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1. Introduction :
1.1 Overview of Television Media : Television has gained a very significant role in information sharing and generally among people’s daily life during its short history. Nowadays, TV is one of the most watched media all around the world. On average TV is viewed in Europe 3 hours and 33 minutes per person daily. Reasons for its popularity are several. TV is a compelling media due to its media and information richness. It requires little from the viewer (ease of use) and provides possibilities for social interaction among viewers both during and after watching. It can be used both for entertainment purposes and information absorption. The single most important change process in TV’s near history - digitalizationhas started during 1990’s. Process started from digitalization of the production and distribution infrastructure. Now the development has reached the viewer level. The transfer period will last at least until end of this decade . This development has wide-ranging affect on all players in TV industry from content owners to viewers. These changes are for example better picture and sound quality, more channels, more attractive content and possibility to use interactive services (e.g. information services, e-commerce etc.). An important issue facing business today is how to disseminate information to employees in an engaging and meaningful way. One effective way is to distribute multimedia content via an Ethernet network. A converged network allows you to deliver live or recorded video and audio , conferencing, distance learning, and animated presentations to any computer connected to the network. The concept has been around for a while, but the technology to implement it in practical applications has recently become mature enough to make it a reality.
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 1.3 Television Broadcasting : Television is generally broadcast using three methods - terrestrial broadcasts Using VHF (Very High Frequency) or UHF (Ultra High Frequency) radio waves , satellite broadcasts using microwaves and cable broadcasts using coaxial cable. There are new methods currently in development. Powerline transmission transmits data to the viewer through the power grid and xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology allows television pictures to be digitally transmitted down telephone lines. A form called ASDL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line) was used in an interactive TV trial in Ipswich and Colchester by British Telecom three years ago , but it is not being used commercially as equipment that must be installed in the telephone exchange is currently too expensive. Cable, satellite and terrestrial are currently undergoing a transition from analogue to digital. Terrestrially digital transmission allows either six slightly higher than normal quality channels or one HDTV (high definition television) channel to be placed in the space of one analogue channel.
1.4 The Internet : The Internet is a network of networks spanning the globe. It could achieve communication using a technology called packet-switching. When two computers communicated, instead of forming a direct dedicated connection (circuit-switching - as with the current telephone system), they would send the data in little packets which would be routed through the network whatever way possible to arrive at there destination. If any intermediate connections were destroyed the data would be routed around. The Internet’s killer applications were e-mail and the world-wide web. This enabled people to publish pages including pictures which could be viewed very simply by anyone around the world. It comprised HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language). HTTP specified a protocol that allowed the
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) transmission of the pages, and HTML specified a file format for the pages that allowed them to be viewed on any type of computer using software called a browser.
1.5 Video Streaming Video streaming is a method of sending video through the Internet. It is known as streaming as the video is displayed as the data arrives at the viewer's computer, rather than being received in its entirety and viewed afterwards. The main problems in Video streaming relate to the Internet bandwidth (speed of transmission) and QoS (Quality of Service - reliability). Digitized video takes a lot of space - 1 minute of television quality video takes approximately 1,900 megabytes (million characters) of space per minute, while an average home connection to the Internet can transmit approximately 300 kilobytes (thousand characters) per minute and the Internet is already quite congested. Streamed video must also arrive at the destination reliably if some packets of data do not arrive or arrive too late the player will 'stall' - it will not have any pictures to display on the screen.
1.6 Digital Transmission of Video Whatever medium is used for transmitting digital video, the size must be reduced. The size of the picture or the number of frames per second can be reduced. However this isn't a satisfactory solution if the aim of the video is to replace television - ideally the size of the picture should be increased. The most powerful solution is compression, of which there are two types. Lossless compression removes patterns of data and replaces them with symbols which can be substituted back on decompression , for example "195555555555874" could be represented by "19[10×5]874". The decompressed data is identical to the original data before it was compressed . Lossy compression involves removing data that wouldn't be missed by the viewer (or would be least missed by the viewer).
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
Standards for video compression are set by MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group). Their standards are used in the recording of video on CDs (MPEG-1) and digital television transmission (MPEG-2), though these media have a much higher bandwidth than the Internet (approximately 9 megabytes per minute for CDs and 30 megabytes per minute for digital television). These use a form of compression called DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform). All the companies developing video streaming software (which will be mentioned later) have developed proprietary CODECs ( Compressor-DECompressor algorithms) that enable video to be transmitted over a normal telephone line. The quality of these is very poor - the only real solution to the problem is to use a broadband (high bandwidth) connection to the Internet. There are a few ways to do this - primarily cable modems and xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology. Cable modems allow computers to connect to the Internet through the cable system, though the cable company must upgrade their equipment for them to work. They typically allow a maximum of 15 megabytes per minute, which is more than good enough for television quality video. XDSL technology allows computers to connect to the Internet at a faster rate through its existing copper connection to the telephone system. It allows a maximum of 75 megabytes per minute, but requires costly upgrades at telephone exchanges and it requires the viewer to live within a certain distance of the exchange. There are other methods of connecting to the Internet in between these capacities and traditional modems, such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), but their capacity isn't high enough for television quality video. If many people viewed video at this bandwidth the Internet itself would come to a standstill due to the amount of data - the main backbones ( the high bandwidth connections that make up the Internet across the world) have a limited, albeit always increasing, capacity which already causes the Internet to slow down during peak hours. A solution is multicasting - broadcast of Internet packets from one source to many, selected destinations. This is as opposed to unicasting ( from one source to one destination - how Internet transmission normally takes place) and broadcasting (from one source to every
it is better just to skip the missing information. To work multicasting must be supported on routers (the devices that route information from one point to another on the Internet).any missing packets are merely 2. Currently it is not supported on most routers. We can compare traditional methods of broadcasting with the Internet using the following criteria. An alternative to TCP is UDP ( dropped. TCP is unsuitable for video streaming as by the time the packets are retransmitted they are of no use . A television is connected to the set top box that 5 . along with a set top box programmed with software that can handle viewer requests to access media sources. What is IPTV ? Internet protocol television. IP defines the structure of the packets and TCP is a method used to make sure they arrive at their destination (involving sending retransmission requests for packets that go missing). uses a two-way digital broadcast signal that is sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection. Most data is transmitted across the Internet using TCP/IP ( Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). or IPTV. As each packet is quite small a few missing packets shouldn't make much difference to the viewer's image.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) single destination). but this is rapidly changing. QoS can be improved by using different protocols to transmit the video. which is used by video streaming software) . • • • • • • • Image/Audio Quality Cost Content Choice Client Hardware Interactivity Availability User Datagram Protocol).
without "hotline queues". no matter how the technical realisation is done. as generic term. and movies on demand. The Switched Video Service (SVS) system allows viewers to access broadcast network channels. 6 . But the meaning of IPTV is going to change to a synonym for "TV via broadband". it is based on the general Internet protocols ( IP protocols ). i. that the transmission technologie is IP based. So with "IPTV" here the new meaning "TV by Internet" is meant. the meaning of IPTV is occupied by "server based techniques". subscription services. At the moment.e. like all other Internet technologies.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) handles the task of decoding the IP video and converts it into standard television signals. IPTV is no analog or digital one-way-street like before ! The customer can "interact" immediately ( and he / she can "buy" ). "IP" also indicates.
tightly managed network that results in a superior entertainment experience. The “multicasting” technology allows a single video stream to be viewed by many users on the network. that doesn't mean people will log onto their favorite Web page to access television programming.Microsoft 7 .specialized video encoding schemes (MPEG-2.To deploy IP-TV. audio. More instructors will be developing video components for their courses as digital camcorders and video editing software become cheaper and easier to use.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) IP-TV is a recent concept that promotes methods of distributing video. several technologies are leveraged such as quality of Windows Media Video 9). IPTV is generally funded and supported by large telecom providers who have undertaken the mission of creating a competitive replacement product for digital cable and satellite services . and IPTV provides an efficient solution for delivering high quality video. In the IP-TV model. several channels of content would be available and easily accessed using a client running on a desktop computer or some specialized appliance .While the "IP" in its name stands for Internet Protocol.multicast protocols. IPTV is a method for broadcasting a “multicast” video stream over the campus network. So instead of a server sending out 25 individual video streams requiring 300 Kbps each. The IP refers to a method of sending information over a secure. This reduction in bandwidth requirements allows a much higher quality video stream to be used. • IPTV is not TV that is broadcast over the Internet. IPTV currently broadcasts Mpeg1 encoded video. and other active multimedia content across a network much like television is deployed today.and specialized servers and clients. which exponentially reduces the amount of bandwidth required. service (QoS). it can send a single 300 Kbps stream that can be viewed by 25 viewers. which is the same format used in video CD’s (VCD’s).
• The primary underlying protocols used for IPTV are IGMP version 2 for channel change signaling for live TV and RTSP for Video on Demand. and Ogg Theora. IPTV Architecture • Due to the bandwidth requirements of video. DivX.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 3. Their primary advantage over traditional distribution models is that they provide a way of sharing data delivery workloads across connected client systems as well as over the distributor's own server infrastructure.264. IP television service allows viewers to have more control of Internet television services. MPEG-4. IPTV requires broadband connections to be distributed. WMV (Windows Media Video 9 and VC1). • The playback of IPTV requires either a personal computer or a "set-top box" connected to a TV. H. Protocols using peer-to-peer technology to distribute live TV are just starting to emerge.1 IP television can be watched on different types of viewing devices such as • • • • standard televisions with adapters dedicated IP televisions multimedia computers mobile telephones. which drastically decreases the operational costs for a stream provider. This control ranges from instant service activation to real time television on 8 . • IPTV covers both live TV (multicasting) as well as stored video (Video on Demand VOD). Video Compression formats used for IPTV include MPEG-2. 3. XviD.
global television channels.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) demand controls. While surfing 9 . Some of the advanced Internet television features such as personal media channels. How IPTV Works And IPTV NETWORK Example (TURBONET) After having installed the iPTV equipment on your PC. 4. you start using the service by dialing into the CS Internet network with your ordinary 56K modem. anywhere television extensions.
Turbo Internet Network Diagram 10 . Furthermore. During transmission. iPTV can be used as a Proxy server to relieve timeconsuming bottlenecks when high speed Internet access is required. when you click a link to request a different page. the request goes to the Satellite service's Network Operations Center (NOC). located at CS Internet.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) the Web. Users may subscribe to receive content such as TV programs and future applications directly from the provider. Internet data will be converted into MPEG-2/DVB streams. The NOC then requests the content from a web-server and beams it to a Thaicom satellite. For corporate users. The web page is then passed to your PC through a satellite receiver. instead of making the request directly to a web-server. iPTV provides additional value-added services which allow content providers or television program providers to transmit data to satellite receivers directly using IP Multicasting. from where it is forwarded to your satellite dish.
IPTV works the same as VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol). A new technology.IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) may be the solution to all of these problems. if the shows are aired in the same time slot. or have you wished that you could start and stop your favorite programs? digital Video Recorders like TiVo offer a partial solution. the user can only choose one to record. The signal is broken up into data packets and sent over the internet to a home user’s high-speed internet connection. and into a set-top 11 . except with a television signal instead of a voice signal.Limited hard drive space causes quality on a DVR to be noticeably lower than normal television.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Working of IPTV : Have you ever wished that your favorite show was in a more convenient timeslot. In addition. and also limits the amount of content that may be accessed at any given time. allowing consumers to record a limited amount of video and watch it when they so desire.
IPTV will be offered at equal or higher quality than current TV quality broadcasts. The major obstacle for IPTV providers is finding partnerships that would enable them to provide sufficient content to compete with a Cable or Satellite TV service. Unlike normal television. or even configure their IPTV set-top box to record a show from a remote location. Cable TV providers send every channel to every user. has plans to use IPTV technology for much more than just television and movies. and faster internet access to their subscribers. Satellite companies are expected to first use a “hybrid” service in which a single set-top 12 . Radio broadcasts. as the lines to each house are slower than a cable line. rather than visiting a video store. Some companies use an alternate name for IPTV. Because the packets containing the television signal are only sent when requested. where the movie is streamed over the internet on demand. the largest online game service provider in China. get their e-mail. as well as ratings feedback are possible as well. Other services such as customized weather and news. Users may be able to pull up statistics on a sports player if they are watching a game. more channels. regardless of whether or not the subscriber is watching that channel. where the acronym stands for Interactive Personal TV.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) box. Without having to constantly broadcast all channels. This also allows phone companies to make an attempt to break into the market. cable companies will be able to provide. This technology would also allow for online movie rentals. Because IPTV allows data packets to be transferred in both directions. Although the technology is similar. this transmission can go both ways. an enormous amount of bandwidth is saved. and offer many services that would normally require a PC to access. which is useful for targeted advertisements. not only from provider to consumer. higher quality video and sound signals. Saving bandwidth is not the only benefit of IPTV for providers. Mp3s. Shanda Interactive Entertainment Ltd.. novels. Consumers can enjoy chess and card games. or even has their TV on in the first place. This type of service is expected to have 13. online games. providers would have an amazing amount of feedback about the programs being watched by their subscribers. and traditional TV and movie programs through their television sets. In current TV systems.5 million subscribers in China by 2007.
and providers will slowly add features afterwards. but they could end up gaining from IPTV services rather than having a more difficult time reaching consumers. as only 10 percent of people polled said they would pay for such a service. and software to make the networks work. Role of Microsoft as IPTV solutions Provider Microsoft has been heavily involved in trying to break in to the IPTV market. viewers should be able to control the coverage of different media events. so IPTV will probably first arrive as a service that only provides for Video on Demand. or video conference with their friends while they are viewing a program together from remote locations. and is awaiting the day when they can cash in on their investment. hardware. Gates claims that this type of service has had an amazing consumer response. while giving the option to add more on-demand services on top of the old service. Video games served online through IPTV seem to be suffering limited interest. However. Microsoft holds a more pristine vision of IPTV. recent “interactive” programs on TV in which viewers can vote online or via their cell phones have been seeing more and more participation. Microsoft claims to already have software ready to power IPTV services. as well as text. so having 13 .________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) box works both as a cable/satellite receiver and an IPTV receiver connected to the internet. Bill Gates believes that at some point. Advertisers will certainly have to adapt to the new landscape of television. when TV providers saw the technology as too flimsy and futuristic to bother pursuing. However. and this type of forward thinking has helped them get a jump on the IPTV market. This will allow for their current programming to remain the same. IPTV services are due to first come out in the US later this year. consumers already understand the idea Video on Demand. using an entirely internet based service rather than the hybrid approach that most Cable and Satellite providers will probably adopt. however one problem with the service is explaining to consumers why they would want it. 5. Microsoft has been investing in IPTV about ten years ago. much as they did with the desktop PC market. providing subscriptions. Gates and Microsoft have been successful in predicting trends in the past.
This conversion will prove to be a benefit both for providers and consumers. and more services to sell for providers. 14 .________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) the ability to interact with a program from the TV remote could be seen as a large benefit for IPTV providers. In addition. however there are those who oppose it. offering increased control and more choices for the user. better feedback. it can be very difficult to police the internet . just as music has widely become available on the internet. whether by a hybrid service or a completely internet based service. Bill Gates has been a regular visitor to Hollywood. to insure that his software will provide sufficient copyright protection features to prevent this sort of activity from happening. the new infrastructure being installed in preparation for IPTV will have positive side effects for all other internet based services. Hollywood fears that IPTV users may log on to a movie filesharing network to get movies and television shows for free. but as we have seen with p2p networks on the PC. IPTV is definitely something that will reach consumers in some way or another in the near future. Gates also argues that many users pirate things for convenience and would be willing to pay if the content was easily accessible online through a legal pay service. and cheaper costs. Of course this activity would be illegal and movie studios will have the power to sue users who participate. Video on demand is almost assuredly the most promising feature of IPTV. as Quality of Service and bandwidth will be greatly increased. Hollywood fears that IPTV could lead to widespread piracy of movies and TV shows.
the IPTVSP sends messages to gateways via the Internet allowing television channel to be connected to IP televisions. a computer keeps track of which customers are active (registration) and what features and services are authorized. or multimedia computers that are connected to a high speed data network (broadband Internet). These gateways transfer their billing details to a clearinghouse so the IPTVSP can pay for the gateway's usage. In this diagram. 15 . When call requests are processed. The IPTVSP then can use this billing information to charge the customer for access to television programs and other media sources.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 6. analog television adapters (ATVA). Internet Television Service Provider (ITVSP) This figure shows that IPTVSPs are primarily made of computers that are connected to the Internet and software to operate IP television and other services.
4 Mbps to allow up to 3 IP televisions to operate in the same home or building.4 Mbps to 11. This means the broadband modem must be capable of providing 5. 16 .1 IP Video to Multiple Users This figure shows how much data transfer rate it can take to provide for multiple IP television users in a single building.8 Mbps to receive an IP television channel.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 6. This diagram shows 3 IP televisions that require 1.8 Mbps to 3.
Countries like the United States have a large percentage of installed coax while other countries such as the United Kingdom have a larger percentage of customers that still receive their television via RF broadcast. The common premises distribution system used for IPTV distribution include telephone wiring. This means the IPTV service providers will be focusing on premises distribution equipment that can use existing wiring systems if possible. coaxial cable. The broadband modem is connected to a router 17 .2 Getting IPTV to the Television in the Home Premises distribution systems are playing an important part in IPTV networks. We were surprised to learn that different countries have different types of home distribution systems. Figure4 shows the common types of premises distribution systems that can be used for IP television systems. wireless LAN. optical cable.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 6. Premises distribution systems can use copper (wire or coax). This diagram shows that an IP television signal arrives at the premises at a broadband modem. power line distribution and wired LAN. IPTV service providers desire to sell services where the customer can self install the equipment avoiding the need for the service provider to send installation workers (no need for a truck roll). or wireless (radio or IR) to transfer communication of signals within a customer's facility or home. Televisions are not typically located near a data connector and getting the signal to media appliances in the home may require rewiring and/or additional equipment.
264/MPEG-4 AVC: The IPTV Enabling Technology Standard The need for an advanced video coding standard that evolves MPEG-2 and H. to deliver broadcast-quality. 7. digital video. MPEG-4offers a software method to compress and decompress video 18 . telephone lines.264.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) that can distribute the media signals to forward data packets to different devices within the home such as IP televisions. or MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC). The new standard has emerged as H. respectively.MPEG-4 Simple Profile (SP) and Advanced Simple Profile (ASP) were developed for streaming video over Internet connections. 7. MPEG-2 requires 2 Mbps of bandwidth. This example shows that routers may be able to forward packets through power lines.263 to the next level has been addressed over the last several years through a combined working group of the ITU-T and ISO/IEC organizations. H. The following table summarizes the development of these standards and their intended applications. data cables or even via wireless signals to adapters that receive the packets and recreate them into a form the IP television can use. coaxial lines. jitter-free. who have previously produced the H.1 Video Coding Standards MPEG-2. It is also called MPEG-4 Part 10. has been the industry standard digital video broadcast codec for many years for high bit rate applications. a hardware-based technology.26x and MPEG-x standards. which is available over coaxial lines and satellite airwaves.
Commercially we have revenues form voice and data services that are increasingly flat and ever increasing competition to the providers from cable TV companies 19 .264/MPEG-4 AVC addresses the needs for greater compression. The timing for this developing interest in video and IPTV services is fuelled by a combination of technological improvements and commercial pressures. while maintaining broadcast quality for video-ondemand (VOD) and high-definition television (HDTV) needs. leading to lower data rates. Triple play means offering three services • voice • data • video or IPTV and the reason for the interest is that providers can see the commercial opportunity of being able to provide voice and video or IPTV services alongside existing voice and data services. Bundling has been shown to reduce customer churn and consumers like to have a single bill and provider to deal with. The result is not what viewers have come to expect from their televisions. 8. but enough to offer interesting services and enhance the richness of the Internet experience. Video over IP DSL : 8. therefore bring the offering into the realms of technical feasibility.1 The Triple Play The term triple play has recently crept into the Telecom vocabulary. H. the availability of software to enable video/TV applications over broadband networks. So triple play offers providers the opportunity to reduce churn and at the same time secure for themselves additional revenue from the new services. the increasing number of set top boxes on the market and ever reducing prices. and the improvements in video encoding that reduce bandwidth requirements to 2 to 3 Mbps per Video channel for a quality service. This allows them to offer customers a bundled triple play service from a single supplier.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) over a network that provides only a best-possible connection with a wide range of data rates. Technologically we have the growth in availability of broadband services.
The techniques carriers and service providers can use to increase monthly revenue beyond traditional POTS without building an entirely new infrastructure. from the same company. and on one bill. 8. or four times current revenues per subscriber. Consumers can get voice. Cable companies have begun to provide data services across cable lines using cable modem technology and Telecoms are providing highspeed Internet access via xDSL technology.3 Attraction of Additional Services Adding additional IP-based services to the voice network can realize two. This means that providers need to offer a competitive alternative or risk losing some of their existing customer based. video. LECs need to compete by offering multiple services over their existing infrastructure.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) particularly in the US and in selected areas of Europe.three. Net to Net believes that it is important for service provider to leverage the existing fiber and copper infrastructure as cost effectively as possible. along with protocols like IGMP ( Internet Group Management Protocol) and Quality of Service (QoS) techniques. “Package deals” develop. Consumers pay a monthly fee for voice services. Competition is now fierce between these two utilities as cable providers are increasingly offering voice services and traditional voice carrier s are looking to find additional sources of revenue and protect their current markets. high-speed Internet access. and data over the same media. 8. traditional telephony and other value added services over their existing fiber and copper infrastructure. By capitalizing on technologies such as IP video and xDSL. New technology has paved the way new service offerings and the application of new technologies including high-speed Internet access. To stop losing customers. Gone are the days when the Local Exchange Carrier provides telephone services and the region’s cable company delivers television. Competition is also emerging from satellite dish providers offering Internet access. service providers can offer cable TV like services. 20 .2 Service Provider’s Challenge – Increase Revenue and Reduce Expenses Carriers face a number of business challenges in today’s world of convergence technologies.
Convenience and transport costs can be used to determine the location. The service provider can add additional video services without changing the Net to Net DSLAMs or IP backbone.1 The Head-end The term head-end describes the location where video content is aggregated and managed. Beyond consumer revenues. the head-end can be located almost anywhere. Refer to figure 1 for a breakdown of reoccurring monthly revenues. the head-end needed to be strategically located to reach as many consumers as possible. Using the existing Ethernet-based system.S. a video 21 . the video traffic (transported as data) can be injected into the system from almost anywhere.DSL Access Multiplexers (DSLAM) . enhanced TV channel packages. Many of these services can only be implemented cost effectively using IP-based video. In the cable TV industry. We have found this to be the current rate for high-speed access in the U. The head-end is comprised of many components including the video services management system. the carrier can support directed advertising through ad-insertion.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) For example. additional monthly revenue can occur from adding services like pay-per-view. and other pay movie and specialty channels. additional monthly fees can be collected for broadcast TV. Therefore. IP network today provides a low cost solution with adaptability for future requirements. Building a video head-end. analog to MPEG encoders. always on Internet access using xDSL technology. service providers can increase monthly revenues per subscriber for highspeed. using a broadband access infrastructure supplied by Net to Net Technologies.Core IP switch/routers and fiber transport system . Building an Ethernet-2 of 12 based. 9 The Network : The xDSL and video transport system is made up of the following components: .The video head-end . and virtual Personal Video Recorders (PVR).The home network 9. or sharing a head-end with other providers can increase revenues. video on demand (VoD). With an IP video head-end. For example.
22 . Some encoders are able to encode MPEG-2 and transmit at 2.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) server. The encoders today typically use MPEG-2 encoding that transmits at a constant rate of 3 to 3. and encodes the signals into MPEG frames. This rate provides a higher quality digital picture than legacy analog systems. Viewers will prefer a true picture quality due to digital encoding over traditional analog signals that degrade over distances. and a broadband application server. 9. the video is viewed by via a set-top-box that utilizes an interactive client system. The encoder then grooms the signal to provide a constant bit rate and transmits the data using preassigned multi-cast IP and MAC addresses.5 Mbps with similar quality at a slightly higher price. At the customer’s home. Encoding technology is advancing quickly and it is expected that encoders will be able to stream high quality video at one Mbps within a couple of years.2 MPEG Encoders : The MPEG encoder receives video feeds from content providers. digital turnaround.5 Mbps per stream.
4 Video Server To provide Video on Demand (VoD). This allows the viewer to have virtual VCR functionality. start. The MPEG encoded movie is then transmitted via a unicast IP stream.5 Application Server The application server provides the interaction systems for the user and allows for storage of web services. video content stays in the original digital format.Asynchronous Serial Interface) from satellite or terrestrial sources and redistribute them over an IP network. viewing time. 9.3 Digital Turnaround The digital turnaround or MediaGateway is used to take already digitally encoded video streams and transport it on the IP network. There are many advantages to this system. 9. PVR space. Using IP-based VoD gives the home user control over the movies. there is no customer control. People can select a movie from the onscreen display and choose when they want to view the movie. These video streams are usually already encoded into the MPEG format and are sometimes sent as multiple television programming channels within one stream. and transport each program into its own IP multicast stream. separate the channels. It does not have to be decoded. By using DVB-to-IP. The primary function is to demultiplex DVB-ASI streams (Digital Video Broadcast . only a start time and an ending time. 23 . With these legacy systems. rewind. This is an advantage over movie systems on cable or analog systems. the provider uses a video server to hold a large database of movies. They can pause. A service provider can offer their own unique services such as interactive games and on-screen bill displays. The digital turnaround is much less expensive than multiple video encoders and maintains the quality of the MPEG video. and encoded again to work with the IP network. The turnaround will take the multi-program transport stream. and stored advertisements. and VCR-like capabilities. or fast-forward the movie.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 9. stop.
Movie guide .6 Management Software and Service Administration The management software system allows the provider to configure the channel guide and client information.Subscribers can store channel preferences and favorites .Channel information . the STB issues IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) join and 24 . From the client.Channel packages .Pay-per-view .Password protection .7 Set-Top-Box The job of the set-top-box (STB) is multi-fold.Parental controls . It also has the channel information. From the network end. the STB decodes the data stream and hands an analog feed to the television set.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Using an application server can bring out the entrepreneurial spirit of the service provider by providing a building block for new services.Acts as the “gateway” to additional services 9.Interactive Program guide . The management server works with each set-top-box to provide the following types of functionality: .Billing data . displays the interactive guide and is used to change channels. 9.
and supports IGMP for IP multicasts. When the STB starts up.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) leave messages and sends membership reports to the core network. or DTM. DWDM. it goes through a boot process. 10. SONET. can support high bandwidths. It then receives the new MPEG-2 stream. specifically channel to multicast group associations. the core should also support redundant links.1 Fiber Core The fiber core should be a technology that is IP and Ethernet-based. the STB notifies the network that it doesn’t need the old multicast stream and need to join a new video group. decodes the stream and sends the analog video to the TV. 10 . For network integrity. During this process. When the user changes channel. Core IP Routers and Fiber Transport System The video traffic is transported as IP multicasts. 25 . This information includes the channel guide and IGMP information. Typical technologies include Gigabit Ethernet. acts as a self-healing ring or mesh technology. The optimal backbone to support this type of traffic is Ethernet routers supporting IGMP on the edge with a high-end fiber transport system in the core. is scaleable. it downloads configuration information from the management system. SDH.
The switch is distributing traffic from a high capacity backbone to a lower capacity access network.3 DSL Access Multiplexer The recommended transport of choice today for video over the local loop is ADSL. 10.000 feet. For these reasons the switches should support layer two technologies like 802.1Q VLANs. G. IGMP.5 Mbps per stream. and a type of QoS like DiffServ.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 10. Other technology options include VDLS and G.5 Mbps and upstream bandwidths of up to 1. the home user is able to receive three channels simultaneously. Today’s Net to Net ADSL can offer a downstream bandwidth of up to 10. Therefore. but limited downstream speeds. and 802. At 2. and support a high quality of service (QoS).1 Mbps.5 Mbps per multicast stream. the switches need to have efficient switching. or MPLS. SVP.1d switching. a Layer 3 switch is used as the edge routers.SHDSL. the home use r can watch two different channels. Some of Net to Net’s customers have experienced 10 Mbps at distances of less than 10. 26 . Usually. Typically.2 Edge Switches and Routers The access network is key when designing the network. Other customers have achieved a maximum reach over 25. use the telephone and still has plenty of bandwidth for high-speed Internet access.1p traffic prioritization and support layer three functions like subnet routing. VDSL offers a higher downstream bandwidth. but limited distance. 802. the access multiplexer will connect directly to a layer three switch or router.SHDSL offers good distance. At 3. Typical ADSL speeds are about 8 Mbps downstream and 1.1 Mbps upstream. The combination of high downstream bandwidths coupled with superior reach is crucial to reach the majority of consumers. which connect to the DSLAM.000 feet with a lesser bandwidth.
the DSLAM tracks the memberships of each port (user) and will only forward multicasts to those ports requesting membership to a particular group. It is essential that the DSLAM support IGMP. and QoS. For the purposes of video and high-speed data services. 10. and only forwards leave messages as needed. data uploads will not interfere with downstream multicast traffic. 802.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) The access network is made up of the DSLAM. Further. The Net to Net DSLAM delivers the desired multicast stream to the appropriate user through IGMP Snooping. This way. the DSLAM supports technologies like IGMP. Fast Ethernet. DS3 Ethernet over SONET or E3 Ethernet over SDH. POTS splitter.1Q VLANs. The Ethernet port on the modem should support a full duplex Ethernet port. The modem should also support the 27 . The DSLAM monitors IGMP messages being sent from each host and forwards these messages to the IGMP router when necessary. join and membership reports. Multicast traffic is only sent to the ports requesting the channel.4 IP DSLAM The Net to Net DSLAM provides up to 288 ADSL access lines. and sometimes an Ethernet switch make up the home network. The ADSL modem. 10.5 The Home Network The ADSL modem acts as a bridge forwarding all requests to the DSLAM and forwards data from the DSLAM back to the STB or PC. It forwards all queries. That way the video traffic does not saturate the entire network. The chassis can link to the IP core via Gigabit Ethernet .
The DSLAM will remove that port from the multicast group and will only forward the leave group message if that user is the last user in the multicast group.yy. The uplink will be connected to an IGMP router. The DSLAM will forward these messages to the appropriate host or router. 28 . etc. the set-top-box will first send a leave group message to that multicast group.11a or 802. Each set-top-box and each PC needs its own connection to the Ethernet switch. Sometimes the modem will have a built-in Ethernet switch. it will send a group-specific query to the group being left to ensure membership.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) S=1/2 full-rate ADSL standard. It will download all of the channel information like the on-screen TV guide. the modem should connect to an Ethernet switch.yy multicast group. When a channel is selected. If this is not the case.11b wireless network. pay-per-view. The DSLAM will add this port to the new multicast group.e. The DSLAM will add that port to the multicast group and forward the report to the uplink. Periodically. The reports will be directed to the address of the multicast group. If the router receives the leave message. One report will be sent for each group to which the host belongs. It will also download information regarding multicast groups. Hosts (set-top-boxes) will respond to these requests with membership reports.yy. When the channel is changed. 11.000 feet or less. there needs to be a home network attached to the ADSL modem.When the set-top-box is initialized.5 Mbps at distances less of 6. Multicast Video Overview Every channel is associated with a multicast group in the MPEG encoder. To distribute the traffic. The membership reports are used as a join message. it establishes a connection (unicast) with the management system. i. Alternates to an Ethernet network include Home PNA or 802. the router will send general queries to keep its multicast tables updated. Each set-top-box will then send a membership report addressed to the group that It wants to belong (the new channel). This allows the modem to sync at 10. channel [x] = yy. the set-top-box will send a membership report when it wants to establish the connection with that channel (multicast group).
programs. Protocols. The feature of Streaming Media is that the viewer may join a current connection and does not have to wait until the end of the transmission.2 Streaming via digital TV Also Internet protocol packets (IP) can be embedded in the transport streams of the digital television (DTV) by means of the standard Multi-Protocol Encapsulation(MPE). The access on resources in the Internet is always carried out on the basis of a demand. web pages. the delivery of Streaming Media via digital broadcasting structures requires some special features: • The bi-directional protocol for the request of a stream has to be changed by means of a proxy program to an unidirectional connection. An access is possible only after the transmission – the common problem of the response time in the network. Streaming Media only requires a buffer storage of a limited size in the terminal for the media player. The Internet is bidirectional. However. pictures. Live Internet TV via digital TV 12. support the broadcasting of streams in the Internet. In contrast to that. It comprises the broadcasting of audio and motion pictures as continuous data flow.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 12.1 Streaming Media and Principle and broadcasting Streaming Media is a term of the Internet world. Whether the stream is transmitted from a server or on-the-fly generated by means of live encoders does not play any role. 12. 29 . Streaming Media enables the set-up of a connection between the media player and a server so that the content is indicated (video animations) or is made audible (audio) already after buffering a small quantity of data. These IP packets can transfer all types of Internet contents. documents and similar are always transmitted as complete files. as the Real-Time Protocol (RTP) or the Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). The transmission parameters bandwidth and quality are individually “negotiated”.
It is optimised for an individual point-to-point communication. Even if IP supports the multicasting. the main problem is the fact that the Internet has not been originally capable for broadcasting. The last requirements are ensured by the Internet Streaming Protocol. an overload of servers and networks is today a normal situation. a stable standard for the multicasting still does not exist. Apart from this. with the transmission link of the DTV. The gateway from the Internet to the digital TV network (DTV-IP-Inserter) is able to tunnel the multicast connections as one single unicast connection to the streaming server via the Internet. Here. The MediaRouter provides the broadcasting and the QoS of the programs via a DTV system capable for broadcasting. connection management to ensure a guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). The first three requirements are ensured by the Rohde&Schwarz StreamConnector and the Mediarouter. Digital TV reaches all its audience without bottlenecks and without a dependence on the number of viewers. 30 . What is more obvious than integrating a real broadcasting system for the broadcasting of Internet TV. 13 .________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) • • • The bandwidth for the transmission has to be “negotiated” and aligned The simultaneous transmission of TV and several streams requires a The streaming format has to be robust against transmission errors and lead to an abortion of the presentation. The Protocol Independent Multicasting (PIM) shall provide a remedy. the transmission of the same contents to many receivers. shall not The synchronisation on a running transmission has to be possible. The multicast problem Many companies work on making the wire conducted Internet also fit for television applications (WebTV).
Designed to help cable providers and telecommunications companies derive more value from digital video and network infrastructure investments. Microsoft TV IPTV Edition also provides strong security features and efficiency in delivering standard and high-definition TV programming to multiple TV sets in the home over the fiber-enhanced network. video on demand. At this time Microsoft has already made several deals with some of the communication giants in the United States. voice. DVR hardware. Switzerland. It of course offers the broadcasters to deliver complete channel navigation. Microsoft TV IPTV Edition also provides a 31 . subscription. the services may be accessed and shared via any number of IP-enabled household devices. data and other advanced services and applications over a single network connection. Leading telecommunications providers are conducting trials of Microsoft TV IPTV Edition in Europe. North America. The Microsoft TV division provides software solutions that help digital TV operators create new services that delight consumers. instant messages. digital video recording. Additionally. and advertising to the consumer. set-top boxes. by using IP technology to deliver video. IPTV Potential Offerings The Microsoft TV as the IPTV services platform provider recognizes Microsoft™ leadership position in the rapidly emerging IPTV industry and the benefits it will bring to customers. such as TVs. The platform allows operators to display caller ID information. PDAs or phones. and Canada to bring IPTV services to the consumer through it's Microsoft TV IPTV Edition platform. highdefinition TV and on-demand programming. PCs. Microsoft is busy developing a total solution to bring IPTV to the masses via software and hardware technologies for broadcasting and viewing digital video IPTV over broadband internet connections. or SMS on the TV . The Microsoft TV platform works across a full range of set-top boxes and TV devices. and Asia.even notify consumers about TV schedule changes as they occur. while leaving ample bandwidth available for ultra-fast Internet access and VoIP services.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 14. e-mail. the Microsoft TV product family supports a range of digital video services including interactive program guides.
The Microsoft TV IPTV Edition platform could enable new services and applications such as tuner-less picture-in-picture functionality. customizable channel lineups. or Caller ID and instant messaging right on their TV screen.IPTV Applications and services: 32 . companies could be able to send alerts and notifications to customers watching TV in new ways. To enable optimal use of bandwidth. The PIP feature enables users to preview other shows and channels while the primary channel runs in the background . Channel surfing becomes easier because you can continue to watch your program while viewing live previews of other shows using innovative picture-in-picture (PIP) technology.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) comprehensive security system including subscriber and end-to-end digital rights management technology to protect the content across multiple devices. The IP-based TV service is planned to include instant channel changing. Some additional potential applications include: Using two-way broadband networks. video on demand. content protection features and more. This cutting-edge technology frees up large amounts of bandwidth for other applications. 15 . SBC companies plan to use a switched video distribution system. event notifications. Photos could be easily shared from a networked computer and played back through the TV. digital video recording. multimedia interactive program guides. Some examples include the ability to alert a customer of upcoming favorite shows. which streams only the content the customer requests instead of broadcasting all channels to everybody at once.
corporate communications are only a mouse-click away from any faculty/staff member. TV to the Desktop Organizations include knowledge workers who need instant access to international business or financial developments. Corporate Communications Are there changes in the Marshall benefit plan? Are you introducing a new production? Is everyone on the same page? Is everyone getting consistent information? With IP/TV video systems.) Some implementations will even allow the student to access it over a standard Dial-Up Connection. etc. 33 . financial news.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) IP/TV eliminates the headache involved with physical media. filesharing. video telephony. not-returned. web conferenzes. or satellite broadcasts to knowledge workers right at their desktops. (ex. degradation. webphones. Distance Learning Are you developing content designed to reach students outside campus walls? Use Cisco IP/TV video systems to implement a distance learning curriculum. Training Employees in an organization need a centralized training system. IP/TV video systems make it easy to deliver up-to-the-minute stock market trends. copies. which can be easily implemented with IP/TV solutions. Marshall and other institutions of higher education offer tele-courses to network-based students. Internet applications : Webcam communities. This will reduce the time and money wasted in far away training centers.
Europe and Asia. which can be viewed at a later time. Digital Broadcast TV . broadcast) to the subscriber home. voice and data. such as sports events.e. cable and satellite TV. which can be enabled after the IPTV infrastructure is in place. or planning. IPTV/VoD service would give users more choices and the flexibility to watch movies anytime at their convenience. such as: • Movies on demand. where all channels are simultaneously delivered (i. television shows and newscasts. Additional video applications.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Business applications: • Distance learning • Company--wide seminars • Video conferencing • Video and audio archiving • Internal closed circuit television Video on Demand (VoD) These applications enable service providers to begin offering the “triple play” – video. stages with a number of telecom service providers in North America. 34 . which the user would select from a movie library available at the Service Node • Stored programming content. IPTV only delivers those channels which are being viewed by the subscriber and has a potential to offer practically an ‘unlimited’ number of channels. This enables the service provider to offer additional revenue-generating services. The video-on-demand application provides individual subscribers the ability to select a video content and view it at their convenience.The advent of higher-speed DSL technology such as ADSL2. enables IPTV as a compelling and competitive alternative. ADSL2+ and VDSL. IPTV is currently in testing. Unlike traditional cable/satellite payper-view services where a limited number of movies are broadcast and on fixed timeslots.
ICQ and more. SMTP (POP3). and • Home Security/Monitoring Cameras 15. Data can be bundled with digital TV streams in MPEG2/DVB format and broadcast to end-users 35 . • Digital Data Broadcasting technology allows you to receive broadcast data from content providers.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) PTVDISTRIBUTIONINHOMENETWORKS Other compelling IPTV applications and potential revenue-generating services. are: • Video telephony and Video conferencing • Remote Education. IRC. which can be enabled once the initial IPTV infra-structure is in place. • Supports all standard Internet Protocols . FTP.Http. making it possible to download large files in a very short time. transmitting data to your PC at speeds 8 times faster than by an ordinary Internet connection. Benefits Of Iptv : • One-way high-speed Internet access via satellite.1 Additional Services Provided on IPTV : Conference Calling Long Distance Charges Pay-Per-View Video on Demand Virtual PVR (Personal Video Recorder) Advanced Interactive Services Ad-Insertion (directed advertising) Gaming 16.
transmitting data to your PC at speeds 8 times faster than by an ordinary Internet connection. Data can be bundled with digital TV streams in MPEG-2/DVB format and broadcast to end-users Extensive caching at our Network Operations Center (NOC) will help guarantee high-speed delivery and reduce bottlenecks normally found in the Internet access network. FTP. making it possible to download large files in a very short time. you could have that video put on IPTV (as longas you had rights to do so with the publishing company) and then all ten sections could view the video at one time. SMTP (POP3). ICQ and more.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) • Extensive caching at our Network Operations Center (NOC) will help guarantee high-speed delivery and reduce bottlenecks normally found in the Internet access network. IRC. but chances are he won’t do all 30 sections this semester. You might be able to get the Surgeon General to guest lecture at one of your Health 1000 classes. This saves wear on the tape. Extensive regional access and connectivity: One-way high-speed Internet access via satellite. or each instructor could schedule a broadcast for their section. and removes any scheduling conflicts. 36 . Extensive regional access and connectivity: Turbo Internet is available in all 76 provinces in Thailand. • • Appearances by valuable guest lecturers can be recorded and used for multiple courses semester after semester. Digital Data Broadcasting technology allows you to receive broadcast data from content providers. Supports all standard Internet Protocols . So if your department owns an instructional video that needs to be seen by ten sections of a course.Http. • Large courses with many sections and instructors can share video materials easily.
as broadband is now available to more than 100 million households worldwide. • IPTV is not a protocol itself. 17 . either on or off campus (note that Real Media is not a multicast system. Videos broadcast through IPTV are automatically archived in Real Media format and stored on a Real Server. • • Orientations that are given to a large number of people on a regular basis can be taped for viewing on IPTV. So video his lecture and share it for years to come through the magic of IPTV. IP Television Challenges -Content Distribution Rights -Data Transfer Rate Capability -Media Player Compatibility -Channel Changing Time 37 . This gives you the option of allowing students who could not view the broadcast to watch the same video. and has a limited bandwidth capacity). • IPTV is expected to grow at a brisk pace in the coming few years. Problems : • Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has become a common denominator for systems where television and/or video signals are distributed to subscribers or viewers using a broadband connection over Internet Protocol. supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure but over a dedicated bandwidth allocation.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and probably won’t come back at all next semester. Often this is in parallel with the subscriber's Internet connection.
which is shared with other applications. In addition to that.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) -Industry Standards 18. • Security issue: Security improvement will be necessary to fully secure the IP packets. • Hardware is improving while costs are falling: Costs for set-top boxes are coming down (from more than $700 to less than half of that price in the past four years. the integrity of the embedded software in the IPTV client. and the attraction of pirates to the high value digital content Technical incompatibilities: The real issue is whether video services will continue to be based on open standards. introduction of MPEG-4. • Greater willingness by the film studios to agree content deals. the cost of the customer premise equipment (CPE) such as the set-up box has dramatically fallen. the IPTV service providers have been able to provide clients with a higher quality of service mostly due to improvements in equipment’s and processing. However. The price will certainly continue to fall as volume rises. they either need the Set-up Box to convert the IP signal or they cannot receive TV. Many 38 . and newer Windows Media technology (Windows Media 9) a better compression standard than MPEG-2 and even MPEG-4. the usage of common open protocols. or whether proprietary platforms will succeed. Why is IPTV ready to take off? There are several reasons explaining why the IPTV market is about to take off: Improved compression solutions : Improvement in MPEG-2 compression. The main areas that introduce security risks are: the standardized infrastructure. The IPTV space still has to face major issues: In the past few years. the IPTV space still has to face several issues: • No analog channels can be provided: For viewers with regular TVs.
• DRM issues: Service providers have to protect themselves against piracy by using digital rights management (DRM) software to control distribution and use of broadcast TV content. But if Microsoft solution becomes widely adopted. com) and media giants (AOL. it will certainly avoid the issues of integrating separate systems. Movielink. Sony. Thus operators may recognize the benefits of a single solution. CinemaNow. Disney. 39 .com. Universal) will be a key successful factor for telcos.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) operators are cautious about being tied to a sole supplier like Microsoft. Telcos need more content relationships for pay-TV in order to increase their revenues: Partnering with ISPs (Real Networks.
Moreover .Conclusion : IP-TV is a technology that is just emerging and someday will be as common as a regular television. create a medium for conferencing. IP-TV can deploy multiple channels of active or archived multimedia content to provide training. Wherever on-demand access for multimedia content exists.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 19 . improved collaboration. improve the level of communication. it truly has some very compelling applications that can help businesses and organizations today. 40 . and provide a way for employees to advance their careers. and even provide entertainment to clientele. In the mean time. the benefits of IP-TV are very tangible because on demand access to information can increase productivity. IP-TV can deliver it over an existing Ethernet network.
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