp. 1. Treat. aesculetin). Wuttke et al. The root is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph... 271 (2004). T..6 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Viburnum prunifolium is a spreading deciduous shrub or small tree. BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2. Panossian et al. 100 (2004). L.. 66. Nat.. tannin.... 5661 (2003). 48. T. and valeric acids). 18. 4... Toxicol.. 641 (2004). Planta Med. 12. S. Nat. 44(Suppl. S51 (2003).. Cancer Res. Menopause. 15. 299 (2003). M. 14. 3448 (2002). Einbond et al. 44(Suppl. K. He et al. 44(Suppl. 57.. 221 (2004). Prod. Prod.. S39 (2003). 420 u (1991).. J. J. Freudenstein. BRADLY.. with blue-black fruits and white flowers native to North America. indicated for REFERENCES premenstrual discomfort and dysmenorrhea (BLUMENTHAL 1). Jarry et al. 635 (2000). Seidlova-Wuttke et al.8 . Chen et al. D€ker et al. bitter resin. b-sitosterin. 9. viburnum. JIANGSU. Anal. Planta Med. alkaloids.1 scopolin. Burdette et al. J. H. J.3 and iridoid glucosides (Valeriana type). Bull. E. 1). S67 (2003). ursolic acid. WREN.2. K. 1-Methyl-2.. as a dietary supplement. Low Dog et al. Parts used are the root and stem barks. See the General References for BAILEY1. E. 309. BLACK HAW BARK Source: Viburnum prunifolium L.and bamyrin. 316 (1985). 15. K. 2.. 64. Regulated in the U.. 83. O. H. 986 (2001). Black haw has shown uterine antispasmodic properties in vitro.7. 7. Kruse. 16. Planta Med. 65.. 10. FOSTER. 51. 601 (2002).

. uphof. 2000. primarily for uterine-relaxant and antidiarrheal activity (WREN). 7. flowers pale yellow in prickly green heads. carduus benedictus. 5. reddish annual up to 60 cm in height. Balansard et al. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 1. (1967). cnicus. 212.F. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. 34. and infusion. Common/vernacular names: Carbenia benedicta. Planta Med. and for asthma (FOSTER AND DUKE). American Herbal Pharmacopeia. Traditional Medicine.. Santa Cruz..100 Blessed thistle USES Medicinal. WICHTL. Food. diuretic. Tomassini et al. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.. e BLESSED THISTLE Source: Cnicus benedictus L. 6. The root bark was also used as a tonic for the female reproductive organs and as a diaphoretic (MOERMAN) and the bark was used to treat dysentery. tablets. ed.. Med. H. Plantes Md. and Cosmetic. antidiarrheal. FOSTER AND DUKE. indigenous to waste lands and fields of the Near East . tinctures. L.. American Herbal Pharmacopeia. 4202 (1969). solid extract. Root bark used in capsules. C. WREN. YOUNGKEN. 65.S. 44. J. ed. 837 (1966). Holy thistle. R.510). 123 (1983). as a postpartum antispasmodic. J. 4.. Phytochemistry. Pharmaceutical. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios between crude and extracts. fluid extract. Tomassini et al. 488 751 (1997). Jarboe et al. Jarboe et al. and powdered extract are readily available.. 3. e Phytothr. C. 2. Root bark and its extracts are used as tonics and in uterine-relaxant.P. Cramp bark (Viburnum opulus). 8. L. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. R. FEMA. and U.. 10. Regulated in the U. as a dietary supplement. C. Upton. leaves are long and narrow with prominent white veins beneath. Org. CA. Upton. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Thistle-like. with maximum use level at less than 0. crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N. Regulatory Status. Santa Cruz. Nature. Stem bark extract is used as a flavor ingredient primarily in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages in very low concentrations. CA. American Indians used the root and/or stem bark for the treat- ment of painful menses.. Jarboe et al. G.S.. Cramp bark (Viburnum prunifolium). to prevent miscarriage. and general antispasmodic preparations.001%. 2000. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. highly branched. Chem. whole plant covered in thin down. 17. approved for food use in food as a natural flavoring substance (§172. 195 (1999). APPLEQUIST. 1.. Chem. H. H.

Vanhaelen and R. multiflorenol. tablets.2 arctiin in fruit. 2-acetylnortracheloside. TOXICOLOGY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Chloroform and light petrol extracts of the herb yielded sitosterol-3b-D-glucoside. STEINMETZ. Leaf capsules. 2709 (1975). Ulubelen and T. An ether extract of blessed thistle showed a strong sensitizing effect in guinea pigs. naturalized in the United States. and trachelogenin. See the General References for AHPA.2 mM/kg. suggesting that individuals who experience allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to the Compositae family should avoid the plant. WREN). Regulatory Status. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. BRUNETON. body aches. e 31. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and a-amyrenone.3 lithospermic acid.Blessed thistle 101 and Mediterranean region. extract. a-amyrine.. also. minute amounts of volatile oil. salonitenolide. approximately 8% tannins. allowed as a bitter digestive to treat loss of appetite and dyspeptic discomfort (BLUMENTHAL 1. Berkan. 1. BLUMENTHAL 1. 375 (1977). NIKITAKIS. hearing loss.510). Following oral ingestion. emetic. Vanhaelen-Fastr. multiflorenol acetate. and manganese (BRADLY. BISSET. DUKE 2. Planta Med. M. fevers. small amounts of polyacetylenes. GRIEVE). migraines. cultivated in Europe (BAILEY 1 & 2. arctigenin.7 USES Food. A. 2. The approximate acute oral LD50 in mice of cnicin is 1.4 The extremely bitter sesquiterpene lactone cnicin has shown in vitro antibacterial and in vivo antitumor activities. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. subject of German therapeutic monograph. UPHOF. nortracheloside. trachelogenin. also in bitters. diaphoretic. galactogogue. antiflatulent and in gallbladder disease. approved for use as a natural flavoring in alcoholic beverages only (§172. calcium. 14. primarily as bitter digestive (BLUMENTHAL 1).6 Use of the herb is contraindicated in pregnancy (BRADLY). oleanolic acid. which have inhibitory effects on cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase and on histamine release in rat mast cells. Part used is the herb (flowering tops). Traditional Medicine. and in the treatment of intestinal worms. tincture. WREN). appetite stimulant. . Phytochemistry. memory. leaf extract.6–3. and high amounts of potassium. tea. sesquiterpene lactone cnicin (bitter index ¼ 1 : 1800). WREN. TYLER 1. headaches.1 Leaves contain lignans. Used as an emmenagogue. They also show Ca2 þ and platelet-activating factor antagonist activities (see also burdock and safflower). the lignans arctiin and tracheloside are metabolized in the intestinal tract to their genins. inactive in Bacillus coli. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Essential oil bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus aureus. HARBOURNE AND BAXTER. GLEASON AND CRONQUIST. Extract an ingredient in alcoholic beverages (Benedictine). arctigenin. WICHTL). and sores (GRIEVE. antifeedant activity against certain insects (HARBOURNE AND BAXTER). TUTIN 4.5 REFERENCES Crude leaves.

5%) of Mexican pricklypoppy seed oil (Argemone mexicana L. a. red puccoon. 59.. R.. The plant grows in Quebec and in the United States from New England south to Florida and west to Wisconsin and Texas. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION A low perennial herb with horizontal. 4. 24. and homochelidonine. 28 (1985).8 and antitumor activity in animals.. (Family Papaveraceae). Lachner. Part used is the dried rhizome.. Indian red paint.12–20 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION TOXICOLOGY Both the rhizome and root contain benzo[c] phenanthridine alkaloids (approximately 4–7% and 1. e Planta Med. branching rhizome bearing slender roots. Also contains a reddish resin and citric and malic acids.2. R.21 Although the contribution of sanguinarine was later disputed. sanguinarine inhibited the growth of human epidermoid carcinoma cells through the induction of apoptosis. W. chelilutine. and other controlled and open label trials of sanguinaria oral rinses with zinc and sanguinaria tooth pastes (alone and in combination) have shown that the preparations are effective at reducing gingival inflammation and plaque and in decreasing symptoms of periodontitis. sanguilutine.1. Dermatol. BLOODROOT Source: Sanguinaria canadensis L.7 It has also shown inhibition of NFkB3. red root. placebo-controlled. Nose et al. up to about 35 cm high. sanguinaria. dihydrosanguilutine. Common/vernacular names: Bloodroot.). sometimes referred to as “root” in the literature. and sanguirubine.3–5 Sanguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine were implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma in epidemic dropsy in India in the years 1880–1930 when it was found as a constituent (approximately 0. respectively).. chelirubine. Arch. both rhizome and roots contain an orange-red latex. berberine. Sanguinarine has broad in vitro antibacterial activity and also displays antifungal and antitrichomonas activities2 and local anesthetic property. which suggested that it could be responsible for degenerative changes seen in cardiac heart muscle of rats fed Mexican . 5. 179 (1976). 53. M. Planta Med. followed in order of concentration by chelerythrine... 277. Vanhaelen-Fastr and M. oxysanguinarine. Vanhaelen-Fastr.6. Planta Med.102 Bloodroot 3. anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. coptisine.2 Other alkaloids identified in the plant include protopine.and b-allocryptopine. Zeller et al.8%.9 At micromolar concentrations in vitro. Planta Med. G. Vanhaelen.1 The major alkaloid of the rhizome is sanguinarine. 7. 247 (1987). 6.22 further studies found the alkaloid inhibited Na þ /K þ -ATPase activity of the heart.11 The majority of double-blind. 29. 165 e (1973). Res. Schneider and I.10 Protopine has shown platelet aggregation-inhibitory effects in animals. 131 (1993).

Clin. D. and other health problems (MOERMAN). V.. New York. Vol. Used by American Indians as a blood purifier and to treat burns. Traditional Medicine. Chem. 1846 (1972). 307 (1999). 6. Preininger in R. Shenolikar et al.. Pharmaceutical. 1.. 333. 2. 1970. fertility. 207. Santavy in R. K. and wild cherry barks. 1. M. Biol. Toxicol. H. F.. The Alkaloids.. Kosina et al. FDA as being unsafe for use in drugs. 4.E Crude and fluid extracts were formerly official in N. tuberculosis. I. Cancer Res. H. sores. Food Cosmet.. DE NAVARRE. Classified by the U. 14. Matsuda.21 Long-term studies in rats administered the alkaloid orally failed to show teratogenic effects. as in Compound White Pine Syrup and other formulations).. CLAUS. BARNES. The Alkaloids. 6. 699 (1974). foods. balm of Gilead bud. R Stermitz. 498 (1988). ed. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Regulatory Status. or beverages (WICHTL).. 297 (1985). Ahmad et al. almost always in combination with other herbal ingredients (e. MARTINDALE. Pharm. p. white pine..1 Oral administration of a sanguinaria extract containing approximately 68% total benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids and approximately 33% sanguinarine chloride to rabbits and rats failed to show any effects on fetal and neonatal development. Boulware et al. 1975. Manske. 15. 7. YOUNGKEN. Tin-Wa et al. Lloydia. K. ed. N. New York. 36. 30129 (1997). stomach cramps. J.F. Sci. 8.. and U. Phytochemistry.. Other studies have shown that the alkaloid interferes with pyruvic acid oxidation that leads to pyruvic acid accumulation in the blood.. T.. 1524 (2000). Academic Press. Godowski. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios between crude and extracts. p. 5. Food Chem. MERCK. respectively. 11. 96 (1989). pain. sore throat. M. Planta Med. colds.Bloodroot 103 prickly-poppy seed oil and consequently for cardiac failure and tachycardia in epidemic dropsy patients. 12. Chaturvedi et al. Vol. fevers. hemorrhages. 42. cuts. by Canadian Indians in Quebec as a tonic. M. 33.S. or reproduction at doses below 60 mg/kg/day and 25 mg/kg/day. J. Cosmet. P. 834 (1975). KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. J. debility. USES Medicinal. R.24 nose following surgical treatment25 and in cough remedies. C. Formerly used in treating carcinoma of the REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Clin. Soc. 10. 54. 3. Toxicol. Also used in cosmetics for its alleged healing properties.. 70. 272. The acute oral LD50 of sanguinarine and extracts of the rhizome in rats ranges between 1250 and 1658 mg/kg.P. Academic Press. DER MARDEROSIAN AND LIBERTI. H.. Chem. Used by various eastern North American Indians for face painting. and Cosmetic. rheumatism. 9. Dent. H. J. F. . spikenard root. 12.S. S. Tenebaum et al.. F. 85 (2004). Periodontol. M. ulcers. 13. root chewed to treat heart troubles.. 267 (1970). Tin-Wa et al. Sanguinarine has also been used as an antiplaque agent in toothpaste and mouthwash preparations. 12. gonorrhea. 61. Kim and F.. asthma.. J.23 A recent study of oral leukoplakia in 10 patients who had used a rinse and/or dentifrice containing sanguinaria for 6 months called for avoiding such preparations until the risk of malignancy could be determined. Manske. coughs.g..

B. Grossman et al.. G. 617 (1991). R.. Surgery. 110 (1989). J. M. caulophyllum. up to 1 m high. caulophyllogenin 3-O-aL-arabinopyranoside. T. 273 (1997). 14. M.... A.3 Whereas the latter is found in varying amounts in dietary supplements containing blue cohosh . Das and S. Khanna. Clin. Oral Radiol. Phelan and J. J. 5. 119 (1997). J.12 Methylcytisine stimulates motility of the small intestine. Periodontol. A. 42. crooked..3 Other constituents present include caulosaponin and resins. P. Polson et al. grows in eastern North America.. Oral Surg. 24. S. (Family Berberidaceae)..g. and taspine. robustum Maxim. Periodontol. Toxicol. Kopczyk et al. J. 16. Aust. including N-methylcytisine (caulophylline). C. Health. anagyrine. Clin. Periodontol. D. J.. J. Environ.. Rev. 62. Oral Med. D. K.2. Parts used are the dried rhizome and roots. most of which have hederagenin as their aglycone. Clin. Crit. J. Becci. Lord et al. Periodontol. lupanine. baptifoline. Clin.. 20. 18. L. BLUE COHOSH Source: Caulophyllum thalictroides (L. 435 (1989). Oral Pathol. Periodontol. M. squaw root. papoose.. 23.104 Blue cohosh 14. J. TOXICOLOGY In vitro teratogenic activity was found in the rat embryo culture system from the alkaloids taspine and N-methylcytisine. Eversole et al. P. 16. 455 (2000). Dent. Cullinan et al.. stimulates respiration. 23. 310 (1963). the former USSR and found to be rich in triterpene glycosides (caulosides A... R... a-isolupanine. 782 (1996). 15. 19. 21. Polson et al.6 An extract of blue cohosh produced tonic contraction of isolated uteri of guinea pigs or rats. Endod. Periodontol. hederagenin 3-O-a1 L-arabinopyranoside). 22. and horizontal rhizome. 17. 20.. H. alkaloids. Common/vernacular names: Blue cohosh. E. 47 (1997). 1. J. 25. 27. and G). and increases blood pressure (TYLER 1). 176 (1987). they possess fungicidal activities. Harper et al. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The rhizomes and roots contain triterpene saponins (e. Etemadzadeh et al. A. 68.) have been extensively studied in An alcoholic extract of the aerial parts after treatment with petroleum ether showed antiinflammatory activity in rats. 60.4–6 The rhizomes and roots of an eastern Asian species of Caulophyllum (C. J. Juardo.. Dent. J..6-dehydro-a-lupanine.) Michx.7–10 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb with a thick. M. 53. sparteine. magnoflorine.11 A hot water extract and the saponin-containing fraction of the roots and rhizomes exhibited a uterine stimulant effect in isolated rat uterine muscle preparations. Toxicol. 352 (1990). 199 (1987). 89.

. YOUNGKEN. 43. 8. et al. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. A. Germany. 1515 (1967). 552 (1970). capsules. D. 7. J.12 USES Medicinal. BARNES.. crude was formerly official in N. J. Benoit et al. Used in diuretic. 15. 2312 (1971).. T.. J. B. (1916–1942). K. M. J. S. Nat. Strigina et al. Phytochem. W. 1049 (1982). 39. Prir. genitourinary problems in men. Vol. Diss. 6. tablets. 5. 10. I. 1 (2003). Pediatr. Edwards. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Regulatory Status. 14. 12. T. 1. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed as weight-to-weight ratios between crude and extract.13 very little taspine was found in the dried rhizome (0. J.. 6. E. 32. Phytochemistry. M. Berlin. Sci. M. L. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available as crude and extracts. Phytochem. 9. S. to aid childbirth. antispasmodic. L. including hemorrhages (MOERMAN). 834 (1972). MERCK. 2. Kennelly et al. Class 2b (not to be used in See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Che.3 Reduced coronary flow was observed in rat heart preparations infused with N-methylcytisine and a vasoconstrictive effect was found in hog and cattle carotid artery preparations exposed to the compound. 5. Jhoo et al. Betz et al. H. 160 (1976). 17. and in treatments of lung problems. J. L.. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. I... profuse menstruation. M. fevers. Abstr. stomach cramps (alone or in conjunction with painful menstruation). 4... 232 (1998). M. G. Prir.. Int. Ferguson and L. Pharmaceutical. and Cosmetic. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. GRIEVE. 9. Antibiotiki (Moscow).” Often in the form of a decoction. 14. Agric. 1993. A decoction or syrup of the root was used by American Indians as a sedative to treat “hysterics” and “fits.. Pharm. 550 (1998). 5969 (2001). A. pregnancy). and other products REFERENCES used primarily for menstrual difficulties (amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea) (FOSTER). Strigina et al. M. Assoc.. 619 (1976).15 poisoning in children from ingestion of the seeds. Food Chem.. and emmenagogue as well as laxative preparations. 43. eds. J. 132. Khim. Strigina et al. FOSTER. Diss. Am. p. 49. 14.F. Flom et al. M. 62. Anal. 2. Ganzera et al. Khim. Abstr. the root was also used to treat rheumatism. Flom.. Prod. S. uterine. Anisimov. Int. I. Jones and B. Tea. P.. 11.Blue cohosh 105 (8–850 ppm). U. 56. J.S. De Smet.. Anal. Soedin.00013%). Springer-Verlag. M. De Smet in P.P (1880–1890).14 Case reports of adverse effects attributed to blue cohosh include contact dermatitis from handling the root. 16 (1954). 1385 (1999). Lawson. C.12 severe congestive heart failure in a neonate after the mother ingested 3 times the recommended dose of blue cohosh tablets for several weeks prior to parturition. Traditional Medicine.. B. 1583 (1975). Pharm. 13.. 153. P. G. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.. C.. 3. tincture. Lloydia. Soedin.

which are extensively used in perfumery.106 Bois de rose oil BOIS DE ROSE OIL Source: Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (Family Lauraceae). French Guiana. MA. A.and trans-linalool oxides. gelatins and puddings. growing wild in the Amazon region. Cancer Res. with maximum use level of 1.7 USES Medicinal.. Common/vernacular names: Rosewood oil. Cienc. J. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. FEMA. Levi. Toxicol. candy. Food Cosmet. French Guiana is also a producer. meat and meat products.003% (24. notably Brazil. ages. Acta Amazon. REFERENCES € See the General References for ARCTANDER.2 The balance is made up of cineole (up to 10%). 28. LIST AND HORHAMMER. Alpande de Morais et a1. GUENTHER. D. L. cayenne rosewood oil.. baked goods. the major component of bois de rose oil. a-terpineol. 28. 1...5 Linalool. and gravies. and others.. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.6. b-pinene. Used as a source of natural linalool or linalool acetate.1. Bois de rose is official in F. GRAS (§182. C. and Cosmetic. I. J. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Medium-size evergreen tree. 827 (1975). a-pinene. 2372 (1968). Chiurdoglu et al.] Regulatory Status. frozen dairy desserts. and others (MASADA).5 Food. 7. 5. Used extensively as a flavor ingredient in most major categories of foods.4 Oil and acetylated oil.3. G.C. Nigam and L.. detergents. An.2% in perfumes. producing cayenne bois de rose oil that is considered the best quality among the bois de rose oils (ARCTANDER. antimicrobial properties. citronellal. Average maximum use levels are generally below 0. L. 11. Essent. Perfum. geraniol. 814 (1963). Peru.. Opdyke. 13. Chim. 4.20).) 303 (1972). 636 (1963). which is present in 90–97% in cayenne bois de rose oil and 80–90% in Brazilian Oil (MASADA). Pharmaceutical. Bras. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The major component is linalool.C. MASADA). sesquiterpenes. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION Available data indicate acetylated bois de rose oil to be nontoxic when applied externally. F. cis. 54. Oil Rec. 2.7 It also has been reported to have anticonvulsant activity in mice and rats.. and East Surinam. 44(Suppl. UPHOF. Acad. Brazil and Peru are the major producers of the oil. lotions. b-elemene. Belge.9 ppm). The essential oil is obtained from chipped wood by steam distillation and occasionally water distillation. Alpande de Morais et al. 2. Acetylated bois de rose oil is reportedly used in soaps. spasmolytic activity on isolated guinea pig ileum. 1039 (1973). Homburger and E. 6. Boger. limonene. Ind. Opdyke. 3. and perfumes. D. 41 (1972). has weak tumor-promoting properties in mice. creams... A. .

14 Antihilminthic activity of the leaves is attributed to ascaridole. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Dioecious evergreen shrub or small tree.7 One study indicated that in rats.5% aporphine alkaloids. isocorydine-N-oxide.9 In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.1 In a placebo-controlled study.5 g p. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The dried leaves contain 0. cholagogic.) showed a significant increase in oro-cecal transit time. isocorydine.) Lyons) (Family Monimiaceae).1%).5.. and in rabbits (60 mg/kg p. alterations in cholesterol.o. In vitro tests showed that boldine inhibits No toxicity was observed in rats that administered a hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves containing boldine at doses of up to 3 g/kg p. as opposed to partial extracts.5.8 Boldine has shown anti-inflammatory activity in guinea pigs in the carrageenaninduced paw edema test (ED50. Common/vernacular names: Boldo. and other activities. native to mountainous regions of Chile and naturalized in Europe (Mediterranean region). boldo leaves.8-cineole (16. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES prostaglandin biosynthesis.0%). restoration of aberrant enzyme activities in the pancreas and liver. and ALT were found from the 800 mg doses of the extract or boldine over 90 days.o. and attenuation of various oxidative processes..1 resin. Boldu boldus (Mol. had the highest choleretic activity.o.1%). urea. 1.17 In chronic toxicity tests in rats. boldus. whereas the 500 mg dose was without significant effects. norisocorydine.18 The German Commission E advises against . 34 mg/kg p. isoboldine. and pneumoside).) reduced hyperthermia induced by bacterial pyrogen.1 p-cymene (28.16. up to about 6 m high.06%).o. and linalool (9.6%). thereby confirming results found in animal studies. and tannins. isorhamnetin-3-a-L-arabinopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside. volunteers administered a powder extract of the leaves (2.13 Boldine has also shown in vitro chemoprotectant activity. among 38 identified compounds.g. diuretic.1.5% volatile oil composed mainly of ascaridole (45%). The authors of the study advised that boldo should not be used during pregnancy. both a hydro-alcoholic extract of the dried leaves and boldine produced a low level of fetal toxicity from oral doses of 800 mg/kg and none from 500 mg/kg p. and reticuline. the addition of boldine in the drinking water resulted in less weight loss and hyperglycemia.12In vitro free radical scavenging activity of extracts of the dried leaves is mainly attributable to catechin.6 flavonol glycosides (e. AST. in part by decreasing metabolic activation of chemical mutagens and stimulating glutathione S-transferase. including laurotetanine.15 TOXICOLOGY The leaves have shown choleretic. the total alcoholic extract of the leaves.25–0. which was three times the lethal oral dose of boldine in mice.o.Boldo leaves 107 BOLDO LEAVES Source: Peumus boldus Molina (syn. laurolitsine. Parts used are the dried leaves. which showed that boldo could prolong the intestinal transit time and relax smooth muscles. ascaridole (16. Boldine is nonmutagenic and showed no genotoxicity in the mouse micronucleus test following oral doses of up to 900 mg/kg. fragroside.11 as does boldine in a variety of assays. Similarly.10 Ethanolic and ether extracts of the leaves exhibit strong in vitro antioxidant activity.). bilirubin.1–5 approximately 2. N-methyllaurotetanine. boldine (0.7 boldoside. stomachic.

Leaf preparations that are practically free of the toxic principle ascaridole are the subject of a German therapeutic monograph that allows use for mild gastrointestinal spasms and dyspeptic disorders. Res. 29. o u Kosmet. Pharmaceutical. C. 14. H. etc. 29. Lille. 32. Jang et al. WREN. used in cosmetics. 35. WICHTL). Didry.-Forsch. 291 (1973). K€hler. Pharmacol. J. M. Bruns and M. and in cases of gallstones without the advice of a physician (BLUMENTHAL 1. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Schindler. leaves permitted for use as a natural flavoring substance in alcoholic beverages only (§172. antihilminthic principle (BLUMENTHAL 1. RAFFAUF. 630 (1988). Pharm.. Jimenez et al. Y. Reportedly used as a diuretic and biliary stimulant in hepatic illnesses and cholelithiasis (gallstones) (MARTINDALE). 339 (2000). 3. (1976). bitters. 7. Vanhaelen. Res. 3 1. Other tradi- COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. Regulatory Status. Parf€m. Pharm. GRIEVE. GOSSELIN. N.. 225 (1974). 271 (1972). K. 47. REFERENCES See the General References for BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 13 (1977). 28. 8. Phytother. 31. and Cosmetic. earache. 7. Food. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement.. syphilis. Levy. Belg.. 361 (2000). a toxic. 10. . Arzneim.). 12. Nippon Shokuhin Kohyo Gakkaishi. and dyspepsia. Only used in alcoholic beverages (liqueurs.510). Hirosue et al. It advises against any use in cases of biliary obstruction and severe liver diseases. 6. menstrual pain. headache. Borkowski..F. K.. TERRELL. if at all. M. tablets. WICHTL).. used by the Mapuche Indians of Chile in the treatment of rheumatism. 9.. capsules. Bull. 5. Traditional Medicine. In tonic and diuretic preparations. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weightto-weight ratios. YOUNGKEN. Backhouse et al. WILLAMAN AND SCHUBERT. Average maximum use level reported is about 0. and infusions as antioxidant (WREN) and for liver and gallbladder (WICHTL). T. Acta Pol.002% (16 ppm). E. Pharm.. rarely. Speisky and B. MARTINDALE. Bombardelli et al. BLUMENTHAL 1. Cassels. 747 (1957). Leaves used in combination products.1 USES Medicinal. I. Pharmacol. gonorrhea. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. 55(8). 11. 4..108 Boldo leaves the use of the essential or distillates of the leaves because of the content of ascaridole. 42. Y. H. flatulence. nasal congestion. Agents Actions.. 42. tional uses of boldo include nervous weakness.. Crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N. Sobiczewska and B. N. FEMA. J. Res. M. Fitoterapia.. 2. Levy-Appert-Collin and J. Soc. Pharm. 1 (1994). 114 (1994). Belg. 51 (1977). in Europe for gastrointestinal spasms (BLUMENTHAL 1).

Moreno et al. in large doses it is both emetic and cathartic (CLAUS). dotriacontane. Common /vernacular names: Agueweed. and west to Texas and the Dakotas. a polysaccharide (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan). 16. and Louisiana.1 terpenoids. 17. Chil. S.14 TOXICOLOGY Use discouraged due to potential presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids ubiquitous in Eupatorium species (NEWALL). including chromenes. Kubinova et al. Res. R. feverwort. thoroughwort. Res.g. Boneset is reported to have stimulant and diaphoretic properties.16 Toxic principles are believed to include eupatorin (cytotoxic.5 a volatile oil. and diterpenes (dendroidinic acid and hebeclinolide). P. quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). and eupaformosanin) and flavones (especially eupatorin) isolated from Eupatorium species have shown cytotoxic and/or antineoplastic activities. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The chemical information on various Eupatorium species is considerable (KARRER). Mutat. D. and euperfolide. 14.. 37. 99 (2000). eufoliatin. and granulocyte tests). Schmeda-Hirschmann et al. carbon clearance. kaempferol. Phytother. BONESET Source: Eupatorium perfoliatum L.. and eupatorin (MERCK). 56. Tavares and C.15 Abortion in cattle grazing on the plant is attributed to a high content of nitrate.9. sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol). from Quebec south to Florida. sesquiterpene lactones (euperfolin. Res. 447 (2003). 18. . eupatilin. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae).5 m high. bonest. 321. 242 (2001). An ethanol extract of the leaves showed cytotoxicity to mammalian cells in vitro and weak in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Mutat. euperfolitin. Gotteland et al... 15.2–4 triterpenes (e.12 An ethanol extract of the whole plant after treatment with petroleum ether exhibited weak anti-inflammatory activity in rats. administration in mice and in vitro (chemoluminescence..11 Numerous sesquiterpene lactones (e.1–8 E.Boneset 109 13. emetic). Alabama. eupatorin acetate. Rev. 123. sesquiterpenes.10 Preliminary screening also indicates that eufoliatin has immunostimulating activity. a-amyrin).13 The polysaccharide has shown immunostimulating activities following i.. native to eastern and central North America. kaempferol-3-rutinoside. 260. Res. de Almeida et al. Takahashi.9. bitter components (gastrointestinal irritants). among others).g... 14. among others. Free Radic.. including quercetin. C. Parts used are the dried leaves and flowering tops collected in late summer. and lactones (skin sensitizers) (BRINKER).6–8.10 and resin. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herb with opposite sessile clasping leaves. R. E.. quercetin-3-b-galactoside (hyperoside). up to about 1.. 955 (1995). eupafolin. 139 (1994). G. Pharmazie. 145 (1991). common bonest. M. Med. kaempferol-3-b-glucoside (astragalin). perfoliatum is reported to contain flavonoids.. R. Eupatorium.v.

Sund et al.. X. 110. M. Dominguez et al. Indian J. 1069 (1985).. F. 541 (1975). 12.. Classified by the U. 1504 (1972). 8. A Locock. Lloydia. 35. A. Phytochemistry. 5. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 13. 123.S. indigenous to dry. 16. Rao. Ber. and cathartic. 16. 1973 (1977). Used by North American Indians to break fevers and induce sweating. Pharm. Lee et al. 41. BORAGE Source: Borago officinalis L. emetic. J. Herz et al. H.-Forsch. Phytochemistry. 139 (1985). Wagner et al. 1068 (1977). GOSSELIN. W. 11. 160 (1976). H.P. Traditional Medicine.. Phytother. 14. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. 14. 2264 (1977). LIST AND HORHAMMER. malaria.. among others. A. hispid annual. Common/vernacular names: Borage.. Wagner et al. Arene et al. Crude herb in infusion. Benoit et al. Phytochemistry. (1820–1900). M. Used in certain antipyretic and urinary antiseptic preparations. Agron.. 377 (1986). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Coarse. 7. O.. grown as an . 9. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. S. J. Crude was formerly official in N. R. Chem. diaphoretic. Org. also used to treat skin rashes (KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL). Can. 39.. 51. Arzneim. Phytochemistry. 11. typhoid. adopted by settlers to treat colds. 278 (1957). (Family Boraginaceae). Phytochemistry. 15–100 cm high. REFERENCES See the General References for BARNES.. H. 13..110 Borage USES Medicinal. E. 1573 (1976). 673 (1974).15 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. Chem. 229 (1990). 42. Grenz. TYLER 1. 4. F. and rheumatism. Midge and A. flowers blue. Vollmar et al. S.S. 6. influenza. 1321 (1977). and Cosmetic. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.. Phytochemistry. intestinal worms. 3. Wagner et al. febrifuge. D. Res. 13. DE NAVARRE. Planta Med. Bohlmann and M. GRIEVE. waste places of south Europe. also tinctures and extracts as immunostimulant and for fevers.. 49. 16.. R. star shaped with protruding cone. extracts not readily available. H. leaves rough. 575 (2000). J.. FERNALD. Pharmaceutical. € FOSTER AND DUKE. J.. 15. Regulatory Status. YOUNGKEN. 1. Lloydia. Used in infusion as tonic. 25.. Bohlmann et al. FDA as a herb of unknown safety (NEWALL). Habtemariam and M. E. wrinkled. 10. LUST. 15. and U. V. Chem.. use relatively uncommon (FOSTER AND DUKE). K.. CLAUS. 186 (1978). Rodriguez et al. Macpherson. P. 2..F.

2%).3. cucumber-like flavor (free of toxic PA) used in salads.03% crude alkaloids.2 USES Seed oil of interest for GLA content as a prostaglandin precursor. Seed oil (28–38% lipids) is of recent interest as a rich source of g-linolenic acid (GLA. borage seed oil having the highest concentration.1 total alkaloid content of the plant is less than 0. cyanogens. 7-acetyllycopsamine. including a-linolenic acid (55%) and g-linolenic acid (>4%). galactose.1 mL) was also without toxic effects and only produced a mild laxative effect. excessive carbohydrate intake. leaves. tincture. and stearic (4. alcoholism. The parts used are the nutlets (seeds).8 A methanol extract of the leaves exhibited antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical method.3 Leaves contain small amounts. Seldom used in flavoring. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Seeds. and allantoin (especially in seedlings). fresh flowers with saline. Seeds of Oenothera biennis Medicinal. 17–25%). inflammation. Normal synthesis of GLA from linoleic acid via d-6-desaturase may be blocked or diminished in mammalian systems as the result of aging.001%.13 TOXICOLOGY The dried herb. The seed oil administered orally to mice (0. potassium.2 Other seed fatty acids include linoleic (38%).7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES (see evening primrose).2 mature seeds contain about 0. borage seed oil also significantly attenuated heart and blood pressure rates. various Ribes species. decreased task performance and the increase in skin temperature in humans in response to acute stress. thesinine and toxic PA are absent from seed oil. 9. Pharmaceutical. lycopsamine. lactic.6 Toxic PA in borage are lycopsamine and intermedicine and their 7-acetyl derivatives and the only slightly toxic alkaloid amabiline. diabetes. diabetes.7%). their acetyl derivatives. silicic acid (1. arabinose. Food.11 A double-blind. eastern. and flowers contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA). established as a casual weed in the eastern United States. and prevention of heart disease and stroke. d-bornesitol. placebo-controlled trial of borage seed oil (providing 1. The major antioxidant was identified as rosmarinic acid. and 7-acetylintermedine). amabiline.5%–2. palmitic (11%).4 GLA is of potential therapeutic interest in treatments of atopic eczema. and malic acids. including lycopsamine. supinidine.3 in mature seeds contain a glucoside of thesinine (thesinine-40 -O-b-D-glucoside5). and Cosmetic. . acetic.12 Compared to placebo. supinine. intermedine.6. potassium nitrate (3%). and amabiline. fresh leaves contain up to 30% mucilage hydrolyzing to glucose. and decoction fed to guinea pigs for 5 weeks produced no adverse effects except for fatty liver.5–23%). or fasting. especially for PGE1. thesinine. and borage serve as GLA sources for dietary supplements. prostaglandins help regulate metabolic functions. leaves.4 g GLA/day) in patients with active synovitis and rheumatoid arthritis found significant symptomatic improvements in both tender and swollen joints.4 Immature seeds and flowers contain amabiline and the rare nontoxic. and flowers.Borage 111 ornamental or potherb. calcium. and western Europe. also choline (WREN).1% fatty acids.9 Solvent extracts of the defatted seeds have shown in vitro antioxidant activity in a meat model system10 and the DPPH free radical method. saturated PA. intermedine.7 roots contain minor amounts of PA (supinine. premenstrual syndrome. oleic (14. naturalized in central. Borage extract used in skin care products (NIKITAKIS).

FOSTER. Pharmazie. V. 399 (2002). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Regulatory Status. Herbs.. M. STEINMETZ. lung diseases. M. in fevers. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude leaves. Sci. 70. D. E. Simon. expectorant. AZ. colds. 747 Botany.. 3. Dodson and F.. Murkovic. TUTIN 3. G. De Smet Chem. Roeder. Phoenix. 3. (Family Rutaceae).4 Traditional Medicine. demulcent. D. Prod. Wettasinghe and F. eds. Franz. TYLER 1. the absolute is obtained by alcohol washing of the concrete in a yield of about 60%. March (1990). Can. Biochem. De Smet in P. 2. in L. J. 399 (1999)... Hum. BLUMENTHAL 1. FOSTER. 53. Biophys. K. D. Janick et al. Larson et al. pp. Leaves reportedly used as diuretic. Shahidi. eds. 321 (1997). Spices. Chem. A.1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Shrub about 3 m high. Stermitz. Part used is the flower. Oryx Press. 17 (2000). REFERENCES See the General References for AHPA. T. Ann. P. leaf extract. M. Wettasinghe and F. E. 121 (2002). Methods. Food 5. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. M. Awang. E. G. UPHOF. Bandoniene and M. Adverse Effects of Herbal 12. emollient. 47. native to southwestern Australia. L. GRIEVE. Leventhal et al. Shahidi. Langer and C. Springer-Verlag. 60. 83 (1995). and Pharma(1984). 4. Pharm. Craker and J. 11. DUKE 2. Capsulated seed oil products available as dietary supplement. J. Prod. 10. which are composed mainly of b-ionone . R. M. C. Berlin. 49. Nat. BARNES. 1989. Mills et al. p. 727 (1986). 67. Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION concrete is produced in 0. 45 4. 1993. A. J. et al. Hypertens.. J. Drugs. HARBOURNE AND BAXTER. Borage leaf and flower subject of a German therapeutic monograph primarily concerning inflammatory conditions. 147–152... Hermann et al. 9. Vol. 867 (1993). and seed oil.. a folk cancer remedy in breast or facial cancers (DUKE 2.8% yield by extraction with petroleum ether. Int. 145. C. 13. cology. 2.. Pharm. D. 7. 119... 8. Phytochemistry. dried tops sometimes used in teas. 65. GLEASON AND CRONQUIST. Bartl. use suspended due to PA content (BLUMENTHAL 1). NIKITAKIS. Med. WREN). Nat.4–0. and BORONIA ABSOLUTE Source: Boronia megastigma Nees ex. Horticulture. M. from which a Contains ionones as principal constituents. J. 50. E. J. WREN. externally a poultice..112 Boronia absolute Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Food 6. and refrigerant.. Vol. 111 (1989).

Naves and G. Y.. Penfold and J. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER.001% (11. are reportedly allergenic (MERCK). V.. 2. a perennial herb with many varieties native to tropical America. Stem bromelain has been generally prepared from the juice of pineapple wastes (mainly stems) by precipitation with organic solvents (e. strawberry. baked goods.) and varieties (Family Bromeliaceae). 1. R. and Cosmetic. 3. L. USES Medicinal. and peach) in most major categories of food products. Used mainly in expensive perfumes. GUENTHER.g. (syn. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Absolute. 8. Use levels are very low. Regulatory Status. R. with the rest being d-a-ionone (KARRER). and comosain. Common/vernacular names: Bromelain.g. 419 (1947).. respectively. plant protease concentrate.6 ppm) reported in baked goods.510).3 TOXICOLOGY Its major constituents. 30.1 Commercial bromelain is currently prepared by centrifugation. bromelains. Helv. Pineapple fruit contains fruit bromelain and pineapple stem contains stem bromelain. BROMELAIN Source: Ananas comosus (L. Quite extensively used in fruit-type flavors (e. Chim. Bot. cosmosus Merr. with highest average maximum of about 0. Food. ultrafiltration and freeze-drying of cooled pineapple juice. meat and meat products. FEMA. plum..2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Bromelains are sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes obtained from the pineapple plant. and others. Has been approved for food use (§172. raspberry. sativus Schult. 2 (Pt. gelatins and puddings. 2). acetone and methanol) or by ultrafiltration. ananain..Bromelain 113 (95%). which produces a yellowish powder. hydrocarbons (mostly heptacosane).2 eugenol. Acta. Econ. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. R. and condiments and relishes. Willis. TERRELL. Two kinds of bromelain are known: stem bromelain and fruit bromelain. mainly from var. Cayenne). f. Indian Perfum. 27 (1958). Parry. It also contains various . A. GENERAL DESCRIPTION (A. frozen dairy desserts. ionones. candy. Wells. F. Pharmaceutical. A.) Merr. 316 (1954). which are crude aqueous extracts of the stem and immature fruit of pineapple Crude bromelain contains proteinases mainly consisting of glycosylated multiple enzymes having molecular masses from 20 to 31 kDa. bromelin (fruit-bromelin).

Current major uses of bromelain are in meat tenderizing. pizza. These effects include burn debridement.13 arthritis. Affirmed as GRAS (§184. immunomodulation. doubleblind. and chronic oral administration of bromelain (500 mg/kg) in rats produced no adverse effects.1. stimulation of muscle contractions. fabrics.1 TOXICOLOGY Used in bating hide and in desizing COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Acute oral doses of up to 10 g/kg in mice failed to produce lethality.8% incidence of allergic reactions. wafers.12 postoperative tumifications of the feet. and allergies.5 In double-blind. cancer prevention and remission. amides. stem bromelain has broad specificity. and in chill-proofing beer. in vitro and in vivo studies. Pharmaceutical. phosphatases.14 and amelioration of ecchymoses and edema in patients with head and face trauma. anti-inflammatory activity. notably those of the sinuses (BLUMENTHAL 1).114 Bromelain incompletely characterized constituents. Used in some vitamin and herbal formulations.1. and manufacture of sausage casings as well as their removal from sausages. sinusitis relief. and small peptides). smooth muscle relaxation. and nausea). infections. side effects of bromelain appear to be few and of low incidence (e. bromelain is increasingly used to replace or supplement papain usage. bromelain has shown superior results versus placebo in the treatment of sinusitis.. peroxidases.4.1 Available in numerous grades with different activities that are expressed in different enzyme units. and enhanced excretion of fat.1 Like papain. and Cosmetic. liquefying fish protein to facilitate fish oil extraction. Food. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Bromelain may increase plasma levels of tetracyclines when taken concomitantly (BLUMENTHAL 1).g. Others.C.2–10 The precise nature of these effects (some of which are not produced by other proteases such as ficin. prevention of epinephrine-induced pulmonary edema.C. diarrhea. Bromelain is official in F. including glycoproteins. cellulases.16 From placebo-controlled studies. modifying dough (bread. shortening of labor. hydrolyzing various proteinaceous substrates (e. appetite inhibition. mainly as a digestive aid (MARTINDALE).). clarifying fruit juices. occasional gastric complaints. placebo-controlled clinical trials. manufacturing precooked cereals. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. papain.15 Oral bioavailability has also been demonstrated (randomized. . Used primarily in preparations to treat inflammation and edema associated with surgical or accidental trauma. Regulatory Status.. ulcer prevention. depending on the suppliers. esters. such as facial cleansers and bath preparations. and trypsin) is not clear.11 inflammation.g. Due to the high cost of papain.1024). proteins. antitumor activity. A German therapeutic monographic allows use for treating acute post-traumatic and postoperative edemas. 1. and others. crossover design trial). carbohydrates. etc. edema and pain from mediolateral episiotomy. Bromelain is used in certain cosmetics. enhanced antibiotic absorption. Other uses or potential uses include preparation of protein hydrolyzates. USES Medicinal. Bromelain has shown a wide variety of pharmacological effects in clinical.

2. E. Maurer. vulgaris Wimm. and others. Int. BROOM TOPS Source: Cytisus scoparius (L. Throat Mon. Natur-Ganzheits-Med. 22. pigments (e. 3.. which is Spartium junceum L.. 54. Batkin. Contains alkaloids. etc. G. coumarins. Eur. 3. Obst. USD 26th. Gynecol. S. 16.. Arch. R.4 . 11.647 (1986). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 13. 10. 13 (1967). Taussig and S. L.. Pharmacol. R. a 15.) Link (syn. Orthop€d. 9. sarothamnoside). Cell. Praxis. including the major alkaloids. Pharmacol. Seltzer.3%) and lupanine. I.. Heinicke. E. Appl. scoparius. Pharmacodyn. T. 8. tannin. 377 (1988). 51. J. (2001). 27. 54 (1964).. BRUNETON.. benzoic acid. flavonoids. Mineshita and Y. wax. N. 331 (1967). 27 (1988). Colombi.002. 1234 150. 73 (1976).. salsolidine. 36 (2).Broom tops 115 REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 1. and others. 43. 85 (1977). sparteine (ca. S. Nose. including scoparin (scoparoside). 6. through Chem. Headache.g. 54. E. Ethnopharmacol. Pat. Abstr. 4.S. Jpn. isoflavones (genistein. 17. 145. S. J. 14. 5. amino acids. Tijdschr.. and sugars (KARRER.891 (1961). S. 25. Nagai. Pat. 39 (1977). Life Sci. G. hydroxytyramine. M. fat. Constantine. Maurer et al. eugenol. W.) (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). 111 (1989). W. Scotch broom. H. Felton. Mol. Belg. 191 (1988). sarothamnine. Vogler. MERCK. naturalized in North America (invasive along the west coast from North California to British Columbia). Eye. Pharmacol. simple amines (tyramine. volatile oil (containing 4-mercapto-4methylpentane-2-one). P. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Scotch broom should not be confused with its relative Spanish broom. Parts used are the dried flowering tops collected just before blooming. 201776 (1987). H. Hawaii Med. 1. guaiacol.. Moss et al. 4. flavones (vitexin and others). J. 170 (1977). J.. Bolton and B. 2.. coumarins. (see genet). Jpn. R..) Wimm. Planta Med. A. cafeic acid derivatives. Zatucchini and D. Nitzschke and R.. International Commission on Pharmaceutical Enzymes. epinine. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Deciduous shrub with erect slender branches. widely grown in Japan as an ornamental. fatty acids.. Ear. 58. Ryan. Kumakura et al. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Leonhardt. 12. E. Farm. broom tops. Cooreman et al. MARTINDALE.. GUPTA.. also grows in Asia and South Africa. Enomoto et al. Spartium scoparium L. and others. M.. native to central and southern Europe. Sarothamnus scoparius (L. spiraeoside. 1. Pharm. L. Irish broom. 275 (1967). WICHTL). hogweed. Common/vernacular names: Banal. 106. J. U.. 194. up to about 3 m high. and genisteine. Eur.. TERRELL. taraxanthin and flavoxanthin). 7. 0. Acta Helv.3 Essential oil of the fresh flowers contains alcohols. J.)1. 295 (1988).. 29. 166 (1963). J. R. 17. orobol..

with preparations not to contain more than 1 mg/mL of sparteine for treatment of functional heart and circulatory disorders (BLUMENTHAL 1. 125 June.. flowers used in hair rinses for their lightening and brightening effects (LUST. UPHOF. and Cosmetic. Gresser et al. broom tops is also contraindicated in patients with high blood pressure (NEWALL. 97 (1970). Z.6 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 1. Altern. Hartwell. and so on. (2003) 6. ROSE. 420 (1984).116 Broom tops PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The cardiac activity of broom tops is the result of its alkaloids (principally sparteine). 3. The oral LD50 of sparteine in mice is 220 mg/kg. 5. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. E. Murakoshi et al. Compl. and U. USES Medicinal. Broom flowers. 33. 791 (1996). SAX). rose. APPLEQUIST. K.. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. emetic. Naturforsch. L. abscesses.F. Yarnell and K. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Regulatory Status. primarily as a diuretic. GOSSELIN ET AL. and swellings. and tonic preparations.5 Due to the tyramine content of the herb. 65 (1968). 4. C-A.. T. 51. 50. FDA as an injectable drug because of its ability to produce titanic uterine contractions and its unpredictability. Planta. Abascal. Phytochemistry. tyler 1. Planta Med.. 25. WICHTL). 80. 100.. also used in treating circulatory disorders (WICHTL). J. Egger. capsules. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph. DER ¨ MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.S. LUST. I. Teas. Broom tops is regarded as having diuretic. BLUMENTHAL 1. merck. due to the ability of the herb to increase the tonus of the gravid uterus. 2. GRIEVE. UPHOF).. and cathartic properties and is used in certain laxative. BAILEY 1. terrell.S. use may cause blood pressure crisis with simultaneous administrations of MAO inhibitors (BLUMENTHAL 1). and root as well as the whole herb have reportedly been used in treating tumors. Pharmaceutical. WICHTL). K. 7. Kurihara and M. 1054 (1980). Sparteine has shown antiarhythmic activity (WICHTL).. Traditional Medicine. Kikuchi. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are based on weight-toweight ratios. Yakugaku Zasshi. LIST AND HORHAMMER. . G. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Reportedly used internally as a diuretic and externally to treat sore muscles. which have cardiac-depressant and curare-like properties and are highly toxic (MARTINDALE.P..7 TOXICOLOGY Sparteine was withdrawn by the U. sparteine is a potent oxytocic agent. Ther. Yovo et al. Lloydia. 521 (1986). seeds. diuretic. use is contraindicated in pregnancy. Crude was formerly official in N.

MERCK).002% (15. serratifolia (Curt. crenulata (L. LIST AND € HORHAMMER. bucku. also in laxative. among more than 100 other identified minor compounds. 8-mercapto-p-menthan-3-one.5%) volatile oil composed mainly of l-pulegone. y-diosphenol. quercetin-3. etc. crenulata) yields oils containing high proportions of pulegone with little or no diosphenols present.) or A. stomachic. Buchu is currently a threatened species. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and carminative properties. crenulata (L. and B. GENERAL DESCRIPTION proportions of diosphenols. while long buchu (A. Food. crenulata leaves have shown spasmolytic activity on the smooth muscle of isolated guinea pig ileum. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Low.6 Major categories of food products in which the oil is used include alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. In general. d-menthone. usually less than 2 m high with opposite and/or alternate leaves that are finely toothed at the margin and bear oil glands beneath and at the base of the teeth. isopulegone. from which an essential oil is obtained by steam distillation. Round buchu oil is preferred because of its higher contents of diosphenols and 8-mercapto-p-menthan-3-one. Oil is used as a component in artificial fruit flavors. aromatic shrubs. crenulata). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Buchu leaves are reported to have urinary antiseptic. the rest of the oil is distilled in Europe and the United States. d-limonene. with average maximum highest in gelatins and puddings at about 0. native to South Africa. buchu.1.4 ppm). Other constituents present in buchu leaf include flavonoids (diosmin. round buchu (A. The essential oils of Agathosma betulina and A. they differ in the relative compositions of their volatile oils. round buchu. diosphenol (buchu camphor).7-glucoside. 8-acetylthio-p-menthan-3-one. B. short buchu (A. mucilage. buchu long buchu (A. Major supplies of the leaves (from both wild and cultivated plants) come from the Cape Province of South Africa.11–13 USES Medicinal. Common/vernacular names: Bookoo. baked goods. candy. Parts used are the dried leaves. et Wendl. crude herb in teas reportedly as a diuretic and urinary antiseptic (WREN).) Willd.6 In addition. bucco.whichareconsideredtobe the more desirable flavor components.). round buchu leaf contains higher concentrations of volatile oil than long buchu leaf. and piperitone epoxide.1–6 presence of piperitone epoxide disputed. betulina) leaf yields oils with high . Use levels reported are rather low. Bergius) Pillans (syn. which also produces some of the world’s supply of the oil.Buchu 117 BUCHU Source: Agathosma betulina (P. and others (KARRER.) (Family Rutaceae). crenulata. and long buchu is from A. Extensively used in diuretic preparations. betulina. Contains 1.4. especially black currant flavor. Round or short buchu is from A.5–2. diosma. l-isomenthone. resin.) Bartl. J. Capsules.7 A formulation containing 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin has been used in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids8–10 and chronic venous insufficiency. and carminative formulas.6 Relative proportions of pulegone and diosphenols vary considerably in commercial oils. rutin. and Cosmetic. There are two types of buchu leaves.) Pillans (syn. buku. betulina). and condiments and relishes.) Hook. tablets.0–3. diuretic. Barosma betulina (Berg. frozen dairy desserts. gelatins and puddings.5% (usually 1. Pharmaceutical.

G. Common household medicine used in South Africa for the treatment of urinary tract and kidney diseases. 1997. short oblong to obovate leaves 3–7 cm long. 11. 8. 290 (1961). (syn. through Chem. 183 (1967). Afr.. Int. 4. Rojahn. Struckmann. Angiology. Food Chem. 57. L. Bot. 37 (1999). 121 (1976). western Asia. 1). WICHTL).. M. Pretoria. tonic.. and northern Africa. J. MARTINDALE.. however. J. J. E. arrow wood. M. dark green. Med. 1. 3.510). Agric. E. K. J.14 Also used to treat cystitis. Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Abstr. BUCKTHORN. Part used is the dried bark aged for 1 year to get rid of an emetic principle (see cascara).15 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios.118 Buckthorn. K. 5. 1801 (1971). S49 (2001). up to 6 m high. alder Traditional Medicine. Strengths REFERENCES See the General References for APhA. LUST. 34. WICHTL. Crude. Angiology. BARNES. ALDER Source: Frangula alnus Mill. LIST AND HORHAMMER. A. Leaf is allowed as an aroma or flavor corrigent in teas. and externally on wounds and bruises. R. Helv. 3323 (1971). 9. 524 (2001). Acta. 53. A. 7. symptoms of rheumatism. also as a diuretic. Ther.. 15. TERRELL. Obstet. WREN. Exp. A. Bartel.. 52 (Suppl. 13. Buckshee et al. 58401u (1977).. Clin. Simpson. CLAUS. 2. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Sci. Blommaert and E. Dragoco Rep. 1).7 Regulatory Status. Crude and fluid extracts were formerly official in N. Pharm. frangula. J. 579 (2001). urethritis. p. 189 (1998). 54. B. D. Lamparsky and P. naturalized in North America. Rhamnus frangula L.. GRAS as a natural flavoring in foods (§172.. extracts. native to Europe. S33 (2003). Schudel. 1). 42. 23.. 36 (Suppl. Sarabia et al. Briza Publications. and oil. 36. Vasc. use as a urinary tract anti-inflammatory and diuretic is not recommended since effectiveness is not well documented.F.. 14. Res. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Shrub or small treewith shiny. Scott. 12. Res. Food Agric. YOUNGKEN.. J. 6. 54(Suppl. and stimulant (BLUMENTHAL 1.. 145 (1997). and others. 245 (2002).. Kaiser et al. GUENTHER. 943 (1975). J. Curr.) (Family Rhamnaceae).. S. Angiology. Tetrahedron Lett. 53. Fluck et al. Klein and W. A. Sundt et al. Common/vernacular names: Alder buckthorn. A. Pharmacol. 12. 87. J. 62. J. D. BLUMENTHAL 1. black dogwood. Ramelet. Jantet. Nicolaides.. J.. 14. R. 43. Buchu leaf is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph. .. N. Chim. Gynecol. DER MARDEROSIAN € AND BEUTLER. 10. A. ARCTANDER. glossy buckthorn. and for the treatment of coughs and colds. Lis-Balchin et al. van Wyk et al.

5. 13.11 tannins.15 TOXICOLOGY Crude and extracts: crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N.. TERRELL. which include glycofrangulin A and B. frangulin A and B. Resur. physcion (WICHTL). Grzesiuk.14 Aloe emodin isolated from the seed of buckthorn has been reported to have significant inhibitory activity against P-388 leukemia in mice.13 they are oxidized to anthraquinones or their glycosides on storage. Kemertelidze.. Farm. alder 119 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains 3–7% anthraquinone glycosides as active principles. Used as a laxative and tonic. and U. they act on the large intestine (colon). 33. emodin-8-O-b-gentiobioside. Used in certain laxative preparations. 34 (1994). Rast.S. USES Medicinal. Pol. Tetrahedron Lett. Demuth. . emodin-8-glucoside. not recognized as safe and effective as OTC laxative (§310. YOUNGKEN. MERCK. 112. Kaminski and W. ileus. 64 (1977). Apoth. armepavine.Buckthorn. 157 (1977). 49. Gotsiridze and E. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios. and children 10 years old and younger (WICHTL). which is present in fresh bark but not in dried bark. 28. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 5013 (1972). andothers. FERNALD. M.”18 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS The active principles of buckthorn bark (anthraglycosides) are cathartic. restricted to pharmacies (WICHTL). more commonly in Europe. Cucu. LUST..545(12)(iv)).P. abdominal pain of undetermined origin. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement.1 emodin-1-glucoside. B. The fresh bark also contains anthrones and anthrone glycosides that are believed to constitute the emetic principle.F. and an alkaloid. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. flavonoids.2–10 Other constituents include chrysophanol. H. V. 2.16. 3. H.. and Cosmetic. Eujen. Wagner and G.. Pharmaceutical. 1533 (1972). also reportedly used in treating cancers and as a component in Hoxsey cancer “cure. colitis ulcerosa. Chromatogr. Matysik and E. BRUNETON. Safety data are lacking. Regulatory Status. 6. Extracts have been used in sunscreen preparations. Dtsch. Wojtasik. REFERENCES See the General References for APhA. Rosca and V. 1. use is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation. BAILEY 2.13. P. Planar Ztg. Planta Med. G. only sold with a license. 7.. Auterhoff and E. STAHL. J. with the diglycosides being more active than the monoglycosides (see also cascara and senna). severe dehydration. 4. it exhibited such activity only when administered as a suspension in acetone–Tween 80. 343 (1975). A.17 Traditional Medicine. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES appendicitis. Crohn’s disease.12 and free anthraquinones. WICHTL. among others (STAHL). Allowed for sale in Germany as a botanical stimulant laxative for the short-term treatment of constipation.

.9tetrayne and 1. Common/vernacular names: Bardana. diaphoretic. 14 (Suppl. caffeic and chlorogenic). F. eremophilene.. Acad.) and nonhydroxy acids (lauric. € LIST AND HORHAMMER).15. Hartwell. 82(9–10). edible burdock. 13. WICHTL). Dermuth et al. 519 (1977). dehydrocostuslactone. 18. M. 3-octenoic. 11. costic.. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A. 45%). L. Pharmacology.13 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Root contains inulin (up to approx. palmitic.9-triyne. Karim. b-eudesmol. M.. D9(10)-fukinone (dehydrofukinone). JIANGSU. dry-weight basis) consisting mainly of 1. 16. 34. A. Antimicrobial activity is attributed to polyacetylenes. S. Toilet. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). R. and antitumor activities (FARNSWORTH 1–4.2 The fresh root juice has shown in vitro antimutagenic activity. 1). Savonius.. 34 (1976). Haslinger. minus) is also used. among others. Rosca and V. Common burdock (A. lappa is a biennial or perennial herb up to about 3 m high in its second year of growth. A. 1). Sci. 8.). 136 (1973).g. 14.120 Burdock 7. 9.5. L. Prosperio. native to Asia and Europe. beggar’s buttons. 53 (1978). Planta Med. (syn. fruits and leaves are also used. van Os. data suggest it to be a lignin-like compound containing 10% sugar. 73 (1976). stearic. 15. Lloydia.. chlorogenic acid. Farm. 159 (1977). it resembles A. Bonati and G. neoarctin. polyacetylenes1 (0. 178 (1975). tannin.8 Fruit contains arctiin (a bitter glucoside) as a major constituent. Lloydia.. antipyretic. a germacranolide. Paris. Pharmacology.4 volatile acids (acetic. 1399 (1972).9 seeds contain 15–30% fixed oils (oleic and octadecanoic acids major constituents).16 Water extracts of the dried root have shown greater in vitro antiperoxidative activity than solvent extracts. majus Bernh.001–0. Planta Med. Chem. H.3. Fitoterapia.8–12 Leaves contain arctiol (8-a-hydroxyeudesmol).14 The active constituent was reported to be polyanionic with a molecular weight of >300. BURDOCK Source: Arctium lappa L. 103. clotbur.7. 39. naturalized in North America. 28. F. and taraxasterol.7. G. JIANGSU. arctiin. G. 10. etc. fukinone. 18 (1976). lappa but is smaller. lignans (lappaols A. Kupchan and A. isovaleric. Cosmet. 91. and others (KARRER. D. J. 67 (1981). lappa. Cosmet. Ser. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION crystalline plant hormone. Bader et al. Part used is the dried first-year root collected in the fall. K. and others).11-tridecadiene-3.11-tridecatriene-5. petasitolone.002%. fukinanolide. Cucu. 17.5. 48.). M.3. A. C. propionic. Arctium minus Bernh. Aikak. and diarctigenin. Toilet. etc. 7. 96(10). 14 (Suppl.. 33. polyphenolic acids (e. myristic. Monatsh. great burdock. Nelemans. 223 (1976).6 a Burdock (fruit and root) has shown diuretic.7 g-guanidino-nbutyric acid. burdock. J. Dauguet and R. antimicrobial. C.17 Antioxidant activity of the roots . 285. 103 (1971). R. 3-hexenoic. arctigenin. Pailer and E.2 arctic acid and lappaphens a and b (acetylenic acids containing S). Forni. and others (KARRER).. 12. S. butyric.000.. great bur.

18 Hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen.. laxative. among other uses. tonsillitis. primarily as “blood purifier” for skin ailments (acne. Seeds used in cold remedies.S. Pharmaceutical. WICHTL). Regulatory Status.and carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in mice was found from oral administration of a decoction of the root. antiproliferative activity and phagocytic cell-increasing activity in mouse myeloid leukemia cells were found from various lignans isolated from the fruit.25 and a water extract of the seeds inhibited the in vitro binding of platelet activating factor to rabbit platelets. eczema and scaly skin) (FOSTER AND DUKE. Used in some diuretic.P. and other preparations.). hypoglycemic activity in rats was reported from administration of burdock fruit extracts. usually in combination with other drugs (JIANGSU.30 decoctions or tea of the root have been used in treating rheumatism. Crude root was formerly official in N. and U.20 A methanol extract of the fruits inhibited the in vitro formation of a marker of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis (8-OH-dG). Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios. The root is used as a diuretic. combination products. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. measles. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS A decoction of the leaves as 6. catarrh. and mild laxative. roots collected are from plants that are at least 2 years old. and seeds (fruits) of both species have been used in treating cancers. gout. Decoctions and teas of roots and leaves have been used both externally and internally for skin problems (e. psoriasis. Arctigenin was the most active.28 USES Medicinal. root used as nutritive food (FOSTER AND DUKE). sores. sore throat.25% of the daily diet of mice for 28 days before a streptozotocin-induced diabetes was found to aggravate the condition.26 TOXICOLOGY skin-cleansing properties (DE NAVARRE).F.02%.Burdock 121 has been attributed to caffeoylquinic acid derivates. Root.22 In vitro differentiation-inducing. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement and food.27 A methanol extract of the fruits exhibited mutagenic activity in the rec-assay and in the Ames test only after enzymatic activation. Root is used in Asia as a food. leaves used in teas.23 Chemopreventive activity against heterocyclic amine-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats was evident from the addition of arctiin to the diet at a concentration of as little as 0. and Cosmetic. TU). and abscesses. Food. The Micmac Indians used the roots and buds to treat sores. Dried and dried and roasted fruits of A.g. and a tea made from the seeds or roots was used by the Cherokee as a blood cleanser (MOERMAN). In Chinese medicine. Acrtiin and arctigenin showed the most activity against Hep2G cells in vitro. Also reportedly useful in cosmetic and toiletry preparations for its alleged Crude and extracts. .29 used in hair tonic and antidandruff preparations.21 An ethanol extract of the fruits has shown in vitro cytotoxicity against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and activity against sarcoma 180 cells in mice. coughs.24 In addition.19 Others have reported that root ameliorated ethanol induced liver toxicity in rats. leaves. among other applications. lappa are widely used in Chinese medicine to treat colds. etc. diaphoretic. and stomach ailments. A German therapeutic monograph on burdock root does not recommend use since efficacy is not confirmed (BLUMENTHAL 1. Traditional Medicine. TYLER 1). LUST. Iroquois Indians used the dried roots to make soup and the young leaves were eaten cooked.

P. Umehara et al. 1196 (1992). 129. FOSTER AND DUKE. JIXIAN.. LUST. Biol. 37.. 3961 (1976). Toilet. Arzneim. 59. S. 9. 377 (1986) 2. TERRELL.. 38. F. B. Agric.. Res. 44. 14. Y. 42. Bull.. 29. 9. M. 69 (1989). Mutagen. J.. Environ. J. S. Y. 163 (2000). 17.. Kasai et al. 389 (1985). Lloydia. Farm. Morita et al. GRIEVE. 11. BRUNETON. B.. Morita et al. (Kiev). Chem. Jpn..S. K. L.. Zh. Yaoxue Xuebao. 25 1. 24... 271 (2002). Agric. 25. Moritani et al. 8. Lin et al. YOUNGKEN.. Chem. Plant Res. Mutat. 49. T. A. T. M.. 6. 235 (1972).. 19. S. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. 2592 (1995). S. Obata et al.914 (1976). Mol. Yang. H. S. 16. Ichihara et al.. 44. 26. Hirose et al. Pharm. Biol. J. 18. 50. Cosmet.. 20. 455 (1998). 11. Food Chem. Med.. Chem. TYLER 1. 3. Pharm.122 Burdock REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. S. FERNALD.. 10. 58 (2002). K. JIANGSU. I.. Washino et al. 1774 (1993). Swanston-Flatt et al.. K. 582 (1975). FOGARTY. Phytochemistry. Sci. 60.HONGKUI. Kaishi. J.. 40. Res. Washino et al. 19. 911 (1993).O. Lett. S. Food Chem. T. J. K.. 23. 7. 31. Toxicol. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. Naya et al. Lapinina and T.. H... 28. Chem. Mutat. T.-Forsch. Biol. J. Washino et al.. Agric. Iwakami et al. 51... Bull. Environ. 71 (1968).. Wang and J. Chem. FARNSWORTH 1–4. 401 (2002).A. L. Nippon Nogeikagaku (1984). Tetrahedron Lett. 22. 41. Chin.. Diabetes Res. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. MOERMAN. Agric. 39. 5. Am. 263 (1986). 1515 (1996). ROSE. Kimura.C. 28. E. K. 467 (2000). 4. Yamada et al. 30. Schulte et al. O. Sisoeva. 15.. Biomed. Wang et al.. Phytochemistry. 12. 3. 25 (1984). 28. 1235 (1978). Han et al. Lin et al. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. C.. K. 129. 52 (1964). K. 1161 (1994). H. H.. 7. Chem. Biol. Heath. T. Biol. Pharm. GUPTA.. Bull. . 92.. 925 (1985). 437 (1970).. 17. Kokai 76115. Duh. 27.. NANJING. 13. 19. Chem.. 14. Washino et al.. 10. 43.. Yoshihiko et al.. Hartwell. Morimoto et al. 19 (1977). Morita et al. Agric. 21.. 1475 (1987). BISSET. 829 (1967)..

cade oil produced sufficient damage to DNA to be potentially carcionogenic.6 recent in vivo studies . and dermatologic creams and ointments. (Family Pinaceae). MARTINDALE). The volatile oil (cade oil) is obtained by destructive distillation of the branches and wood. oil of cade. Cade oil (juniper tar oil) is official in U. No skin irritation or phototoxicity found from topical application of cade oil in humans.3 USES Medicinal. usually in the form of shavings or chips.S.1. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Reported to have keratolytic and antipruritic properties and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities. detergents.7 The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that the data on the safety of cade oil are not sufficient to support its use in cosmetic products. GENERAL DESCRIPTION The source of cade oil is Juniperus oxycedrus or ‘‘prickly cedar.6 Maximum use concentration of cade oil in cosmetics ranges from 1% to 5%. analgesic and antipruritic preparations. also in antidandruff shampoos. lotions. among others.P. Rectified cade oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. The resultant distillate separates into three layers of which the uppermost dark brown viscous layer is cade oil.8 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The volatile oil contains the sesquiterpene dcadinene as the major component (27. also used in cancers. Regulatory Status.3%).3–5 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS TOXICOLOGY Crude and rectified.2 Other major components include p-cresol and ¨ guaiacol (LIST AND HORHAMMER. and perfumes. Has been considered as an allergen (SAX). Rectified cade oil (the vapor of juniper tar) is obtained by steam or vacuum distillation of crude cade oil. Common/vernacular names: Cade oil.5 Traditional Medicine. have shown that cade oil produces DNA adduct formation in mouse and human skin and mouse lung tissue. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. and although other available data show it to be relatively nontoxic. and swine. Cade oil is widely used in topical preparations for the treatment of parasitic skin diseases and eczema.5 Applied topically to psoriasis patients. Pharmaceutical.Cade oil 123 CADE OIL Source: Juniperus oxycedrus L. Toxic effects noted include GI irritation and signs of depression. Acute dermal toxicity in rabbits: >5 g/kg.5 Acute oral LD50 in rats: 8014 mg/kg.’’ a shrub or small tree native to the Mediterranean region. Maximum use level reported is 0.2% in perfumes. oil of juniper tar. which grows up to about 4 m in height. Used in treating various skin disorders and problems of the scalp and hair loss. in antiseptic wound dressings. creams. and Cosmetic. mice. juniper tar.

Flav. LUST. GUENTHER. 5. 20. Maruzzella and P. Oil of Melaleuca. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.and b-selinene (up to 3%). B. The main sources of commercial oil are Australian plantations of M. cajuputi subsp. the oil from this species and its subspecies most frequently. (1988). and globulol. Lawrence.2%).. up to 16%. b-caryophyllene (up to 4%). and a. cajuputi is highly variable. a-terpineol (1–8%). 13 (Suppl. alternifolia contains close to 100 different constituents. L.. 6. J. 3.. Assoc.124 Cajeput oil REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. J. T. C. 14(3). The composition of the oil of M.8-cineole (3–60%).9%). Pharm. which in 1996 was revised and adopted as the International Standard (ISO 4730). Henry. spongy bark. cajuputi subsp. 3. J. Flav.6%). CLAUS. punk tree. D. larinariifolia var. 733 (1975). Perfum. Pharm. up to 9%). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Cajeput are large evergreen trees with whitish. and .2 In 1985 a quality standard for Melaleuca oils was established in Australia3 (Australian Standard. Assoc. minor). alternifolia (Australian tea tree oil) and M. Invest. Examples of major constituents of the leaf oil and their quantifications include terpinen-4-ol (37%). 288 (1970). g-terpinene (21. and paperbark tree oils. M. Maruzzella and L. contain large amounts of 1. up to about 30 m high. 33. B. The standard calls for the oil to contain 30% or more of terpinen-4-ol and a maximum of 15% cineole. 250 (1958). CAJEPUT OIL Source: Melaleuca cajuputi Powel (syn. and other Melaleuca species and subspecies (Family Myrtaceae). caryophyllene oxide (up to 7%). oil of Melaleuca.). Lloydia. but not always. M. Schoket et al. in addition to usually significant amounts of ledene (viridiflorene) (up to 9%). M. terpinen4-ol-type tea tree oil. M. Johnson Jr.. tea tree oil (M. 47. Liguori. ROSE... alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel (syn. Dermatol. partly due to natural variations and to industry practice of blending oils from different species of Melaleuca and even with added individual compounds. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Cajeput oil is obtained by steam distillation of the fresh leaves of various species of Melaleuca. viridiflorol. 2. J. J.) S. 71 (1989). Frag. Int. Toxicol. paper-like. alternifolia).2%).. MARTINDALE. Am. cajuputi from Indonesia and Vietnam. J. sesquiterpene alcohols (spathulenol. limonene (up to 5%). alternifolia. Toxicol. J. Hartwell. 4. 8. ‘‘Terpinen-4-ol Type. M. BAILEY 2. Opdyke. up to 30%. J. quinquenervia (Cav.1 The oil from M. dissitiflora. M. the terpinen-4-ol type oil is found in various species of Melaleuca (M. leucadendron. Common/vernacular names: Cajuput.. terpinen-4-ol (up to 5. Food Cosmet. 19 (2001). Chalchat et al. 47. 94. 241 (1990). Blake. J. a-terpinene (9. Am. L. Otherwise. 41 1. and terpinolene (3. J. 7. C. A. 294 (1958).. M. DUKE 4. native to Australia and southeastern Asia. alternifolia). C. W.’’ AS 2782)..

24 No irritant effects were found in the skin sensitization test in guinea pigs from tea tree oil.14 Antitussive activity against capsaicininduced cough in guinea pigs was shown from oral administration of tea tree oil and from some of its main constituents (cineole.7 In vitro antifungal activity from the oil is found against Malassezia furfur. other species may qualify. leucadendron ¼ M.4 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. however.23 There are a number of case reports of contact dermatitis from topical use of tea tree oil. followed by terpinen-4-ol.16 A study in 27 volunteers found that topical application of tea tree oil inhibited histamine-induced weal volume on the arm. terpinen-4-ol. However.2 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Australian tea tree oil (M. clinical assessment and self-reporting of side effects indicated that the tea tree oil preparation was better tolerated by facial skin. superoxide dismutase. alternifolia oil in the treatment of moderate (noninflamed) acne vulgaris. armillaris. or terpinen-4-ol.or irritant-induced swelling was not suppressed. A 5% tea tree oil in a water-based gel was less effective than a 5% benzoyl peroxide in a water-based lotion because of slower onset of action. and antiviral activities (HIV-1). ultraviolet B.12 Both M. and g-terpinene). however. a-terpinene.15 A clinical trial in 124 patients provided evidence of the effectiveness of topical M. including allergic contact dermatitis. Candida albicans.18 reduced time before re-epithelization was reported in patients using a 6% tea tree oil gel topically on herpes labialis sores.11 Essential oils from the leaves of Melaleuca (M.2) The oil has also shown in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus.13 Contact hypersensitivity response and skin swelling in mice were inhibited by topical application of tea tree oil. and irritation than a benzoyl peroxide preparation (TYLER 1–3). producing less skin scaling. and glutathione in erythrocytes. No in vitro mutagenic activity was produced by tea tree oil in the Ames test. albicans) were found from linalool. dryness.6 and Escherichia coli. ericifolia. cajuputi) have shown in vitro antibacterial. symptomatic improvement of tinea pedis was found from topical use of a 10% tea tree oil cream. alternifolia leaf oil and terpinen-4-ol induced differentiation of white blood cells in vitro in human myelocytic (HL-60) cells. and M.Cajeput oil 125 M. a-pinene. linariifolia). in vitro potentiation of catalase. no apparent signs of dermal toxicity were found after 24 h exposure of the normal skin to a high concentration of the undiluted oil (2 g/kg). and in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation. and various other species of Candida.22 Application of the pure oil to the abraded skin of rabbits (Draize acute dermal irritation test) resulted in increased skin irritation. No skin irritation was visible from topical application of tea tree oil in a 30-day irritation test in rabbits. a-terpineol.21. and terpinolene. but not flare volume. greatest in vitro antibacterial (11 species) and antifungal activities (C. a-terpineol.7 (Linalool occurs in only trace amounts in the oil.5 Propionbacterium acnes.23. albicans). antifungal (C.23 . pruritus.19 and reduced itchiness and greasiness but not scaliness of dandruff after using a 5% tea tree oil shampoo.8–10 Among eight components of the essential oil.17 In placebo-controlled clinical studies. suggesting that the oil should not be applied in cases of dermatitis. M. alternifolia) exhibits a broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity that includes laboratory strains of oral bacteria. The healing of superficial dermal wounds in rabbits was neither inhibited nor prolonged from topical application of tea tree oil.20 TOXICOLOGY Use of tea tree oil for the topical treatment of burn wounds is not recommended due to in vitro inhibition of human epithelial cell and fibroblast viability from 24 h exposure to the oil.

Riley. Carson et al. and vaginal infections (TYLER 1–3).P. JIANGSU. abrasions. Med. C. condiments. 29 (1999). barrier creams. body washes. Plants Ind. C. pimples. ROSE. sore throat. Malaysia. insect repellents. C. J. and relishes. Regulatory Status. Med. Profiles. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 9. 6. boils. Cajeput oil is used as a flavor component in nonalcoholic beverages. scabies.23 Cajuput oil has also been used to treat indolent tumors. cuts.1. and Indonesia for generations. and Cosmetic. J. . COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Oil formerly officinal in U. Plants Ind. J. The essential oil of M. Food Chem. sunburn. 1330 (1989). candy. Lett. Brophy et al. Arom.. Pharmaceutical.26 The oil has been used in dentistry for relieving discomfort due to dry sockets. ARCTANDER. lice.S. Carson and T. 9. deodorants. oral infections. Appl. cajuputi subsp.. Average maximum use level reported is very low (less than 0.001% or 9. 9. Oral Microbiol. Similar effects have been reported in veterinary medicine from topical applications of large amounts of tea tree oil. insect bites. similar to eucalyptus and other essential oils. also used as a fragrance component in soaps.126 Cajeput oil The acute oral LD50 of tea tree oil in rats is 1. 221 (1999). burns. J. The same species has been a common household remedy in Vietnam. 4. Arom. 2. 19. 421 (1995). LIST AND HORHAMMER. MORTON 2. stings. mouthwashes.6 mL/kg.25.23 Case reports of overdosing from ingestion of large amounts of undiluted tea tree oil noted CNS toxicity. viridiflora is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph allowing a dose of 0. USES Medicinal. UPHOF. either In natural disinfectants. India. and perfumes. Immu1. including treatments for fungal infections.28 Others. cajuputi in treating pain. sore throat. lotions.9 ppm). Soutwell. meat and meat products..27 Food. V. Chemother. Tea tree oil is found in numerous product forms. Agric. Profiles.2 g or less in the treatment of catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract (BLUMENTHAL 1). veterinary products. 24 (1994).9–2. nol. and others. I. sunscreens..1 They used an infusion of the macerated leaves of Melaleuca to treat the common cold.25 singly or with other ingredients. baked goods. FEMA. Doran. Cajeput oil has been used in expectorant formulations and antiseptic and pain-relieving liniments.. Microbiol. 35. bronchial congestion. shampoos. and for delousing. Australian aborigines used cajeput oil from M. detergents. toothpastes. F. GUENTHER. Vapors from the crushed leaves were inhaled to treat bronchial and nasal congestion. with maximum use level of 0. YOUNGKEN. REFERENCES See the General References for ADA. S.510). F. ringworm. 5. TYLER 1. 3. acne products. J.. skin wounds. 37. fungal infections. LEWIS AND ELVIN¨ LEWIS.4% in the last category. lip balms.. Shapiro et al.26 Traditional Medicine. frozen dairy desserts. Antimicrob. 202 (1996). GRIEVE. creams. with a broad range of health claims. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.

20. 123 (2001). V.. P.. S. I. Dermatol. 15. F. J. calamene. Hammer et al.. Arom.... sweet myrtle. 33. linalool. Phytomedicine. The rhizome contains highly variable amounts of volatile oil (up to 9%. 852 (2002). Microbiol. Roots are also used.. Carson et al. 33. 1212 (2002). pinene. M. 5. J. 78. but the European oil is considered superior in flavor and fragrance qualities (JIANGSU). Farag et al. Chemother. Aust. Food Chem. Saitoh et al. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of both the fresh and the dried unpeeled rhizome. Part used is the stout aromatic rhizome after it is peeled and dried.. Common/vernacular names: Calamus. D. B. Hartwell. sweet flag. A. Lloydia. Manipulative Physiol. Osborne et al.. methyl eugenol.. 264 (1995). 23. Chemother.. 47.1–4 Constituents present in the oil include b-asarone (cis-isoasarone). CALAMUS Source: Acorus calamus L. Res. Res. 153. Saller et al. L. M.. 203 (1999). depending on sources. 388 (1996).. Med. Carson and T.. Tong et al. 489 (1998)... J.. J. Br. 85% in Chinese oil) and the European type containing larger numbers of aromatic compounds (JIANGSU. 343 (2001).. J. calamol. Aust.. americanus . but usually 2–6%). calameone. C. 450 (2001). 14. 26. (À)-methyl isoeugenol. Acad. Toxicol. J. J. asarone. Plants Ind. 42. A. 11. Koh et al. eugenol... MASADA). Skin Pharmacol. Ann. 14. R. 107. 48. P. 51.. S. Bacteriol. Dermatol. Satchell et al. Faoagali et al. asarylaldehyde. Fritz et al. C. A.. Pharmazie. 19. Am. Antimicrob. 236 (2002). Can. Brand et al. T. A. 42 (1998). Dermatol.. 288 (1970). J. Soderberg et al. Toxicology. 23. Schnitzler et al. Asian (Pakistani. 17. K. Burns. Inflamm. T. 170 (2000). and others. Profiles. 701 (1976). GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Perennial herb growing in wet or swampy areas with stiff. R. and Asia). Antimicrob.5 The essential oil from the rhizome of the North American variety (A. 349 (1997). 25. 455 (1990). 591 (1998). Venereol. Europe. sweet root. 22. 9. 128.. up to about 2 m high. J. M. F. 13. Nenoff et al. Japanese. 99 (1996). L. 9. J. with b-asarone being the major component (up to 76% of the oil. 56. Riley. C. 1242 (2003). 77.. Dermatol. 12. 16. var. 8. 145 (1992). Phytother. 18. Bassett et al.. J. D. 30 (2004).. Cox et al. D. (Family Araceae). sweet sedge. S. C.. 88. Priest.. 28.. Opdyke. 9.. sweet cinnamon. J. Budhiraja et al. 10. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. Pharm. F.4. 22. Med. 27. native to Northern Hemisphere (North America. cineole. 24. sword-shaped leaves. Appl. J. azulene. J.Calamus 127 7. 147. Ther. 21. Appl. 447 (1999). Indian) plants yield more oil than the European plants. 18.. camphor. calamus L.

crude formerly official in U. Maximum use level reported is 0. inflammation. BISSET. mental disorders including depression. Used for more than 2000 years in China to treat numerous disorders. LUST. hypotensive activities in cats and rabbits. and N. and others (WICHTL).20 and others.128 Calamus Wolff) does not contain the carcinogenic b-asarone. Traditional Medicine.F.13–16 hypolipidemic activity in rats. GUPTA.110). and sudden coma related to heart disease (WICHTL). also used by many Indian tribes in Canada and the United States as a remedy for colds (MOERMAN). var. convulsions. etc. anticonvulsant and CNS-depressant activities (FARNSWORTH 3. NANJING. GUENTHER.24 It is also mutagenic in the Ames test. indigestion. 2. as are commercial samples of the drug containing various concentrations of b-asarone. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. BAILEY 2.) are prohibited from use in human food (§189. MERCK. and isoacolamone (all sesquiterpenes). americanus were used by the Indians of eastern Canada to treat symptoms of diabetes28 and menopause. cough. CLAUS. WICHTL. epilepsy.16.S. tumors. strokes. the roots of A. FOGARTY.7–10 acoradin. Pharmaceutical. MARTINDALE. . and perfumes. JIANGSU). creams. and others.19in vitro antimicrobial activity. lotions. febrifuge. vulgaris) contains 13% b-asarone while the essential oil of an Indian chemotype (var. augustata Engler) contains up to 80% or more (WICHTL).5-trimethoxy benzaldehyde.26 Oil.11 acoric acid.27 When chewed it is said to kill the taste for tobacco and to clear phlegm from the throat. sitosterol. skin diseases.17 used in Tibetan medicine in treating diptheria.17in vitro immunosuppressive activities. including rheumatoid arthritis. Regulatory Status. Other constituents present in the rhizome include acoragermacrone. carminative. Oil used as a fragrance component in soaps. used in India in treatments of debility. also externally in skin diseases (JIANGSU). calamus L. resin.12 USES Medicinal. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. and other conditions. galangin.22. ROSE. JIANGSU.16 The root extract has been used in hair tonic and antidandruff preparations. and Cosmetic. gastritis. including spasmolytic activities on isolated animal organs (smooth muscle). BARNES.4% in perfumes. tannin.25 Indian calamus root oil repels houseflies. calamus var.6 The essential oil of the eastern European variety (A. extracts. Calamus and its derivatives (oil. 2.21 TOXICOLOGY Calamus oil is toxic and the Jammu (Indian) variety has been reported to be carcinogenic in rats.4. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The oil and extracts have shown numerous pharmacological activities.P. FOSTER. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL.23 b-Asarone has shown antigonadal activity in insects. used in Western cultures for centuries as stomachic. sedative.18 antineurotoxic activity. UPHOF. GRIEVE.5-dimethoxybenzoquinone. despite containing none or negligible amounts of b-asarone (WICHTL). and lack of appetite. FARNSWORTH 3. acolamone. detergents. The North American variety is also prohibited. MORTON 1.

Niwa et al. 24. 10. origin undetermined. arnidiol. 41. 833 (1976). also commonly known as marigolds (FOSTER). and F). 356 (1968).Calendula 129 1. Int. Int. Toxicol. M. 327 (1964). 38. D.. Ann. Immunopharmacol. V. G. Darb. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Hairy annual to perennial (absent freezing). 11. K. Pharm. 10..16. I. Econ. E. 48. Bull. B. Mengi. 69 (1972). Sci. CALENDULA Source: Calendula officinalis L. Saxena et al. Niwa et al.. Sect. A. P. Lloydia. M. Toxicol.. Falsif. 47. 63 (1968). 234 (1967). 12. a.. Lett.. 6. 191 (1983).(Dacca). Planta Med. 5.and b-amyrin. Health. Nauki. S. Chem... McCune and T.. 71 (1983). 14. Cavazza. 4. T. A. Dhalla and I. Soc. L. E. G. flowers yellow or orange. 5(6). 363 (2003). K. 7–17 Â 1–4 cm. Tetrahedron.... Tetrahedron Lett. ursadiol. Motley.. 17. 8. TSR Mokslu Akad. Res. Arch. Jacobson.21-triol. Chem. 17B. M. 2930 (1975). 512 (1977). J. 4. naturalized in south and west Europe. 69.1 triterpenoids (helinatriol C and F. Environ. Expert. S. J. Vet. brein. widely cultivated ornamental in Europe and North America... 3.. Ethnopharmacol. 53 (2003). Pharm. Schimmer. taraxasterol. Food Cosmet. 48. Maj et al. M. Opdyke. 2. calenduladiol. Johns. Ser. calendulosides. Jenner et al. Reg. holligold. Mengi. Bot. C. 74. Mehotra et al. 2759 (1973). G. 18. Res. D2. Parab and S. Acta Pol... 444 (2001). 23. 94 (1974). 19. 9. Pamakstyte-Jukneviciene. 27. 412 (1976). Beg. P. 39. Marybud. Z.Raquibuddowla etal. B. pot marigold. 445 (1971). 21. 623 (1977). 23. 4. 16. Liet.. J. Yamamura et al.Sci. Keller and E. erthrodiol. 13. 22. Med. Stahl. 73.. S. longispoinogenine. Sady Pribaltiki. Jpn. Chim. L. . Shipochliev. 20. 451 (2002). 270. 477 (1966). J. Patra and A.. Iguchi et al. 4–7 cm in diameter. 3. Fed. 27. Food Cosmet. Adler and M. Soedin. Bot. A. 25. 7.. 20–50 cm high. 256 (2002). 6967 (1968). 113 (2001). Indian Drugs. 33... 15. A17. M. 667 (1982). Jukneviciene. 121.. marigold. Saponins (glycosides A–D. 397 (1994). Prir.. not to be confused with Tagetes species. 823 (1972). S.. 16. 15. Bhattacharya. M.. Anon. P. Ther.2 faradiol. Parts used are the flower and herb. Shukla et al.. Pharmacodyn. Gogglemann and O. J. K. Derle Deelip and S. goldbloom. 2. 412 (1979).. C. 12ursene-3. Chem. 28. 29. 172. W. El’yashevich et al. 9. M. 5419 (1971). Common/vernacular names: Calendula. Fitoterapia. Jacobson et al. N. V. Mitra. R. Khim. G. leaves oblanceolate to oblong. Ahmad and A. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). T. Phytother. Indian J.. 26.Res. Mutat. Nature.. Biol.

internally for inflammatory lesions of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. ointments. night creams.10–12 isorhamnetic glycosides. and others). isolated polysaccharides have shown in vitro and in vivo tumorinhibiting activity (ESCOP 3) and immunostimulating activity in the carbon clearance and granulocytes tests. shampoos. including face. dermatitis. the major carotenoid in the dried flowers used to make herbal teas is lutein. antiparasitic (trichomonacidal). violaxanthin. body.130 Calendula t-taraxasterol and lupeol). suntan products. also increasing glycoprotein.5 provide good protection against acute dermatitis in women undergoing radiation therapy for postoperative breast cancer. and other xanthophylls (CSIR II).3 flavonoids (narcissin. trace amounts of essential oil. and wound-healing activities. safety data to support the use of the flowers in cosmetic preparations are considered insufficient. polysaccharides including a rhamnoarabinogalactan and arabinogalactans.16 USES Medicinal.4 flower yellow pigment is a mixture of b-carotene.16 A fluid extract of the flowers was non-mutagenic in the mouse bone micronucleus and in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome assays). WREN). in vitro genotoxic effects were found in Aspergillus nidulans. However.18 No sensitizing effects were found in humans from occlusive patches supplying cosmetics containing 1% calendula extract.7 Wound-healing effects of the flowers have been demonstrated in various animal tests. mild burns. immunomodulating. No genotoxic effects were found a ‘‘herbal’’ tea of the flowers and none was found from six saponins isolated from the flowers. stimulation of phagocytosis in vitro and in the carbon clearance test in mice. choleretic activity. lotions. and hand creams. lipsticks.15 TOXICOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Flower. and extracts have shown anti-inflammatory.8 From in vitro and animal tests.9. 19 WICHTL). leg ulcers.6 An ethanol extract of the flowers enhanced the in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes. a cream containing an extract of calendula was found to No dermal irritation was produced by a 10% aqueous extract of the flowers in rabbits.11 A butanolic extract of the flowers showed potent in vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. triterpenoidal monoesters. also used as an immunostimulant in treating skin inflammations and herpes zoster infections (ESCOP 3.9 which showed the same topical antiedematous activity in the Croton oil-induced edema model as indomethacin and at the same dose. however.9 notably. Carotenoids in the flower petals are mainly flavoxanthin. hard-to-heal wounds. deodorants. Ocular irritation from a 10% aqueous extract in the eyes of rabbits was minimal. luteoxanthin. faradiol monoester. Preparations of calendula flowers are used externally to treat dermal and mucous membrane inflammations. However. chlorogenic acid (GLASBY 2. antibacterial. and sunburn. and auroxanthin and while those in the leaves and stems are mainly b-carotene and lutein. antifungal. shaving creams. antiviral. Used in diverse body care products. stimulation of granulation at wound site.14 In a phase III clinical trial. rutin. . topical antiinflammatory activity of the flowers is attributed to Y-taraxasterol. The acute oral LD50 of calendula flower extract in rats: >4640 mg/kg. and collagen metabolism at site. genotoxic effects were only found from high (g/mL) concentrations. Pharmaceutical. and Cosmetic.13 and triterpenoidal fatty acid esters. nucleoprotein.17 In rat liver cell cultures. flower/herb preparations. lycopene. unscheduled DNA synthesis was inhibited by nanogram concentrations of various solvent extracts of the flowers.

. BISSET. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude ligulate florets. A. TYLER 1. internally for stomach ailments. 52.. macol. Cordova et al. 253 (2003). 15. H. 3. J. A.Calendula 131 baby products.1% to 5%. DER 3. 15. jaundice. 10. J. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Ramos et al. glandular swelling. spasms. . GRIEVE. J. ESCOP See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Fitoterapia. R. Arneim. 2. and so on. Vol. Regulatory Status. antiseptic. 1071 (1979). Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. STEINMETZ. T. HARBOURNE AND BAXTER. Oncol. Toxicol. Toxicol. Flowers primarily used as mildly saline flavoring and coloring. 1255 (1996). ulcers.. 13. Phytochemistry. Ethnophar1. Traditional Medicine. GRAS as spice. 6. 53. and seasoning (§182. Ethnopharmacol. however. and others (NIKITAKIS). Bezakowa et al. externally for abscesses. NIKITAKIS. Rao et al. M. gastric and duodenal ulcers. 516 (1994). TUTIN 4. J. P. 7.. Redox Rep. saffron substitute. and eczema (BLUMENTHAL 1).. Varljen et al.16 Concentrations of calendula and extracts thereof in cosmetic products are from 0. 72.. Della Loggia et al. MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 43. 19. C. WICHTL. K. 12. proREFERENCES mote healing. 62. E. 167 (2000).. I.. BLUMENTHAL 1. rashes. 14. Phytochem. Zitterl-Eglseer et al. 16. E. anemia. Planta Med. Pommier et al. 5. 60. Wagner et al. 18. 30 (2004). flower and herb. Herb subject of a German therapeutic monograph... J. 4. 53. 51.16 Food.. Ethnopharmacol. BRUNETON. 95 (2002). 126 (1996). 74. WREN).. natural flavoring. Prod. J. styptic. J. 49 (1998). Methods. J. Bako et al. 28. sore nipples.. L. Pharmazie. 328 (2003). Fitoterapia.. J. flower heads. and N. J.P. ointment. 139 (1997).. UPHOF... J. therapeutic use is not recommended since claimed effectiveness has not been demonstrated (BLUMENTHAL 1). 16. 1069 (1985). Proposals for European Monographs on Calendulae flos/Flos cum Herba. eye makeup. for gastric hemorrhage. 241 (2002).. CSIR II. teas (FOSTER)... Pyrek et al. 13 (2001). 8. 9. 7. Amirghofran et al. Akihisa et al. Herb and its preparations reportedly used to stimulate circulation.S.. 2379 (1989). wounds. Vidal-Olliveier and G. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Biophys. Biochem.F. Flower historically considered vulnerary. Flowers are subject of a positive German therapeutic monograph. cuts.. BARNES. 1447 (2004). Phytochemistry. Pol. 11. Anal. 61. Hamburger et al. 22. Int... 3. crude formerly official in U. 2). Nat.. WREN.. FOSTER. bruises.10). Perez-Carreon et al. C. H. tincture. 1156 (1989). externally used as lotion or ointment for burns and scalds (1st degree). Clin. 17. 35.. 20(Suppl. In Vitro. S. ESCOP. Chem. Flowers in tincture (‘‘lotion’’) for external/internal use. Neukirch et al. Balansard. 508 (1991).-Forsch. 57. bleeding. and jaundice (FOSTER. Z.

Hook. creams. C. C. BAILEY 2. native to islands of tropical Asia (Java. Malaysia. angulosum Mill. baccatum L. frutescens. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains mainly b-caryophyllene.. farnesol. Food Addit. C. R. and Cosmetic. . and perfumes (especially men’s fragrances). Tabasco pepper. frozen dairy desserts. Currently. var. forma macrophylla) (Family Annonaceae). D. with highest average maximum use level of about 0. methyl salicylate. UPHOF).). N. 341 (1975).. Used as a fragrance component in soaps.C. cayenne pepper. hot pepper. J. benzyl acetate.. TERRELL). benzaldehyde.). and gelatins and puddings.8% in perfumes. limonene. ROSENGARTEN. 2. D. GRAS (§ 182. The oil is obtained by water distillation of the flowers. GENERAL DESCRIPTION There has been much dispute and confusion regarding the classification of Capsicum. L. baked goods. baccatum. 6. Common/vernacular names: Capsicum.) Eshbaugh (syn. FURIA AND BELLANCA. and other minor components totaling over 100 compounds (MASADA). geranyl acetate.2 USES Medicinal. and their varieties (ARCTANDER. annuum and C. C. chinense Jacq. & Thompson (syn. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Cananga oil is nontoxic. pendulum (Willd. and C. hot and mild (not to be confused with blackandwhitepepper). BAILEY 2. Regulatory Status. C. forma genuina. pendulum Willd.havebeenatonetimeor another considered as fruits of a single species. detergents. Pharmaceutical. 11. Toxicol. red pepper. Flav. chili pepper. 1. Used as a flavor ingredient in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Maximum use level reported is 0. the Philippines.annuumand itsvarieties. frutescens. C.ylangylangoil (seeylang ylang oil ). All peppers. annuum (DE SMET. A similar essentialoil. except for causing irritation when applied full strength to rabbit skin.. Opdyke. 1049 (1973). CAPSICUM Source: Capsicum frutescens L. MASADA. candy.2 Food. C. linalool. Food Cosmet.132 Capsicum CANANGA OIL Source: Cananga odorata J. Canangium odoratum Baill. (syn.).1 REFERENCES Oil official in F. lotions. C.20). C. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Large tree with fragrant flowers.3 ppm) in the last category. (Family Solanaceae). annuum L. chinense.C. C. Int.C. five major Capsicum species and their varieties are recognized: C. benzyl alcohol. a-terpineol.oroftwospecies. etc. GUENTHER. Duve et al. See the General References for ARCTANDER. isoeugenol. pubescens. eugenol. is obtained in a similar manner from Canangium odoratum Baill. and its varieties.003% (32. paprika. FEMA. the Moluccas. safrole. borneol. pubescens Ruiz & Pavon.

C.2–4 Other constituents present include carotenoids (capsanthin. repeated (long-term) application in appropriately formulated product forms leads to desensitization. analgesic. annuum in that its stem is shrubby. b-carotene.g. psoriasis. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Capsicum contains up to 1. ROSENGARTEN.5% (usually 0. annuum.28–30 hypersensitive and overactive bladder.75 mg capsaicin and hydrocapsaicin/day) in gelatin capsules was reported to be more effective than placebo in reducing the intensity of dyspepsia symptoms.5–10 fats (9–17%).15 Lipid peroxidation and bacterial counts were inhibited by the addition of hot or sweet peppers to beef patties.Capsicum 133 Capsicum annuum is an annual herb (from 1–5 m in height).13.11 Mild peppers (e. bell pepper. and hemorrhagic erosion. all native to tropical America and now widely cultivated. postmastectomy pain syndrome. or green pepper are usually produced by varieties of C.20 High oral doses of capsicum in rats lowered serum glucose levels. lutein. and osteoarthritis.1–1. arthritis (FUGH-BERMAN.17.23 cluster headache. and activation of the vanilloid receptor type 1. pruritis.0%) pungent principles. which contains high concentrations of carotenoids but little or no pungent principles. etc.16 Antioxidant activity of capsicum is attributed to capsaicin. depending on the process. capsorubin. and it is a perennial (DE SMET. capsaicin inhibited the formation of hydrochloric acid-induced ulcers. other pungent alkaloid principles (capsaicinoids) include dihydrocapsaicin.14 Extracts of five species of hot peppers showed in vitro antimicrobial activity. composed mainly of capsaicin. myeloperoxidase activity.31 diabetic neuropathy. nordihydrocapsaicin. All five species yield pungent fruits commonly called red pepper or simply capsicum.33 .27 Other clinical studies have shown benefits from capsaicin in the treatment of neurogenic incontinence (intravesically applied).22 damage to the gastric mucosa. lipid peroxidation. homocapsaicin.18In vitro inhibition of bacteria and platelet aggregation by capsaicin has been associated with in vitro fluidization of lipid membranes. and isohexyl isocaproate (JIANGSU.19 Gerbils fed a high-cholesterol diet containing capsicum oleoresin showed reduced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Capsaicin also inhibits constitutive activation of NF-kB in malignant melanoma cells and when topically applied to the skin of mice.. selective targeting of C fibers in the pain pathway. extraction of sweet pepper (paprika) with similar solvents yields paprika oleoresin. proteins (12–15%). including 4-methyl-1-pentyl-2-methyl butyrate. Capsicum oleoresin is obtained by extracting red pepper with a suitable organic solvent.12 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES While a single dose of capsaicin activates pain.21 Administered intragastrically to rats.24 Oral administration of red pepper powder (providing 1. MARSH).). and homodihydrocapsaicin. C. TERRELL).32 and postherpetic neuralgia. and anti-inflammatory activity. sweet pepper. paprika and bell pepper) contain similar constituents as hot peppers but with little or no pungent principles. zeaxanthin. with the last two in minor concentrations. Capsiacin-induced analgesia and desensitization has been explained on the basis of neuropeptide release and depletion. frutescens is readily distinguished from C. Mild fruits commonly known as paprika. 3-methyl-1-pentyl-3-methyl butyrate. its flowers are borne in groups.1 it grows up to 2 m in height. fibromyalgia. and others. MCKENNA). and a small amount of a volatile oil made up of more than 125 components of which 24 were identified. vitamins A. while the other species are usually perennial woody shrubs. inflammation and hypersensitivity.25 as was intranasal capsaicin spray in decreasing idiopathic rhinitis26 and intranasal capsaicin in postsurgical recurrence of nasal obstruction and nasal polyposis.17 Placebo-controlled studies of topical preparations containing capsaicin have found benefits in the treatment of lower back pain.

46 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Capsicum is a powerful local stimulant. .35 The safety of pepper sprays that contain high amounts of capsaicinoids for use in riot control and self-defense products is controversial36 and is associated with death and respiratory failure in animals and people.44 The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of paprika color in rats of either sex is 5% of the diet. and Cosmetic. and gastric emptying. Traditional Medicine. cramps. and other ailments. in low amounts it appears to act as an anticarcinogen. Capsicum has been used internally to treat diarrhea. is widely used as a spice. Capsicum and its extracts and oleoresin are widely used in food products. TERRELL NADKARNI. Paprika oleoresin comes in various color strengths..43 which is 190 times the human consumption in tropical countries.42 The oral LD50 of capsaicin mice is 190 mg/kg. meat and meat products. and paprika oleoresin. and mucous membranes. Capsicum. pungency is determined by a taste test and is generally expressed in Scoville units.. baked goods. sedatives. externally as a counterirritant in rheumatism. Food. Cardio-respiratory arrests. However.g. toothache. heartburn scores.12%.34 TOXICOLOGY topical counterirritant preparations to treat arthritis. among others. neuralgia. capsicum oleoresin. arthritis. also used in certain preparations for stopping thumb sucking or nail biting in children. frozen dairy desserts. The oleoresin of the fruit is used in spray-delivered riot control and self-defense products (pepper sprays). and condiments and relishes. and death of respiratory epithelial cells. poor appetite. its oleoresin or active principles (capsaicin) are strongly irritant to the eyes. the evidence suggests that whereas capsaicin in large amounts taken over a long time may be carcinogenic. Both capsicum oleoresin and tincture were formerly official in N.F. and others (DE SMET. the carcinogenity and genotoxicity of capsicum and capsaicin are controversial (DE SMET. cold injuries (chilbains). NEWALL). 0. rheumatism. laxatives. capsaicin (5 mg in gelatin capsules) taken 30 min before meals was no different than placebo in effects on dyspepsia. nasal and tracheal cells. LUST). laryngitis. tincture).09% and 0. Highest average maximum use levels are reported in alcoholic beverages for the oleoresin and extract.134 Capsicum In patients with heartburn. and chilblains. 38–41 ROSENGARTEN. flatulence. Paprika and its oleoresin are primarily used as a colorant in all the above food categories to impart a yellow to orange color.S. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. in whole and ground forms. neuralgia. colic. including general tonics.37 Following a body of conflicting results. seizures. and extracts (e. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. and subsequent death of an 8-month-old infant was associated with the administration of a tea prepared from powdered red pepper. respectively. candy. Used as a synergistic ingredient in various herbal formulas. Inhalation exposure of rats to capsaicinoids resulted in acute respiratory inflammation and dose-related damage to alveolar. and hay fever remedies (FOSTER. ROSENGARTEN. Pharmaceutical. and U. gastric pH. Others. lumbago. bronchial. sore throat.P. Capsicum tincture and oleoresin are used in Crude. producing an intense burning sensation (MARTINDALE). tender skin. asthma. yet it enhanced heartburn by shortening the time to peak heartburn following a meal. TERRELL). pneumonia. gelatins and pudding.45 USES Medicinal. lumbago.

19. 3. Allergy. 9. L. 41 (1873). CRC Crit. 62 (2000). Quart. C. Their essential oils. Vaughan and C. Frerick et al. J. USD 26th. S. J. Ochi et al. Biol.. 28. 5. C. arms. Zheng et al. 15. J. E. 31. Phytochemistry.. 27. 52. Agric. Gastroenterol. FUGH¨ BERMAN. New Oxford Book of Plants.. 22. Robbins. 1131 (1971).. Scand. Hornero-Mndez and M. G. 59 (2003). 1094 (2003). Van Rijswijk et al. Capsaicin-containing topical products are approved in over-the-counter and prescription drug form in the United States. 2. 4. Sci. New York. Balbaa et al. REFERENCES See the General References for BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2. efficacy for digestive disturbances. 61 (1996). 303 (2004). J. Horie et al. A. W. 16. J. 16. M.. S. 272 17. ROSENGARTEN. 2. Molnar. 66. Agric. Toxicol.. J. 285 (1978). 4. Chem. B. J. Gupta et al. 13. Planta Med. Monger.. Materska et al. pp. Annu. 63. 1075 (2002). 106. 26. 1 (1980). FEMA. M. J.. Oxford University Press. . 16. Cerruto et al. Clin. Pain. 49. Ethnopharmacol.. R. 33. Thorpe. Food Chem. Deli and P. 46. 18.. 487 (2001).. MCKENNA.. J. 273 (2002). LIST AND HORHAMMER. J. Standardized capsaicin products are approved in Germany for topical therapeutic use in painful muscle spasms in the shoulders. 20. I. JIANGSU. 355 (2000). Low capsaicin-containing Capsicum products are the subject of a negative German monograph. J. Rev. Maoka et al. Acta. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Nat.. 1197 (2002). A.. Tsuchiya. Res. Chichewicz and P. 75. I.. 10. 17. Agric.. C. Monsereenusorn.. K. Bortolotti et al. L. 40. G. Ethnopharmacol. Ther. M. 23. Maga.20). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 6.Capsicum 135 Regulatory Status. 187 (2003). S. Food a Nutr. paprika and paprika oleoresin are also approved as color additives for food use exempt from certification (§73. 295 (2001). Eur.. Pain... The Neurosci. Haymon and L. 24. 12. Kubelka. S86 (2000). Pain. J. Urodinamica. McCleane. Pharmacol. 2). T. Geissler. M e ınguezMosquera. A. 25. Acta Oto-Laryngol. LUST. J. and spine. 469 (1976). J. 11. Lloydia. S. M. J. J. H. Food Chem. (2002). Iwai et al. 1601 (2001). 893 (2003). R. Tirimanna. Caterina and D. and supportive treatment of heart and circulatory functions has not been scientifically established (BLUMENTHAL 1). 8. 29 (2002). 6. Food Sci. Capsicum (red pepper. 1877 (1977). A. FOSTER.. 1997. W.. Curr. J.. Phytother. Aliment. Org.. 18. Rev.345). NANJING. 1. Agric. 177 (1975). 4087 (1998).. Crude Drug Res. 39. 754 (2003). Y.340 and §73. Camara and R. 16(Suppl.. H. 7. 19. Chem. 14. MARSH. STAHL. D. Jurenitsch and W.. Food Chem. 6. Suhr. 21. Mikrochim. 1. Phytoe chemistry... W. 138–139. Prod. 1091 (1968). solvent-free oleoresins and natural extractives are also GRAS (§182. Aurand. 120. Agric. Julius. 83. 58. Lord and A.10). B. cayenne pepper) and paprika are GRAS as natural seasonings and flavorings (§182. 12. H.. Snchez-Escalante et al. Y. 91 (1978). Food Chem. T.. J.

T. the resulting product is usually a thick dark reddish-brown to brown-black viscous liquid or hygroscopic powder. Appl. Blumberg. 46. 159 (1999).. 41. Olajos and H. Toxicol. 59. each color has preferred uses as colorant that is reflected in their synonyms: Caramel color I (spirit caramel). A..) with small amounts of ammonia or ammonium salts under controlled temperature and pressure until the sweet taste was destroyed and the desired color was obtained. 450 (2002). Environ.Med. caramel color. Mutat. Later. Pharmacol. J. 171. Salem. T. E.. W. or salts were also added during heating. Ther. etc. Genet. Urol. 557. Ernst and J. 21. M. Forensic Sci. 861 (2003). 129 (2000).. and varying acidic pHs. Int. manufacturing process. Archer and D. 40.. Mutagen.. 73. 43. sulfite compound or both types of reactants in their manufacture. S.. molasses. V. 32. Marques et al. Food Chem. invert sugar. tinctorial strengths. alkalis. A. bases. 72. Aliment. and the classes are primarily based on the use of ammonium compounds. Y. Mutat.. Chanda et al. caramel color III (beer caramel).. Int. J. M. Res. J. Food Chem. 489 (1998).2 About 70% of all caramel color used worldwide is caramel color IV that is made using both ammonium and sulfite compounds as reactants.. 46. Kanki et al. Surh and S. 1 (2002). Snyman et al. Urol. Toxicol..Soontrapaetal. Jones. 517. 124. it is heated to a much lesser degree than caramel color and has a . until the desired color is achieved. 43 (2001). 35.. S. malt syrup. Toxicon. Thailand.. various sugar sources were used (corn syrup.. S. 31. Pharmacol.Assoc. K.4 Caramel for flavoring is prepared by heating milk and sugar.1 Having different colloidal characteristics. S. 33. 170 (2003). 44. Res. E. Barnes. 36. 42. 45. Currently. Haldey.. and caramel color IV (soft-drink caramel). De Seze et al. S. Forensic Sci. III. II. 86. 145 (2004). 17.1. Pappagallo and E. Toxicol.. and IV. the use of sugars has largely been replaced with starch hydrosylates reacted with ammonia and/or sulfite compounds in pressurized reaction vessels raised from an initial 50–70 to about 0. Forst et al. Small quantities of mineral acids... CARAMEL COLOR Common/vernacular names: Burnt sugar coloring.. Med. and foodgrade acids. 251 (2004)... 39. 37. Hypoth. 18. Rev.. J.2 Caramel color has four classes. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Caramel color was initially produced by heating sugar in an open pan. Acta Diabetol. 39. 1337 (2003). 38.. C. 85 (2004). Lazzeri et al. Reilly et al. T.. CNS Drugs. Toxicol. 34. 30.136 Caramel color 29. physical and chemical properties differ among them. E. J. J. C. 39 (2002).. caramel. After cooling. A. the preparation of caramel colors I and II also requires the use of salts. Sci. 313 (1996). 51.. End use. Toxicol. Reilly et al. caramel color II (process caramel). M.. 771 (2003). 215 (1980). Glinsukon et al. 355 (2001). Lee. M.3 However. 14. Szallasi and P. Rodriguez-Stanley et al. known as caramel colors I. 502 (2001).J. Side Effect Drugs Ann. 34. 41. 21.

etc. Chem.6 Available data also show the presence of substituted imidazoles such as 4-methylimidazole (0. prepared meats.1 about 50% digestible carbohydrate. baked goods (III). C. 5. 63. distilled spirits. Licht et al. Minor components include ammonia (0. cosmetic. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Many of the higher molecular weight constituents in caramel colors are still unknown. Howell.. Fuchs and S. 30. FURIA. vermouths (II). Wiley– 2. Technology.12 REFERENCES Various types (acid proof. cola beverages. J. it became the tradition since to add caramel color to lighter extracts that were produced by modern methods to obtain the same color effects. including baked products. p. Food Chem. Its ubiquitous presence in foods is matched perhaps only by salt or sugar. H.. 25% nondigestiblecarbohydrate. 3.21 Official in N. Food Chem. 351 (1992). pyrazines. and were found safe at dosage levels far in excess of those used in foods. 30.0%).C. 1964. Howell. 15. as it was generally believed that a light extract means low strength. Highest average maximum use levels of caramel color are reported in gravies (5. W. and25%melanoidins.. spirit.Caramel color 137 characteristic pleasant flavor but little tinctorial power. 375 (1992). beer. C.4%) and reconstituted vegetables (4. root beers. Food Interscience.5. wines. F. MARTINDALE. I. Kirk1. 7. iron.8%). and soft drinks (IV). caramel color is used directly in practically every category of food product. ed.85 and §73. 23. and confections. Vol.1085.1 ice creams.. Food Chem. Other types of compounds reported to be present in certain caramel colors include anhydrosugars. D.10–20 USES Pharmaceutical. Food Chem. Gaunt et al. jams. 4. gravies. B. including genotoxicity studies.. C. liqueurs. frozen desserts. Sundell.2–2. also powdered form. and copper. Food Cosmet. Furthermore. 509 (1977). . See the General References for FEMA. Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Toxicol.. Myers and J. New York. to be used in foods and drugs (§73. brandies. Standen.. 365 (1992). extracts produced by the botanical industry were mostly dark due to the antiquated technology used. Toxicol.). R.. Formerly. Among the low molecular substances identified are pyrroles. MERCK. and F. I. oligosaccharides.C. and confectioners. spice blends (I). furanoid compounds. and Food. soups. H.1235). respectively). 2nd ed. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS The four caramel colors have undergone extensive testing for toxic effects in animal and in vitro studies. V. also approved as a color additive exempt from certification. B. and food uses. Cosmetic. pyridines.F.1%) and other nitrogenous compounds. 6. 4. for a time. GRAS as a multiple purpose food substance (§182. gravies. Toxicol..005–0. 359 (1992). Fetzer in A. Toxicol. Typical uses of the four caramel colors include desserts. 30. Chappel and J.. Regulatory Status. Licht et al. G. bakers. Toxicol. and imidazoles. Agric. 30. pet foods..6–9 TOXICOLOGY beer.1 Caramel color is one of the most commonly used food colors and produces pale yellow to dark brown colors in products intended for drug. 120 (1975).

. Part used is the dried ripe fruit. Toxicol. Houben and A. Toxicol. MARSH.10. Fundam. Common/vernacular names: Caraway. however. syringin. 411 (1973).. K. K.75 m high.. K. 16. Food Chem. 20. isoquercitrin. G.. (syn. Caraway is generally considered to have carminative and stomachic properties. 91. phellandrene. 30. F. 3. 30 (1993). 431 (1992). MacKenzie et al. monoterpenoid alcohols. 30.11 It also has antispasmodic and antihistaminic activities on isolated animal organs (JIANGSU). Houben et al. MacKenzie et al. Penninks. caraway fruit.. widely branching. Oskarsson. A.. Allen et al. 7 (1994). Thuvander and A. Houben et al.. 10. Apium carvi Crantz) (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae).12–14 Powdered caraway inhibited lipid peroxidation in stored chicken meat. thujone. about 15% lipids. carum. with minor amounts of carveol. 30. Food Chem.and hydroxycoumarins. Seito Gijutsu Kenkyukaishi. 417 (1992).8 Therefore.. 32. Cosmet. 19. dihydrocarvone. M. D.16 Carvone and limonene have shown in vitro chemopreventive activity by . G. among others (JIANGSU. Caraway oil has been reported to exhibit antibacterial activities in vitro as well as larvicidal properties. J. caraway seed. 30. 30. Toxicol. native to Europe and western Asia and naturalized in North America. 87.). 17.. 30. 14. 21. Toxicol.138 Caraway 8. Appl. 427 (1992). 289 (1994). Food Chem. benzyl-b-D-glucopyranoside and others). Wilks et al. M. dihydrocarveol. J.15 As a supplement in the diet of mice. Toxicol. G. contents of carvone.6–9 WICHTL). 403 (1992). R. furano. 25 (1975). F. b-fenchene.. Brusick et al. G. Food Chem.. 30.. and other oxygenated components increase as fruit ripens. Chromatogr.2–6 The volatile oil is composed mainly of a ketone. depending on the degree of ripeness of the fruit. F. Berdick. A. a-thujene.. MacKenzie et al. 92. 749 (1992). J. An ethanol extract of the seeds showed greater potency.. carvone (50–65%). 397 (1992). Toxicol. 26 (1977).. Adams et al. Toxicol. Toxicol. oils obtained from fully mature seeds contain more carvone and less limonene (and other terpenes) and are considered to be of a better quality (ARCTANDER). Food Chem. Food Chem.3 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The seeds contain glucides (coniferin. Komoto et al. Toxicol. CARAWAY Source: Carum carvi L. and others (MASADA. WICHTL). and a terpene. 9. the oil inhibited carcinogen-induced skin tumors.. 389 (1992).. Food Chem. 397 (1992). 25. 13.. Toxicol. best results were found from topical application of the oil. M.. Food Chem.. pinene. A. Food Chem. 15. 20% protein.. widely cultivated. K. Toxicology. 11. M. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Biennial herb with second-year stem up to about 0. F. Houben et al.. limonene (35–45%) (a terpene).. Toilet. 12. etc. An essential oil is obtained from the fruit by steam distillation (GUENTHER). and flavonoids (quercetin-3-glucuronide. M. 30. 18. 20.1 2–8% (usually 3–7%) volatile oil. H. Concentrations of the components vary. a b(1 ! 4) mannan.

25% of the diet of rats for 28 weeks it had no deleterious effects. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 1. USD 26th. official in N. gelatins and puddings. antiflatulent. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.1% and 0. The acute dermal LD50 of the oil in rabbits is 1.68 g/kg and 3. Compounds that induce an increase in the activity of GST detoxification are considered potential inhibitors of carcinogenesis.20–26 also used as a flavor in pharmaceuticals and as a fragrance component in cosmetic preparations including toothpaste. creams. meat and meat products. among others. WREN. FEMA. Oil and extract are used as ingredients in some products as spasmolytic aids to digestion (FOSTER. the maximum acceptable daily intake of carvone in rats was 1 mg/kg. GRIEVE. or seasoning (§182. ¨ GUENTHER. WREN). Caraway oil is used in all major categories of foods. and Cosmetic. baked goods. although it did produce chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells and induced sister chromatid changes.6. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Fruit and oil. etc. oleoresin. BLUMENTHAL 1. and laxative preparations. Traditional Medicine. GRAS as a spice. Caraway oil is widely used in Europe in combination with peppermint oil (see peppermint) and other oils in the treatment of dyspepsia.Caraway 139 inducing the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in several mouse target tissues. and perfumes. 5 days/week) for 2 years. frozen dairy desserts.4% reported in perfumes. Regulatory Status. WREN). and stomachic for dyspepsia.6. candy. carvone produced testicular atrophy and retarded growth. with maximum use level of 0. spasmolytic. and others. BISSET. It is also extensively used in commercial food products particularly baked goods (rye bread. Caraway is widely used as a domestic spice.27 relieving menstrual discomforts. and natural extractives are also GRAS (§182. FOSTER. and others (WICHTL. formerly official in U. carminative.C.P. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. essential oil.10).17 TOXICOLOGY Caraway seeds showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.78 mL/kg. mouthwash. BARRETT. condiments and relishes.19 Carvone showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test. soaps. for dyspeptic complaints such as mild gastrointestinal spasm. at 0. no carcinogenic activity was found in mice of either sex administered carvone by gavage daily (375 or 750 mg/kg/day. JIANGSU.20 Other toxicity studies have found that at 1% of the diet of rats for 16 weeks.5 mL/kg. though therapeutic use not recommended since efficacy is not well documented (BLUMENTHAL 1). however. promoting milk secretion.F. and that based on a 12-week study. lotions. Pharmaceutical.19 USES Medicinal. CLAUS. LUST. Highest average maximum use level is reported to be about 0. and fullness.02% (225 ppm) in baked goods. Used as an antispasmodic. Both essential oil and fruits are subjects of German therapeutic monographs. Food.18 The acute oral LD50 of caraway oil in rats is 6. Used in some carminative. natural flavoring. Essential oil (in daily dose of 3–6 drops).) and meat and meat products. also used to treat incontinence and indigestion.S. Seed used similarly. bloating. stomachic. and F. antimicrobial. ..20). LIST AND HORHAMMER. expectorant.C.

. Rochat. G. I. Phytochemistry. M. M. Kandler. Phytother. Biochem.-Forsch. D. A. 925 (1999). J. cardamomum (syn. 445 (2003). Suteu. Nutr. 46. 277 (1999). Ther. Svendsen. Madisch et al. Shwaird. 455 (2002). 26. 16. 112 (1975). El-Amin et al. Guatemala. 40.. Zheng et al. Plant Sci. Microbiol. 251 (1969). 4. Ther. Program Tech.. UK.Forsch. now cultivated extensively in tropical regions. 17. Goerg and T. A. Chem. Planta Med. Laos. M. 14... Digestion. 58. J. Q. Crude Drug Res.. S. E.. up to about 4 m high. Plants Ind. 61. Can. A. Hardman. Kozlowski. 9. A. 23 (1967). 15. Arzneim. Madisch et al. cardamom seed. TSR Jaunuju Mokslininku Biol. Med. Holtman et al. Trace Elem.) Maton var. Matsumura et al. Z. J. 408 (1985). 2. 5. Herrmann. 45 (2004).. miniscula Burkill) (Family Zingiberaceae). 25. A. 57. 321 (1993). 1241 (1974)..140 Cardamom 1. Rothbaecher and F. Nauji Laimejimai Biol. Spilker. Al-Bataina et al.. Moksline Konf. A.. Kunzemann and K.. H. Phytomedicine. 116 (1978). Westphal et al. Toxicol.. Brandt. 543 (1977). eds. National Toxicology Program. B. Natl. 20. M. E. 85 (2003). Hopf and O. Phytochemistry. Reed. 20 (Suppl. Profiles. Sci. Common/vernacular names: Cardamom. particularly India (Malabar coast). 17. B. Pharmacol. F. Ser. Biochem. J. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial reed-like plant with lance-shaped leaves borne on long sheathing stems. nearly ripe fruits with . G.. Biol.. cardamomum var. Lebensm. 21.. K. Aliment. 2.. 16... T. native to tropical Asia. 16. Lebensm. 4). Oishi et al. Ramadan et al. H. Duke and C. 24. Nemeth and R. Razinskaite.. L.. Liet. Exeter. Embong et al.164. 12. J. Plant. 28. 51 (1972). K.. J. 3. 381. Med. 1715 (1977). 15. F. 19.. May et al... Bochenska and J. Arom. Phytomedicine. 11. A. 93 (1976). B. 3. Pharmacol. 6.. H. Debelmas and J. Sri Lanka (Ceylon).. B. 10.. 49. 1. Cancer. 18.Unters. CARDAMOM Source: Elettaria cardamomum (L. May et al. 8.. Salveson and A. Technol. 285 (1996). 69. Monographs on the Medicinal Use of Plant Drugs. 1 (1990). 1149 (1996). Herba Pol. Q. Reiter and W. Med. Arzneim. 7 (1998). Parts used are the dried. 7. Carvi Fructus (Caraway). 56 (2003). 79. 7. 13. Aliment. 2. 23. Arzneim. 338 (1992). 35. J. 27. Planta Med. 1997... Rep. B. S. J.194(1977). 1671 (2000). Food Agric. and El Salvador.-Forsch. 35 (1967). 19... 22. Planta Med. M. 30.Forsch. 14. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi.

Whole or ground cardamom used as a flavoring ingredient in India-inspired popular tea known as chai.g. with maximum use level of 0. cardamomum var. especially in India. sabinene. dodecanoic. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. linalyl acetate. borneol. frozen desserts. and Cosmetic. Germany. Oils containing a low content of cineole but high content of terpinyl acetate are considered to be of superior quality for flavor applications. and laxative preparations.3. and others (MASADA). and stomachic properties. WICHTL).. including b-sitostenone. 1–10% fixed oil. breads. each of which may be present at concentrations of up to 50% or more.12 Food. detergents.8-cineole. The seed oil is mainly used as a flavor ingredient in Compound Cardamom Spirit to flavor pharmaceuticals. meat and meat products. and dark brown pericarps with coarse striations. 1. approximately 10% protein. lesser components include limonene. nerylic. miniscula Burkill). Scandinavia. Traditional Medicine. condiments and relishes.8 Various constituents of the essential oil show antimicrobial activity in vitro. Mysore and Malabar). a-pinene.9 . myrcene. Cardamom oil has shown in vitro antispasmodic activity on isolated mouse7 and rabbit intestine. Cardamom is used in some carminative. creams.5% in gravies and about 0. and Latin America. Pharmaceutical. baked goods. which has comparatively more elongated fruits (up to approximately 4 cm) than var.10 An aqueous extract of the seeds increases trypsin activity in buffer solution.12 No mutagenic activity was found from cardamom in the Ames test. heptanoic. 1. Both cardamom seed and its oil are widely used as flavor components in most categories offoodproducts. hexanoic. among others ¨ (LIST AND HORHAMMER.13 Contains 2. and gravies.6 USES Medicinal.8–6. gelatins and puddings. the Middle East. also in coffee. Cardamom has been used in medicine for centuries in India and PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Cardamom is considered to have carminative.1–4 Acid constituents of the oil include acetic. camphene. stigmasterol. up to 50% starch. E.2% volatile oil. Against 14 different species. candy.5 Compositions of oils vary. MARSH. citronellic.Cardamom 141 seeds from which an essential oil is obtained by steam distillation.4-cineole.8-cineole was only active against Propionibacterium acnes.01% (117 ppm) for the oil in alcoholic beverages.4 The fixed oil mainly consists of waxes containing n-alkanes and sterols.11 TOXICOLOGY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Available data indicate cardamom oil to be nontoxic. also used as a fragrance component in soaps. and iron. linalool. butyric. among others. cardamomum inhibited the in vitro growth of a human pathogenic strain of Salmonella typhi. a-terpineol. lotions. and perfumes. cardamomum var. Highest average maximum use level reported for the seed is 0. manganese. Alcohol and aqueous extracts of various plant parts of E. Britain. stomachic. The long wild native cardamon of Sri Lanka is obtained from E. Cardamom is used extensively as a domestic spice in curries. major Thwaites (syn. the oil of the which is used as a natural flavoring in liqueurs. depending on types (e.4% reported in perfumes. and cakes. and b-sitosterol. The volatile oil is composed mainly of a-terpinyl acetate and 1. and perillic acids. decanoic. stimulant. geranic. cardamomom.

Kato. and Portugal are the major producers of carob. Adv. Seed and oil. 7.. GUENTHER. locust bean. and sometimes borne on the tree trunk. 9. WICHTL.. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Bohra. rounded glossy leaflets.. 87 (2003). Fruits subject of a German therapeutic monograph in medium daily dose of 1. 6. L. Biol. St. ROSENGARTEN. Koryo.. and natural seasoning (§182.C. 14. official in N. T. Kameoka. 55 (1974). S. Lawrence. 4. 16. M. 39 (1991). 16. Al-Bataina et al. J. Y.. al-Zuhair et al. 8. STAHL. Koryo. Use of the seed as a spice. JIANGSU. Y. B. BARRETT.. Opdyke. and F. 5. 2. The cardamom used in China for these purposes is the fruit of Amomum cardamomum L. indehiscent. 6th International Congress of Essential Oils (Pap. CAROB Source: Ceratonia siliqua L. Plant Sci. 79 (1996). 22 (1975). J. 87 (1989). and solvent-free oleoresins of the seed are GRAS (§182. Yukagaku. 837 (1974). natural extractive. Spain. GREIVE. 38..C. among other conditions. John’s bread. Italy. I. 3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Dome-shaped evergreen tree with dark green compound leaves.20). carob bean. FEMA. 85 (2003). M.. B. 113... widely cultivated in the Mediterranean region. NANJING. M. Amomum cardamoms are from Java and Siam (WICHTL). 2133 (1990).1 .142 Carob China as a carminative. Kubo et al. Trace Elem. 1.F. Agric. J. L. 65. Gopalakishnan et al. Res. J. p. Food Chem. Agric. 1984 (1991). 12. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). fruits (pods) up to 30 cm long. Toxicol.). natural flavoring. 17. 83.. TERRELL. M. 1974.. Food Cosmet. tree up to 15 m high. 39. MASADA. Perfum. LUST. 624 (1963). 24. native to southeastern Europe and western Asia. Yakugaku Zasshi. Food Chem. Flav.. and to treat urinary problems. consisting of two to five pairs of large. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA.5 g for treatment of dyspeptic disorders (BLUMENTHAL 1).). Pharmacol. Part used is the dried ripe fruit. 13. which is considered in Chinese medicine to be superior to that of Elettaria cardamomum (JIANGSU). J. 17 (1975). Haginiwa et al. Lewis et al. UPHOF. either roasted or unroasted. J. Common/vernacular names: Carob. 10. Flav. 106. Chou. Miyazawa and H. GUPTA. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. A. 11.10). B. stimulant.. Daswani and A. Perfum. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Regulatory Status. 12(Suppl. and carob bean gum or locust bean gum from the endosperm of the seed.. 34. and the essential. from which three major commercial products are obtained: carob extract of the dried pod. Med. D. H. S. carob flour from the pulp or the whole pod. Lawrence.

Carob has served as an emergency food and as a sweet for children7 and was used by the ancient Egyptians to make beer (MANNICHE). including gallotannins. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Pod pulp contains 30–40% total fiber.13 An infusion of the pods inhibited the in vitro proliferation of mouse hepatocellular tumor (T1) cells and induced apoptosis in the cells. flavanones (genistein. ferulic.). tannins. and others. flavones (luteolin. proteins. along with an increase in glucose tolerance. gallic acid. Seeds were used in ancient times as weight units for gold from which the term carat is reportedly derived.11 A tannin-rich carob pod preparation also lowered cholesterol levels in rats. isoflavone. and zinc. proline. fructose (13%). acids. However. hence the name St. (À)-epigallocatecin gallate. and chrysoeriol). fats. cinnamic. starch. etc. gum (a galactomannan).3. apigenin. linoleic.5 g/kg/day) showed a significant increase in normal defecation and a faster return to normal body temperature and weight and the cessation of vomiting compared to placebo. kaempferol. and naringenin). and others.1 30–60% (usually 40–50%) sugars mainly composed of sucrose (up to 26% in pulp). amino acids (alanine. placebo-controlled trial in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia.5 g) to the normal daily diet of healthy humans (ages 19–25 years) was found to significantly reduce the absorption of iron.Carob 143 Carob pods are believed to be the locusts consumed by St. The fiber component (derived from the waterinsoluble fraction of the pods) contains 3. abscisic acid (a plant growth inhibitor).65%).15 Selective in vitro binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was found from a methanol extract of the pods. among others. and quercetin). (À)epicatechin gallate.16 In a double-blind. as well as an extract of the leaves. but not copper.14 The crude polyphenol fraction of carob pods exhibits in vitro lipid peroxidationinhibiting.1–5 Carob pods also contain high quantities of dietary fiber1 and polyphenols.7 The seeds contain protein. dextrose. Carob flour and carob extracts . a diet containing 15% carob gum lost weight compared with control animals and showed decreases in blood glucose. and ellagic acid.12 Rats fed USES Food. flavonols (isorhamnetin. a preparation of carob pulp rich in insoluble fiber (15 g/day) significantly lowered total and LDL-cholesterol levels. John’s bread. and flavonol glycosides (quercetin arabinoside and others).18 TOXICOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The addition of carob bean gum (9. xylose. and syringic. inositols. p-coumaric. myricetin. antioxidant.6 catechin. and palmitic acids). including proanthocyanidins. plasma cholesterol. triglyceride levels were only lowered in the female patients and total cholesterol levels decreased by 4% in the females versus only 1% in the male patients. quercetin. maltose.8–10 The protein is localized in the embryo and cotyledons while the gum is present mainly in the endosperm ¨ (LIST AND HORHAMMER).94% polphenols (dry weight). and insulin levels.19 Rats fed preparations of carob pods rich in dietary fiber along with a high-fat diet showed significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and greater fecal mass compared to controls.17 Infants aged 3–21 months diagnosed with acute diarrhea treated with a carob pod powder containing 40% tannins (1. calcium. gallic acid. and free radical scavenging activities. gallic (1. John the Baptist. a high content of essential fatty acids (mostly oleic. valine.

Sci. 73.) have been used as food for centuries. Carob seed is also the source of locust bean gum (galactomannan) that is widely used in foods to increase viscosity. Forestieri.g. Use of carob in the United States is largely as a chocolate substitute. Falsif. imitation dairy. S. Expert. 13. 10. 1727 (2003). and natural extractives of carob bean/St. Expert. Pharmacother. meat and meat products. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. W. carob-flavored milk. Veg. Agric. FEMA. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Ann. Currently. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Roasted and unroasted crude (kibbles). Regulatory Status. I. sweet sauces (0. 14. 50. candy. H. T... Falsif.. Joslyn et al. imitation chocolate.. 3. 166 (1997). P. carob chip cookies. etc. B. and vanilla) in all kinds of food products. 8. Chim. 367 (1972). A. gelatins and puddings. (2002).Amsterdam. Nutr.. and internally in other conditions (MANNICHE). Artaud et al. 29 (2002). and so on... Fitoterapia. Avallone et al. M. primarily as a chocolate substitute. 4.Trop.42%). 173 (1999).21 The ancient Egyptians used the pods in topical treatments of wounds and eye conditions. 685 (1970). creams. 70(749). Mater. Planta. 12. gravies (0.20 Traditional Medicine.. fruit and ices. A. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. 1. 73. Kumazawa et al. Qual. Food Chem. syrup. Essential oil.. for which roasted kibbles are used. 10. fruit and ices (0. Haber. Plant. J. Most et al. 69(737). 109. Toxicol. 15.46%). 3.. 5. Vardar et al.50%). (1989).46%). extracts usually come in specific flavor strengths.. imitation chocolate products containing carob include brownies. 543 (1968)... Food Chem. 41. Sci. 9.. 39 (1977).. 92. Anal. M. Carob flour is widely used in health food products. 11. Food Comp. Herbal 2. Orhan and B. R. Phytother. Perez-Olleros et al. butterscotch. while carob extracts are widely used as flavor ingredients (e. 23 (1976). J.. Wuersch. J.PublicR.Inst. Owen et al.G. 2. 16. 7. 674 (2002).144 Carob (carob syrup. Corsi et al. and many others.. Res. J.. 21. gravies. Food Agric. J. 288 (1969).. UPHOF. frozen dairy desserts.. including weight-loss formulations. sweet sauces. bits. and other products. 365 Chim. 41 (1970). candy bars. R. Sener. J. 79. 390 (2002). Avallone et al.20). R.. Fitoterapia. L. Food Agric.Loo. The dried seed kernels (GHAZANFAR) and carob flour has long been used as an antidiarrheal by people of the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. J. ‘‘energy’’ bars.50%). A decoction of the pods has been used for catarrhal infections (UPHOF). Ann. Highest average maximum use levels reported are in imitation dairy (0. B. Cereal Foods World. depending on users’ requirements. 47. . 19. and condiments and relishes (0. and extracts. solvent-free oleoresin. Artaud et al. fudge. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Y. John’s bread are GRAS (§182. the flour is popular in health foods and as a cocoa substitute. K. tea formulations. 1. baked goods.. condiments and relishes. 373 (2002). 6..

000–500. k-carrageenan contains D-galactose. Denmark. the elasticity or rigidity of the gel . crispus (Irish moss) as its major source. 8.. 42. Ernahrungswiss. chondrus extract. E. Loeb et al. with C.Carrageenan 145 17.. Paediatr.000. Harmuth-Hoene et al. Perinat. Zunft et al. Nutr. WA. Z. The extract is clarified by filtration. and Gigartina species or related red algae (seaweeds) of the class Rhodophyceae. with the United States being by far the largest. 12. In the manufacture of carrageenan. GENERAL DESCRIPTION depending on the process and types of algae used for its manufacture..5 The United States and European countries (e. Epidemiol. Natural Products. however. is soluble in water on heating and forms an elastic gel on cooling. Common/vernacular names: Carrageenan. 19.6-anhydro-D-galactose with a molecular weight usually of 100. The Cacahuatl Eater: Ruminations of an Unabashed Chocolate Addict. Carrageenan comes in many types with different solubilities and gel characteristics. Carrageenan is a sulfated.6-anhydro-D-galactose (FURIA). Pediatr.g.6anhydro-D-galactose and ester sulfate groups.. its pH adjusted to slightly basic.. to form weak to strong gels. J. and Spain) are the major carrageenan producers. Nutr. Carrageenan has high reactivity with certain proteins. It is then extracted with hot water containing calcium or sodium hydroxide. J. Eucheuma. H. Irish moss extract. 235 (2003). 21. Vashon.. The number and position of the sulfate groups and the ratio of galactose to 3. 176 (1998). straight-chain polygalactan composed of residues of D-galactose and 3. 20. S. ethyl or isopropyl).. Its reaction to heating and shearing forces also depends on its chemical nature. 1985. Ott. Eur.. carrageenin. particularly milk protein. France.7 l-Carrageenan is readily soluble in cold water to form a viscous solution regardless of the cations present.. the dried seaweed is first cleaned with cold water and mechanical devices to remove salt and other extraneous materials.) Stackh.1–3 Its primary use is as a food stabilizer. A. 3. The potassium salt of carrageenan. 202 (1982). Aksit et al. H. Gastroenterol. 480 (1989).g. and carrageenan is obtained either by direct drum or roll drying of the filtrate or by precipitation with alcohol (e.2. while l-carrageenan contains D-galactose and its monosulfate and disulfate esters. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Carrageenan is a seaweed gum (hydrocolloid) obtained from various red algae growing along the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. Co. carragheenan. whereas k-carrageenan is precipitated by potassium ions.. 21. Other types of carrageenan include i-carrageenan. F. J.. It occurs in the intercellular matrix and cell walls of the algae and constitutes 60–80% of their salt-free dry weight. It contains a high content of sulfate (20–40% dry weight basis). J. which is composed mainly of monosulfates of D-galactose and 3.4. CARRAGEENAN Source: Chondrus crispus (L. depending on its chemical composition. Carrageenan generally contains two major fractions: a gelling fraction called k-carrageenan and a nongelling fraction called l-carrageenan. It readily dissolves in water to form viscous solutions or gels.6-anhydrogalactose vary greatly.. 18. depending on the type or purity desired.6.

and in the case of ice cream. and increasing water content of the gut when large doses are ingested. all exhibit antiproteolytic activities in vitro against papain. Food-grade carrageenan (molecular weight >100.9 Carrageenan. emulsifier. Carrageenan has inhibitory effects on pepsin activity in vitro. among others. among others. infant formulas.10 TOXICOLOGY At high doses the degraded form of carrageenan (poligeenan) shows various toxic effects. Solutions and gels of carrageenan are degraded rapidly by low pH and high temperatures. molecular weight 20. carrageenan is not absorbed following oral administration and does not undergo metabolization to lower molecular weight substances. preventing the settling of solids.1%. sherberts. reducing gastric secretions and food absorption. both in the degraded (poligeenan. also in hand lotions. nongenotoxic. locust bean gum is often used with carrageenan to improve its gel strength and elasticity. which demonstrated that they are not absorbed through the gutand and are nontoxic. has been reported to alleviate peptic and duodenal ulcers in humans (MARTINDALE).5–1. cream cheese. and immunosuppressive activities.2. and jellies. Food. and thickening properties. and others.11 Other products that incorporate carrageenans include milk products such as chocolate milk. When administered parenterally. primarily in Europe (France). i-Carrageenan (obtained mostly from Eucheuma spinosum) forms thermally reversible elastic gelatin-like gels with calcium ions. and not tumor promoting. thickening sauces.146 Carrageenan depends on the amounts of potassium ions present. to prevent ice crystal formation. bread doughs.8. creams. its use level is usually 0. Furthermore. and Cosmetic. which is extensively used as a model for screening potential anti-inflammatory drugs.2 noncarcinogenic.000). carrageenan produces a reproducible inflammatory condition. Its degraded form (no viscosity) and forms with low and high viscosities. stabilizing. Studies that have shown any toxicity from carrageenan involved injecting the substance into animals or used doses far in excess of amounts that pertain to human exposure. tablets. emulsifying. However.000) do not have the viscosity or gelling properties of food-grade carrageenans (molecular weight >100. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES especially when administered by injection. it has shown anticoagulant.7 USES Medicinal. Degraded carrageenans (molecular weight approximately 15. and others. yogurts. milk desserts. The degraded form has been used in preparations for treating peptic ulcers. and suspending agents. Its major functions are as thickening. gelling. ice cream. puddings. including lowering of blood cholesterol level. Used extensively as binder. Carrangeenans have been used by the meat processing industry to improve the texture of produced meat products with reduced fat. jams. For use in gel products such as jams and jellies. Carrageenan is also used in gravies. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. or stabilizer in toothpastes. Carrageenan is used in various weight-loss Carrageenan has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological activities in animals. evaporated milk.000) and undegraded forms. Pharmaceutical. cottage cheese. stabilizing. hypotensive. .000) has undergone extensive toxicological testing. Carrageenan (or its salts) is extensively used in food products for its gelling. when injected into a rodent’s paw.

Deschner et al. Allergy Appl. KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. UPHOF. 5. R. D. 1. Regulatory Status. Carrot root oil is obtained by solvent extraction of the red carrot (root). Nutr. it contains high concentrations of carotenes (a. p. eds. Asia. 2. GLICKSMAN. C.. Guiseley in A. L. B. has an edible fleshy. subsp. and herbal drinks. Rev. K. 2nd ed. 49. 9. McCandless et al. §582. 1953. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Annual or biennial herb with erect. 1968. J. Smart. Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment.Carrot oils 147 formulations. Vol... Food Sci. Nutr. Ito. Codd et al. and North America. Standen. FURIA. L. Bot. Wiley– Interscience. 12. tough whitish root. ed. 36... Whistler in W. Schultz et al. Gastroenterol.5 m high.623. Common/vernacular names: Carrot oil. C. 10. Int. AVI. Trius and J. Morris. etc. J. Can. CARROT OILS Source: Daucus carota L. Biol. ACS Symp. D. Vol. Arch. 763. J. GRIEVE. subsp.). oil of carrot. 1969. New York. 11. Barnes & Noble. Carrageenan and its ammonium. H. eds.F. 709 (1975). Sebranek. wild carrot oil. A. fruit juice. 55. S. 17. Crit. E..620. much branched stem. 755 (1981). Cohen and N.. R. 69 (1996). 73. calcium. 413 (2002). Adrian. p.. from which carrot seed oil is obtained by steam distillation. M.. 1972. 115 (2003). 15. Immunol. 6. and sodium salts come in many REFERENCES See the General References for FEMA. LAWRENCE. Arnal-Peyrot and J. D. W. Symposium on Foods: Carbohydrates 7. LUST. WHISTLER AND BEMILLER.. also in drinks. carota L. 49 (1977). and Their Roles.. 218. Clin. or Queen Anne’s lace. Renn. 8. (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). §182. E. L. CT. Catanzaro. carota.7255. MARTINDALE. Sawicki and P.626). 3. Methods Mol.) Arcang.. YOUNGKEN. especially aloe vera. 282 (1975). WREN. 5. J.7255). E. E. Queen Anne’s lace. Toxicol. Academic Press. Part used is the dried fruit. orange-red taproot. 225. 2053 (1977). Med. F. §582. Carrageenan and its salts are GRAS (§172. L. Stancioff and D. . Ser. The common cultivated carrot. 32. sativus (Hoffm. carota L. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. potassium. wild carrot is native to Europe. has an inedible. and N. 10. p.C. Blood in L.. T.C. §172. New York. §172. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. New York. Polysaccharide Chemistry. W. J. up to about 1.. 4.. 27. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS grades and types to meet specific end use requirements.. while the wild carrot.7115. Official in F. b. Westport. 13.. p. G. Whistler and C. naturalized in North America.

lotions.10 USES Medicinal. creams.19 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES COX-I and -II-inhibiting activity of the oil is largely attributed to trans-asaraone. g-decalactone. vanillin. and C. Carrot seed oil is used as a flavor ingredient in most major categories of food products. gelatins and puddings.16 In vitro activity of the oil was also shown against Aspergillus parasiticus and its production of aflatoxin.4% in perfumes. nerolidol. usually in rather low use levels (<0.5 Carrot root oil is used in certain sunscreen preparations and as a source of b-carotene and vitamin A. b-selinene. g-decanolactone.300). among others. terpinen4-ol. trans-asarone. no distinction between root oil and seed oil is given in §182. limonene. and Cosmetic. kruseii. C.15%.). It also inhibits the in vitro growth of Candida albicans. Others. daucol. Carrot seed oil is used primarily as a fragrance component in soaps. detergents. b-farnesene. caryophyllene oxide. a-terpineol. carotol (up to 18.5 However. It also depressed cardiac action in isolated frog and dog hearts. Pharmaceutical.4.1–13 Oil content is highly variable. from 0. Food. and others (JIANGSU). palmitic acid. Other constituents present include oleic acid. 2. and soups. eugenol. 2. methyl eugenol. Regulatory Status. (À)-b-bergamotene. and perfumes.C. which have potential as starting materials for the synthesis of new fragrance compounds.5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. and carrot (root) oil has been approved for use as a food color (§73. frozen dairy desserts. geraniol. b-elemene. b-pinene.05% to 7. geraniol.20. caryophyllene.18 Carrot seed oil contains a-pinene (up to 13. b-bisabolene. Carrot (seed) oil is GRAS (§182.003%). In mice infected with H. Traditional Medicine. TOXICOLOGY Data indicate carrot seed oil to be nontoxic.39%). in Chinese medicine to treat chronic dysentery and as an anthelmintic. baked goods. Highest use level reported is 0. oral administration of the oil cleared the bacteria in 20–30% of cases. Active constituents were identified as limonene and terpinene.29%). Carrot root oil is used mainly as a yellow food color because of its carotene content. the chloroform/methanol fraction and petroleum ether extracts of the seeds have . condiments and relishes. coumarin.o. candy. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available as carrot oil (that can be either seed oil or root oil). meat and meat products. including alcoholic (particularly liqueurs) and nonalcoholic beverages. Carrot seed oil can serve as sources of carotol and daucol.5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. seed oil is official in F.C. and oleic acid. 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol.3%). Seeds used as a diuretic and emmenagogue and for flatulence in the form of a decoction or infusion. geranyl acetate (up to 10. butyric acid.20).4.4.14trans-Asaraone is toxic to mosquito larvae in vitro and some species of nematodes and caterpillars in vivo.11 The seed oil inhibits the in vitro growth of Campylobacter jejuni15 and Helicobacter pylori.148 Carrot oils CHEMICAL COMPOSITION shown antifertility activity in female rats (20 mg/kg p.17 Carrot seed oil has also shown in vitro vasodilatory and smooth-muscle relaxant activities on isolated animal organs. asarone. parapsilasis. pylori.

143 (1972). Chelovskaya and A. Agric.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Small. CLAUS. D. Food Prot..) (Family Rhamnaceae). Rast.g. Harborne et al. J. 13. B. 3. Mezhdunar. Reprod. 47. Oregon. emodin.. Food Chem. 1545 (2002). Riechst. G. J. Mazzoni et al. 2. 17. Nair.. 1972). Soroczynska. Perfum. Res.. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 3240 (2003). 48. (1990). J. 383 (1968). R. Food Cosmet. I. 25.. 18. FEMA. Fragr. Pigulevskii and V. Bergonzelli et al. 64 (1974). A. GRIEVE. S. Batt et al. Momin and M. 160. and age for 1 year before use. with minor concentrations of O-glycosides (e. Siefert et al. 713 (2003). Kongr. 6. Acad. Opdyke. . o 5. Flav. 15.. Agents Chemother. C.. E. 1729 (1969). Rhamnus purshiana D C. 89. K.. J. Food Agric.. 2 227. V. R. Efirnym Maslam (Mater. 8.to medium-size. Garg and V. G. 7. 412 (1972). B.. BARNES. as the fresh bark has an emetic principle that is destroyed on prolonged storage or by heating. 63 1. 4. Riechst. Nikolaev. and F and barbaloin and chrysaloin). D. Kuleska et al. Cooper (syn. 268 (1999)... S. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. aloe-emodin. Washington. CASCARA SAGRADA Source: Frangula purshiana (D C. 527 (1966). 14. 44(Suppl. Idaho. 14.. Lawrence. Aromen. C. N. 2. Aromen. 19. A. Cosmet. 11. T. J. 15.. Antimicrob.. o 9. Kovaleva. K€rperpflegem.. J. sacred bark. J.. Kulesza et al. Sci. Strzelecka and T.. K€rperpflegem. 705 (1976). 19. G. cascara sagrada.. 10. M. J. W. A. Momin et al. An. S. 14. native to the Pacific Coast of North America (northern California. E. and Montana). 17. 8. 31... V. J. 4th (Pub. This emetic principle is now generally considered to be composed of monoanthrones and their O-glycosides that are oxidized to nonemetic anthraquinones or anthrone C-glycosides on storage or heat treatment. LUST. Fertil. British Columbia. 976 (2003).).. 13 (1974). Perfum. deciduous tree with reddish brown bark and hairy twigs. (1968). Bras. H... it is then allowed to dry Contains 6–10% (usually ca.) J. frangulin) also present. B.. JIXIAN. 30. 138 (1875). chittem bark. Toxicol. M.. 34 (1973). 65. Other constituents include free anthraquinones (e. G. Cheema et al. 16. Mathur. Common/vernacular names: Cascara. TERRELL. Food Sci.. 23.. Pol. Cienc. GUENTHER. G.g. J. Kobayashi et al. L. Hogg et al. Farm. 762 (1983). Plant Physiol. Phytother. MARTINDALE. L. J... J.. 50. which is removed from trees with trunk diameter of about 10 cm or more. 4. NANJING.Cascara sagrada 149 REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Phytochemistry.).. R.. Friedman et al. Flav. HUANG. BAILEY 2. Resur. Part used is the bark. up to about 13 m high. 4475 (2002) 12. JIANGSU. 8%) anthraglycosides as its active principles that consist primarily (60% or more) of C-glucosides (cascarosides) A. M.

008% (75 ppm). Mild acid hydrolysis of cascarosides yields aloins.14 Bark subject of a German therapeutic monograph. among others (STAHL). tablets. Pharmaceutical. and physcion). In 2002. for those taking cardiac glycosides potassium deficiency may result in cardiac arrhythmias (FUGH-BERMAN. MARTINDALE. extracts in herbal formulas (capsules. bitterless. STAHL. and cascaroside concentrates. aromatic fluid extract. and chrysophanol. Food. aromatic fluid extract.and isodianthrones (WICHTL). frangulaemodin. while cascarosides C and D are O-glucosides of chrysaloin. can be broken down to their aglycones only by strong oxidative hydrolysis. aromatic). WICHTL). powder extract. FUGH-BERMAN. FDA. Crude aged bark used in laxative and detoxicant teas. as a treatment for worms in children. . Allowed as a natural flavoring substance at subtherapeutic levels (§172. aloe-emodin.and aloe-emodin8-O-glucoside). BEUTLER. however. WICHTL. USES Medicinal. frangulaemodin. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. BRUNETON. tannins. allowed for short-term use in laxative formulations.150 Cascara sagrada isoemodin. Cascarosides A and B are O-glucosides of barbaloin. and lipids. REFERENCES Crude and fluid extract. which. ESCOP See the General References for APhA. Regulatory Status.10–12 Laxatives can potentially interfere with orally administered drugs taken at the same time through a decrease in intestinal transit time. also taken for arthritis and rheumatism. and used topically for sores (MOERMAN). ruled that in over-the-counter products cascara sagrada is not GRAS and effective. BAILEY 1. and Cosmetic. and small amounts of hetero.S. granular extract.P.1–6 Cascarosides account for 60–70% of the total anthraglycosides (anthracene derivatives) present. the remainder (10–20%) consists mostly of anthraquinone-O-glucosides (e. FEMA. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. the U. Only the bitterless extract is reportedly used as a flavor component in foods.. aglycones of chrysophanol. resins. LUST. Average maximum use level is below 0. WICHTL). BARNES. drinks. frozen dairy desserts. also used in sunscreens.510). etc. Traditional Medicine.S. including nonalcoholic beverages. Strengths of extracts (see glossary) are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios as well as total cascaroside content. DER MARDEROSIAN AND 1. reportedly used in treatments of cancer. solid extract (bitter.g. Used extensively in laxative preparations. Long-term use of anthranoid-containing laxatives can result in potassium depletion. BLUMENTHAL 1. and bitter fluid and powder extracts are official in U.7–9 Cascarosides are more active than their hydrolyzed products (aloins and free anthraquinones). crude.13 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Cascarosides A and B are responsible for most of the cathartic properties in cascara and act on the large intestine by inducing increased peristalsis (see senna). only sold in pharmacies (BLUMENTHAL 1.) for the laxative and alleged detoxicant effects. Bark infusion used by various North American Indian tribes as a laxative and purgative. YOUNGKEN. also known as chrysophanic acid). and candy and baked goods.

601 (1990). Fairbairn et al. 14(Suppl. Food and Drug Administration. 1). 31125 (2002). 10. Mahran. J.5–3. methylthymol. Demuth. 1). W. F. and others. 27(Suppl...1 Part used is the dried bark from which an essential oil is obtained by steam distillation. H. Nelemans. and perfumes (particularly oriental Contains cascarillan as the major constituent and other diterpenes (cascarillans A–D.. 8. Tinctures and extracts are used in certain bitter tonic preparations. d-limonene. J. 66. Ind. 14(Suppl. cascarillone. J. Pharmacology. Fairbairn and G.. F. Z. Pharm. Drug Cosmemet. The volatile oil consists primarily of p-cymene. 16. dipentene. a bitter principle (cascarillin A). J. Pharm.Cascarilla bark 151 1. (Family Euphorbiaceae). 37. Naturforsch. L. Jamaica. Fairbairn and S.7–10 GENERAL DESCRIPTION PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Large shrub to small tree. 14(Suppl. Y. 7. 12. Cuba. and cascarilladiene (MASADA). Simic. Pharmacol. creams.0% volatile oil. J. flowering and fruiting year round. A. B. 18 (1976). 121. 444 (1974). HHS. 1). and sweetwood bark.. b-caryophyllene. 3. . Leung. H. E.. 103 (1971). among others (LISTAND HORHAMMER). and Cosmetic. 450 (1964). Pharmacol. a-thujene. J. 34.. 78 (1976). Regist..12 TOXICOLOGY Data indicate that cascarilla bark is not toxic. camphene. Pharmacology. detergents. sweet bark. native to the West Indies (Bahamas. H. cuparophenol. 14. H. Pharm. 1). 11. Fed. CASCARILLA BARK Source: Croton eluteria (L. Pharmaceutical. cascallin. 4. H.4). Wagner and G. van Os. and Ecuador). Lemli. D. Hartwell. 6. 91P (1975). Pharmacology. Hepatogastroenterology. terpinen-4-ol. de Witte and L.) Sw. cascarilladone. W.2 eleuterins A–K. a-terpineol. 5. L. W. E. Z. 14(Suppl. van Os. A. 5. 73 (1976). 42 (1977).3 1. P. Godding.3 The essential oil has shown antimicrobial activities.5. mainly from the Bahamas. resins.). J. Common/vernacular names: Cascarilla... 13. Sci.1. Pharm. Evans et al. a-and b-pinene. Naturforsch. 267 (1976). J. 7 (1976). Wagner and G. ¨ and lipids. Lloydia.). Pharmacol. up to 12 m high. pseudoeleuterin B3. W. F. 2. C. 67. 1300 (1977). Pharmacology. borneol. 9. 29. etc.6 Additional constituents include cineole. also grows in tropical America (Mexico. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION An acetone extract of the bark and carscarillin potentiated histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in a mouse stomach preparation. F. L. essential oil as a fragrance component in soaps. J. 31b. starch. 827 (1953). lotions.13 USES Medicinal. eugenol. lupeol (triterpene). Colombia. Demuth. tannin.

Liguori. oil is official in F. 5131 (2002). Pharm. Kosmet. 8.007% (72. 707 (1976). B.. 4.4% reported in perfumes. Hagedorn et al. J.. Maruzzella and N. J.152 Cassie absolute types and men’s fragrances). Ass. Algonac. 2000. J. Fr. Ass. popinac absolute. L. Agric. W.. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). Jamaica. Phytochemistry. 57. J. candy. 2. aromatic stimulant. University of the West Indies.3 aromatic bitter. Jamaica. 5 (1973). Phytochemistry. 193 (1991). J. A. Perfum. Motl et al. M. O. D. baked goods. YOUNGKEN. FEMA. extracts. Essential oil. Fattorusso et al. Used in flavoring smoking tobacco. Lawrence. Extract is mainly used as a tobacco additive4 and in alcoholic (bitters and liqueurs) and nonalcoholic beverages.20). 1–2. 7. UPHOF. 12. Medicinal Plants of Brazil. 50. Toxicol. Flavor. CASSIE ABSOLUTE Source: Acacia farnesiana (L. C.14 malaria. with average maximum use levels of 0.. dysentery. 88 (1976). Flowering Plants of Chim. Chim. 1209 (2001). MERCK. Used in the treatment of fevers. especially for men’s fragrances.01% and about 0. 11.C. 10. Claude-LaFontaine et al.. Traditional Medicine. Common/vernacular names: Cassie absolute. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. 6. Food Chem. huisache.. Claude-LaFontaine et al. Appendino et al. Trka. 3 (1977).. 2(1). Motl and A. 13. J. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.5 Food. with maximum use level of 0. 47. . C. C.08% (775 ppm). J.. Food Cosmet. Fragr. 14. Soc. AYENSU. Pharm. Agric. M. and as digestive.1 ppm) reported for the last category. Reference Publications.. 414. 250 (1958). Fr. O. 3. Am. 1972. 407 (1972).. Sicurella.. A. 6970 (2003). G. 49. Opdyke. TERRELL. Vigor et al. 1. B. and essential oil. J. Highest average maximum use level is 0. Flav. 11. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. GUENTHER. p. GRIEVE. 51. dyspepsia (DUKE 2). and sweet acacia.) Willd. Others.. A. u 54. MI. because of its power and tenacity... Adams. E.13 The oil is used by compounders.. Regulatory Status.. Bull. Bull. C. Essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient in most major categories of food products. 5. Mors et al.C. and condiments and relishes. Mona. solvent-free oleoresin. Soc. and natural extractives are GRAS (§182. Am. and body tonic (AYENSU). D.. respectively. Parf€m. 9. 692 (1960). 6. frozen dairy desserts. Maruzzella and L. Food Chem. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. 9–10. BAILEY 2. 14.. L. 2866 (1973).

UPHOF. Planta Med. 183 (1974). JIANGSU. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. baked goods. Cairo Univ. now widespread and cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. 336. Bull. Produced e primarily in Cannes. aphrodisiac.. Others. which are composed mainly of benzyl alcohol.. 18. 3–9 m high.. ROSE. frozen dairy desserts. 4. and gelatins and puddings. geranyl acetate. The absolute is used as a fragrance component in some high-cost perfumes. The last three compounds are responsible for much of the characteristic fragrance of cassie oil. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Absolute and oil. stimulant. The absolute is used as a flavor ingredient (fruit flavors) in most major categories of food products.002%. with average maximum use levels generally below 0.7 Root has been used in treating stomach cancer in Venezuela. DUKE 1. A. with very fragrant flowers. used in baths for dry skins. D. p.2 USES Medicinal. febrifuge. 1972. Helv. . BAILEY 1. and trans-3methyl-dec-4-enoic acid. farnesol. antidiarrheal. University of the West Indies. gum marketed with other acacia gums. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172.8 also used in China to treat rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Karawaya et al. 13. GUPTA. Chim. with more than 40 other minor compounds. Regulatory Status. 1. 52. nerolidol. E. Mona. also in India. France. ¨ LIST AND HORHAMMER. believed to be native of the Old World. hydrocarbons and waxes). Pharm. CSIR I.. MORTON 2. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. used in confectionery. (À)-3-methyl-dec-3-en-1-ol. and geraniol. and Cosmetic.. 98 (1970). also used as antispasmodic. (À)-3-methyl-dec-3-enoic acid.1 Parts used are the flowers from which a concrte is first prepared by extraction with e petroleum ether. Food. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Demole et al. antirheumatic.510). including a-ionone. Bark and pods (23% tannin) used for tanning. GUENTHER. DUKE 2. In India. Jamaica. M. Jamaica. Flowering Plants of 3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The absolute contains approximately 25% of volatile constituents. linalyl acetate. Adams. Fac. S. the absolute is then obtained by alcohol extraction of the concrte. leaves are used to treat inflammatory conditions6 and gonorrhea. C. methyl salicylate.Cassie absolute 153 GENERAL DESCRIPTION Thorny shrub to small tree. Acta. Pharmaceutical. 2. and insecticide in the form of an infusion. Flowers used topically to relieve headache. El-Hamidi and I. Traditional Medicine.g. Sidrak. dihydroactinidiolide.2–5 The nonfragrant material present accounts for about 75% of the absolute and consists mostly of high molecular weight lipids (e. root chewed for sore throat. candy. 24 (1969). dried gum ground to powder for diarrhea.

4 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION An annual herb (up to 5 m high) when grown in temperate zones and a perennial shrub or tree (up to about 15 m high) in warmer climates. A. Rofaeel. castor oil has a characteristically high viscosity. 39. (Family Euphorbiaceae). which remains in the seed cake (pomace) after the expression of castor oil. Indian Drugs.6 A feeding study in chicks found that at concentrations of 0. The seed also contains ricinine (an alkaloid). 8. Common/vernacular names: Castor bean. 6. 25–35%. Husain. and ricinus.000–54.1–3 Castor bean (seed) contains a highly poisonous protein (ricin).. Castor seed is extremely toxic due to its content of ricin. China.1. It also has emollient properties on the skin and is soothing to the eyes. El-Gamassy and I. and a very powerful heat-stable allergen (MARTINDALE). lectins. 39.5 Glycoprotein allergens present in the seed pulp can cause serious symptoms (asthma. Ricin is reported to contain 18 different amino acids and to have a molec- Castor oil facilitates the absorption of oilsoluble anthelmintics and should not be used with them. 33. as few as three seeds can cause fatal gastroenteritis. Lloydia. S. 97 (1970). hot pressing and solvent extraction yield darker grades of oil. besides purgation. eye irritations. dihydrostearic. J. Hukkeri et al. chewing a single seed may be fatal to a child (MARTINDALE). Castor oil is remarkably stable and does not easily turn rancid. and whereas seven or eight seeds are believed to be sufficient to kill an adult. Castor bean is composed of many varieties.000. L. with ricinoleic acid comprising 80–90% of the total fatty acid glyceride content. castor seed produced toxicity characterized by . palma christi. Fitoterapia. M. and colic. M. B. and India. V. skin rashes. acting on the small intestine and producing purgation 2–8 h after ingestion. oleic.) in certain individuals (MARTINDALE).. castor oil has cathartic properties. Parts used are the ripe seeds from which a colorless to pale oil is obtained by cold pressing. andstearic acids. vomiting. Large doses may produce. 62(4). Major castor oil-producing countries include Brazil. CASTOR OIL Source: Ricinus communis L.2 Due to the content of ricinoleic acid. Steam or moist cooking of the pomace destroys the ricin.5 Allergic reactions are also reported from wearing ornamental necklaces made of the seeds. Hortic. and as a result of hydrogen bonding of its hydroxyl groups. yield. which is not present in the oil. 664 (2002). Hartwell. It is generally believed to be a native of Africa or India and is extensively cultivated worldwide. 53 (1975). Egypt J.5–5% of the diet. which are of lower quality. 7. 2. its usual dose is about 15 mL. ular weight of 53. Siddiqui and W.154 Castor oil 5. Ricinoleic acid is a hydroxy acid. etc.1. nausea. I. 325 (1991). TOXICOLOGY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Castor oil contains fatty acid glycerides of linoleic. hay fever.

and Cosmetic. as an ingredient in lipsticks. varnishes. Philippines. 1 and no. vomiting. FEMA.S.11 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS No.5 A teaspoon of the oil with parsley has been used to treat asthma (Haiti).2. and Brazil). bronchial catarrh (Guatemala).). Used as a cathartic. abnormal posture. candy. USD 26th. Argentina. and as a purgative (Italy. GRIEVE.Castor oil 155 locomotor disturbances. Topical uses include bone deformities. flatulence in children.10 Sulfonated castor oil (Turkey red oil) is widely used in the textile and printing industry as a surfactant. warts. baked goods. Columbia. anemia with significant increases in serum sorbitol dehydrogenase. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. and meat and meat products. JIXIAN. and manganese were also observed. Food. MERCK. HUANG. JIANGSU. suppository bases. old age spots. Regulatory Status. plastics. GRIEVE. hemorrhoids (Brazil). bedsores (Nigeria).1). sedative (East and South Africa). Traditional Medicine.C. and reddening and irritation of the eyes (Columbia). vomiting. and total hepatic and cardiac lipids. particularly in the treatment of food poisoning and in evacuation of the bowel before X-ray examination. as a flavor component (e. and eventual death. mastitis during breastfeeding (Indian and Pakistan). glutamic dehydrogenase. ointments.. .7 Other animal studies on the seeds have reported fever. perspiration. and others. impaired vision. by far the largest use of castor oil is as its dehydrated or partially dehydrated form in industrial lubricants. lotions. as a solvent or vehicle in some parenteral and ophthalmic preparations. minerals.1. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. frozen dairy desserts. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. Egypt. prolapse of the rectum.510) and as a diluent in color additive mixtures for finished foods in a concentration of not more than 500 ppm (§73. serum protein totals. butter and nut flavors) in major categories of foods such as nonalcoholic beverages. conjunctivitis (India). and China as a cathartic and externally for sores and abscesses.C. scalds (Brazil). and certain perfume chemicals. BRUNETON. and others. YOUNGKEN. potassium. eczema (Russia). Castor oil is used as an antisticking and release agent in hard candy production and as a component of protective coatings in tablets (vitamins. also in synthesis of urethanes. Pharmaceutical. sties. glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase.5 Others.055% reported for frozen dairy desserts. 3 quality oils. seeds also reportedly used as an oral contraceptive in Algiers8 and India. burns. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. diarrhea (South Africa). Indonesia. diarrhea. MARTINDALE. with highest average maximum use level of 0. Other uses of the oil include intestinal colic (Iran). DUKE 4. UPHOF.g. creams. coatings. and F. Castor oil is approved for use in foods as a natural flavoring substance (§172. ulcerated feet (Columbia). limb paralysis (Algeria). hair-grooming products.5 USES Medicinal. Mexico. NANJING. paints. scabies (Angola).9 however. transparent soaps. Castor oil is official in U. etc. The seed oil was used by the ancient Egyptians for embalming in mummification. growth depression.P. Castor oil has been used for centuries in India. foams. among others. Theoil hasalso been instilledintothe ear totreat otitis (Sri Lanka) and earache (Italy). Decreases in hepatic vitamin A. tinea or seborrhea of the scalp (Ethiopia). LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. among others.

fiber). 7.5% castorin (a waxy crystalline substance separated Few tests (primarily dermatological) using castoreum tincture have indicated it to be nontoxic. castorin. etc.. Vol. p. canadensis Kuhl (Family Castoridae). J. T. Khranit. Wiley– Interscience. with the Siberian material generally higher in volatile oil. 117 (1982). cinnamic acids. 2nd ed. Ann. V.. 20. Nawaby et al. M. A. Plovdiv. and other properties. 167 (1973). R.. 107 (1972). 1.3 ..). Mochida. 217 (2004). 205 (1992). Standen.. A. while the Siberian beaver is found in Europe and Siberia. phenols (phenol. Khadzhiiski and M. 34 (1997). etc. J. TOXICOLOGY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains 1–2% volatile oil.). p-ethylphenol. Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment. 61 (1974). The Canadian beaver inhabits lakes and rivers of Canada and northern United States. A. J.. LIST AND 2 ¨ HORHAMMER. C. J. Ethnopharmacol. Nauch. 20. S. chavicol.2-cyclohexanediol. 4. New York. 6. 5.. Vissh Inst. A. ed. These scent glands with their secretion (castoreum) are collected and dried.. 5. 0.. Vkusova Prom. J. El Badwi et al. L. 23.4% calcium phosphate. up to 80% of an alcohol-soluble resinoid material. 6. Res. 401 (1998). 204 (1974). N. A. acids (benzoic.. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Believed to have sedative. o-ethylphenol.). 1967. Koja and K.156 Castoreum 1. p-propylphenol. Vol. 2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Beavers are large pale brown to chestnutbrown rodents. Tchapla et al. Torricelli and B. Barnes & Noble. 11. Brondegaard. canadensis) and Siberian or European beaver (C. 9. ketones (acetophenone and its derivatives.) are prepared by solvent extraction. 5. Indian Chem. castoramine. salicylic. G. 21.. No pharmacological data are available. p. from which extracts (absolute. an ionone derivative. Guerci. CASTOREUM Source: Castor fiber L. High Resolut.). New York. Planta Med. W. eds. KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.. Kalichkov. Sci. Allergologie. or C. Wuthrich. etc. Canadian castoreum and Siberian castoreum differ considerably in their relative concentrations of certain of these constituents. etc. POUCHER). Codd et al. betuligenol. Tr. 10. Common/vernacular names: Secretion of Canadian beaver (C. Chromatogr. Castoreum is the secretion accumulated in glands located near the pubis (between anus and sex organs) of these animals. N. Phytother. etc. 524. Subramanian. Scarpa and A. cis-l. Hutzler in A. cholesterol and other alcohols (benzylalcohol..1 from the hot alcoholic extract on cooling). Eisei Kagaku. 187. tincture. nervine. V. 8. J. and others (ARCTANDER.33–2. 27. 21. 4. O’Neill in L. 1972. Canadian castoreum is considered superior in quality to the Siberian castoreum. and resinoid ¨ matter (LIST AND HORHAMMER). 3. Sep..

4% reported in perfumes.. Vol. iron). Uncaria gambir is an evergreen woody vine. pale catechu. 1967. gambir). creams.). catechu. 130 1. E. candy.. Hunter) Roxb. brown cutch. etc. and Cosmetic.Catechu (black and pale) 157 USES Medicinal. examples include Bombay catechu and Borneo cutch. it is a pale brown to dark mass occurring in cubes (EVANS).g. soaps. The terms catechu and cutch can also mean products other than black catechu and pale catechu. cachou. LIST AND HORHAMMER. ed. 25–33% phlobatannin (EVANS). D. up to 13 m high. p. and gravies. catechu). 2nd ed. cutch. Extracts used as flavor components (particularly in vanilla flavors) in most major categories of foods such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. gambir catechu.and dl-epicatechin. restless sleep. red pigments. quercitrin. gambier. Rarely used in pharmaceuticals. 11. 22–50% catechutannic acid. 17. POUCHER.7 ppm). dysmenorrhea. REFERENCES ¨ See the General References for ARCTANDER.1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Acacia catechu is a spiny. Pale catechu: Uncaria gambir (W.. with maximum use level of 0. Food Cosmet. and others (JIANGSU). Indonesia. New York. a shiny black mass.f. Experientia. Pharmaceutical. Kirk-Othmer (1961). Black catechu contains 2–12% l. Wiley–Interscience. and drying yields black catechu. Both black catechu and pale catechu are incompatible with alkaloids.009% (93. Parts used are the leaves and twigs. white cutch. 2. Average maximum use levels reported are usually below 0. meat and meat products. baked goods.. the aqueous extract after filtration. pegu catechu. Valenta et al. respectively. Main use (generally as a tincture) is in cosmetics as a fragrance component or fixative in perfumes (particularly men’s fragrances and oriental types). gambir.3 Food. Opdyke..and dl-catechin.) Willd. proteins (e. gelatin). black cutch. . Used in amenorrhea. and lotions. quercitin. evaporation. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). Standen. Common/vernacular names: Catechu. Part used is the heartwood. terra japonica (U. deciduous mediumsize tree. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. which are extracted with boiling water to yield pale catechu after filtration and evaporation of the extract to dryness. 717.. cashou (A. dark catechu. and metallic salts (e. Shiftan in A. frozen dairy desserts. CATECHU (BLACK AND PALE) Source: Black catechu: Acacia catechu (L. (Family Rubiaceae). 14. L. which are derived from Areca catechu (betel nut) and a mangrove species. Traditional Medicine. native to southeastern Asia (Malaysia. J. l. hysteria.g. FEMA. among others. 1061 (1973). and as analeptic and nervine. 3. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Mainly crude. gelatins and puddings. native to India and Myanmar. which is extracted with boiling water. MARTINDALE. Z. fisetin. Toxicol.

11 antipyretic. it contains several indole alkaloids. In addition.S. expectorant. sores. frozen dairy desserts. An aqueous extract of A. ellagic acid. and. ulcers. Others. Gambirine has been reported to have hypotensive properties (GLASBY 1). candy. while pale catechu was official in N.F.158 Catechu (black and pale) Pale catechu contains d. black catechu is also reported to be used in cancers.7 Also. catechu (small branches) has shown hypotensive effects in anesthetized dogs and rats following i. respectively.6 TOXICOLOGY Fed to rats as part of the normal diet (0.. gambirfluorescein. as well as toxicities of tannins (see tannic acid).P.2–5 primarily as an astringent in certain antidiarrheal preparations and in mouthwashes. anti-inflammatory. Other Indian uses of black catechu include abortifacient. antibacterial.. and other pharmacological properties. USES Medicinal. an extract of the bark of black catechu has been orally administered in the treatment of leprosy. and gelatins and puddings. anodyne. Pale catechu has been used to treat aphthous ulcers of the mouth. hemorrhoids. and others are also found in leaves and/or stems (JIANGSU). respectively. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.510). ulcers. administration. baked goods. psoriasis. As a source of tannic acid used for tanning and dyeing. catechol. Traditional Medicine. Both black and pale catechus are used in stopping nose bleeding and in treating boils. and others. In China. the minimum daily requirement of niacin was increased and niacin content of liver. black catechu and pale catechu have astringent.5% of the diet. and others. gambirdine. Pharmaceutical. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Because of their high tannin content. gallic acid. and Cosmetic. Both black and pale catechus are used . and others (WILLIAMSON). catechu red (EVANS).01% and 0. bronchitis (bark extract). blood.9 In India. with highest average maximum use levels of 0.and dl-catechin (7. Black catechu was formerly official in U. Gambirine. anthelminitic.016% reported in candy and alcoholic beverages. tincture). one of the major uses of black catechu is in treating indigestion in children.33%) and the condensation product catechutannic acid (22–50%). used as a gargle to treat sore throat (NADKARNI). at 0. Black catechu extract (type of extract not specified) has been reported as the more commonly used. and oxogambirtannine. diluted with water. Both are used as flavor components in major categories of food products. d-Catechin has been reported to cause constriction of isolated rabbit ear blood vessels and suppression followed by enhancement of the amplitude of the isolated toad heart (JIANGSU). including gambirtannine. dihydrogambirtannine.g.v. and muscle was decreased. Food.1%). Regulatory Status. Indian catechu (‘‘katha’’) was found to decrease liver and blood levels of niacin by 43% and 48%.8 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts (e. quercitin. anemia. pigments.10 Various parts of the plant have also been used topically for bathing leprous sores (NADKARNI). Black catechu is approved for food use as a natural flavoring (§172.

Tetrahedron Lett. 11. Best known for its ability to elicit behavioral responses in cats. Part used is the flowering tops and the essential oil obtained from steam distillation. andneral (citral b).. 23. J. JIANGSU. p. humuline.and Z. 9. and the Iranian plateaus. whereas .. Dis. cataria L. crenate. and others following exposure to the odor of the plant. 37. Hartwell.2 high amounts of geranyl acetate. flowering in spike. plus 5. C. Hatwalne. iridoids. Merlini et al. Vitaminol. Chaudhari and V.3 geranial (citral a).6 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains0. domestic or large. 6. not all cats.9-epideoxyloganic acid5 and 7-deoxyloganic acid. 131 (1968)..5. and others.nerol. 125 (1971). citronellyl acetate. outgoing cats respond well. 50. 4. commercially harvested from naturalized populations in Virginia. 182. sexual stimulation. J. 171 (2004). Ethnopharmacol.dihydronepetalactone. licking. Merlini et al..Catnip 159 REFERENCES See the General References for CLAUS. D. 2. known as ‘‘the catnip response. GRIEVE.also b-caryophyllene. Chemical Synonyms and (1984). Corsi Semin..9-dehydronepetalactone. 11. W. thymol. bocimene. C. Planta Med. and chewing with head shaking. 1968. K. 1525 (1972). G. KARRER. leopards. Phytochemistry. MARTINDALE. 2–8 cm long. Hatwalne. P. Vitaminol. G. 30. leaves ovate. such as lions. base cordate. plant also contains tannins (LIST AND ¨ HORHAMMER). 40–100 cm high. plus high amounts of nepetalactone (GUENTHER) and its two isomers. 3.. cultivated in Washington. TERRELL. A.E-nepetalactone). chin and cheek rubbing.4 carvacrol. 177 1. widely naturalized elsewhere in Europe and North America. including 1.. myrcene. native to southern and eastern Europe. Ojha et al. however. respond. (E. J. Other Mycobact... nepetalic acid.1. CATNIP Source: Nepeta Lamiaceae). and catmint. London.Z. Gardner. 105 (1971). The Technical Press. FEMA. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Gray. Sham et al. MERCK.. K. 33. Cardani. North Carolina. nepetalic anhydride. J. 302 (1969). Lepr. Tetrahedron. 3403 (1968). tigers. Int. and Argentina. and head-over rolling and body rubbing. 17. 7. jaguars. Europe.. 8. 6th ed. white. 90. 97 (1970). NANJING. Lloydia. N. J. Central Asia. citronellol. 11. J. b-pinene. P. tinged with purple. L.. Chan. 10.. branched perennial. L.isodihydronepetalactone. Trade Names. erect. Chim. (Family Common/vernacular names: Catnep. catnip. including sniffing. 3129 (1967). pulegone. geraniol. 5. hairy. Jain et al. N. b-caryophyllene.’’2 The response is observed in domestic and large cats. limonene. and neonepetalactone. Chaudhari and V. 17. L.3–1%essentialoilconsistingmainly of terpenoids. S. EVANS.

13 TOXICOLOGY Food. loosely powdered leaves alone and as stuffing in cat toys. injection.10 Vapors of nepetalactone have shown repellent activity in 13 families of insects. majority of uses in infants (MOERMAN).16 Oil formerly used as an attractant in wild cat traps (DUKE 2). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.14 Others have reported increased food consumption in mice administered catnip.P. fever. children’s remedy (GRIEVE). DUKE 2. dried in mixtures for soups. and mild stimulant.P. Traditional Medicine. formerly official in both N. American Indian uses include colds. insanity. diarrhea.S. and so on (DUKE 2). USES Medicinal. HARBOURNE ¨ AND BAXTER. STEINMETZ. mint-like characteristic (FOSTER). bruised leaves in ointment for hemorrhoids.8 Diethyl ether extract of plant and nepetalactones have shown in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Pharmaceutical. E. As 10% of the diet of pregnant mice. rearing. and tea.11 The essential oil and the two isomers of nepetalactone have shown insect repellent activity to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp)12 and to male German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). also used as a diaphoretic. nepetalactones commercially derived from catnip used in the production of aphid sex pheromones (insect attractants). nervousness. the dried leaves decreased maternal body weight and reduced fetal. Others. stews. TUTIN 3. rheumatism and pains in babies. TYLER 1–3. flatulence. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. Dried.F.7 Acute doses of catnip in mice (10% of diet) increased locomotion frequencies. The leaves and flowering tops have been used as a flavoring in sauces and cooked foods.15 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude herb. constipation. Used in Europe in the treatment of colds. wren. headaches.p. Formerly included in U. essential oil.2 but not when administered orally or by i. Short-term effects were ‘‘amphetamine-like. GRIEVE. and U. and offspring weights. colic.9. GUENTHER. antispasmodic. Tops in teas. fever.8 A hypotonic episode (CNS depression lasting approximately 60 h) was reported in a 19-month-old male who ingested raisons soaked in a commercial catnip tea. (1840–1870) and N.160 Catnip withdrawn cats respond poorly. some organ development delayed in both sexes. restlessness.Z-nepetalactone showed greaterrepellent activitythan DEET (N.’’ whereas long-term administration produced tolerance with adaptative changes. extracts. . headaches. placental. LIST AND HORHAMMER.N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). (IV–VII). MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. uphof. sleep aid. Nepetalactone or catnip oil elicit the response when applied as an odor. SIMON. pleasant-tasting. Essential oil used in cosmetics and perfumes.F. also diaphoretic.4 REFERENCES See the General References for CSIR VII. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and susceptibility to induced seizures and decreased sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.S. Regulatory Status. sedative. and Cosmetic.

583 (2001). Pickett. Major producers of the oil are Canada and the United States. 3. 26. 10. and l-a-thujene. Phytochemistry. Hortic. 1261 (1998). myrcene. Sastry et al. Tagawa and F. Antimicrob. Entomol. E. Osterhoudt et al. native to northeastern North America (Nova Scotia south to North Carolina and west to Illinois). M. the oil is poisonous when ingested in large quantities. Pharm. anthelmintic. eastern white cedar. C. Vet. Tucker and S. O. M. 1318 (1964). (Family Cupressaceae). 14. Econ. Essent. 651 (2003). emmenagogue. 1281 (1969). M. 373 (1997). 2. J. 96. A. 9. 18. pinene. uterine stimulant. A.to medium-size tree belonging to the cypress family and grows up to about 20 m high. 51. 11. Ems-Wilson.. C.. Ibrahim and A. Peterson et al. borneol. A.1–5 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Thuja occidentalis is a small. C. 4.. . Econ. Planta Med. Science. Nostro et al.. 6. Oil Res. Science.. 214 (1988).. Baranauskiene et al. dl-limonene. J.. Bourrel et al.6 Leaf extract stimulates phagocytosis (erythrocytes) through Kupffer’s cells in isolated rat liver. Bernardi et al. 5. 47. Entomol. 7. cedar leaf. Econ. 32..Cedar leaf oil 161 1. Antiviral activity has been demonstrated in vitro. J. Toxicol. northern white cedar. and counterirritant properties. Bot. Agents. Hum. K. and white cedar oils. Peterson and J. Chem. CEDAR LEAF OIL Source: Thuja occidentalis L. A. 377 (2002). G... 159 (1993). Murai et al. S. 62. M. 42. 13. C.. Bull. Agric Food Chem. isothujone. with thujone in major concentration and accounting for up to 65% (w/w) of the oil (KARRER). Eisner. Common/vernacular names: American arborvitae. 95. Ezz El-Din.. Toxicol. Tucker. 16. 1275 (2003). Birkett and J. O. M. 37. T. GENERAL DESCRIPTION d-sabinene.. from which cedar leaf oil is obtained by steam distillation. J. J. thuja.4 Due to its high thujone content. 146. Parts used are the fresh leaves and twigs. R. 530 (1995). A. F. Mossoco et al. Phytochemistry.. 2809 (1984). 5. 3840 (2003). 12. Egypt. 109 (1983). 453 (1972). among others. Waller et al. Hum. There are many cultivated varieties. 36. d-terpinen-4-ol. R. producing symptoms such as hypotension and convulsions and eventually death (see absinthium) (MERCK). The oil is reported to be nontoxic when applied externally. Murai. Vet.. 11. J. Int. S.. Toxicon.. C. 15. l-bornyl acetate. 281 (1999). 164. 8.7 TOXICOLOGY Contains mainly thujone.. camphor. 39. J. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Oil is believed to have expectorant... D. l-fenchone. J.

6.4 Food. 843 (1974).. (1953). 3. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. gout. 12 (Suppl. Reported average maximum use levels are quite low. Used primarily as a counterirritant in certain analgesic ointments and liniments. Planta Med. and perfumes. cedar- wood oil Atlas: Cedrus atlantica Manetti (Family Pinaceae). . official in F. 35II. 23. Vomel. detergents..). 9. J. 113. Hartwell. A. and others. J. Wood Chem. Simard et al. 8. GRIEVE.. meat and meat products. 2. GUENTHER. merck. and Cosmetic. wren. Academic Press. BAILEY 1.. cedarwood oil. candy. 1. Used in German phytomedicine for nonspecific immunostimulant therapy. 4. 288 (1970). youngken. 455 (1962). C. Approved for food use as a natural flavoring. Beuscher and L. (Family Cupressaceae). 1. D. baked goods.. Oil is used internally as an expectorant. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. p. J. New York. Arzneim. tincture used externally for its antifungal and antiviral activities in treating warts (WREN). 277 52.162 Cedarwood oil USES Medicinal. cedarwood oil Moroccan (cedarwood oil Atlas).C. H. Opdyke...8 Principal use in the United States is as a fragrance ingredient in soaps. also used in treating condyloma and cancers.. L.9 COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Essential oil. 111P (1986). Farnsworth. D.. cedarwood oil Texas: Juniperus mexicana Spreng. CEDARWOOD OIL Source: Cedarwood oil Virginia: Juniperus virginiana L. 1985. fever.-Forsch.C. Proksch. Chem. Shaw. Banthorpe et al. antirheumatic. N. V. uphof. Vol. T. Kopanski. coughs. R.. (Family Cupressaceae). Planta Med. Wagner and A. 561 (1988). 27. Traditional Medicine. N. 7. Regulatory Status. and other ailments.. H. 31. Toxicol. 64 (1973). Technol. FEMA. condiments and relishes. Hikino. creams. red cedarwood oil (cedarwood oil Virginia). Common/vernacular names: Cedar oil. LUST. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. terrell. lotions. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Ideda et al. Lloydia. 33. 8. J. eds. gelatins and puddings. J. in N. Ointment or decoction of fresh leaves is used to treat rheumatism. Wagner. 1437 (1985). with the highest being 0. S. provided that the finished food is thujone-free (§172. M. and H. and emmenagogue and externally to treat skin diseases and as insect repellent. 5. Can.002% in condiments and relishes. diuretic. Food Cosmet. with maximum use level of 0.4% reported in perfumes. Food Sci. frozen dairy desserts. Pharmaceutical. L.510). In Europe. Oil is used as a flavor ingredient in most categories of foods.

Monoterpenes are also present (mostly sabinene and sabinyl acetate) (MASADA). Texas. erythrocarpa Cory and J. a-acoradiene (‘‘acorene’’). Cedarwood oil Atlas is obtained by steam distillation of the wood of C. scopulorum Sarg. The most common ones. They are often referred to in the literature simply as cedarwood oil. showed tumor-inducing properties on mouse skin. cuparene. a-ionone. is also used as a source of cedarwood oil. which is a tree up to about 33 m high growing in North America east of the Rocky Mountains.10–12 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Oil of Cedrus atlantica inhibited the growth of Candida albicans in vitro13 and has shown molluscicidal activity. and cedarwood oil Atlas. Other constituents include acetone. and C. J. In rats. atlantica. KARRER). J. which is a small tree up to about 6 m high growing in mountains of southwestern United States. cedarwood oil East Africa. Others such as cedarwood oil Himalaya. cedarwood oil Texas. commonly known as red cedar. and other lumber wastes) of J.14 Exposure to cedrol evaporated in the air produced sedative effects in mice and rats.3.and g-atlantone.) containing high oil content are potential sources.g. eastern red cedar. Mexico.) of J. shavings. and respiratory rate.9.9 Cedarwood oil Atlas contains as its major odoriferous components a.12 . cedrol exposure also caused a significant prolongation of sleeping time. Juniperus ashei Buchh. results supporting the alleged relaxant effect of cedar oil. etc. and a-caryophyllene.18 Cedarwood oil (Virginia and/or Texas) is reported to have slight local allergenic (acute and chronic) and acute local irritant properties (SAX). Cedarwood oil. cedrol (3–14%). cedarwood oil Virginia. 80%). it has an odor similar to that of Virginia cedarwood oil. other species (e. respectively.17 TOXICOLOGY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Cedarwood oil Virginia contains mainly a-and b-cedrene (ca.Cedarwood oil 163 GENERAL DESCRIPTION There are several cedarwood oils with different physical and chemical properties. caryophyllene.5. mexicana. The oil is produced in Texas. a decrease in nonrapid eye movement sleep latency was found in humans exposed to cedar essence. it has a sweet ‘‘pencil wood’’ and balsamic odor. and Atlas) are generally nontoxic. diastolic and systolic blood pressure. and Central America. Other sesquiterpenes present include thujopsene. The tree has many cultivated varieties. This oil is produced primarily in Morocco. and cedrenol. atlantica.2–8 Cedarwood oil Texas contains similar major constituents as cedarwood oil Virginia (ARCTANDER.1 Cedarwood oil Virginia is obtained by steam distillation of the wood (sawdust. Cedarwood oil Texas is prepared by steam distillation of the wood (shavings.15 Humans exposed to cedrol fumes showed significant decreases in heart rate. This oil is primarily produced in the United States and is most commonly referred to as cedarwood oil or cedar oil. virginiana.6. mexicana. and others.16 In addition. other dermatological data indicate that cedarwood oils (Virginia. b-elemene. virginiana. and savin.19 However. it has different odor characteristics than the Virginian and Texan oils. among others. most likely Virginia. and cedarwood oil Japanese are obtained from other conifers (ARCTANDER). which is a pyramidal tree closely related to the pines up to about 40 m high and growing in the Atlas Mountains of Algeria.. Tests indicted that cedrol inhalation also caused a reduction in sympathetic and an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity. are derived from J.

16. Acta. Toxicol. Banthorpe et al.. Dayawansa et al. Bot. Toxicol.. Lahlou. Herz et al. eds.249 (1972). Offic.. Food Cosmet. 64 (1973). Dermatol. among others. J. D. Vienna.. It can also serve as source of cedrene. in W. 21. bark. 41. . H. Plattner. POUCHER. 133 (1998). F. A. J. Franz et al.. others include creams. M. 12(Suppl. 134. particularly soaps and detergents.). Econ. 12.. 1.. Neurosci. All three types of cedarwood oils (Virginia. 31. 14. and seeds of J. venereal warts. D.9.. and perfumes. I. 2... SpringerVerlag. 7. Offen. S. R. 4. 50.. C. 14. Med. L. Auton. Adams et al. virginiana are used to treat various illnesses including coughs. Biol. Psychiatry Clin. lotions. Chem. Assoc. GUENTHER. New York.20 Cedar wood oils (J. Toxicol. 129 (1934). G. A. and Cedrus atlantica) are also used in aromatherapy in the treatment of stress-related disorders (EVANS) and topically (Cedrus altantica) in treating alopecia areata. 8. Pharmaceutical.6. 3.. Basic Clin. Helv. a starting material for fragrance chemicals. 44.. 1349 (1998). 5.21 Others. BAILEY 1. Opdyke. 33. C.. 44. Sano et al... 69. 2. C. 285 (2003). 23. A. 11. C. Kagawa et al. Opdyke. J. Vol. G.. Chim. D.. 311 (1965). 15. twigs. Field. MARTINDALE. 17. 5. ashei. W. p. 637 (2003). Arch. R. Pfau and P. J. D. FERNALD. 1974. Planta Med. 79 (2003). Kitchens et al. 6. 1. 20. J. Cedarwood oil Virginia is used in microscopy as a clearing agent and. Abe et al. D.. Food Cosmet. bronchitis. as an immersion oil. 9... V. Planta Med. and Atlas) are primarily used as fragrance components or fixatives in cosmetic and household products.. 709 (1976). eds. Hay et al. D. S. virginiana. Mycol.8% for all three in perfumes. The maximum use level reported is 0. and skin rash.164 Cedarwood oil USES Medicinal. 41. 711 (1976). Givaudanian. Marshall et al. Codd et al. 182 (1998). Roe and W. 3 (1971). Tetrahedron Lett.. Ger. J. H. Hartwell. Neurosci. 3903 (1974). 288 (1970).12 Traditional Medicine. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. 3. Opdyke. Food Cosmet. J. 108. W. S. L. J. L. Vol. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS The essential oils. 207 (2003). rheumatism. thickened together with resins. Decoctions of the leaves. SAX. J.. 52. 48 (1987). 10. and Cosmetic. Food Cosmet. Jpn.. 845 (1974). Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment. 18. Cedarwood oil Virginia has been used as an insect repellent. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. 14. 13. D. 1972. Texas.. 1304 (1967).202.. L. A.. E. 19. Contact Dermatitis. Kitchens et al. 283. 38. Barnes & Noble. Fordham in L. 1. Wenninger et al. Lloydia.. J. Toxicol. Anal. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Adams. p. P. Pharm. 17.

14. nodakenin.17 It also has low acute and chronic . rapaceum (Mill. extensively cultivated. whereas the majority were ineffective. Major seed-producing countries are France and India. 10%). sedanolide. and others. dulce (Mill.2 phthalides (senkyunolide-J and -N). green celery seed suppressed NSAIDand ethanol-induced gastric injury. apiumoside. oleic acids. causing no damage to brain cells. 30 -methoxy apiin. pthalide glycosides (celephtalides A–C). The seeds (dried ripe fruits) used for oil production or as spices are produced from other varieties. and fatty acids (linoleic. celereoin.). Common name: Celery fruit and celery seed. oral administration of extracts (alcohol and supercritical fluid) of wild.3 In rat models of acute inflammation and chronic arthritic inflammation. Apium graveolens var.13 Hepatoprotective activity in rats was found from oral administration of methanol extracts of celery seeds against chemically induced liver toxicity. yields celeriac.3 Major components of the oil are d-limonene (ca. green seeds). whereas against ibuprofen-induced gastrotoxicity. tryptophan. (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). most commercial flavorant celery seed oils (derived from aged. dihydrocarvone. An oleoresin and extracts are also prepared by extracting the seeds with solvents. senkyunolide-J.and b-eudesmol. sedanenolide (3-n-butyl-4. and tryptophan). The phthalides are the odoriferous principles and consist mostly of 3-n-butyl phthalide. 30 -methoxy apiin. graveolens var. GENERAL DESCRIPTION PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES An erect biennial herb. and sedanonic anhydride. vellein.7 3-n-Butyl phthalide has shown anticonvulsant effects in experimental chronic epilepsy induced by coriaria lactone in rats. brown seeds) were inactive. the latter two also showing in vitro antioxidant activity. Other constituents include santalol.stearic.) Gaudich. palmitic. the turniprooted celery.7–9 Celery seed oleoresin contains more odoriferous principles and less terpenes. and A. but its ability to counteract the learning and memory impairment caused by coriaria lactone was greater than that of diazepam. and celereoside (WICHTL). it also contains apiin and other flavonoids (JIANGSU). apiumetin.Celery seed 165 CELERY SEED Source: Apium graveolens L. 5–11 ¨ LIST AND HORHAMMER). Celery seed oil is obtained by steam distillation of the whole or crushed seeds in about 2–3% yield.. senkyunolide-N. 60%) and other limonene-type terpenes4selinene (ca. and about 3% phthalides.4 Sedative activities in mice from phthalides in the seed oil have also been reported. osthenol) and coumarin glycosides.5-dihydrophthalide). There are many varieties. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Celery seed contains coumarins (aprigravin.15 Phthalides (sedanolide and 3-n-butyl phthalide) present in celery seed oil have shown tumor-inhibiting activity and glutathione-inducing activity from oral administration in mice. among others (JIANGSU.16. including bergapten. celerin. In vitro inhibition of proinflammatory chemical messengers (COX-1 and -2 and of topoisomerase-I and -II) was found from various constituents of the seeds (sedanolide. Its anticonvulsant effects were weaker than those of diazepam. up to about 1 m high. some being effective anti-inflammatories (notably one made from wild.12 A similar outcome was found from celery seed products in a rat model of polyarthritis. petroselinic.1 also.) Pers. native to southern Europe. yields the celery vegetable that is its leafstalk (petiole). etc. sesquiterpenoid glucosides (celeriosides A–E). a. with several others in minor amounts.

seed was formerly official in N.. and nonphototoxic. use is not recommended (BLUMENTHAL 1).6 ppm) in condiments and relishes. candy. MARTINDALE. herb.166 Celery seed toxicities and showed no teratogenic activity in animal experiments. Celery (including stems. and mild diuretic effects in herbal dietary supplements. Traditional Medicine. loss of appetite. Use levels reported for the oil are usually very low. stomachic. Celery seed or celery seed extracts are used as flavoring or for anti-inflammatory. detergents. Leaves and petioles are used for skin problems in addition to above uses. and laxative.10). Effectiveness of traditional claims is not documented.21 and owe to the presence of phototoxic furanocoumarins also found in the seeds (WICHTL).20 Food. gout. and Cosmetic. lotions. GRIEVE. DER MARDEROSIAN AND ¨ BEUTLER.0003% (3 ppm) in detergents to a maximum of 0. essential oil. The solventfree oleoresin. USES Medicinal. Oil is used in certain tonic. . BARNES. gout. JIANGSU. WREN. FEMA. sedative. WICHTL). and others (WICHTL). BISSET. and celery seed extracts are all extensively used as flavoring ingredients in all major food products. soups. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS TOXICOLOGY Celery seed oil is reported to be generally nonirritating. WICHTL. creams. urinary antiseptic. and carminative preparations and as a fragrance component in soaps. Oil reportedly used as diuretic in dropsy and bladder ailments. REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. also in kidney failure. snack foods. condiments and relishes. rheumatic complaints. The seeds are used in India as an antispasmodic to treat asthma and bronchitis and diseases of the liver and spleen (NADKARNI). WREN). HUANG. nonsensitizing. LIST AND HORHAMMER. and others. BAILEY 2. The seeds are contraindicated in pregnancy (NEWALL). Regulatory Status.C. as a nervine and antispasmodic. nervous unrest. GUENTHER.19 Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. also in antirheumatic formulations (NEWALL. the seeds have been used as carminative. TERRELL. baked goods. and seed) is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph. Oil and oleoresin (extracts).20). and oil is official in F. pleurisy. emmenagogue.C. sedative. celery seed. Use levels in cosmetics range from a low of 0. meat and meat products.4% in perfumes. diuretic. Extracts come in various forms with strengths (see glossary) expressed in weight-to-weight ratios or in flavor intensities. flatulence.18 The petroleum ether-soluble fraction of celery seed exhibited antioxidative properties on lard. therefore. gelatins and puddings. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. The seed is regulated as a dietary supplement and is GRAS as a natural flavoring or seasoning (§182. edema. with the highest average maximum of about 0. Celery seed oil.005% (46. frozen dairy desserts. kidney stones. and perfumes. bladder and kidney calculi. though cases of mild to severe dermatitis resulting from contact with celery plants are well documented20.F. and in rheumatoid arthritis. and exhaustion (BLUMENTHAL 1. UPHOF. In the European tradition. ARCTANDER. LUST. Pharmaceutical. roots. GUPTA. NEWALL: ROSENGARTEN. and natural extractives of the seed are also GRAS (§182. also for glandular stimulation. gravies.

). G. 9.. J. Food Sci. Eiyo To Shokuryo. centapicrin. 21. 3. Yu et al. S. 7. Y. Org. Zheng et al.. Barton and J. 985 (1963).vanillic. 187 (1985). 201 (2001). 2. gentioflavoside.. swertiamarin. J. native to Europe. 16. S. 13. Momin and M. 17. Part used is the dried flowering herb. 19. F. M. 312 (2002). Ideda et al. sinapic. 20..ferulic. Whitehouse et al. p.. 385 (1988). Aromen. red cantarone. PA. 119 (1995). Inflammopharmacology. 3). Balbaa et al. 77 (1993). 5. J.5 m high.. C. 49. Wilson III. Lipids. Planta Med. 16. Angers. 29.). 527 (2002).). Ahmed et al. mostly biennial herb with upright stem branching near the top. Toxicol. A. 656 (1988).. R. 64. M. lesser centaury. R. D. Jain et al.. Gold and C... 19. Contains several bitter glucosides (gentiopicrin. K€rperpflegem. H. 4. Cancer.. 89 (1999). Yu et al. 42. 8. R. European centaury. umbellatum Gilib. 9. 12(Suppl. scrub.3. Destaillats and P. more or less restricted by geographic region (TUTIN ET AL. J. Major commercial sources are Morocco and eastern Europe (WICHTL). Saito et al.. and sweroside). caffeic acids. Inflammopharmacology. H. triterpenes (a. (syn. M. Food Chem. L. 23. 27. Org. Whitehouse et al. J. Variable (stem branching. Acta Pharmacol. Food Cosmet. Bjeldanes and I. B. S. 79. oleanolic .. 1916 (1963). minus Moench and Erythraea centaurium Pers. (gentianine. F. rose-purple.. 246 (1986). separated into six subspecies in Europe. sessile. I. etc. Handa. S. K.and p-hydroxybenzoic. Agric. 505 (1976). J. Lippincott. A. Chem.p-coumaric. J. flower size. 1969. A. GENERAL DESCRIPTION and mountain slopes. Yaoxue Xuebao. Nigam. Yu et al. R. 20. o 6. western Asia. 849 (1974). S. Soc. G. etc. Yaoxue Tongbao.) (Family Gentianaceae). Kim. 52. 2333 (1977). R. 313 (2002).. W. M. Opdyke. 12. Pharm.and b-amyrin. 21. Ethnopharmacol. 455 (1962). leaves opposite. etc. J. up to 0. S. 15.. gentioflavine. Chem. Sci.. flowers in corymbiform cymes. W. 383 (1976).. B.. Ahuja and S. m. not to be confused with the genus Centaurea (Compositae). Nair. D. alkaloids. W. Singh and S.4dihydroxyphenylacetic. X. 14. gentianidine. Adams. 7. erythrodiol. 37. J.. drug centaurium. oleanolic acid. J. Occupational Contact Dermatitis. 281 (1971). L. and northern Africa and naturalized in North America in dry grassland. common centaury. CENTAURY Source: Centaurium erythraea Rafn.Centaury 167 1. in J. minor centaury. R. Nutr. Philadelphia. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Annual. 9. De Vries. M. Sin. leaf shape and size. 190.. phenolic acids (protocatechuic.. 10. Ethnopharmacol. 28. 9.syringic. Phytomedicine. C..).. 11. Chem. R. J. ed.. Riechst. M. Egypt. Common/vernacular names: Bitter herb. Kitajima et al. 1003 (2003).. crataegolic acid. 18. (London).

73 (1972). Nauk. Antipyretic activity was found in rats from oral administration of the suspension against 2. S. Debelmas. Herb subject of a German therapeutic monograph (in daily dose of 1–2 g).18 Food. 35.amino acids..16 Hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced toxicity was shown from oral administration of a methanol extract of the leaves. 6.). 101. 3 (1976). 8. Regulatory Status. K. 24. desmethyleustomin. M. FEMA. n-alkanes (nonacosaneandheptacosane. Zwaving.14 Orally administered.. etc. Bishay et al. F. sterols (sitosterol. STAHL. Used in lotions to remove freckles. USES Medicinal.and amphetamine-induced hyperthermia. LIST AND HORHAMMER. 13. TUTIN ET AL. Wroclawiu.etc. Phytochemistry. S. Aota. D. febrifuge. Pr. Akad.). 1225 (1972).0008%.510). Pharmacol. 3. Ann. 4.. methylbellidifolin. Pharmaceutical. Bulg. Witkiewicz. DER MARDEROSIAN ¨ AND BEUTLER.wax. Popov et al. etc. BLUMENTHAL 1.0002% (2. WICHTL). Hatjimanoli and A. xanthones (decussatin. Med. Also reportedly used in some cosmetic and toiletry preparations for its alleged soothing and astringent properties.. See the General References for BARNES. Used since ancient times in Egypt to treat hypertension and to eliminate kidney stones. BISSET.). 2.17 Gentiopicrin is reported to have antimalarial properties (MERCK). Planta Med. and other skin blemishes and in treating cancers. use not recommended since effectiveness is not verified (BLUMENTHAL 1). .1–13 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Europe to increase gastric secretions for dyspeptic discomfort and loss of appetite (BLUMENTHAL 1.). spots. 422 (1978). Rulko. Bellavita et al. Pharm. 1. and in Europe as a tonic. Fr. V. Dokl. 25. H.).19 An infusion of the dried flowering tops showed in vitro hydroxyl radical and hypochlorus acid scavenging activity. Also reportedly used in nonalcoholic beverages at an average maximum use level of 0.fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Used in some bitter tonic preparations in REFERENCES COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Mainly the crude herb. MCGUFFIN1 & 2.. campesterol. 33. Pharm.168 Centaury lactone. F. Used in bitters and vermouth formulations. 8. LUST.29 ppm). 3. Sakina and K. etc. Rulko and K. about 0. average maximum use level reported is very low. Nauk. J. Regulated in the United States as a dietary supplement. and others (WICHTL).15 Antipyretic activity of the herb is reported to be due to phenolic acids. 96. stomachic. Pharm. 7. Approved for use as a natural flavoring in alcoholic beverages only (§172. eustomin... Akad. 5. and Cosmetic. 605 (1966). Diss. and sedative. 107 (1977). etc. Yakugaku Zasshi. Weekbl. M. 683 (1976). 289 (1974). UPHOF. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA.4-dinitrophenol. a filtered water suspension of the dried herb showed anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of polyarthritis and when topically applied in a cream (2. W.5–10%) in the air-pouch granuloma bioassay. Traditional Medicine.

Fitoterapia.9%).. 153 (1969). cultivated in England. 34 (1991). Roman chamomile Chamaemelum nobile (L. Phytomedicine.Chamomile (german and roman) 169 9. 213 (1983). 10. hairy. up to about 0. Cosmet. Parts used are the dried flowerheads. Berkan et al. Phytother. extensively cultivated. Hungarian chamomile.. native to Europe and northern and western Asia. B. 140 (1996). Anthemis nobilis L. and D. though Chamomilla recutita and. sweet false chamomile. 92. L. Valent~o et al.. 58.. by bisabolol. Lacroix et al. Valent~o et al. Res. naturalized in North America. recutita. Food Chem. C. 431 (2004). 12. Phytochem. Argentina. 19 (1977).. Toilet. with ligulate flowerheads about 2 cm broad... 14. recutita). 15. native to southern and western Europe. Heath. 10. bisabolol oxide B. Common/vernacular names: Chamomile. Anal. (syn. low annual herb. 460 (2002). B. characterized as A. The currently accepted scientific name is Matricaria recutita. and Egypt. Parts used are the dried expanded flowerheads. flavonoids including apigenin. dominate M. Bulg. apigetrin (apigen- . Matricaria chamomilla are still commonly seen in the literature. Nikolova-Damyanova and N.. 11. An essential oil obtained from the flowers by steam distillation is bluewhen fresh. 517 a (2003). Popov.) Rauschert) (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). to a lesser extent. with mostly white ligulate flowerheads up to 3 cm across. and other countries.1 Roman chamomile is a strongly fragrant. 5.6 m high. bisabolol oxide A. Argentina. 51. R. J. H. C. Romania.3 m high. up to about 0. Acad. B. the Czech Republic. 20. and much-branched perennial. which show considerable variation in flavonoid concentration and bisaboloid profile. Lacroix et al. garden chamomile. respectively. P. R. CHAMOMILE (GERMAN AND ROMAN) Source: German chamomile Matricaria recutita L. Belgium. N. Roman chamomile (C. Hartwell. but with only slight differences in coumarin and phenolic acid content. Agric. T. nobile). J. Marekov and S.2 German chamomile contains variable amounts of volatile oil (0. (syn. P.1 The four main chemotypes are dominated.. Greece.. Lloydia. 441 (1967). Handjieva. 57. 18. Farm.. 17. Matricaria chamomilla L. 18.. the United States. manzanilla. a 50. 16. German chamomile. half-spreading. wild chamomile (M. 7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION German chamomile is a fragrant.. R. Chamomilla recutita (L. 327 (1973). Tunisie Med. matricaria. Germany. R. naturalized in North America.. English chamomile. camomile. Mroueh et al. Sci. M. although as many as 11 different German chamomile chemotypes have been reported. Planta Med. 32. Slovakia. 19. Glasnik. Frequent changes in interpretation of the scientific name of German chamomile have Four chemotypes.) All. 13.24–1.. particularly in Hungary. Petlevski et al.) (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). GENERAL DESCRIPTION led to great confusion over the past two decades. 119 (2002). and bisabolone oxide A. Bulgaria.

8-cineole. apigenin-7-Oglucoside. E. water-soluble polysaccharides. chamazulene. WICHTL). cadinene. lupeol. cholesterol. nerolidol. phenolic acids. sterols (campesterol. tannins (catechin and gallic). caffeic. depending on the sources ¨ (JIANGSU. sitostanol. WICHTL).. (À)-a-bisabolol oxides A. coumarins. amino acids. apiin (apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside). farnesol. and C. reported to be present in greatest quantity in Roman chamomile oil. chamaemeloside. luteolin-7-Oglucoside. rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside). apigenin-7-O-glucoside. umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) and its methyl ether (herniarin). luteolin.and Z-en-yn-dicycloether are the major constituents. 3-phenylpropanol. etc.4% volatile oil that mainly consists of angeloyl. flavonoids (apigenin. Other constituents reported to be present include amyl angelate. methacryl. which can only be detected by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). LIST AND HORHAMMER. l-trans-pinocarveol. Matricin and its degradation product. proazulenes (matricin. apiin. chamazulene. and vanillic) and fatty acids (linoleic. taraxasterol. MCKENNA. 85%) esters of angelic and tiglic acids (e. The major constituents are 2-methylbutyl angelate and isobutyl angelate.170 Chamomile (german and roman) in-7-D-glucoside). resulting in discharge of blue color on aging of chamomile oil.). and tigloyl esters of aliphatic alcohols (isobutanol. pinocarvone. and acetylated derivatives thereof.g. scopoletin-7-b-glucoside. which is held to have the highest content in esters of any known essential oil. with their relative concentrations varying considerably.24 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES An extract of German chamomile inhibited the formation indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats. and quercimeritrin (quercetin-7-D-glucoside).10-epoxynobilin. and others). l-trans-pinocarvone. patuletin. matricin.26 The oil has bactericidal and . B. and hexyl angelates or tiglates). among others. calamene.6% of bitter sesquiterpene lactones (germacranolides and guaianolides).4-dimethyl-7-ethylazulene) but less biologically active. butyl. amyl. a-pinene. and others). syringic. coumarins. was noted to be widespread in the last decade.and b-amyrin. LIST AND HORHAMMER. MCKENNA: 8–16 STAHL.17. farnesene. myrcene. chamazulene. as blue as chamazulene (1. anthemoside. and others ¨ (JIANGSU. sitosterol. etc. scopoletin. the last two terpenoids.1 Relative concentrations of the constituents vary. bisabolol. formed by steam distillation or exposure to acidic pH. WICHTL). isoamyl. B. 3-dehydronobilin.). fatty acids. stigmasterol. quercitrin. chamzulene. The cheaper Brazilian oil contains almost exclusively (À)a-bisabolol. plant acids (anisic. choline. acetylenes. 1. Other constituents include about 0. Chamazulene and biabolol are very unstable. and others. choline. matricarin. WICHTL). and others. are mainly responsible for the characteristic blue coloration. 3-epinobilin. and 1. and others. amylalcohol.18 The volatile oil contains mainly (ca. 4a-hydroperoxyromanolide. among others.).4-dimethyl-7-isopropylazulene). quercetin. 1–7 STAHL. which include nobilin. Roman chamomile contains 0.23 Adulteration of commercial chamomile oil and chamomile preparations with essential oil of the wood of the Brazilian tree Vanillosmopsis erythropappa Schultz Bip. etc. chamazulene from matricin). depending on sources of the oil (ARCTAN18–22 DER. Guaiazulene (1. spathulenol. from proazulenes (azulene from matricarin. is synthetically available and has been used as an adulterant to increase the blueness of commercial chamomile extracts. including aesculetin. oleic. MARTINDALE. isobutyryl.25 Addition of German chamomile to the diet of rats suppressed chemically induced itching. including matricarin and matricin and the fragrant constituent farnesol. chamazulene.6–2. sesquiterpenes ((À)-a-bisabolol oxides A. spathulenol. also. apigetrin. triterpene alcohols (a. The volatile oil contains sesquiterpenoids. and C. The dark blue to blue-green color of chamomile oils is due to azulenes. taraxerol). and others ¨ (LIST AND HORHAMMER.

and 3-dehydronobilin) isolated from Roman chamomile are reported to exhibit antitumor activities in vitro against human tumor cells. wound-healing. Apigenin and (À)-a-bisabolol exhibited in vitro antispasmodic activity in smooth muscles. Anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic activities are also attributed to apigenin that also exhibits growth-inhibitory activity against human cancer lines..40 Anaphylaxis attributed to chamomile has been shown to be almost certainly due to Anthemis cotula L. MCKENNA. anti-inflammatory. cotula. and apigenin has shown anxiolytic activity in rats. an extract of German chamomile combined with an extract of Angelica sinensis was found to significantly reduce hot flashes in postmenopausal women compared to placebo. Allergenicity is apparently due to low variable levels of the highly allergenic sequiterpene lactone anthecotulid. and antispasmodic activities ¨ (JIANGSU. has been shown to possess a low sensitizing capacity while the bisabolol oxide B chemotype of M. a total extract of the bisabolol chemotype.37 Three germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones (nobilin.35 In a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Teas contain little or no apigenin and an extract prepared from the fresh flowers was devoid of apigenin. In vitro histamine release from rat mast cells is moderately stimulated by en-yn-dicyclother at low concentrations and strongly inhibited at higher concentrations. cis/trans-en-yn-dicyloethers) have shown antimicrobial. recutita has an evident moderate allergenic potential. MARTINDALE. dominant in A. has shown anti-inflammatory.. 15. 39 FUGH-BERMAN. (À)-a-bisabolol. Staphylococcus aureus) and Candida albicans.36 In a placebo-controlled doubleblind study. and in vitro antipeptic activities. antispasmodic. WICHTL).10-epoxynobilin. a-bisabolol. followed by matricin.38 Topical application of an extract of the dried flowers is reported to be preventative against sunburn and to facilitate more rapid healing of sunburned skin (WICHTL).29–33 MCKENNA).27.2 topical anti-inflammatory (antiphlogistic) activity of chamomile is largely attributed to apigenin. TOXICOLOGY Allergic contact dermatitis to German (rare) or Roman chamomile may occur in people sensitized to certain sesquiterpene lactones or who are already allergic to ragweed (BRADLY.g.25 Chamazulene.42 British KamillosanÒ .17 Chamaemeloside has shown hypoglycemic activity in animals. patients with the common cold who inhaled the steam from hot water to which an extract of German chamomile was added experienced greater relief of upper and middle respiratory tract symptoms compared to those treated with a placebo inhalant. Matricin is preserved in alcoholic tinctures.23 A double-blind clinical trial of standardized extract of German chamomile applied in dressings to dermabrasion wounds following tattoo removal found more rapid would healing compared to placebo. Allergic conjunctivitis of the eyelids was reported in sensitive patients who applied chamomile tea as an eyewash. anti-inflammatory. has shown pain-relieving. It also reduced blood urea concentration in rabbits to a normal level.Chamomile (german and roman) 171 fungicidal activities. a major component of the oil.g. and chamazulene. Chamazulene and (À)-a-bisabolol showed little effect at the lower concentrations and stimulated histamine release at the higher concentrations. 1.41 German KamillosanÒ . WICHTL). antianaphylactic. and antimicrobial properties. (dog or stinking chamomile).and ultraviolet B-induced skin tumors in mice. particularly against Gram-positive bacteria (e. another constituent of the oil. antimicrobial. including breast and prostate tumor cell lines and melanoma cells and cancer chemopreventive activity against chemical. antiedemic. Both the essential oil and en-yn-dicycloether inhibited histamine release from rat mast cells (MCKENNA.34 Whereas (À)-a-bisabolol is the most active antispasmodic constituent of the essential oil. an ointment containing Roman . LIST AND HORHAMMER.28 Umbelliferone has fungistatic properties. the cyclic spiro ethers (e.

F. 1 ESCOP 1. skin problems. shampoos. mouthwashes. creams. frozen dairy desserts. vermouths. The oils are used as fragrance components or active ingredients in soaps. etc. creams. lotions. and neither oil showed irritating nor sensitizing effects on human skin (NEWALL). menstrual disorders. including alcoholic (bitters. Pharmaceutical. The oil of Roman chamomile lacks phototoxic effects in animals. infantile convulsions in teething. and other ailments. Benedictine liqueurs. and gelatins and puddings.. Also used for sciatica. sore gums. sunscreen preparations. also.1 Roman chamomile is used essentially for the same purposes (WICHTL). and volatile oils. Both German chamomile and Roman chamomile extracts are used in pharmaceutical preparations. or tincture. and for wound healing. German chamomile has been used in treating colic. A compress containing the infusion is applied to treat eye strain and to clean the eyes and face of babies. and Cosmetic. has been implicated in a case of allergic contact dermatitis of the nipple. antispasmodics. mouth sores. antispasmodic. in addition to mild sleep disorders. Both German and Roman chamomiles have reportedly been used against cancers. depression. The volatile oils are used in carminative. they are used in antiseptic ointments. insomnia. usually in the form of an infusion. flatulence. lumbago. no toxic effects from the oil applied to the backs of hairless mice and limited irritation applied for 24 h to the skin of rabbits. German chamomile and to a lesser extent Roman chamomile crude flower heads or extracts are one of the most widely used herb tea ingredients. oral LD50 of German chamomile oil in mice is 2. Average maximum use levels reported are usually less than 0. malarial symptoms. inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. extracts. and gels to treat cracked nipples.5 mL/kg.4% in perfumes. gout.1 Food. An infusion or tincture of the flowerheads is used for gastrointestinal spasms. bleeding and swollen gums.43 The acute oral LD50 of German or Roman chamomile in rats is >5 g/kg. decoction.) and nonalcoholic beverages. with the former more frequently used. An infusion of German chamomile is used in Turkish folk medicine to treat bronchitis and as a laxative and digestive. and digestive aids (FOSTER). among others. Tinctures and extracts are used as mild sleep aids. respiratory tract inflammation. especially in children (BRADLY. The essential oils and extracts of both German and Roman chamomiles are used as flavor components in most major food categories. Traditional Medicine. and perfumes. and . sore throat. indigestion. Topical products are used in cosmetics against inflammation.172 Chamomile (german and roman) chamomile. candy.46 USES Medicinal. German chamomile was formerly official in N.37 Since ancient times. diarrhea. Use levels reported range from a low of 0. singly or in combination with other ingredients. hair dye formulas (for blond hair). and peptic ulcers. inflammations.45 Long-term oral toxicity studies of German chamomile in dogs and rats found no toxicity and no changes in pups from prenatal dosing. and tonic preparations. no toxicity from 3-week topical application on rabbits. detergents. and inflammation in the form of compresses. no teratogenic effects in rats after long-term administration.0005% in detergents to a maximum of 0.002% for the oils. WICHTL).1 deodorant and stimulative to skin metabolism (BLUMENTHAL 1). toothache.44. considered COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude. irritation of the skin and mucosa. and others. Extracts of both German and Roman chamomiles are used in cosmetics and body care products including bath preparations. baked goods.

. 69 1. Planta Med.. 15. Nano et al. Z. Schilcher. Commun. 853 o 211 (1970). internally for gastrointestinal spasms and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios. externally for skin and mucous membrane inflammation. G. 16. Herbs. Verzar-Petri et al. German chamomile flowers subject of a positive German therapeutic monograph. o 18. GUENTHER. Gomma. Spices. Congress of Essential Oils (Pap. Isaac et al. 114 10. 2323 (2004). O. Redaelli et al. 1974. TERRELL. 3... in Botany. UPHOF. Vol. Planta Med. C. 7. Staba in L. Becker. 132 (1973). both oils are prone to insect infestation on storage. Ital. Pharmacia. Aromi.. 14. Herb Assoc... S... Phoenix... 9.. M. Samek. Saponi. 12. Chem. I. E. Demuth. 75 (1978). G. Y. 288 19. Naturforsch. (Weinheim). R. 1. 2. Z. H€lzl et al. A. TYLER 1–3. Ganeva et al. Roman) in U. Apoth. 75. Sci. M.. E.. Simon. Czech. 235. J. Apoth. 50. A. Am. J. and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances 13.. Piante Office. Herba Hung. inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract (as inhalations). 5. bacterial skin disease or the oral cavity and gums.20). BAILEY 2. 23. Chretien-Bessiere et al. Arch. 65. Br. Arch. bath and irritation or inflammation of the genital and anal areas.. 273 AZ. and Pharma119 (1973). 1986. Collect.. Svehlikova et al. BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2. 8. 52. 108. 21. J. FEMA. 1053 (1977). 30. Mann and E.. Essenze Deriv. MASADA. 2. Yakovlev. Oryx Press. I. (2004). 15.. Gorin and A. Carle and K. JIANGSU.. 210 (1977). 6. Pharm. 24. Balbaa et al. G. 22. 50.. Profumi. FOSTER. p. MCKENNA. Craker (1976). cology. Roman chamomile flowers are the subject of a negative German therapeutic monograph (BLUMENTHAL 1). M. 4 (1992). 161 (1975). ESCOP 1. Herba Hung. (Weinheim). BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. 20.. Q.Chamomile (german and roman) 173 English chamomile (i. Verzar-Petri et al. 12. Horticulture. WICHTL. 310. and natural extractives are also GRAS (§182.. Nano et al.. (1975). (1975). Nauchn. 27.P. O.. Inst. Pharm. G. Planta Med. Ztg. Aerosol. Agrum. 147 (1991–1992)... 9 311. Pharm. L. Egypt J.. and J. Cosmet. 32 37 (1975). Owing to a lack of documented effectiveness. Ryazan Med. STAHL. G.). REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. (1976). 4. 16. Reichling and H. Carnat et al. Regulatory Status. 6th International 9..e. 84. Tr. 46. Phytochemistry.... Holub and Z. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS. C. V. Essenze. Padula et al. H. 3 (2003). Sb. Riv. 79626z (1976). 293 (1968).. Dtsch. 17. 11. Dtsch. p. R.S. eds... through Chem. LUST. Motl et al. solvent-free oleoresins. 23. Both German and Roman chamomiles are regulated as dietary supplements and are GRAS as natural seasonings and flavorings (§182. (1981). Fitoterapia. J. 275 (1977). 117. O. Bauer. H€lzl and G.10) Essential oils.. Phytother. Abstr. Ztg. Planta Med. 42. Y. Motl et al. preparations allowed. 171 (1976). 30. J..

flowers solitary in axils. 82. 58. J.. 43. M. 183. L.. 30 -demethoxyisoguaia- . 851 (1974). Yousef. 22. C. Food Cosmet. Med. Berlin. longer than any other plants (HICKMAN). E. 81 (1967). 71 (1968). 28.. 612 (1998). 72. Perfum..Forsch. 41. M. Clin. 728 (1990). Obstet. R. Konig et al. 64.5 cm wide. T. Planta Med.. u 121 (1977). Clones known to live 10. 62. Common/vernacular names: Chaparral. twisted or propeller-like. Aggag and R. 1992. G..1 Parts used are leaves and stems. 21. Thiemer.. Kupfersztain et al.). L. 34. yellow. Lloydia.. A. 545 (2001). 31. Farnsworth and B. 18 mm long. Planta Med. 25.. 45. 10. 37. 26. Borkowski. M. lanceolate to curved. Planta Med. Carle et al. four South American). D. C. 1262 (1987). 38.. L. Hautkrank. J. D.. Cosmet. Exp. Pharmacol. 30 methoxyisoguaiacin. M. California and Texas). R. Planta Med. 410 (1972).. A. distinctively aromatic leaves. 44.. T. 2. Hausen in P.-Forsch.. 56. Larrea is represented by five species (one North American. especially nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). greasewood. Opdyke. Awang. M. 60–61 (1996). Hausen et al. at 1. 46... J. 139 (1991). 40. 243.3 plus dihydroguaiaretic acid.. Phytomedicine. 50. Glowania et al. J... D. 12(Suppl. 853 (1974).. Planta Med. 359 (1984). G.). Fitoterapia. V. 323 (2001). gobernadora. Bruce et al. 657 (2003). 51. p..6–6. M. Chihuahuan. Am. C. Assoc. Planta Med. mesodihydroguaiaretic acid. Saller et al. stems. Food Cosmet. Toxicol.. Aymaz. Wirth. 30. 31. 221. 1352 (1975).000 þ years.174 Chaparral 24. GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Erect to prostrate evergreen shrub. resinous. H. Y. Toxicol. 32. 27. H. Gynecol. Tuzlaci and P. 40. tridentata populations in the Sonoran. 203 (2003). Arzneim. N. Tubaro et al.. De Smet et al. 229 (1984). 50.. Springer-Verlag.. Szalontai et al. E.55%2 and 10–15% of the dried leaves. R.5 mm wide. Isaac and K. Arzneim. E.. hediondilla. 35. five-petaled. 24. M.. 1–3 m high. Z. creosote bush. Parf€m Kosmet. 8. B. 36. 2 (2003). and Mojave deserts often considered conspecific with South American L. also central Mexico. B.. Contact Dermatitis. 62. Leung’s (Chinese) Herb News. Planta Med. Eur. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs... dominant shrub of desert scrub in much of the arid western United States (southwest Utah to Lignans dominate chemistry of resin. 456 (1990). Kobayashi et al. cytologically distinct L. Hartwell. Morgan. 289 (1972). 1. e ¸ ex DC) Coville (Family Zygophyllaceae). 29. eds. CHAPARRAL Source: Larrea tridentata (Sess & Moc. T. divaricata Cav. 33. J. Vol. 30. M. O. 25.. 12(Suppl. and leaves. 42. Am. Miller et al. Grochulski and B. 39. Kayyal et al. Opdyke. J. A. 140 (1972).

6-di-C-glucopyranosylapigenin.5 6. solvent extracts of the leaves and twigs and of the stems . it also inhibits platelet aggregation. 3.20 human lipoxygenases.8di-C-glucopyranosylchrysoeriol. larreic acid.11 Food. NDGA was formerly used as an antioxidant in numerous food products (0.5% of the feed.30 trimethoxyflavone.11 In vitro studies have shown that NDGA induces apoptosis in various human and animal cancer cell lines15.7 flavonoids include 2.16 and cell growth of estrogen-positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). 30 -demethoxy-6-O-demethylguaiacin. etc.30 -di-O-demethylisoguaiacin (previously designated 30 -hydroxynorisoguaiacin). It was removed from GRAS status after a chronic feeding study in rats (0.14 and hepatic enzyme-inhibiting activity.o. D-3-carene.23 have shown antifertility effects in pregnant rats.9 triterpenes. didehydro-30 -demethoxy-6-O-demethylguaiacin.13 antioxidant. essential oil contains a-pinene. skin tumor formation in rodents.18 testosterone release. use is permitted only in animal fat products (lard. animal shortenings at 0.11 Chaparral tea was only weakly cytotoxic to rat hepatocytes in vitro.29 NDGA was extensively used as a food antioxidant from 1943 to 1968.6 4-epi-larreatricin. larreatridenticin. erythrodiol-3-b(4-hydroxy-cinnamdyl). possible pre-existing liver disease. Pharmaceutical.40 -trihydroxy-3.8. and actinic keratosis. ethanol/water tincture. gossypetin 3. 5./day) in patients with advanced malignancies found a significant number appeared to show tumor progression. bornyl acetate. Fed to chicks (3 weeks old) at 5% of the diet.Chaparral 175 cin.02%).24 Contact dermatitis from Larrea species is common (DE SMET ET AL).8 quercetin. currently. and Cosmetic. linalool. including larreagenin A. 6. the ground leaves resulted in body weightgain inhibition. 6-O-demethylisoguaiacin (norisoguaiacin). 30 .19 insulin secretion. borneol.).17 Among other activities.9–11 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Uterine relaxation activity in vitro led to the isolation of an antiimplantation agent from the leaves and twigs (30 -demethoxyisoguaiacin). and other factors.7-dimethyl ether.S. but not at 2. psoriasis.01%) under USDA authority (TYLER 3). erythrodiol-3-b-(4dihydroxy cinnamdyl). Behavioral and reproductive organ toxicity was shown in male hamsters (water/ ethanol extract of dried leaves at 4% of diet).4. rutin. In vitro tests found cytotoxicity in human and rat kidney and liver slices (ethanol/water tincture) and in primary rat hepatocytes (water. camphor. kaempferol.11 USES Medicinal. Topical use of chaparral in Ricinus oil also appeared to be safe.6.11 In a retrospective clinical study.12Larrea tridentata extracts have also shown in vitro antimicrobial.11 TOXICOLOGY At high doses (580 mg/kg p. Case reports of liver toxicity in subjects largely taking chaparral orally in tablets or capsules (alone or in combination with other substances)25–28 are confounded by a lack of hepatotoxicity from chaparral or NDGA in animal studies.7. limonene.21 and from topical application. camphene. and various solvent extracts). poor characterization of the ‘‘chaparral’’ taken. small amounts of a tincture of the leaves and flowers (water/ethanol extract) as part of a more complex herbal preparation (8–10 other herbs) taken by patients over 2 years appeared to be safe. rhamnetin. larreatricin. NDGA is approved for use in topical form in the U. and others.300 -dimethoxylarreatricin.4-dehydrolarreatricin.22 A clinical trial of chaparral tea (16–24 oz.5–1% NDGA for 74 weeks) found lymph node and kidney lesions. in the treatment of skin cancer.

Chem. Med.. and leukemia. Sci. D. 1905 (1974). 16.. DE SMET ET AL.. Ethno6. 52. widely used popular folk remedy for cancer (in the United States) for facial. rheumatism. 52. International Congress on Natural 5. Nat.. Institute of Medicine and National 1. N. Fronczek et al. cramps. (1997). powder.27 oral forms voluntarily removed from U. STEINMETZ. Nat. 497 12. J. Anal Lett. Thaker. Prod.. Y. F. 1188 (2002). and extract forms in capsules. Seufferlein et al. infected skin. Proceedings of (1987). World Deserts. DUKE 2.. Sakakibrara et al. NDGA is prohibited from use in human foods (§189. 86. tuberculosis. Phytochemistry.165). 2004. T. G. Biology and Chemistry of Larrea in New 17.. J. and impetigo sores. DER MARDEROSIAN AND LIBERTI. J. 339 (1974). Mabry et al. alone and combined with leaves (MOERMAN). W. 1617 Prototype Monograph on Chaparral. Chung et al. type Monographs.. Sathyamoorthy et al. Creosote Bush. 128 (1979). Mol. Regulatory Status. Obermeyer et al. 328 (1987). A decoction of chaparral leaves has been taken internally by southwest American Indian tribes in the treatment of rheumatism. Latinoamer. 53. Br. externally for rheumatism. sore gums (gargle). 9. 11. HUANG.. eds. Cell. Pharm. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Proto3. bowel complaints. Hutchinson and 957 (1994). lung.D. J. Soc. C. 196... and congestion and used externally against arthritis. J. 17. 175 (1996).. 54. 208. C. . skin cancers.. stomachaches.. 40.. Biochem.S. Physiol. The National AcadeBiol. 4. Bohnsted. M. T. 8. 10. Quim. 2.. L. PA. D.A. T. F. liver. 18. stomach.176 Chaparral Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. UPHOF. National Academies.11 Traditional Medicine. stems and twigs in loose. Proc. J.. R. Prod. 6 (1995).. J. sprains. 396 157 (1999). J. kidney. Dried leaves. M. 13. HARBOURNE AND BAXTER. Konno et al. Cell. 15. Dowden. M. MOORE 1.. arthritis. HICKMAN. Prod. Nat. Zang et al. Ross. Products. (1990). teas. REFERENCES See the General References for BARNES.. tablets. Washington. leaf infusion taken internally to treat colds. Angeles Verastegui et al. TYLER 3. extracts. Tang and K. but continue to be sold. 63. Porter. Exp. 7. J. 15. Konno et al. Rev. market in 1992. J. melanoma. J. 272. M. Taxon. Cancer Res. and other products (MOORE 1). 727 (1976). mies Press. C. O. J.. C. gonorrhea.11 Class 2b (not to be used during pregnancy). aching bones. Konno et al. sores.. Stroudsburg. 155 (1997). . Cancer. (1989). 172. 23.. V. herb considered unsafe by the F. L. 1977. (1984). DC. stems also used in various preparations. 14.. 2. Research Council. TYLER 1. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2 . Honn. Gisvold and E.30 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude herb.. dandruff. 14740 10. dysuria. sore body parts. Biol.. NIKITAKIS. asthma. R. and as an emetic to bring down high fevers. Valentine et al. GLASBY 1.. 1113 pharmacol. sores on animals.

luteolin-7-glucoside. 1577. OR. 29. and flower include aucubin and agnuside and eurostoside in the leaves. R. J. Smart et al. Biol. 1992). testosterone. and others. Res. 255 (1998). Katz Miriam and F. Weekly.6. Yarnell. 25. Altern.2 other flavonoids in the fruits and leaves include casticin. Alabama. Pritchard et al. sesquiterpenes in the essential oil of the flowers. chaste-tree. 91 (1994). 1992). R.. and 2a. Law Rep. Morb. Eclectic Dispensatory of Natural Therapeutics.Chaste-tree 177 19. 2b... purple. Crimea.127 (December 28. 7. 30. isovitexin. Arkansas. xyloside. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Fruits contain the fatty acid linoleic acid1 and the flavone apigenin. Cell Transplant. 255 (2001). Romanelli et al. B..40 -tetramethylether. 175 (2001). S.. to 10 cm long. 12.. 2659 (2002).9 essential oil of the fruits. rotundifuran (MCKENNA. Hsu et al.8-cineole). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Deciduous shrub growing to 6 m in height. Mississippi.3a-diacetoxyolean-5. Common names: Agnus castus. southeast Oklahoma.13 . Rocky Mt. indigenous to the Mediterranean region. leaf extracts yield andro-stenedione. chasteberry. Eclectic Medical Publications. 23. Portland. 2a. Dev. a-pinene. and C and mussaenosidic acid..7. leaves palmately compound. and others. 28. K. 63.12-dien-28-oic acid. J. linalool. Georgia. Wang et al.. and epitestosterone. and others. 812 (1992). Clin.3a-dihydroxyolean-5. sabinene.. M. 261. 21. farnesene. 28. 22. 1989. fruit.. ed. Med. Brinker in E. north to Maryland). 24. leaflets linear lanceolate. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J. white tomentose beneath. Complement. 38 (1993). 27. vitexin. naturalized in north America (Florida. 17a-hydroxyprogesterone. Louisiana. Anim. and leaves include b-caryophylline oxide. Part used is the dried fruit (a small. Nigeria and northern Brazil. 1992). F. M. S. Mort. Chem.3b-diacetoxy18-hydroxyolean-5. 1. 39 (1970). 203 (1990). and flowers contains monoterpenes (limonene. Med. 30a. FDA.8 other iridoids in the leaves. WICHTL). §43. Mutat.. Food Drug Cosmet. caryophylline. isoorientin. and vitex.. CHASTE-TREE Source: Vitex agnus-castus L. Blumenthal. 20. In Vitro Cell. 153 (1991). J. C. Life Sci. Gastroenterol. or pink in spike-like panicles. leaves. B.3–6 iridoid glycosides in the leaf. 67. myrcene. 1. 41. Alstat. Y. entire. Heron and E. Med. citronellol. Vol..7. flowers and twigs include agnucastosides A.12 ketosteroids detected in flower extracts include progesterone. chrysosplenol-D. Z. 12-dien-28-oic acid.11 triterpenoids include 3b-acetoxyolean-12en-27-oic acid. Saibil. HerbalGram. glabrous above. D. diterpenes in the fruit include vitexilactone. fruit. 10. Whitman et al. others include penduletin. (Family Verbenaceae). 6-hydroxykaempferol-3.10 in essential oil of leaves also contains b-pinene. brownishto olive-black drupe) with four seeds. Texas. homoorientin. orientin. and so on.. monk’s pepper. FDA Talk Paper (December 11. 26. Central Asia and western Asia to northwest India.. F. HHS News (December 10..12dien-28-oic acid. 45. flowers blue.

orientin. epilepsy. Plant used in Anatolia to treat anxiety. and vitexin. also used to help re-establish normal menstruation and ovulation. Decreased milk production in rats was attributed to the prolatic-depressing activity of a vitex berry extract (MCKENNA). KIPLE AND ORNELAS). Trichophyton mentagrophytes. rare occurrences of itching and urticaria have been reported . Doses of up to 3500 mg in rats for over 5 weeks also failed to produce toxic effects. megaterium) (MCKENNA). including rotundifuran16 and others (clerodadienols). placebo-controlled) have shown significant benefits in the treatment of women with latent hyperprolactinemia. flowers. Traditional Medicine. gastric. penduletin. as an adjunctive therapy in endometriosis (MCKENNA). digestive. Generally considered safe. and leaves inhibited the in vitro growth of Bacillus subtilis. hysteria. as a galactogogue. Flavonoids (casticin. Food. tea.and b-estrogen receptors. xyloside. Oral administration of a standardized extract of the berries with bestrogen receptor-specific activity to female ratsproducedestrogenicactivitywithouteffects on uterine genes or uterineweight. and Cosmetic. small lung. coli. Staphylococcus aureus. Epidermophyton floccosum.17.15 and estrogenic activity in female rats administered an extract in feed (MCKENNA).1. Dried fruits and extracts thereof in capsules. and corpus luteum insufficiency. coli.11 also in treatments of premenstrual tension syndrome.and progesterone-positive human mammary cancer cell line (T-47D) (MCKENNA). Parkinson’s disease. Bacillus cereus. and others).19 plant also used in Arabian medicine to treat insanity. aureus. Candida krusei.18 TOXICOLOGY (BLUMENTHAL 1).178 Chaste-tree PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Ethanol extracts of the leaves inhibit the in vitro growth of various bacteria and fungi (E. Candida albicans. No toxicity was found in mice or rats administered a standardized extract of the berries at a single dose of 7000 mg. Berries and leaves were used in 16th century Europe as an emmenagogue. Ethanol extracts of the fruits. and so on (FOSTER). E. Syrup made from the seeds was used in medieval Europe to suppress the libido. Eclectic medical practitioners (19th century) used a tincture of the fresh fruit as galactagogue and emmenagogue (FELTER AND LLOYD). and others) and iridoids (aucubin and agnoside) of the fruits and leaves also showed in vitro antibacterial activity (S. uterine myomas.11 Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and premenstrual tension syndrome (MCKENNA). allay effusions in the knee joints associated with premenstrual syndrome. in vitro estrogenic activity with binding of both a.2 Dopaminergic compounds in the fruits with in vitro prolactin-suppressive activity are diterpenes. stomachache. Seeds used as a spice and substitute for pepper (GRIEVE. acne.11 Clinical trials of standardized extracts of the berries (double-blind. Streptococcus faecalis.9 Seed decoctions and fruits used in ancient Greece to treat uterine inflammations (MCKENNA) and in Arabian medicine in baths to treat uterine tumors and pain. and antifungal.11 Estrogenic activity of the berries is attributed to linoleic acid. and as a diuretic. Pharmaceutical. to prevent early birth. Used in modern Europe in the treatment of premenstrual and menopausal disorders including premenstrual mastodynia (mastalgia) and other symptoms of PMS. and Shigella sonei. abnormal menstrual cycles. and upon termination of use of birth control pills.14in vitro growth inhibition of an estrogen. vitexin. and colon carcinoma). premenstrual syndrome. cyclical mastalgia. reduce water retention during menstruation. to increase or stimulate milk flow. Extracts of the berries have shown in vitro cycotoxic activity against human carcinoma cells (breast.10. USES Medicinal. and B.1 apigenin.

Phytomedicine. 11. STEINMETZ. headache.. HerbalGram. 233. flu.. 959 (2003). 945 (2003).. Short Reports of Short Lectures and Poster Presentations. Class 2b dietary supplement (not to be used during pregnancy). J. premenstrual syndrome. 277 (1978)... Bull. 59. 530 (1985). 163 (1992). 16. Gorler et al. 63. 2. WICHTL.. Wollenweber and K. Rimpler. R. 10. 12. 126 (1983). anthelminticum). and for stomachache and ocular conditions... 16. S. Planta Med. Wuttke et al.5 m high. Agric. (Wienhiem). 293. (2003). Z. 15. Allg. BARNES. Notabene Med.) A. FELTER AND LLOYD. Hansel and H. MCKENNA. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.. 8. Hansel and E. Alakbarov. CHENOPODIUM OIL Source: Chenopodium ambrosioides L. 598 (1963). Common/vernacular names: Oils of American wormseed (C. 13. ambrosioides). 17.. seeds used in Unani medicine as a contraceptive and purify the liver and brain. (Zagreb). plant used in Amazonia Brazil as an emmenagogue. and other conditions (MCKENNA). E. Propping. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude herb.. anaphrodisiac. 47. 4. Arzneim. menopausal symptoms (BLUMENTHAL 1). A. 19. Seeds used in Ayurvedic medicine to induce abortion.. 6. 932 (1987). 55. 9. Arch. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Strongly aromatic. Pharm. In Germany.. 57. and epazote (C. 3. 2992 (1988).. Mexican tea. Prod.Forsch. var. diuretic. Nat. M. (Family Chenopodiaceae). mastodynia. 38. P1 77. UPHOF. E. F. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.. 10. as a diuretic. July 17–22.. Katzorke. J. Planta Med. 2472 (2001). REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Kuruuzum-Uz et al. S. TUTIN 3. 297 (1986). Planta Med. 296. Regulatory Status. Jarry et al. 51. Bonn BACANS Symposium. Biol. 7. K. D. W. Ohyama et al. C. 69. D. Mann. Saden-Krehula et al.. 48. WEISS. 63.Chenopodium oil 179 leaves and root bark used in Nigeria to treat depression. Gomaa et al. 348 1.. ambrosioides var. 11. Gray or C. A. 49. Acta Pharm. p. Food Chem. 18. J Liu et al. G. R. Planta Med. anthelminticum (L. A. Winder. Liu et al. FOSTER.. ambrosioides L. Phytochemistry. Propping and T. 556 (1960). Antolic and Z. 26. 5. 14. hairy annual or perennial herb up to about 1. formulation indicated for menstrual disorders due to primary or secondary corpus luteum insufficiency. 52.. 18 (2004). Pharm. Arch. Therapiewoche. Phytomedicine. 207 (1997). BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2. Hahn et al. 180 (1959). K. H. Winder and R. J. 9. Chawala et al. 1990. alcoholic and aqueous extracts of pulverized fruits and their formulations. inadequate lactation. Hansel. native to tropical . (Weinheim). Pharm. and for stomachache. Males. 10 (2003). 40 (2003).

detergents. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Contains variable amounts of ascaridole (17–90%. and dwarf tapeworms. hookworms. S. a-terpinene. it is also effective against hookworms and dwarf tapeworms but not large tapeworms. 3. Effects may be cumulative. ambrosioides have been used in tumors. 18(Pt.4 Food. TYLER 3. Essential oil. REFERENCES See the General References for FERNALD. Major producing countries include India. Indian Chem. J.180 Chenopodium oil America. Hartwell.S. 2. among others. Cases of death have also been reported. JIANGSU. (1973). and others ¨ (JIANGSU. headache. Gupta and M. 54. . 71 (1968). Opdyke. L. from which the volatile oil (with a disagreeable odor and bitter taste) is obtained by steam distillation. D. 2).4% reportedly used in perfumes. with maximum use level of 0. Part used is the fresh aboveground flowering and fruiting plant. Toxicol. among others. and Cosmetic. Used as an anthelmintic for roundworms. Bras. a-spinasterol. J. vomiting. L. 713 (1976). GRIEVE. and U. 40 (1975). creams.5 In China. temporary deafness.. J. MOORE 1.. Lloydia. Now seldom (if at all) used in pharmaceutical preparations as it is largely replaced by synthetic anthelmintics such as piperazine and other compounds. lotions. Gupta and M. L. root. USD 26th. p-cymene. and plant of C. Toxic effects include irritation of skin and mucous membranes. Indian Perfum. 4. Behari. Major use is as a fragrance component in soaps. China. usually 60–80%). Soc. 49. 5. naturalized and cultivated worldwide. vertigo. MARTINDALE). Traditional Medicine. LIST AND HORHAMMER). S. saturated hydrocarbons (C21 to C31 with C29 predominant). and circulatory collapse. the fresh root is used to treat articular rheumatism. (GOSSELIN. Rev. ambrosioides are used in Mexican cooking as a carminative flavoring with bean dishes (MOORE 1). G. The leaves and seeds of C. chenopodium oil may explode when heated or treated with acids and should be handled with caution.1–4 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Ascaridole. the active principle of the oil. NANJING.P. triacontyl alcohol.F. Due to its high ascaridole (a peroxide) content. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION kidney and liver damage. G. 317 (1972).. Bauer et al. YOUNGKEN. Regulatory Status. has anthelmintic properties. myrcene. Pharmaceutical. TOXICOLOGY The oil is considered as very toxic. 1. and the United States.. It was formerly official in N. Leaf.4 USES Medicinal. GUENTHER. Brazil. l-limonene. 240 14.. Behari. particularly against roundworms (Ascaris). Food Cosmet. and perfumes. Not permitted in foods. 31. Farm.

Traditionally used to treat male sexual inadequacies.23-trihydroxy-12-ursorlic-28glucopyester).p. kidney. nivea DC. with slender green prickly branches. suo niao (antidiuretic).2 agrimoniin. soup packets. Traditional Medicine. invigorates urinary and reproductive functions).1 pedunculagin. Common/vernacularnames: Chineserosehip. the latter yielding more extractives. Commercial Cherokee rosehips are either whole or sliced. and chronic cough (LU AND LI). Polyhydroxy pigments: LD50 (white mice) 519 Æ 105 mg/kg i. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Mainly crude (both whole and sliced). vitamin C.). yi shen (tonic. sterol glucosides.5 starch. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES A hot water extract of Cherokee rosehip showed potent antimutagenic activities in the Ames test.g. The whole hips are normally further processed to yield jinyingzi rou (meat) by soaking in water until soft. R. spleen. R. polyuria and enuresis.1. R. liver. sinica Murr. resin. Part used is the dried ripe prickly fruit (hip) collected when it turns red in autumn. agrimonic acids A and B.. female problems (e. etc.. and ursolic acid derivatives. flowering in May and fruiting in September to October. uterine bleeding and leukorrhea). ternata Poir. and others (IMM-3. naturalized in the southern United States. injection of 500 mg/kg and 1100 mg/kg in white rats (observed 1–2 weeks) retarded weight gain and caused an increase in white blood cells and decrease in red cells but no pathological changes in heart. and capsules). Fructus Rosae Laevigatae. malic.c. oleanolic. sugars. including nocturnal emission and spermatorrhea. After partially dried under the sun. cherokensis Donn. and sanguiin H-42) euscaphic. (syn.Cherokee rosehip 181 CHEROKEE ROSEHIP Source: Rosa laevigata Michx. amino acids. Camellia Hort. Native to China and Japan. chronic diarrhea and enteritis. pigments. hypertension. . Considered one of the most important Chinese health tonics.) (Family Rosaceae). sweating and night sweating. and se chang (intestinal astringent) properties. the fruits are placed in a barrel and their prickles removed by stirring with a wooden bat. traditional Chinese medicine considers it to have gu jing (strengthens male essence). intestine. now widely distributed throughout China.6 TOXICOLOGY GENERAL DESCRIPTION High-climbing shrub (up to 5 m).7 USES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. They are then further dried to yield whole jinyingzi. and adrenal tissues.3b. and jinyingzi. also used in sexual neurasthenia. slicing in half..3 laevigatanoside A (2a. R.. R.. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Fruits contain hydrolysable tannins (laevigatins A to G. Used in tonic (especially male tonic) preparations in various forms (drinks. First described around AD 500. and s.4 saponin glycosides. tablets.19a. JIANGSU).. plant acids (citric. removing the seeds and again sun drying.

Large tree with rough dark trunk and reddish brown branches.. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. Pharm. Bull. eudesmic acid (3. and others (KARRER). 240 (1988).15%). 37. 15. 28. WILD Source: Prunus serotina Ehrh. X. Chem. JIXIAN.1 prunasin (dmandelonitrile glucoside).5 m in diameter and 30 m in height. Phytochemistry. She et al. See General References for BAILEY 2. 5 (1990). the REFERENCES U. sugars. T. Extracts used extensively in cold and cough . and antitussive properties.25% of potential HCN yield in fresh ¨ leaves (LIST AND HORHAMMER). NATIONAL. GENERAL DESCRIPTION glucose. J. IMM-3. emulsin. 2.2 Prunasin is a cyanogenic glucoside that is hydrolyzed by the enzyme prunase into hydrocyanic acid (HCN. up to about 1. Fang et al. (Family Rosaceae). Li.5-trimethoxybenzoic acid). Zhongcaoyao. 5. 30. 22. T.182 Cherry bark. Acta Hort. CHEUNG AND LI. B. leaves have been reported to yield the highest amounts of HCN in the spring. Sun et al.3 Leaves also 4 contain amygdalin.. present in bark extracts (MARTINDALE). and Cosmetic. The yield of HCN by the bark varies with the times of collection and the thickness and types of bark. X. 6. 2451 (1989). preferably collected in the fall. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Believed to have astringent. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 429 (1991). Although essential oil solvent-free oleoresins and natural extractives of other Rosa spp. regulatory status of Rosa laevigata is not established. Common/vernacular names: Black cherry. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi/ 1. USES Medicinal. and benzaldehyde. 7.4. CHP. Ni.. CHERRY BARK. L.) Part used is the dried stem bark. X. 22. native to North America (Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Nebraska and Texas. p-coumaric acid. capulin. Yoshida et al. Fruit skin contains capulin anthocyanins. and wild cherry bark. Bark collected in the fall has the highest HCN yield (ca. are GRAS (§182. 920 (1989). wild Regulatory Status. Jiangxi Yixueyuan Xuebao. FOSTER AND DUKE. free of the rough outer bark. 3383 (1991). Yoshida et al. LU AND LI.S... Pharmaceutical. up to about 0.. 4. TOXICOLOGY Bark contains condensed tannins. Phytochemistry.05% yield of HCN. JIANGSU. Wild black cherry. In contrast. scopoletin. prussic acid). while that collected in the spring has only about 0.. 3. Hydrocyanic acid. 298 (1997).20). is a lethal poison. sedative. 0. rum cherry bark.. 30(3). Sin.

82. 4.. frozen dairy desserts. baked goods. all patients were reported to recover completely within 4 h (JIANGSU). Laurocerasus officinalis M. GRIEVE. YOUNGKEN. Hartwell. Buchalter. D. and Ojibwa) in treatments of diabetes and its complications.P. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.. L. Iroquois. Essential oil. Extracts used in most major food products as a flavoring substance. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. the stem bark and root of a related Prunus species (P. CLAUS. the apricot) has been used for centuries in treating apricot kernel poisoning. 3. 65. FERNALD. 103 (1971). Also reportedly used against cancers. Phytochemistry.. particularly in formulations based on White Pine Compound. McCune and T.5 Used by Canadian Indians (Delaware. Agron. 775 (1973). candy. 197 (2002). and others. Johns. FEMA.) (Family Rosaceae). Used in cough syrups or bronchial formulations. by the Cherokee Indian to treat laryngitis and as a wash for sores and ague. Food Chem. M. FOSTER AND DUKE. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. M. KARRER. 58.20). 5. Highest average maximum use level of the extract (strength and type unspecified) reported is 0. 201 (1999). Regulatory Status. 65. and laurocerasus leaves. Food. Recent clinical reports have substantiated this usage. 1537 (1998). Sci.6 In China. J. Smeathers et al. tea ingredient (FOSTER AND DUKE). Traditional Medicine. Common/vernacular names: Cherry laurel leaves. 1. J. gelatins and puddings. The crude comes in two types: thin and thick with the former being considered superior in quality. no HCN limits are specified. (syn. USD 26th. 34.Cherry laurel leaves 183 preparations in the form of syrups. Santamour. Decoctions of the fresh bark were used to treat 80 cases of apricot kernel poisoning. J. 47. UPHOF. by the Delaware to treat diarrhea and women’s diseases. E... Malecite. Pharm. common cherry laurel.06% in alcoholic beverages. 2.S.. L. Crude and syrup were formerly official in U. L. armeniaca L. Ethnopharmacol. J. Roem. and fluid extract was official in N. 1272 (1968). Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weightto-weight ratios. MARTINDALE. processed fruits. extracts may contain detectable amounts of prunasin or its hydrolysis product. F. 6.. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.. Ordaz-Galindo et al. HCN. Bark used by a number of American Indian tribes for colds and coughs. solvent-free oleoresin and natural extractives GRAS (§182. A. .F. by the Iroquois in a poultice for headaches (MOERMAN). CHERRY LAUREL LEAVES Source: Prunus laurocerasus L. Lloydia.

1. Belg. prunasin is partially converted to its isomer sambunigrin (l-mandelonitrile glucoside). tannin.5 COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Cherry laurel oil (FFPA). Parts used are the fresh leaves. Cherry laurel water is the water distillate adjusted to contain 0. and Cosmetic. and antispasmodic and in eye lotions. Soc. Cherry laurel oil (FFPA) is used as a flavor component in numerous food products. etc. insomnia. Highest average maximum use level reported is 0. wax. native to western Asia. Pharmaceutical. also reportedly used in cancers. emulsin. Leaves used in treating coughs. (1974). is composed almost entirely of benzaldehyde and HCN. Puech et al... widely cultivated. MERCK. M. 437 36. GRIEVE.5%) of prunasin (d-mandelonitrile glucoside). like bitter almond oil. ¨ HORHAMMER. frozen dairy desserts. 29. up to about 6 m high. 1. Leaves approved for food as natural flavoring substance provided prussic acid (HCN) does not exceed 25 ppm (§172. FEMA. candy. Cherry laurel oil (FFPA) for food use should not contain HCN. UPHOF.. MCGUFFIN . The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the warmwater macerated leaves.5–15 cm long. vomiting. resulting in a racemic mixture of the two isomers known as prulaurasin (dl-mandelonitrile glucoside). BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. The leaves contain variable amounts (usually ca. J. Not used in the United States. but cherry laurel water is used in Europe as sedative.2–4 The oil. Other constituents present in the leaves include 1% ursolic acid. stomach and intestinal spasms. anodyne. 101 (1976). A.184 Cherry laurel leaves GENERAL DESCRIPTION pharmacological and toxicological properties of benzaldehyde (see bitter almond).1% HCN. and other ailments. and others (KARRER).014% in candy. USES Medicinal.) and nonalcoholic beverages. with small amounts of benzyl alcohol. BAILEY 1.510).1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION TOXICOLOGY Hydrocyanic acid is a deadly poison. Trav. During maceration the enzyme prunase (or emulsin) hydrolyzes the cyanogenic glucoside present to yield benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid (HCN). Cherry laurel oil (FFPA) is practically equivalent to pure benzaldehyde and has the REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Henriet et al. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Food. Regulatory Status. 2. Montp. Pharm. which are volatile and distilled with steam. MARTINDALE. including alcoholic (liqueurs such as cordials. Most of the HCN is removed by neutralization and washing of the oil. with the young and small leaves containing the highest concentrations. LIST AND 1 & 2. An evergreen bush to small tree with oblong leathery leaves 7. Traditional Medicine. During isolation. Pharm.. and baked goods.

Traditional Medicine. Used as a flavor ingredient in food products.. ed. and copper chelating activities were found from aqueous extracts of the leaves and roots.) Hoffm. candy. L. A. 34.7%). calcium (ca. Essential oil. has been reported to produce tumors in mice (see sweet basil). Common/vernacular names: Chervil. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES In vitro antioxidant.) (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae).10). p. Estragole.. bitter principles. 1. longirostris Bertol. including nonalcoholic beverages. naturalized in North America (Quebec to Pennsylvania). and other dishes. 45 (1996). 297. apiin (apigenin-7apiosylglucoside). Phytochemistry.Chervil 185 3. and high concentrations of potassium (ca. which are composed of petroselinic acid and linoleic acid as the main components. and others. up to about 0. meat and meat products. 0. New York. magnesium (130 mg/100 g). Miller. with anethole also reported to be present in the oil of Indian origin (KARRER. lipid peroxidation-inhibiting. L. and digestive. garden chervil. with minor concentrations of palmitic acid and short-chain hydrocarbons (C23 or less. frozen dairy desserts. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains a volatile oil (ca. expectorant. COMMERCIAL PREPARATION Available mainly as the crude. Theleaves(particularlywhen fresh) are used as a domestic spice in soups. omelets. and solvent-free oleoresin also GRAS §182. Vol. and New Zealand. salads.03% in the herb and 0. gout stones. among others. Used as diuretic. 4.20). 43. the major component of the volatile oil. natural extractives.114% of the herb in meats and meat products. 103 (1971). USES Food. MARSH). . 5. and condiments and relishes. 4. Australia. The volatile oil contains estragole (methyl chavicol) and 1-allyl-2.4-dimethoxybenzene as major constituents. (syn. 1–4 ¨ LIST AND HORHAMMER. P. vinegar for salad dressings. baked goods. native to Europe (the Caucasus and south Russia) and western Asia. Regulatory Status. Van Nostrand Reinhold. CHERVIL Source: Anthriscus cerefolium (L.8 m high.9% in the fruits). The juice from the fresh herb is used to treat eczema. Fruits (seeds) contain luteolin-7-glucoside and about 13% fixed oils. hairy near the nodes.3%). Miller in L.5 TOXICOLOGY GENERAL DESCRIPTION Slender annual with small leaves and erect branching stem. L. P. J. phosphorus (450 mg/100 g). Stammitti et al. Hartwell Lloydia. in the form of an infusion. 1. mainly branched-chain C17). Phytochemistry. and salad chervil. Highest average maximum use level reported is 0. and abscesses. widely cultivated. GRAS as a natural flavoring or seasoning (§182. Parts used are the leaves (fresh or dried) and the dried flowering herb. 1973. also to lower blood pressure.

1 Consequently. (syn. antirheumatic. (2000). Castanea sativa leaves are the subject of a German therapeutic monograph. Ethnopharmacol.) Raf. 14. up to about 30 m high. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains 8–9% tannins. . Zwaving et al. J. Van Loon. Pharm. native to North America. 2726 (1975). 1741 (1972). mucilage... leaf infusion used to treat whopping cough (MOERMAN). reported use levels are low.). also antitussive. LUST. Phytochemistry. Regulatory Status. 153. and astringent. Leaves approved for food use as natural flavoring substance (§172.510).0075%. Lebensm.F. or from other Castanea species. Brown et al. and others. B. UPHOF. also as sedative. TERRELL. leaves used by the Mohegans to treat colds and rheumatism. Forsch.P. in flavor intensities. Common/vernacular names: American chestnut leaves. Fejes et al. Williams. use is not recommended since efficacy isnot well documented (BLUMENTHAL 1). Used in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages in the form of an extract. a native of the Mediterranean region. Offers no advantage over other antitussives (WEISS. FEMA. Once a dominant hardwood species in eastern North America. Crude was formerly official in N. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS GENERAL DESCRIPTION Deciduous tree with rough bark and glabrous mature leaves that reach about 25 cm in length and 5 cm in width. Z. J. americana (Michx.. 182 (1971). 289 (1973). 4. J. Decoction of leaves used by the Cherokee Indians in a compound formula to treat coughs.S. 1. WREN). Traditional Medicine. less than 0.) (Family Fagaceae).. J.) Borkh. the leaves used in commerce are mostly derived from Spanish chestnut leaves (C. however. 5.186 Chestnut leaves REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed either in weightto-weight ratios or. A. chestnut leaves. S. infusion of a gargle in pharyngitis. 3. the American chestnut has been extensively destroyed by a fungal disease during recent years caused by Cryphonectria (Endothia) parasitica (Murrill) Barr (chestnut disease fungus). CHESTNUT LEAVES Source: Castanea dentata (Marsh. 11.. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Considered to have tonic and astringent properties. and U. Weekbl. Harborne and C. tonic. H. dentata is listed. 69. only C. USES Food. S. resins. sativa Mill.. O. 259 2. Crude and extracts. 106. Parts used are the dried leaves. when intended for food use. ROSENGARTEN. C. Unters. Phytochemistry.

5 vitamin C. psoriasis. 1. Chippewa Indians used a strained decoction of the leaves used to wash sore eyes. 359 (2003).7 octadecatetraenoic acid in leaf lipids concentrated in monogalactoxyl diglyceride fraction. UPHOF. petals two lobed. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Stellaria dichotoma var. North America. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. and vulnerary activity reported.12 Traditional Medicine. CHICKWEED Source: Stellaria media (L. ulcers. Environ. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. STAHL.4 hydroxybenzoic acids (e. externally applied in poultices for boils. gastroenteric diseases.. starweed. toothache. part used is the herb.g. aminoadipic acid. L. emollient. Leaves in capsules.1. Extracts of the aerial parts have shown in vitro antioxidant activity (xanthane oxidaseinhibiting). throughout Europe. niacin. WEISS. BLUMENTHAL 1. flower white.11 forage plant of chickens living among the Iroquois Indians (MOERMAN).6 (DUKE 2).2 luteolin. to 3 mm long. Aerial part used in salads in Italy. hydroxycoumarins.200 -di-O-b-glucopyranosyl vitexin). sessile. formerly a source of vitamin C. 7. also antirheumatic. dehydroascorbic acid. hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic. MAN). stimast-7-enol. triterpene glycosides. chlorogenic. cosmopolitan elsewhere.3 saponins. g-linolenic acid in polar fraction. thiamine.Chickweed 187 REFERENCE See the General References for BAILEY 2. galactolipids. FEMA. antipuritic. flavonoids.3 and trans-ferulic acid). steroids. used by Iroquois in a compound poultice to treat rheumatism (MOER11 galactogogue. palmitate and furan 3-carboxylic acid. lanceolata contains wogonin (flavone derivative). vanillic acid). carotenoids. Rieske et al. glycosides.) Villars (Family Caryophyllaceae). 32. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.g. coumarins. hexosylapigenins. WEISS reports negative results as antirheumatic. ointment also used to allay itching. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Carboxylic acids. Entomol.. inflammation. sepals to 5 mm. p-hydroxybenzoic acid.9 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Prostrate to decumbent annual herb to 40 cm. Common/vernacular names: Chickweed. and saccharopine.. pentosylapigenins. leaves ovate. riboflavin. star chickweed. including rutin. K. a-spinasterol. traditionally a pot herb. emergency food.12 demulcent. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. eczema. and hakobe (Japan). sores.. FERNALD. WREN. linolenic acids4.seedsoncea commercial birdseed source. and the isoflavone genistein. glabrous. widely used emollient in salves and ointments (WREN). swellings. vicenin-2. mainly a weed of cultivated ground around human dwellings. used in Japan in a herbal toothpaste (‘‘Hakobe-salt’’).10 USES Food. star-shaped.1 apigenin C-glycosylflavones (e. ferulic.8 . teas. oxalic acid. and C-glycosyl-flavonoids.

16. Kuginuki and T. Royen (syn.188 Chicle COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude herb. 10.. Phytochemistry. Metody. 74.. A. 467 (2002). Phytother. STEINMETZ. zapotilla (Jacq.. M. A. J. a gum composed of a (1 ! 4)-linked xylan backbone highly substituted with oligosaccharide chains. CHICLE Source: Manilkara zapota (L. 99 (1997). taraxasterol and other triterpene alcohol acetates. inorganic salts. up to about 33 m high. FOSTER AND DUKE. Farm. M.) Gilly. H.. UPHOF. 7. M. DUKE 2. Makinen. J. up to 55% of a yellow resin. extracts..) (Family Sapotaceae). Fitoterapia. Common name: Chicle. Scientific and Applied Research Centre. 26. consisting primarily of lupeol acetate with minor amounts of b-amyrin and a-spinasterol acetates. Plant Foods Hum. Doha.. Nutr.1. 57.. Rizk. Hohmann et al. it is collected by making multiple incisions in the trunk and dried by careful boiling to Crude chicle contains 15–20% hydrocarbons that are polyisoprenes (mixture of low molecular weight cis-1. Sapota achras Mill. Fitoterapia. 1987. Budzianowski and G. GENERAL DESCRIPTION remove excess water. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. The resulting product is a water-insoluble. also. Kromatogr. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 47. L. 381 (1996). 5. J. 11. and others (KARRER). Part used is the latex present in the bark. G.. F. Pakulski. The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar.) Fosb. M. Planta Med. Guarrera. followed by drying and powdering. Salo and T. native to Central America and the Yucutan Peninsula of Mexico. A. 4. M. 1.4 units in an approximately 2:7 ratio). Pharmacol. 9. 6.) Nutt. 8.. 37. Aikakousk. 515 (2003).) P. GRIEVE. G. Maataloust. G. Tsotsoriua et al. L. 470 (1992).1–9 .. P. Guil et al. G. Res. Nawaz and H. zapotilla (Jacq. WEISS.4 and trans-1. 16. Jpn. 182 (1993).. 1575 (1971). R. 10. Pharmazie. Reid. Phytochemistry. amorphous powder that softens on heating. 3. Nanba. J. Pieroni et al. WREN. 12. 47. sugar. Sorenson. TYLER 1. p. 51. REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. pith. 599 (1977). Kitanov. now extensively cultivated in the tropics for its edible fruit (naseberry or sapodilla). achras (Mill. Class 1 dietary supplement (herbs can be safely consumed when used appropriately). University of Qatar. 290 (1991). 67. Achras sapota L.. M. Regulatory Status. 172 (1977).2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION An evergreen tree with shiny leaves. R. and leaves. Crude chicle is purified by repeatedly washing with strong alkali and neutralizing with sodium acid phosphate. TUTIN 1. 2. Jamieson and E. 127 (1965).

187 (1973). Shoji et al. L. H. Pat. J. Tanaka and H.. eds. Audley in L.453. Common/vernacular names: Blue sailors... eds. its use level in chewing gum is about 20%. Y. 39. M. 12. Rubber Res. Soc. 1973. P. Jpn. 623 (1951).S. Y. G.361 3. Lapedes et al.. 595 (1991). 1977. J. McGraw-Hill.10 Food. 1977. Kabir. N. New York. Res. Lapedes et al.. Am. Carbohydr.Chicory root 189 Refined chicle for use in chewing gums does not contain the water-soluble constituents present in crude chicle. CHICORY ROOT Source: Cichorium intybus L. 8. Assoc. 2. p.. New York. U. J.. 2321 (1972).12 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Mainly crude. chicory. 1. YOUNGKEN. and succory. The primary use of chicle is as the ‘‘gum’’ base in chewing gum. wild chicory. and Cosmetic. Strausbaugh and E. Claimed to be a useful ingredient in hair preparations (dressings and pomades). D.. 5. p. Ledbetter. E. Rubber Chem. Polymer. McGraw-Hill Technol. 7. D. Nat. T. 27 (1965). Sato. TOXICOLOGY Limited available data indicate chicle to be nontoxic. 34. Phytochemistry. Can. M. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. chicory root. Sato et al. LIST AND HORHAMMER. Core in 9. p. Jpn. D. Vol. Technol. F. 3. . This ‘‘gum’’ is not a true gum (see glossary) but is close in chemical and physical nature to natural rubber and resins. Vol. 10. 40.615). 3. Vol. Archer and B. Van Nostrand Reinhold. REFERENCES ¨ See the General References for HORTUS 3rd. data on its precise chemical composition are limited. W. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Regulatory Status. 63. UPHOF. 17. N. common chicory root. TERRELL. Pharmaceutical.13 USES Medicinal. However. 13.. Conner in D. Pharm. New York. (1961). 447. Chem.. hence it is soft and plastic when chewed and is reportedly not soluble in saliva. 38. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. W. Azpeitia et al. L. Dutton and S. 113 McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science (1976). P. Anderson and H. 6. Tanaka et al. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae).. 6. Miller. 3. Approved for foods use as a chewing gum base (§172. and Technology. J. Fujiwara. (1969).11. S. 177 (1988). with small amounts of flavorings. 310. 423 (1961). 11. G. Stavely et al. Food Sci. E. 2.. E. ed. Mendez. Y.665 4. G. McGraw-Hill. 28. 5. B. The rest of the chewing gum is sugar and corn syrup... Kokai 72 47...

Food. LIST AND HORHAMMER).19 USES Medicinal.5 Smallamountsoftwoindolealkaloids (b-carbolines).12 mammary. mannose. organic acids. resin. naturalized and weedy in North America (FOSTER). etc. harman and norharman. fructose. including alcoholic (primarily bitter formulations) and nonalcoholic beverages (e. and vanillin. and others.phenylacetaldehyde. cut herb and root used in infusion or extract for loss of appetite and dyspeptic disorders. pectin.5 g/kg) had neither effect.17. and vincristine). choline.7 g/kg p. and cauline hairy leaves (borne on stem) resembling those of dandelion. esculin (esculetin-6-glucoside). have also been isolated from the roasted root. per day for 10 days) decreased body weight and impaired spermatogenesis in mice. etc. whereas the threshold dosage (4.g. and gelatins and puddings. a-lactucerol (taraxasterol).14 In a placebo-controlled study. In Germany. benzothiazoles. sugars (fructose. furans.o. Extracts are used extensively as a flavor ingredient in major food products.18 An aqueous suspension of the root at a sublethal dosage (8. among others. the bitter principles lactucin and lactucopicrin (intybin).among which acetophenone is a characteristic component of roasted chicory not previously reported as a component of aroma of any heated food products such as coffee.totaling33identifiedcompounds. aromatic hydrocarbons. and Cosmetic.16 TOXICOLOGY The herb (vegetable) has been reported to cause contact dermatitis in humans. double-blind study in hypercholesterolemic men on a controlled diet. a supplement of ice cream containing chicory inulin produced a significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels.phenylaceticacid. instant coffee substitutes). with glucose in minor amounts. which is composed of pyrazines. flowers.13 Chicory inulin stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria in the human colon and is classified as a prebiotic. shoots. frozen dairy desserts. cichoriin (esculetin-7-glucoside). chicory inulin inhibited tumor formation (colon. dietary supplementation with chicory inulin increased bifidobacteria counts and reduced clostridia. aldehydes. chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid).15 In a randomized. phenols.7 The herb (leaves. and ¨ others (JIANGSU. The root also contains fatty acids (mostly palmitic and linoleic). bright blue flowers. only after consultation with physician (BLUMENTHAL 1).1–5 The roasted root contains a steam-distillable fraction (aroma)..) contains inulin. Parts used are the dried root and the dried aboveground parts. in gallstones.190 Chicory root GENERAL DESCRIPTION Biennial or perennial herb with spindleshaped taproot. and lung) and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of various common anticancer drugs at subtherapeutic dosages (cyclophosphamide. Highest average maximum use Addition of inulin to ground beef before frying inhibited the formation of mutagenic . Contraindicated in allergies to chicory or other Compositae.). fixed oils. choline. Pharmaceutical.8–10 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES compounds (heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) after frying.6 Other constituents of the roasted root include 2-acetylpyrrole. doxorubicine. up to 2 m high. candy. cytarabine. believed to be native to Europe and Asia.11 As part of the diet of rats. esculetin. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The root contains a high concentration (up to 58% in fresh cultivated root) of inulin (a mixture of linked fructans). collected in autumn. and bacteroides. 5-fluorouracil. methotrexate. tannins. baked goods. cichoriin. fusobacteria. and ¨ others (LIST AND HORHAMMER). which yields on hydrolysis mostly fructose. furfural.

4. Kawabata and M. Unters. 87(Suppl. moisture retention. liver ailments (e. Br. as a fiber and prebiotic in breakfast cereals.Chicory root 191 level reported for the extract (type unspecified) is about 0. Agric. 209 (1976). 429 (1982). 033 2. Wiss. Promayon et al.’’ usually obtained from the Witloof variety. GRIEVE. A. fiber. 10. 11. S. . S283 (2002).61% (6116 ppm) in frozen dairy desserts. Roberfroid. 6726 (2003).. Herrmann. Essential oil. Chicory leaf buds known as ‘‘chicons. This use is very common in Europe. J. sugar replacement and fiber in chocolate. though use level in instant coffee substitutes could be much higher. Schmidtlein and K. natural extractive. 51. H. 573 1. USSR. 17.. J. 9. B. and fillings. 13. S273 (2002). I.. B. 2). Blanc. salad dressings. crispness. Fedorin et al.. LUST. Kanzei Chuo Bunsekishoho. Nutr. 255 (1975). texture improvement. 133 (1977). Nutr..22 Root and herb subject of a combined positive German therapeutic monograph for mild dyspeptic disorders and loss of appetite (BLUMENTHAL 1). Chicory inulin is confirmed GRAS. 159. Kierstan. also used to provide form stability. 2503 (1976). Sannai et al. Proliac and M. usually in the form of tea or as juice. and solvent-free oleoresin are GRAS (§182. and cancers. Lebesm. H. Chem. J. also in diuretic and REFERENCES digestive formulations (FOSTER).. strengths (see glossary) of extracts are either expressed in weight-to-weight ratios or in terms of flavor potencies.. LIST AND HORHAMMER. 20. 20. 7. The root and leaves reportedly used as a flavor component in herb teas. meat products.22 Traditional Medicine. 2). Planta Med. 12. See the General References for BAILEY 2. are used as a vegetable and salad. hepatitis).. Food Chem. 46.20). Lebensm. breads and baked goods. BLUMENTHAL 1. Dem’yanenko et al. and dietetic products.. fruit preparations. Blanc. Biotechnol. FERNALD. Shin et al. and mouthfeel in diverse foods. H. 6. S. also as a fat replacement in table spreads.. P. 11. Forsch. The... G. Ground roasted root is increasingly more used admixed with coffee to impart ‘‘richer’’ flavor and to decrease the caffeine content of the resulting coffee formulation. 8.. 87(Suppl.. M. Chim. Balbaa et al... Inulin is taken in tablets as a sugar replacement. 63 (1977).. 19 (1978). V. (1974). Cafe. Resur.23 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crudes (both roasted and unroasted) and their extracts.20 Chicory inulin has 10% of the sweetness of sugar and is used as a fat and sugar replacement. Agric. Technol. 10. dietary fiber. Regulatory Status. and prebiotic. and prebiotic in dairy products. F. A. Taper and M. Both root and herb reportedly used as bitter tonics to increase appetite and to treat digestive problems. among others (JIANGSU). J. ¨ FOSTER. Helv. 24. 577. Biol. Bioeng. Acta. Also used as diuretics and in treating gallstones. Deki. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. Pool-Zobel et al. JIANGSU. 5. 59. S. Rast. Br. frozen desserts. 447 (1978). M. (1973).g. Z. J. FEMA. 3. texture.21 Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. G. Cacao.

R. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION werin. bitter glycosides (amarogentin. ex Fleming) (syn.. native to northern India. A. flowers in large panicles. 188. Lloydia. Gibson et al.8-tetrahydroxyxanthone.5-dihydroxy-3.7. pichierenol.3. purple-tinged. B..7. 108. Philadelphia. Roberfroid et al. J. 31. etc. Adams.A.. Nutr. among others (KARRER). 1. swertianin (1. and 1..3. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. CHIRATA Source: Swertia chirata (Roxb. chiratenol. and others. eds.. 15.2 swertinin (7.1. 11 (1998). angustifolia. 9. Franck. 128. Codd et al. Gastroenterol. swerchirin (1.3-dimethoxyxanthone). Plenum Press. J. Runeckles. Vol. Barnes & Noble.5. lupeol. J. 1975. greenish yellow. M.129(Suppl. New York. 17.3–7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Contains a bitter glucoside amarogentin (chiratin)..Nutr. 1-hydroxy-3.. p.8-trihydroxy-4-methoxyxanthone). J. C.4 Amarogentin has shown in vitro hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride toxicity. 42. Common/vernacular names: Bitter stick.8-tetrahydroxyxanthone. A.7. Nepal. S287 (2002). Hartwell. 16. 1412S (1999).8-dihydroxy-3. L. Causey et al. 87(Suppl. p.6. .8 Swerchirin has shown antimalarial activity in vivo. leaves broadly lanceolate. 2). ed.8-dihydroxy-3.. 191 (2000).A.8-dihydroxy1.B. chiretta. C.. Res.6.J. New York.Coussement. amaros- Chirata xanthones (swertianin. subsessile. 287. R. C. J. Med. isobellidifolin (1. G. 975 (1995). 119. Swertia chirata (Wall. 1. and Pakistan in temperate altitudes of the Himalayas from 1200 to 3000 m. 71 (1968). Vol. chirayta. Indian J. M. J. Mitchell in V. chirata.). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Annual herb with opposite leaves and branching.1 numerous tetraoxygenated xanthones. Br. swertanone. with large continuous pith. Roy. ursolic acid..) C. swertenol. J. 217 (1996). L. mangiferin. decussatin (1-hydroxy-2.7-dimethoxyxanthone. taraxerol.192 Chirata 14. also triterpenes (b-amyrin. 1969. S. W. B. 1.8-dihydroxy-3. Swabey in L. and East Indian balmony. 1975. 20. Nutr. 20.8-trimethoxyxanthone). Clarke) (Family Gentianaceae). sweroside). and monoterpene alkaloids.9 Oral administration of a total benzene extract of the aerial parts of chirata inhibited hind paw edema induced in rats by bradykinin.5-dimethoxyxanthone). about 1 m high. Occupational Contact Dermatitis. including chiratol (1. Lippincott.). p. also Andrographis paniculata and roots of Rubia cordifolia). 21.8-trimethoxyxanthone.. 19. Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment. four-angled stem. 18.. Nutr. 7. Other Swertia species appear as adulterants (especially S. (À)-syringaresinol (lignan). Ind. 7S. 22. 23.8-dimethoxy xanthone). Part used is the whole dried herb.7dimethoxyxanthone) are claimed to have antituberculous activities. chirata is distinguished by the large dark stem pith and intensely bitter flavor. oleanolic acid.8trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone). R.

Goel and B. respectively. 102 (1991).. REFERENCES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.. B. 178 (1993). I. H.. 7127. Bot.14–16 USES Medicinal. R. B. Food. Pharmaceutical. 9.. 405 (1994). Immunotoxicol. J. 21.. Econ. A. Sekar et al. Traditional Medicine. 10. M. Sci.19 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Limited availability as crude Regulatory Status. Biol. Sci. 3. A... C.558 (1971).. S. 573 (2003).17 diarrhea. and serotonin.. 175 (1987)... Leather Sci. prostaglandin. 57.. 674 (1991). J. S. Chem. 105 1037 (1991). Kar et al. Taxon. Econ. 132 (1973). depression. Phytochemistry. 15. L. Goyal et al. Chakravarty et al.510). M. liver disorders. Res. 6. K.. A.. Phytother. 7.11 also taken to prevent epidemic malaria... 29. 12. Ghosal et al. 359 (1984). M. 84. Saxena et al.18 used against cancer. S.13 Hypoglycemic activity is attributed to the xanthone swerchirin. L.. A. tea (GRIEVE). 13. 5. Balodi. Indian J. UPHOF. K. cough (NADKARNI). 17..11 Oral feeding of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant lowered blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic12 and tolbutamide. D. J. A.. and interleukin-1b). Bennaroche et al.and glucose-loaded rats. 841 (1984). Siddha. (Madras). cholera. asthma. 63. J. Jpn. skin diseases. M. See the General References for CSIR I. Hartwell. interferon-g. Ethnopharmacol. Kokai. 19. 20. febrifuge. M. Shoyakugky Zasshri. sciatica. Pharm. Mandal et al. K. L. 31. . Sometimes used in bitter tonic formulations. 280. Ethnopharmacol. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. J. and in the treatment of thirst. 30.. 8.0016% and 0. Med. L. biliousness. 185 (1990).. Approved for use as a natural flavoring substance in alcoholic beverages only (§172. 153 (1969).. 16. C. J. 33B. K. 62. Ayur. Chirata is used in India as a bitter tonic. Taxon. 18. Sirish Kumar et al. R. Indian J. GUPTA. 2. 14. J. 15 (1974). 32. Plant. Saxena et al. 1. anemia.. interluekin-6. 14. 8. an aqueous extract of the stems administered orally produced a dose-dependent increase in the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-a. Indian J. Asthana et al. Exp. C. and gastroenteritis during the rainy season. 122 (1992). Average maximum use levels reported are 0. Hikino et al.10 In a mouse model of arthritis. Bot. Immunopharmacol. 25. R.0008%. 38. 286 (1981). anti-inflammatory. Lloydia.. Exp. YOUNGKEN. FEMA. Purushothaman et al. Malhotra and B. H. Reportedly used in alcoholic (bitters) and nonalcoholic beverages. Bennaroche et al. K. V. 4. Used in certain bitter tonic preparations. 5. Ser. Acad. 2. and Cosmetic. Planta Med. 926 (1973). Biol. GRIEVE. Aswal. 2493 (1975)... 11. Bajpai et al. (2003).Chirata 193 carrageenin.. L. Komatsu et al. Fitoterapia.

with C. totaling over three dozen.Vahl. yellow bark. ledgeriana). Jesuit’s bark. depending on the sources. brown bark. epiquinine. ledgeriana only up to 6 m. etc. JIANGSU. succirubra. NANJING). NANJING. epiquinamine. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Cinchona has astringent and bitter tonic properties.194 Cinchona (red and yellow) CINCHONA (RED AND YELLOW) Source: Red cinchona: Cinchona officinalis L. cortex chinae. hydroquinine. Sumatra.) between altitudes of about 900 and 3400 m. B. with quinine usually in major concentration. Ecuador. Part used is the dried bark. The syndrome is more commonly reported in patients with G6PD deficiency. Peru. C. quinovin A. cinchona rubra (C. Java. with quinine being the most potent. and frequency of cramps.8 TOXICOLOGY Contains up to about 16% (average 6–10%) total quinoline alkaloids that consist mainly of quinine. Peruvian bark. and cinchonicinol have shown in vitro inhibitory activity against the cytotoxicity of polyorphonuclear leucocytes.9 Quinine has been reported to cause a hypersensitivity reaction known as ‘‘black water fever.C. For some individuals. USD 26th). among others (GOODMAN AND GILMAN. intensity. quinovic acid.(syn. pregnant women. Certain strains of malarial parasites. Other constituents present include norsolorinic acid (an anthraquinine). Other alkaloids in minor amounts include quinamine. GENERAL DESCRIPTION PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Evergreen shrubs or trees. ledgeriana Moens ex Trimen. ledger bark. calisaya being the tallest. extensively cultivated in Central and South America.). etc. Guatemala. calisaya bark.8 Quinidine and quinine have cardiac-depressant properties.1–4 Use of the bark is contraindicated in pregnancy and ulcers. and fever tree. USD 26th). C. and many others. and their hybrids with other Cinchona species (Family Rubiaceae). and Africa. and cinchonaminone derived from C. Quinine. and if taken concomitantly with anticoagulants can increase their effects (WICHTL). Southeast Asia (India. High plasma levels of quinine (16 mg/L) are strongly associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Contents of the total alkaloids vary. with quinidine being twice as active as quinine (GOODMAN AND GILMAN. Costa Rica. and those with . Yellow cinchona: Cinchona calisaya Weddell.5 Potent monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity in vitro was found from quinine. cinchonine. such as those found in tonic and gin drinks. hemoglobinuria. while C. LIST AND HORHAMMER.C. usually a self-limited and benign syndrome provided immediate cessation of quinine. Common/vernacular names: Red bark. are still susceptible to quinine treatment. and C (bitter glycosides).pubescensM. STAHL. pubescens). native to mountains of tropical America (Bolivia. starch. up to about 30 m high. and hemoglobinemia and can advance to renal failure. pubescens reaching about 24 m and C. ledgeriana generally containing a higher amount than C.’’ which consists of hemolysis. cinchonicinol. even low doses of quinine. quinidine. resin. tannins. China bark. cinchona flava (C. intestinal or gastric. red Peruvian bark. quinic acid. b-sitosterol. and ¨ others (JIANGSU. MARTINDALE. placebo-controlled trial of quinine in the treatment of nocturnal cramps found significant reductions in the pain. particularly those of Vietnamese origin that have become resistant to synthetic antimalarials. pubescens.6 The alkaloids of cinchona have antimalarial and antipyretic activities.7 A double-blind.. China. wax. cinchonine. hydroquinidine. cinchonidine. and cinchonidine. also reportedly has analgesic and local anesthetic properties. can elicit thrombocytopenia with purpura (‘‘cocktail purpura’’). calisaya and C.succirubra ´ Pavon ex Klotzsch) and its hybrids. quinidine. MORTON 3.

575). GOSSELIN. convulsions. liqueurs. Besides being used as an antimalarial. USD 26th. WICHTL). abdominal pain. with the limitation that the total cinchona alkaloids do not exceed 83 ppm (0. delirium. MARTINDALE. the dried bark is seldom used alone. Quinine and extracts of cinchona (mostly red cinchona) are extensively used as a bitter in tonic water. Quinidine is used in prescription preparations mainly for treating cardiac arrhythmias. amounts in commercial soft drinks are approximately 61–67 mg/L. deafness. Cinchonism has resulted from as little as a single dose of 4 g quinine. Extracts are ingredients of herbal formulas (WICHTL) used to stimulate saliva and gastric secretions in the treatment of loss of appetite and dyspeptic discomfort (BLUMENTHAL 1). GUPTA. Traditional Medicine. solid extract. severe headache.Cinchona (red and yellow) 195 malaria. indigestion. also reportedly used in cancers. including hemorrhoids and varicose veins (as hardening agent). Poisoning (cinchonism) is usually due to overdosage or hypersensitivity. Cinchona is used in treating malaria. and collapse. UPHOF. usually in the form of an infusion. quinine hydrochloride and sulfate are also official in F.S. contact dermatitis.9 Ground cinchona bark and quinine have been reported to cause urticaria.11 An infusion of yellow cinchona was used by the Cherokee Indians as a tonic and treatment for impotence (MOERMAN).P. has been used in China to treat hangovers. TERRELL. and for mouth and throat problems. quinine is not permitted for use in beverages. is primarily in the form of the sulfate salt in preparations for treating cold and flu and nocturnal leg cramps.10 Crude drug subject of a positive. quinine has been used for treating various conditions. and other hypersensitivity reactions in some individuals (GOODMAN AND GILMAN. baked goods. etc. The current use of quinine. YOUNGKEN. Both red and yellow cinchonas were formerly official in U. In cosmetics.510 and §172. Both red and yellow cinchona barks have been approved for use in beverages only. and in eye lotions for its astringent. reportedly for stimulating hair growth and controlling oiliness (DE NAVARRE). vasodilation. bactericidal. in China. Pharmaceutical. and Cosmetic. Concentration must be declared on the label. USD 26th). extracts of cinchona are primarily used in hair tonics. MARTINDALE.. and anesthetic effects. apart from treating malaria. In European phytomedicine. diarrhea. Cinchona alkaloids are toxic.). with symptoms including blindness. mostly as prescription drugs (MARTINDALE). German therapeutic monograph (BLUMENTHAL 1).0083%) in the finished beverage (§172. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Regulatory Status. fevers.. JIANGSU.C. USES Medicinal. paralysis.9 alcoholic bitters. LUST.F. quinine sulfate and quinidine sulfate and gluconate are official in U. Use levels reported are lower than those reported in beverages. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Available as crude and extracts (fluid extract. tinnitus. Food. .S. FEMA. NANJING.10 Other food products in which red cinchona extract has been reportedly used include frozen dairy desserts. REFERENCES See the General References for BLUMENTHAL 1.C. A single oral dose of 8 g quinine may be fatal to an adult (GOOD9 MAN AND GILMAN. candy. and N. and condiments and relishes. MERCK.P. and soft drinks (bitter lemon drinks).

Abstr.40 -tetrahydrox- . leaves are sub-opposite. Java cassia. loureirii Nees) (Family Lauraceae). leaves. Cassia oil (Chinese cinnamon oil) is obtained from leaves. P. verum. 47. Vol.. Chinese or Vietnam cassia (C. J. 11.. Mitsui et al. Hartwell. Chinese cassia Cinnamomum cassia (L. elliptic or oval to lanceolate–oval. light pinkishbrown. 363 (1989). cassia. verum. Rel. Int. 6. Seances Soc.196 Cinnamon (and cassia) 1. Dorairaj et al. Bitner. Chinese cassia. In the United States. cinnamon bark (particularly from C. 2397 (2004). verum and cinnamon leaf oil from the leaves and twigs of the same species (RAVINDRAN). 4. Acta Pharm. Pol. Planta Med. Morrison et al.. N. The essential oils are obtained by steam distillation. bark. 5.. Pharm. verum) is a medium-size evergreen tree up to 16 m in height and up to 60 cm in diameter at breast height.) Berchthold& Presl. Chem. 103 (1971).. 7. J. F. Parts used are the dried bark. Toxicol. cinnamon bark oil is derived from the dried inner bark of C. Hung. Niaussat et al. Fagot cassia. In the United States.. ed.verum) and its oils are generally considered superior in flavor characteristics to Chinese cassia bark and cassia oil and are also more valued than oils from Indonesian cinnamon (RAVINDRAN). Hum.. Kinoshita et al. leaves opposite. Lloydia. L.. Diener et al. C. L. Th. C. 2. Farnsworth in L. verum). Batavia cassia. Nat. K. burmanii) reaches 15 m in height.. 243 (2002). flowers white. Clin. 45. Indonesian cinnamon. false cinnamon. p. 58.. aromaticum Nees. V. Phytochemistry. burmanii (C. Sci. C. 3. 27. Liq. Samanidou et al.. Common/vernacular names: Sri Lankan cinnamon and true cinnamon (C. native to Sumatra–Java. 54.G. and C. V. 469 (1988). and C. 56. 8. 137 (1991). P. leaves simple or sub-opposite. smooth. Indonesian cinnamon (C. 9. 661 (1976). burmanii). cassia and is mainly produced in China.. bark is gray brown. Vet.8% oil. A. R. 249 (1977). Farm. The trees are mostly cultivated for commercial production of cinnamon and are usually cut back (coppiced) to form bushes or shrubs. the name applies only to C. Planta Med. Miller. Chinese cinnamon. 37. Chromatogr. bark is thin. S. (syn. tannins. 3. P.. whereas in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. CINNAMON (AND CASSIA) Source: Cinnamon Cinnamomum verum Berchthold and Presl (syn. 1973. and twigs of C. D. and Padang cinnamon (C. cassia lignea. native to south India and Sri Lanka. 88... and twigs. zeylanicum Nees). through Chem. Adamski and J. 10. C. consisting of polymeric 5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION C. Korintji cassia. Pract. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Sri Lankan or true cinnamon (C. cassia) is native to China and Vietnam reaching heights of 18–20 m with a diameter of 40–60 cm. 303 (2003). Nees) Blume. New York. flowers pale yellowishgreen. 32. 351.. Technol. trunk is cylindrical and straight. burmanii. cassia). R. J. N. 158517a (1978). the common name cinnamon applies to C. C.. H.4–0. Phys. 34. 35 (1974). Bordeaux. Bull. and Vietnam cassia (C. Haznagy. Indonesian cassia. verum bark yields 0.30 .7. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

6%). protocatechuic acid. 2-phenylethyl acetate. 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (10. and others. gum. limonene. cinnamyl acetate. eugenol acetate.7%).5%).6%). NANJING. The leaf oil contains mostly 1. condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins).. a-terpinene. benzaldehyde.. and 3-phenylpropanol (2. and minerals. terpinen-4-ol (8. as well as other minor compounds. and others). cinnamyl acetate (6. mucilage. 2-phenylethyl acetate.1%). RAVINDRAN). .2%). Eugenol occurs in trace amounts (JIANG9 ¨ SU.1%). and lesser amounts of benzaldehyde (1. and others (LIST 6–10 ¨ AND HORHAMMER.3–5 RAVINDRAN). and others (RAVINDRAN).9%). resins. 1. whereas the bark oil from trees grown in China contains mostly (E)-cinnamic aldehyde (65. calcium oxalate. p-cymene (6.4%). linalool. safrole. verum cinnamon bark oil contains as its major component cinnamic aldehyde (usually 60–80%). 15 RAVINDRAN). and cinnamyl acetate (MASADA. and cymene). The leaf oil of China-grown trees contains mostly cinnamic aldehyde (74. cinnamoside). and in lesser amounts. other major constituents include sesquiterpenoids (4–5%) (e. cinnamyl acetate (3. mucilage.0%). sugars. and others. including a-humulene. coumarin (1.11 diterpenes (cinnacassiol B and D1).1 large amounts of catechins and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins)2 and procyanidins.5.0%).8%). Eugenol is absent in both the bark and leaf oils (RAVINDRAN). resins. cinnamaldehyde. b-caryophyllene. sugars.4-diol units. a-humulene and b-caryophyllene that make up 3–4% of the total. a-terpineol.6%). benzaldehyde. and others (LIST AND HORHAMMER. LIST AND HORHAMMER. cinnamyl acetate. RAVINDRAN). terpinen-4-ol (4.1%). Enterobacter cloacae. b-eudesmol.4%).6%). p-cymene (1. and others.13 20 -hydoxycinnamaldehyde.5%).g. others found in lesser amounts include cuminaldehyde. including glycosides (cassioside. choline.3%).0%).5%). and others. C. 4-ethylguaiacol.6%).2%). b-caryophyllene (1. Seychelles type 87–96%).10 The bark of C.g. eugenol acetate. vanillic acid. coumarin (15.8%). a-humulene. it also contains many of the major constituents present in cinnamon bark oil (e. cinnamyl alcohol. In Chinese cassia bark oil. benzaldehyde (1. eugenyl acetate.g. cinnamyl alcohol. two insecticidal compounds (cinnzelanin and cinnzelanol). eugenol. procyanidins.8-cineole (28. Rhizopus oligosporus) and various bacteria (Escherichia coli. syringic acid. (Z)-cinnamic aldehyde.8-cineole (51. the other major constituents are coumarin (8.1%). verum have shown in vitro inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.7%). camphor (9.32% oil containing 1. cassia grown in Australia contains mostly cinnamic aldehyde (77.16 The essential oil of the bark inhibits the growth of human pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger.5%). benzyl benzoate. MASADA.5%) and borneol (16. eugenol. methyl eugenol. and lesser amounts of myristicin. Candida albicans.6. and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2. and others). coumarin.14 cinnamic acid. NANJING. salicyaldehyde. cinnamyl alcohol. borneol (1.5%) with lesser amounts of a-terpineol (6. pinene. methyl cinnamate. a-pinene. 2-phenylethanol (2.12. benzyl benzoate (6%).Cinnamon (and cassia) 197 yflavan-3. Other major constituents present in Australian bark oil are benzaldehyde (4. a-terpineol (12. cassia) contains 1–2% of volatile oil and other constituents. cinnamyl acetate (3. verum leaf oil contains high concentrations of eugenol (Ceylon type 80–88%. RAVINDRAN).2%). a-pinene (1. C. and others. linalool. ethyl cinnamate. monoterpenes (e. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Extracts of the dried bark of C. phellandrene. carophyllene. a-ylangene. calcium oxalate. cuminaldehyde. linalool. coumarin.3%). ethyl cinnamate. spathulenol (5. others found in lesser amounts include benzyl benzoate. terpinen-4-ol. chavicol. Cassia bark oil grown in Australia contains mainly cinnamic aldehyde (87%). notably ¨ manganese (LIST AND HORHAMMER. burmanii yields 1. b-caryophyllene (2. 2-phenylethyl acetate. Cassia bark (C.3 coumarin (lowest concentration in Ceylon ¨ cinnamon).7%). The leaf oil of C..

22 insulin activity potentiating activities are attributed to a methylhydroxychalcone polymer23 and polyphenol type A polymers isolated from korintje cinnamon from Sumatra (C.12.19. mouthwashes) containing either cinnamaldehyde or cinnamon oil (DE SMET ET AL. Cinnamon may cause allergic reactions in some people who are allergic to balsam of Peru. Solvent fractions were also active.13In vitro stimulation of human lymphocyte proliferation.20 Rats fed a high-fat diet containing 10% C. glutathione S-transferase.). verum bark.18 Extracts of the bark have also shown significant insulin-like activity in vitro (increased glucose oxidation and uptake. burmannii) consisting of oligomeric procyanidins. and total serum cholesterol levels and serum glucose levels.24 Anti-inflammatory and pain-inhibiting activities were found in mice orally administered an ethanolic extract of the bark.30.41 Allergic skin reactions to C. sperm counts. glutathione. and inducible nitric oxide synthase. liver weight and hemoglobin levels were reduced. which were active by the oral route. ointments.36 Cinnamaldehyde induced apoptotic cell death in human leukemia cells in vitro.42 Cassia oil causes mucous . an aqueous extract of the dried stem bark (p. and reproductive organ weights.11 In mice with influenza-induced fever. and sperm motility were increased without spermatotoxic effects.) mortality was found in mice administered an ethanol extract of C.29 free radical scavenging activity. cassia have shown in vitro growth inhibition of human intestinal bacteria (Bacteriodes fragilis and Clostridium perfringens). LDL. toothpastes.37 A methanol extract of the bark inhibited the in vitro growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.39 A randomized placebo-controlled clinical study of powdered C. or 3 g/kg p.17 A methanol extract exhibited significant in vitro nematicidal activity against Toxocara canis.19 protective activity against glutamateinduced toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells.o. and others). and inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.32 An aqueous extract33 and diterpenes from the bark (cinnacassiol B and D1) have shown anticomplement activity.26 Extracts of the bark have also shown in vitro insulin-like activity. cinnamic acid ethylester. an effect attributed to cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde can cause dermatitis in humans and allergic reactions have occurred from contact with products (foods.40 TOXICOLOGY No significant chronic (90 days) or acute (500 mg. No change in body weight was found from chronic dosing.28. 7-hydroxycoumarin. and 4-allylanisole. Staphylococcus aureus.21.20 and insulin receptor kinase activation and inhibition of insulin receptor dephosphorylation activity).38 Glycosides (cassioside.o.31 cyclooxygenase-2.25 Extracts of the dried stem bark of C. verum are common (WICHTL).198 Cinnamon (and cassia) Micrococcus luteus. 1 g.35 20 -Hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) inhibited the in vitro growth of 29 different human cancer cell lines. and a b-D-glucopyranoside) isolated from an aqueous extract of the dried stem bark are attributed to antiulcerogenic activity. and immunoglobulin G production by an infusion of the bark was attributed to glycoproteins. verum bark powder showed significant decreases in heart and liver levels of hydroperoxides and significantly increased levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase.27 antioxidant.34 Cinnamaldehydes (20 -benzoxycinnamaldehyde and 20 -hydroxycinnamaldehyde) derived from the bark inhibited in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes and induced in vitro T-cell differentiation. and superoxide dismutase) in the same organs. interleukin-1.) showed antipyretic activity and suppressed the production of interleukin-1a. Active constituents were identified as acetic acid cinnamylester. Streptococcus faecalis. cinnamoside. cassia bark in type 2 diabetics taking sulfonylurea drugs and maintaining their usual diets found that daily supplementation with the bark immediately after each of three daily meals produced significant decreases in triglyceride.

eugenol derived from the leaf oil used to prepare synthetic vanillin (RAVINDRAN).48 The oral LD50 of cinnamaldehyde in mice is 2225 mg/kg. and toothpaste. both effects being attributed to cinnamaldehyde (DE SMET ET AL. verum). Cassia. is tan in color. and their bark oils have been used either as flavors or as carminative. The cassia oil of commerce (made from the leaves. Traditional Medicine. Ground bark widely used as flavor ingredient in numerous herbal tea formulations and herbal tonics. desserts. and oils. An alcoholic extract of cinnamon. also as gastrointestinal remedies for loss of appetite and dyspeptic disturbances (BLUMENTHAL 1. stalks. The bark oil is more commonly used in the food industry than the bark powder owing to the more uniform flavor it imparts. lotions. including liniments.05–0.8% in perfumes. sauces. stomachic. Chinese cassia has a more powderful aroma than cinnamon and is reddish-brown. mouthwashes or gargles. abdominal and heart pains. dyspepsia. widely used as COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Bark. tableted products. detergents.49 a spice in domestic cooking and for flavoring processed foods. less expensive leaf oil also used in flavor industry. and cassia oil have shown in vitro mutagenic activity (DE SMET ET AL. NADKARNI. and Cosmetic. cinnamon. candies. among others.0–4. 51 JIANGSU. FOGARTY. suntan lotions. and bone marrow chromosomal aberration assay) and in vivo antimutagenic activities. tinctures.Cinnamon (and cassia) 199 membrane and dermal irritation. Reductions in body weights were seen in rats exposed to 4100 ppm and in mice from 2100 ppm. Others. extracts. 2100. nasal sprays. pickles. NANJING. cassia found no mutagenic activity in the Ames test.2 g daily) are used in teas and other galenicals as antibacterial. RAVINDRAN). (DUKE 2). Sri Lankan cinnamon leaf oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. bakery products. a recent test of the essential of C. carminative. among others (BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA.50 Cinnamon bark oil and Chinese cassia oil find limited use in perfume industries owing to their skin sensitizing properties (RAVINDRAN). and perfumes. and pickles. sauces. WICHTL). also in digestive and stimulant in capsulated. and twigs) is widely used for the same purposes as the powdered bark and is also widely used for flavoring soft drinks and liqueurs (RAVINDRAN). However. USES Medicinal. The dried inner bark of cinnamon (C. In European phytomedicine. confectioneries. beverages. Pharmaceutical. cinnamon oil. vomiting. micronucleus test. or counterirritants in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. meat dishes. RAVINDRAN). colds.). and cancer. used as an ingredient of curry powders. flatulence. Food. canned fruits. chewing gum. baked products. and so on.47 Microencapsulated transcinnamaldehyde failed to produce neoplasms in rats after 2 years of exposure to 1000. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. with highest reported maximum use level of 0. cramps. added to chocolate in Mexico and Spain. and 4100 ppm in their feed. FARNSWORTH 1. soups. Cassia oil (Chinese cinnamon .0 g daily) or the essential oils (0. tonic. fungistatic. kidney troubles. creams. burmannii and C.). cassia and cinnamon bark (2. etc. mulled wines. female disorders (amenorrhea. oils are of various types and qualities.43 Cinnamaldehyde is also reported to have mutagenic44 and both in vitro45.46 (Ames test. rheumatism. menorrhagia. hypertension. A major use of cinnamon leaf oil is for the isolation of eugenol. used as an ingredient of Chinese five-spice powder and in flavoring beverages. Both cassia and cinnamon bark have been used for several thousand years in Eastern and Western cultures in treating chronic diarrhea.

F.. Exp. J. T.C. or Vietnam cinnamon are GRAS (§182. Unters. burmanni). S. Alkofahi. 20. Sidhu. F. L. J. J. M. 353 (1989). 44. Oil Records. J.. B.... Buchalter. Agric. Atta and A. Schulz and K. 13. 732 (1963). 48. 16. Sci. KARRER. J. Chem. J. J. 21. 28. Sci.. 3. J... J. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Food Chem. N. 60.. Pharmacogn. 41.. Herisset et al. Ethnopharmacol. Forsch. Planta Med.F. Essential oils. L.10). Food Chem. Res. Regulatory Status. J. Perfum. Berrio et al. Tetrahedron. A. 5.. 20. Ota. Pharm. 832 (1977). and seasonings (§182. 8. Indonesia cassia or cinnamon (C. Pharm.. cassia) are GRAS as spices. Coll. Chem. 14.. ¨ FURIA. solvent-free oleoresins. 7. TERRELL. and Chinese or Vietnam (C. Quale et al.20). Bhramaramba and G. T’ ai-wan Ko Hsueh. 9. 12. K. ROSENGARTEN.. 12. 1779 (1977). O. Jpn. 4703 (1988). Anderson et al.. Chem. Am. 238 (1999).C. 19. Lewis et al. Z.200 Cinnamon (and cassia) oil) is official in N. C. LIST AND HORHAMMER. 37.. 25. 21. Herrmann. 639 (2000). Sci. B. Nohara et al. 144 2682 (1980). 11 (1972). Chromatogr.. UPHOF.. C. J. 6. 23. Pharm. 1. 2647 (1980). verum). Wijeskera et al. T.C. 4. S. Horm. MARTINDALE.. 273 (1976). M. BLUMENTHAL 1.. F. Dhuley. 117 (1998). Nohara et al. 62. 118. Both cassia and cinnamon bark are subjects of positive German therapeutic monographs indicated for treatment of loss of appetite and dyspeptic discomfort such as mild gastrointestinal spasms. 6.. Chao et al. Am. RAVINDRAN. and risks (allergic skin reactions and mucosal irritation) outweigh benefits (BLUMENTHAL 1). 15.. Chin. GOSSELIN. Imparl-Radosevich et al. Cinnamon flowers are the subject of a neutral monograph.. H. since efficacy is not established. 416 (1972). Nutr. Chou. (1971). S.. natural flavorings. Horm. S. 278 (1980). Broadhurst et al. Phytother. J... 46. Plant. 54. 103 (1996). . M. Shiraga et al. E. 25. Y... (1996). A. 177 (1998). Tetrahedron Lett. Kiuchi et al. J. Med. Bull. Angmor et al. Biol. 709 (1990). Essent. S. Med. 1211 (1974). Agric. 327 (2001). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER.. Oil Res.. Ross. 225 (1992). A. Biol. 60. DUKE 2. 183 2. 43. 849 (2000). Res.C.. Y. R. while only those of the leaves of Sri Lankan. Essent. Indian J. R. J. J. J.. and natural extractives of the barks of the same species are GRAS. 10.. 11.. Isogai et al. it is also official in F.. Lebensm. Bull. 21. JIANGSU.. 37. Food Agric. A. L.. 8 (1977). Y. 52. 24. 65 (2004).. Curr. Sri Lankan (C. Planta Med. 38. Agric. 17. Sri Lankan cinnamon bark oil and cinnamon leaf oil (both Sri Lankan and Seychelles types) are official in F. J. 24.. 171. Kwon et al. 50. where it is simply monographed as cinnamon oil. 22. Mino and N.. Jarvill-Taylor et al. GUENTHER. Chinese. 31(2). 18.

Vietnam. Pharmacogn. 20. Shah et al. 83. 33. 179 (2001). 92. 35. 44. H.g. Korean J. 50. Hooth et al.. 31. 42. 34. Harada and Y. 480–481. Biol. 40. Niinimaki. Ka et al. Park et al. E. The former is extensively cultivated in southern Sri Lanka. W... Kim et al. 17. Africa.. Hong et al. 65. Mol. B. 32. Taiwan. Pharmacol.. Res. Prod. Nagai et al. M. 247 (1969). partly dried. Pharmacogn. H. 39.. W. 153 (2002).. Opdyke. and geraniol and as the major components. 3215 (2003).. J. or dried grass. A.. J.. 21. 135 (1983).. Food Chem. Lin et al. Pharmacol. The essential oils are obtained by steam distillation of the fresh. Int. Paraguay... 372 (2002). Korean J.Citronella oil (ceylon and java) 201 26.. 643 (1998). Brazil.. H. Lloydia. Cancer Lett. J. 813 (1982)... citronellol.. J. 231 (1998). 623 (1984). L. Ohta et al. J... Food Chem. 37. Park. Koh et al. Common/vernacular names: Ceylon Lenabatu citronella oil (C.. 78 (1995). 28. Toxicol. Planta Med. Jpn. Toxicol.. 190 (2000). 30.. 45 (1998). 43.. while the latter is widely cultivated in many parts of the tropical world (e.. Ishidate Jr. Contact Dermatitis. T.). Indonesia. H. 29.. N. R. 27. 196. M. Pharm. Mutat. Agric. winterianus (Java citronella) are both perennial Both Ceylon and Java citronella oils contain citronellal. Hainan Island.. Eur. Nutr. S. Lee et al. Res. 46. Food Cosmet. Mutat. 45. Food Chem.. K.. 42. 348... J. D. Nat. Phytother. J. 189 (2002). J. Yakugaku Zasshi. CITRONELLA OIL (CEYLON AND JAVA) Source: Cymbopogon nardus (L.. C. 7700 (2002). Food Chem..) Rendle (syn. 143 (2003). Khan et al. Res. Guatemala. L. 31. 49 (2000). 40. H. Phytother. Diabetes Care. Int. J. Toxicol.. 33. Hartwell. 13. 135 (1972). Lee and Y. grasses. 8 (1998).. 46. 107. 149 (1999). 117. 6. Sharma et al. J. T. Kurokawa et al. 22. S. Lee et al. winterianus Jowitt and their varieties (Family Poaceae). The Java-type oil is generally considered to be of superior quality to the Ceylon oil. 26. M. with the Java type . et al... H. 47. Java. 545 (1975). N. J. Ahn. 1757 (2004). Mech. 32. 466 (2000). 51. Shan et al. Res. 14. 48. India. L. Ethnopharmacol. Immunopharmacol. C. Ozaki. nardus). and Argentina). H. 41. Plant Foods Hum. Shimada et al.. 726 (2003). 36.. Java or Maha Pengiri citronella oil (C. Sci. 33. 219 (1983). 32. Mutat. M. Fund. winterianus).. C.. Kim et al. Immunopharmacol. Ohta et al. Mutagen. J. Agric. Nepal. 52. Res..1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Cymbopogon nardus (citronella) and C. Y.. Andropogon nardus L. 50. 263 (1999). 38. 49. A. A.

11–13 the Ceylon oil being as active as penicillin against certain Gram-positive bacteria.6% in soaps and 0.) of geraniol.17 Both types of citronella oil have mosquito-repellent activity. ROSE). 1–9 YOUNGKEN). MASADA. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph as a mild astringent and stomachic. brilliantines. citronellol. and perfumes. nardus listed (§182. methyl eugenol.6 ppm. primarily used as an insect repellent for humans and pets (ROSE).16 Java citronella oil also displays in vitro nematicidal activity.2. phenols (eugenol. etc. and linalool. disinfectants..). caryophyllene.).20). 8% concentration no sensitization was found Regulatory Status. LIST ¨ MARTINDALE. The LD50 of citronella oil in rats was over 5 g/kg p. Leaves of Ceylon citronella are used in medicinal and aromatic teas. diuretic. as vermifuge. the relative proportions of these components vary greatly. and Penicillium species were citronellal and linalool.14. while the Ceylon type contains much larger amounts of monoterpenes (ARCTANDER. natural extractive. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.15 The most active volatile constituents of Ceylon oil against the growth of Aspergillus. monoterpenes (limonene.o. and antispasmodic (KIRTIKAR). and solvent-free oleoresin GRAS. Essential oil. and free acids. Highest average maximum use level reported is about 0. candy. stimulant. and g-terpineol. Other constituents include esters (acetates. uent monoterpenes of Ceylon citronella oil are cis-sabinene hydrate.8% in perfumes.8 ¨ Other major constitAND HORHAMMER). propionates. Eurotium. among others. frozen dairy desserts. Maximum use levels reported for the Ceylon oil were 0. etc. and among sesquiterpenes.19 Ceylon oil has shown mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. elemol. farnesol.10 in a 2-day closed patch test. pinene. among others. Traditional Medicine. and stimulant in various cultures (LIST AND ¨ HORHAMMER.4–6. Pharmaceutical. AND HORHAMMER.18. The most active constituent in the monoterpene fraction was myrcene. etc.005% in candy and baked goods (45. baked goods. nerolidol. respectively). gelatins and puddings. emmenagogue. Major current use is as a fragrance component in soaps. with only C. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Citronella oil has shown antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. Both oils are used as a component in certain insect repellent formulations. .). and germacrene-ol. Java citronella oil contains higher amounts of sesquiterpenes. and Cosmetic.9 and 47. stomachic. LIST 1. efficacy not documented (BLUMENTHAL 1). at ET AL. etc. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.202 Citronella oil (ceylon and java) having a higher concentration of these constituents than the Ceylon type. LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS).20 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Both Oils are Available TOXICOLOGY Citronella oil is mildly irritant to the skin (TISSERAND AND BALAZS) and is reported to cause contact dermatitis in humans (DE SMET 21 However. Essential oil of citronella widely available in health food stores. antispasmodic. The Ceylon oil is reportedly used as flavor ingredient in numerous food products. sesquiterpenes and alcohols (bourbonene. febrifuge.21 Food. diaphoretic. diaphoretic.21 USES Medicinal. and breakfast cereals. camphene. depending on the sources (ARCTANDER. The oil is used as a rubifacient and is reputed to be carminitive. b-caryophyllene.

32. 24. Sci. B. 93 (1985). from this. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Ali. J. Med. Tawatsin et al. 39. S. D.. Chem. M. JIANGSU). Wijesekera et al. (1968). and short tails. 22(1B). Kokate and K.. 12. Food Sci. 4. Natl. O. 26. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. 73 (2003) CIVET Source: Viverra civetta Schreber (syn. Koul. 455 Lanka. Flav. Codd et al.. Common/vernacular names: African civet (V. Indian 16. Guenther. are not related to cats and have shorter legs and longer muzzles than do cats.. 196 (1971). 5. 18. Can... 42 Malariol. Ansari and R. 3 (2001). Indian J. Am. MASADA. Sangwan et al. Opdyke. TERRELL. 2697 (1973). D. Soap J.. Civettictis civetta Schreber).4 . 55. (1977).. Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment. de Billerbeck et al.. zibethaL. 76 8. and zibeth.). 83. Riechst. (1984).. B. W. Nematologica. L. (1962). UPHOF. 171 chemistry.. 18. H.. W. K. 12. and China (ARCTANDER. also known as civet cats. K. Singh et al. 8. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Civets. 31. J.. Food Cosmet. 9 (2001). V. Sci. B. K€rperpflegem. FEMA. S. Major suppliers of crude civet are African countries (primarily Ethiopia but also Belgian Congo.2 m. J.. minor suppliers include India. Council Sri 9. Fitoterapia. 21. J. 249 (2003). Plant Sci. T. the absolute is obtained by alcohol extraction. K. L. Barnes & Noble. Pharm. J. their overall length is about 1. Toxicol. V. 104 (1995). civetta).. Indonesia.. C. K. 10. Indian J. The civet cats are raised in captivity for this purpose (JIANGSU).. Kaul et al. 37. Phyto13. 20. Cosmet. G. R. erectile manes. Aromen. V. R. 7.. 2(2). etc. J... eds. 544 (2000). Flav. Vector Ecol. B.. B. 21. A. Cult. Varma. Microbiol. Razdan. Perfum. ROSE. C. M. Malaya. 47. 57 14. 1. JARQ.. 19. J. Vol... Kenya. Fordham in L. M. J. Perfum. 11. V. K. K. N. Aggarwal et al. A. 77 (1976).. Indian Oil 15. 3. S. GUENTHER. 20(1B).and other related species (Family Viverridae). Rao and P. 27 (1973). Nakahara et al. A. Both the African civet and the large Indian civet have gray coats with black markings.4 A concrte is prepared from crude e civet by extracting with hydrocarbons. 1067 (1973). 37. S. Dikshit et al.. 2. 405 (1971). p. Aromatic New York. Indian Perfum. L. Razdan and G. o 5. (1977). Gulati and Sadgopal. 17. E. 27. 305 (1972). 6. zibetha). large Indian civet (V. Mahalwal and M.. Joseph. Lawrence. 1972. 63 (1996). G.. L.Civet 203 REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. C. 1. 37. K. 11. Ranaweera. Ideda et al. Fragr.. N. which is called civet and is collected by curetting (scraping) the glands with a wood or horn spatula at regular intervals (about once a week for the African civet and two to three times a week for the Indian civet).1–3 Part used is the secretion from their anal glands.

3. Kirk-Othmer 82(12)..). Van Drop et al. 5. D. 6. Used in Chinese medicine for centuries to relieve pain and as cardiac and neural. Bunseki Kagaku.1. 1972. Tanaka. ed. skatole. 26. The Larousse Encyclopedia of Animal Life. Y. baked goods. Traditional Medicine. and lotions. R. Toxicol. A. Ithaca. D. crude has been reported to be frequently adulterated (ARCTANDER). Ewer. central Europe. clary wort... 1967. FEMA. GRAS (§182. Vol. 232 (1977).2 ppm). 45 (1967). NY. CLARY SAGE Source: Salvia sclarea L. J.. 915 (1973). Average maximum use levels reported are very low. and gelatins and puddings. cultivated worldwide (e. L. Perfum.6 products in which the absolute is reported to be used include soaps.50). native to southern Europe. Common/vernacular names: Clary. 12(Suppl. Russia. GUENTHER. muscatel sage.0014% (14. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. p. (Family Labiatae or Lamiaceae). frozen dairy desserts. New York.g.4 Regulatory Status. see bright. McGraw-Hill. F. TOXICOLOGY Limited available data indicate civet (absolute) to be nontoxic. and eyebright. Other cosmetic COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. 2. Recl. and Cosmetic.5. cycloheptadecanone. 92.204 Clary sage CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains civetone (9-cis-cycloheptadecenone) as its major aromatic principle. Cosmet. Pays-Bas. 717. Food Cosmet. Ohno and S. cyclononadecanone. with maximum use level of 0.. Shiftan in A. 2nd ed. Wiley–Interscience. 4. The Carnivores. L. others include butyric acid. Standen.. which include alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. E.7 Food. 1976. Chim.4% reported for the absolute. New York. detergents. 1. Civet absolute and tincture are extensively used as fixatives and fragrance components in perfumes (especially Oriental and rose types). Mediterranean region. Parts used . Am. less than 0. C. candy. p. 863 (1974). Cornell 7. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.7 USES Medicinal. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Erect biennial or perennial aromatic herb with large hairy leaves and stout hairy stem. Fischbeck. JIANGSU. 14. creams. University Press. YOUNGKEN. and the United States). sedatives. the United Kingdom. Civet absolute has been reportedly used as a flavor component in most major food products. and various saturated and unsaturated cyclic ketones and alcohols. Opdyke. Trav. clear eye. among others (JIANGSU). 564. up to about 1 m high. p. 400. Pharmaceutical.

clary sage oil is used rather extensively in major food products such as alcoholic (vermouths. wines and liqueurs with muscatel flavor). baked goods.16 Food. linalyl acetate.3-dehydrosalvipisone. Highest average maximum use level reported is about 0.016% (155 ppm) for the oil in alcoholic beverages. 2. and condiments and relishes. and sclareol. and 2. Mucilage of seeds is used in tumors and in removing dust particles from the eyes. and perspirant. Staphylococcus aureus. is obtained from the flowering tops and leaves. 7-oxoroyleanone. USES Medicinal. candy. among others. geranyl acetate. as an antispasmodic.g. An acetone extract of the whole plant collected in Turkey contained various diterpenes (candidissiol.Clary sage 205 are the flowering tops and leaves.g. nerol. 8–11 POUCHER). neryl acetate. etc.3 Other antimicrobial compounds obtained from the whole plant include caryophyllene oxide.4 The essential oil and flowers contain 1-methoxyhexane-3-thiol. 40 -methylapigenin. Maximum use level reported for the oil is 0. and perfumes (e. one of the most potent odorants known. and the diterpene alcohols. sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol). manool. and powdered to serve as a snuff to treat headache (UPHOF) and in kidney diseases. 6-hydroxy apigenin-7. linalool. it also potentiated the narcotic effects of Evipam and chloral hydrate. While clary sage is reportedly used only in beverages (e. herbaceous-green. a-terpinyl.3-dehydrosalvipisone). the crude material is used as PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Clary sage oil has shown in vitro antimicrobial (Escherichia coli. detergents. from which an essential oil is obtained by steam distillation and an absolute obtained by solvent extraction (ARCTANDER. germacrene D. POUCHER). herb also used as a stomachic in digestive disorders.17 The oral LD50 of the essential in rodents was over 5 g/kg (TISSERAND AND BALAZS). Traditional Medicine. Active constituents were identified as linalool and a-terpineol.40 -dimethyl ether. manool.13 The oil has also shown activity against the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis14 and anticonvulsive activity in animals.7 The yield of the volatile oil and the relative concentrations of its components vary with the sources (MASADA. b-caryopyllene.6 Some commercial and genuine samples of the essential oil contain trans-anethole.. microstegiol. creams. The flowering tops and leaves have been used to treat catarrh and as an antiseptic and emmenagogue (BOULOS). frozen dairy desserts. After the essential oil is removed by distillation.2–5 The oil of the leaves contains high amounts of germacrene D.8% in perfumes.) and nonalcoholic beverages. ferruginol. and S.12 A methanolic extract of the dried leaves and stems showed high antioxidant activity in . and Cosmetic. sclareol. Pharmaceutical. available data indicate clary sage oil to be generally nontoxic.15 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION TOXICOLOGY Essential oil.12 Except for being moderately irritating to rabbit skin. and 7-oxoroyleanone. gelatins and puddings. myrcene. Both oil and absolute are used as fragrance components in soaps. eau de cologne). and 6-hydroxyluteolin-6).18 Others.1 the DPPH radical scavenging assay.. which largely contains a-terpineol. 7-oxoferruginol-18-al. and flavonoids (apigenin. having a unique odor profile described as alliaceous. epidermis) and antifungal activities (Candida albicans).16 The essential oil failed to show in vitro DNA-damaging activity. lotions. luteolin.

Acad. Carrubba et al. Chim. F. Helv.. Toilet. Izv. Allured. purple clover. Sep. 1246 (2002).. Flav. M. 971 (1994). 18. 19.C. J. E. C. white-blotched leaflets. 19 (1977). Fiori et al. Efirnym Maslam (Mater. A. J. Toxicol. Bulg. L.. S. Lorenzo et al. J. Pharmacogn.. (1975). Argyriadou. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A biennial or perennial herb with rose-purple flowers and leaves consisting of three. 12(Suppl. J. 5. GRAS as a natural seasoning or flavoring (§182. Miliauskas et al. red a source of sclareol.... 7. red clover. S. 231 (2004). solvent-free oleoresin.. Karetnikova et al. Fitoterapia. 17. both are used in flavoring tobaccos. 237 (1991). 8. 14. CLOVER TOPS. 29 (1974). J. Lloydia. A. 13. (Family Leguminosae). B.8 m high. Planta Med. often hairy. 4.. RED Source: Trifolium pratense L.. Prom.C. I. H. oil is official in F. Int. meadow clover. which can be solvent extracted from the plant and converted to sclareolide... 36. Sci. paper given at the 4th Mezhdunar. Peana et al. Essential oil. Petri Verzar and M. 12. 15. 865 (1974). Nauk. Food Chem. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Viollon et al. 6.. 11. Food Cosmet. G. Cosmet.. Fiziol. 32. TERRELL. Zani et al.).. Maslo Zhir. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. C. Herba 1. 25. 191 (2002). REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. D. 13. 13. Parts used are the flowering tops (inflorescence). 752 (1999). S. 65. 123533m (1971).20). POUCHER. 68. Opdyke. 7. 17. FEMA. A.....). 92(1). GRIEVE. Fragr. Acta. and trifolium. Then. 247 (1969). 35. Planta Med. Common/vernacular names: Cow clover. Sclareolide is also used in the production of an ambergris substitute. Fragr. 279 (1996). Perfum. Kongr. 51 (1974). . and natural extractive also GRAS (§182. L. 218 (1997). Phytochemistry. 10. 9. G.. 703 (2002). 85. Rusinov. up to 0. Inst. Flav. 3. Crude and oil. 85..206 Clover tops. T. 74. Van de Waal et al. 303 (2004). 90(4). GUENTHER.10). Ulubelen et al....1 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Regulatory Status. D. J. Hartwell. 57. through Chem... Atanasova-Shopova and K. S. Cosmet. Chorbadzhiev et al. Abstr. 69 Hung. native to Europe and naturalized in North America. 16. Heath. Souleles and N. J. 2. 89 (1970). BAILEY 1. 1968. A.

etc. phaselic acid.. trifoliin (isoquercitrin). LDL-c. genistein. copper. pectolinarin). Biochanin A also exhibited a higher affinity to progesterone and to androgen receptor in vitro and was followed in potency by genistein.15 Contents of the major isoflavone constituents show wide variability. bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly increased. However.1 and trifoside (5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone-40 -O-b-D-glucopyranoside).5. pseudobaptigenin. and others (DUKE 1. calycosin. nor had any effect on levels of HDL-c or triglycerides in the men or women.7 isorhamnetin glucosides. Red clover produces phytoalexins (pterocarpan types) in response to viral or fungal infections.12–14 Some commercial solid extracts of red clover have been reported to contain traces of cannabinol. caffeine.2–5 with the presence of coumestrol disputed (JIANGSU). prunetin. followed by daidzein. and coumestrol. scopolamine.and cis-clovamide (L-dopa conjugated with trans. and formononetin. biochanin A inhibited DNA damage in human mammary gland cells exposed to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen (DMBA). in addition to pratensein. formononetin.17 A red clover isoflavone-rich diet in mice with enlarged prostate glands reduced the enlargement and serum androgen levels. triaglycerol. a volatile oil containing furfural. a RDPC parallel study found that subjects taking an isoflavone-rich extract of red clover showed no significant change in cholesterol.5.2. coumarins (coumarin. trans. fat.Clover tops. formononetin. lipoprotein (a). and daidzein as major isoflavone constituents.6 Other constituents include procyanidin polymers. glycitein. KARRER). and nepetalactone (see alfalfa). placebocontrolled (RDPC) crossover trial.24In vitro. protein.30 A RDPC in postmenopausal women who experienced at least five hot flushes/day found that daily supplementation with an isoflavone-rich extract of red clover (standardized to contain largely biochanin A and formononetin) reduced both the severity and the frequency of hot flushes.18 Red clover has shown estrogenic properties in animals that are due to its isoflavones (see alfalfa). a study of the same length and design using the same extract and dosage failed to find a significant reduction .25 In a randomized.31 However. or glucose levels.27 Double-blind. vitamins. a galactoglucomannan composed of a backbone of b-(1 ! 4)-linked D-glucose and D-mannose units with a-(1 ! 6)-linked D-galactose side chains. daidzein. resins.and cis-caffeic acids). flavones (e. the orders of potency were 2–5 orders lower than that of 17b-estradiol.19–23 Oral administration of a red clover tops extract (standardized to contain 15% isoflavones) showed evidence of weak estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rats. and genistein. phosphorus.16 Oral administration of a red clover tops extract (standardized to contain 15% isoflavones) showed evidence of weak estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rats.). or triglycerides. sugars. a biochanin-rich extract of red clover (but not a formononetin-rich extract) significantly lowered LDL cholesterol in men.26 In premenopausal women. isocoumarin. double-blind.28. red 207 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains the isoflavones biochanin A. phenylhexadiene. placebo-controlled trials have found that red clover extracts caused HDL-cholesterol levels to significantly increase in postmenopausal women. medicagol.29 Although they have failed to effect serum total cholesterol.28. phenylpentadienal. insulin. and minerals (particularly rich in magnesium.24 In vitro transactivation of human estrogen receptors a and b was greater from biochanin A.16 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Topical application of genistein to the skin of hairless mice after they were exposed to ultraviolet radiation ameliorated the inflammatory edema reaction.g. whereas neither extract was effective in postmenopausal women. 8–11 JIANGSU. and calcium).

fluid. The LD50 was 4237 mg/kg i. tinctures. 24. The solid extract is reportedly used as a flavor ingredient in many food products. A. DD. Ann. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N.. etc.37 TOXICOLOGY Mice fed diets containing 20% and 40% red clover showed no significant changes in spermatocytes or the diameter of seminiferous tubules. 6. .) have also been extensively used in treating cancers. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.10). infusion.32 A larger year-long study of the same design using the same extract and dosage also failed to find significant effects on menopausal symptoms and frequency of hot flushes. Regulatory Status. such as psoriasis.002%. Mariae Curie Sklodowska.p. J. psoriasis. sedative. Tieraerztl. LUST. BARRETT. Kattaev et al. The whole plant or its various parts (leaves. primarily as an ‘‘alterative’’ (blood purifier) used for skin ailments. etc.053% (525 ppm). among others. the red clover extract did not increase mammographic breast density. 195 74. Schultz.. 806 (1972). baked goods. solvent-free oleoresins and natural extractives of Trifolium species are also GRAS (§182. Whole or ground flowering tops used as an herb tea ingredient. REFERENCES Crude and extracts (solid. Traditional Medicine.). Chromatogr. Prir. The study also found that in contrast to standard hormone replacement therapies. flowers. eczema. 3. including nonalcoholic beverages. Trifolium species are GRAS as natural flavorings and seasonings (§182. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios. FEMA. flowers used in the form of a cold tea by Iroquois women for ‘‘the change of life’’ (MOERMAN). gravies. where it is about 0. 1016. eczema. 2.34 In postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetics. S. Soedin. YOUNGKEN..F. Wu et al. Dried inflorescence and whole herb are used in both Eastern and Western cultures as diuretic. a randomized double-blind crossover trial of a red clover extract significantly lowered diastolic and systolic blood pressure and improved endothelial function. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Average maximum use levels reported are usually below 0. Sect. and jams and jellies. N. and so on. 118 (1967). Deut. red in hot flush frequency or any significant improvement in quality-of-life scores. Essential oils. Univ. 4. JIANGSU. usually in the form of a tea. a RDPC trial of an isoflavone-rich extract of red clover was found to significantly improve total vascular resistance and arterial stiffness.20). frozen dairy desserts. 1. candy.208 Clover tops. See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. DUKE 1. FOSTER AND DUKE.35 except in jams and jellies. HORTUS 3rd. GRIEVE. ROSE. tablets.33 In postmenopausal women and men with normal blood pressure. ingredient in unconventional anticancer formulas including the Hoxsey formula (FOSTER AND DUKE). Rolinski. roots. (2003). G. 165 (1970). Q. HUANG. asthma.. BARNES. DUKE 1). Wochenschr. or salve (BARNES. Z. also in capsules. WREN. bronchitis. and antitussive and in treating whooping cough. UPHOF.36 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS USES Food. Khim. and burns.

Meier. 14. J. Bergeron and M.. Agron.Photobiol. Mol. B. 19. Abstr. Tice et al. B. et Perry (syn. 1575 (1980). H. Dewick. L. 5. Phytochemistry.. Menopause. caryophyllus (Spreng. Food Chem. D.. bud and leaf oils by water distillation and stem oil by steam distillation (ARCTANDER). The major clove-producing country is Tanzania. J. Vasc. Diabetes Obes. GENERAL DESCRIPTION The clove is an evergreen tree with narrowly elliptic. M. Goulet. Mariae Curie Sklodowska. Krause. Dedio. and E. (Brno).. Vet. Phytochemistry. Clin. 27. J.. Garcia and P. 38. D. Reinshagen.. stems. 23. 21. other producers include Madagascar. Africa. and Sri Lanka.) (Family Myrtaceae). 259 (2001). Howes et al. 8. 11. Clin. Nutr. 295 (1971). 33. Phytochemistry. 31. 35. 279 (1970). 325 (2003).. 187 (2002). 58. Diss. Dev. Campbell et al. J. E. 15. H.. now cultivated worldwide (tropical Asia.. A. Jarred et al. Zool. E. JAMA.. etc. L. P.. K. 37. Agric.. Maturitas. Widyarini et al. Rolinski. Atkinson et al... Phytochemistry. 5. DD. 6.. Teede et al. J. Resur. Br..) Bull. 465 (2001). Biol.. Thromb. F. Clifton-Bligh et al. Bitton et al. 79. et Harr. Eur. Agric. 2037 (1968). J. Parts used are the buds (cloves). 7. Am. 15. J. Guillard and R. pinkish (young) to dark green (mature) leaves.) Baill. Breast Cancer Res.. Ingham. C.Cloves 209 5. 1066 (2003). 343 (1988). Yoshihara et al.. Clin. P. J. A. 15. 979 (1975). Biol. 25. Res. 42. Phytochemistry. S. T. Nestel et al. J. 18.. Bailey. Blakesmithh et al.. 22. Y. 67 (1966).. 20.. CLOVES Source: Syzygium aromaticum (L. W. S. Bakirel et al. B. 132.. 12. 31.. R170 (2004). 555 (2002). W. 17. 5281 (1974). 13. 467 (2003). Smith et al. P. and leaves from which their respective essential oils are produced. van de Weijer et al. C.. S. 1581 (2004).. 187 (1970). 56. 74.). 27 (2002). 93 (1977). 29.. Dewick. Malaysia.. Photochem. Food Sci. J. 16. R. 33. J. 7. 403 (2004).. Beck et al. 58. 8. Nutr. Z. Nutr. Univ. Tuskaev. Toxicol. H. 97 (1970). M. Bromatol. Biol. Can. 87 (2003). Hartwell. Nutr. B. 24. J. 817 (1974). Sivakumaran et al. J. 207 (2003). M. 259 (2003). 290. 32. Burdette et al. Nutr. J. caryophyllata Thunb. Srinivas. 326 (2004). Ann. Br. Indonesia. E. T. Chem. J. believed to be native of Southeast Asia (eastern Indonesia). 23. J. A. 87 (1973). 36. Eur... 90. J.. J. 89. R. 24. 18. 52. 54 (2003). E. Clove bud oil is considered more . M. 7. 1489 (1976). 173 (2004). 84.. Rast. Chan et al.. Nutr. 58. Lloydia. 26. Prostate. Int. J. P. 39. H. Nutr. up to about 12 m high. Acta Vet.. Hayvan. 30. M. Eugenia aromatica (L. Dergisi. A. Turk. Arterioscler. 26. 34. 16. Sect. 1411 (1976). N. P. Metab. 66. 9. 34. J. 14. Carbohydr. 10. Steroid Biochem. S. J. V... 6. 1107 (1974).. 28. Atkinson et al. tropical America.. Buchala and H..) Merr.

respectively.4. they contain little or no eugenyl acetate.5. stigmasterol. kaempferol. clove leaf oil. Pharmaceutical. and Cosmetic. Gram-negative.25% in soaps and 0. and campesterol). and others (JIANGSU. and acid-fast bacteria. Cloves. though to a lesser scale. clove stems yield 4–6%. methyl eugenol (see sweet bay). 2–27% eugenol acetate.8 Despite its possible toxicity in high dosage levels. with cloves and clove bud oil by far the most used. and to a much lesser extent than the other oils (ARCTANDER). with minor constituents such as methyl salicylate. creams.6–8 Clove oil (due to its eugenol) has anodyne and mildly antiseptic properties. eugenol (and presumably cloves and clove derivatives) is considered nontoxic at normal use levels. and fungi). Major food products in which PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES A tincture of cloves (15% in 70% alcohol) has been reported to be effective in treating ringworms such as athlete’s foot (JIANGSU). eugeniin.8 Clove leaf oil is primarily used in soaps and low-cost perfumes. and clove leaves yield 2–3%. and methyl eugenol all have trypsin-potentiating activity (see cinnamon). crategolic acid methyl ester. and perfumes. MASADA). a-ylangene. which are often present in relatively large amounts in cloves and clove derivatives.0%. the latter probably due to its content of eugenyl acetate (see balm). and caryophyllene. methyl eugenol. 61% carbohydrates. Eugeniin exhibited strong antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus. in perfumes. Clove oil has antihistaminic and spasmolytic (musculotropic) properties. and chavicol also present (ARCTANDER. quercetin. MASADA). 20% lipids. eugenol. clove stem oil. Clove bud extract and oleoresin are also used.7–10 as well as anthelmintic and larvicidal properties. Aqueous extracts of cloves.7% and 1. Clove bud and stem oils are used extensively as fragrance components in dentifrices.7. clove bud oil. about 6% protein. oleanolic acid. Maximum use levels reported for the bud and stem oils are. benzaldehyde. Naphthalene (not present in the bud oil) is reportedly present in both oils in trace amounts. It is also extensively used as a major component in preparations for the treatment of postextraction alveolitis (dry socket) and in dental cements and fillings. also many of the minor constituents in the bud oil are absent or present in much smaller concentrations in the leaf and stem oils. clove oil. respectively. the oil is applied directly without pressure on the carious tooth with a small piece of cotton.15% and 0. 0. lotions. Other constituents present in clove buds include glucosides of sterols (sitosterol. and 5–12% b-caryophyllene. and eugenol are widely used in flavoring many food products.3 TOXICOLOGY Clove oil is reported to cause skin irritation and sensitization in humans. rhamnetin. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Clove buds yield 15–18% volatile oil. among others. Clove bud oil (or eugenol) is used for the symptomatic relief of toothache. exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities (against Gram-positive. vitamins. methyl amyl ketone.5 properties of noneugenol clove constituents such as eugenyl acetate.1–3 Clove bud oil contains 60–90% eugenol. detergents.11 No data are available that correlate the pharmacological . soaps. Food. eugenyl acetate.5 Clove stem oil usually contains 90–95% and clove leaf oil 82–88% eugenol (ARCTANDER. MARSH).7.210 Cloves valuable than stem and leaf oils in flavor applications.5 USES Medicinal.

C. Cosmet. D. Paper given at the 4th Atti Conv. D. L. 204 (1980).) have been affirmed as GRAS (§184. Cerma and B. Oishi et al. Lebensm. Perfum. BARRETT. Planta Med. M. 14. 1. Traditional Medicine.BRUNETON. In Chinese medicine. M.. 1. 2. hernia. and all three oils are official in F... Toxicol. 765 (1975). stem. 8. 9. 42(146).. ARCTANDER. USD See the General References for ADA.. Clove leaf oil is used as a source for the isolation of eugenol. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Cloves. J. L.C. Clove extracts and oil have been demonstrated to have strong antioxidative properties. Naz. Y. Mikrobiol. NANJING). 1241 (1974). BARNES. gelatins and puddings. Technol. Eiyo To Shokuryo. MARTINDALE.. FURIA 26th. and oils (bud. Clove tea is used to relieve nausea. 10. condiments and relishes.Cloves 211 cloves and their derivatives are used include alcoholic (bitters. 40. 4. 13. which consist of a mixture of two parts tobacco and one part ground cloves and when smoked produce a crackling noise (ROSENGARTEN). 2308 (1975). B.12–14 Clove oil (also eugenol) and clove aqueous extract also markedly increase trypsin activity. MASADA. Toxicol. Herrmann. E. 170. 37 (1973). that for the oils is 0. GUENTHER. Qual. Powdered cloves are used as a flavoring ingredient in Oriental-type herb teas (DUKE 2).. BISSET. Regulatory Status. Brieskorn et al. Phytother.. DUKE 2. 69 (1981). LUST. Plant. Ramadan et al. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Anon.06% of clove stem oil in alcoholic beverages. 96 (1972). M. 13. Rochat. vermouths. 5. K. clove oil is used in diarrhea. Opdyke. 13. Takechi and Y. Tanaka.g.15 These properties could be useful in food and drug applications. A. 7. candy. Lebensm.. 38613 (1977).F. Med. and leaf). in addition to the above and other uses (JIANGSU. Z. Food Cosmet.. Food Cosmet. Clove bud oil is official in N. baked goods.. 1. H.. Martinez Nadal et al. JIANGSU. Fujio et al. Saito et al. 6. N. 761 (1975). 11. Forsch. Cloves and their derivatives (oils. etc. Unters. 42. meat and meat products. 505 (1976).236% in condiments and relishes. and that for clove bud oleoresin is about 0. Opdyke.. and counterirritant. 23 (1967). J.C.) and nonalcoholic beverages. 12. 1965. Phytochemistry. Highest average maximum use level reported for cloves is 0. 1st Conv. 241 (1969). 3.. etc. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. REFERENCES A large portion of the world’s clove production goes to Indonesia for use in Kretak cigarettes.5 Subject of a German therapeutic monograph indicated for inflamed oral and pharyngeal mucosa. 29. ROSENGARTEN.16 AND BELLANCA. G. extracts.078% (775 ppm) in alcoholic beverages. FEMA. Reg. frozen dairy desserts.. topical anesthesia in dentistry. F.. Regist. MCGUFFIN. Debelmas and J. Voesgen and K. Others. Cloves are used as a carminative. extracts (e. Aliment. Stancher. . Trieste. 88(10).. and gravies. Chem. H. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. among others. antiemetic. and bad breath. Clove oil is also used as an antiemetic as well as in relieving toothache. 16. Fed.1257). oleoresin).

and 0. 16. 0. a. novogranatense var. Machado).40 . vitamin A. COCA Source: Erythroxylum coca Lamarck var. Koryo. coca var. coca var. Columbian or Java coca (E.40 . Major producers are Bolivia. truxillense). 30 .50 -trimethoxy-trans-cinnamoylcocaine. coca var. novogranatense var.13 amino acids (e.12 a. Eiyogaku Zasshi.77% in Columbian coca. E. Part used is the leaf. coca var. hygroline. novogranatense var. Monograph Caryophylli flos. MORTON 3. trans-2-hexenal. coca (syn. E. novogranatense Rusby var. hydroxycocaines. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Leafy evergreen shrubs to small trees. Peru.50 -trimethoxy-cis. NANJING).50 -trimethoxy tropacocaine.9 Mean amounts of cocaine in the dried leaves vary from 0.) and Australia.. and n-methylpyrrole.cinnamoylcocaine. tropical mountain forests of the eastern Andes (Ecuador.. up to about 5 m high at lower altitudes and 2 m at higher altitudes.and trans-cinnamoylcocaine. coca). 30 .14 Flavonoid constituents of the leaves appear to show considerable interspecies variation and .2. E. about 19% protein and 44% carbohydrates. 17. MARTINDALE). Bolivian or Hunuco coca (Erythroxylum a coca var.212 Coca 14. tropine. Taiwan. valerine. no. cocaine (methyl ester of benzoylecgonine). Bolivia. E.10 Leaves of the latter variety also contain pseudococaine.1 Coca has also been grown in Asia (China. Coca leaves contain alkaloids. hygrine. 15. 30 . ipadu).40 . Kato. Hirahara et al. E. cis-3-hexen-1-ol. two dihydrobenzaldehydes (tentatively identified). cis. Truxillo a coca (E. 1985). Machado) (Family Erythroxylaceae).25% in Amazonian coca.63% in Bolivian coca. and cuscohygrine. Common/vernacular names: Bolivian or Hunuco coca (E. storage age. Indonesia. Colombia.8 whereas it was not found in leaves of Bolivian coca. truxillense (Rusby) Plowman (syn. novogranatense var. among other factors ¨ (LIST AND HORHAMMER. depending on the sources of the leaves. India.13% of a volatile oil composed mainly of methyl salicylate. coca) is cultivated in moist. E. Bundesanzeiger.11 Other constituents present in the leaves of E. 24 (1975). novogranatense var. coca include 0. chilpei E. with slender branches. Y. E. ecgonine. novogranatense)). coca var. novogranatense (Columbian coca) is grown in moist regions of the Columbian Andes. and extreme NW Argentina) and wet inter-Andean valleys.40 . including benzoylecgonine.02–0. 0. 30 . cocaine plant. and Peru (LIST AND ¨ HORHAMMER. riboflavin. hardinii E. 223 (November 30.and b-truxillic acids. and spadic. ipadu Plowman. Amazonian coca (E. 1 (1974). tropacocaine. novogranatense. and in arid inter-Andean valleys of Colombia.g. 113.and b-truxilline.72% in Trujillo coca. along the coast of the Caribbean. Amazonian coca (E. ecgonine methyl ester.50 -trimethoxycocaine. 1-hexanol. truxillense (Trujillo coca) is grown in river valleys in ˜´ northern Peru and in the arid upper Maranon river valley of Peru. iron. native to the South American Andes. 32.3 The concentrations of these alkaloids and their relative proportions vary widely. their age when harvested. ipadu) is cultivated in the upper Amazon in regions of Brazil.4–7 Nicotine was found in coca growing in Peru. rutin and isoquercitrin (LIST ¨ AND HORHAMMER). F. etc. primarily cultivated at altitudes between 500 and 2000 m. novogranatense var. and phosphorus. high contents of calcium. Columbia. arginine and phenylalanine). and Peru.

Cocaine abusers show cerebral perfusion defects. greater ventilatory output and free fatty acid availability during incremental exercise. novogranatense. coca. coca from Peru) to rats resulted in reduced food consumption. chronic coca leaf chewers of Bolivia show increased plasma levels of cocaine and benzoylecgonine during exercise. coca) extract in male mice was 3450 mg/kg i.02 g) has been reported to cause severe toxic effects (GOODMAN AND GILMAN).19 A cocaine-free extract of the leaves administered intraperitoneally also reduced food consumption in rats. and compared to nonchewers without coca. but not in either variety of E. and hemoglobin concentration compared to nonchewers without coca. renal tubular calcification. whereas the decrease in plasma insulin and glucose induced by exercise appeared to be prevented by the coca chewing.2 g.18 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES significant increases in heart rate. In addition to its local anesthetic. the rats showed pyometra often with endometrial metaplasia. LIST AND ¨ HORHAMMER.21 from chewing approximately 15 g of leaves. and portal triaditis in the liver. Flavonoids found in the leaves of all four species are kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. central nervous system stimulant.23 no change in maximal exercise capacity. ombuin-3-O-rutinoside was found in the leaves of both varieties of E. MARTINDALE.15 For example. but not from doses of 1.30 . During submaximal exercise. novogranatense (variety not stated) alsocontainsprocyanidinsB1 andB3.16E. they displayed TOXICOLOGY In a chronic feeding in rabbits.28 Biopsies of the buccal mucosa of chronic coca leaf chewers of Bolivia showed no evidence of carcinoma or chronic ulceration.25 The pharmacological activity and toxicity of coca is generally attributed to cocaine. and respiratory exchange. (HIGGINS AND KATZ.24 After chewing 15 g of leaves for 1 h. cerebral thrombosis.17 and a procyanidin glycoside (catechin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(4a ! 8)catechin). chronic coca chewers showed a significant increase in plasma norepinephrine. the same subjects showed a significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and a higher heart rate compared to the nonchewers. No evidence was found of acute coca leaf use increasing tolerance to exercise. Leukoedema was present in 76% of samples taken from the side of the mouth that the subjects placed their coca leaf quid and may have resulted from the known irritant property of the lime traditionally added to the leaves in the course of chewing. suggesting a compromised circulatory adjustment during exercise.20 Preliminary studies indicate that after chewing coca leaves. Rats fed the same leaf extract at 150 mg showed a significant decrease in weight gain.29 The fatal dose of cocaine in humans is reported to be about 1. cocaine has many other activities (GOODMAN AND GILMAN. hematocrit. which could not be entirely attributed to the content of cocaine. Little is known of the effects of the other alkaloids present in coca leaf. and addictive (similar to amphetamines) properties. but a dose as low as 20 mg (0. decocainized leaves of Trujillo coca leaves from which the majority of cocaine-like alkaloids were removed.acatechin rhamnopyranoside.Coca 213 although they have yet to be characterized for all four varieties. doses of 21 or 210 mg produced no significant signs of toxicity. and high incidences of neuropsychological impairment. heart rate. During steady-state exercise. no significant alteration in blood pressure or heart rate during maximal22 or prolonged submaximal exercise. nonhabitual coca leaf chewers showed a significant decrease in plasma insulin levels.26 Oral administration of whole coca leaf extract (E. At all doses.).27 The LD50 of a coca leaf (E. MORTON 3). after chewing approximately 50 g of leaves for 1 h.p.5 and 15 mg. oxygen uptake.22 At rest.

and timidity in young persons. 89994s 2. . J. Phytochemistry.. nausea. cigarettes. T... T. Other food products in which the decocainized extract is used include alcoholic beverages. 9. hangover.P. (1972). stomach pain. amenorrhea. Anilian et al. Kallunki. nose. rheumatic pains. GOODMAN AND GILMAN. J. Plowman. fatigue. 1. p. and preparations for catarrh. 7. Nature. Bot. diarrhea. Espinel Ovalle and I. 3.. HORTUS 3rd. or limestone. Used in South America by natives to relieve hunger. 163 (1994). general malaise. and solvent-free oleoresins of E. from which cocaine is removed.. Plowman and L. natural extractives. eds. Food. Rev. chocolate tablets. R. Leaf sold as a herbal tea in the United States. opium and morphine addiction. Holmstedt et al. Cocaine (free base or salt form) is used as a local anesthetic.S. A. 10. respectively. and Cosmetic. 165 (1994). cinnamon. New York Botanical Garden. cordials. 1. frozen dairy desserts. J. and others as a flavor component in cola drinks. Pharmaceutical. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Abstr. G. New York. its use in ophthalmology is limited and it has been replaced by other agents (MARTINDALE). 674. Chromatogr. Casale.31 Traditional Medicine. Rivier. A. Ethnopharmacol.. Pharm. Colomb. Sauvain et al. Ethnobotany in the Neotropics. ginger. 641 (1983). Machado. through Chem. cramps. 95 (1971). lime from burnt seashells. Prance and 1938 (1974). G. syrups. and other conditions. Moore and J.S. M. Decocainized essential oils. 1984. 56. 408.P. Coca extract. mental disturbances. hay fever. Owing to ocular toxicity. 1753 (1977). Cocaine and cocaine hydrochloride are official in N. 311 (2000). bone. Chromatogr.. TERRELL. During this process. Ehleringer et al. M. 16. REFERENCES See the General References for FEMA. H. the leaves are usually chewed with alkaline substances such as plant ashes. including soft drinks. Quim.055% in frozen dairy desserts.02%. F. Ann.F. and candy. M. UPHOF. Farm. Guzman Parra. coca and other Erythroxylum species are GRAS (§182. J. altitude sickness. in G. 5. wine. is used together with extracts of kola (Cola nitida)... 659. 63. 179 (1997).. average maximum use level is reported to be 0. Coca leaf and its extracts are not used in pharmaceutical preparations in the United States. T. constipation.214 Coca USES Medicinal.20). 5. J. 4.1 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Coca leaf formerly used in diverse products in the United States. and throat during surgery. lime. mainly for eye (cornea). 76. 51. The highest average maximum use level is 0. Raymondiana. GRIEVE. asthma. USD 26th. and U. 6. 8. 62. E. NY. HUANG. hemorrhage. A. 5 (1972). sore throat. orange peel. Moore et al. B. Regulatory Status. often carried in a gourd. cigars. MORTON 3. (London). J. NANJING. Cienc. Coca and cocaine are controlled as narcotic agents in the United States. Sci. absorption of cocaine is increased. J. J.32 Coca was formerly official in U.

49. L. Valentine et al. Vet. Favier et al.. trompillo. M. Moore. Ethnopharmacol. 25. Oral Surg. 121 (1982).. Part used is the dried bark.. Syst. R. J. B. L.. Physiol. E.. L. JAMA. Behav. Bot. Planta Med. J. Ecol. 28. Leafl. in higher doses (1. M. Johnson et al. guapi. A. 1087 (1982).023%) of alkaloid(s) (rusbyine) of which the chemical structure(s) has not been determined. However. Vee et al. Common/vernacular names: Cocillana bark. J. It also contains b-sitosterol.. R. Hamner Jr. LIST AND 1 ¨ HORHAMMER). These properties are based on findings reported at the end of the last century. Duke et al. Physiol. Univ. and others (LIST AND 1 ¨ HORHAMMER). 14. E. 643 (1996). 863 (1993). Pharmacol. K. Biochem. M. A. Pharmacol. 80... J. Appl.. L.003–0. Bot. 10. Kolodziej et al. H... 13. Syst. Cocillana bark is reported to contain small amounts (0.. 1537 (1994). Biochem. Pharmacol. rusbyi.. Appl. J. 80. 20. Favier et al. 21. Z.. R. Physiol. Occup. Johnson.. 53. 7. J.. Toxicol... J. Eur. 27.. 18. 19. 287 (1969). The original cocillana bark is believed to be derived from G. Harv. Oral Pathol. Bohm et al. Naturforsch. Novak and C. Biochem. Rerat et al. flavonols. 75. Appl. Bedford et al. 30. 14.) Rusby (syn. 17. Spielvogel et al.. 255.. C. G.. 650 (1996). Forensic Sci. 15. tannin. Biochem. J. 1255 (1991). COCILLANA BARK Source: Guarea rusbyi (Britt. 725 (1981).0 g).. 743 (1998). 26. Phytochemistry. A. 16. GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Chemical studies on cocillana are limited. J. 1901 (1996). 133 (1998). 400 (1997). J. M. L. E.1 The bark is collected in Haiti and Bolivia (EVANS). PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Trees native to the South American Andes.Cocillana bark 215 11. A.) and closely related species (Family Meliaceae). Behav. Behav. A. Mus.. a volatile oil. Cocillana is reported to have expectorant and.. terpenoids.. Casale and J.. Physiol. 17.. 29. anthraquinones. Spielvogel et al. emetic properties similar to those of ipecac (BRADLY. 40 (1986). 48. Bedford et al. Sycocarpus rusbyi Britt.. C. Physiol. 1205 (1986). 26. Salemink. Bonefeld et al. J. 18. 12. 23. and upas. 31. 39.. B. 515 (1983). Novak et al. H. J. 113 (1987). 81. H. Phytochemistry. 25. grape bark. . 32. R. No recent pharmacological or toxicological data on cocillana are available. and O. Appl. Villegas. 24. 30. Kosten. Ethnopharmacol. Oral Med.3–3. Ethnopharmacol. J. Siegel et al. 7. 28. F. L. 56. Hum. J... Drug Alcohol Depend. 173 (1997).. 261 (1984). 22. 3. Bakalar. 113 (1975). 149 (1981).. T. Grinspoon and J. there is evidence that the current drug is obtained from other closely related Guarea species and is not the same as the cocillana first introduced into modern medicine (USD 23rd). 21 (1988). 24.

common cough syrup ingredient in the United Kingdom (WREN). Common/vernacular names: Theobroma.216 Cocoa (cacao) USES Medicinal. the bark REFERENCE of G. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Evergreen tree with leathery oblong leaves. Both criollo and trinitario cacao are considered to have better flavor qualities than forastero cacao. spiciflora Juss.2 There are three varieties of cacao: forastero. cacao (Family Sterculiaceae or Byttneriaceae).. febrifuge. B. while cocoa is used to describe the processed products. MARTINDALE. and other countries. Planta Med. Sri Lanka. See the General References for EVANS. purgative. the bark and fluid extract were formerly official in N. Nigeria. Used by natives in South America as an expectorant for alleviating coughs. Seldom seen on the American market. astringent. during . cocoa beans. the cacao beans are first cured by fermentation and drying. GRIEVE. and anthelmintic. Ghana. Parts used are the seeds. 1. Forastero accounts for more than 90% of the world’s usage and is produced primarily in West African countries (e. Ritchie and J. Used in cough syrups and similar preparations as an alternative to ipecac. as well as Papua New Guinea. The bark of G. Java. and Samoa. F. Traditional Medicine. 14. and so on. GOSSELIN. and cocoa extracts. trichilioides L. hydropsy. Cameroon. fruits are berries borne directly on trunk and branches. about 8 m high. Thus. is used in Amazonian Brazil as an abortifacient. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weightto-weight ratios. Trinitario is believed to be a hybrid of the other two varieties and is produced in Venezuela. like trinitario. being particularly popular in the British Commonwealth countries.1. Cacao is generally used to describe the crude materials (e. cocoa butter. and Cosmetic. and trinitario. COCOA (CACAO) Source: Theobroma cacao L.g.1 Three main types of ingredients are produced from cacao seeds: cocoa powder. and the Ivory Coast). Trinidad. E. YOUNGKEN. W. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. and syphilis). cacao tree and cacao beans). cocoa powder. For the manufacture of these products. cocoa butter. and thus cocoa tree. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat dermatoses.1 Among related species. Pharmaceutical. criollo is blended with forastero to improve the flavor of forastero in the manufacture of cocoa and. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2... while the criollo variety is produced in Venezuela and Central America. which are commonly called cacao or cocoa beans. Steel. criollo. 247 (1966). However. with seeds within a mucilaginous pulp. it is increasingly common to use the term cocoa for both crude and processed products. subsp. is also used in certain high-quality eating chocolates.g. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.

and ammonium.155).Cocoa (cacao) 217 which time the pulp surrounding the seeds is decomposed and removed and flavor precursors develop in the seeds. from which variable amounts of the cocoa butter is removed by hydraulic pressing. Cocoa butter (also called cacao butter and theobroma oil) is produced commonly by three methods: hydraulic pressing. salsolinol. The characteristic bitter taste of cocoa is reported to be due to the diketopiperazines (especially those containing phenylalanine) reacting with the theobromine present during roasting.1% and criollos containing 1. are roasted to produce the required flavor. phospholipids.. Beans for manufacturing cocoa butter or chocolate are roasted at lower temperatures. 8% digestible).2 Cocoa extracts are generally prepared by extraction of the roasted seeds (nibs) with hydroalcoholic solvents. and others. lactones.5–2. After roasting. 0. Alkalized cocoa is considered to have improved dispersibility. cocoa powder. WATT AND 14 MERRILL). the shell and hypocotyl are separated from the cotyledons (called nibs). most cocoa powders are produced by the so-called Dutch or alkalized process. pyrroles.g. containing about 55% cocoa butter. caffeine (ca. and hydroxides of sodium.9 tannins.70% in fat-free beans. and free amino acids. or their combinations). For example. is ground while hot to a liquid mass called cocoa or chocolate liquor.43–1. and color and to facilitate the removal of the seed coat (shell). and flavor over unalkalized cocoa.5 Cocoa butter contains mainly triglycerides of fatty acids that consist primarily of oleic . Alkalized cocoa must be labeled ‘‘processed with alkali. esters.70%). The cocoa cake left on the filter is cooled and then ground to a fine powder under controlled cool temperatures to yield cocoa powder that has cocoa fat contents of up to 22% or more. and others (MARTINDALE. The important flavor components are reported to be aliphatic esters. pyrazines. unsaturated aromatic carbonyls. MORTON 3.110–163. in which the nib is treated with a warm aqueous solution of up to three parts of anhydrous potassium carbonate to 100 parts of nib (or equivalent amounts of other alkalis such as potassium bicarbonate and hydroxide. and theobromine.12 trigonelline. the nib is processed as in the above method to yield alkalized cocoa powder.13 starch and sugars. extrusion or expeller pressing. and solvent extraction. The nib. temperatures vary from 100 to 150 C. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Cocoa contains more than 300 volatile compounds. Breakfast cocoa (or high-fat cocoa) must have at least 22% cacao fat (cocoa butter). Cacao nibs. monocarbonyls. Currently.3–5 Cocoa also contains about 18% proteins (ca. color. nicotinic acid. cacao nibs used for cocoa manufacture are required to have no more than 1. Cocoa butter produced by the first two methods has a faint chocolate flavor and aroma that can be removed by steam distillation under vacuum. including theobromine (0. diketopiperazines. polyphenols.’’ and so on. with forasteros containing less than 0.2 minerals (particularly high in sodium or potassium in alkalized cocoa). cocoa (or medium-fat cocoa) must contain less than 22% but not less than 10%. aroma. it is brittle at temperatures below 25 C and melts at 34–35 C. magnesium. carbonates. bicarbonates. amines and alkaloids. an essential oil is also produced by steam distillation. while those for cocoa powder production are roasted at higher temperatures.75% cacao shell. and certain other cocoa products (e.2. pyrazines.7 fats (cocoa butter). and low-fat cocoa must contain less than 10% cacao fat.8–10 tyramine. dopamine. now called raw cocoa containing about 6–8% moisture.11. depending on the types of beans and the products to be made. The dried beans. 0. including hydrocarbons.6. chocolates) are governed by standards of identity set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR §§163. After the alkali is completely absorbed.1.7%).25% in cocoa.07–1.

Dark chocolate does not contain milk.. Food. frozen dairy desserts. sterols consist mainly of b-sitosterol. it was isolated at a 7. Beverages made from cacao flavored with vanilla and other spices have been used by native Mexicans (Aztecs) for centuries. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. irritating cough.17–19 In addition to alkaloids (mainly theobromine). Reportedly used in European tradition in combination with other ingredients for infectious intestinal disease. around the eyes. its stimulant activities on the central nervous system. also used as emollient. Cocoa butter is used to treat neck wrinkles on neck (turkey neck). Traditional Medicine. Cocoa and cocoa butter have been reported to contain fat-soluble antioxidants and could be a source of such substances.23 Others. cocoa husk contains a pigment that is a polyflavone glucoside with a molecular weight of over 1500.16 3). but its cardiac stimulant. to regulate function of endocrine glands. bronchitis. highly stable at pH 3–11. and others. and lung congestion. stearic (C18:0). has similar pharmacological activities as caffeine. Cocoa butter is used in creams. which may cause problems in persons who are on a low-sodium diet.1% (MERCK. Cocoa powder is used extensively as a flavor or nutrient component in nonalcoholic beverages. Cocoa butter is extensively used in chocolate manufacture. and useful as a food colorant. candies. and Cosmetic. with small amounts of linoleic (C18:2) and arachidic (C20:2) acids. MORTON 2. massage). coronary dilating. the remaining being mostly diunsaturated glycerides (palmitodiolein and stearodiolein) with lesser amounts of fully saturated and triunsaturated (triolein) glycerides. and skeletal muscles are much weaker than those of caffeine. the major alkaloid in cocoa. Cocoa butter is used extensively as a suppository and ointment base. tannins. and other ingredients such as flavors. cocoa powder produced by the Dutch process may contain relatively high concentrations of sodium. skin softener. . Linoleic acid levels have been reported to be up to 4. biscuits. ice cream. and at the corners of the mouth (ROSE). Cocoa powder (or cocoa syrup) is used in flavoring pharmaceutical preparations. milk. lipsticks. and skin protectant in creams (e. and other cosmetic preparations sold in health food stores (ROSE). This pigment is claimed to be heat and light resistant. Also present in cocoa butter are small amounts of sterols and methylsterols. Over 73% of the glycerides are present as monounsaturated forms (oleopalmitostearin and oleodistearin).9% yield. especially the thyroid.g. lotions.20 USES Medicinal. respiration. cakes. and other constituents. and others. However.15.24 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Theobromine.28%) present. bronchial expectorant in asthma. TOXICOLOGY Cocoa butter has been reported to have skin allergenic and comedogenic (forming blackheads) properties in animals. stigmasterol. Cocoa extract is used in both alcoholic (liqueurs such as creme de cacao) and nonalcoholic beverages. and diuretic properties are stronger (GOODMAN AND GILMAN). smooth muscle relaxant. and palmitic (C16:0) in decreasing concentrations. and campesterol.218 Cocoa (cacao) (C18:1).22 Depending on the alkali used. massage oils. Pharmaceutical. with a small quantity of cholesterol (0–0. among others. sugar.21. baked goods. and soaps. diarrhea. where it is mixed with cocoa liquor (ground cacao nibs).

23 REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. Mat. p. 10. Surv. 12.. USDA. GOSSELIN. 363. 567 (1972). W. K. 4. Am. Ivanov. D. p. 41. Atti Soc. T..155). Choc. Tech. HORTUS 3rd. Res. Zak and P.. Barnes & Noble.. L.. Confiserie Fr. Clabot. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Chemical Technology. 825 (1973). eds. 7. Soc. 1991). T. BLUMENTHAL 1. 13. Atti Cong. Kissinger. Riggin and P. 1975. R. M. 280 (1974). no. Monograph Cacao semen. Wurziger. 6 149 (1968).. Y. Fiz. Acta. . Mills et al. Vestn. cocoa butter. Chemical 257 (1970). 1975. Qual. Dermatol. 16. G. W. 145 (1978). 2. Sci. 11. 21. Wurziger. 645.. Chemtech. 18. T. 40 (February 27.. Cocoa seed is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph. and cocoa syrup are official in N. Helv. J. G. T. 8. 96 (1977). J. GRIEVE. 20. Venerol. D. Chim.20). G. T. 22. Asamoa and J. H. eds. 17. 14. Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment. 1078 (1975). Kissinger. F. Keeney. Ser. 29. 16. 23. Mironescu. 1964. New York. Standards of identity for cocoa products apply (§§163. 483 (1976). R. B. 7. Assoc. Powell and T. L. Food Chem. J. 24.. Am.. Wiley– Treatment. Pickenhagen et al. Timbie and P. Vol. H. Codd et al. 218 (1974). Gordian. Asamoa and J. 1. W. 130 (1978). 58. Food Chem.. 8.. Dermatol.. Drummond in Peloritana Sci. Lloydia. A.. V. TERRELL. 24. Codd et al. 9. Itoh et al. Bundesanzeiger. Cocoa extracts are GRAS (§182. 11. 900 (1976). 273. D. V. MARTINDALE. L. Vol. Biino and E. Agric. Kenyhercz and P. W. Kissinger. 74. Kenyhercz and P. J. 7. Ind. Oil Chem. Oil Chem. and cocoa extracts. 15. 300 (1973). Gordian. Reymond. 424 (1977).F. New York. Barnes & Noble.. Cocoa (10–22% fat). Clarke and J. Interscience. 5. Natur. 3. 12 (1971). Dewdney and M. M.. M. Rev. J. Keeney. D. 138 (1976). cocoa syrup. Agric. J. R. 1602 (1977). T. Y. Chaveron. Soc. cocoa butter.. Standen.Cocoa (cacao) 219 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Cocoa powders. Oleagineux.. 664 (1977). L. J. A. 98. Barbiroli. Br. New York. p. 49. J. Food Manuf.110–163. Looney in L. Phytochemistry. not recommended as claimed efficacy is unsubstantiated. Jpn. P.. 25. 57 (1976). T.. 6. 19. P. KARRER. Harris in A. 50. 24. Food Chem. allowed as flavoring agent. Keeney. Br. Kokai 73 17. G. Meara. Fis. M. ed. 76. 5. 16.. Chim. Vol. Kimura et al. 253 (1974). 1. Itoh et al. O. 3. Agric. Regulatory Status. L.

Its biological activities include central stimulation in mice. Part used is the root. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES As a frequent substitute for ginseng. which would not keep well (CMH). and Liaoning. it is frequently used as a substitute for ginseng.000. while the latter two have a-linkages.12%) composed of 50% acidic compounds.24–10. 0.4. chuandang or tiaodang (Sichuan codonopsis) from Sichuan. C. starch. dangshen has many of the properties of ginseng. xylose.) Nannf. Sichuan. and IV). and prolonged survival.. T.g.47–5. ludang (Shanxi codonopsis) from Shanxi. oroxylin A. pilosula Nannf. enhanced phagocytosis of macrophages. this process eliminates or minimizes the presence of air space.5 Four polysaccharides (CP-1.2 No ginseng saponins have been found in codonopsis. 14. Liaoning. respectively.8 triterpenes (e. including the provinces of Shanxi. n-butylallophanate. native to Asia. immunoregulating. improved blood picture in mice (red and white cells and hemoglobin all increased).38% saponins (tangshenosides I. nicotinic acid. ZHU).3 scutellarein glucoside. radioprotective.7 a b-carboline alkaloid (perlolyrine) and other nitrogen compounds (choline.. predominantly methyl palmitate.2. modesta (Nannf. taraxeryl acetate.1% as free amino acids. sucrose.000. and baidang or guanhua dangshen (white or tubular-flowered codonopsis) from Guizhou and Yunnan (CMH. Most of the chemical studies on codonopsis were performed during the 1980s. II. Shaanxi. glucose.4. now extensively cultivated. Xinjiang.000. among others. Ludang is the most often encountered in the United States. fructose). fructose. mannose.g. and rhamnose). tangshen Oliv. Jilin. var.. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Mostly small herbaceous perennials. dongdang (eastern codonopsis) from Jilin.13 and trace minerals.3–6 amino acids (1.5. increased serum corticosterone in mice. and 79.. Considered as the poor man’s ginseng. prevention of leukocytosis induced by turpentine oil in experimental animals. collected in autumn from wild or cultivated plants at least 3 years old. friedelin) and sterols (stigmasterol and spinasterol) and their glucosides. tubulosa Kom. taraxerol. and Heilongjiang. cracks. arabinaose. CP-2. and many other Codonopsis species (Family Campanulaceae). . It is sorted and strung out to sun dry to about half dry. etc. C.. or holes in the dried herb. CP-3. bonnet bellflower. and Shaanxi.3 1.). Shen. then massaging or rubbing by hand or between two wood boards to bring internal tissues together. the first two have b-glycosidic linkages. with ca. with thick fleshy cylindrical to slightly spindle-shaped roots.9–11 atractylenolides II and III (see baizhu).1 Common/vernacular names: Radix codonopsis. III. Gansu. washed clean. inulin. followed by further drying and rubbing until completely dry. and CP-4) have been isolated with molecular weights of 10. galactose. increased swimming time in mice. bastard ginseng. Compounds identified include polysaccharides and sugars (e. C. Yunnan. hypotensive and peripheral vasodilatory as well as adrenolytic.220 Codonopsis CODONOPSIS Source: Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.500. Hubei. increased tolerance to anoxia and elevated temperatures in mice.) L. There are five major types each with different grades: xidang (western codonopsis) from Gansu. strongly scented. weight gain in rabbits. also as ornamental in the United States. 0. involving an unusually large number of sugars (glucose. and dangshen.33%).12 volatile oil (ca. 12. distributed throughout China.

3. Han et al. Y. 2. 653 (1992). Z. dangshen COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude (whole or powdered) and extracts. 12.14. T. D. A relatively recent addition to Chinese materia medica. Zhongcaovao. 14. 19(8). 21 (1988). M. and pyloric ligation models) in rats. 23. Henan Zhongyi. cut or tea bag cut herb is used in tea or soup mixes (FOSTER AND YUE). Li et al. 472 (1988)... Planta Med. 13. JIANGSU. 60 (1983). C. NATIONAL. 10. Zhongcaoyao. REFERENCES See the General References for CHP. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. thirst and diabetes. Cai. Wang et al. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. G. Zhang. 27.Codonopsis 221 and stimulation as well as relaxation of isolated guinea pig ileum (IMM-2. C. 9. Q. Jilin Zhongyiyao.15 Dangshen polysaccharides have exhibited immunomodulating effects in guinea pigs. Shanxi Zhongyi. 94 (1993). ginseng. Z. . CMH. for boosting immune system and replenishing qi (vital energy). 422 1. Powdered herb and extracts are used in tonic formulas (in tablet. indomethacin. 33 (1990). Wang and Y. 16. or liquid form). chronic diarrhea. Zhou et al. conditions due to spleen and blood deficiencies. (6). IMM-2. 41 (1990). 5...5. 15. Wong et al. capsule. 2 (1987). ZHU. G. D. Class 1 dietary supplement (herbs can be safely consumed when used appropriately). 17. 37 (1989). S. Zhang and S. R. Shanxi Zhongyi. 49. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi. Liao and Y. G. T.Zhongcaoyao. 18(3). Zhongcaoyao. Liu et al. J. 7. P. J. J. W. JIXIAN. M. It is used to treat many of the same conditions as these tonics. 22. WANG. 144 (1992). 35 (1990). Lu. 54. Regulatory Status. and had antistress effects (prolonging swimming time and increasing tolerance to anoxia and to elevated temperatures) in mice. 739 (1985).. J. inhibited experimental ulcers (stress. and so on. Integr. 6. 564 (1991).. Trad. lack of appetite. LU AND LI. asthma. 11.. 17(5). (1991).37(1987). Planta Med. 18(9).. 16. Its tonic properties were later described in the Ben Cao Cong Xin (1757) and has since become a highly valued qi tonic of equal status as some ancient ones such as astragalus. J.16–18 Oroxylin A was shown to have antihistaminic effects on isolated guinea pig ileum. Wang and G. 376 (1991). West. WANG).. including general weakness. Zhongcaoyao. Zhuang et al. X. 13. and damaged qi. 15(2). 16. O. Ling. and common jujube (see those entries). shortness of breath. FOSTER AND YUE.. often as oriental ginseng substitute. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. M.. Wanget at. 41 (1986). with no uniform standards.Gong. S. 5(1). 4.X. 6(3). acetic acid. Yang. USES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.. Chin. Cui et al. Y. M. 5.12 was first described in the Ben Jing Feng Yuan (AD 1695) as a lung-clearing (qing fei) drug with a sweet taste and neutral nature. Xu. R. Zhongcaoyao. 8. cough. 2 (1987). X. 18.. L. Zhongcaoyao. Y. X. S. Med.18(11). Han et al. palpitations. Mao et al.. Traditional Medicine.

b. robusta). To develop the characteristic coffee aroma and taste. Colombian and Central American coffees are preferred over Brazilian and African coffees.2.9 tannins (ca. about 2% free amino acids consisting mainly of glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. and other volatile compounds from pyrolysis).g. The beans are then rid of solvent and roasted.2 Decaffeinated coffee is produced by removing most of its caffeine content while at the green coffee stage.g.8 polyamines (putrescine.1.4 up to 60% carbohydrates (mostly a galactomannan).1.. and others ¨ (LIST AND HORHAMMER. producing respectively the so-called natural and washed coffees. and spermidine). stigmasterol. Uganda. or they are placed in water and subjected to pulping machines to remove most of the pulp. or Santos coffee (C. Colombian. drying.2 Instant coffee is produced by extracting ground-roasted coffee with hot water. commonly called ‘‘beans’’.2 Coffee extracts for flavoring purposes are prepared by extracting roasted coffee with water or water–alcohol mixtures. the green coffee is roasted to the required time at temperatures up to about 220 C.). followed by fermentation (requiring up to several days). Coffee beans are often blended before or after roasting to produce various commercial grades or brands. particularly Brazil. tocopherols (a. methylsterols. 12%). arabica up to 6 m and C.2.1. canephora to 8 m high. MORTON 3.5–7 protein (ca. and the latter is called the wet process. robusta coffees are more commonly used due probably to their higher contents of soluble materials and thus giving higher yields. Mexico.. cafestol. while robusta coffee is produced mainly by African countries (Ivory Coast.2% (usually 1. The dried beans at this stage are known as green coffee and are exported.3% trigonelline.5–2.2 Arabica coffee is produced mostly in South and Central America. The extract is concentrated and freeze-dried or spray-dried to produce a granular or powdered product. C. The former method is called the dry process. deeply crimson fruits (berries) that are commonly called ‘‘cherries’’. and mechanical removal of the silver skin. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Evergreen shrubs to small trees with twoseeded. . etc. and stearic acids. now extensively cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. robusta Linden ex De Wild. Arabian. generally by extraction of the whole beans with organic (e.5%) caffeine.6–3. and other Coffea species. believed to be native to Ethiopia.) and seed coat.. C. 5–10% chlorogenic acid (robusta more than arabica). and Guatemala. at the same time turning dark and slightly increasing in size (swelling) as well as losing weight (due to loss of moisture.1. sitosterol. carbon dioxide. often under pressure. skin.3 7. followed by mechanical removal of the dried husk (pulp. Coffee oil contains mainly glycerides of fatty acids (e. arabica).1. oleic.4–17% oil called coffee oil (arabica more than robusta). cahweol.1. spermine. MERCK.222 Coffee COFFEE Source: Coffea arabica L. During roasting. Common/vernacular names: Arabica.2 In the United States. Colombia.).3–1.10 AND MERRILL). 0. with the first two in predominant concentrations) and 5–8% of unsaponifiable matter. Angola. linoleic. etc. chlorinated) solvents. n-nonacosane. 9%). the beans acquire their typical flavor. During the production of coffee beans the freshly picked ripe cherries are either sun dried (requiring 2–3 weeks). palmitic. canephora Pierre ex Froehner (syn. WATT 1. depending on the types of coffee beans to be produced. which consists of squalene. B vitamins and trace of niacin. lanosterol. C. Parts used are the roasted seeds. For instant coffee manufacture.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Green coffee contains 0. varieties or hybrids (Family Rubiaceae). and robusta coffee (C.1.

prostate.20 However.. and choleretic properties (see artichoke and honeysuckle). U. diacetyl and glyoxal) as well as by sodium bisulfite and metabisulfite.21. Pharmaceutical.10.P.. with cream or during meals) by individuals with peptic ulcer (GOODMAN AND GILMAN.11–13 Roasted coffee contains slightly less caffeine than green coffee.Coffee 223 and g. excitement. Apart from the biological activities of caffeine.S. coronary dilation.19. it is also reported to cause temporary increase in intraocular pressure. including headache. The most important flavor precursors are reported to be trigonelline. chlorogenic acid. most of these findings were disputed by later reports (GOODMAN AND GILMAN.P.2 dicarbonyls. Sodium sulfite also inactivates the phage-inducing activity of coffee. polyamines. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES The physiological activities of coffee are generally attributed to its caffeine. as chlorogenic acid is reported to have stimulant. and coffee has been suggested as a source of niacin. among others.22 Mutagenic activity of coffee is inactivated by sodium sulfite (completely suppressing the mutagenicities of the 1. other activities include cardiac stimulation. insomnia. Caffeine is a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system. In addition to the above well-known activities. and skeletal muscles. ovaries. but contains much lower concentrations of trigonelline.1. smooth muscle relaxation. TOXICOLOGY The fatal dose of caffeine in humans is reported to be 10 g. respiration. and diuresis.4. cancer of the lower urinary tract (e. which is within the therapeutic dose range. cold and allergy products. usually as caffeine. diuretic. proteins. ¨ and others (LIST AND HORHAMMER). and others. . In addition to its use as a central and respiratory stimulant.15. with the last two being predominant).g. tachycardia. mild delirium. and ¨ acids (LIST AND HORHAMMER). and Cosmetic. teratogenic. U. weight-control formulations (appetite depressants).9.17 More than 50% of the total mutagenic activity of coffee can be attributed to the activity of methylglyoxal. and to cause chronic recurrent headache..18 Coffee drinking has also been linked to myocardial infarction (a kind of blood clot in blood vessels that supply blood to heart muscles). USES Medicinal. muscle tremor. including mutagenic. those of chlorogenic acid (which is present in substantial quantities in coffee) should not be ignored.15 A cup of coffee contains about 100 mg caffeine. It has been suggested that sulfites should be added to coffee to reduce mutagenicity. MARTINDALE. and caffeine and sodium benzoate injection.23 Coffee (even decaffeinated) is reported to stimulate gastric secretion and should be taken only with proper precautions (e. and carcinogenic activities. oxazoles. including such important flavor contributors as furan derivatives. pyrazines.1. USD 23rd). and extrasystoles. free amino acids. A dose of 1 g or more would produce toxic effects.g. it also has allergenic properties (MORTON 3).S.16. for treating pellagra or niacin deficiency.14 More than 100 aroma compounds have been identified in roasted coffee. tannins.10 Roasted coffee contains a relatively high content of niacin.. and peptides. particularly internal analgesics.10. restlessness. which are degraded and involved in flavor formation during roasting. bladder). nausea. caffeine is extensively used as an ingredient in many types of pharmaceutical preparations. and others. sugars. pyrroles. and sugars. to have calming effects on hyperkinetic children (effect similar to methyl phenidate or dextroamphetamine). MARTINDALE). caffeine has been reported to have many other activities.

Cancer. p. BLUMENTHAL ¨ AND HORHAMMER. Naturwissenschaften. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Extracts (e. H. 6. 23... J. Kasai et al. solid. Forsch. Toxicol. V. Mikrobiol. 957 (1977). D. sweet sauces. 248 (1977). 12 (9). Cafes (C.. M. 1. 4. 7. Viani and L Horman. Food Prod. 6.007% (68 ppm). 161. 143 (1976).. ed.. roasted to blackened.. 1975. FEMA. 135 (1974).. 381 (1982).. and baked goods. LIST 1. Int. 25. Loprieno et al. H. Agric. Baradel.C. P. 587 (1975). G.20) and caffeine (§182. Coffee has been used for centuries by various cultures as a beverage to stay alert and to improve work efficiency. Atti Cong.C. D. Moores and A. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. candy. Coffee extract (type not specified) is widely used as a flavor ingredient in many food products. Thaler. Forsch. 24. 11. 7. M. 664 (1977). 1101 (1971).. 102. gelatins and puddings. 86 (1978). 79. A. Suwa et al.. J. 7 Barnes & Noble. New York.-P. Dev. Vol. Gann. T.. 334 (1977). 246 (1970).. GRIEVE.g. New York. 4. baked goods. B.216 ppm) in baked goods. J. 9. Br.8% (28. Phytochemistry. Z. Lebensm. A. 3. 16. Food Chem. W. Reymond. 15. 21. Z. Standen. 8. Wuerzner et al. with reported average maximum use level of about 0.Thaler.S. Coffee extracts (§182. Mutat. 289 (1977).P. BRUNETON. Br. Asanteand H. Ferreira. 748. Cerma and P. GOSSELIN. Ara and H. 73. Natl. Fette. Average maximum use level REFERENCES reported is 0. Chim. R. 6. V.. Highest average maximum use level reported is about 2. . 8 (1977). Chemtech. 5 Wiley– Interscience. Czok. 54.. Bundesanzeiger. 57. Ernaehrungswiss. YOUNGKEN. Vilar and L. 110 (1975). Unters. and tincture) and natural caffeine. H. Stefanucci in A. 12. Z. Vol. Clarke and J.g. J. and F... Food Cosmet. 473 (1973). 16. Thaler. N.24 See the General References for APhA. 24. 28.17 Coffee charcoal. 215 (1970). Seifen.. Unters. Caffeine is extensively used in nonalcoholic beverages (particularly colas). Chem. J.. 39. carbonized outer parts of green dried fruits is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph for treatment of nonspecific acute diarrhea. Nagasampagi et al. Res. It is also used in frozen dairy desserts. Ara and H. J. Food Sci. Agric. 1964. W.). fluid. Caffeine is official in U. H. Amorim et al.. Technol.. Y. O’Brien. Qual. Mutat. Shennon. Coll. 645. Drummond in L. Anstrichmit. 19. 10. 13. TERRELL. 1988). 1216 (1974). Codd et al. 14. liqueurs) and nonalcoholic beverages. 275 (1973).1180) are GRAS. Walter et al. J. D. and milk products. Folstar et al. 85 (May 5. Food Chem. Lebensm.. Stocks. G. E. H. p. B. 25. Lebensm. Res. 20. gelatins and puddings. J. R.. Cancer Inst.. eds. Chemical Technology: An Encyclopedic Treatment. BAILEY 1. frozen dairy desserts.04% in all except the last category that is about 0. 21. USDA. Monograph Coffea carbo. 5. consisting of the milled. 17. MARTINDALE. Wurziger. R. P.014% (141 ppm).. Cancer..224 Coffee Food. 15. 164. Regulatory Status. including alcoholic (e. W. 2. 22. candy. 383 (1982). 321 (1967). no. 283 (1977). 18... R.. 10. V. Simon et al.

officinale have been found to be carcinogenic in rats. lycopsamine. Anti-inflammatory efficacy has been confirmed. echinatine.. naturalized alien in northern Europe. L-rhamnose.  uplandicum contains symphytine. stems not winged.55% allantoin. (S. Common comfrey (S. and intermedine. including astringent. rosmarinic acid. heliosupine. 0. is rare in extreme south. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Allantoin is reported to have healing properties (MARTINDALE).8 a gum consisting of L(À)xylose. symlandine. sugars. echinatine. mostly persisted after cultivation. to 1 m. 0.10 TOXICOLOGY S. (Family Boraginaceae). demulcent. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennial herbs with branching stems and thick root. asperum Lepechin. 7-angelylintermidine. emollient.1–3 about 0. or pinkishtopink-blue. Leaves narrow winged on the main stalk.robustperennial. flowers variable from white or cream. officinale) is an erect. from Southwest Asia. 7acetyllycopsamine.11 S. Russiancomfrey(S. viridiflorine. flowers dark violet to blue. echimidine. echimidine. petal lobes recurved.12 and possibly other similar constituents as the root. leaves broadly lance shaped.10.officinaleandS. Common/vernacular names: Common comfrey.13 though lithospermic acid itself has no such activity unless oxidized by a plant phenol oxidase preparation. correlating clinical and analytic data of topical comfrey products by measuring redness and pain sensitivity in vivo. b-sitosterol. stout. calyx segments distinctly lanceolate.5 Leaves also contain substantial quantities of allantoin. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION viridiflorate. among others. D-mannose.7 Comfrey is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. often branched perennial. 7-acetyllycopsamine.4.14 It is also considered to have many beneficial properties.15%). Parts used are the dried rhizome and root.4%). S. uplandicine. glycosides. flowers rose to bluish.75–2. and D-glucuronic acid.3–5 the presence of lasiocarpine is questioned. also the leaves. pink. and stigmasterol. officinale root contains 0. 1–2 m. Prickly comfrey. asperum contains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids asperumine. 7-angelylretronecine The root and leaves of S. nutlets smooth. and blackwort.ahybrid ofS. including the pyrrolizidine alkaloids symphytine. and acetylechimidine.7 29% mucopolysaccharide that is composed of glucose and fructose.3 alkaloids (ca. Russian comfrey (S. heliosupine. naturalized in Europe. isobauerenol. L-arabinose. stalk distinctly winged.63% carotene. Symphytum  uplandicum Nym. hemostatic.9 pyrocatechol tannins (2. and the eastern United States (rare). ending between internodes. lasiocarpine.15 . Intermediate between parents.1.asperum. occurs in moist grasslands and riverbanks most of Europe. triterpenoids. middle and upper ones sessile. and acetylechimidine. 7-acetyllycopsamine..2. yellowish to rose. asperum). prickly comfrey (S.3% alkaloids.Comfrey 225 COMFREY Source: Symphytum officinale L. but at point of insertion extend downward on stalk.5 S. and others. anthers significantly shorter than filaments. An aqueous extract of comfrey containing lithospermic acid and other common plant acids has been reported to exhibit antigonadotropic activity in mice.  uplandicum). asperum). eastern North America. steroidal saponins.6 lithospermic acid.NativetonorthernEurope. or light to dark violet. to the allantoin and rosmarinic acid fractions of preparations. anther about as wide as filament.Âuplandicum). and expectorant properties. upper leaves on short stalks.

12. In July 2001. 21(5). Franz. The root. Farm. W. Herba Pol. UPHOF. including salves. Comfrey root and leaves and their extracts are used as ingredients in various types of cosmetic preparations such as lotions. V. Zh. ointments. Nat.. . Fijalkowski and M. J. bloody urine. 10. C.. 217 (1969).. Canada. R. I. 8..6. C. Class 2a (for external use only). Culvenor. and Germany have restricted the availability of products containing comfrey. Young shoot and leaves have been used as vegetables. bruises. and insect bites. and Cosmetic. Planta Med. 6. The United Kingdom. and others.. in one form or another. The root and leaves of various Symphytum species have been sold and labeled as ‘‘Symphytum officinale. and so on. BLUMENTHAL 1. Food. (Kiev). dysentery. Bull. Pharm.. tinctures. 2. I. 705 (1970). extracts. A root decoction is reportedly used as a gargle or mouthwash for throat inflammations. 17. Makarova et al. Prod. G. 7. D. Can. GOSSELIN. D. 5. J. 643 (1989). MARTINDALE.. 329 (1993). Â uplandicum have also been found to cause chronic hepatotoxicity. J. 3. 4.22 USES Medicinal. U. tablets.. G. and balms. Regulatory Status. Pharm. FOSTER. Michalska and T. See the General References for BAILEY 1. 2512 (1968).. Andres et al. 47 (1977). 9. Smith and C. Man’ko et al. REFERENCES COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Mainly as crude. 25... 185 (1969). sores. are still widely available (FOSTER). Jakimowicz. diarrhea. Planta Med. V.. L.15 Veno-occlusive disease from ingestion of various comfrey species. Araki. J. Chem. Phytochemistry. Z. Furuya and M. excessive menstrual flow. 55.. 11. has been clearly documented in humans.20 Externally. Nat. capsules. 1.’’19 Formerly widely available in teas. 29 (1981). 16.16–18 ointments. the powdered root is used as a hemostatic and in poulticing wounds.-Forsch. T. Ahmad et al.. Wagner et al. Hikichi. Seroczynska. ulcers). Traditional Medicine. Many product manufacturers have withdrawn comfrey products from sale because of toxicity. cancers. creams. 101 (1987). the FDA advised dietary supplement manufactures not to use comfrey due to safety concerns. and bleeding gums.. Prod. hair products. Farm. though that use is currently discouraged because of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. 2217 (1971). Pharmaceutical. ROSE. Australia. 41 (1966). 44(2). is also used to treat a wide variety of ailments such as gastrointestinal problems (e. no uniform standards in extracts (see ‘‘Strength’’ in glossary). Awang. hoarseness. 10. Topical products. 56(3). eyedrops. Furuya and K. bronchitis. V. persistent cough. Pol. The mucilage is believed to help soften the skin when used in baths.g. 508 (1969). Rast. T.226 Comfrey Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from S.21. 23. Arzneim. H. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Resur. LUST. including leaves and roots.. and others. V. 5. 20.

1050 (1985). 21. 345 (1970). petroselinic and linolenic acids). about 1. chlorogenic and caffeic acids. and others. 657 (1989). 22. chlorogenic and caffeic acids. M. 1.4–1. trans-tridecene-(2)al-(1). P. 548 (1990). umbelliferone. 19. S. no. 1095 (1986). and a. 14. and rutin. (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). widely cultivated. WATT AND MERRILL). Med. 31. 315.3.1–4 Other compounds present in the oil include decyl aldehyde. 20..8.6-octadecenoic acid. 71 (1968). Engl. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Fruits contain 0.12–16 AND MERRILL). which is present in 55–74%. carvone. R. 37 (1976). triacontane.5–11 Other constituents present in fruits include up to 26% fats made up of glycerides (primarily of oleic. The volatile oil contains mainly decyl andnonyl aldehydes. 6. Parts used are the dried ripe fruits (commonly called coriander seeds) and leaves (both fresh and dried). tannins.. M. Hirono et al. Gastroenterology.2. vitamin C..). J. 61(3). camphor.andlinalool. etc.Coriander 227 13. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Strong-smelling annual herb with erect hollow stem. 138 (July 27) 1990. Monograph Symphyti herba-folium. d-sitosterol. sugars. Stomatologiya (Sofia). coumarins (psoralen.. Kozhina et al. G. 17.6% (usually 0. Furnadzhiev et al. Bundesanzeiger. it is mainly produced in Europe. depending on the ripeness of the fruits. P. etc. geographical locations. Lancet. 865 (1978).0%) volatile oil. 58. coriandrinol (b-sitosterol-D-glucoside).15. geraniol.. J. Cancer Inst. Huxtable. Chinese parsley. ¨ and others (JIANGSU. a small amount of unsaponifiable matter (containing b-sitosterol. Resur. Hartwell. 88. Lloydia. including quercetin-3-glucuronide. 15. and other factors. and monoterpene hydrocarbons (mainly g-terpinene. Leaves contain less volatile oil than fruits. 18. elemol. Common/vernacularnames:Cilantro. Bundesanzeiger... 1. The major component of the oil is d-linalool (coriandrol). naturalized in North America. coumarins and flavonoid glycosides similar to those in fruits. up to about 1 m high. about 5% fats. Ridker.. Huxtable et al. geranyl acetate. proteins (11–17%). WATT 4. CORIANDER Source: Coriandrum sativum L. N. L. Monograph Symphyti radix. R. Natl. scopoletin. Rast. LIST AND HORHAMMER.0% starch and 20% sugars.17 Its petroleum ether-soluble fraction is reported to have antioxidative activity when mixed with lard. triacontanol. flavonoid glycosides.16 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Coriander has been reported to have strong lipolytic activity. borneol. and D5. isoquercitrin.native to Europe and Western Asia.18 Coriander possesses hypoglycemic activities in experimental animals. 89. no. Med..19 . An essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed fruits. b-phellandrene. J. tricosanol. p-cymene. anethole. 16.). caryophyllene oxide. J. d-limonene.and b-pinene. with relative proportions varying considerably with sources). about 22% proteins. Ridker et al. and camphene. angelicin. I. 138 (July 27) 1990. among others (JIANGSU. Am.2–2.

23 Oil is also used in flavoring tobacco. etc. Fruits are used as an aromatic carminative. Bakhtadze. they are used in measles. they are known as Chinese parsley in Chinese cuisine and cilantro in Spanish cooking. LUST. Spanish.. pflegem. Regulatory Status. Bul. Aromen. Univ... 6. and antispasmodic. 6. Planta Med. 28 (1977). and painful hernia (JIANGSU).) and nonalcoholic beverages. Armenian. a decoction is also used as a gargle to relieve toothache.22 Coriander oil when tested at a concentration of 6% in petrolatum on human subjects (25 per test) did not produce skin irritation or sensitization reactions. baked goods. and other ailments.. Liet. 14. with maximum use level of 0.25 See the General References for ARCTANDER.228 Coriander Coriander oil is reported to have larvicidal properties (see allspice and clove) as well as bactericidal and weakly cytotoxic activities. dysentery. 1. and F. gelatins and puddings. Oil is used mainly as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical preparations (e. . In Chinese medicine. Traditional Medicine. M. K. Gliozheni. NANJING. FEMA.52% and 0. bitters. oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps.C. H.g. 60 (1969). The whole herb is also used in stomachache. in meat and meat products and in alcoholic beverages.. Glushchenko et al. Pharmaceutical. Aromatic Cascara Sagrada Fluid extract)..23 An aqueous extract of fresh coriander seeds produced a dose-dependent significant antiimplantation effect in rats (related to a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels after 5 days). C. 2. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. DUKE 4. lotions.F.. M. Qadry.). and oil is official in N. candy. Karow. respectively. 9 (1977). Shkencave Nat. S. GRIEVE.. measles. stomachic. Darb. and others.. Fruits sometimes used in carminative and digestive products (FOSTER). Crude was formerly official in N. 513 (1977).g. Ser. 5. GRAS (§182. Chogovadze and D. Maslo-Zhir. hemorrhoids. creams. in addition to being used as a stomachic. including alcoholic (vermouths. The young leaves are widely used as a garnish in cooking (e.10 and §182. condiments and relishes. G. MASADA. 4. N. 41 (1974).6% in perfumes.21 A liquid carbon dioxide extract of coriander seeds has been reported to exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities. Jukneviciene et al.20). Chinese..24 USES Medicinal. fruits are used as aromatic and carminative and in preparations to prevent griping (MARTINDALE). COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oil.. 28(3). In cosmetics. Food. BRUNETON. Fruits subject of a German therapeutic monograph indicated for dyspeptic complaints and loss of appetite.C. Ind. BLUMENTHAL 1. nausea. N. 19(2). frozen dairy desserts.012%. K€rpero Shteteror Tiranes. Schratz and S. 3. E.F. and Cosmetic. 310 (1966). usually in the form of an infusion. Riechst. FOGARTY. REFERENCES The seeds (fruits) and oil are extensively used as flavor ingredients in all types of food products. ROSENGARTEN..20. FOSTER. JIANGSU. E. meat and meat products. TSR Mokslu Akad. Lebensm. etc. J. S. and perfumes. 24. gin. 3. Prom. Highest average maximum use levels reported for seeds and oil were 0.

. 57. Food Cosmet.. the toxicity of this fraction was low when compared with its effective dose. Khim. K.15% bitter glucosidic substances. Ser.. stigmasterol. 94 (1974). 17.. B. 293 (1969). 10. Al-Said et al. 40 (1968).. Bundesanzeiger. Kosmet. G.. CORN SILK Source: Zea mays L.3 Corn silk and its aqueous extracts are also reported to be effective in kidney and other diseases during clinical trials (JIANGSU). A. subsp.. Uch. Silyanovska et al. B. Farnsworth and A. T. Khim. N. 16. Common/vernacular names: Stigmata maydis and zea. tartaric. Saito et al. 2. anthocyanins. plant acids (malic. 3. N. . 165 (1987)..5% fats. Parfum. 22. saponins. Scand. 34(3–4). 0. Ethnopharmacol. Indian Perfum. Lee and M. 29. 25. Soedin. 21.Corn silk 229 7. G. Hua Hsueh. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Corn silk is reported to contain 2.. 23. M. Prir. Khanin et al. G.). 425 (1975). W. K. Vet. Zap. Koryo. and hypotensive activities in experimental animals.. Gupta et al. 33 (1972).8% gums.. Prir. Selvaraj. 1077 (1973). Paulet et al.. 29.18% Corn silk has diuretic. Chou. 19. Soedin. 1. Selsk. S. and others (JIANGSU). cryptoxanthin. 15. V. 86 (1977). 37 (1974). 11.. Eiyo To Shokuryo. 3. Fr. J. vitamins C and K. 11. 24. 455 (1962). Khim. 18. hypoglycemic.. 84. 21. Abdullin. 25. Kunzemann and K. 21.. R. Z. R. 20. Sergeeva. 194 (1977). A crystalline constituent from an aqueous extract of corn silk has also been reported to be hypotensive and to stimulate uterine contraction in rabbits.12% volatile oil. L. Kazansk. Rasmussen et al. Inst.. M. L. 52 (1973). Nykanen. D. Segelman. 173 (September 18) 1986. Acta Chem. S. Toxicol. J. 831 (1970). 0. A dialyzed methanol-insoluble fraction of its aqueous extract has been demonstrated to be strongly diuretic in humans and rabbits. (London). one at each node. 2. Rev. Lethal intravenous dose in rabbits was 250 mg/kg. A. T. 13. Corps Gras. S. up to 4 m high. Forsch. K. J. Herrmann. etc. no. J.. Opdyke. 10. K. 505 (1976). 75 (1962).. 21. while effective dose was 1. 14.5 mg/kg (JIANGSU). Food Sci. Farm. Monograph Coriandri fructus.. 27. 106. Chem. Wah. Zh. sitosterol. mays (Family Poaceae or Gramineae). L. Farm. Nor.. R. Y. 2..1.7% resin. Tile Till. Kartha and Y. generally thought to be a native of tropical America. 415 (1974). Ind. J. the dried product is normally used.2 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION Coarse erect annual with prop (adventitious) roots near the ground and long sword-shaped leaves. Ikeda et al. 9. 12. Parts used are the long styles and stigmata of the pistils called corn silk.. 164. Medd. 8. 55 (1974). S. M. Stepanenko et al. 50. Lebensm. 10. Unters. 52 (1971).05% alkaloids. Taskinen and L. J.

JIANGSU.) (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). candy. b-elemene. Extracts are used as flavor components in major food products such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. BARRETT. corn silk is used to treat sugar diabetes (diabetes mellitus) in the form of a decoction and to treat hypertension when decocted with watermelon peel and banana. FEMA. elema-1. baked goods. NANJING. and resins (JIANGSU. N. 59 (1962). TERRELL. aselinene. and Cosmetic. Bobryshev.F. betulin. up to about 2 m high.230 Costus oil USES Medicinal. Ceska. as well as other ailments. Root contains 0. b-selinene. among others. Used as a diuretic in urinary problems (cystitis. Pharmaceutical. caryophyllene oxide. g-costol. Regulatory Status. a. Extracts come in vaning strengths (see glossary). The major components in the oil are sesquiterpene lactones. Phytochemistry. Traditional Medicine.). 14. S. 9. pyelitis. native to the mountains of northern India (the Himalayas).3–3% volatile oil. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Large erect perennial herb with a thick taproot. elemol. 127 (1973). dihydrodehydrocostus lactone. 25. 1. frozen dairy desserts. 2. stigamsterol. E. which together make up about 50% of the oil. Crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N. isoalantolactone. REFERENCES See the General References for APhA.3. GRAS (§182. a-costal. GRIEVE. and . J. crude is also used in face powders.002%. and others. caryophyllene. India is the major producer of the oil.and b-cyclocostunolide. In Chinese medicine. 3. D. with those for food use expressed in flavor intensities and those for pharmaceutical applications expressed in weight-to-weight ratios. alantolactone. Hahn. E. UPHOF. K’at’ollik Taehak Uihakpu Nonmunjip. g-costal. in addition to being used as a diuretic in dropsy. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. Kukuruza. Part used is the dried root. Use levels are generally lower than 0. saussurine (an alkaloid).1–6 Also present are other sesquiterpenes such as b-costol. 413 (1975). Both crude and extracts are used as an ingredient in certain diuretic preparations. b-costal. etc. ROSE. LUST. COSTUS OIL Source: Saussurea lappa Clarke (syn. a-costol. Aucklandia costus Falc. from which a volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation followed by solvent extraction of the distilled water. cynaropicrin. about 18% inulin. cultivated in India and southwestern China. GOSSELIN. Styles and O.11(13)trien-l2-ol. ar-curcumene.20). also as a demulcent. and others. including the crystalline dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide. WILLAMAN AND SCHUBERT). Food.

9.5 A decoction of costus root is reported to exhibit weak inhibitory activities on paratyphoid A bacterium and certain other pathogenic bacteria (JIANGSU). frozen dairy desserts. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Bhattacharyya. B. Pharmaceutical. FOGARTY. JIANGSU. B.11. Food.16 ppm) reported for alcoholic beverages and baked goods. with highest average maximum of about 0. Bhattacharyya.8.C.0004% (4. 6.. dihydro-a-ionone. MASADA). 126 (1974). absolute used in perfumes) are known to cause allergic REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Mathur and S. Cong. candy.C.). and confectioner’s frosting. GUENTHER. linoleic.) Costus and its derivatives (e. lotions. 784 Indian J. C. B.9-decadien-2-one).. it is official in F. Oil is used as a flavor component in most major food products. P. dehydrocostus lactone. absolute. b-sitosterol.510.04 and 4. Most fractions were also effective in relieving bronchial spasm induced by histamine and acetylcholine in guinea pigs. Kalsi et al. 1.9.. BARRETT.g. palmitic. and cholera.. but none had antitussive activity. baked goods.4% (no specific product form given) in perfumes. aplotaxene and dihydroaplotaxene.C. Chem. 956 (1977). COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Mainly oil. Mathur. Costus and its derivatives (essential oil. . 449 (1972).7 The sesquiterpene lactones (especially alantolactone. Oils (Pap. Sect. carminative. 3. dysentery. 15.11 a. Phytochemistry.11-guaiatriene-l2-carboxylic acid.2–4. 4. S.10 an unusual terpenoid C14-ketone (E)-9-isopropyl-6-methyl-5. Int. among others.14 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Various fractions of costus oil have been reported to have hypotensive activities in anesthetized dogs. (E)-geranylacetone.. also used in incense. 2. S. friedelin.8 (Z. and Cosmetic. 3.Z. with their concentrations in decreasing order and the first four accounting for about 18% of commercial root oil. and stimulant and in treating asthma.1. 11. with 12-methoxydihydrocostunolide and the delactonized oil being the most potent.13–15 USES Medicinal.g. Traditional Medicine. and costunolide) have plant growth-regulating activities.14-heptadecatetraene. acting through direct peripheral vasodilation and cardiac depression. and concrete) are used as fixatives and fragrance components in creams.g. Root has been used for millennia in China and India as a tonic. reported maximum use level is 0. and perfumes (e. Use levels are low. TOXICOLOGY Regulatory Status. GUPTA. Has been approved for food use (§1721.12 costic acid. FEMA. Oriental types). stomachic.Costus oil 231 others. (1977).7.13 reactions (e.and b-ionones. cough. S. contact dermatitis) in humans. Phytochemistry.Z)-1. S. Essent. V. Govindan and S. NANJING. gelatins and puddings. and oleic acids. and others (JIANGSU. 16.

Toxicol. Dermatol.) 867 (1974). 23. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Trailing. B. 2191 (1977). V. GENERAL DESCRIPTION citric. Blocking the adhesion of E. evergreen. Ghatak. 1078 (1967). malic.. Planta Med. catechin. 1573 (1976).. carbohydrates (10%). L. Ohloff.. Klein and F. Thoemel. macrocarpon should not be confused with Viburnum opulus L. sometimes known as ‘‘high-bush cranberry. D. catechin. 55. 14. 15. enhancing their capacity to withstand nutrient deprivation and cleansing mechanisms. R. found in peat bogs in northern and central Europe used as a cranberry source in Europe. Phytochemistry. Chem. J. flavonol glycosides (leptosine). Czech. 2085 (1975). flavonol glycosides. conjugated with glycine to produce hippuric acid.Gupta and B. 12(Suppl.. 15. 7. 6. S. and benzoic. A.. volatile components. smaller levels of benzoic and glucuronic acids. F. 11. E. the most common causative bacteria for urinary tract infections adheres to cells of the urinary and alimentary tracts. Vaccinium oxycoccus L. Aiton Common/vernacular names: Low-bush cranberry. Bohlmann et al. locally naturalized. 2018 (1959).. malic.232 Cranberry 5. triterpenoids.’’ CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Fruits contain anthocyanins.andnorthern Illinois. R.5 cm wide. 32. 2177 (1977).. P. 13.1 Quinic acid 0.9%. Tetrahedron.5–0. protein. 572 (1974). 51. J. Res. 9. 74 (1985). 10. Binder et al. Mitchell. G. 163 (1976). 14. Helv. occurs in bogs from Newfoundland to Manitobasouth to Virginia.. coli to urinary bladder mucosal cells has been shown to prevent development of urinary . though not conclusively attributed to anthocyanins. quinic. Acta. O. Indian J. J. CRANBERRY Source: Vacciniummacrocarpon (Family Ericaceae). Part used is the fruit from which a juice (cranberry juice) is produced and extensively marketed in the United States. 1–1. Maurer and A. and vitamin C... 60. leaves leathery.2.. and quinic acids.Ohio. Grieder. flower white to pink. 8. It has been suggested and disputed that the urinary antiseptic effect is due to the action of hippuric acid. Helv. 109. 60. 1993 (1967). 24. Tetrahedron. Opdyke. Chim. Massachusetts is the major producer. 1 cm wide. Rodriguez et al. trace of alkaloids. B. slender-stemmed shrub. E. Med. M. Phytochemistry. Acta. to which biological activity was formerly attributed. 12. Commun. C. Antibacterial activity has been variously.3 Other studies suggest cranberry juice possesses antiadhesion activity to mucous membrane surfaces. also grown in northern and central Europe. tart flavored. enhancing both toxicity and colonization. Food Cosmet. Collect. fruit glossy red. Arch. Fruit widely regarded as possessing bacteriostatic activity for urinary tract infections. Maurer and G.4–6Escherichia coli. Romanuk et al. and citric acids (CRELLIN AND PHILPOTT). Bawdekar et al. Chim..

I. Bodel et al. L.. Cranberry juice cocktail is a 33% dilution Fruit juice. Microbios. E. sauce: commonly eaten with poultry.7 Dosage of juice ranges from 5 to 20 oz daily (6 oz are equivalent to 90 g of fresh fruit). 6.. 7. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Evergreen shrub or climbing vine.Cubebs 233 tract infections in mice. Med. 173 (1988). native to Indonesia and cultivated throughout Southeast Asia. Eng.8 of pure juice with added fructose. STEINMETZ. Ofek et al. refrigerant. antiseptic. 1599 (1991). LUST. 5.. Naturopathic Med. J. CUBEBS Source: Piper cubeba L. Lab.. One study found that drinking 4–6 oz of cranberry juice daily for 7 weeks appeared to prevent urinary tract infections in 19 of 28 nursing home patients. Anthocyanin pigment from fruit pulp used as commercial food coloring. intended for relief of urinary tract infections (LUST). Traditional Medicine. REFERENCES See the General References for BLUMENTHAL 2. cubeb berries. Fruit juice. The antiadhesive agent of cranberry juice may prevent E.. fully grown but unripe fruit. jelly. dried fruit. A. Leaves a folk tea substitute. L. Fruit juice traditionally considered diuretic. Cubeba officinalis Miq. 55. 2(1). Part used is the dried. J. Sobata. and tailed pepper.. CRELLIN AND PHILPOTT. or in both. Fruit juice concentrates or dried fruit in capsules and tablets. UPHOF. 54. Med. a preventative rather than curative effect was suggested. 1. R. Sternlieb. 2. Urol. Approximately 1500 g of fresh fruit produce 1 L of juice. up to about 6 m high. Engl. D. juice concentrates. 4. 268.. 33. T. P. GLEASON AND CRONQUIST. 45 (1991). P. Gibson et al. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. J. Zafriri et al. 3. TUTIN 3. 57 (1963). J. 1013 (1984). 881 (1959).. Common/vernacular names: Cubeba. coli. Clin. N. 8. 324(22).. in the bladder. febrifuge. Cranberry juice fructose and an uncharacterized high molecular weight polymeric compound inhibit cellular adhesion of uropathogenic strains of E. Agents Chemother. (1987). . f. D. Sobata. Schmidt and A. USES COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Food. juice concentrate in capsules. E. coli colonization in the gut. Med. folk cancer remedy in eastern Europe (STEINMETZ). J. (syn. often grown with other economic plants such as coffee. 92 (1989). Liberti.. a home remedy for treatment of urinary tract infections.) (Family Piperaceae). N. 131. Antimicrob. Lawrence Rev.

limomene. LIST AND HORHAMMER). creams. GRIEVE. monoterpene hydrocarbons including sabinene. and ¨ others (JIANGSU. GUENTHER.7% neutral resins. cadinene. carminative. Oil is used as a flavor ingredient in most major categories of food products. urinary antiseptic.4 STAHL). LIST AND HORHAMMER. and ocimene. 1. about 2.1 1–1. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oil.6 Fruits contain 10–20% volatile oil. meat and meat products. BRUNETON. and perfumes.F.5 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION USES Medicinal. MASADA. Also used in treating gonorrhea and cancer. a.6. g. Fruits are reportedly used only in nonalcoholic beverages at an average maximum use level of 0. Oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps. Food.. among others.5 Also used in flavoring tobacco. detergents.5% cubebin. with highest maximum use level of 0. . TERRELL.085%. a-pinene. usually in Europe and in the United States. condiments and relishes. myrcene. baked goods. The essential oil contains mainly sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes and their alcohols. cadinol. Traditional Medicine. with its attached peduncle or stem (hence also called tailed pepper). PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Fruit is reported to have local stimulant effect on mucous membranes (urinary and respiratory tract).2 ppm) in condiments and relishes. frozen dairy desserts.3 oxygenated terpenes include 1. an acidic resin and 3–3.and b-cubebene.4-cineole. Regulatory Status.9-heptahydronaphthalein. among others. and stimulating expectorant.004% (38. and Cosmetic. Cubebic acid (not cubebin) is mainly responsible for its physiological properties (JIANGSU). with their relative concentrations varying considerably according to different reports. and cube¨ bol. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons present include caryophyllene. MERCK). cubeb oil is produced by steam distillation of the crushed fruits. candy. and others. Berry and oil have been used in diuretic and urinary antiseptic preparations. Has been approved for food use (§172. FEMA.8. Crude was formerly official in N. a-thujene. Used as a diuretic. gelatins and puddings. a-phellandrene. it also has certain urinary antiseptic properties (JIANGSU. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. including alcoholic (liqueurs) and nonalcoholic beverages. b-pinene. and others (JIANGSU.C. Highest average maximum use level reported is about 0. Ground cubeb was found 90% clinically effective in treating amebic dysentery (JIANGSU).2 copaene. lotions. b-phellandrene.8% reported in perfumes. Cubeb oil has been reported to exhibit antiviral activities in rats as well as weak to strong antibacterial activities in vitro. LUST. 8% gum.C. and 1-isopropyl-4-methylene-7methyl-1. fats.234 Cubebs commonly called cubeb berry. a-terpineol.7. JIANGSU. and oil is official in F.7% amorphous cubebic acid of undetermined structure. Pharmaceutical.510).2.and a-terpinene.3.

a-terpinene. Ohta et al. Iran. Int. India. cis. J. and others (LIST AND HORHAMMER. 14. Lloydia.6 m high. Atal et al.R. J. and luteolin-7-glucuronosyl glucoside. cuminyl alcohol (believed to be an artifact. Food Cosmet. resin. J. L. with the absence of 1. CUMIN Source: Cuminum cyminum L. they appear to be mostly responsible for the characteristic aroma of unheated whole cumin seeds..3-p-menthadien-7-al have indistinguishable odors. 3..9 . Lloydia. 38. much branched above. Congr.Cumin 235 1. 51.1. b-caryophyllene. Oils (Pap. which consist mainly of cuminaldehyde.. Terhune et al. odorum Salisb. phellandral. J. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Small annual with a slender stem.6-octadecenoic acid. Essent. commonly called ‘‘seed. L. 2.).. Common/vernacular names: Cummin and cumin seed.5 tannin.3-p-menthadien7-al. cryp¨ tone. with cuminaldehyde in a much smaller amount and the other two aldehydes only in traces. C. D. Egypt.4 flavonoid glycosides. with the greatest loss occurring during the first hour of storage after milling. 27. Part used is the dried ripe fruit.and b-phellandrene. as it is present only in trace quantities in the volatile oil from freshly ground cumin). C. Turkey. native to the Mediterranean region. 6365 (1966). 288 (1970). The chief odor characteristics of heated cumin are due to 3-p-menthen-7-al in combination with the other three aldehydes. Other major components of the oil are monoterpene hydrocarbons (up to 52%) composed mainly of b-pinene. apigenin-7-glucuronosyl glucoside.’’ An essential oil (cumin oil) is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed fruit. 1. and other countries. S. myrcene.4-p-menthadien-7-al. Toxicol. 153 (1974). Tetrahedron Lett.3 14 free amino acids. Morocco. 1. and 1.7 MASADA).4-pmenthadien-7-al. about 18% protein. up to about 0. 33. with a. K. 1.and trans-sabinene hydrate.8 Cuminaldehyde. commercial volatile oil and the volatile oil from previously ground commercial cumin contain more cuminaldehyde than the other aldehydes. and the former U. Major cumin seed producers include Egypt. gum. 455 (1962).2 The petroleum ether-soluble fraction of cumin reportedly has antioxidative activity when mixed in lard.6.) (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). The volatile oil contains aldehydes (up to 60%) as its major components. b-bisabolene. MARSH). etc.) and in Iran. including five essential ones. Opdyke. 5. 256 (1975). 1. M. Greece.S. Fine milling of cumin is reportedly responsible for up to 50% loss of its essential oil content. etc. luteolin-7-glucoside. 729 (1976).)..4-p-menthadien-7-al. major oil producers include India and the United States. Turkey. g-terpinene. 6. R. and 3-p-menthen -7-al. Ikeda. Hartwell. Minor constituents include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (b-farnesene.4-p-menthadien-7-al.S. and ¨ others (LIST AND HORHAMMER. perillaldehyde. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains 2–5% volatile oil. 6. India. including apigenin-7-glucoside (apigetrin). 4. and p-cymene. now extensively cultivated there (Morocco.2 up to about 22% fats with a small amount of D5. Food Sci. and limonene also present... while the essential oil from freshly ground cumin contains primarily 1. (syn. Y.

M. 2. 40.13 USES Medicinal. Karow. Harborne and C. Agric. Phytochemistry. 1.. processed vegetables. Russell. Y.. Oil is used as a fragrance component in creams.. L. 1241 (1974). meat and meat products. Arzneim. and perfumes. clove. 40. DUKE 4.236 Cumin PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Cumin oil (especially cuminaldehyde) has been reported to exhibit strong larvicidal activities (see cinnamon. . Vissh Inst.11 It is rapidly absorbed through the shaved intact abdominal skin of mice. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. GRAS (§182.. condiments and relishes. Nauch.C.10 and See the General References for ARCTANDER. BRUNETON. gravies. Commonly used in specialty curry products. 234 (1970). Saito et al.Forsch.10 it also has antibacterial properties. T. J. Toxicol. FEMA. and Cosmetic.025% (247 ppm) in condiments and relishes. TERRELL. Oishi et al. 12(Suppl. B.) 869 (1974). E. 18. §182. 505 (1976). Meyer and E. its principal component. Eiyo To Shokuryo. Food Cosmet. including baked goods. P.12 TOXICOLOGY and meat products. 109 (1974). 10. Lebensm. Used as a stimulant. E.. J. Food 3.. antispasmodic. ¨ LIST AND HORHAMMER. MARSH. Ramadan et al. R. F. T. Child Health. Agric. 20. Tassan and G. 11. soups. Pediatr.20). A.. Heinz. 9. J. Highest average maximum use level is reported to be about 0. The oil is used as a flavor component in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. and others. It is also used in other food products. 5. J. Mikrobiol. aphrodisiac. 12. baked goods. Varo and D. 4. and emmenagogue. 20. snack foods. and coriander). gravies. condiments and relishes. meat REFERENCES Crude and oil. GRIEVE. Regulatory Status. Oil is official in F. Environ. lotions. G. F. carminative. Georgiev and Van Hong Tam. 60 (1969). Pharmaceutical. Traditional Medicine. F.C. with the highest maximum use level of about 0. Williams. also as carminative and tea ingredient. 18. Daneshpejouh. Ind. Meyer. Vkusova Prom. 99 (1973). S. with a maximum use level of 0.13 Food. C.. candy. 13. Aromen. 29. Chem. Opdyke. 7. Selvaraj. 1185 (1975). K€rpero Tr. J. Heinz... 516 (1959). COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Undiluted cumin oil has been demonstrated to have distinct phototoxic effects that were not due to cuminaldehyde.4% (4308 ppm) reported in soups. GUENTHER. Kartha and Y. P. 19(2). F. E. 239 (1970). Riechst.. BAILEY 1. H. GUPTA. 6. 2. J. (London). snack foods. ROSENGARTEN. Trop. A. Varo and D. frozen dairy desserts. 1741 (1972). Food Chem. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. Cumin is a major flavor component of curry and chili powders. 11.. diuretic. among others. pflegem. K. Technol.4% reported in perfumes. 25. 51 (1972). Food Chem. D. 831 (1970). 8. Sci. Toghrol and H. Khranit. 9. Plovdiv. gelatins and desserts. Chem.

1 Part used is the dried leaf. Central America. menstrual disorders. and gelatins and puddings. b-sitosterol. 1. Dominguez and M.) (Family Turneraceae). 3 TYLER 1.2. candy.6 resin. and stimulant properties.4. Contributions From the United States Planta Med. 30. Highest maximum use level reported to be 0. A.30 .10 Damiana is widely believed to have aphrodisiac properties and has also been reported to REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. NATIONAL Herbarium. among others (LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS.4 a cyanogenic glycoside. not recommended as claimed efficacy is unproven. elemene. 848. Smithsonian Press. A low-boiling fraction contains mainly 1. DER MARDEROSIAN AND 1 & 2.7 The essential oil of micropropagated damiana contains caryophyllene. 4.1(1960).3 The volatile oil is composed of two main fractions. primarily for alleged aphrodisiac reputation (TYLER 1). and the West Indies).3 triacontane. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains 0. (syn. P. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. S. laxative. T. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph.9 Traditional Medicine. and other ailments. DC. Piacente et al. BEUTLER.and b-pinenes. Has been approved for food use (§172. native to tropical America (Mexico. LUST.F. and pcymene.3 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS A shrub with small aromatic leaves (mostly 1–2 cm long). and drinks.. Texas. MCGUFFIN .40 -trimethoxyflavone)2 and other flavonoids. tannin. while the higher boiling fraction consists primarily of thymol and sesquiterpenes (a-copaene. C. TYLER 1. USES Food. up to 2 m high.8-cineole. tablets. UPHOF. d-cadinene. 1923 p. Washington. and aphrodisiac. Z. BARNES. Used as a flavor ingredient in major food products. Various products. UPHOF). including capsules. nervous stimulant. Vol. gonzalitosin I (5-hydroxy-7. 23 Part 3 of 2. Crude was formerly official in N. E. Standley. 68 (1976). a. d-cadinene. Extracts do not have uniform standards.. BLUMENTHAL 1. Ward and T.125% for the crude in baked goods. TERRELL. and calamenene). Regulatory Status. 7. South America. caryophyllene oxide.Damiana 237 DAMIANA Source: Turnera diffusa Willd. X.510). and 1. microphylla Desv. GENERAL DESCRIPTION have diuretic. 983 (2002). Hinojosa. baked goods.F. CLAUS.8-cineole. tonic.6..F. aphrodisiaca L. nephritis.5–1% volatile oil. Steinmetz. C. Trees and Shrubs of 3. frozen dairy desserts. also used in coughing. tea ingredient.5 arbutin. hexacosanol-1. Naturforsch. 57.8 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Crude and extracts. Mexico. Reportedly used as a laxative. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. a bitter substance (called damianin) of undetermined structure. Acta Phytother.

. and b-amyrin.000 IU/100 g) is higher than that in carrots (11.1 Sesquiterpene lactones (free. among other carotenoids.g. Parts used are the dried rhizome and root. b-sitosterol). WATT AND MERRILL). 9. B. T. 25. e. flavonoids (free.. (Weinheim).. phenolic acids (e. caffeic and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acids. taraxerol.g.. caraz-Melendez et al. glucosyltaraxinic acid) have been reported in Dandelion (plant part not specified) has been reported to exhibit hypoglycemic effects in experimental animals and to cause contact dermatitis in humans. vulgare (Lam. up to about 45 cm high.238 Dandelion root 5. sucrose. 1341 (1969). Vitamin A content (14. JIANGSU. 10 MARTINDALE) Rodent experiments have confirmed diuretic activity of a fluid extract of the herb . e.g. luteolin and chrysoeriol. 8. H. and others. 55. occurring as a common weed on lawns. lutein.000 IU/100 g) (JIANGSU. DANDELION ROOT Source: Taraxacum officinale Wiggers (syn.g. (Weinheim). e. Common/vernacular names: Common dandelion. B. 696 (2004). bitter substances. H. 25%). KARRER). e. Tantisewie. violaxanthin. palmitic and stearic acids). sugars (fructose.7 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Root contains several triterpenes. choline. Momberger. leaves and flowers are sometimes used for direct domestic consumption..5. 301. E. Arch. Pharm. Auterhoff and H. caffeoylquinic and caffeoyl tartaric acids. flavoxanthin.) Schrank) and other Taraxacum species (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). dihydrolactucin. inulin (ca. 6. among others (ESCOP 3. resins and vitamins (CLAUS. glucose. etc. pectin. also lauric.2. Haufel. Related species are found worldwide.g. dihydrosyringin. 537 (1968). Weekbl.6 Coumesterol (see alfalfa and red clover. Fitoterapia. 305.5 Leaves contain lutein. Monograph Turnerae diffusae folium et herba. and glycosides. has been reported present in dandelion with plant part not specified (JIANGSU). The herb and root extracts contain hydroxycinnamic acids. choleretic. C. gum. 43 (March 2.3 Flowers contain carotenoids (e. 104. 75. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION addition to benzyl glucoside. 1989). (1983). and D. including taraxol. and violaxanthin) and their monoesters and diesters with fatty acids (mainly myristic. lutein epoxide. cryptoxanthin epoxide. y-taraxasterol.. Pharm. 7. L. et al. taraxacum. cryptoxanthin. luteolin7-glucoside) and coumaric acids. Pharmacy in History.4.). sterols (stigmasterol. syringin. Bundesanzeiger.g. no. P.9 Dandelion root is generally considered to have diuretic.. tonic and laxative properties.. glucosides. 455 (1972). GENERAL DESCRIPTION Taraxacum officinale is a perennial herb with deeply cut leaves forming a basal rosette in the spring and flower heads borne on long stalks. and dihydroconiferin. 2–4 arnidiol (JIANGSU). native to Europe and naturalized in North America. vitamins A.. Tyler. taraxasterol.8. ixerin D and ainslioside and glycoside. chicoric. lion’s tooth. 10. chrysanthemaxanthin. for example. and others. Arch. Auterhoff and H. Pharm.

g. . and increases gastric secretion (ESCOP 3). Traditional Medicine. tablets. tonic. etc. upper respiratory infections. A concomitant reduction in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) was also observed. gout.2-iphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay as well as in the phosphatidylcholine liposome assay. leaf in tea as flavoring.. Lower concentrations. including alcoholic (e.11 Traditional use for rheumatic conditions could be related to observed anti-inflammatory activity. stomach problems.g. Root. capsules. tinctures. had a pro-oxidant effect. and so on. primarily as diuretics (FOSTER).g. Root used as a flavoring ingredient in tea formulations. gelatins and puddings. The root is reportedly used as a laxative.14 In Germany. presumably for their tonic properties.). laxative.13 Numerous clinical studies using Chinese Taraxacum species have been reported. The aqueous and ethyl acetate flower extracts rich in luteolin and luteolin-7-glucoside exhibited antioxidant activity in the 2. the root is used for disturbances in bile flow. Products are contraindicated in obstruction of bile ducts. lack of milk flow. juice of root can serve as source of a special high fructose syrup. only under advice of physician. Young leaves.014% (143 ppm) for the fluid extract in cheese and 0. hepatitis).17 In China. and other Taraxacum species have been used for more than 1100 years in treating breast cancer and other breast problems (inflammation of the mammary glands. Root and leaves are also used for heartburn and bruises and in treating chronic rheumatism. however.12 The anti-inflammatory activity has further been demonstrated by the protective effect of the extract against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Pharmaceutical. and others (JIANGSU.16 Food. baked goods.003% (33. other skin problems. capsules. Extracts are quite extensively used in tonics (especially those for female ailments). juice.Mazz. and as an appetite stimulant. Flowers are used in home wine making. and extracts were effective in treating infections of various kinds (e. a very light-colored syrup containing 71% total sugars of which 77% was fructose has been produced from dandelion root by hydrolysis and other treatment. candy. Extracts are used as flavor components in various food products. and cheese. and antismoking preparations as well as in cosmetic and toiletry formulations.15. tincture. chronic bronchitis. hepatitis. bitters) and nonalcoholic beverages. as diuretic. gallbladder empyema. Due to its high content of inulin. and in gallstones. frozen dairy desserts. tablet formulations for choleretic activity. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand. such as abdominal fullness and flatulence. The roasted root and its extract are used as coffee substitutes or in instant coffee substitute preparations. comparable with furosemid (80 mg/kg body weight) high potassium content (4% in dried leaves) replaces that eliminated in urine (ESCOP 3). and stiff joints as well as eczema.) with few side effects (JIANGSU).. The herb is used for appetite and dyspeptic disorders. bulk filler. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Others. particularly those of cultivated forms. greater activity than that of the root. Bitter sesquiterpene lactones in the root increase bile secretion in rats by more than 40%. NANJING). liver diseases (e. etc. and Cosmetic.Dandelion root 239 (8 g dried/kg body weight).. and cancers.3 ppm) for the solid extract in baked goods.18 USES Medicinal. Highest average maximum use levels reported are about 0. pneumonia. are used as salad or vegetables. Also used in diuretic. leaves. and diuretic and to treat various liver and spleen ailments.

Res. 15. K.16 Regulatory Status. Bundesanzeiger. V. 12. V. World J. I. 13. 1. Plenum Press. no. Food Abstr. Phytother. 8. J.20).) (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). 181 (1966). 14. F.. DUKE APPLEQUIST. N. vanilla leaf. no. 16.240 Deertongue COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS fresh or dried aboveground portions of the plant.. Faber. C. Farnsworth and A. Med. Pharmazie. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. JIANGSU.. Monograph Taraxaci radix cum herba. DER 4. 1990). Uch. Zap. 119. and disturbances in bile flow. 9341c (1966). Mass Spectrom. liatris. Chury and F.15. Res. (Prague). for loss of appetite. GRAS (§182. Common/vernacular names: Deer’s tongue. Mitchell. gathered while blooming. 269 (2000). wild vanilla. with herb. Liatris odoratissima Michx. BAILEY 1. 13. Rapid Commun. Segelman. 228 (August 29.. R. 1975. Hartwell. 179 (2005). 31. Toilet. Mascolo. Carphephorus odoratissimus (J. D. Andrzejewska. 19. Kashiwada et al. J. through Chem. Gastroenterol. C. Khim. GOSSELIN. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios or flavor intensities. 17. 5. Golovin. 9. 42.F. Schutz et al. corrected (September 1..16 Crude and extracts (solid. DEERTONGUE Source: Trilisa odoratissima (J. FEMA. 220 (1954). BARNES. Barszcz. Proda and E. Phytochemistry. 588 (2005). dyspeptic problems. FOSTER. Cosmet. (syn. allowed as a diuretic. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A perennial herb with large.. up to about 1. Ser. Agric.. vanilla plant. Dandelion herb consists of the REFERENCES See the General References for MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. MARTINDALE. and hound’s tongue. K. Kitts. 11. 2. J. 65. Williams et al. thick leaves and a stem that is branched near the top. Asian Nat. In Europe the drug consists of the root. ROSE.. Gmel.. Farm. 1984). BRUNETON. B. D. LUST. 11. Hu and D. B.. 3. 22. 3. vanilla trilisa. H.. 52 (1971). Lloydia. 301 (2003). BLUMENTHAL 1. Prosek. 1992).).) Cass. V. Y. F. W. TERRELL.. etc. 7. Beloruss. Heath. 228 (December 5. F. W. C. Kisiel and B. 18. Monograph Taraxaci radix cum herba. Lenina. 121 (1996). 92. 71. 4. 10. 13. NANJING. GRIEVE. 28 (1987).2 m high. A. 191 (2001). 71 (1968). Dandelion root (with herb) and dandelion leaves are subjects of positive German therapeutic monographs. 12. native to eastern United . MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. L. FOSTER AND DUKE. New York. fluid. J. Gos Univ. B. 597 (2005). 19 (1977). N. 305 (1968). p. Fitoterapia. Seo et al. S. Hu and D. 6. 57. J.) Hebert. tincture. Prod. Carolina vanilla. Gmel. 1.15. Kitts. 51. Belyaev and P. Vet. C. Phytomedicine. Polska. Bundesanzeiger. ESCOP 3. Chem. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. Crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N. Tile Till.. 423 (1958). 20.

12. WREN . among others. demulcent.g.g. The charcoaldecolorized extract (deertongue incolore) has been reported to be nonirritating. sesquiterpenes (e. Experientia. T. Toxicol. present mostly as glucosides. 11-oxo-a-amyrin. R. 1. Appleton and C. soap. (1974). D. BRUNETON. and others.3benzofuran. and lotions).7 Leaves and extracts (oleoresin. I.. LEWIS AND 5 ELVIN-LEWIS). creams. Acta Chem.4 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Reported to have diaphoretic. especially lymphedema. R. L. 447 (1971). 6.8 Traditional Medicine.. Food Cosmet. Scand. lupeol. Acta Chem. Used as a tonic in treating malaria. 385. Karlsson et al. 5. A. 1383 (1972). 2. Bot. Bolton and J.and trans-O-hydroxycinnamic acids. and febrifuge activity (WREN). It is postulated that during drying (curing) cis-O-hydroxycinnamic acid glucoside is converted to coumarin by hydrolysis followed by cyclization. Pharmaceutical. Wahlberg et al. and others)... 11-oxo-b-amyrin.. 2837 (1972).. . Extracts are used as fixatives or fragrance components in perfumes and other cosmetic products (e. MARTINDALE. b-amyrin.6 Some studies have shown coumarin to be nonteratogenic in animals. 26. Opdyke. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. A. etc. Extracts are used extensively in flavoring various types of tobaccos. lupenone. R. Part used is the dried leaf which has a characteristic coumarin-like (new-mown hay) fragrance. 26. 26.5% of the incolore being reported in perfumes.g. 2.. and Cosmetic. J. Not permitted in foods. REFERENCES See the General References for BAILEY 2. nonsensitizing. Coumarin and related compounds have been reported to be effective in reducing highprotein edemas. 3.8 USES Medicinal. terpenes. Enzell. 4.). Haskins et al. including liver injury and hemorrhages (GOSSELIN. F. and nonphotoallergenic when applied to the skin of animals and/or humans. and straight-chain aldehydes and ketones.1 Other volatile components include dihydrocoumarin. 10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION TOXICOLOGY Contains about 1. solid extract.Deertongue 241 States.. with maximum use level of 0. nonphototoxic.. totaling more than 90 identified compounds.2 Nonvolatile compounds reported present include triterpenes (e. detergent.1. K. 271 (1975). Phytochemistry. Econ. Casley-Smith. (Æ)-eudesmin and (Æ)-epieudesmin)..3 Fresh leaves contain high concentrations of cis. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Coumarin has toxic properties. Regulatory Status. Others. Scand. 31.6% coumarin as the major aromatic constituent. 44 (1972).

has also been observed. was later demonstrated in dose-dependent i. oleanolic. Harpagoside administered i.11 Experimental anti-inflammatory activity. The same tuber extract at a dose corresponding to 400 mg of the dried secondary root/kg proved more efficient than indomethacin at 10 mg/kg. including harpagoside (0. 8. W. It has been suggested that simultaneous action of various principles other than iridoid glycosides is responsible for positive experimental anti-inflammatory activity. with a reduction of high uric acid and cholesterol levels. however. DEVIL’S CLAW Source: Harpagophytum procumbens (Family Pedaliaceae) DC Common/vernacular names: Grapple plant. at a dose corresponding to 100 mg of the dried secondary root/kg. L. The extract produced significant .8–11 Oral administration of dried aqueous extract in 13 arthritic patients showed no significant improvement after 6 weeks. including kaempferol and luteolin glycosides. comparable to the efficacy of 2. antirheumatic. flowers red in axils. found at twice the concentration in secondary tubers than primary root. administration. in acute inflammatory reactions with intravenous administration. 23. J. The new glycosides 8-cinnamoylmyoporoside. The secondary tuber.Forsch. WREN).1–3%).. respectively. 743 (1976).4.12 Peripheral analgesic activity of an aqueous extract of the tuber against a chemical stimulus has been observed. at 10 mg/kg (5 mg harpagoside equals the content in 400 mg of dried secondary tubers) did not have significant anti-inflammatory effects.6 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Anti-inflammatory. occurring in steppes on red sand in southtropical Africa.5 mg/kg of indomethacin. however. Arzneim. phytosterols (b-sitosterol and stigmasterol). administration of a dried aqueous extract. Food Cosmet. 20 cm long. and ursolic acids. 14(Suppl. in trace amounts in leaves. is the part used. cinnamic. Analgesic activity. analgesic. and unstable chinane-type).7 A lack of significant experimental anti-inflammatory activity in orally administered extracts in the carrageenan-induced edema test has been reported by several research groups. wood spider.p. pagoside. Toxicol. and 60 -O-acetylacteoside have recently been reported alongside of 8-feruloylharpagide and caffeic acid reported in devil’s claw for the first time. about 6 cm in diameter. chlorogenic. and reputed sedative activity. positive results were reported.and totarane-type. Opdyke. D. fruit with pointed and barbed woody grapples to 2. especially in the Kalahari desert and in the Namibian steppes plus Madagascar.). Other compounds besides harpagoside are responsible for analgesic activity.p. and others (WEISS.5 cm long.1–3 tricyclic diterpenes (stable abietane. also harpagide and procumbide. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Herbaceous trailing perennial.13 The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of devil’s claw aqueous root extract have been tested in mice using the hot-plate/acetic acid writhing and rat paw edema methods. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Iridoid glycosides.5 flavonoids. Conflicting results in various studies have been attributed to nonefficacy of oral versus i. Weinmann. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluated in the carrageenan edema assay in rats showed no significant activity (6% inhibition) compared with indomethacin (63% inhibition) in oral administration of an aqueous extract of the roots.242 Devil’s claw 7. harpagoquinone. 1319 (1973)..p. Grote and I.

1279 (1977). Planta 1. C. and others. allergies. Traditional Medicine.. indicated for loss of appetite. UPHOF.14 Similar results were obtained with an ethanolic extract containing 1. to mice significantly decreased the onset and severity of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin.5% harpagoside. Ztg. neuralgia. Oral dosage forms. 835 (1964). Extracts do not have uniform standards. and i. 527 (2006).24 Other activities reported for devil’s claw include Anticonvulsant activity. also as febrifuge. ulcer. The aqueous extract of the root administered at 100–800 mg/kg i. lumbago. Root the subject of an official monograph in Germany. WREN). Sticher. BLUMENTHAL 1. Tetrahedron Med. 32. C. F. WREN. Clarkson et al.5 Cardiovascular effects. In Germany. 305 (1977). Lett. 31.14 Antiplasmodial activity. 69. H. externally for sores. J.21 suppression of iNOS expression and NO production.15 The use of devil’s claw in chronic back pain and osteoarthritis of the hip and knee has been the subject of recent resear h and reviews that further supports the analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity of devil’s claw. Wartburg. and skin lesions. Apoth. .. capsules. dyspeptic discomfort. The authors suggested that an enhancing effect on GABA neurotransmission and/or GABAergic action was the mechanism underlying the anticonvulsant activity of devil’s claw. 4. The displayed anticonvulsant effect was similar to that of phenobarbitone and diazepam. STEINMETZ.m. folk cancer remedy. arthritis. including tablets. WEISS. blood diseases. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts. purgative. Dtsch. administration of 50–800 mg/kg of the aqueous root extract to streptozotocin-treated mice resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose levels comparable to that produced by the reference hypoglycemic agent chlorpropamide. administration.25 Antidiabetic activity. 2. boils. Used in Africa and since the early 20th century in Europe for indigestion (bitter tonic).. Bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of two diterpenes to which the activity was attributed.v.. Cyzgan and A. 15. BRUNETON..21–23 and reduced induction of NF-kB and TNF-a.p. Regulatory Status. Kreuger. i. Undetermined in the United States. Litichi and A.g.27 REFERENCES See the General References for BARNES.16–20 Involved mechanisms of actions are believed to involve inhibition of COX-2 and leukocyte elastase.p. TYLER 1.21.Devil’s claw 243 effects in all experiments as compared to diclofenac. ampoules are available for i. and extracts (e.26 USES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and a protective effect against arrythmias.6. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. a decrease in heart rate in rabbits. tinctures) are sold in natural food or health food stores. primarily for relief of arthritic symptoms (WEISS. 3.. O. The petroleum ether extract of the root displayed selective in vitro antiplasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum (chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive). Nat. Prod. headache. rheumatism. Extracts have exhibited an arterial blood pressure reduction in rats.

. Indian dill (A.. J. (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae).. 177 (2000). Phytother.. Bundesangeizer. Whitehouse et al. up to about 1 m high. Res. Phytother. 16. and dillweed oil (dill oil or dill herb oil) is obtained by steam distillation of the freshly harvested herb. C. 24. East Indian dill (A. Sci. 15. now cultivated worldwide (Germany. Assoc. 69. T. the United Kingdom.. Lanhers et al. with concentrations varying . Robinson. Arzneim. J. C. Gagnier et al. Planta Med.. 325 (2004). Walper.Forsch. native to Mediterranean region and Asia (southern Russia). 8. M.. 18.... Boje et al. J. 91. native to tropical Asia and widely cultivated in India and Japan. 8. M. K.. 982 (2004). 9. 249 (1983). the United States. Dis.. McLeod et al.. R.. Ojewole.. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Dill seeds contain 1. Mahomed and J. I. Med.. Dill seed oil is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed dried fruits. 4. Ann. Phytother.2–7. 34. 17. Res. 10. Rheum.. up to 1 m high. 720 (2003). China. 7.5–4%) volatile oil. 57 (2006). for best quality. M. 1165 (2003). Kaszkin et al. 28 (2001)... 13 (2004). 114. Lupke.). Parts used are the dried ripe fruit (commonly called “seed”) and the whole aboveground herb (dill herb) harvested immediately before the fruits mature or. India. Apothek. 11. M. Clarkson et al. H. 12. 23. Bull. 367 (2003). Res. 117 (1992). 621 (2001). A. Phytomedicine. A. etc. Huang et al. 22. 820 (2003). A. graveolens). J. P. Ethnopharmacol. Laudahn and A. 69. 27. 20. 585 (2004). Graham and B. sowa). Andersen et al. Planta Med. T. no. Eichler and C. D. 259 (1984).. 93. graveolens) is an annual or biennial herb with a smooth and erect stem. O. Pharmacol. Jang et al.244 Dill and indian dill 5. Chrubasik et al. I. 18... V. 337 (1976). Wegener and N. 11. 6. C. 107 (1970). before flowering.. Chantre et al. Erdos et al. R. Kampf. J. BMC Complement Altern. Indian dill seed oil (Indian dill oil or East Indian dill seed oil) is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed fruit. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Dill (A. 25. Zeitung. 11. Common/vernacular names: European dill and American dill (A. 14. 21. Indiandill Anethum sowa Roxb.. L. DILL AND INDIAN DILL Source: Dill Anethum graveolens L. Can. 13. L. Schweiz. Circost et al.. 187 (2004). Ethnopharmacol. Ethnopharmacol. M. B. 632 (1981). 19. 7. 58.. Pharmacol. 17.. Monograph Harpagophyti radix. 26. J. Phytomedicine. Brain Res. 129. Res. D. while dillweed oil is produced primarily in the United States. 104. 18. 20. M. Br. Koch. 1989). Ojewole. 149 (2006). J. Italy. sowa) is a smooth perennial herb.. 6.. 69. S. the Netherlands. Dill seed oil is produced mainly in Europe. Med. Planta Med. P. 140 (1979). Fiebich et al. 40. 97 (1978). 15. Mahomed and J. 43 (March 2.7% (usually 2. I. Part used is the dried ripe fruit (commonly called “seed”).. Phytomedicine. Planta Med... H.. Phytother.

1–3 dillanoside (a xanthone glucoside).12–14 Thirty-three compounds have been identified in the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of dill seed. oxypeucedanin hydrate. while significantly increasing Na þ and ClÀ excretion. kaempferol and its 3-glucuronide. usually with carvone in lesser amount than that in dill seed oil.22 The whole herb also contains 9-hydroxypiperitone glucosides.3%). Two minor aromatic compounds (a propiophenone and a biphenyl derivative) were isolated from 3 kg of dried Indian dell seeds. and chlorogenic).27 The oxypeucedanins and falcarindiol isolated from the whole herb were reported to exhibit antimycobacterial activity with MIC values between 2 and 128 mg/mL.1. 15%).8-diC-glucosyl-5. ¨ and others (LIST AND HORHAMMER). a-pinene. apinene.). bergapten. b-phellandrene.7furocoumarin.29 Administration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of dill seed to mice models of gastric irritation/hyperacidity resulted in a dosedependent decrease in total gastric acid and .5.6 kaempferol. isorhamnetin. and Indian dill seed oil has antifungal activities. stimulate respiration. quercetin.2%). ferulic. b-caryophyllene. anethole. and their 3-glucuronides. in addition to oxypeucedanin.4 coumarins (scopoletin.6 vicenin (6.23 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Dill seed oil has been reported to have spasmolytic effects on smooth muscles.16 Indian dill seed oil consists mainly of carvone.1. fats (ca.11. and falcarindiol. and carvone as its major components. Dill seed oil contains mainly carvone (35–60%).8%). Ethanolic extracts of dill seeds as well as the volatile oil have been shown to produce diuresis in dogs. The whole herb of A.6. d-limonene.6-diol. Oral administration of the essential oil had a comparable effect on triacylglycerides but had no effect on cholesterol level. nine were reported for the first time and included a monoterpene. Their yields were ca. etc.1.2. dillapiole.2. and linalylacetate.28 Oral administration of an aqueous extract of dill leaves to hyperlipidemic rats for 14 days reduced their blood cholesterol and triacylgleceride levels by almost 20% and 50%. eugenol. ¨ among others (LIST AND HORHAMMER).25 Dill seed oil has antibacterial properties. esculetin. reported in the oil for the first time were D8-dehydrop-cymene.12 Other constituents include terpinene. ¨ LIST AND HORHAMMER. and an alkyl glucoside.24 A 5% emulsion in physiological saline administered intravenously to cats (5–10 mg/kg) increased respiratory volume and lowered blood pressure. camphor.9 Other components present include dihydrocarvone. slow the heart rate. piperitone (8.22 An infusion of the young dill herb when administered intravenously to animals is reported to lower the blood pressure.6 dillapiole (often in significant quantities) and apiole.30 -trihydroxyflavone) and other fiavonoids.p. umbelliferone.Dill and indian dill 245 according to geographical origin and seasons.7 petroselinic acid triglyceride and b-sitosterol glucoside. and were reported for the first time.5. while guinea pigs receiving a higher dose (35 mg/kg) via i. dihydrocarvone.3. myristicin.21 Egyptian dill seed was found to contain limonene (30. dillapiole. and two coumarans. protein (ca. 5-[400 -hydroxy-300 -methyl-200 -butenyloxy]-6. carveol. and 8-hydroxygeraniol. myristicin. umbelliprenine. and a-phellandrene. dilate blood vessels.17–20 myristicin. dillapiole (26.7. proteins.8 phenolic acids (caffeic. 16%). six monoterpene glycosides.1. and limonene in varying amounts.002%. which together can account for 90% of the oil.6 petroselinic acid triglyceride and b-sitosterol. limonene.26. and other activities (JIANGSU). graveolens was reported to contain the new furanocoumarin.001% and 0. p-menth-2-ene-1.15 Indian dill seeds contain 2–6% volatile oil.10 Dillweed oil contains a-phellandrene. 0. respectively. and others.9. injection went into anaphylactic shock. Of these compounds.8 fats. and others (JIANGSU. respectively. especially those of the GIT.19 and ¨ others (LIST AND HORHAMMER). carvone (22%). MARSH). an aromatic.

dillweed oil. MARTINDALE. Kozawa et al. C. genital ulcers. highest average maximum use level is about 2. LIST AND ¨ HORHAMMER. with a mean daily dosage of 3 g (or 0. with ketone (as carvone) contents highest in dill seed oil and lowest in Indian dill seed oil. 10. and others.35 In European tradition. dill and Indian dill oils are considered nontoxic. gravies. neuralgias. and others. with highest averREFERENCES COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oils. 3. especially in children. snack foods. . and elsewhere for hemorrhoids. since efficacy for reported uses has not been documented. dysuria.. and diuretic properties. dill seed and dill seed oil are used as aromatic carminative and stimulant in the treatment of flatulence. 2.1282).18 However. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.37 Dillweed is not allowed to carry therapeutic claims. JIANGSU. Food Sci. creams. sedative.30 TOXICOLOGY age maximum use level of 0. H. UPHOF. Dill seed and dill seed oil are occasionally used in digestive preparations. Technol. and Indian dill seed oil are official in F. Both in domestic Western and Chinese medicine. Dill. Africa. 220 (1976). J.1–0. Dill weed oil is used as a fragrance component in cosmetics. Cultiv. Bull. Regulatory Status. Aromen.31–34 USES Medicinal.. Pharmaceutical. dysmenorrhea.36 At ordinary use levels. condiments and relishes. and others. kidney and urinary tract. FOSTER. and Cosmetic.075% reported in snack foods. Gastric lesions induced by HCl or ethanol were also reduced after oral administration of the extracts (dose 0. 337 (1977). 1. Traditional Medicine... fats and oils. Bulk dillweed and dill seeds are available at natural food stores valued as a carminative (FOSTER). 19. Karow. renal colic. detergents. GUENTHER. Util. Dill seed is the subject of a positive German therapeutic monograph. meat and meat products. 4. indicated as a spasmolytic and bacteriostatic for dyspeptic disorders.3 g of the essential oil). Inst. Dill and Indian dill are reportedly used in baked goods. KorperPlants. Dill oil is used in all above foods as well as in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. 208 (1977).976 ppm) for Indian dill in condiments and relishes. See the General References for ARCTANDER. Used in India. 0. ROSENGARTEN. dill herb is reportedly used as an antispasmodic for conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Can. 24. Reported to have carminative. pflegem. GRAS status affirmed (§184.Gupta. Riechst. including soaps. bronchial asthma. Maximum use level reported is 0.9% (28. B.1 g/kg of sucralfate). lactagogue.45 g/kg vs. and their oils are extensively used in many food products. Embong et al. The reduction of gastric lesions was attributed not only to the antacid effect of the extracts but also to a possible cytoprotective effect of their terpene and flavonoid constituents. Dill seed oil. a number of case reports and studies have been published about allergic reactions to dill seed and related herbs. cheese. M. antispasmodic. Chem. also for sleep disorders.246 Dill and indian dill a rise in pH comparable to that of cimetidine. Food. Indian dill. Pharm.. and perfumes. frozen dairy desserts. lotions.4% in perfumes. Med Aromat. M. R. BLUMENTHAL 1. C. 60 (1969).

) (Family: Gramineae or Poaceae). DOGGRASS Source: Elytrigiarepens (L. S. Winterhalter. BMC Pharmacol. 25. 58.. 241 (1971). 29.. 37. J. 1990). 50.. Technol. 2. 6. 484 (1971). Mikrobiol. 57. Belafi-Rethy et al. Bull. Nauki. 14. B. Med. R. Lichtenstein et al. Tomar and P. E. and agropyron. 11. Dureja. 1729 (1969). Kerenyi. Pharm. 39.. Dranik. Ind. Williams... Fitoterapia. 252–253. Fed. 23. Harborne et al. Harborne and C.. Phytochemistry. Monograph Anethi Herba.. Hosseinzadeh et al. B. 2000. Ind. widely distributed as a weed. A.) Beauv. Mahran et al. Yukagaku. K. 15. J. Oil Record. Alavi. Med. Riv. Ishikawa et al. Agric. 30. H. G. Kartha and Y. Chem. Inst. J. Phytother.. 193 (October 15. Medical Economics Company. Arch.. 35. Flav. J. . 22.. M. Aromat. Cultiv.. Shipochiliev. 185 (2001). Sci. R. Int. Int. Chem. New Jersey. M. R. Ramadan et al. Vet. A. 83. B. Stavri and S. Miyazawa and H.. Aromi. C.. Parts used are the dried rhizomes and roots collected in the fall or early spring.. 25.. (London). couch grass. 2. Triticum repens L. Mahran et al. 48. 169 (1992). Ind. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A perennial grass.. Essenze. 746 (1974). 19. Jackson (syn. Garcia-Gonzalez et al. G. 658 (1974). S. 501 (2002). 21. K. Purohit. quitch grass. 94. Sci. Dayal and R. Piante offic. naturalized in North America. 938 (2005). 13. D. 17. no. L. Phytochemistry. 31. 23. Lebensm. 96 (1972). Phytother. Acta Chim. Agric. Hung. 11. (Tokyo). no. 1741 (1972).. P. Hung. F. Acad. 8. Yazdanparast and M.. Acad. M. 32. Prir. 34211 (1974). 6.. 36. 1987). Immunol. Fleming.. Res. T. 27. J. 88. van Toorenenbergen et al. 10. 18. T.. 12. I. Saponi. Food Chem. Freeman. 72. Ital. 831 (1970). 63 (1968). 335 (1977). witchgrass. 54.. 105. Sci. 117 (1988). 234 (1975). Calcutta. Profumi. Essent. S. R. Agropyron repens (L.. H.. 9. Allergy. Perfum. W. Allergy Asthma Immunol. Khim. K. 531 (1999). 8. Flav. Chem. M. 1987). Cosmet. B. 1. 24. Monograph Anethi Herba.. 7. B. Anon.. 2. 16.) Desv. Food Chem. 5. J. 4821 (2000). 139 (1992).5 m high. Regist. 277 (1969). 20. ex B. Acta Chim. Bandopadhyay et al. J. Gulati et al. Monteseirin et al.. 22. revised (March 13. Aerosol. Belafi-Rethy and E.. Zlatev. Bonnlander and P. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 86. 1 (1974). 26. 28. Sahdev et al. 5. Bundesanzeiger. S. A.. 60. Plants. M. Cytobios. 41. Ann. quick grass. H. 47. 33. 866 (2002). S. 21 (2002). 50 (1972). Pharmacognosy. 268 (1970). 193 (October 15. 34. Allergy Appl. Kameoka. 518 (2002). 553 (1976). pp. native to Eurasia. T. Bundesanzeiger. Shah. Soedin. 76 (2001). J..Doggrass 247 5. 19. Gibbons. up to 1. Allergy. Baslas et al. C. J. 30. Chem. Util.. G. Curr. Res. triticum. L. 1 (1977).. K. Common/vernacular names: Quack grass. Selvaraj.

4 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Agropyrene and its oxidation product. trans-anethole (6. 777 (1958). frozen dairy desserts. 8.5%).10%). u 13. M. candy. Paslawska and R. FEMA. Use levels reported are low. 6. Traditional Medicine. 3. . Kiesewetter and M. B. carvone (5..8 REFERENCES ¨ See the General References for APhA. Piekos. ash with high silicon and iron contents. vanillin glucoside). and Cosmetic. Extracts used in certain diuretic preparations. with the highest average maximum of about 0.3 The leaves contain a lectin that is a dimer of two identical subunits. J. among others.20). thymol (4. Grotelschen. 1phenylhexa-2. GRAS (§182.).1. 13. vitamins A and B.248 Doggrass CHEMICAL COMPOSITION USES Medicinal. 399 (1989). 2. 2–3% inositol and mannitol. Regulatory Status. M€ller. Smith and R.7 Crude and extracts (fluid. Dadak. solid.40%).003% (32. Planta Med.5 ¨ HORHAMMER) A doggrass infusion has been demonstrated to have pronounced sedative effects in mice. 263 (1966). 6. Food. Extracts are used as flavor components in nonalcoholic beverages. Root subject of a positive German therapeutic monograph for inflammatory diseases of the kidney tract. and small amount of volatile oil (up to ca. 30. Schilcher. and U. WREN.4 ppm) being reported (type of extract not specified) in baked goods. D. Hejmanek and V. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios. 183 (1959).5%). E.81%).05%).2 The volatile oil is composed of up to 95% agropyrene (1-phenyl-2. YOUNGKEN. baked goods.F. Biochem.. Crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N. 5..6 Both the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of doggrass have diuretic activities in rats. Used as a diuretic and expectorant. Rev. LIST AND HORHAMMER.P. BLUMENTHAL 1. no. D. glycosides (e. Med. (Tirgu-Mures). Used in European phytomedicine for irrigation therapy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract and the prevention of kidney stones. Cammue et al.30%). and in treating nephrolithiasis (kidney stones). ¨ 0. and liven ailments. 17. 7. Pharmazie. (1. have been reported to have broad antibiotic activities (LIST AND 3. 55. 22 (February 1.5% fixed oil.1 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Contains up to about 8% triticin (a fructosan). 82 (1971). The lectin binds to N-acetylgalactosamine and agglutinates erythrocytes of blood group A. Racz-Kotilla and E. and p-cymene (1. HORTUS 3RD. among ¨ others (LIST AND HORHAMMER). R. 1. R. Cesk.. to reduce blood cholesterol. menthone. diabetes. Soiesel and H.g. Crop Sci. GOSSELIN. Bundesanzeiger. Mykol. Eur. Mozes.. 4. etc. and gelatins and puddings. Pharmaceutical. 315 (1985).. S.4-hexadiyne) and monoterpenes.80%). powdered.. Monograph Graminis rhizoma. chronic skin diseases.S. mucilaginous substances. among others (LIST AND HORHAMMER).4-diyne-l-one. 216 (1976). 148. 1. including carvacrol (10. Planta Med. 1990). menthol (3.

P. fishfuddle. SARGENT. south Florida. Sarg. L. 2006 (1958). An extract of Jamaican dogwood has been reported to exhibit a sedative effect in cats and guinea pigs as well as marked antitussive and antipyretic activities.Dogwood. 20. 40. Pharm. including milletone. isomilletone. such as Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. YOUNGKEN.) A. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GENERAL DESCRIPTION Evergreen tree with scaly gray bark. P. S.5.). toothache.) (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae) Common/vernacular names: West Indian dogwood.1. it also has anti-inflammatory properties and antispasmodic action on smooth muscles. Acta. Hitchc. and antispasmodic. It is used as analgesic. Helv. and others (LIST ¨ AND HORHAMMER). Traditional Medicine. fish-poison tree. erythrina L. Jamaican dogwood bark is different from the bark of flowering dogwood (also known as common dogwood. communis Harms. tonic. Helv. 1574 (1957). and Ichthyomethia piscipula (L. its dried bark is usually used in domestic medicine as a febrifuge... up to about 15 m high. Chim. J. A. There are no uniform standards.) Sarg. a saponin glycoside. etc.1–3 rotenone and related compounds. Chem. powdered. Its toxicity was reported to be very low in most of the animal species tested. . fukiic acid. 183 (1961). The latter is Cornus florida L. which is widely distributed in eastern United States. Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic. tannin. ex. 1317 (1964). Arch.6 b-sitosterol. succinic.).MORTON 2. and in treating whooping cough. etc. Extracts are widely used in certain female tonic preparations. (family Cornaceae). LIST AND HORHAMMER. Chim. Acta. 2. Stamm et al.1.. in promoting sleep. Buechi et al. JAMAICAN Source: Piscidia piscipula (L. P. and astringent (KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL.8 USES Medicinal. and simply. acids (e. 68. Mexico. Tetrahedron. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. O. 1.4 piscidic acid (p-hydroxybenzyltartaric acid) and its monoethyl and diethyl esters. Schwarz et al. asthma. 41. malic.4 simple plant Crude and extracts (solid. LUST). narcotic. jamaican 249 DOGWOOD. REFERENCES ¨ See the General References for HORTUS 3RD. S. native to tropical America (West Indies.. 3.. dogwood).. 4. boxwood. and other ailments.7 The aqueous extract of Jamaican dogwood was among 22 extracts of Guatemalan plants that inhibited in vitro one or more of the most common dermatophytes. (syn. and tartaric acids). A. J. Part used is the dried root bark..g. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains ichthynone and jamaicin (isoflavones). Kapoor et al. and 30 -O-methylfukiic acid.2. and dehydromilletone.

jamaican 5. Chim.. Heller and C.. Acta.. Acta Chem. 31. Tamm. Ethnopharmacol. 251 (1965). 58. Aurousseau et al. 1431 (1966). 20.250 Dogwood.. Fr. J. 6. Ann. A. Nordal et al. 263 (1991). A. W. Helv. Scand. M... Pharm. 7. Caceres et al. . 8. 974 (1975). 23.

angustifolia. penta-(1.”1 Misidentification of source plants involved in chemical analysis before 1986. and Australia. historically and persistently adulterated with Parthenium integrifolium.3 The same report lists dimethyl sulfide. E. pallida (0. paradoxa. angustifolia. prairies. and E. purpurea and E. vicariously harvested. containing dodeca-2.Echinacea 251 ECHINACEA Source: Echinacea angustifolia DC.and 3-methylbutanal. west to eastern Colorado and Montana.l0E)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (echinacein. atrorubens. cichoric acid (trace amounts). leaves lanceolate.) Moench. include flavonoid components of the leaves. has also been found in E. trans-ocimene. flowers 0. germacrene D. common purple coneflower (E. epoxyechinadiol. angustifolia roots.6Z.2 Chemical work by R. leaves lanceolate. pentadeca-8-en-2-one. simulata.5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). a. E. and palmitic and linolenic acids. (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). Wisconsin to Arkansas. root fibrous. Echinacoside. Root supply of E. purpurea (L. pallida ambiguously traded as “Kansas snakeroot. coarsely toothed. Minnesota to Texas.) Nutt. cultivation in the United States and Europe.3–1. E.” CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION The genus Echinacea has nine indigenous North American herbaceous perennial species. including dodeca-(2E. basal ones often cordate. mixed lots of E.2 According to another report. purpurea. and tissue cultures of E. caryophyllene epoxide.2 Essential oil components common to the aerial parts of E. documented in commercial supplies. renders earlier chemical studies unreliable.2 Four sesquiterpene esters (cinnamates of echinadiol. once believed a marker compound for E. also E. 2-propanal. to 60 cm high. purpurea.8E. echinaxanthol. E. essential oil (less than 0. misidentified or intentionally substituted. ray florets as long as or less than the width of receptacle. acetaldehyde. alkylamides. E. E. Components attributed to E. and E. simulata.and bpinene. angustifolia. Common/vernacular names: Purple coneflower. 2. humulene. and palmitic acid. E. bornylacetate. atrorubens. pallida.4–1. limonene. caryophyllene epoxide. taproot wild dug. 2-methylpropanal. pallida. Bauer and coworkers at Munich and D€sseldorf now makes distinction of source u species in commercial supplies possible. at 0. found in barrens. North America. essential oil constituents. leaves ovate. angustifolia include borneol. purpurea. paradoxa. traded as the ambiguous “Missouri snakeroot. angustifolia root contains cynarin (1.8Z)-diene. 3-hexen-1-ol. pale purple coneflower (E. purpurea in fact do not occur in Echinacea but are constituents of Parthenium integrifolium. entire market supply cultivated in Europe. and limonene as the main volatile constituents of the roots. to 120 cm. camphene. including E.1%). and to a lesser extent. dried tops of E. in addition to a-phellandrene that is present only in E. purple ray flowers to 9 cm. purpurea. little cultivation. and various polyacetylene components. taproot wild dug.4-dien-l-yl-isovalerate. pallida (Nutt. pallida. dry prairies. dried tops or fresh flowering herbage of E. 1-pentadecene. purpurea).7% roots). E. purpurea. pallida).1 Commercial supplies involve the roots of the above three species. E.3 E. angustifolia and E. Endemic or rare species. including echinolone. in glades. and 2-methyl-4-pentenal. except for authenticated cultivated E. flowers violet. camphene. which may instead have involved E.01% . caryophyllene. the aerial parts contain b-myrcene. to 90 cm. widely distributed in Midwestern United States.1–1%). angustifolia and E. angustifolia (0. purpurea. and dihydroxynardol) attributed to E. and E.3% roots dry weight. eastern Texas to Iowa. pallida.

and 8-hydroxypentadeca-9E-en11.009–0. and palmitic acids on hydrolysis). rnyristic and linolenic acids. luteolin-7-glucoside. rutin. pallida) leaves include luteolin. and isorhamnetin. angustifolia at 0. quercetin-7-glucoside.1%. Flavonoids from E. rhamnoarabinogalactan (mean mol. purpurea leaves contain quercetin. mainly of the 2.8 Hot water extracts of E.13Ztrien-2-one. they are not considered to be problematic.10E/Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides.000). in addition to an arabinan polysaccharide.2 From the pressed juice of E.2-unsaturated necine ring structure associated with hepatotoxicity. and others.10Z-trien8-ynoic acid isobutylamide was recently isolated from the root by Chen et al. and a xyloglucan. 11Z-dien-2-one. angustifolia. Classen et al. pallida. neither of which possesses a 1.252 Echinacea dried roots). cerotic. and three glycoproteins.13-diyn-2-one. the best studied species.Thesecompoundsdifferentiate E.6–2.2 Rutoside is the major leaf flavonoid of E. kaempferol3-glucoside.12 Alkaloids include glycine betaine in E.13 A summary of the chemical composition of E. 35.9 An acidic arabinogalactan and two neutral fucogalactoxyloglucans are found in E.4E-diene8.9%) and fructans. and heptadeca-8Z. purpurea can be found in the recent review by Barnes et al. purpurea. pentadeca-8Z. pentadeca-8Z-en. pallida root essential oil (0.11.11Z-dien-2-one. pentadeca-8Z. linoleic. protein 3. angustifolia and E.0%) contains a series of ketoalkynes and ketoalkenes. b-sitosterol. stigmasterol. angustifolia polysaccharides include inulin (5.5 Dodeca-2Z. purpurea. angustifolia (possibly involving E.2 The pyrrolizidine alkaloids tussilagine (0. pallida). and elsewhere.11E.14 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Numerous studies report on the woundhealing mechanism of a preparation of the . purpurea roots contain water-soluble inulin-type fructans mainly composed of linear glucose/fructose polymers with limited branch points. pallida.13Z-dien-11-yn-2-one. wt.13-diyn-2-one. essential oil (in addition to above reported essential oil components) contains vanillin. dodeca-2Z.4E.006%) and isotussilagine have been identified in E. quercetagetin-7-glucoside.151%. therefore. purpurea dried root include a heteroxylan (mean mol. sitosterol-3-b-O-glucoside (leaves and stems).1% (roots) cichoric acid.2–2. n-triacontanol. pallida extracts from E.6 along with 10 additional alkylamides possessing a 2.2 Various polysaccharides from E. 11Z. pallida. E. purpurea dried roots. E. and E. pentadeca-8Z. angustifolia. Alkylamides include isomeric dodeca-(2E. In stored roots (commercial dried root).4E. purpurea have a comparable alkylamide spectrum. pallida.6% w/w).8-hydroxypentadeca-9E. purpurea. quercetin. were also identified in the root of E. E. pentadeca-8Z. Chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acids are found in the leaves and stems of E. and other caffeic acid derivatives.8Z.4 and 14 additional isobutylamides from the dried roots of E. kaempferol-3-rutinoside. and E. these components are oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to the hydroxylated derivatives 8-hydroxytetradeca-9E-en-11. E. angustifolia alkylamides).10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (also in E.13E-trien-2-one.13diyn-2-one. p-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester. behenic acid ethyl ester (roots).11 Similar glycoproteins (sugar 96. kaempferol. angustifolia.7 E. and E.6 E. angustifolia (absent).4-diene structure (compared with one double bond in conjugation with the carbonyl group in E. contains 1.1% (flowers) and 0.4-diene type. pallida.13Z-dien11 -yn-2-one. identified hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins with arabinogalactan constituting the polysaccharide portion of the molecule. purpurea.10. apigenin. including tetradeca-8Z-en-11. angustifolia and E. pentadeca-8Z-en-2-one. purpurea cell tissue cultures.000). The aerial parts of E. E. 450. Other constituents include a resin (yielding oleic.13-diyn-2-one.2–3. wt. and germacrene alcohol (characteristic of fresh plant extracts).

and a slight increase in T-cell proliferation.Echinacea 253 expressed juice of fresh flowering E.16 Immunostimulatory principles have been demonstrated both in lipophilic and polar fractions of extracts of various species and plant parts. and has anti-inflammatory activity.026 mg/mL and 0. purpurea produced 100% mortality in Aedes aegyptii mosquito larvae when tested in vitro at 100 mg/mL.12 mg/mL. influenza. herpes. angustifolia and E. Escherichia coli. purpurea increased carbon elimination by a factor of 2. angustifolia root extracts and was mainly due to the four caffeoyl acid esters (cynarine. The 70% ethanolic extract of E. but not lymphoid leukemia.17 Topical application of the root extract of E.1. alkylamides. while hydrophilic fractions of E.20 E.15 The acidic arabinogalactan isolated from E. E.21 The alkamide constituents of the extracts may be behind the reported anti-HIV activity. Lipophilic (chloroform) fractions of E. causing depolymerization of hyaluronidase). IL-1. Yeasts. angustifolia. stimulates histogenic and haematogenic phagocytes. purpurea most active). purpurea tissue culture activated macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and Leishmania enriettii. Conventional antifungal activity. purpurea root extracts rich in polyacetylenes and alkamides. and E.2. stimulates the anterior pituitary–adrenal cortex. Trichomonas vaginalis (weak in vitro). Enriched alkylamide fractions of E. described as interferon-like. and IF-b2.24 The major activity for Echinacea species and chemical fractions thereof is nonspecific stimulation of the immune system. purpurea . Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the granulocyte smear test.1.25 Two high molecular weight polysaccharides from an aqueous extract of E. Active components of lipophilic (chloroform) extracts may include polyacetylenes. pallida root ethanol extracts eliminate carbon particles (carbon clearance test) by a factor of 1. was not as marked as when combined with UV irradiation (enhanced phototoxicity). and essential oils.19 Different alkamides of E.15. in addition to stimulating macrophages to produce TNF. Immunostimulant activity involves an overall increase in phagocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes.23 Weak oncolytic activity has been reported from pentane extracts against Walker carcinoma 256 and P-388 lymphocytic leukemia. purpurea inhibited HSV-1 in vitro at MIC 0. Oral dosage is as effective as parenteral dosage forms. pallida as well as echinacoside resulted in a marked reduction of local inflammation and improved wound healing in treated rats in comparison to the control group. pallida were more active than hydrophilic fractions. in absence of UV irradiation. vesicular stomatitis. and poliovirus. purpurea extracts have shown indirect antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis.15. purpurea stimulated phagocytosis by 40%. The authors attributed the observed effect to the antihyaluronidase activity of echinacoside. Cichoric acid from the polar water-soluble fraction of E. promotes differentiation of fibrocytes from fibroblasts. all ethanolic root extracts of the three species increased in vitro phagocytosis by 20–30% (E. chicoric. pallida and the n-hexane extract of E. are susceptible to the light-mediated activity of E.22 On the other hand. a 1-year clinical study to investigate the effect of an E.1. and Epidermophyton interdigitale.18 Bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities of isolated compounds and/or plant extracts are reported against Staphylococcus aureus (weak in vitro). though acts more slowly. respectively. purpurea on local tissues: inhibits hyaluronidase (both direct and indirect via formation of a complex with hyaluronic acid. purpurea product on recurrent genital herpes in 50 patients failed to demonstrate any significant benefit of the product versus placebo.15.5–1. purpurea. caftaric and chlorogenic acids) identified by mass spectrometry.7.2. Chicoric acid inhibits HIV-1 integrase in vitro at concentration as low as 500 nM and inhibits viral integration in vivo at concentrations above 1 mM. such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and different species of Candida. promotes the formation of mesenchymal mucopolysaccharides.16 The antihyaluronidase activity was also exhibited by E.

common cold. These studies investigated the efficacy of echinacea in immunostimulation. as well as by pure caffeoyl derivatives. At a dose of 2–4 mL/day. patients with diminished immune response (expressed by a low T4:T8 cell ratio) were found to benefit significantly from preventative treatment with the Echinacea preparation. exhibited in vitro inhibition of sheep seminal microsome cyclooxygenase and porcine leukocyte 5-lipooxygenase. 100 mg/kg. purpurea (i.254 Echinacea stimulated T-lymphocyte activity 20–30% more than a potent T-cell stimulator. Caffeoyl derivatives from echinacea. alkylamides and the polar caffeic acid derivative cichoric acid contribute to activity of alcoholic extracts. Alkamides from E.27 A recent double-blind. pediatrics.38 2.34 Alcoholic extracts of the roots and leaves of E. as well as by chelation of the copper ion (Cu2 þ ). placebo-controlled clinical trial examined the immunostimulating influence of an expressed fresh juice E.40 Several alkamides from E. purpurea and aqueous extracts. at 100 mg/mL. surgery. 360 mg/kg every other day. are capable of reducing collagen damage produced by reactive oxygen species and/or other radicals (IC50 15–90 mM). The most important of these are 1. Anti-inflammatory activity. purpurea root extract (1:5 in 55% ethanol) significantly relieved the severity and duration of flu symptoms. 48% and 30% inhibition of COX-1 and -2. does not appear to possess immunostimulatory activity. purpurea root containing alkamides. for example. pallida.2 Bauer and Wagner concluded that the immunostimulatory activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts depend on the combined action of several constituents. angustifolia. monocentric.39 The extract of E. gynecology. caffeoyl derivatives. echinacoside and cynarine.37 The dried juice of E.p.36 Copper-catalyzed oxidation of human LDL was further demonstrated in vitro by different preparations from E. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have been reported about new activities of echinacea. purpurea exhibited comparable in vitro antioxidant activities in ABTS free radical scavenging assay. including dermatology. and E. with a concurrent enhancement of phagocytosis in the carbon clearance test.31–33 upper respiratory tract infections. The involved mechanism was downregulation of COX-2 expression as shown by Western blotting. and polysaccharides. E. In lipophilic fractions.2.20 .26 These compounds are found only in low concentrations in the expressed juice of the herb and precipitate out of ethanol extracts. Antioxidant activity. purpurea showed ca. once regarded as a significant active principle (based on one report of weak antibacterial activity) and inactive in the carbon clearance test and granulocyte smear test.28 A double-blind. urology. Polysaccharides are implicated in the expressed juice of E. purpurea preparation on the course and severity of colds and flulike symptoms with patients deemed to have greater susceptibility to infections. placebo-controlled study indicates that a dose of 450 mg/day of E. respectively. The antioxidant effect was synergistic and dose dependent. as well as orally administered powdered whole drug. and other medicinal herbs.30 More than 10 clinical studies have been conducted over the past 10 years. angustifolia. and flu. and the root extracts were also active in the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. 3-week preand 4-week post-irradiation) significantly increased serum SOD activity resulting in an enhanced blood antioxidant activity in response to oxidative stress caused by exposure to a high dose of X-rays.35 Methanolic extracts of freeze-dried roots of the three species act as in vitro antioxidants through the scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. purpurea significantly inhibited the formation of rat paw edema in mice (oral administration.29 The caffeic acid glycoside echinacoside.16 Further studies have suggested that echinacea could play a therapeutic role in a wide range of clinical disciplines. and the treatment of allergies.2. twice daily).

and as a local antiseptic. despite the fact that the compound has insignificant biological . chronic respiratory infections. pallida. tinctures. syphilis. Echinacea seems to have been used as a remedy for more ailments than any other plant. the roots of E.1 Traditional Medicine. As immunostimulants. vicariously positioned as cold and flu preventatives. intravenous and intramuscular ampoules from expressed juice of fresh flowering E. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and so on of E.47 Ointment. More than 280 echinacea pharmaceutical products are available in Europe. and. more than 50 cases of allergy were detected in Australia and were linked to the use of echinacea preparations. The fact that the same extracts stimulated cytokine production in uninfected cells further substantiated the reputed immunostimulant effects of Echinacea. 50% of the cases and the possibility of cross-reactivity between echinacea and other environmental allergens was proposed.4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide bind more strongly to the human CB2 cannabinoid receptor (Ki 60 nM) than the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (Ki > 200 nm).Echinacea 255 Two extracts of E.41 3.46. Also.10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide and dodeca-2E. purpurea were capable of in vitro reversing the release of more than 30 cytokine-related mediators of inflammation in human bronchial cells infected with rhinovirus 14. Pharmaceutical. detailed monographs have been published that describe in detail the botany. chemistry. angustifolia roots displayed selective CB2 binding. are used in lip balms. wounds. and parenteral products of the fresh aboveground preparations of E. purpurea. Antiandrogenic activity. pallida. to a lesser extent. In two separate studies. and Cosmetic.4E. E. angustifolia. oral liquid. and E. polyarthritis (rheumatoid arthritis). The CB2 binding resulted in inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation in human whole blood. toothpaste. internally a prophylactic at the onset of cold and flu symptoms and for treatment of Candida albicans infections. psoriasis. increasingly seen in cosmetics.8Z. Cannabinomimetic activity. are used in Germany for the external treatment of hard-to-heal wounds. E. Symptoms included acute asthma. shampoos. purpurea.45 The importance of echinacea in health and medicine has been the subject of numerous review articles that are either broad or specific in nature. and pharmacology of the different species of Echinacea. capsules. gangrene.44. Echinacea preparations. “This plant (E. and so on.27 Echinacea extracts. The echinacea alkamides dodeca-2E. topical (ointment).43 4. extracts. angustifolia) was universally used as an antidote for snakebite and other venomous bites and stings and poisonous conditions. For example. eczema. snakebite.2 Echinacea extracts “standardized” to echinacoside persist in the marketplace. herpes simplex. purpurea extract added to the usual diet of Wistar rats (dose: 50 mg/Kg) resulted in a significant reduction in the weights of the testicles and prostate gland after 8 weeks of treatment in comparison to the control group. maculopapular rash/urticaria. and blood poisoning. and so on. typhoid conditions. angustifolia and E. Numerous oral dosage products. There was evidence of the involvement of an echinacea-binding IgE in ca. internally for diphtheria.1 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Some adverse effects have been reported for echinacea. TOXICOLOGY USES Medicinal. and anaphylaxis. tablets. purpurea.” 48 Diseases and conditions for which echinacea was employed by physicians (1887–1939) included old sores. and other product categories. burns. especially oral (liquid extract). cholera infantum.42 An earlier study with rodent cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) also showed that alkamides from E. prostatitis.

angustifolia/E.. Eclectic Medical Publications. Prod.. 1991. 1985.A.. E. L. Mayer. OR. Luetting et al. 9. 30. Thude and B. M. 32. 26. Forum Immunol. Kim et al. E. S. 21.. Mazza and T. Blaschek. 9. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. 66. Pharmacol. 154 (2001). Phytomedicine. G. 327. Ztg. Wagner and A. UPHOF. 10. Bauer et al. V. 7. 24. FOSTER AND DUKE. G. Res.. purpurea fresh aboveground parts. Bauer et al. Z. 3081 (1999). J. Echinaceae—Nature’s Immune Enhancer. 13. H. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2 . Academic Press. Nat. Y. C. Echinacea—The Purple Coneflowers. Classen et al. 326. TYLER 1. E. Med. 8. 1447 (1993). Rochester. Vonau et al. (1916–1950).. Planta Med. 669 (1989). 203 (2004). H. R. Reinke et al. Academic Press. 363 (2005). Pharm.. 1. Ther. (2006). Clin. WREN. Planta Med. Proksch. Phytochemistry. Binns et al. 241 (2000). D. BLUMENTHAL 2. Agric. 68.. Altern. J. 25. Angew Phytother. Chen et al. J. Binns et al. Planta Med.. 124. 265 (2002). Jacobson. 1991. R. Cottrell. Class 1 dietary supplement (can be safely consumed when used appropriately). VT.. 2 (1992). Foster.. M. 113. Carbohydr. 12.. Hahn and A.. 5. 43 (1989). Farmaco. Pharm.. angustifolia and E. S.Z.Braunigetal. 31. G. 1040 (1984). BISSET. R. Ethnopharmacol. 6. Pharm. Hobbs. Agnew et al. 2316 (1984). 249 (2002). S. 2. B. B. 57. The Echinacea Handbook... p.. L. Bauer et al. C.. 19. Dtsch. 929 (2005). Res. 38.. Wagner. E. Can. 10. 79.. J. The American Botanical Council. BARNES. D. 512 (1991). 8. 1026 (2005). 32. Virology. Planta Med. Wagner and A. B. 59 (2005). Schoneberger. p. J. APPLEQUIST. GRIEVE. Regulatory Status. 773 (2005). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Phytochemistry. A. Classen. J. 23. R. R. R.. 28. 18..Foster. 20. 14. M.. 54. Wack and W. STD AIDS. Chem. B. REFERENCES See the General References for WEISS.7(1992).13. 66. 505 (1989). Rev. Ztg.. 3. 497 (2000).49 and E. S. J.. 2. 29...F. 1991... . 426 (1988). Food Chem. Clifford et al. Austin. 253. 7. 1989. S. 124.. 47. Healing Arts Press. 1646 (1967). S. B.. pallida root50 subjects of positive therapeutic monographs for human use in Germany. Portland. Barnes et al.. 28. Facino et al. Kindack. Apoth. pallida official in N.Phytother. FOSTER. Classen et al. Proksch. 15.. 4. 48. 166 (1981). J. J.. 22. Bauer and H. 68. pallida crude were formerly official in N.. L. formerly E.. Apoth. 11. Cancer Inst.. 71.F. E. 12. Int. 27. Oster. Roder et al. Org. 16. Speroni et al. 30.256 Echinacea activity.. 780 (2002). L.. New York. 138 (2002). J. TX. New York. STEINMETZ. Natl. Phytother. Awang and D. J. E. 17. 81. Carbohydr.

60. J. canadensis). Monograph Echinaceae Pallide radix. nigra) is a tall shrub or small tree. Mullins. 0. Pharmacol. Biol. Bull. L. isoquercitrin. 849 (2001).. and phenolic acids. 35. Heddle. M.Elder flowers (American and European) 257 33. Aust. Raduner et al. D. J. native to Europe and naturalized in the United States... M.. 12. 510 (1995).. Medicina (Kaunas. oleanolic acid. M. 1989). 49.6 Elder leaf contains sambunigrin (a cyanogenic glucoside) at 0. 44 (August 29. (2006). K. G. 1466 (2000). 625 (2005). Sharma et al. European elder Sambucus nigra L. Food Chem. 43 (March 2. Sloley et al.3%) that is composed primarily of free fatty acids (66%) and alkanes (ca. M. J. J. spreading by suckers. 27. Phytomedicine. 37.. and campesterol). C23 and C25 alkanes the major alkanes. R. Bundesangeizer.4–6 pectin. Pharmacol. Pharm. Ann.. rutin and quercetin. 34.and bamyrin palmitates. Common/vernacular names: Sweet elder. Raso et al..9%). E. 42 (2002). 41. Res. 30b-hydroxyursolic acid. ELDER FLOWERS (AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN) Source: American elder Sambucus canadensis L.. DC. 88.. Government Printing Office. 1919. 145. Muller-Jakic et al. rutin (up to 1. Med. 44. 1379 (2002). 40.). 48. Monograph Echinaceae Purpureae herba..1 triterpenes. up to about 10 m high.. Biol. 47. 36.8 sterols (sitosterol. R. 45.. (Family Caprifoliaceae). Mishima et al. Mullins and R. 46.S. sugar. Pharm.. Medicina (Kaunas. canadensis) is a tall shrub with white pith. Phytother. alkanes (mainly n-nonacosane and . Gilmore in Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of the American Ethnology U.. Agric. R. 9413 (2005). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION American elder (S. up to about 4 m high. 1992). including quercetin. kaempferol. and chlorogenic acid.7. S. no.. European elder flowers contain a small amount of an essential oil (ca. 50. Skaudickas et al. triterpenes (a. D.2. 170 (1998). S. and others. native to eastern North America. Agric. 168. 61. no. Kitts. 37 (1994). stigmasterol. D. Food Chem. and ursolic acid).. J. 71.. Hu and D. Facino et al. p. 701 (2005).3 sterols (as free sterols.. ursolic acid. including a-amyrin and b-amyrin (mainly as fatty acid esters). 761 (2003).. according to one source.042% concentration. J. 1004 (2004). 53. Dalby-Brown et al... Allergy Asthma Immunol. common elder. B. B. and oleanolic acid.. Pharm. Planta Med. Part used is the flower. J. 42. 40. Skaudickas et al. and glycosides). 7%). sambucus. Washington. R. J. Planta Med.7 choline. D. 39.). Bundesanzeiger.3 flavonoids. Schwarz et al. 20. 147 (2006). flavone glycosides. 43.. Chem. esters. European elder (S. 39. 1211 (2004). 53. and American elderberry (S. with palmitic and linolenic acids being the major acids and C19. Woelkart et al. 54. C. 38. Planta Med. Parts used are the dried flower and leaf. 48. C21.

Flowers are reported to be used as flavor components in numerous food products. primarily as diaphoretic for colds and flu (FOSTER AND DUKE). also in capsules. 1. usually in the form of a tea. Highest average maximum use level reported is 0. REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Willuhn. such as cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl-2-O-b-D-xylopyranosyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside. Pharm. Extracts (e. TERRELL. usually in the form of a decoction taken internally (JIANGSU). 2. KROCHMAL AND KROCHMAL. allowed as a diaphoretic and to increase bronchial secretion in the treatment of colds. a Apoth.9 tannins. and diaphoretic. diaphoretic. and other related glycosides.. resins. R. and Cosmetic. nigra flowers are subject of a German therapeutic monograph. European elder flower water (water phase from steam distillate) has been used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions. European. and fruit of European elder have been reported to be used in cancers. Traditional Medicine.258 Elder flowers (American and European) n-hentriacontane). and roots in treating rheumatoid arthritis.. baked goods. Arch. Food. including alcoholic (bitters and vermouths) and nonalcoholic beverages. twigs. canadensis are used as a tea ingredient.7. tablets. formosana have antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. FOSTER AND DUKE. BLUMENTHAL 1. which could prove useful in blood typing and hematological tests.510). poultice.20). S. One study found that sambuculin A and aand b-amyrin palmitate from S. 114. among other conditions. 308. §182.13 Compounds from Sambucus species contain a number of plant lectins with hemagglutinin characteristics. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios or in flavor intensities. Flowers are used as diuretic. and gelatins and puddings.15 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS USES Medicinal. flowers were formerly official in N. fatty acids (stearic.). Sambucus williamsii Hance.049% in nonalcoholic beverages. and others.g. a related species. FEMA. flower. is widely used. UPHOF.10 American elder fruits contain acylated anthocyanin glycosides. FURIA AND BELLANCA. The flowers of S. absolute) of the flowers are used in perfumes.F. etc. 947 (1974). as well as a gentle astringent for the skin and in treating rheumatism. ROSE. Flowers are used as diaphoretic and diuretic.20. leaves have been approved for use in alcoholic beverages only. BAILEY 1. 790 (1975). or water distillate. §182.12 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Pharmaceutical. root.17 . MARTINDALE. H€nsel and M.0025%) in the flavor (§172. (Weinheim). Ztg. Regulatory Status. vitamin C. FERNALD.8.10 and §182. Crude and extracts. with the provision that hydrocyanic acid (HCN) should not exceed 25 ppm (0. frozen dairy desserts. Kussmaul. oleic. candy. leaves. Ritchter and G. and laxative properties. Dtsch.14. leaf. Bark of American elder and bark. linoleic. and so on. laxative. fats. Elder flowers are generally considered to have diuretic.16 In Chinese medicine.11. W. sugars. infusion. Flowers are GRAS (American.

. 14. 12. Farmacia (Bucharest). 277. sterols (stigmasterol.11(13)-germacradiene-8.. alant.. (syn. Biophys. Lin and W. Acta Fac.9 Alantolactone was reported to have strong inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth.6. etc. Zh. Sato. 13. 5.1–5 Other sesquiterpene lactones present in the root include elemane. I. Tome. 667 (1991).12 Much of the pharmacological properties of elecampane is due to alantolactone. I.. and ¨ others (LIST AND HORHAMMER). elecampane camphor. Farm. helenium (L. 15. Egypt J. which is composed primarily of sesquiterpene lactones. 343 (1963). 20. 7. 278. MonographSambuciflos. 255 (1972). L. 27. Scand. An essential oil is obtained by steam distillation. Azerb. damaradienol.5aepoxy-1(10).. Obzor.8 friedelin. France. 223 (1988).. N. Brazdova. Pharm. Hartwell. J. Acta Chem. Guseinova.. 4..) (Family Compositae or Asteraceae).. Phytochemistry.) Scop. Univ. and alant camphor). Al-Moghazy Shoaib. Kaku et al. Nakatani et al. 255 (1990). Jensen and B. Johansen et al. 6. Germany. Common/vernacular names: Scabwort.. 1567 (1977).. cultivated in Europe (Belgium. and dihydroalantolactone. covered with soft short hairs. W.Elecampane 259 3.11 A tincture preparation was recently shown to alleviate the symptoms of experimentally induced stress in cellular models. 54. Biochem. Med. Leifertova et al.) and Asia (e. Pharm.10 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Contains 1–4% volatile oil. Thymol isobutyrate derivatives have been isolated from the root cultures. 38. L. 9 (1976). I. Inoue and K. 122. 2661 (1973). and ¨ azulene (JIANGSU. 1986).g. 8..8 m high. and yellow starwort. N. H. A. 17. 9..12olide in addition to the alantolactones. pectic substances. Willuhn. A. ELECAMPANE Source: Inula helenium L. 13. A. 32. which has . 30. Radu et al. 10. Biochem. 57 (1971). resin.7 Other constituents reported to be present include up to about 44% inulin. J. China). Phytochemistry. J. Lloydia. 14. C. etc. 42. naturalized in North America. Marklc et al... M. 4137 (1991). up to about 1. LIST AND HORHAMMER). isocostunolide. Planta Med. P. 1871 (1975). 4b. N. An infusion of elecampane has been reported to have a pronounced sedative effect on mice. Comeniana. 755 (1995). R. Ritchter and G. S. 50 (March 13. 1990).and g-sitosterols. horseheal. 29 (1965). Nielsen. including alantolactone (also called helenin.. inula. Sci. Aster officinalis All. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION isoalantolactone. dihydroisoalantolactone. 71 (1968). Hajkova and V. revised (March 13. Pharm. Phytochemistry. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A perennial herb. b.Bundesangeizer. alantic acid. no. 16. T. P.). Helenium grandiflorum Gilib. 11. 24. O. Z. Ztg. Arch. 31... Parts used are the dried roots and rhizomes collected in late fall or early winter. native to Europe and Asia.

REFERENCES Crude. crude was formerly official in N. not recommended due to lack of evidence of efficacy and risk for allergic reactions.21 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Some individuals are extremely sensitive to the oil when applied to the skin. lotions.. MARTINDALE.7. It also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Gram-positive. Alantolactone is used as an anthelmintic. and Capan-2. oriental types). nausea. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. stomachic. . etc. and anthelmintic both in Western domestic medicine and in Chinese medicine.260 Elecampane been reported to have anthelmintic activities in vitro13 and in humans (similar to santonin but better and less toxic) and hypotensive.9 Root extracts rich in sesquiterpene lactones were significantly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. FEMA. for example. including soaps. usually in the form of a decoction or tea. Reportedly used as a flavor ingredient in major food products. hyperglycemic (in large doses). GUENTHER. diarrhea. HepG2. oil. creams. BAILEY 1.19. HT-29. TERRELL.510).g.) and nonalcoholic beverages. NANJING. detergents. Echinacea and Chamomile. Pseudomonas. UPHOF. It has reportedly been used in treating cancers.22 See the General References for ARCTANDER. Traditional Medicine. BRUNETON. and other ailments. bronchitis.15 Alantolactone was reported as an immunostimulant.4% in perfumes. sometimes in other product forms for lung conditions (FOSTER). FURIA AND BELLANCA. frozen dairy desserts. primarily in the United Kingdom and Europe. WREN. Powdered root used in tea formulations. Pharmaceutical. JIXIAN. Also used as a diuretic. and perfumes (e. BARNES. GRIEVE. MCF-7.18 Contact dermatitis and allergic cross-reactions with other plants belonging to the same family. alantolactone and isoalantolactone are among the few that have been reported to exhibit the highest bactericidal and fungicidal properties in vitro. LUST.6.F. among others (JIANGSU).20 USES Medicinal. and Candida. Root subject of a German therapeutic monograph. and Cosmetic. FOSTER. BLUMENTHAL 1. JIANGSU.18 Food. Among 105 plant lactones studied. vermouths. including alcoholic (aromatic bitters.16 Root extracts and their major sesquiterpene constituents have been shown to possess selective cytotoxic activity against different tumor cell lines. candy. Reportedly used in treating asthma. and hypoglycemic (smaller doses) effects in experimental animals. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. Highest average maximum use level reported is 0.08% for the crude in baked goods. baked goods. are not uncommon.14 The recently isolated epoxythymol isobutyrate also exhibits moderate activity against Gramnegative.6 TOXICOLOGY The oil is used as a fragrance component in cosmetic products. and extracts. Highest maximum use level reported is 0. and gelatins and puddings. such as HeLa.17 Caspase-dependent apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms involved in the displayed antitumor activity. Regulatory Status. Has been approved for use in alcoholic beverages only (§172. whooping cough. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.

13.. and perfumes. New York. G. Res. 47... K. Paulsen et al. p. 3. L. Khim. Parasitol. 2. 307 (1976).. Prir. terpineol. Farm. N. F. Med. 21. Komissarenko. 351 (1999). 139... C. V. 8. Planta Med. L. Part used is their resinous pathological exudation from which an essential oil (elemi oil) is obtained by steam distillation. Bull.. (Family Burseraceae).. S. Resur. 23 (1967). J.Elemi gum 261 1. 5. Wagner and A.. 11. S. H. R. Chem. amyrin. 15. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Kashman et al. and elemi resin. Common/vernacular names: Manila elemi. Mahmoud. 20. 65. 14. which include . Chen et al. Rastit. Prir. 20. Sinitsina and Z. Maximum use level of the oil reported is 0. 1573 (1976). Kiesewetter and M.. 606 (2004). El Garhy and L. 16. Olechnowicz-Stepien et al. Soedin. 893 (2002). C. A. native to the Philippines and Moluccas. Vichkanova et al. Contact Dermatitis. 254 (1974). J. 19. E. P. Bull. 428 (1977). S. and 10–25% volatile oil. and C. P. Bundesangeizer. Hartwell. S. elemi oleoresin. Y. L. 237 (2007). 59. Phytochemistry. ELEMI GUM Source: Canarium commune L. lotions. 45. Mater S’ezda Farm. 7. 21. Soc. 414 (2005). L. Rocz. Pharmazie. 71 (1968). 14. A.. W. dipentene. 49. luzonicum Miq. Soedin. 189 (2002). Lloydia. 25. Elemi gum (oleoresin) contains 65–75% triterpenoid resinous compounds. Probl. 820 (1976). Toxicol. Phytother.. H. E. and Cosmetic. 777 (1958). 15. Stojakowska et al.6% in perfumes. Rodriguez et al. consisting mainly of phellandrene. 12. no. Khvorost and N. POUCHER).. 1. and elemadienonic acid. E. 1985. D. F... 13. Proksch. Nek. C. 4.. 9... Kerimov and O. T. elemadienolic acid. 13. Chizhov. detergents.. Dorn et al. 85 (May 5. 113.1–4 TOXICOLOGY GENERAL DESCRIPTION Trees up to about 30 m high. 1988). carvone. 10.. A. 246. Food Cosmet. Paulsen. Contact Dermatitis. Elemi resinoid and elemi oil are used as fixatives and fragrance components in soaps. (1971). 6.. Biol. Boshko. Cantrell et al. 197 (2001). 1370 (2002). 17.. Kaz. Khim. Chem. J. 31. brein. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Available data indicate elemi and elemi oil to be relatively nontoxic. 18.5 USES Medicinal. C.. Nauki Prakt.. Opdyke. Exp. J. 849 (1975). Biol. Konishi et al. Muller. Zelenskaya et al. M. Pharm. I. 22. elemicin. creams.. Farmatsiya (Sofia).. 10. Boeva et al. elemol. Monograph Helenii radix. maniladiol. Z. Cancer Lett. Naturforsch. 6. 87 (1975). D. Egypt. 970 (2006). Isr. and terpinolene (KARRER. 32. 5. Academic Press. Pharmaceutical.

Opdyke. with highest reported being about 0. c 1.002% (17. 3. Food Cosmet.) 755 (1976). and leaves enter commerce. 8. L. eleutheroside B2 and B3. Traditional Medicine. and Japan (Hokkaido). gelatins and puddings. abundant in the Xiaoxinganling Mountains of Heilongjiang. rhizome.) Maxim. adjacent Korea. eleutheroside D ((À)-syringaresinol-di-O-b-D-glucoside). candy. G. baked goods. 1772 (1961). 5. including much of far southeastern Russia (middle Amur region in the north to Sakhalin). Elemi gum is also used but much less frequently. 17614i (1958). R. Acanthopanax senticosus Harms) (Family Araliaceae). REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER. Lloydia. Regulatory Status. Jugoslav. Abstr. GENERAL DESCRIPTION root historically used. currently root. eleutheroside B is the phenylpropanoid syringin..262 Eleuthero Food..2 Eleutheroside A is the sterol daucosterol.3 Triterpenes include . 78.6% to 0. 14(Suppl. Hebei. J..5% (stems). D. M. Manalo and A.9% (roots). UPHOF. 0. Sci. ranging from 0. Has been approved for food use (§172. POUCHER. stems. Abstr. West. 1–3 m high. deemed eleutherosides A–G (in a ratio of 8:30:10:12:4:2:1).510). A new lignan. FEMA. and Maxim.. D. branches beset with numerous small sharp spines. Average maximum use levels are low. eleuthero ginseng. 35. also used externally as a local stimulant (MARTINDALE). meat and meat products. F. Eleutheroside B4 ((À)sesamin). leaves palmate. Fodor-Mandusi.2 ppm) in baked goods.. (syn. 111 (1949). Shanxi). Jilin. A. 2. and condiments and relishes.2 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Gum and oil. 59 (1958). 44. Abstr. together with isomaltol glucoside and thymidine were later isolated by Li et al. ˇc 4. ELEUTHERO Source: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. and eleutheroside E (acanthoside D) are lignans. northeast China (Heilongjiang. Mladenovi and D.6% to 1. Resin is reportedly used as a stomachic and as an expectorant. Acta Pharm. Pernet. the bark of the Russian workers initially isolated seven compounds from a methanol extract of roots. 52. frozen dairy desserts. Nei Monggol. 7564f (1950). termed eleutheroside E2. Toxicol. GUENTHER. eleutheroside B1 is isofraxidin7-O-a-L-glucoside (b-calycanthoside). seven additional eleutherosides have been identified. Elemi oil is reported to be used as a flavor component in major categories of food products. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. through Chem. in northeast Asia. 21. Diss. In traditional Chinese medicine. Liaoning. Summa. through Chem. 280 (1972). and Ussurian thorny pepperbush. eleutheroco. P. Common/vernacular names: Siberian ginseng. Philippine J..1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Deciduous shrub.

2. . and influenza A virus in vitro.7. The collective results of these trials indicate an inconsistent pattern of effectiveness for Siberian ginseng. estrogenic activity.8 Clinical trials have also been conducted in humans to substantiate the adaptogenic effect of eleuthero. a. and antihypertensive activity were also reported in vivo. increased metabolic efficiency in swimming-induced stress.9–12 A number of reviews about the adaptogenic activity of eleuthero have been published.2 Hydroalcoholic and glycolic extracts increasingly used in skin care products. in which Siberian ginseng aqueous extract resulted in a concentration-dependent relaxation in different contracted vascular preparations (dog carotid arterial rings.2 Antiedema. galactose. anti-inflammatory.6 Saponin glycosides.2 The antihypertensive activity may be explained in view of a recent report by Kwan et al.13–15 Antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity has been demonstrated in animals. and hypoglycemic activity. and Cosmetic.and b-maltose. b-carotene. galactose-. and X-ray toxicity. and physical fitness. and rat artery) at 0.18 Polysaccharides are responsible for immunostimulatory activity (carbon clearance and granulocyte tests).2. toxic cardioglycoside dose resistance. is suggested by Russian research (DUKE 2). steroidal hormone indices and lymphocyte subset numbers. and arabinose-containing polysaccharides.5 and two glucose-. Some observed end points included quality of life in geriatrics.0 mg/mL. endurance. respiratory syncytial virus.16 A root extract had a marked antiviral effect against the RNA viruses human rhinovirus. though the mechanism of action is unclear. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES In vivo animal studies of root ethanol extracts have been evaluated for adaptogenic activity in hyperthermia.5. are absent in E. diuretic. The observed relaxation was attributed to NO and/ or EDHF. and oleanolic acid. in addition to other possible mechanisms. the ethanolic extract of eleuthero stimulated the in vitro production of IL-1 and IL-6 but not IL-2. rat aorta. DNA viruses were not affected by the same extract. other components include b-sitosterol. For example.6 Recent studies demonstrated that elutherosides B and E may also contribute to the immunostimulant activity. vitamin E. slowing the spread of metastases. and corticosterone level. coniferyl aldehyde.19 Two oral preparations containing the root extracts displayed varying levels of enhanced humoral responses in mice as evidenced by the increased levels of immunogobulins in mouse serum. (eleutheroside I is mussenin B.20 A carcinostatic effect. cortisone-induced lymphatic stress.and b-glucose. gonadotropic activity. Pharmaceutical.Eleuthero 263 eleutherosides I–M.) induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide injection. inhibition of conditioned avoidance response. senticosus. including creams and lotions. X-ray irradiation. and sinapyl alcohol.04–2. NK cell activity. gastric ulcers. caffeic acid ethyl ester. sucrose. phytohemagglutin. dicaffeoylquinic acids. cellular stress. oral and i. Used to increase general resistance as an adaptogenic and immunostimulant. lessened thioacetamide.4 polysaccharides (eleutherans A–G). increased conditioned response to stimuli. senticosides A–F (incompletely characterized oleanolic acid glycosides).2 USES Medicinal. Additional phenylpropanoids include caffeic acid.2 The hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction of the root was demonstrated in significant attenuation of hepatic failure in mice (300 mg/kg.17 A hypoglycemic effect has been demonstrated in animals. a. well known in various Panax species.p. eleutheroside M is hederasaponin). A comprehensive review of Russian studies is available. electroshock-induced convulsions. antitumor activity.

. Austin. adaptogenic. . Eleutherococcus senticosus. Exerc. A. 22. J. 5.25 REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST.. 15. H. rarely bark of root) and extracts (liquid. rheumatoid arthritis. Proksch. Regulatory Status. Geriatr. gangliupi. 10. for sleeplessness. Eschbach et al. and during convalescence. 30 (2000). Res. and so on as tonic tea (FOSTER AND YUE). diuretic. 293 (1986). Toxicol. New York. Phytother. Int. 69 (2004). Gerontol. 1057 (2001). Y. 431 2. 345 (2000).. J. Nat. 17. Glatthaar-Saalmuller et al. Sport Nutr. Dionne. Sport Nutr. 50.. Deyama et al. 4. E. 447 (2004). 8. Arch. 70. Exerc.. 776 (2001). BRUNETON. to enhance overall resistance to disease or adverse physical influences or stress (FOSTER AND YUE). 6.. X.22–24 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude (bark of stem.. 155. Cicero et al. Economic and Medical Plant Research. Pharmacol. senticosus (jiapi or ciwujiapi) is a substitute to the bark of E. 13. the whole root and rhizome is known as ciwujia.. Farnsworth et al.. 316 (2002). 1985. 19.264 Eleuthero Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Numerous oral dosage products. solid. gracilistylus (Acanthopanax gracilistylus). Class 1 dietary supplement (herb that can be safely consumed when used appropriately). and consequently entered trade as an adulterant to E. A. WEISS. 444 (2000). J. 12. N. DUKE 2. B. Academic Press. N. declining work capacity and concentration. 15. H. capsules. C. 1991. Basic Clin. whole root and rhizome. crude herb. including liquid extract. Sin. Traditional Medicine. F. Panossian and H. Szolomicki et al.” 21 Follow-up revealed that the product in question did not contain eleuthero but Periploca sepium instead. Int. debility. reportedly used as stimulant. D.. 72. A. TYLER 1. Acta Pharmacol. Suppl. J. Planta Med. and beiwujiapi). D. Goulet and I. In China. Li et al.. Phytochem... lack of appetite.. Bark of Periploca sepium (Asclepidaceae). has prompted market confusion. Root subject of a German regulatory monograph indicated as a tonic for invigoration during fatigue. p. Hikino et al. 113. Wagner.). Ethnopharmacol. American Botanical Council... Metab. 298 (2004). powder. 819 (2005). Wagner and A. Foster. prompting a pharmacological study in which no androgenicity was observed.. Gaffney et al. 49. p... 94.. New York. TX. BARNES. B. Tolonen et al. tonic. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Kimura and M. Life Sci. J. Res. E. tinctures. 10. Krikorian.. BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2. Phytother. attributed to “pure Siberian ginseng. lower back or kidney pain. Economic and (2001). T. 7. Antiviral Res. Park et al. R. T. FOSTER AND YUE.. J. J. 1985. etc. S. 13. 95. Academic 11. M. tablets. Medical Plant Research. Press.. Bark of E.. 67. 3. 14. 75 (2005). Ethnopharmacol. source of wujiapi (also jiapi). 1. Metab.1 There is a report of a purported case of neonatal androgenization associated with maternal “ginseng” use.. J. Davydov and A. 9. 14. Prod. Sumiyoshi. senticosus. 16. L. F. also known as “wujia” (xiangjiapi. Anal. 223 (2001).

Other compounds present include glycans (ephedrans A. and pectin. Other alkaloids include l-N-methylephedrine. Mey. For example. Stem (maHUANG) contains 1–2% alkaloids composed mainly of l-ephedrine and d-pseudoephedrine. 395 (2002). Common/vernacular names: MaHUANG. C. wt. J. 369. G.9 Â 104. 0. Pharmacol. 25. Thus.2 Â 106. 1. Am. with ephedrine ranging from 30% to 90%. and E with mol. 51. Assoc. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. ephedra root). C. Y.1. zhong maHUANG (intermediate ephedra). D.. all flowering in spring and fruiting in late summer. honey-cured and stir-fried maHUANG . equisetina is the largest among the three... Med. D. G. Active components in the volatile oil include limonene.4 Â 104.3% alkaloids with more than 60% ephedrine. Med. and trace minerals. Concentration and composition vary considerably. starch. now distributed throughout northern China from Xinjiang to Inner Mongolia and Jilin. no. and condensed tannin. with those of E. Monograph Eleutherococci radix. 19. respectively).. 2866 (1990).. and muzei maHUANG (Mongolian ephedra). 21. Med. and other common plant constituents. maHUANGgen (root). C. inulin. depending on botanical sources (e..124% in Mongolian ephedra)4 and type of processing. Koren et al. sinica is the smallest.Ephedra 265 18. ephedroxane. 473 (2004). while E. J. of 1. Intermediate ephedra Ephedra intermedia Shrenk et C. 1. 1828 (1991). 1. Assoc. 11 (January 17. intermedia and E. EPHEDRA Source: Chinese ephedra Ephedra sinica Stapf. phellandrene. Assoc.5. J. 24. dextrin. equisetina contains ca. sugars. Awang. Am. V. Herba Ephedrae. 1. Steinmann et al. 1991). Awang.. 22. G. Pharm. Acta Pol. Arzneim.. Assoc. 267. and then the stems and roots separated and sun dried.2 The alkaloids are concentrated in the internodes. with lesser amount (ca..1% alkaloids with 30–40% ephedrine.4. Am. Native to central Asia. malic. 50%) in the nodes and none in the root (ZHOU). E. 20. and pseudoephedroxane (IMM4). cao maHUANG (Chinese ephedra). 2329 (1992). 266. 363 (1991). Am. gallic acid. including plant acids (citric. l-norephedrine. Med. Kwan et al. sinica contains ca.. J. ephedine. etc. 76 (2001). and 3. 0. with herbaceous features.3. linalool.6 Â 103. 59..5 Â 106.. B. caryophyllene.6-tetramethylpyrazine. Waller et al. Other Ephedra spp. A.250% volatile oil in Chinese ephedra vs. oxalic. D. Parts used are the herbaceous green stems (maHUANG) and the root (maHUANGgen. herbaceous stems greenish. 264. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION Low shrubs with scale-like leaves. stems herbaceous above and woody below.7% alkaloids with 85–90% ephedrine.5 catechin. Bundesanzeiger. flavonoid glycosides. equisetina often covered with a white powder. J. intermedia contains ca. D. P. 1. l-a-terpineol.3 m high. 6.-Forsch. E.3 a volatile oil.. Mongolian ephedra Ephedra equisetina Bge. C.. and 2. 23. also cultivated. d-norpseudoephedrine (cathine). 265. E. 1.. V. Drozd et al.). (Family Ephedraceae). d-N-methylpseudoephedrine.5–3. and E..g. Stems are collected in autumn either by cutting the green parts aboveground or the whole plant is pulled out and rid of dirt. depending on the source.

ephedroxane.18 d-Pseudoephedrine has similar activities as ephedrine except that its pressor (hypertensive) and CNS effects are weaker. and its decoction and alcoholic extract have antiallergic effects in vitro. sinica. the volatile oil was effective in treating mice infected with the Asian influenza virus strain AR8 (ZHOU). the expression of neuropeptide Y in rats was suppressed by an aqueous extract of maHUANG. it also has strong diuretic action in animals (dog and rabbit) (MARTINDALE. and E) exhibited marked hypoglycemic effects in normal and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. 1. C. pseudoephedrine. among others (ZHOU). When administered subcutaneously. B. octadecane. eicosane. tetradecanoic acid. Ephedrine.13 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Comprehensive reviews about the chemistry and pharmacology of ephedra and its use in sports and weight loss products have recently been published. tyrosine betaine. l-tyrosine betaine (maokonine). mydriasis. which include central nervous system (CNS) stimulation. etc.11 6-methoxykynurenic acid (E. Various compounds isolated from other ephedra species include cyclopropyl-a-amino acids (E. and tachycardia. MaHUANGgen extract when injected intravenously into cats and rabbits caused vasodilation and lowered blood pressure. B. peripheral vasoconstriction. and D). high blood .g. an imidazole alkaloid (feruloylhistamine). The same fraction also inhibited the growth of a melanoma cell mass in mice in comparison to adrimaycin. ZHOU).2-benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutyl ester. The ephedradines. selinene. Since this peptide is an endogenous stimulant of feeding desire.12 lariciresinol. sinica was effective in reducing the inflammatory responses of arthritis.) that are present in raw maHUANG.2 The glycans (ephedrans A. uterus and intestine) (HU). farnesol. nonadecane. respectively. 9-acetoxylariciresinol. elevation of blood pressure. it also contracted isolated guinea pig and rabbit smooth muscle preparations (e. foeminea). both in vitro and in a rat model. viridis). The central stimulant action of ephedrine appears to be mediated by l-adrenoceptors and not by dopamine receptors. decrease of intestinal tone and motility. and pseudoephedroxane have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on experimental edema in animals.14–17 The pharmacological effects of maHUANG are generally attributed to ephedrine.20 In a study to investigate the anorexigenic effect of ephedra. motor disturbances.8 Apart from the sympathomimetic effects of ephedra.. exhibited anti-invasive and antiangiogenic activities in murine melanoma cells and in human umbilical venous endothelial cells. and diflavonols (mahuannins A and B) (IMM-4. caryophyllene. D. its inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which ephedra causes weight loss. and tetramethylpyrazine) and antitussive. bronchodilatation.3 MaHUANG decoction and volatile oil have diaphoretic action in humans. In a herb-acupuncture study. as well as stimulated respiration and inhibited perspiration. TYLER 3). and feruloylhistamine are the hypotensive principles (IMM-4). at 30 mg/kg/day.21 TOXICOLOGY Reported side effects of abuse include insomnia.19 An aqueous fraction of E. altissima and E. isolariciresinol. d-Norpseudoephedrine (major active chemical present also in the African stimulant khat) is also a CNS stimulant (MARTINDALE. a few studies probed its other possible effects.7. and antiviral components (limonene and linalool) but at the same time is devoid of other compounds (nerolidol. expectorant. C. cardiac stimulation. antibacterial. and ( þ )-9-acetoxyisolariciresinol (E. dodecanoic acid.266 Ephedra contains higher concentration of antiasthmatic (l-a-terpineol. 6–10 WANG).5 Root (maHUANGgen) contains macrocyclic spermine alkaloids (ephedradines A. pachyclada). the water distillate of E.

. . now also used externally to treat excessive perspiration (e.Ephedra 267 pressure.. nasal congestion. 697 24.g. the FDA issued a rule prohibiting the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids because they present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury. lung-soothing (xuan fei). diuretic. Planta Med.. 162.. H. In February 2004. ZHOU AND WANG.. Konno et al. aching joints and bones. Phytochemistry. These effects are linked to adverse health effects like heart attacks and stroke. and ephedrine sulfate formerly official in U. where the powder is topically applied (NATIONAL). cough and wheezing. 478. Powdered crude maHUANG claimed to contain 6–8% ephedrine has been offered. REFERENCES See the General References for BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2. C. and antiswelling (xiao zhong) properties (CHP). Y. JIANGSU. 325. MaHUANGgen. (1979). 18. glaucoma. Jia et al. as commercial crude maHUANG normally contains only about 1% ephedrine alkaloids. NATIONAL. Q. 2. USES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. antiasthmatic. MaHUANG serves as raw material for the extraction and production of natural ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Y. urinary disturbances. chills. Y. usually in tablet. MaHUANGgen is traditionally used to treat spontaneous and night sweating due to body deficiency (ti xu). (1985). CHP.. 6. also used in cold and flu remedies.. 17. (1985). are continuously being published even after the banning of its sales in the United States. is a potential ingredient in antiperspirant preparations. 402 (1989).S. cold-dispersing. 3. Kasahara et al. Herb subject of German therapeutic monograph for treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract with mild bronchospasms in adults. Others. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude (mainly raw. Ephedrine. N. Konno et al.P. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi. and edema.. TYLER 2 & 3. Regulatory Status.22 Case reports of severe to fatal conditions associated with ephedra. Planta Med. ephedrine hydrochloride. MaHUANG is traditionally considered to have diaphoretic. used for more than 2000 years to treat bronchial asthma. 83 (1992). 1. and powdered) and extracts. extracts normally come in 5–9% total alkaloid content. among others. impaired cerebral circulation. 4. lack of perspiration. Planta Med. headache. capsule. due to its antiperspirant properties. HU. cut.. Was used in diet formulas for its appetite suppressive effect and in “energy” formulas for its central nervous system stimulant action. (1984). and tea forms. 5. MaHUANG and maHUANGgen (root) are traditionally used for different purposes: the former as diaphoretic and the latter as antisudorific and antiperspirant.23–28 foot). Traditional Medicine. together with collective reviews. WANG. cold and flu. Zeng et al.22 The United States FDA has long regarded dietary supplements containing ephedra. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi. C. Hikino et al. IMM-4. fever. and others. which should be considered adulterated..

290 (1983). it is a Japanese species not commercially available in China. E. Keisler and R. (London).. Bundesanzeiger. Rep. mostly under 50 cm high. N. Am. Prog. A. pubescens. pubescens. Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao. 1381 (1982). Sci. 21. 479 (1995). 24.268 Epimedium 7. 41 (2006). E. no. it is in fact a minor source.. 789 (2005). pubescens Maxim. acuminatum Franch. 1477 (1996). Heart Fail.. Maglione et al. 13. Assoc. H. 17.. 108 (1983). native to China and Korea. 12. koreanum Nakai. 25. 23. 106. 17. H. M. E.1 Part used is the aerial portion (mostly leaves) collected from wild plants in summer or autumn when leaves are bright green. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Perennial herbs.. Ying. yinyanghuo. 19. 927 (2005). E. Caveney. Res... Ther. J. although E. 11 (January 17. et Zucc. Li and B. E..1 Although E. 28. Res. J. N.. N. J. 17. V. Normally exported in neatly tied rectangular bundles... C. 20. E. Psychiatry. 17. E. Starrat and S. H. and nine other Epimedium species (Family Berberidaceae). Stahl et al. E.. 29. N. E. 468 (1991). Obes. Planta Med. Hikino et al.. Phytother. Chen-Scarabelli et al.. 1030 (2005). 703 (2003). wushanense. EPIMEDIUM Source: Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. Pharmacol. then rid of thick petioles and impurities and sun dried or dried in the shade. Eur. 8. D. 217 (2005). Haller et al. Am. 70 (2003). G. wushanense. davidii. Heterocycles. 15. Pittler and E. A.. with compound leaves. P. J. S. Monograph Ephedrae herba. koreanum. Monit.. and E. Pullela et al. R. now widely distributed in China. 560 (2005). 4. J. 162.. N. and xian ling pi.. Ernst.. 9.) has been listed as a major source. 2045 (2006).. sagittatum is often described as a major source. Curr. Heterocycles. 12. Diet. Sports Med.. S. with stems and petioles.. M. GENERAL DESCRIPTION are E. Pharmacol. 659 (2004). Phytochemistry. (syn. Dis. 102 (2007). H. Hikino et al. C.. Angiology. H. M. 47. Li. 27.. Hikino et al. acuminatum in decreasing order.. 48. E. especially nonglandular hairs. E. 77. J. E. Kim et al. A. A. wushanense T. 11. Caveney. Cardiovasc. 10. Int.. 155 (1982). 231 (2005). Nam et al. grandiflorum Morr. sagittatum (Sieb. E. B. 58. 18.) Maxim.. A. Abourashed et al. Starrat and S. 1991). M. 26. macranthum Komarov. Phytochemistry. Med. E. C.1 Common/vernacular names: Herba epimedii. H. E. 42. Phytother. leaflets thin leathery. 22.. Chin Med.. sometimes also in loose form. Hosey. A. Am. 40... R. J. Planta Med. 32. 189 (2005). 14. Andraws et al. H. 19. 100.2 The species of most commercial importance Leaves and stems from different species (including E. Sci. Clin. Fleming. 71. N. Planta Med.. CS81 (2006). Yeom et al. 48. acuminatum. H. N. . E. Sharpe et al. 16. 7. brevicornum. 12. Hikino et al. Also. can be differentiated microscopically by the characteristic features of their hairs. brevicornum.

27. The first two studies investigated the mechanism of reduction of bone loss in animal models and found that epimedium-derived phytoestrogenic flavones prevented estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and steroid-associated osteonecrosis in rats and rabbits. brevicornum) being the active herb. E. and may thus have potential for the management of erectile dysfunction in .29 2. including 1. stimulating ADP-induced platelet aggregation.9 men.24 4. antitussive and expectorant.3-dimethylallyl)-flavone-7-b-D-glucopyranoside).28 The final study. icarisid II. WANG). a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on postmenopausal women. antiviral and antibacterial. 4. isolated from the leaves of E. increasing peripheral and coronary blood flow volumes. sagittatins A and B.10–12 More flavonoids (icaritin. Broad cardiovascular effects (hypotensive. kaempferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside. baohuosu. brevicornum. etc. desmethylicaritin.22 2.600 -dimethylpyrano-(200 .8)40 -methyl. quercitrin (quercetin rhamnoside).20 volatile oil. brevicornum. fatty acids. acuminatin (600 . sagittatum) contain flavonoid glycosides. and others (JIANGSU).13–18 Traditional curing of epimedium herb by stir frying with lamb fat (20% w/w) followed by drying only slightly reduces total flavonoids content but significantly improves their water extractability (MA). ikarisoside A.50 . displayed a biphasic effect of stimulating the estrogen receptor at low concentration (EC50 200 nM) and inhibiting it at a higher one (>2 mM). regulating nucleic acid metabolism. showed that the same preparation had a beneficial effect toward reducing bone resorption after 24 months of use.) isolated from different Epimedium species have also been reported. baohuosides. respectively. antiinflammatory. kaempferol-3-dirhamnoside. brevicornum):3 icariin and epimedosides. such as acetylicariin.). and others. peripheral vasodilatory. hyperin (hyperoside. Immunomodulating.5% in E. Reduction of bone resorption. brevicornum elicited penile erection in rats (300–1000 mg/mL) and that NO may be involved. possible antitumor activity25 and others (JIANGSU. phytosterols (daucosterol). and others.5.26 The last decade has witnessed a shift in focus toward the following new activities of epimedium and/or its major constituents: 1.3–9 Different prenylflavonol glycosides. Promotion of growth of chick embryonic femur and its protein and polysaccharide synthesis in vitro. through an NO-mediated mechanism.23 3. A polyphenolic extract from the leaves was equally active in the in vitro yeast and Ishikawa assays for estrogenic activity.300 .21 A follow-up study further demonstrated that intracavernous administration of E. koreanum. and E. breviflavone B.30 The prenylflavone breviflavone B. Zhang et al. The PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Epimedium is a highly valued tonic herb in traditional Chinese medical practice and has been shown to have numerous pharmacological effects in humans and experimental animals. Stimulation or improvement of male sexual function in experimental animals.19 The aqueous extract of E.19 Other chemical constituents present include polysaccharides.7-trihydroxy-40 -methoxy-6-(3.11 Icaritin and desmethylicaritin resulted in an estrogen-like dosedependent effect (1 nM–10 mM) when tested in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. brevicornum was recently found to relax rabbit corpus cavernosum strips.Epimedium 269 and E. Estrogenic activity.7. sagittatum. wushanicariin (30 .9 and catecholamine inhibition.7. have recently been isolated from E. etc. with cured (fried with 20% w/w lamb fat) but not raw epimedium (E. investigated this activity in more than one study. tricin. tannin. quercetin galactoside). mostly rhamnosides (ca. kaempferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside).

26 USES Medicinal. R. LU AND LI. koreanum. ZHU.14 g/kg after i. and muscles (qiang jin gu). Cured form not available in bulk quantities. IL-6.34 (e. 2. Antidepressant activity. Crude (raw herb) comes in whole bundled form composed of mostly leaflets with little or no petioles or in loose form containing leaves with stems and petioles. bronchitis. Icariin.p. demonstrated that icariin.32 Further investigation of its mechanism of action in rats showed that icariin reduced the serum levels of CRF. The 21-day treatment also resulted in a decrease in the levels of MAO and serum CRF. Traditional Medicine. icariin. and Cosmetic. H. Powdered herb and extracts used in tonic formulas and teas for its traditional male tonic (aphrodisiac) properties (JIANGSU). and polysaccharides have been shown to be the active constituents of epimedium. WANG). In two different studies. 1. poliomyelitis. warming. Used in impotence. the total flavonoids. Pharmaceutical. Class 2d dietary supplement (not for long-term use). Extracts occasionally come with assay for flavonoids. life essence). NATIONAL.38 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Thus far. displayed in vitro antihepatotoxic activity in cultured rat heptocytes exposed to carbon tetrachloride. 0. Xueyuan Xuebao. Beijing Zhongyi 7 (1988). In recent years. weak back and knees. and TNF-a resulting in the chronic mild stress model utilized in the study. Antioxidant activity. tendons. brevicornum.35 Acute toxicity of edimedium is low: the LD50 of its total flavonoids in white mice was 2. 200 BC–AD 100). respectively.270 Epimedium phytoestrogenic effect was blocked by a specific estrogen receptor antagonist. g. mental fatigue and poor memory. 42 (1990).. Reduction of caspase expression was also observed. See the General References for CHP. extensively used in China in the treatment of coronary heart disease. among others. rheumatism and arthritic pain. WANG. which may be one of the underlying mechanisms of action of icariin. and sorbitol dehydrogenase were all reduced at 1–20 mM. A comprehensive review about the chemistry and pharmacology of epimedium has recently been published. Extracts used in personal care products REFERENCES Crude and extracts. First recorded use dates back to the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. 13. invigorating kidney yang (bu shen yang). MA.37 also used in chronic hepatitis.1–50 mM) was also active in protecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells from oxidative injury by hydrogen peroxide..36. spermatorrhea. Liang et al. Cytotoxicity. Traditionally regarded as acrid and sweet tasting. GPT. R. and postmenopausal hypertension. also in powdered form. disinfectant sprays) for its antimicrobial effects. Liang et al. strengthening bones.31 3.99 Æ 0.. chronic leukopenia. and antirheumatic and antiarthritic (qu feng shi). Regulatory Status. Zhongyao Tongbao. IMM-4. 13.36. and neurasthenia. isolated from the aerial parts of E.17 Pretreatment icariin pretreatment. JIANGSU. Pan et al. administration. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods/Herb Teas. isolated from E. . and others (JIANGSU. H. had an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice after oral administration for 21 and 7 days. benefiting jing (semen.33 4. hypertension (including postmenopausal).

Y. 26.. K. J. Phytochemistry. Liu. Physiol. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Evergreen tree with bluish green leaves often covered with a white powder. Gao et al. Integr. H. Res. Zhang et al. Planta Med. Lin et al. R. Lee et al. Shen. G. 23. Li and Y. Drug Res.. 17. Yu et al. 12.Huang. 21. Res.Eucalyptus 271 3. 34. Impot. 9. . C. Pharmacol. 449 (2006). Li and Y. Beijing Zhongyi Xueyuan Xuebao. Bull. Q.. Res.. EUCALYPTUS Source: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. H. Planta Med. Q. Res. Zhongcaoyao. Behav. 523 (1995).. 575 (2000). 174 (2005). Africa. Biol. fever tree. 397 (1992). extensively cultivated worldwide (e. Planta Med. Niu et al. 67. H. Wang and Z. Liang et al.. 30. and gum tree... 5. G. G. Liu et al. R. F. J. 23. K. Y. Zhang. Zhang et al. 38. Phytochemistry. and South America). R. 18. 29 (1993). United States. Planta Med. 13. 55. Europe. 32. 20. Phytother. Kuroda et al.. 2399 (2006). Pan et al. 114 (2005).. 23. 818 (2006). M. De et al.. Int. L. Hu et al. Pan et al.. 1511 (2005). S. L. R. J. 38. 22. F. Chin. S. Q. 16. 685 (2007). 213 (1996). L. 33. Yaoxue Xuebao. 31. J. K. S. 36. 8 (1992). Clin. 172 (1985). 25. 23. 29.. Yaoxue Xuebao. Pharmacol. 42. Liang et al. 22. 61. 36 (1990). W. C. 63.. X. 18 (1991). Chen. Zhang et al. F.. Urology. Wang and Y. H. 316 (1997). H. 14. 16. 686 (2005). 60... Li et al. P. 30. Bone. K. Y. Li and Y.. Z. Z. Dou et al. Chiu et al. H. 37. 309 (1989). 7. Li and G. 672 (1988). L. China. 606 (1989). 44 (1985). 504. Pharmacol. W. 13. 27. B. Prog. S. Eur. 1 (2003). Yaoxue Xuebao. H.. 739 (1988). Chen and J. 40 (1987). Lou. Yap et al.. 34 (1988). 263 (1995). H... 29.. Pharmacol. C. 65 (2004). 35. 28. Zhongchengyao.. 24. 2. M. 335 (2006). 35 (2005). 19.. Xiao and K.. W. Liu. 4. Phytochemistry. 43. up to about 90 m high. Common/vernacular names: Blue gum. Yaoxue Xuebao.. J. 31. 40. Bone. Huang. Wu et al.. 15. 71..... J.. 5. Liu. 52. K. Exp. Li et al. Planta Med. P. 66. Oshima et al. C. H. 12. F. (Family Myrtaceae). 15. 82. Xu and X. Sci. J. J. 8. 147 (2004). Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. Biochem. Pharm. K. 18. 527 (1996). Liu and L... L.. Y. 11. 38.. N. G. 55 (1988). Bone Miner. (2007).. K. Zhongyao Tongbao. Western Med. native to Australia. Y. 76. Trad. J. C.g.. Fitoterapia. 24. Chiu. Anal. 6. 631 (2006). 16. Li et al. Li et al. Zhongcaoyao. 10. Tasmanian blue gum. Zhongcaoyao. Liu. 27.. Yaoxue Xuebao.. A. M. Zhongyi zazhi. 26 (1984). 23.

. The same extract enhanced in vitro insulin secretion from a pancreatic beta-cell line after 20 min incubation at a concentration of 0. epiglobulol.19–21 The leaf extract was shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus.13 The rectified oil contains little or no unpleasant smelling lower aliphatic aldehydes.29 Later studies demonstrated that eucalyptus oil and .9% in Brazilian and Chinese eucalyptus. hyperoside. and viridiflorol). such as ursolic acid.25–0. scabies. and Haemophilus influenza isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections (MIC50 < 100 mg/mL). ketones (e. flavonoids (quercetin. ferulic.). and others. globulol. globulus leaves rich in phenolic glycoside(s) has been reported to have antihyperglycemic activity in rabbits.. was also isolated from the leaves. LIST AND HORHAMMER).2-benzanthracene.g.24 The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of eucalyptus leaf extract was demonstrated due to its ability to scavenge and reduce NO production in a murine macrophage cell line.2% and 83. The epicuticular wax contains esters of triterpene and fatty acids.2. with the first three in major amounts). such as head lice. Major oil-producing countries include Spain. Streptococcus pyogenes. sesamin. camphene.g. pneumoniae.25 The essential oil was also tested in a number of in vivo models of pain (acidinduced writhing and hot plate) and inflammation (paw edema) in rats and was found to be active in reducing both effects. aromadendrene.7 Eucalyptone.15–17 strongly antibacterial against several strains of Streptococcus.28. some of which may have quite different chemical compositions. respectively.5% volatile oil. etc. and others (JIANGSU). ledol. rutin. quercitrin.8-cineole).18 The oil also has antiparasitic activity against a number of organisms. eucalyptus oil inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid as compared to the BHT and a-tocopherol antioxidant controls. etc. Two related glycosides and ellagic acid were also isolated. polyphenolic acids (gallic. eucalyptin.8 Eucalyptus oil contains usually 70–85% of eucalyptol (1.g.5 mg/mL. a loss of this activity resulted upon purification of this material. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Eucalyptus leaves contain 0.2–6 A newly reported ellagic acid was isolated from eucalyptus fruits and was identified as 3-O-methylellagic acid 40 -O-a-L-200 -Oacetylrhamnopyranoside.5 Oral administration of an aqueous extract of eucalyptus to streptozotocin-treated mice resulted in a reduction of hyperglycemia and weight loss.1.272 Eucalyptus Part used is the fresh or partially dried leaf from which the essential oil is produced by steam distillation.10. g-terpinene. protocatechuic acids. a-phellandrene. another newly reported compound. Portugal.9 other constituents present are mostly monoterpene hydrocarbons (a-pinene.22 The flavonoids quercitrin and hyperoside have been reported to have eliminated influenza type A viral infections in mouse tissue and in chick embryos. etc. that affect humans living in poor hygienic conditions.14 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES properties. S.23 A crude extract of E.26 When tested among other Sardinian plant extracts/volatile oils. and ¨ others (JIANGSU. and Brazil.12. b-pinene. caffeic. carvone and pinocarvone).1.5–3. wax. tannins. d-limonene. gentisic.).27 TOXICOLOGY Eucalyptus oil and eucalyptol reportedly have antiseptic (antibacterial) and expectorant Eucalyptus oil has been reported to be rapidly absorbed through the intact. p-cymene. shaved abdominal skin of the mouse and to promote the formation of tumors (papillomas) by 9. with lesser amounts of sesquiterpenes (e..11 The eucalyptol content is 61. aldehydes (e. myrtenal). allo-aromadendrene. hexadecanoic acid.10-dimethyl-l.1 Essential oils from other Eucalyptus species are also used.. mites.

10. Both eucalyptus oil and eucalyptol are extensively used as expectorants and/or flavoring agents in cold and cough medicines (e. 10.. Leaves and oil are reportedly used as antiseptic and febrifuge..33 oil topically for rheumatic complaints. Noble. A.F. vomiting. BARNES.0 and 1.31 Eucalyptus oil and eucalyptol are used in dentistry as components of certain root canal sealers. Med. Phytother.C. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods.32 See the General References for ADA. cough drops and syrups). Rare instances of nausea. Also widely used as fragrance components in soaps. ROSE. W. Elkeiy et al. Boukef et al. and others.. aqueous extracts and decoctions of the leaves are used to treat aching joints. pulmonary tuberculosis. baked goods.5 ppm) for eucalyptol in candy. BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. ointments. BISSET. gelatins and puddings. UPHOF.P. successful clinical studies on some of these uses have been reported (JIANGSU). 31. 83 (1964).6% in perfumes reported for eucalyptus oil and eucalyptol. including alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.510). oil a fragrance ingredient in topical balms and massage oils (ROSE). Chemical Technology: 4.30.002% (19. ringworms. and perfumes. Baslas. K. . Boukef et al.. Indian Oil Soap J.32. leaves and oil are used for similar purposes. 136 (1969). R.. while eucalyptol was official in N. JIANGSU. and mouthwashes. 119 (1976).F.5 mL has been reported to be fatal (JIANGSU). 1. Leaves used in tea. GUENTHER. with maximum use levels of 1.30.S. vaporizer fluids. An Encyclopedia Treatment. with the REFERENCES Leaves. Bull. Phytother. p. Traditional Medicine. Pharm.g.. Fordham. antiseptic liniments. The leaves were formerly official in U. 30 (1976). LIST AND HORHAMMER. 5.. New York. Eucalyptus oil and eucalyptol are currently official in F. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2 . Food. Fac.33 highest being about 0.. and others. and ingestion of as little as 3. Pharmaceutical. ¨ BLUMENTHAL 1. creams. FEMA. LUST. BAILEY 1. eucalyptol is listed as a synthetic flavoring agent (§172. also used as solvents for root canal fillings. 2. Boukef et al. Leaves and essential oil subjects of German therapeutic monographs.34 In Chinese medicine. Phytother.C.31 When taken internally. and eucalyptol. In addition. M. K. Both eucalyptus oil and eucalyptol are used as flavor ingredients in most food products. burns.. indicated for catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract. Plant. toothpastes. ulcers. Med. Plant. 6. JIXIAN. 3. respectively.. ARCTANDER. 1. K.. also used for wounds. Med.515). meat and meat products. nonsensitizing. bacterial dysentery. and Cosmetic. Average maximum use levels reported are generally low. Barnes and 10. 35. Regulatory Status. frozen dairy desserts. and cancers. GRIEVE. and as expectorant and stimulant in respiratory ailments. 24 (1976). K. eucalyptus oil is toxic. oil. candy. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS USES Medicinal. and diarrhea have been reported after ingestion of nonfatal doses of leaf preparations or essential oil. and eucalyptus oil is official in N. lotions. D. detergents. 1972. Plant. and nonphototoxic to the skin.. Has been approved for food use (§172.Eucalyptus 273 eucalyptol were generally nonirritating.

Rev. E. 708 (2005). Salari et al. 27.. 115 (1988). J.. Quim.-Forsch. Contains choline and shikimic acid as active constituents. and b-amyrin. S. 55 (1975).4 n-alkanes (e.. Flatt. 311 (1965). leucocyanidin. D. 294 (1958). J. Food Cosmet... A. 59.. A. Infect.. quercetin.. 12. C. 797 (2002).. C. H. Lawrence.. M.1 Other compounds present include triterpenes (e. Osawa et al. Pizsolitto et al. 23. Ethnopharmacol. 17. 33. Soc. B. F. Field. 133 (1976). 26. J.. C. 16. J... Yang. Toxicol. Food Cosmet.. 56. L. Am. sugars (glucose. 257 (2004). Guo and X. Nakashima et al. Parasitol. 40. Part used is the whole flowering or fruiting plant. Goryunova. Odontol. Food Sci. Pharm. Farm. Henry.. A.2.. 47 (2003). Issled. J. A... T. 9. Gray and P.) (Family Euphorbiaceae). M. Morsy et al. L. Opdyke. Pereira et al. 21. M. S. 29. 177a (September 24. S.3 flavonoids (quercitrin. J. J. gallic and ellagic). Benouda et al. A.. A. Meyer. Q. Vigo et al. 1990). sitosterol. native to India. Pharmacol. 53. l-inositol.). hentriacontane). Schlicht. Farm. Trib. J. R. 33. 29 (1985). 15. J. Lloydia. E. 364 (2005).. Agric. 16. GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION An upright hairy annual. Brieskorn and W. Silva et al. 20. E. 89.. and sucrose). 31. J. 52. I. De Pascual Teresa et al.g. Acta Helv.. 1986). Res. 3. Soc. Dessi et al. Microbiol. 277 (2003). 9. esters of taraxerone. Tr.. Indian Oil Soap J. Clin. Prakash et al.. 28. Maruzella and P. Araraquara. A.. 8. Inst. Ikeda et al. 15. Fitotherapia. 33. J.). Yang et al. Monograph Eucalypti aetheroleum. Pharmazie.. 73. 14. 107 (1975). 47. 22. Phytochemistry. 11. Common/vernacular names: Snakeweed and pill-bearing spurge. a-amyrin. J. E.. 12. Nauch. Fac. Toxicol. up to 0. 10. 2507 (2004).. M. Arzeim. Phytother. 288 (1970). T. Perfum.. . Meyer and E. 105 (1975). 183 (1995). fructose. Hartwell. Lek. W. Flavor. H. revised (March 6.. 9. 194 (2006). 128. K.. 51.. H. L. revised (March 6.g. D.. etc. capitata Lam. Pharm. 24. etc. Rast. Morsy et al.. xanthorhamnin. Monograph Eucalypti folium. R. Phytochem. sterols (campesterol. J. 32. Egypt. 34. 13. V.3 phenolic acids (e. 60. C. An. J. 1986).. Food Chem. Toxicol. Bundesanzeiger. Assoc. (syn. Vichkanova and L. 2319 (1998). 30.. hirta L. 37. friedelin). Bundesanzeiger. Food Cosmet. 516 (1959). 19. 13. EUPHORBIA Source: Euphorbia pilulifera L. Parasitol. F. and others (LIST AND 1 ¨ HORHAMMER). 32. Opdyke. T.5 m high. 212 (1971). 1990). C. stigmasterol.. Egypt. M. J..g. Anal. Nutr. 25. 230 (1972). 15. 511 (2001). Roe and W. Pharm. A. Y. M. 751 (1977). 455 (1962).. and resins. 18. Vses. 13. 177a (September 24.274 Euphorbia 7. 27. 14. 45 (1990). free taraxerol and aamyrin.

Traditional Medicine. bronchitis.13 Euphorbia ethanolic extracts displayed moderate antibacterial activity against E. displayed antidiarrheal effect in experimental animal models..p.Euphorbia 275 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Euphorbia has been mentioned in earlier reports to have antispasmodic and histaminepotentiating properties.6 Choline produces contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum. on Vero cells at 1. whereby euphorbia polyphenolic extract inhibited the growth of Entamoeba histolytica at a concentration below 10 mg/ mL.5–100 mg/kg when administered orally and i.14 A methanolic extract of the flower inhibited the cytotoxic effect of Shigella spp. berghei. it is used in treating worms in children and for dysentery.9 More recent literature supports some of the earlier reports and introduce new findings about the activities of euphorbia. Proteus vulgaris.22 In the second study. hirta was recently reported to display an antiallergic effect by inhibiting rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation and by relieving the symptoms in a model of mild asthma. also in tumors. Reportedly used mainly in treating respiratory ailments (e.7. antipyretic.11 Further effects on the GIT include antiamoebic and antidiarrheal activities as reported by Tona et al. The analgesic effect was believed to be central in nature at a dose of 20–25 mg/kg. gonorrhea.g.5 as well as antitumor activities in laboratory animals. In the first study. digestive problems.10 The gastric motility of normal rats was also decreased by an aqueous leaf extract of E. hirta as an identifier of the plant source. the extract showed sedative and anxiolytic effects at a wide dose range of 12. aureus in the agar well diffusion and tube dilution assays. hirta was reported by Tona et al. and others.17. The antiinflammatory effect was displayed at 100 mg/kg in a rat model of acute inflammation.20 Lanhers et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staph.16 The ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts exhibited in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falci- parum at IC50 0. and by Galvez et al. .24 In India.1 Shikimic acid. and hay fever). respectively) produced a diuretic effect in mice similar to that produced by furosemide and acetazolamide.18 An ethanolic extract of E.12 and the lyophilized decoction and one of its constituents.15 Aqueous bark and leaf extracts displayed molluscicidal activity on the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.. The antipyretic effect was displayed at higher dose of 100–400 mg/kg and was accompanied by a strong sedative effect.3–6 mg/mL.21. quercitrin.. asthma.56 mg/ mL for up to 48 h. coughs. while shikimic acid produces a relaxation of guinea pig ileum.10. coli. hirta. Both urine output and electrolyte excretion were significantly increased.23 USES Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. investigated other effects of the lyophilized aqueous extract of euphorbia in two separate studies. and anti-inflammatory properties in mice and rat models. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg. the extract was shown to possess analgesic. has been reported to have carcinogenic properties in mice. a ubiquitous constituent of higher plants. The majority of recent reports utilize the synonym E. The antispasmodic effect of E.8 though no mutagenic activities have been observed using the Ames assay.19 This finding is contradictory to the earlier one reported by Hellerman and Hezelton in 1950. whereby a polyphenolic extract inhibited the contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum at 80 mg/mL. Used primarily in certain cough preparations. in agreement with the first study. in mice. Oral administration of the same extracts (100–400 mg/kg/d) resulted in a significant suppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P.

.. P. Jpn. Garg. Galvez et al. 12. Phytomedicine. M. 157 (1993).Gupta and S. K. Some of these uses have been clinically substantiated (JIANGSU). Belkin and D. Phytother. 59 (1999). 15. 59. 333 (1993). 250. J. B. A.F. Blanc and G. 63 (1999). Osman.. J. 13. sieboldiana Morr.. 2532 (1966). Phytother. 225 (1991).g. L. L.. L. Pharm. 73 (1978). Planta Med. dropsical nephritis. JIANGSU. A. Ethnopharmacol. L. Stavric and D. Lloydia. 263 (2005). Ethnopharmacol. 23. 6. 41. 11. L. Tona et al.. Tona et al. Sudhakar et al. lunulata Bunge. EVENING PRIMROSE Source: Oenothera biennis L.. R. bleeding. lanceolate. K. 59.. Am. El-Naggar et al. 24. 1.. J. 13. Lanhers et al.. 3. Atallah and H. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Annual or biennial. 49. 142 (1950). 8. Natl. 139 (1952)... Fitoterapia. Toxicol. J. Leaves in basal rosette before anthesis. Phytomedicine. 39.. Fitzgerald... 1860 (1972).. 378 (2006).. LIST AND ¨ HORHAMMER.Horeetal. Hartwell.. Vijaya et al. crude and fluid extract were formerly official in N. Tona et al. 2. I. B. Ethnopharmacol.. 19. E. 189 (1990). Nicholas. Soc.. Chem.35(2006). Hellerman and L... 45.. Lloydia. Ethnopharmacol. humifusa Willd. Pharmacol. numerous Euphorbia species (e. Tona et al. E. 14. GOSSELIN.). Cancer Inst. Singh et al.. Sannes. 14. ascites. Phytochemistry. 21. P. Hazelton. R. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts (fluid. lathyris L. Fitoterapia. J. 7.. Plant. et Decne. 39. 11.. Res. Johnson et al. A. Pharm. 9. Lanhers et al. 20. J. Med. L. Food Cosmet. 22. L.) are traditionally used in treating conditions that include dysentery. R. G. 18. 115 (1995). FOGARTY. E. D. B. 153 (1969). C. Lloydia. 348 (1974). and E.Evans and M. M.K. FOSTER AND DUKE. solid. 10. J. 1–3 m. J. 31 (2000). 20. 141 (1976). J. 10–22 cm . B. 77. J.. Bull. S. E. 41. 32. Planta Med. 17.. 68. C. and chronic bronchitis. Galvez et al. 5. J. 29. 6. Stoltz. Ethnopharmacol. 27 (2004). (Family Onagraceae). S. YOUNGKEN. etc. Jacobsen et al. pekinensis Rupr. 6. 93. 57.. 106 (1972)... 16.. REFERENCES See the General References for FARNSWORTH 3. 193 (1999).276 Evening primrose In China.77. 7. Strengths of extracts (see glossary) are expressed in weight-to-weight ratios.. M. Chemosphere. Singh et al. C. enteritis. Assoc. M. 450 (1978).. Nature (London). 65. 316 (2006). 4.

70% as effective as the NSAID. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Seed contains about 14% fixed oil (evening primrose oil. placebo-controlled. COX.4 EPO is used in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). with about 50–70% cis-linolenic acid and 7–10% cis-g-linolenic acid (GLA). Seed extracts have antioxidant activity comparable to that of BHT. Antiulcer effect. and multiple sclerosis. was effective PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GLA inhibits platelet aggregation. and oleanolic acids) are also present in the seed oil. and restores motility of red blood cells in multiple sclerosis.Evening primrose 277 long. reduces blood pressure. More recent clinical trials. Caspase-dependent apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and other tumor cell lines has been demonstrated by evening primrose extract. North America. such as prostacyclin release.9. Antitumor activity.21. yellow. alcoholism.2 EPO administration reduced tissue oxidative stress in hyperlipemic rabbits. though statistically insignificant. margins undulate or minutely toothed. palmitic.3 Evening primrose meal contains about 1. double-blind.22 4.14. Antithrombotic activity. diabetes. impairment of blood flow. Anti-inflammatory / antioxidant activity.15 Other reported pharmacological activities of evening primrose include 1. or fasting. cultivated in Europe. pastures.18. EPO supplemented in hyperlipemic diets and administered to rabbits over 6 weeks resulted in reduced vascular thrombogenesis and platelet aggregation. flowers four-merous. epicatechin. plus small amounts of oleic. and endoneurial oxygenation. and as a preventive in heart disease and stroke. prostaglandins help regulate metabolic functions. EPO). and stearic acid. 1 cm wide. diabetes.19 Other mechanisms of apoptosis may also include a rapid increase of intracellular peroxide levels in tumor cells. and gallic acid). and mood changes associated with PMS. GLA supplement is valid for increased demand for GLA in alcoholism.13 Two separate studies in rats demonstrated that EPO prevented some of the side effects associated with diabetes. inflammation. and elsewhere for seed oil.7–9 . EPO. morolic.10 A prospective randomized. EPO of interest for GLA content as a prostaglandin precursor. crossover trial to evaluate efficacy in relief of PMS symptoms showed improvement.5 Therapeutic use for atopic eczema initially produced modest. improvement (20–25% over controls)6. Exaggerated claims to efficacy in obesity are unsubstantiated (WREN). cis-6. excessive carbohydrate intake. roadsides.12 A study comparing the effectiveness of topical EPO and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in breast pain (mastalgia) showed that EPO was ca. indicate that evening primrose may have a marked beneficial effect in atopic eczema and dermatitis. Normal synthesis of GLA from linoleic acid via d-6-desaturase may be blocked or diminished in mammalian systems as a result of aging.2.7% of low molecular weight phenolic compounds (catechin. however. with numerous minute seeds.12-octadecatrienoic acid.11 However.17 2. placebo-controlled studies showed that evening primrose oil significantly reduced irritability. but significant. Hypercholesterolemia and endothelial lesions were also significantly reduced after administration. old fields. and neutrophil elastase inhibitory activity in vitro. fruit a dry pod to 4 cm. administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg via gastric intubation.16 while the triterpene acid esters have radical scavenging. breast pain and tenderness.1 3-O-trans-Caffeoyl esters of triterpene acids (betulinic. other double-blind. especially for PGE1. steroids campesterol and b-sitosterol. throughout North America.20 3.

Leaves.. J. Gallic acid isolated from evening primrose root was reported to be phytotoxic causing ca. involving seizure of black currant oil (also a GLA source). In the United Kingdom.278 Evening primrose in inhibiting gastric mucosal damage in different rat models. WREN. root. Food Chem. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. a dietary supplement for increased essential fatty acid intake. seed oil capsules with GLA and vitamin E. the FDA has treated EPO as a both “misbranded drug” and “unsafe food additive. Products also combined with linseed oil and safflower oil.. Food Chem. Regulatory Status. 3.23 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Seed oil. 4. MARTINDALE. however.). soaps. and seeds also used as food by American Indians. DUKE 2. poulticed to enhance wound healing.5 REFERENCES See the General References for BLUMENTHAL 2. Zaugg et al. and so on. 23 (1976). Agric. Ital. mastalgia.. 53. Writing for the court. M. 1. Wettasinghe et al. M. anodyne. A fourfold dose resulted in complete inhibition of root growth. 5533 (2002). whooping cough. 50. In Canada. 85% inhibition of root growth in germinating wheat seeds at 250 ppm. Riv. Hamburger et al. 54. FOSTER AND DUKE. approved therapeutic agent for treatment of atopic eczema. found in favor of the defendant (Traco Labs. Agric. Whole plant infusion as astringent. Sostanze Grasse. TYLER 1–3. . Agric. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. and Cosmetic] Act distinguishes between food additives and food in the generic sense. it would seem that even the addition of water to food would make the food a food additive. FOSTER. Drug.. a recent decision of the U. sedative. antispasmodic in asthmatic coughs. 6623 (2006).24 USES Medicinal. J. Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit (decision rendered Jan. that it would blur this distinction. including hand lotions. 50. and Cosmetic. Fedeli et al.. 27. GLASBY 1 & 2. Judge Cudahy stated that “the [Food. It would classify every component of food—even single. active ingredients—as food additives. The only justification for this Alicein-Wonderland approach is to allow the FDA to make an end-run around that statutory scheme and shift to the processors the burden of proving the safety of a substance in all circumstances. and this distinction is critical in allocating the burden of proof. Thus.. Chem. root rubbed on muscles to give athletes strength.” rather than a food. 1993).”25 The court’s decision positively affects the dietary supplement status of EPO. The author proposed that the antisecretory and antiulcerogenic effects were attributed to the linolenic acid content of the oil. The FDA’s food additive definition is so broad. Undetermined in the United States. 1267 (2002). S. Evening primrose oil used clinically in the United Kingdom for the treatment of atopic eczema. WEISS.” seizing product by treating EPO as a “food additive. BRUNETON. However. gastrointestinal disorders. Capsulated seed oil products widely available. J. increasingly seen in cosmetic products. J. Inc. Traditional Medicine. dietary supplement for addition of essential fatty acids to diet (FOSTER). shoots.. Pharmaceutical. and premenstrual syndrome. shampoos. Food 2.

subarctic. 21 (2005). and erostosidc. Lovell et al. Most commercial supply from Europe and limited wild harvest in North America.. 25. 769 (1997). Part used is the whole herb. p. Biotechnol. Euphrasia officinalis probably the most useful designation for commercial supplies. 337 (2003). 15. TYLER 1. P. S. hence is a “collective species” and. Morse and P. Villalobos et al. 28. Northern and Southern Hemisphere. T. Curr. 31.. 494 (1996). Chem. officinalis L. Pellegrina et al. E. Lancet. A. 24. as such.. 1. 11.. ovate to rotund.. 49. M. Hederos and A. 38 (1993). J. 23. N. 17 (2005). 152. Small. De La Cruz et al. mostly annual herbs to 4 dm. coarsclv toothed above.. 189 (1990). S. 3.. 2. A. b-sitosterol. Food Chem. Cameron and M.. Food Chem. Appl. Khoo et al. Arch. Prostaglandins Leukot. trace amounts of an essential oil at 0. Toxicol. K. 7 (2005). 226. 12. EYEBRIGHT Source: Euphrasia rostkoviana F. Horticulture. M. oleic. De La Cruz et al. 145. Res. AZ. gallotannins.. Dis. Blumenthal 1. C. linoleic. 141 (1997). J. Essent. Amino Acids. upper lip concave. 7. Oryx Press. Qureshi and N.. simple or freely branched. Cotter. two lobed or notched.) (Family Scrophulariaceae). corolla bilabiate. C.. Clough. Stevens et al. 49. 21. 65. 9.. 75. Skin Physiol. 278 (1981). Arimura et al. palmately veined. al-Shabanah. 4502 (2001). 29. and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany. 14. catapol. Acta Diabetol. 543 (1999).. linolenic. HerbalGram.. 503 (2006). P. Janick et al. Spices. Briggs. Surgeon. Skin Pharmacol. herbaceous. 67. 10.. flowers small.. Pyke et al. 18. 373 (1985). Interact. Lancet. Shukla et al. 8. Yoon et al. J. 22. 16. Close to 450 species described. Biol. Ethnopharmacol.. K. (E. 80. 7. Thromb.017%. J.. 699 (1993). TUCKER 2). Birch et al. Herbs. Berg. 17. J. Child. C. deeply cleft above. M. A. eukovoside. caffeic and ferulic acids. O. 20. L. Hayne and other Euphrasia spp. 15. Haemost. 1989. 696 (1998). T. 20 (2002). four lobed. Agric.. alpine areas of tropical mountains (GLEASON AND CRONQUIST. 6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION E. 241 (1999). J. E. J. Cold temperate regions. J. R. a nomen ambiguum. N. D. A. Pharm. . Fatty Acids. Med. rostkoviana contains iridoid glycosides including aucubin. and Pharmacology. S. Cancer Lett. leaves opposite sessile. Arimura et al. bracteal leaves tend to alternate. 145. many into hardly distinguishable microspecies.... Aust.. Life Sci. 35. geniposide and luproside. C. 250 (1986). N. 13. Thromb. Pharm. Y.. J. choline. Phoenix. 220 (1994). Sultan.. Can. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Euphrasia officinalis has been used by modern authors to refer collectively to the genus. A.. J. E. 19. 87. hemiparasitic.Eyebright 279 5..

65. GLASBY 1 & 2.. TYLER 1. particularly conjunctivitis. Chim. 4. 1449 (2000).and dihydroxyboschnaloside. WEISS. together with the phenylethyl glycosides verbascoside (acetoside) and leucosceptoside A. (2000). presumably for traditional applications.6 Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Planta Med. and so on. and geniposidic acid. Salama and O. 1538 (1982). E. Undetermined in the United States. secreting and inflamed eyes. Med. rhinitis. extracts. a folk remedy for allergy. Fitoterapia. Bundesanzeiger (Aug. coughs. LUST.4 The aqueous extract of E. and Cosmetic. FOSTER AND DUKE. 3. Acta. Sticher et al.1. capsules. This treatment resulted in a complete recovery from symptoms of conjunctivitis in 53 patients and a marked improvement in 11 patients. Regulatory Status. BRUNETON. O. In European tradition also reported as stomachic and for skin diseases.6 See the General References for BARNES. use not recommended for eye conditions because of hygienic concerns and nondocumented efficacy. officinalis leaves reduced the blood glucose levels in a diabetes REFERENCES Crude herb. cancer.5 USES Medicinal. aucubin. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. Porchezhian et al. 522 2. and prevention of mucous secretion from eyes. pectinata contains the iridoid glucosides hydroxy. 1992). 63. and recent eye injuries with risk of serpiginous corneal ulcers developing. Pharmaceutical. J.TUCKER 2. Ersoz et al. catarrh of eyes. 6. and blurred vision. A report of clinical success with compresses of an eyebright decoction to provide surprisingly rapid relief of redness. 499 (2000). used internally at the same time (WEISS). tablets. Stoss et al. 47. Prod. . euphroside. BLUMENTHAL 1.2E. MARTINDALE. FOSTER AND DUKE). 29. Subject of a German therapeutic monograph. conjunctivitis. Altern. The observed symptoms included conjunctival reddening and burning. foreign body sensation. infusion internally and externally (as eye wash) recommended historically and in modern literature for eye irritations. Use as ophthalmic for eye inflammations with mucous discharge. 71. tincture. headache with congestion. Traditional Medicine. J.280 Eyebright palmitic. and visual disturbances in acute and subacute eye inflammations. earache. In a prospective cohort trial conducted on 65 conjunctivitis patients. 90 (1983). blepharitis. Used mainly in Europe as rinse. hoarseness.GLEASON AND CRONQUIST. jaundice. rostkoviana preparation was administered 1–5 times daily for up to 14 days.. or eye bath for eye-related inflammatory and vascular conditions. Nat. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. Helv. T.. including eye lid inflammation. and stearic acids.6 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Astringent ophthalmic. DUKE 3. WREN. Monograph Euphrasia. 5. while it had no hypoglycemic effect in normal rats.. Sticher..3 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES model of alloxanized rats. STEINMETZ. compress.. Tea. 6. without scientific substantiation (TYLER 1). a single drop of a E. particularly conjunctivitis. and sore throat (DUKE 2. Complement 1. plantarenaloside. M.. swelling. inflammation. and so on. O.

2-pinnate. seseloides (Hoffm.Fangfeng 281 FANGFENG Source: Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz..9 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Herbaceous glabrous perennial. and divaricatol).polyacetylene.) Hiroe.) Wolff. a volatile oil.15 TOXICOLOGY Certain coumarins (e. Siler divaricatum (Turcz. three lobed at apex.98 mM). with some fields still in their virgin primitive state existent in Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia (HU). falcarindiol).phellopterin. ZHU). Common/vernacular names: Guan fangfeng.10 The chromones seem to display the most potent analgesic activity (inhibition of writhing) when orallyadministeredtomiceatadoseof1 mg/kg. 1. Leaves reduced upward. 4-O-b-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol. rid of rootlets and dirt. and radix sileris. analgesic.12 they also had tyrosinase inhibitory effects. and sun dried. base of stem covered with brown fibrous remains of petioles. b-sitosterol and its glucoside. and antiinflammatory effects in mice and rats (WANG).andacylglycerolconstituents but at higher doses.5–2. cimifugin. acylglycerols. .2. 14–35 Â 6–8(–18) cm. ca.psoralen. mannitol and sucrose. and others.) Benth. 30 -O-angeloylhamaudol. petioles flattened. Heilongjiang is the largest producer. imperatorin. siler. pinnae 3–4 pairs.14 Aqueous extract also exhibited immunopotentiating effects in mice. radix saposhnikoviae. or Seseli yunnanense Franch.5 mm. 6 cm across. fruit 4–5 Â 2–3 mm. GENERAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains coumarins (anomalin. bergapten and xanthotoxin) are phototoxic (see angelica and bergamot oil). becoming smooth when mature.9 Alcohol extractives had mild antihistaminic activity on isolated guinea pig trachea.) (CMH. leaf blades oblong–ovate to broad–ovate. with thick root.) Schischk. L. prim-O-glucosylcimifugin.2 cm thick) from cultivated (2–3 years old) or wild plants. ledebouriella. tuberculate when young. 30–80 cm high.8.xanthotoxin. 30 -O-acetylhamaudol. Part used is the root collected in spring or fall (when it reaches about 30 cm long and 1. ultimate segments linear–lanceolate or cuneate–obovate. Ledebouriella divaricata (Turcz.) (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). polyacetylenes (falcarinone. 2–5 Â 0. Plant native to China and is distributed throughout northern and northeastern provinces. saposhnikovia.1–3 Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts have marked antipyretic. Substitutes produced in other regions of China are not saposhnikovia but are from other species.g. ledebouriellol. with ovate sheaths. scopoletin. bergapten. chromones (5-O-methylvisamminol. markedly increasing phagocytosis by macrophages. The analgesic activity is also displayed by coumarin. (syn. Pimpinella candolleana Wight et Arn.). etc. hamaudol. sec-O-glucosylhamaudol. petals ca. et Hook.4 Polyacetylenes isolated from fangfeng were found to inhibit iNOS (IC50 of falcrindiol ¼ 1. they include chuan fangfeng from Sichuan (Peucedanum dielsianum Fedde ex Wolff) and yun fangfeng from Yunnan (Seseli mairei Wolff. petiolulate.4–7 The roots and rhizomes also contain two pectin-like acidic arabinogalactan polysaccharides (saposhinkovan A and C).11 The arabinogalactan saposnikovan C was reported to possess a significant potentiating effect on the reticuloendothelial system in animals. basal leaves numerous. lignoceric acid. Umbels numerous. radix ledebouriellae.5 cm.13. f.

. Planta Med. G. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. rheumatism and arthritis. and influenza.282 Fangfeng USES Medicinal. 1590) as one of the herbs for removing facial dark spots as well as having antipruritic properties. J. Chem. antiinflammatory) and has since been used in countless prepared formulas for relieving pain due to arthritis. 38 (1992). 40. Pharm. urticaria. 7. 4. Regulatory Status.. usually in capsule or tablet form (JIANGSU).. U. 361 (1980). ZHU. S. 14. 4. CMH. Pharm. Zhongcaoyao.. Y. C. common cold. 27. Zhongguo Yaoxue Zazhi. Masamoto et al. 9 (1988). 3. 13. 18. 17. 20 (1989).. 10.. H. and also to have diaphoretic (jie biao) properties. It is one of the three ingredients (with astragalus and baizhu) of the famous 15th century formula. N.. yu ping fan san (‘‘jade screen powder’’) for fortifying body defense against outside pathogens. 13. slices. 37. 2. 5 (1988). 1. Bull. C.. Crude comes in sticks (20–30 cm long). HONGKUI.S.. Jin et al. whose efficacy in enhancing immune functions and preventing colds and flu has been well documented (DENG).Wang and Z. J. JIANGSU. 9 (1987). determined. bath preparations.. Pharmaceutical. lotions. 37. WANG. Bull. Y. migraine.. 66. influenza. Lou. Bull. 12. Ding et al. Zhang et al. 22 (1985). H. Bull. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. Lou. Acta Med. 200 BC–AD 100). J. 9 (1991). Chem. Zhongyao Tongbao. Zhongcaoyao. Planta Med. arthritis. Zhongchengyao. HU.. Extracts (water or hydroalcoholic) do not have uniform strength nor assays of chemical components. pruritus. 15. Xiang et al. NATIONAL. Z. D. Lou. 1329 (1989). Zhongcaoyao. First described in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. Chem. Shimizu et al. hard-toheal carbuncles.. R. 8. Wang et al. regulatory status not REFERENCES See the General References for CHP. 5. fangfeng is used in skin care products (creams. J. or as powder. Liu. Listed in Li Shi-Zhen’s Ben Cao Gang Mu (ca. 6. 18. 15. warming. Chem. Commercial Preparations. 30. and urticaria.. X.and dampness-dispelling drugs (qu feng chu shi. C. 13. H. 3555 (1982). T. Pharm.. R. 11. H. E. 49. A. Wang and Z. pruritus. 154 (2001). rheumatism. fangfeng is one of the major wind. 13. Wang and Z. Powdered herb and extracts used extensively as ingredients in formulas for treating the common cold. Okuyama et al. Wang et al. rheumatism. it is commonly used in treating cold and flu and their associated headaches. Tongbao. Traditionally considered pungent and sweet tasting. and Cosmetic. Shimizu et al.. Traditional Medicine. 323 (1992). JIXIAN. Sinica. N. and tetanus.. Sasaki et al. 9. H. Pharm. Zhongyao 3054 (1989). 7 (1987). 644 (2000). N. and antiallergic ointments) and in hair tonics for these properties and for its anti-inflammatory and whitening (tyrosinase inhibitory) effects. C.

1. generally considered to be native of the Mediterranean region. a-phellandrene. unequal.2 Common fennel appears to be the more commonly used fennel whenever the spice is called for.18 There are also considerable variations in the amounts of fenchone (0–22%) and estragole. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (mostly g-tocotrienol).1. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Fruits contain 1. Hungary.1 mm. unequal. peduncles 2–25 cm. with the latter occurring only in the cultivated form. minerals (relatively high in calcium and potassium). and linoleic acid with a relatively high concentration of tocopherols Fennel and its volatile oil have carminative and stimulant properties.C. a. Germany. 3. and apiole. 4–30 Â 5–40 cm. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Perennialherb with erect stem. However. France.Fennel 283 FENNEL Source: Foeniculum vulgare Mill. trans-l.2 (–2. depending on the varieties. oleic acid. sweet fennel oil is reported to be the one generally used. sugars. and a-pinene. although fennel oils are official in the N.10 umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin). and pcymene). rays 6–29.and trans-ocimenes.12 MARSH).2. 3–5%). Low concentrations of polyacetylenes were recently detected in the root. the last two reportedly only present in the cultivated sweet variety.6–8 flavonoids (mainly quercetin-3-glucuronide. and quercetin-3-arabinoside.6% (usually 2–6%) volatile oil. Bulgaria. myristicin.14 The volatile oil contains mostly trans-anethole (72–74%).F. FURIA AND BELLANCA.22 The essential oil and the ethanolic extract have a relaxant effect on tracheal chain of guinea pigs resulting in .) (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). Anethum foeniculum L. lower petioles 5–15 cm.and b-terpinene. F. mainly in cosmetics (ARCTANDER. vitamins. 3-carene. pedicels thin. a-fenchene. stigmasterol. cis. hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. with reported values ranging from 50% to 90%. limonene. fenchyl alcohol.5) mm. FEMA. bitter fennel oil is used only to a limited extent. rutin.18. terpinolene. myrcene. sources. 4–5-pinnatisect.. capillaceum Gilib.13 An antimicrobial phenylpropanoid (dillapional) was also isolated from the stem.15–20 The concentrations of trans-anethole in the oil vary widely.1. blade broadly triangular in outline.).5–10 cm. anisaldehyde.16.7.5 m high. athujene.4 ROSENGARTEN). F. India. There are two commonly used varieties of fennel: common fennel (or bitter fennel) and sweet fennel.2. umbellules 14–39-flowered.16.2. 11. estragole (methyl chavicol.6 9–28% (usually 17–20%) fixed oil composed primarily of petroselinic acid (60–75%). with minor amounts of kaempferol-3-arabinoside and kaempferol-3-glucuronide). etc. and F. (syn. (without specific distinctions between them). isoquercitrin. 0. panisic acid. upto1. camphene. Common/vernacular names: Florence fennel and finocchio. LIST AND HoRHAMMER. ¨ and others (JIANGSU. officinale All. Italy. Fruit 4–6(–10) Â 1. Fennel oil has been reported to have spasmolytic effects on smooth muscles of experimental animals.8-terpin.1. 2–10 mm.9. and other factors.C.7.5–8. LIST AND HORHAMMER). 1. cultivated as an annual or a perennial worldwide (Argentina. Greece. protein (16–20%). Other compounds present include more monoterpene hydrocarbons (b-pinene.. ultimate segments linear.5–2. with lesser amounts of fenchone (11–16%). China. 1–6 Â ca.21 Common fennel is reported to contain usually lower amounts of anethole but higher amounts of fenchone than ¨ sweet fennel (JIANGSU. ripeness of fruits.5. Part used is the dried ripe fruit (commonly called seed) from which an essential oil is obtained by steam distillation. Umbels 5–9 cm across. sabinene.7.

40 Bitter (common) fennel and sweet fennel oils are used as fragrance components in cosmetics. Pharmaceutical.31 Fennel oil displayed an anti-inflammatory. The effect is suggested to be through the opening of potassium channels.30. The activity has been correlated with the phenylpropanoid content of the oil.38 It is suggested that polymers of anethole. central analgesic. and perfumes. weakly insecticidal. Food. baked goods. detergents. with highest average maximum use level of about 0.29 The volatile oil and extracts have a cytotoxic effect on the larvae of Culex pipiens mosquito and a repellent effect against Aedes aegypti malaria mosquito.23 A recent clinical study showed that fennel oil is effective in the treatment of infantile colic.26 Fennel oil exhibited antimicrobial activities in vitro against a number of bacteria and fungi.36 TOXICOLOGY Estragole has been reported to cause tumors in animals (see sweet basil). Moderate repellent activity was exhibited by fenchone and E-9octadecenoic acid of the oil. Fennel and sweet fennel oil are used as a carminative or flavoring agent in certain laxative preparations. Sweet fennel is reportedly used in nonalcoholic beverages.32 The oil also had a hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in a liver injury model in rats.39 Anethole and fenchone experimentally reduce secretions of upper respiratory tract. with highest maximum use levels of 0. and gravies. USES Medicinal. and processed vegetables.27. condiments and relishes.36 A cream containing 2% of the ethanolic extract of fennel was effective in reducing excessive hair growth in women diagnosed with idiopathic hirsutism.4% reported for both oils in perfumes. creams. and ciliary epithelium in frogs. and Cosmetic. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. .119% (1186 ppm) reported in meat and meat products. mild gastrointestinal antispasmodic.25 The same effect was observed in a clinical study conducted in young females with dysmenorrhea whereby the effect of the oil was comparable to that of mefenamic acid.34 A terpene fraction of fennel oil has shown strong cytotoxic properties. In Germany. such as Helicobacter pylori. including soaps.35 Aqueous extracts of fennel experimentally increase ciliary action of ciliary epithelium in frogs. in syrup for children’s coughs.284 Fennel bronchodilation.37 Anethole is reported to have allergenic. stimulating ciliary action. and antioxidant effect in experimental animals.36.28p-Anisaldehyde and ( þ )-fenchone were found to have an acaricidal activity against two Dermatophagoides species that is stronger than that of benzyl benzoate. are active estrogenic compounds.305% (3049 ppm) in meat and meat products. such as dianethole and photoanethole. which supports a common traditional use of the oil.36 Recent research shows that anethole is one of many phytochemicals that interrupt NFkB involved in the etiology of many diseases. Highest average maximum use level reported is about 0. also upper respiratory tract conditions (expectorant). It also stimulates secretions of the upper respiratory tract. baked goods. fats and oils. the fruits used in phytomedicines for dyspeptic disorders.33 Fennel oil has antiplatelet activity and ability to inhibit clot retraction in experimental animals. and toxic properties (see anise). candy. gravies. meat and meat products.14. lotions. meat and meat products. Common fennel is used as a flavor component in alcoholic beverages (especially liqueurs).24 The oil has a relaxant effect on isolated rat uterus pre-exposed to oxytocin and PGE2 as a model of primary dysmenorrhea. snack foods.

. 4. N. Zidorn et al.40 The oil (0. J. 14.36.S. BLUMENTHAL 1. Crude was formerly official in N. Parejo et al. Can. 25.. Kwon et al. 5.F. Toxicol. 3679 (2004). Regulatory Status. MARTINDALE.36.10). J. R. Fette. Pak. tincture. fennel has also been used for centuries in treating hard-to-heal snakebites. Ind. and F.P.20). Crushed or ground fruit in teas. Y. B. Fennel fruits and oil are reportedly used as a stomachic and as a carminative in treating flatulence and other stomach troubles. Opdyke. GUENTHER. J. J. gelatins and puddings. Highest average maximum use level reported is about 0. 18. 829 (1977). 879 (1974). and congestion of upper respiratory tract. JIANGSU. 17. Farmatsiya (Moscow). baked goods.g. 15. or honey syrup (FOSTER). Planta Med. both in Western traditional medicine and in Chinese medicine. Sci.36. GUPTA.. Ind. liqueurs) and nonalcoholic beverages. D. Anstrichmit. Dietary Supplement/Health Food. gastrointestinal spasms. 11. 17. Opdyke. 2.C. and bedwetting. Toxicol. Z. A. Embong et al.6 mL daily dose) and fruits (5–7 g daily dose) allowed for stimulation of gastrointestinal motility (or spasmolytic effect at high end of dosage) for dyspeptic discomfort. Z. 43. J. Lebensm. L. 2518 (2005). BIANCHINI AND CORBETTA. Rep. D. Food Chem.C.. usually decocted with other drugs (JIANGSU).). 352 (1966). 164. J.... 154 (2002). S. Res. GRAS: common fennel and sweet fennel (§182. fennel fruits have been used for many similar purposes as dill fruits. J. B. K. and for cholera. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and oil. 16.Fennel 285 Sweet fennel oil is widely used in most major food products. FEMA. Wahid and M. ROSENGARTEN.. Seher and S. 10. Harborne and C.40 REFERENCES See The General References For APPLEQUIST. Am.. Seifen. Forsch. Res.. L.40 Traditional Medicine. 78. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.. Williams. A. 6. Food Cosmet. M. 368 (2003).. A... 1741 (1972). 57. 55 (1964). 52. and U. Food Cosmet. backache. M. frozen dairy desserts.023% (234 ppm) in alcoholic beverages.. as well as for catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract.BAILEY 1. I. Res. U. Food Chem. GRIEVE. Herrmann. .. 9. I.. Agric. Sci. Moreau et al. Mimica-Dukic et al. Karlsen et al.. Pak. Oil Chem.1–0. Oil official in N. Ashraf and M. Abyshev et al. HUANG.. 236 (1975). C. In Chinese medicine. 224 (1976). 12(Suppl. and condiments and relishes. Kunzemann and K. J. A. candy.. J. M. Phytochemistry. J. J. Ikram. 194 (1977). Ivanov. TERRELL. M. 309 (1976). 8. 11. 42 (1977). Pharm. UPHOF. 5. meat and meat products. LIST AND ¨ HoRHAMMER.. Phytother. Arch. Seeds and essential oil subjects of German therapeutic monographs. 7. 281 (1969). 12.. 40 (1961). including alcoholic (e. 53. for which the powdered drug is used as a poultice. Bhatty. J.F. J. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 26. FOSTER. 1. Sci. among others. Soc. Plant Sci. Agric. 3. sweet fennel (§182. 4. BISSET. 14. Arab. Res.. Pharm.40 Traditionally. Unters. P. Saleh et al. JIXIAN. 13.

. 58 (2003).. J. N. Phytother. Fr. 34. Shishodia. 1729 (1969).. Bundesanzeiger. 40. 22. 37. Peyron et al..13%). 74 (April 19. 5. B.. 50. Monograph Foeniculi aetheroleum. Ozbek et al. 29. H. Int. 143 (1973). S.05%). 10. Sci.. 1419 (2006)... and oblong.. Life Sci. 54. 25. J. Sci. An annual herb.6 m high.. M. Choi and J. about 1/8 inch long. Ann. Res.. J. nearly smooth herb with alternate leaves. Mahady et al.. 597 (2005). B. 36. D. Albert-Puleo. B. 33. Brasil e Silva and L. 30.. Aggarwal and S. Namavar et al. Alexandrovich et al.286 Fenugreek 17. Obstet. Food Chem. C. 63 (1968). Shah et al. A. native to western Asia and southeastern Europe. Greek hay. H. B. H. Silyanovska et al. 19. Parfum. no. 988 (2005). 2. Chim. seeds CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Contains simple alkaloids consisting mainly of trigonelline (up to 0. K. Ostad et al. J. 23.. 59. Fitoterapia. 52. Part used is the dried ripe seed. smooth. Shipochliev. 21. G. 299 (2001). de A. 557 (2004). Pharmazie. it is hard. 80. 25.. sickle-like pods. oblong.. 1. South America. 18. 293 (1969). Traboulsi et al. 6993 (2002). F. Lebensm. leaves are trifoliate.. 26. Common/vernacular names: Foenugreek. Ramadan et al. 20. M. 434 (2004). Agric. J. 1991). H. Agric. narrow.. A. ¨ 35. 28. 8. 31. 455 (2003). Phytochemistry. Manag. M.. no. Lee. Med. Planta Med. 10–20 together.. Pharmazie. J. flowers yellowish ca. (Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae). 566 (1970). 51 (1972). 1991). 153 (2003). gentianine. Altern. erect up to 0. Rothbacher and A. L. resembling a triangle. 61. M. and India). K.. Gynaecol. somewhat flattened. Soc. and carpaine. 285 (1970). 337 (1980). cultivated worldwide (e. Acad. in long.. 18. 2887 (2004). 74. H. Phytomedicine. Harborne et al. 75. 317 (2003).g. 561 (2004). Javidnia et al. Bull. Ther. Farm.. Y. Bauer. J. contained. Health Med. F. Pest. 19. B.. 39. K. Bras. Chem. N. 38. S.. 24. Kosmet. Fitoterapia. Ethnopharmacol. leaflets oblong–lanceolate. with a deep furrow dividing them into two unequal lobes. Nauki. 9. Kraus. 12–18 mm long in leaf axils. 74 (April 19. 339 (1969). GENERAL DESCRIPTION brownish. Technol.. Monograph Foeniculi fructus.. S. I. E. FENUGREEK Source: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Bundesanzeiger.. rhomboidal. Rev. Ethnopharmacol. 27. T. they are 50–110 mm long excluding the beak of 10–35 mm. Boskabady et al. 1030.. M.. Mediterranean region. Mikrobiol. 32.. choline (0. to 5 cm. much of the trigonelline is degraded during roasting to nicotinic . Hwang. 76. Kim et al. northern Africa. 2. Vet. Food Chem. Tognolini et al. fruits are almost straight and flattened with a pronounced beak. China. G. 78. 50.

they were suggested as possible replacements for oxytocin. Used as an ingredient of curry powder and many spice blends. (5) Protein (23–25%).27 also reported PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Both water and alcoholic extracts have been reported to have a stimulating effect on the isolated guinea pig uterus. with the first one isolated at 0.05%. and chapped lips. which include n-alkanes. etc. Fenugreek extracts are used in certain perfume bases as well as in soaps.16 (7) Vitamins. the effects of trigonelline in diabetics have been inconclusive (MARTINDALE).9 yamogenin tetrosides B and C have been reported to be two of the glycosides (saponins) present. quercetin. Pharmaceutical. especially A.24 USES Medicinal.4R)-4-hydroxyisoleucine. and others. depending on age of the extract (MARSH. bronchitis. Has been used for millennia as a drug and a food or spice in Egypt.10 (2) Flavonoids.11–13 (3) Fixed oils (5–8%).2% reported in perfumes. and the Middle East. which is low in S-amino acids but high in lysine and tryptophan. Use levels for extracts are usually below 0. which appears to be mostly a galactomannan and is probably responsible for swelling of the seed in water. saponaretin (isovitexin). 5-methyl-d-caprolactone. elemenes. g-nonalactone. muurolenes. 25 TOXICOLOGY A report has indicated that fenugreek absolute is nonirritating.7% steroid sapogenins consisting mainly of diosgenin and its isomer yamogenin usually in a 3:2 ratio. creams.3. varying from fishy to nutty. it has been suggested as a supplement of cereal proteins. and arginine.15 (6) Free amino acids.26. Its medicinal uses include fever reducing and treating mouth ulcers. including vitexin. which on extraction with fat solvents yield an extract with a strong odor. (9) Volatile components (more than 50).). and lotions.09% yield as the major component. baked goods. and others.2–7 treatment of the seeds with enzymes before acid hydrolysis has increased the yield of diosgenin and yamogenin by 10–90%. homoorientin. NANJING). for milk promotion. ROSENGARTEN). histidine.24 Food. luteolin. and nonphototoxic to human skin. However.24 When fed both before and after experimental diabetes induction. and others (JIANGSU. The water extract has also been reported to have accelerating effects on the heartbeats of the isolated mammalian heart. including (2S.5. indicating that . detergents. sesquiterpenes. with tigogenin and neotigogenin also present. Its major use in the United States is in imitation maple syrups for which solid extracts are mostly employed. meat and meat products.Fenugreek 287 acid and other pyridines and pyrroles. India. especially during the last period of pregnancy.18–21 these extracts may have a highly oxytocic activity.8. chronic coughs.17 (8) Minerals (especially calcium and iron). Other food products in which it is used include alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. vicenin-2. MARTINDALE). and C. vitexin-7-glucoside. candy.6–1. and oxygenated compounds (undecane to hexadecane. frozen dairy desserts. and Cosmetic.3R.14 (4) Considerable amount of a mucilage. orientin arabinoside. for cancers. nonsensitizing. fenugreek has antidiabetic activities in rats. Traditional Medicine. B1.1 Other constituents include (1) saponins that yield on hydrolysis 0. and vitexin cinnamate. which probably account for much of the flavor of roasted fenugreek (JIANGSU. as digestive aid. gelatins and puddings. with maximum use level of 0. lysine.23. flavor of the extracts varies with the extent of roasting and the solvents used. vicenin-1.22 Trigonelline and fenugreek infusion have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects in animals.

Hardman and F. Y. Planta Med. Karnatak Univ. R. 533 (1985). A. 426 (1972). 2247 (1974). S. Lutosmski. externally as poultice for local inflammation. H. Because it is an annual herb.. fenugreek seed is a potential source of sapogenins for the manufacture of steroid hormones and related drugs. ARCTANDER.. 1707 (1973). 21.. allowed internally for loss of appetite.28 REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. R. M. 118 (1976). M.. 5. 19. 2. Seeds subject of a German therapeutic monograph. A. 15. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2. the time required for its planting to seed harvesting is much shorter than that for Dioscorea species and may prove to have a distinct advantage. 21. J.. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude and extracts in liquid and spray-dried forms. S. 1057) and has since been used as a nutrient and in treating kidney ailments. I. Phytochemistry. B. Sect. P. Regulatory Status. UPHOF. Planta Med. 22. beriberi.. Z. A.. DUKE 4. 16 (1969).. POUCHER.20). Fenugreek was first introduced into Chinese medicine in the Sung Dynasty (ca. 224 (1971). Wagner et al. J. and others. 12. M. Phytochemistry. JIANGSU. Chem. 51. 2548 (1973). M. Planta Med. 133. Voloshina et al. BRUNETON. 17. Elujoba and R. Saleh et al. Phytochemistry. GRIEVE. Y.. 12.. other male problems. 7. Chromatogr. 16. B. 683 (1975). Hardman. Phytochemistry. BLUMENTHAL 1. Fowden et al. 14 (1969).10 and §182. N. Hardman and K. Farm. T. Zh. D. 13. 10. Planta Med. Bohannon et al. Nahrung. Chemtech. 20. Planta Med. K. hernia. Sood et al. 1513 (1974). S. Jefferies and R.. Strengths (see glossary) of extracts are expressed in flavor intensities. Kalburgi. A. 122 (1976). 30. Elmadfa. 896 (1975). 158 (1977). 11. H. 51. C. Bogacheva et al. YOUNGKEN. 4. Bhardwaj et al.. 113 (1985). N. Extracts used in flavoring tobacco. BARNES. Hardman. Reymond. Adamksa and J. 9.. Prikl. Planta Med. impotence. 17. J. 10. Indian J. Fazli and R. HORTUS 3rd. 14.. L. 20. A. Khim. Ghosal et al. Both unroasted and roasted (fried and sprayed with salt water) seeds are used. D. 3. Due to its content of sapogenins. 1. 6. Girardon et al... R. particularly diosgenin. S. F. G. Others. BISSET.. 13. Biokhim. R. Phytochemistry. Hardman... 664 (1977). Brain. Phytochemistry. Analyst. NANJING. Used extensively in foreign countries as a feed for livestock. 18.. . ROSENGARTEN. 8. 94 (1977). Abdo and A. Badami and G. HUANG.288 Fenugreek to be used in Java in hair tonics and to cure baldness (ROSENGARTEN). 12. JIXIAN... 351 (1976). 11. 2497 (1971). 101. LUST. 21. Knight. 15. Ernahrungswiss.. 14. Mikrobiol. 19. D. DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. 11. 222 (1977). 15. Planta Med. FEMA. 322 (1972). R. 13. Al-Kafawi. GRAS (§182. C. 65 (1977). R. Puri et al. 16.. R. 7. Fazli.

naturalized throughout Europe. 1b-hydroxyarbusculin. 33.. In vitro. Flower heads 5–30. D. tanaparthin-la. 25.. was found to contain as much as 1. reynosin. TUTIN 4). J. 3b-hydroxyparthenolide. Planta Med. parthenium.1 Crude extracts inhibit both human blood platelet aggregation and secretory activity in platelets and neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leucocytes).8 The three flavonols centaureidin. Farnsworth and A. jaceidin and santin were also isolated from T. flosculosum (DC) Beck. Parts used are the leaves and/or stems. 16(Suppl.4a-epoxide. single. 24. (syn. parthenium f. leaves yellowish green. 286 (1988). magnoliolide. FEVERFEW Source: Tanacetum parthenium (L. Toxicol. R. 97 (1970). B.. occasionally escaped in eastern North America. Leucanthemum parthenium (L. 381 (1973). Sm. l). parthenolide (up to 85% of sesquiterpene content). M. in addition to apigenin and the 7-glucuronide and 7-glucoside of luteolin.9 PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Leaves contain sesquiterpenoids: artecanin. seco-tanapartholide A. cultivated for many centuries. Food Cosmet. 28. Opdyke.Feverfew 289 23.3 The ability of feverfew extracts to inhibit release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from blood platelets has been suggested as mechanism of action in treatment of . tanaparthin. Tile Till. as well as the guaianolides canin and artecanin. N.) Schulz.2–6 A cultivar T. Bip. S. in dense corymb. double (both ligulate and disk) forms common in horticulture. chrysanthemonin. 54. Hartwell. B. L. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Parthenolide. Lloydia.. 755 (1978). Planta Med. 22 (February 1. parthenolide is absent. the sesquiterpene fraction dominated by parthenolide contains smaller levels of other germacranolides and guaianolides. canin. indigenous to rocky mountain scrub of the Balkan peninsula. disk yellow to white. up to 1 m. divided into crenate-toothed to entire lobes.) Bernh.4b-epoxide (GLASBY 2). 23.. 10-epi-canin. santamarin.. Riyad et al. chrysanthemolide. 57. and Pyrethrum parthenium L. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Strongly aromatic perennial.) (Family Compositae or Asteraceae). J. L. Other chemotypes (Balkan) also dominated by eudesmanolides and guaianolides canin and artecanin. is highly variable in quantity or absent. parthenolide is absent. stems ridged. extracts protect endothelial cell wall of rabbit aortas from perfusioninduced injury and inhibit deposition of human platelets on collagen. A Mexican chemotype is dominated by the eudesmanolides reynosin and santamarin. no. deemed the active sesquiterpene lactone. 8bhydroxyreynosin. pinnatisect into 3–7 oblong to ovate segments. ligules white. 27. et Godron. Central and South America. Segelman. A.7 Lipophilic methyl ethers of the flavonols 6hydroxykaemferol and quercetagetin are present in the leaves and flowers. Monograph Foenugraeci semen. and elsewhere (GLEASON AND CRONQUIST.) Gren. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L. 26. and tanaparthin1b. depending on chemotype and geographic location of originating material.27% parthenolide in leaves. 1990). Vohora et al. Bundesanzeiger. 52 (1971).

antipyretic. for colic. breast. Tea.22 USES Medicinal.1% parthenolide (leaf and stem. rheumatism. and so on. Pharmaceutical.6 A minimum level of 0. France) or 0. antispasmodic. More than 13 laboratory and/ or clinical parameters were assessed. earache.20 Parthenolide and feverfew extract have in vitroantiproliferative activities against a number of human tumor cell lines of lymphoma.16 Later in vivo studies showed that both feverfew extract and parthenolide possessed antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities in mice and rats and that such activities were dose dependent. feverfew reduces frequency and severity of migraine symptoms. Over the 6-week trial. and vermifuge activity. The results do not preclude possible benefits for the use of feverfew in osteoarthritis and soft tissue lesions. a 1989 double-blind. had not previously responded to conventional therapies. The authors concluded that there were no important differences between the control group and those receiving feverfew. however. and cervical cancers. 41 female patients with symptomatic rheumatoid arthritis received feverfew or placebo. Health and Welfare Canada issued a Drug Identification Number . Participating patients. and so on.17 The extract. carminative. and Cosmetic. parthenolide. anodyne.2% parthenolide has been proposed by the Health Protection Branch of Health and Welfare Canada (roughly half the parthenolide content of feverfew samples used in clinical trials). and so on. duration of individual attacks was unaltered. tablets. stimulant. However. tincture.16 Anti-inflammatory.8. kidney pains. freeze-dried leaf capsules.23 In Danish folk medicine as one of many herbs used for the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions. placebo-controlled. standardized to contain 0. double-blind. used in migraine headache. gynecological problems. dried leaf capsules.14 A 1988 randomized. and so on.20 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude herb. Regulatory Status.21.18 Another possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of feverfew is the inhibition of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. stomachache.3 Traditional Medicine.10–13 Inhibition of serotonin release in vitro correlates well with parthenolide levels.7 A 1985 double-blind. capsules.2% parthenolide (leaf only. morning sickness. placebo-controlled trial involving 72 volunteers clearly associated feverfew treatment with a reduction in the frequency of and vomiting associated with migraine attacks. Canada). In the United Kingdom. asthma. tinctures. tonic. randomized study evaluated the effect of dried leaves (70–86 mg) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.15 Based on previous reports of antiinflammatory activity. as well as a reduction in their severity. Class 1 dietary supplement (herb that can be safely consumed when used appropriately). Feverfew extracts. extracts. In Latin America used to promote functional activity of digestion. are used for the prophylactic treatment of migraines. placebo-controlled trial on the use of feverfew as a prophylactic treatment for migraine assessed a 25 mg dose of freeze-dried leaf capsules on 17 patients. febrifuge. concluding that when taken prophylactically.290 Feverfew migraines. and some of the constituent flavonoids were also shown to inhibit the arachidonic acid pathways in leukocytes. emmenagogic. lay use of fresh or dried leaf primarily for allaying rheumatic and arthritic joint inflammation is more widespread than use in migraine prophylaxis.19 Feverfew ethanolic extract demonstrated a significant dose-dependent binding affinity to the GABA(A)–benzodiazepine receptor.

yellow. 4. J. V.. 44. J. 20.’’23 REFERENCES See the General References for APPLEQUIST. Sin. A. 16. trunk smooth grayish brown. Liu. H. glabrata H. paper presented to the 57 Congrs de 10 Association Canadienne e Francaise pour 10 Advancement des Sciences. Awang et al... 1031 (2005). 3. and F. 22. M. Awang. FOSTER AND DUKE. F. S. 26 (1989)... Pittler.. GLASBY 1 & 2. Botanical series. tip of a branch has a long. TX. no. Product allowed to carry the claim ‘‘used as a prophylactic against migraines. K. 1991. 55. J.. Nat. Lancet. 1044 (1992).Ficin 291 (D. 487 3.. Biochem. Common/vernacular names: Leche de oje.. 25.. J. Ethnopharmacol. 291. DUKE 2. Long et al. D. 417 (1999). Med. Rheumatic Dis. 19. J. 2. 105. Cell Immunol... 1106 (2000). C. Foster. up to about 45 m high. 21. 2313 (1992). 01958712) to a feverfew leaf capsules product. E. WREN. E. 89 (2001). Pattrick et al. J. Williams et al. A. erect cylindrical trunk over 1 m in diameter.2% parthenolide. broken leaves drip . TUCKER 2. Can. 68. 65.B. Br. Prod. C. 22. 589 (1985). 55 (2006). 9. Johnson et al. Qubec. D. Ethnopharmacol. American Botanical Council.. STEINMETZ. 567 (2003). 17. Feverfew-Tanacetum parthenium. H. Piela-Smith and X. leaves bright. Phytochemistry. anthelmintica Mart. C. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A tree with tall. shiny green. Diener et al. 126 (1999). Sumner et al.. Heptinstall et al. 64.. Pharm. Cephalalgia. 20. V. Awang.. Food. J. Jager et al. V. 509 (2000).) (Family Moraceae). K. Jain and S.. Marles et al. 209. 122. 43.. Pharm. J. 310. C. J.. K. 21. R. V. C. S. J. C. Can. pointed stipule. 34. 12. C.. Phytochemistry. 294 (2006). Ross et al. Nat. TUTIN 4. V. Mittra et al. 51. (syn. 1.. Kulkarni. S. 1516 (1991). Austin. Pharmacol. 13. 18. 54. 48. 42 (1990).. BRUNETON. 1989. which falls as the branch grows leaving a circular scar on branch at the base of each leaf.. Awang. J. Wu et al. 239. HerbalGram. 547 (1989). F. standardized to 0. MARTINDALE. 15. Ann.. Hobbs. 22. D.. 189 (1988).K. 14. C. BARNES. May e e 15–19. D.. H. ex. FICIN Source: Ficus insipida Willd. C. J. N. HerbalGram. GLEASON AND CRONQUIST. laurifolia Hort. 5.. Acta Pharmacol. C. with yellow veins. 10. 8. Public Health Nutr. 23. 9. TYLER 1. BLUMENTHAL 2. Murphy et al.N. D. 7. 6. (1987). Ernst and M. 251 (1999). 391 (1992). T. 266 (1989). DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER. J. S.I. J. Planta Med.. Montral. Pharm. leche de higueron. Awang. 11. MCGUFFIN 1 & 2.. H. Lam. Prod. WEISS. Pharmacol. Med..

Part used is the latex from the tree.10 Ficin is well known for its ability to digest intestinal worms in vitro. followed by spray-drying.1. mercaptoethanol.5. Venezuela. odorless or with a putrid odor. bisulfite. the lost activity due to inactivation by certain metals can be restored by EDTA and a reducing agent such as cysteine. copper. its activity has been reported to be reduced by ethanol and propanol. Crude ficin (latex) is corrosive to the skin and may cause bleeding on prolonged contact.. Used in anti-inflammatory preparations. It is usually purified by filtration. iodoacetate.7.g.7 It has .6 The optimal pH for ficin activity varies with the substrate. The major producing countries are Peru and Colombia.1 Like bromelain and papain. ficin may cause contact allergies in certain individuals. and casein has another optimum at pH 6. Pharmaceutical. and cyanide) and inhibitors (e. sodium benzoate (1%) is also added as a preservative.6 C. ficin has broad specificity in hydrolyzing proteins. native to tropical South America. It is active over a pH range of 4–9.. or 1.5. growing in Peru. With gelatin there is another optimum at pH 7.1.g. Used mainly in meat tenderizers (usually in combination with papain and/or Ficin is a sulfhydryl proteinase containing a carbohydrate moeity as bromelain. It can withstand an acidic pH of 2.6 C.5 (for casein). and Cosmetic. Thus with gelatin at pH 7.5 It is inactivated at 80. Food. egg white. also used as digestive aid.4. the Peruvian material has a higher solids content. It is relatively soluble in water but insoluble in most organic solvents. lactose. dextrose. and its solutions are reported to be stable over a pH range of 3. Commercial purified ficin is not pure ficin but is a mixture of several proteases and small amounts of other enzymes (e.5–9.800–26. depending on the quality.g. It is generally collected by felling the tree.g.9 It is also easily inactivated by metals (e.6 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES been reported to consist of three major components and 248 amino acid residues.7. PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Ficin (also bromelain but not papain) when administered orally to rats has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory activity against paw edema induced by serotonin. with a molecular weight of 23. and Central America.. being affected similarly by the usual papain activators (e.g. or starch) and other constituents.3.4. and mercury) and sorbic and maleic acids. esters. primarily in Europe.000 and an isoelectric point at pH 9 or 10. and small peptides. amides. dextran. To prevent coagulation.5.6 The optimal temperature range for ficin activity is generally considered to be between 50 and 65 C. aluminum. and allowing the latex to drip into wooden or non-iron containers placed beneath the incised areas.292 Ficin white latex rapidly. depending on the substrates and the pH as well as the purity of the commercial ficin preparations.2dimercaptopropanol. methyl bromide.1. and carrageenan. making incisions all over the surface. Like papain.8 It is similar to papain in its chemical properties. Colombia. and hydrogen peroxide). brewer’s yeast. cysteine. USES Medicinal. iron. Like other proteases. sulfide. and large oral doses are reported to cause catharsis (MERCK). it is reported to be 62. This is the usual form of crude ficin imported into the United States.. with maximum stability at pH 5–8.. ranging from 5 (for gelatin and elastin) to 9.1–3 Commercial purified ficin is a beige to light-brown powder.1 Crude ficin (latex) is cream to pinkish in color and has an acidic pH (usually 3–4). acetic acid is generally added. peroxidases) in addition to diluents (e.

E. 3. 136. ovate-cordate. 6. ho-shao-wu. 22. Farmaco. 73 (1970). eds. Chem. Biol. Academic Press. Adv. G. Liener and B. Murachi and N. 7. branches herbaceous.. 2nd ed. ho-shau-wu. FO-TI (RAW AND CURED) Source: Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. 1970. Netti et al. Ruyssen. Available grades and activities vary. Ed. Academic Press. Liener. 245. glabrous. Methods in Enzymology. 298. TYLER 3. 261. Spikes . zhishouwu.5 cm wide. Due to its increasingly high cost and limited availability. REFERENCES See the General References for MERCK.C. short-acuminate. 2. purified ficin is official in F.. ed. L.. J.. N. Yamamoto in G. J.. 1975. petioles 1–5 cm. Desnuelleet al. Chem.C. p. Radix Polygoni Multifiora Preparata (cured fo-ti). 221 (1976). 5. Takahashi in P. I. 3–4. p. Crude Drug Res. leaves alternate. Glazer. R. 468 (1957). Van den Eeckhout and R. 159. 14. ho-show-wu.. hollow stems. Others. Structure– Function Relationships of Proteolytic Enzymes. determination of the Rh factor). 123. eds. New York. R. 2765 (1970). New York. Enzymes in Food Processing. 9.Fo-ti (raw and cured) 293 bromelain) and in the preparation of protein hydrolysates. simple.1 COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS Crude (latex) and purified.. Prat. Academic Press. Radix Polygoni Multiflori. 2. Such uses include cleaning and preparation of intestinal submucosa in the manufacture of sutures. Common/Vernacular names: Heshouwu. 27. Lorand.. J. p. Brocklehurst. Farm.5 cm long. Belg. E. A. The latex is used in South America by natives as a vermifuge. 10. 4.. Whitaker. E. also hoshou-wu. Jones and A. cleaning and preparation of animal arteries for implantation in humans. 47. Tijdschr. (Family Polygonaceae). and in serology (e. I. 1 (1976).5–4. T. 202 (1974). Friedenson in G.. depending on suppliers (see bromelain). Reed. Q.. and sausage casings. 1. K. reaching 3–4 m long. P. Traditional Medicine. E. J. J. sheaths rather short. roots slender. C.. Biochem.. Perlmann and L. GENERAL DESCRIPTION A climbing perennial herb with thick rhizomes. bearing reddish brown to dark brown thick tubers near the tip. New York. 1970. edible collagen films. E. 8. polygonum. Ser. somewhat woody at the base and mostly branched at the top. I.g. Food Res.. 453 (1972). Malthouse and K. Gaughran. Also used in cheese making (curdling milk) and in chillproofing beer. zhiheshouwu. shouwu. ficin is used in special applications where the other proteases are less suitable.

from these few reports and from the Chinese literature that does describe raw and cured foti. and extending inland to Sichuan and Yunnan. 2 mm long. JIANGSU). which has been the only chemical study quoted in a well-known herbal. Although easy to pronounce. fo-ti has been increasingly produced from cultivated plants. Since the early 1970s. LIST AND HoRHAMMER.1 For every 100 kg of raw foti slices. ¨ and stem (LIST AND HoRHAMMER). Part used is the tuberous root collected from autumn through spring (preferably autumn and winter) and processed into different types of fo-ti.6 Thus the two types of fo-ti have distinctly different chemical compositions. wine fo-ti. To prepare raw fo-ti. without giving any hints as to the existence of the two types of fo-ti with distinct differences in properties and uses (CHEUNG AND LI).294 Fo-ti (raw and cured) branched. paniculate. Thus one report (consisting of only three lines) mentions the presence of anthraquinones in the rhizome. steamed fo-ti. the term fo-ti does not mean anything and was originally coined in America for marketing purposes only. thus making the reported information of dubious ¨ value (LIST AND HoRHAMMER). The slices are then dried (CHP). the larger tubers are normally cut in half or sliced and sun or oven dried (CHP. the following chemical profile of fo-ti can be described. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Many chemical studies have been performed on the genus Polygonum but few on Polygo¨ num multiflorum itself (LIST AND HoRHAMMER). particularly in the already meager English literature.to 4-year-old plants are used (IMM-1. entirely enclosed by sepals. small in slender panicles.’’ for which raw foti is traditionally used. This heating may take many hours. and prepared or cured fo-ti. To prepare cured fo-ti. Results obtained from earlier studies were somewhat confusing as most did not specify the types of fo-ti used. freshly collected tubers are washed with water. they should be sourced carefully and used specifically. traditional properties. especially in the nonChinese literature. favus athlete’s foot. terminal. Much confusion exists in the Western literature regarding fo-ti. native to China. 3 angular. stance. even though raw fo-ti is mentioned in the Chinese version as having lubricating effects on the intestines as well as antitoxic and nodule-dispersing (antiswelling) properties. rootstock. Adding to this confusion is the lack of specificity in reporting findings on fo-ti. now distributed mainly along coastal provinces. flowers greenish white. where authors frequently do not specify type of fo-ti used in their research or report. gonorrhea. with some major or popular works making no mention of the existence of differenttypes(BENSKYAND GAMBLE. from Guangxi to Hebei. and modern pharmacologic effects and uses. IMM-1. sealed and cooked in a water or steam bath until all liquid is absorbed and the fo-ti slices turn dark brown to reddish brown. This ambiguity has caused problems in fo-ti products as manufacturers not familiar with Chinese herbs have been using the cheaper raw fo-ti in place of cured fo-ti in their tonic formulas.7.8 with no indication as to what type of fo-ti. Nevertheless. 7–8 mm long. for which root tubers of 3. there are at least four types of fo-ti: raw fo-ti. fruit an achene. Depending on methods of processing. broth from 10 kg of black soybean is used. IMM-CAMS. TYLER 1). . inflammation. attributing cathartic activity as solely responsible for the action of fo-ti (TYLER 1).thesepropertiesaresimply stated in the English version. CHEUNG AND 2–5 ¨ For inLI. in addition to a few recently published Western reports. with 3 wings. JIANGSU). Two other reports simply mention the dried roots or heshouwu as being used. the optimal heating time for yielding fo-ti with the best immuno-modulating effects (tonic properties) being 32 h. raw fo-ti slices are stirred into black soybean broth in a noniron container. Raw and cured fo-ti are the most commonly used and are the ones imported into the United States. After having both ends removed. the only clue to their using raw fo-ti was the use of description ‘‘for the treatment of suppurative dermatitis. in one bilingual reference.

Fo-ti (raw and cured)

295

Both raw and cured fo-ti contain anthraquinones, including chrysophanol, chrysophanic acid anthrone, emodin, 6-hydroxyemodin, rhein, physcion, and digitolutein, which exist both free and as glucosides (mainly glucosides, such as emodin-8-b-D¨ glucoside) (LIST AND HoRHAMMER);9–12 the concentration can reach 1.1% in raw fo-ti.9 Curing by successively steaming for 12 h, standing overnight and sun drying for 8 h (repeated nine times), or according to the Chinese Pharmacopeia for 32 h, reduced the concentrations of both the free and conjugated anthraquinones by 42–96%.10,12 In addition, the proportion of free to conjugated anthraquinones is also greatly increased in cured fo-ti, thus further reducing the laxative effects.9,13 Fo-ti (type not specified) has been reported to contain up to 3.7% lecithins (JIANGSU).9 Curing was found to increase the phosphorus (presumably lecithins) content by 36.9%;14 it also increases the sugar content.13 However, another study found that curing reduced the amount of phospholipids in fo-ti.15 Other chemical constituents reported to be present in fo-ti (mainly raw fo-ti) include rhapontin, b-sitosterol, catechins, cyanidins, stilbene glycosides, gallic acid/ gallates, 2,3,40 ,5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O(3-D-glucoside (>1.2%),7,11,16–18cis- and trans-E-3-butylidene-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6,7dihydroxy-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone19 and relatively high concentrations of calcium (2225 ppm), iron (350 ppm), zinc (24.5 ppm), manganese (18.5 ppm), and other trace minerals20 as well as copious amounts of starch and others (WANG).21
PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

Fo-ti has exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, including the following: 1. Antiaging effects. Cured fo-ti was found to influence favorably various biological processes related to aging. Thus, its decoction (p.o.) significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), biogenic

amines (5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and proteins but decreased the levels of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), lipid peroxide, and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA; a product of destructive lipid peroxidation) in key organs of aging mice; extracts of fo-ti (type not specified) showed strong stimulating effects on SOD activity in red blood cells and strong inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive material formation (indicator of lipid peroxidation) in the liver.22 Decoction of cured fo-ti (p.o.) significantly inhibited the increase of serum ceruloplasmin level in aging mice; it also significantlyinhibited atrophyofthe thymus glandofmiceduetonaturalagingorinduced by hydrocortisone as well as inhibited atrophy of their, adrenal glands.9,23 2. Immunologic effects. Fo-ti, cured per method of Chinese Pharmacopeia for 32 h, was showntoenhance nonspecific immunityand cellular immunity in mice; along with fo-ti cured bypressurecookingfor6 h at 120 C,it also had antagonistic activity against the immunosuppressive effects of prednisolone or hydrocortisone. In contrast, raw fo-ti had little or no such activities.1,24 3. Hypolipemic and antiatherosclerotic effects. A water-soluble fraction of fo-ti rich in stilbene glucosides was tested for reduction of the severity of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Concomitant administration of the fraction for the whole period resulted in a decrease in plasma cholesterol, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL), and very lowdensity lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol as well as plasma triglycerides. The atheroschlerotic lesioned area was also reduced by 40–60%.25 In a study using Japanese quails, an alcoholic extract of cured fo-ti raised blood plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: total cholesterol ratio; markedly reduced plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; inhibited hyperlipemia; and retarded the development of atherosclerosis in the animals.24 Earlier studies in other

296

Fo-ti (raw and cured)

4.

5.

6.

7.

animal species (e.g., rabbits, pigeons, and rats) also showed that fo-ti (type not reported) or its formulations exhibited similar effects (WANG).9,26 Hepatoprotective effects. Stilbene glucosides (e.g., 2,3,5,40 -tetrahydroxystilbene2-O-D-glucoside) isolated from fo-ti were found to partially inhibit the deposition of lipid peroxides in the liver of rats fed peroxidized corn oil. They inhibited the elevation of GOT and GPT levels in the serum of the rats. They also inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by ADP and NADPH in rat liver microsomes.8 Resistance to cold. Daily intragastric administration of fo-ti extract (type not specified) at a dose of 0.5 mL, (equivalent to 0.2 g crude drug) for 14 days markedly decreased the mortality rate in mice induced by refrigeration at À5 C (WANG). Antimicrobial activities. Among 80 herbs commonly used in treating hepatitis tested against hepatitis B virus in vitro, water extract of cured fo-ti was found to be one of the eight most actives in inhibiting HBV DNA replication.27 Raw fo-ti and four different types of cured fo-ti all exhibited varying degrees of inhibition against nine species of bacteria, but there was no predictable pattern in their activities.28 Neuroprotection and enhancement of cognitive performance. In passive avoidance and water-maze tests, a water extract of foti significantly reduced the cognitive deficit induced in mice by intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid b-peptide 25–35 (Abeta25–35). Abeta25–35 accumulates in Alzheimer’s disease and causes accelerated lipid peroxidation and increased levels of thiobarbituric acid in the brain.29 Daily administration of ethanolic extracts of fo-ti resulted in a significant reduction in the symptoms of Parkinsonism induced in mice by paraquat and maneb over a 6-week period.30 Thelearningabilityandmemoryof senescence acceleratedmice(SAMP8) were significantly improved, and brain pathological changes were also reduced when the

mice were fed for 18 weeks with casein diets supplemented with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of fo-ti.31 The same effects were later confirmed by the same authors who attributed them to a probable involvement of the antioxidant constituents of fo-ti.32 8. Others. Fo-ti (type not specified) is reported to be nonmutagenic per the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay;6 the hydxoxyanthraquinones in its aqueous extract (decoction) had antimutagenic effects.33 The same effect was also demonstrated by the root extract in a Tradescantia micronucleus assay. The authors attributed the antimutagenic effect to a possible combination of antioxidant, radical scavenging,34 and DNA repair activity of fo-ti.35 Raw fo-ti has cathartic activities.
TOXICOLOGY

Compared to cured fo-ti, raw fo-ti is relatively toxic. Thus, the LD50 of an alcoholic percolate of raw fo-ti per i.p. administration was 2.7 g/kg, while the LD50 of an alcoholic percolate of cured fo-ti was 169.4 g/kg (animal species not reported).9 One case of allergic reaction (cystitis, patient recovered) due to cured fo-ti has been reported.36 Gastrointestinal disturbances (diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting) reported for fo-ti were most likely due to raw or improperly cured fo-ti (WANG). Other reported adverse effects due to fo-ti (or could be due to other ingredients present in the formulas) include numbness of the extremities and skin rashes (a few cases) (WANG).

USES Medicinal, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic. Extract of cured fo-ti is a popular ingredient in hair care products (e.g., shampoos and tonics) for its alleged hair-darkening and growth-promoting properties, especially in China and Hong Kong (ZHOU); also used in skin care products (e.g., creams and lotions)

Fo-ti (raw and cured)

297

for its traditional detoxicant (antiallergic) and nourishing properties.
Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Powder and occasionally extracts are used in tonic formulas in America, though often with no distinction between the raw and cured forms; also used in sliced form in soup mix packets. Traditional Medicine. Fo-ti was first described in He Shou Wu Lu (before 10th century) and later in Kai Bao Ben Cao (10th century, in the Song Dynasty). Raw fo-ti is traditionally considered a detoxicant and laxative and is used to treat scrofula (lymph node tuberculosis), sores, carbuncles, skin eruptions (feng zhen), pruritis, and constipation, among other conditions. On the other hand, cured fo-ti is traditionally considered to have slightly warming properties and a liver and kidney tonic; it is believed to tone up the vital essence and blood and to fortify the muscles, tendons, and bones. Cured fo-ti is traditionally used to treat

dizziness with tinnitus, insomnia, premature graying, soreness and weakness of lower back andknees, and numbness oflimbs andothers. In recent years, both raw and cured fo-ti are also used in treating hyperlipemia (CHP; JIANGSU).
COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS

Crude, powder, and extracts. Raw fo-ti comes in whole, halved, or thick slices, light brown to brown in color; cured fo-ti in very dark brown to dark reddish brown slices. Due to the much lower price of raw fo-ti, this is normally the powder available in America. Also, there is no simple practical assay method to determine whether a given extract from a supplier is genuine fo-ti and which type it is.
Regulatory Status. Class 2d dietary supplement (contraindicated with diarrhea, prepared root and stem may cause gastric distress, raw root causes catharsis).

REFERENCES See the General References for CHEUNG AND LI; CHP; DER MARDEROSIAN AND BEUTLER; FOSTER AND YUE; ¨ HONGKUI; HUANG; IMM-1; IMM-CAMS, JIANGSU; JIXIAN; LIST AND HORHAMMER; WANG. 9. W. L. Deng and S. R. Gong, Zhongcaoyao, 1. D. J. Ye et al., Zhongyao Tongbao, 12, 21 18, 42 (1987). (1987). 10. G. G. Yao et al., Zhongcaoyao, 14, 15 2. Herbal Pharmacology in the People’s (1983). Republic of China, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1975, 11. S. Yao, J. Chromatogr. A, 1115, 64 p. 186. (2006). 3. A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual, Running 12. D. J. Ye et al., Zhongyao Tongbao, 11, 23 Press, Philadelphia, 1977, p. 743. (1986). 4. J. D. Keys, Chinese Herbs, Charles E. 13. L. Q. Ling et al., Shanghai Zhongyiyao Tuttle Co., Rutland, VT, 1976, p. 151. Zazhi, 78 (1966). 5. M. Tierra, The Way of Herbs, Pocket 14. M. X. Chang et al., Zhongcaoyao, 19, 17 Books, New York, 1989, p. 183. (1988). 6. J. K. Kam, Am. J. Chin. Med., 9, 213 15. C. H. Ma and J. S. Wang, Zhongguo (1981). Zhongyao Zazhi, 16, 662 (1991). 7. K. Hata et al., Yakugaku Zasshi, 95 16. Y. Chen, J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 2226 (1975). (1999). 8. Y. Kimura et al., Planta Med., 49, 51 17. X. Z. Yan, Shanghai Ti I I Hsueh Pao, 8, (1983). 123 (1981).

298

Fo-ti (raw and cured)

18. M. Yoshizaki et al., Planta Med., 53, 273 (1987). 19. J. N. Grech, J. Nat. Prod., 57, 1682 (1994). 20. Z. X. Li et al., Zhongcaoyao, 16, 15 (1985). 21. J. B. Li and M. Lin, Zhongcaoyao, 24 (1993). 22. Y. R. Dai et al., Planta Med., 53, 309 (1987). 23. M. C. Yao et al., Yaoxue Tongbao, 19, 28 (1984). 24. J. H. Ying et al., Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 17, 722 (1992). 25. P. Y. Yang, J. Pharmcol. Sci., 99, 294 (2005). 26. M. Z. Mei, Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 14, 8 (1979). 27. J. Y. Yang et al., Chin. J. Integr. Trad. Western Med., 9, 494 (1989).

28. H. S. Zhen et al., Zhongyao Tongbao, 11, 53 (1986). 29. M. Y. Um, J. Ethnopharmacol., 104, 144 (2006). 30. X. Li, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 82, 345 (2005). 31. Y. C. Chan, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 48, 491 (2002). 32. Y. C. Chan, Am. J. Chin Med., 31, 171 (2003). 33. Z. H. Xie et al., J. Zhejiang Coll. Trad. Chin. Med., 14, 22 (1990). 34. G. Ryu, Arch. Pharm. Res., 25, 636 (2002). 35. H. Zhang, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 18, 127 (1999). 36. K. G. Ren, Zhongcaoyao, 16, 40 (1985).

Galbanum

299

GALBANUM
Source: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (syn. F. galbaniflua Boiss. et Buhse) and other Ferula species (Family Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). Common/vernacular names: Galbanum resin, galbanum gum, galbanum oleoresin, galbanum gum resin, and galbanum oleogum resin.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Resinous perennial herbs up to 1 m high, spreading, stems solid, with resin ducts throughout the plants; leaves gray-green hairy; flowers in umbels, yellow; seeds flat; native to the Middle East and western Asia (e.g., Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan). Part used is the dried resinous exudation obtained by incising the stems near the ground. There are two types of galbanum: soft galbanum (or Levant galbanum) is a viscous liquid, while hard galbanum (or Persian galbanum) is a solid. The former contains more volatile oil and is used for the production of galbanum oil. A resinoid is prepared by solvent extraction; it often contains a high-boiling odorless solvent such as diethyl phthalate, diethyl sebacate, or propylene glycol used as dilutent (ARCTANDER; GUENTHER).
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

fenchol, etc.) and their acetates;1 sesquiterpenes (e.g., cadinene, guaiol, bulnesol, galbanol, and 10-epijunenol);1,6,7 azulenes (e.g., guaiazulene and isoguaiazulene); thiol esters (e.g., S-isopropyl-3-methylbutanethioate and S-sec-butyl-3methylbutanethioate);8 polysulfanes;9 pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethyl-3-methylpyrazine, and 2-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine);10,11 and (E,Z)-l,3, 5-undecatriene and (E,E)-1,3,5-undecatriene € (LIST AND HORHAMMER).12–14 The (E,Z)-isomer of n-1,3,5-undecatriene is reported to be the major odor principle of galbanum.12
PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

Galbanum contains from 5% (Persian) to more than 26% (Levant) volatile oil; about 60% resin consisting mainly of resinic acids; 30–40% gummy substances containing galactose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, and 4methylglucuronic acid residues; and umbelliferone and its esters, among others (ARCTAN€ DER; CLAUS; GUENTHER; LIST AND HORHAMMER; 1–3 KARRER; MARTINDALE). The volatile oil contains 63–75% monoterpene hydrocarbons (mostly 3-pinene, 3carene, and a-pinene, with small amounts of d-limonene, terpinolene, etc.);4,5 monoterpene alcohols (linalool, terpineol, borneol,

Extracts (aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and chloroform) of galbanum gum have been reported to have antimicrobial properties (especially against Staphylococcus aureus) in vitro; they were also effective in preserving emulsions for up to 6 months without change in physical or organoleptic characteristics.15,16 The methanol–chloroform extract has been reported to alleviate morphine withdrawal symptoms induced in mice by naloxone.17 The essential oil, the hydroalcoholic and the methanolic extracts displayed a concentration-dependent spasmolytic activity on isolated rat ileum. Such activity was partially attributed to a- and b-pinene.18 The acetone extract of the seed exhibited anticonvulsant activity at sub-toxic levels against experimental seizures in mice.19
TOXICOLOGY

One report indicated galbanum oil to be nonirritating and nonsensitizing to human skin.20
USES Medicinal, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic. Now rarely used in pharmaceuticals. Galbanum oil and resinoid are used as fragrance

300

Ganoderma

components and fixatives in cosmetics, including soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes, with a maximum use level of 0.7% reported for the oil in perfumes.20
Food. Galbanum resin and galbanum oil are used as flavor components in most food products, including nonalcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, and condiments and relishes. Galbanum oil is also used in alcoholic beverages, meat and meat products, snack foods, and gravies. Highest average maximum use level reported about 0.003%

(33 ppm) for the resin in candy and gelatins and puddings.
Traditional Medicine. Used as a carminative, stimulant, expectorant, and antispamodic for purposes similar to those of asafetida; also used in treating wounds. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS

Crude, oil, and resinoid.
Regulatory Status. Has been approved for food use (§172.510).

REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER; CLAUS; DUKE 4; FEMA; GRIEVE; GUENTHER; LEWIS AND ELVIN€ LEWIS; LIST AND HORHAMMER; MARTINDALE; MCGUFFIN 1 & 2; TERRELL; UPHOF. 11. F. Bramwell et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 37, 1. P. Teisseire, Recherches (Paris), 14, 81 3215 (1969). (1964).

2. M. G. Jessenne et al., Plant. Med. Phytother., 8, 241 (1974). 3. E. Graf and M. Alexa, Planta Med., 51, 428 (1985). 4. R. M. Ikeda et al., J. Food Sci., 27, 455 (1962). 5. Y. R. Naves, Parfum. Cosmet. Savons (1969). 6. M. Wichtl, Planta Med., 11, 53 (1963). 7. A. G. Thomas et al., Tetrahedron, 32, 2261 (1976). 8. J. W. K. Burrel et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 30, 2837 (1971). 9. Z. D. Min et al., Planta Med., 53, 300 (1987). 10. J. W. K. Burell et al., Chem. Ind., 44, 1409 (1970).

12. F. Naef et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 58, 1016 (1975). 13. Y. Chretien-Bessiere et al., Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1, 97 (1967). 14. Y. R. Naves, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 9, 3152 (1967). 15. A. Vaziri, Planta Med., 28, 370 (1975). 16. F. Eftekhar et al., Fitoterapia, 75, 758 (2004). 17. M. Ramezani et al., J. Ethnopharmacol., 77, 71 (2001). 18. H. Sadraei et al., Phytomedicine, 8, 370 (2001). 19. M. Sayyah et al., J. Ethnopharmacol., 82, 105 (2002). 20. D. L. J. Opdyke, Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 16(Suppl. l), 765 (1978).

GANODERMA
Source: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. (syn. Polyporus japonicus Fr.) and G. japonicum (Fr.) Lloyd. (syn G. sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang) (Family Polyporaceae).

Ganoderma

301

Common/Vernacular names: Reishi, lingzhi, ling zhi cao, ling chi, mannentake, holy mushroom, chizhi (red lingzhi or G. lucidum), zizhi (purple lingzhi or C. japonicum), and so on.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Fungi of the polypore family. Part used is the fruiting body. The pileus (cap) of G. lucidum is corky, kidney shaped to semicircular, with a hard upper surface, yellow at first but gradually changing to reddish brown, reddish purple, or dull purple; shiny, with annular grooves or ridges and radial wrinkles; edges thin, often curved downward. Cap sizes vary considerably, ranging from 4 Â 3 cm to 20 Â 10 cm in area and 0.5–2 cm in thickness. Woody stalk (stipe) is mostly lateral, 0.5–2.5 cm thick and up to 19 cm long, purplish brown to black and shellacked.1,2 The fruiting body of G. japonicum (purple lingzhi) resembles closely that of G. lucidum (red lingzhi), with cap sizes ranging from 2 Â 1.4 cm to 20 Â 20 cm; stalk up to 15 cm long and 0.9 cm thick. The only major difference is the dark purple to black colored cap and stalk of G. japonicum. However, some old specimens of red lingzhi also have dark purple caps and stalks and thus cannot be readily distinguished from purple lingzhi (JIANGSU).1–3 Both ganodermas are widely distributed in China, especially along coastal provinces, growing at stumps and decaying logs of oak and other broad-leaved trees as well as on decaying conifers, especially Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) Pritz., which is parasitized by G. lucidum. The latter can also be found on hardwoods in North America as well as in Japan and Korea.4,5 The mushrooms are collected in autumn, washed to rid of dirt, and dried under the sun.1 They are not processed further. Although now commercially cultivated in China, much of the ganoderma is still gathered wild. The type imported into the United States is mainly red lingzhi (G. lucidum); this species is now mostly cultivated in

America as well as in China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea (WANG). In addition to above two Ganoderma species, other species of polypores are occasionally used as substitutes of lingzhi, including Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Gray), G. lobatum (Schw.) Atk., G. capense (Lloyd) Teng, Fomes pinicola (Swartz ex Fr.) Cke., Trametes dickinsii Berk., Polyporus montanus (Quel.) Freey., P. grammocephalus Berk., and Polysticus vernicipes (Berk.) Cke.2,6 Ganoderma lucidum, G. japonicum, G. capense, and G. applanatum are used as fungal sources for the fermentative production of lingzhi biomass (WANG).

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Most chemical studies have been performed on red lingzhi (G. lucidum), including its spores and cultivated biomass (mycelium). Hence, unless otherwise stated, the data reported here are from this fungus and its strains, either wild crafted or cultivated. Chemical constituents present include sterols, mainly ergosterol (0.3–0.4%) and ergosterol peroxide, b-sitosterol, 24-methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3-b-ol, and other sterol esters, fungal lysozyme, acid protease, and other enzymes (laccase, endopolygalacturonase, cellulase, amylase, etc.); water-soluble protein, polypeptides; amino acids; trehalose and other sugars; mannitol; betaine; adenosine; alkanes (tetracosane, hentriacontane); and fatty acids (tetracosanoic, stearic, palmitic, nonadecanoic, and behenic acids) (JIANGSU; WANG).7–19 Triterpenes (mainly lanostane type) including ganoderic acids A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, DM, LM2, SP1, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, and others;20–43 lucidenic acids A, B, C, D, E, F, G, O, P, Q, and others;22,23,27,31,32,44–47 lucidones A, B, and C;31,44 lucialdehydes;48 ganolucidic acids A, B, C, D, and E;26,30,31,49 lucidumol A;43 ganoderal A;21 ganoderiols

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Ganoderma

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I;49,50 ganoderols A (ganodermanonol) and B (ganodermadiol);21,51 ganodermanontriol and ganodermatriol, among others.50–53 Polysaccharides present include a watersoluble branched arabinoxyloglucan (polysaccharide GL-1) of mol. wt. 40,000;54 an alkali-extracted, water-soluble heteroglycan of mol. wt. 38,000;55 several water-insoluble heteroglucans of mol. wt.10,000–100,000;56 ganoderans A and B of mol. wt. 7400– 23,000;57 and others.5,58–66 Lectins and glycopeptides with carbohydrate-to-peptide ratio of ca. 10:1 are also present.67–69 The essential oil hydrodistillate contains trans-anethol, R-(À)-linalool, S-( þ )-carvone, and a-bisabolol as major constituents.19 Major inorganic elements present include Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ge.70 Purple lingzhi (G. japonicum) contains ergosterol in lesser amount (0.03%), ergosta7,22-dien-3-b-ol, trehalose, alkaloids (betaine, g-butyrobetaine, etc.), 14 free amino acids, glucosamine, resin, and polysaccharides, including a water-insoluble alkali-soluble glucan (WANG).71,72 The mycelium of cultivated G. capense contains adenine, adenosine, uridine, and uracil; D-mannitol; ergosterol, b-sitosterol, soyasapogenol B, and other steroids; stearic, docosanoic, tricosanoic, and tetracosanoic acids; nicotinic acid, and furans, among others (WANG).71,72

PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

Most of the pharmacological studies have been performed on various extracts of red lingzhi (G. lucidum). Hence, unless otherwise stated, the data reported here are for this species. Bioactivities exhibited by ganoderma in humans and/or experimental animals include (1) antitumor or cytotoxic activities against experimental tumors (leukemia, lymphoma, solid sarcoma 180, hepatoma cells, Ehrlich

ascites carcinoma; bladder, breast, colorectal, prostate cancer, and others). Involved antitumor mechanisms include apoptosis, induction of T-lymphocytes and NK cell activity, cell cycle arrest, antiangiogenesis, inhibition of NF-kB signaling and others with some of the polysaccharides and triterpenoids being the active principles (e.g., GL-1, ganoderans A and B, ganoderic acids T and Z, etc.).5,54,56,59,60,62,73–95 Cancer chemoprevention mediated through antioxidant and antimutagenic activities have also been reported for G. lucidum.96–101 Recent reviews on the antitumor effects of G. lucidum have also been published.102,103 (2) Central effects (sedative, analgesic, and anticonvulsive), which are due to adenosine.104,105 (3) Cardiovascular effects (both hypertensive and hypotensive as well as increase of coronary blood flow); hypotensive effects due to triterpenoids, including ganoderols A and B, and ganoderic acids B, D, F, H, K, S, and Y, with ganoderic acid F being the most active (WANG).21 (4) Antiallergic effects (inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, inhibition of histamine release and prevention of experimental asthma and contact dermatitis); antihistaminic effects due to ganoderic acids C and D.25,106,107 (5) Antioxidant effects with protective activities against carbon tetrachloride-induced and BCG-induced liver damage for extractives of both red and purple lingzhi as well as G. capense.25,108–113 The antioxidant activity is mediated through free radical scavenging as the major mechanism involved in the protective effect against organ damage.98,114–121 (6) Antiviral activities against hepatitis B, HSV-1 & 2, HIV-1, EBV, Flu A, and VSV.45,122–130 The extract was found to be active alone against the bacteria Micrococcus luteus and in combination with cefazolin against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella oxytoca.131 An antifungal protein, ganodermin, isolated from G. lucidum was active against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Physalospora piricola.132 (7) Immunomodulating effects involving different cellular and molecular mechanisms of

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the extracts,63–66,69,70,86,133–142 (8) hypoglycemic activities, with polysaccharides (especially ganoderans A and B) being the active principles.57,143,144 Involved mechanisms include a-glucosidase inhibition as well as enhanced release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells.145,146 (9) Platelet aggregation inhibitory effects, with adenosine being the active agent.12,147,148 (10) Hypolipemic/ hypocholesterolemic effects through the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by 26oxysterols and ganoderic acid derivatives7,109,149,150. Other reported activities include anticholinergic;58 antipandrogenic;151 anti-inflammatory;98,152,153 antiulcer;154,155 smooth muscle relaxant, antitussive, vasodilative, diuretic, anabolic, antifatigue, and others (JIANGSU; WANG).104,156–158 Recent reviews on the biological activities of G. lucidum and its constituents are available.159,160

USES Medicinal, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic. Extracts are used in skin-care products, especially creams and lotions for their traditional moisturizing, nourishing, and whitening properties (ETIC). Known for at least 2000 years for its complexion-benefiting properties, lingzhi has been demonstrated to contain a wide spectrum of bioactive chemical constituents. Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Powdered crude and/or extracts are used singly or in combination with other herbs in capsule, tablet, or liquid (syrup or drink) form as a general (qi) tonic to improve energy, stamina, and resistance to stress and diseases; hydroalcoholic extracts also used to flavor instant soup mixes and herbal drinks because of their mushroom aroma (similar to shiitake). Traditional Medicine. Lingzhi was first described in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (ca. 200 BC–AD 100) under the superior category of drugs as good for deafness, beneficial to the joints, calming, benefiting vital energy (jing qi), strengthening tendons and bones, and good for one’s complexion. It is generally considered sweet and slightly bitter tasting and neutral or warm, and nontoxic. One of the major Chinese tonics, it was once considered the ‘‘elixir of life’’ and was for centuries reserved for emperors and glorified in Chinese literary classics. Although six types of lingzhi have been recorded and used since ancient times, only red lingzhi and purple lingzhi are currently used, and interchangeably. Major traditional uses include treatment of general weakness (xu lao), cough, asthma, insomnia, and indigestion. Modern uses also include the treatment of excessive dreams (nightmares), lack of appetite, neurasthenia, chronic hepatitis, pyelonephritis, mushroom poisoning (large single dose of 120 g used),1 coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, hyperlipemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis (topical treatment), acute altitude sickness, Keshan disease, leukocytopenia, and others (JIANGSU; NATIONAL; WANG).

TOXICOLOGY

Toxicities of ganoderma are very low, with LD50 (i.p.) in mice varying considerably among different ganoderma preparations, ranging from 3.42 Æ 0.11 to 38.3 Æ 1.04 g/kg. Oral doses of up to an equivalent of 1.88 g/kg of crude material could be tolerated by mice for 20 days with no toxic effects. The sensitivity to ganoderma toxicity varies with the animal species, with rabbits being the least sensitive and mice, the most sensitive (JIANGSU; WANG; ZHOU AND WANG). Human toxicities are rare and not serious, consisting of dizziness, dry mouth and nasal passage, dry throat, nosebleeds, pruritus, stomach upset and bloody stools, which have been observed after long-term (3–6 month) continuous oral use. Clinical examinations revealed no toxic effects on vital organs such as heart, liver, and kidney (ZHOU AND WANG). Recent documented adverse side effects include a case of skin rash after drinking 200 mL of a lingzhi wine and a case of allergic shock due to the use of a lingzhi injection (i.m.).161,162

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Ganoderma

COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS

and biological properties, depending on extraction menstruums used.
Regulatory Status. Ganoderma is an ethnic food/herb; its U.S. regulatory status is not clear.

Crude (mainly G. lucidum, both cultivated and wildcrafted) and extracts. Extracts come in various types with different physicochemical

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5. Y. Sone et al., Agric. Biol. Chem., 49, 2641 (1985). 6. Institute for Assay of Drugs and Biologicals, Ministry of Health, and Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, eds., Zhong Yao Jian Bie Shou Ce (Manual of Chinese Drug Identification), Science Publishers, Beijing, 1981, p. 174. 7. H. Hajjaj et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 3653 (2005). 8. Y. Mizushina et al., Biol. Pharm. Bull., 21, 444 (1998). 9. D. Kac et al., Phytochemistry, 23, 2686 (1984). 10. C. Y. Hou et al., Zhiwu Xuebao, 30, 66 (1988). 11. S. S. Subramanian and M. N. Swamy, J. Sci. Ind. Res. (India), 20B, 39 (1961). 12. A. Shimizu et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 33, 3012 (1985).

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98. B. Lakshmi et al., Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen. (Suppl 1), 85 (2003). 99. H. Lu et al., Int. J. Mol. Med., 9, 113 (2002). 100. H. Lu et al., Oncol. Rep., 8, 1341 (2001). 101. K. C. Kim and I. G. Kim, Int. J. Mol. Med., 4, 273 (1999). 102. J. W. Yuen and M. D. Gohel, Nutr. Cancer, 53, 11 (2005). 103. D. Sliva, Integr. Cancer Ther., 2, 358 (2003). 104. Y. Kasahara and H. Hikino, Phytother. Res., 1, 17 (1987). 105. Y. Kasahara and H. Hikino, Phytother. Res., 1, 173 (1987). 106. M. Nogami et al., Yakugaku Zasshi, 106, 594 (1986). 107. M. Nogami et al., Yakugaku Zasshi, 106, 600 (1986). 108. G. T. Liu et al., Chin. Med. J., 92, 1979 (1979). 109. M. J. Lee and M. H. Chung, Korean J. Pharmacogn., 18, 254 (1987). 110. J. F. Wang et al., J. Trad. Chin. Med., 5, 55 (1985). 111. W. C. Lin and W. L. Lin, World J. Gastroenterol., 12, 265 (2006). 112. X. J. Yang et al., World J. Gastroenterol., 12, 1379 (2006). 113. G. L. Zhang et al., World J. Gastroenterol., 8, 728 (2002). 114. J. Sun et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 6646 (2004). 115. K. L. Wong et al., Phytother. Res., 18, 1024 (2004). 116. H. B. Zhao et al., J. Pharmacol. Sci., 95, 294 (2004). 117. H. N. Zhang et al., Life Sci., 73, 2307 (2003). 118. Y. H. You and Z. B. Lin, Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 23, 787 (2002). 119. J. M. Lee et al., Phytother. Res., 15, 245 (2001).

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308

Garlic

GARLIC
Source: Allium sativum L. (Family Amaryllidaceae or Liliaceae). Common/vernacular names: Common garlic, allium.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

A strong scented perennial herb with long, flat, and firm leaves, 0.5–1.5 cm wide; flowering stem up to 1.2 m high; bulbs with several bulblets (cloves), all enclosed in membranous skins; origin unclear; a variable cultigen (found only in cultivation), garlic’s wild progenitor, Allium longicuspis, is thought to have originated in the high plains of west-central Asia perhaps in the Kirgiz Desert; spread east and west with nomadic tribes; known to be cultivated in the Middle East more than 5000 years ago; naturalized in North America; cultivated worldwide. Part used is the fresh or dehydrated bulb. Garlic oil is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed fresh bulbs; powdered garlic is derived from the dried bulbs.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

tri-, tetra-, and pentasulfides, and other related sulfur compounds.2,4 Boiled garlic also contains sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate.5 Most published data since 1892 have indicated diallyl disulfide to be the main compound in garlic oil (60%). However, one study indicated that diallyl trisulfide dominated in freshly distilled oils.6 Other volatile compounds present include citral, geraniol, linalool, and aand b-phellandrene (JIANGSU; KARRER; LIST AND 7 € HORHAMMER). Prostaglandins A2 and Fla were isolated from a homogenized garlic extract.3 Highmolecular weight fructans and agglutinins (homo- and heterodimeric mannose-binding lectins) were also isolated from garlic.8–11 Allicin is the major odor principle that is produced by the enzymatic action of alliinase on alliin; it is decomposed by heat and alkali but is unaffected by dilute acids in solution (JIANGSU; MERCK). Composition of garlic products depends on product form. Thiosulfinates (e.g., allicin) were found to be released only from garlic cloves and garlic powder products; vinyl dithiins and ajoenes were found only in products containing garlic macerated in vegetable oil; diallyl, methyl allyl, and dimethyl sulfide series components were exclusive to products containing the oil of steam distilled garlic.12

Contains 0.1–0.36% (usually ca. 0.2%) volatile oil, alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide), S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, enzymes (e.g., alliinase, peroxidase, and myrosinase), ajoenes (E,Z-ajoene, E,Z-methylajoene, and dimethylajoene), protein (16.8%, dry weight basis), minerals, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, etc.), lipids, amino acids, and € others (JIANGSU; KARRER; LIST AND HORHAMMER; 1–3 MARSH; MARTINDALE). The volatile oil contains allicin (diallyldisulfide-S-oxide; diallyl thiosulfinate), allylpropyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide as the major components, with lesser amounts of dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide; dimethyl trisulfide, allylmethyl sulfide, 2,3,4-trithiapentane, bis-2-propenyl

PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

Garlic and garlic oil have been reported to exhibit numerous pharmacological properties.13–17 The ones most frequently reported include (i) hypolipidemic/lowering of serum cholesterol (or lipids) in rabbits and humans (including lowering triglycerides and total low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), while raising levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol;18–28 (ii) cardiovascular enhancing and hypotensive properties in humans and animals (MARTINDALE). Possible mechanisms include sodium pump modulation and/or betareceptor blockade;28–35 (iii) antibacterial, antifungal, and ativiral properties (in vitro and

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in vivo against H. pylori, pneumococci, Candida, Aspergillus, and dermatophytes) with the hydroalcoholic extract reportedly being much more potent than the essential oil;2,15,28,36–48 a pilot study in 10 AIDS patients found that a garlic extract produced an improved helper: suppresser ratio in natural killer cell activity, with a concurrent improvement in AIDSrelated conditions, including diarrhea, genital herpes, candidiasis, and pansinusitis with recurrent fever;49,50 garlic also has larvicidal, insecticidal, and amebicidal activities (e.g., antigiardial and antitrypanosomal);48,51–53 (iv) anti-inflammatory (inhibition of COX and prostaglandin synthesis);54–57 (v) antitumor activities against various tumor models in mice and rats;58–61 (vi) hypoglycemic activities in rabbits and rats;21,62–64 (vii) antioxidant/antihepatotoxic/radioprotective activity in rats (mainly due to S-allyl cysteine);65–67 garlic was recently reported to be effective in the treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome.68 Garlic also lowers blood viscosity; improves microcirculation; with expectorant, diaphoretic, and diuretic properties, among others (ESCOP € 2; JIANGSU; LIST AND HORHAMMER; MARTIN69 It has recently been reported DALE). to reduce osteoporosis and to possess immunomodulatory and spermicidal activities.70–72 Antithrombotic activity has been attributed to various fractions of garlic. Ajoene has antithrombotic activity triggered by inhibiting exposure of fibrinogen receptors on platelet membranes. Diallyl sulfide and methyl allyl sulfide, claimed responsible for the antithrombotic activity, were found to be inactive in inhibiting platelet aggregation.73 However, a recent study attributes higher thrombocyte aggregation-inhibiting potential to chloroform fractions of thiosulfinate than to the ajoenes.3 The platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity, as well as possible antiplaque effect,74 may be responsible for the potential utility of garlic as a useful protective agent in atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis, and stroke (TYLER 1).49 The volatile sulfur compounds (especially allicin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide)

are generally considered to be responsible for much of garlic’s pharmacological activities (e.g., hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and larvicidal).23,45,48,53,63 Allicin, believed to be the most important biologically active compound in garlic, is primarily responsible for its antibiotic and antimutagenic effects.75,76 One study found that thiosulfinates (e.g., allicin) were not formed below pH 3.6, thus alliinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by stomach acid. A second (unidentified) enzyme, in addition to alliinase is involved in thiosulfinate formation. A stomach acidresistant coating on garlic powder tablets is necessary for thiosulfinate release, which if prepared carefully can release amounts of total thiosulfinates similar to whole garlic cloves.77 Garlic oil acts as a gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxant, suggested for further research in patients with hypermotile intestinal disorders.78

TOXICOLOGY

Allergic contact dermatitis due to garlic has been reported (MARTINDALE).

USES Medicinal, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic. Strong popular interest has made garlic preparations the best-selling over-the-counter drugs in Germany, with sales topping $250 million per year in Europe.79 Food. Fresh garlic and powdered garlic are widely used as domestic spices. Garlic oil is extensively used as a flavor ingredient in most food products, including nonalcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, condiments and relishes, meat and meat products, fats and oils, snack foods, and gravies, with highest average maximum use levels generally much below 0.003% (34.4 ppm).

310

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Dietary Supplements/Health Foods. Use of various dosage forms and formulations, including fresh, dried, powdered, or freezedried garlic, essential oil (garlic oil), and various proprietary preparations of powdered, aged, or extracted fresh or dried garlic (FOSTER). Traditional Medicine. Has been used for thousands of years in treating coughs, colds, chronic bronchitis, toothache, earache, dandruff, high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, hysteria; also used extensively in cancers; generally as the juice, cold infusion, or tincture.80 In addition, the fresh cloves, garlic tea, syrup, tincture, and other preparations have been used as an aphrodisiac; to treat fever, flu symptoms, shortness of breath, sinus congestion, headache, stomach ache, hypertension, gout, rheumatism, pinworms, old ulcers, and snakebites; and for numerous other ailments, conditions, and applications (FOSTER AND DUKE).49 In Chinese medicine, in addition to above uses, garlic is used for diarrhea, dysentery (amebic and bacterial), pulmonary tuberculosis, bloody urine, diphtheria, whooping cough, typhoid, hepatitis, trachoma, scalp ringworm, hypersensitive dentin, vaginal trichomoniasis, and others, some of which have been reported successful in clinical trials (JIANGSU).

COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS

Crude, powder, and oil. Crude was formerly official in N.F. and U.S.P., and oil is official in F.C.C. Composition of organosulfur compounds varies greatly with the method of processing, and changes occur in their chemistry when garlic is crushed, cooked, ingested, metabolized, or commercially processed. Analysis of garlic compounds is necessary for standardization of these products, especially commercial ones and for biological studies.12,77,81
Regulatory Status. Has been affirmed as GRAS (§184.1317), but only as oil, extract, or oleoresin.69 A German therapeutic monograph allows use of the minced bulb and preparations calculated to an average daily dose of 4 g (fresh garlic) or 8 mg (essential oil) for supportive dietary measures to reduce blood lipids and as a preventative for age-dependent vascular changes.82 A proposed European monograph indicates use for prophylaxis of atheroselerosis; treatment of elevated blood lipid levels influenced by diet; improvement of arterial vascular disease blood flow; and use for relief of coughs, colds, catarrh, and rhinitis (ESCOP 2).

REFERENCES See the General References for ARCTANDER; BAILEY 1; BARNES; BLUMENTHAL 1 & 2; DER MARDEROSIAN AND 4; ESCOP 2; FEMA; FERNALD; FOSTER; FOSTER AND DUKE; GRIEVE; GUENTHER; GUPTA; HUANG; € JIANGSU; LEWIS AND ELVIN-LEWIS; LIST AND HORHAMMER; LUST; MABBERLY; MCGUFFIN 1 & 2; NANJING; ROSE; ROSENGARTEN; TERRELL; TYLER 1; UPHOF; YOUNGKEN. 5. O. Yamato et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. 1. J. Lee and J. M. Harnly, J. Agric. Food Biochem., 67, 1594 (2003). Chem., 53, 9100 (2005).

BEUTLER; DUKE

2. J. R. Whitaker et al., Adv. Food Res., 22, 73 (1976). 3. S. A. Al-Nagdy et al., Phytother. Res., 2, 196 (1988). 4. Q. Hu et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 1059 (2002).

6. H. Miething, Phytother. Res., 2, 149 (1988). 7. O. E. Schultz and H. L. Mohrmann, Pharmazie, 20, 441 (1965). 8. S. Baumgartner et al., Carbohydr. Res., 328, 177 (2000).

C.. Dtsch.. 48. Exp. 16. R. Pharmacol. Issled. 50.. C. K. 17. S. K... Atherosclerosis.Garlic 311 9. K. 634 (1996). N.. Essent. Carbohydr. K. Appl. 42. Brace. 21. Tansey. 1. R. 43. 69. 27. Exp.. no. 1240 (1975). Gupta and R. 57.. 223 (1997). 1. 32. Bordia et al. Fatty Acids. 18. J. V. Platt. 40. Mol. Shams-Ghahfarokhi et al. 38. 257 (1998). Nutr. 10. Kritchevsky. 19. S. T. 21. Lancet. Kaku et al. 11. Artery. Ztg. K.. Garlic-Allium sativum. Martin et al. Qidwai et al. 47. L. Nutr. E. 27. J. Verma et al. Fitoterapia (2006). Biol. 39. 7 (1976). Int. 14 (1995). A. V. Augusti. K. J. Augusti. 93. U. Microbiol. A. 310 (2001). 35. 204 (2000). American Botanical Council. 278 (1995). Microbiol. 166. K. Med. S. 12. Essent. Indian J. Thomson and M. 33. Exp. P. D. T. 22. Physiol. Biol. Z. 33 (2002). K. 145 (1992). Biol... Curr. 18. Amonkar. 311. Jain and C. Cancer. Sharma et al. Appl.. K. Biotechnol. Cardiovasc. M. 50. 101 (1968). Medikon. 273 (1996). 39. P. 57. D. Agric. Planta Med. M. 20. Indian J. Ethnopharmacol. 30.. P. Microbiol. Indian J. Verma. H. Isensee et al. H. 379 (1977). Biochem. 60. 628 (2004). P... Canizares et al. 28. V. 15. Kolodin. J. Bordia et al.. Biol... 26.. Exp. 23. K. Cell.... Biol. Y. Pai and M. 36. Dermatol.. 118 (1997). 41. Biol. T. Sovrem. Metody. G. K. Al-Qattan et al. Dtsch. Petkov. Med. 37.. 34. Nutr. D. Vyas. Lawson et al. 45. Br. K. R. Jain. 6.. F. 16. J. 26. 941 (1976). T. 37. 14. Turner et al. L.. Lemar et al. 15. 52 (1989). H. 33. 20... Cancer Drug Targets. L. Kominato et al. . Smeets et al. W. Prostaglandins Leukot.. A. 49. 1861 (1966).. Ali. A. Venugopal. 43.. 398 (2002). 489 (1977). 40. 241 (2002)... Atherosclerosis. 1991. 1. Med. Pak.. Yadav and N. S. Venugopal and T. Augusti et al. 319 (1975). 4022 (2006).. 46. Sandhu.. Onkologie. FEMS Immunol. L. Exp. Res. Barone and M. 11. Fatty Acids. D... Indian J. Singh et al. 106. Exp. 115 (2005). R. Dikasso et al. 21. 208 (1974). Nurs. 67 (2003). Abdullah et al.. Food Chem. Cellini et al. Sivam et al. 701 (2004). Biol.. 12 (1977). 1 (1997). J. B. Prostaglandins Leukot. V. Biotechnol.. 34. C. 229. Oyo Yakuri. 69. Ethiop... 49. Appl. S. B. TX. J. Apoth. Davis et al. E. 44. N. 39. Plant Mol. Indian J. Indian J. Indian J. 15 (1975). 793 (1977). 54. J. Harris et al. Indian J. Gorinstein et al. S. 42. M... 25. T... 760 (2001). 31. 13. R. 34. Lett. 58. 546 (1994). J. 13.. V. 29. 347 (1992). 92... Diet. 363 (1991). Assoc. 217 (2003). Microbiol... 94 (1993). 13. Botanical Series. A. 24. Prog. 3. Planta Med. Mycologia. 12.. Bordia et al.-Forsch. Murthy and S. 1227 (2002). 282 (2001). Foster. W. Austin.. Arzneim.

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51. J. C. Harris et al., Microbiology, 146 (Pt 12), 3119 (2000). 52. A. J. Nok et al., Parasitol. Res., 82, 634 (1996). 53. S. V. Amonkar and A. Banerji, Science, 174, 1343 (1971). 54. H. P. Keiss et al., J. Nutr., 133, 2171 (2003). 55. G. Hodge et al., Cytometry, 48, 209 (2002). 56. M. Ali, Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, 53, 397 (1995). 57. M. Ali et al., Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, 49, 855 (1993). 58. M. D. Samaranayake et al., Phytother. Res., 14, 564 (2000). 59. D. L. Lamm and D. R. Riggs, Urol. Clin. North Am., 27, 157 (2000). 60. D. R. Riggs et al., Cancer, 79, 1987 (1997). 61. Y. Kimura and K. Yamamoto, Gann, 55, 325 (1964). 62. C. G. Sheela and K. T. Augusti, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 30, 523 (1992). 63. P. T. Mathew and K. T. Augusti, Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 10, 209 (1973). 64. R. C. Jain and C. R. Vyas, Am. J. Clin. Nut., 28, 684 (1975). 65. G. Saravanan and J. Prakash, J. Ethnopharmacol., 94, 155 (2004). 66. S. K. Jaiswal and A. Bordia, Indian J. Med. Sci., 50, 231 (1996). 67. H. Hikino et al., Planta Med., 52, 163 (1986).

68. G. A. Abrams and M. B. Fallon, J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 27, 232 (1998). 69. Anon., Fed. Regist., 39, 34213 (1974). 70. T. Ghazanfari et al., J. Ethnopharmacol., 103, 333 (2006). 71. M. Mukherjee et al., Phytother. Res., 20, 408 (2006). 72. K. Chakrabarti et al., Asian J. Androl, 5, 131 (2003). 73. E. Block inR. P. Steiner, ed.,FolkMedicine the Art and the Science, American Chemical Society, NewYork, 1986, p. 125. 74. J. Koscielny et al., Atherosclerosis, 144, 237 (1999). 75. L. D. Lawson et al., Planta Med., 57, 263 (1991). 76. H. Koch and G. Hahn, Garlic— Fundamentals of the Therapeutic Application of Allium Sativum, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich, 1988. 77. L. D. Lawson and B. G. Hughes, Planta Med., 58, 347 (1992). 78. D. J. Joshi et al., Phytother. Res., 1, 140 (1987). 79. P. Mansell and J. P. D. Reckless, Br. Med. J., 303, 379 (1991). 80. J. L. Hartwell, Lloydia, 33, 97 (1970). 81. L. D. Lawson in A. D. Kinghorn and M. F. Balandrin, eds., Human and Medicinal Agents from Plants, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1994. 82. Monograph Allii sativi bulbus, Bundesanzeiger, no. 122 (July 6, 1988).

GELSEMIUM
Source: Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Ait. f. (syn. G. nitidum Michx. and Bignonia sempervirens L.) (Family Loganiaceae or Spigeliaceae) Common/vernacular names: Yellow jasmine, wild jessamine, woodbine, Carolina yellow jessamine, and evening trumpet flower.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Evergreen woody vine sometimes climbing to about 6 m; leaves opposite, lance-shaped to narrowly oval; flowers very fragrant, bright yellow, occur in clusters; native to southwestern United States; also grows in Mexico and Guatemala; widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. Parts used are the dried rhizome and roots.

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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Contains as active constituents about 0.5% oxindole alkaloids, consisting mainly of gelsemine, with lesser amounts of gelsemicine, gelsedine, gelsevirine, sempervirine, gelsemidine, 1-methoxygelsemine, 21-oxo-gelsemine, and 14-hydroxygelsemicine (GLASBY € 2; LIST AND HORHAMMER).1–5 Other constituents present include the coumarin scopoletin (also called gelsemic acid and b-methylesculetin), an iridoid compound,1 volatile oil (0.5%), pregnane-type steroids (12-b-hydroxypregna-4,16-diene3,20-dione and 12-b-hydroxy-5-a-pregn16-ene-3,20-dione),6 fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids), n-pentatriacontane, and tannins (KARRER; LIST AND € HORHAMMER).

have been severely poisoned by chewing leaves or sucking flower nectar. Toxic symptoms include giddiness, weakness, ptosis, double vision, dilated pupils, and respiratory depression (GOSSELIN; HARDIN AND ARENA; MARTINDALE). A case of lethal goat intoxication has been reported in which 3 goats died after accidental feeding on gelsemium leaves that resulted in diffuse