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Life amon the Indians

Life amon the Indians

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E. N. Waddington' Bookstall,

Blackpool.

PURCHASED FOR THE

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY

FROM THE

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT
FOR

ANTHROPOLOGY

IS

f
'I

b

LIFE
AS10NG

THE INDIANS
BY GEORGE
CATLIN.

LONDON:
GALL AND
INGLIS,
25

PATERNOSTER SQUARE

AND EDINBURGH.

LIBR4
MAH *

*>

ten

^VOFTO^

PREFACE.
ON my recent return from a long and toilsome campaign amongst the Indian tribes of South and Central America, as well as those on the Pacific side of the Kocky Mountains in North America, I was requested to prepare a book of facts for youthful readers on the character and condiI at once embraced the tion of the American Indians. suggestion made to me, and am here entering upon the plan, the results of which will be met and judged of
in the following pages. As the youthful readers of this

have read
lished

my work

volume will scarcely on the North American Indians, pub-

some years since, they may reasonably expect me to some introduction of myself before we start together, give which I will here do in a few words, and leave them to learn more of me when I may incidentally appear in scenes and scenery to be described. The place of my nativity was Wilkesbarre, in the Valley of Wyoming, rendered historically famous by its early and
disastrous warfare with the Indians
races

whom

the civilized
lore

had driven out of

it,

and celebrated in

by the

" popular poem by Campbell, Gertrude of Wyoming." In my early youth I was influenced by two predominant

and inveterate propensities, those My father and mother had great

for

hunting and

fishing.

difficulty in

turning

my

and commenced the practice of the law.VI PREFACE. and after a few years. in Connecticut. in rescuing the looks and customs of the vanishing races of native man in America from that oblivion to which I my plainly saw they were hastening before the approach and certain progress of civilization. I But when. I very deliberately resolved to law library into paint-pots and brushes. to which all my love of pleading soon gave having covered nearly every inch of the lawyers' table (and even encroached upon the judge's bench) with penknife. apprehended dangers before me. With these. which I followed for several years. and after judges. and culprits. passed my examination. pen and ink. and after reading for a couple of years longer. for two years. and so much of the labours of future life as might be required. and who all mag- To do cruelty. and many other obstacles to encounter. During this time. that for painting. another and a stronger passion was getting the advantage of me. and pencil sketches of way . with apparent great from friends the most dear to me. and apparently more agreeconvert my able profession. my pro- and immediately commenced portrait-painting in the city of Philadelphia. in the midst of success. I again resolved to use my art. and penetrated the vast solitudes from whence I have brought the information to be given nified the in the following pages. who could not appreciate the importance of my views. fortunately or unfortunately. I thus took leave of professional friends and fession. I devoted eight years of my life in visiting about fifty . attention from these to books. juries. I attended commenced reading the law the law school of the celebrated Judges Reeve and Gould. for a profession. this I was obliged to break. was admitted to the Bar. I started in 1832 with canvas and colours. and to pursue painting as my future. at the proper age.

and every article of their manufacture. California. in South America. Equador. These three last successive campaigns. in Paris. and people. which have been performed in have been in some parts difficult and hazardous. and customs. the Valley of the Amazon. that I have met with in these and my former extremely . Peru. to Kamtschatka. and cles countries. visits. roamings. on the American continent. and Indian customs. and brought home a collection of more than six hundred oil paintings (in all cases made from nature) of portraits. altogether forming an extensive museum. to select for the instruction and amusement of the youthful readers. to of the Columbia. but full of interest. in the Louvre. which was sufficient to enable me to overcome all obstaand from incidents. Bolivia. in this little work. wigwams. Louis Philippe. such as will the most forcibly and correctly illustrate native man and Lis modes. with the Not content with the collection I had thus made and shown to the world. and other parts of Brazil. at the invitation of His Majesty. to Cuba. and afterwards in the Salle du Seance. across the Rocky Mountains by the Rio de Norte to Matamoros in Mexico. the Aleutian Islands. costumes. and subsequently traversed British and Dutch Guiana.PREFACE. THE AUTHOR. I started again in 1853 for Venezuela. start- Guatemala. etc. who paid it many Queen and the rest of the Eoyal Family. landscapes. tribes in Vll North America. to Yucatan. which was exhibited for several years in the Egyptian Hall. the Andes. in London. and back to the ing point. and describe campaigns. I shall endeavour.. . of weapons. the Pacific Coast to the mouth to Santa Fe.

.

A FALSE 177 . SCALPS AND SCALPING. VII." VI. MY ADVENTURE WITH THE I FIRST INDIAN 27 53 68 EVER SAW. INDIANS BUILD THEIR WIGWAMS. . THE MANDAN INDIANS THE SIOUX INDIANS PIPE -STONE .CONTENTS. XI. MEDICINE MEN FIRE FROM 83 THE SUN. CATCHING WILD HORSES A BUFFALO HUNT. A RIDE TO THE CAMANCHEES ALARM. " DRAWING . . THE CHIEF'S TALE." . HOW THE INDIANS PAINT THEMSELVES 99 THE PRAIRIES. 121 IX. 108 VIII. INDIAN WAEFARE V. AN ADVENTURE WITH BEARS. THE INDIANS OF AMERICA. . . PAGE .148 164 QUARRY "STONE MAN "THE THUNDER'S MEDICINE. . A CHALLENGE ! 132 X. 17 II. III. HOW THE IV. CHAPTER I. NEST" XII.

. RED INDIANS IN LONDON. ." XV... POISONED 310 XX.253 AN 273 295 STILL EN ROUTE FOR THE AMAZON . RED INDIANS IN PARIS. ON THE AMAZON. . THE " MEDI- XVI. . AND A RATTLESNAKE. PAGE A SOLITARY RIDE ON THE PRAIRIES.CONTENTS. XXI. . CHAPTER XIII... XVII." .. A JOURNEY DOWN THE ORINOCO . THE "HANDSOME DANCE...219 237 EN ROUTE FOR THE AMAZON CINE GUN.. .325 347 . .. .. " CHARLEY " ACROSS 196 XIV. .. . ADVENTURE WITH PECCARIES.. THE INDIANS OF THE AMAZON ARROWS. . RIO TROMBUTAS ADVENTURES WITH A TIGER . XIX. XVIII. .

was supposed to be a part of the coast of India. which the Spanish and Portuguese navigators were expecting to find. though erroneously no exception will be taken in this work. in steering their vessels to the west. have generally been denominated " Indians" from that day to the present. and still existing over great portions of those regions. Indian Civilisation |HE native races of man. from the somewhat curious fact that the American continent. or 17 To an . when first discovered. appellation so long. in applied.LIFE AND ADVENTURES AMONG THE AMERICAN INDIANS. CHAPTER The Name "Indian" I. General Character National Character. across the Atlantic. which these races will be spoken of as Indians. occupying every part of North and South America at the time of the first discovery of the American continent by Columbus.

and never lose sight of for a moment when you are estimating the character. part of the foundation of their Confident in this belief. which I deem it important you should start with. and you your own instruction and amusement . and the wrongs of these poor people to be set forth in this little . and I feel assured that parents will justify the inculcation of just notions of these simple and abused people. we will now for start together myself upon my task. neither of which terms will be intended necessarily to imply the character generally conveyed " by the term savage!' but literally what the word signifies. and no more. . the actions. whom. and the remainder of them at least. for whom I have said this book intended.18 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the thoughts. by dissipation. with no better prospect than certain extinction in a short time) present to the scientific and the sympathising world. my young is readers. and pestilences introduced amongst them by civilized people . These numerous races (at that time consisting of millions of beings. divided into some and speaking mostly different languages whose past history is sunk in oblivion from want of books and records three-fourths of many human hundreds of . the condition. one of the most deeply interesting subjects for contemplation that can possibly come under their consideration. have already perished by fire-arms. into the minds of their children. halting but for one impression more. as forming a legitimate education. tribes. savages. from similar causes. wild (or wild man).

judge decidedly wrong for. but they all acknowledge the Great Spirit. In their relationship " with civilized people they are like orphans. have said that these people are like children . always calling them their red children call all . or a little girl (as would be the case if they could take you by the is hand). from their chiid-like nature. . "Fathers. because they and look like themselves. but there. the relationship always that of "brother and sister. their Great Father . knowledge and arts of civilized man ." and the " President of the United States. they . They are therefore mostly in the habit of treating the character of the American Indians which." the and they. like everything else nearest to nature. if the right I mode be adopted. They are without the . been called). 19 many senses like yourselves. Governments who deal with them assume a guardianship over them." government officials in their country. and whenever they can have the pleasure of shaking hand of a little white boy. in the habit of regarding all people as anomalies (or do not and act. they are feeble they are in the ignorance of nature.GENERAL CHARACTER book." The civilized races in the present enlightened age are too " much more ignorant than themselves oddities/' as they have live. is more or less wrapped in obscurity as a profound mystery. in that they are children of the word. owing to their ignorance of them. from the distance they are from them. they are the most simple and easy of all the human family to be appreciated and dealt with.

and with that view.20 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. but no proof and I think there is . I am quite sure that if you were amongst them you would learn their true character and their feelings much sooner than your parents would for with children they would throw off the mask and the reserve which their justlyfounded suspicions of white men induce them to wear in their presence. therefore. in all probability. I will try in this little work to bring the condition and customs of these children of the forest in a true light before you. from what I have learned in fourteen years of my life spent in familiarity with them. though. instead of the frightful impressions too often made upon the youthful mind. we "wigwams. . for want of historical proof to show from whence they came. It seems to be the popular belief that the two Americas have been peopled from the Eastern con- tinent is by the way of Behring's Strait of this there a possibility. your early days is the time when the foundation of a lasting knowledge and just appreciation of the true character of these simple people should be formed . and Central America. and South. I believe. and in every nook and corner of North. or at present numbering something like four millions. Distributed over every part. that and from what . profound ignorance of their origin. I have seen." find these people living in their rude huts. their numbers were nearer twelve or fourteen millions at the time of the discovery of America by Columbus and yet the world is left (and probably will remain) in .

but no proof of the peopling of a continent either way. interest to me for many years past. when first visited by civilized people. to the Koriaks and the Kamtschatkas. or loss of my property by theft. sufficiently proved by the resemblances in language and in physiological traits . made the intended uses of their to a high state reason. when I have visited nearly two . as distinguished above the brute creations. in the cities more ancient destruction of the ruined Palenque and Uxmal. that I have recently made a tedious ing and expensive tour to Eastern Siberia. should go a great . In the progressive character with which the Creator has endowed mankind. in Central America. the American savages have. 21 much and very strong presumptive proof against its The subject has been one of great probability. in advancing by themselves of civilization. of All history on the subject goes to prove (and without an exception to the contrary) that. in Mexico and Peru and by the hand of some way not yet explained. there has been a mutual intercourse across the strait.INDIAN CIVILIZATION. but from this they have been thrown back by more than savage invaders as seen in the histories of Providence. and from all that I could learn. the American Indians have been found friendly and hospitable and my own testimony. without having received any personal injury or insult. and most of the time unprotected. in several instances. the Aleutians equi-distant between the two continents and the natives on the American coast opposite to them. millions of them. and of so excita nature.

but only so to those classes of Indian society who. they practise honesty without any "dread of the law. naked. under such circumstances. and hospitable people in the world. except the disgrace that attaches to their character in case they are convicted of such crimes. to the shame and disgrace of . way the to corroborate the fact. though poor . will at once decide with me. that are like your own and that their hearts are good their true character and modes are worth your . and stimulated to honesty by rules of honour belonging to their society. American Indians are amongst the most honest. and drunken Indians. guard my and help me in safety through their country. If these people. you. as they have done. and fish in their country for food. and are totally ignorant of the meaning and value of money. would my life and property." for there is no punishment amongst them for theft or fraud. As they know nothing of commerce. they live and act without those dangerous inducements to crime. In their primitive and natural state they have always been found living quite independently and with an abundance of animals happily.22 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. And these epithets are sometimes correctly applied . The contemptuous epithets of " the poor. that." are often habitually applied to these people by those who know but little or nothing about them. which seems to bound nearly all their earthly wishes. of which I shall give you many proofs in this little book. and honourable. my young readers. understanding. if properly treated.

. with the aid of rum and whisky. properly speaking. he too often contents himself by what he can there see. in a country where rum. with their other misfortunes." and sufficiently clad for perate the latitudes they live in and their poverty. and their character changed by civilized teaching. This district being the first and most easily reached by the tourist. where they have become degraded and impoverished. It should also of Indian society be known that there are two classes the one nearest to civilization. and . the semicivilized and degraded condition of the savage B . civilized people. who fears to go farther. the most wicked and unprincipled part of civilized and these white people. have introduced tions dissipation and vices amongst them. who. using and whisky. should be constantly borne in mind that these people invariably have.CHARACTER. . when the treacherous hand commerce and the jug are extended begins of white man's to them. and diseases which end in their destruction. In their primitive state. and nakedness. 23 have been reduced to these condi- by the iniquitous teachings of white men. they are amenable to no law and amongst a people who have no newspapers to explain their wrongs to society to deal with . the world. and their worst passions inflamed. and jealousies excited by the abuses practised amongst them. as their first civilized neighbours. these people are all tem" all teetotallers . which lead directly to poverty. only . it To estimate the Indian character properly. and fire-arms.

as a race. and there where I have laboured. as the true definiof the too often endorses tion of the appearance what he sees. and. which will be illustrated in the following There are no people on earth more loving and kind to their friends and the poor and yet. and and in their native simplicity they have many high. and modes American thus doing injustice to the character of the people. state of civilization leaves off believed. a great and national family. and honourable. : and what people are not so ? the cruelty of savages. like all savage races. as I have always been in the greatest safety when in It has been the primitive state of Indian society.24s LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. character. There is is an excuse for Cruelty savage for it? life: and who else has so a necessity in good an excuse Indian society has to be maintained. they are correctly denominated cruel . and personal without the aid of laws . have a national character and appearance very different from the other native races of the in colour They differ in language. where my ambition has led there. for those ends each individual is looked upon as the . I have me. as the only legitimate place to portray the true character of Indian life. and there chiefly. Indians for information. The American Indians. and rights to be protected. and less than justice to those who read . and humane traits of earth: . in expression. My labours have generally commenced where that .

nowhere practised by them. 25 avenger of his own wrongs. and that if you were amongst them they would take you by the hand as brothers and sisters and I . The Indian's " cruelty and treachery in warfare. believe. hear of. with courage. which it has taken you but a few minutes to read. or be subjected to a disgrace which he cannot outlive . this right. much The Creator has also endowed the North Ameri- can Indians.NATIONAL CHARACTER. though you may read of many instances of both to brief suggestions on their general character and condition. you are now fully prepared in . everywhere. with ingenuity. Spirit. with a high moral and religious principle. how they look. with reason. and the other intellectual qualities bestowed on the rest of mankind. that they call themselves such. but does tribe compel him to do. They is all worship the Great and have a Idolatry belief in a spiritual existence after death. nor cannibalism." we but cruelty and treachery in Indian and civilized warfare are much alike. so that cruelty is at the same time a right and a duty the law of what the their land. and how they act. and if he does not punish with cruelty and with certainty there is no In the exercise of security to person or property. therefore. he not only uses a privilege. you that they are children. with humanity. After these low me through scenes and events in which I shall endeavour to show you how these interesting people I have told live. you are now prepared to fol- the contrary.

26 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. to explain to you. to estimating their character and actions. but who are doing the best they ignorant can under their peculiar circumstances. and are all and feeble. which I am make those allowances which all Nature prompts actions of kind hearts to extend to the who are oppressed. those .

tribes. who were pushed were contesting the right of the white people to settle in it. 27 . and False Alarm- John Darrow A Huge Story of the Panther Deer in the Lick Indian Red Indian at the Lick Run from A the Lick Johnny O'NeiTs "Gipsies" of George's Indiana The Saddle Kettle of Gold Venison On-o-gong-way's Story The My Tomahawk. you that I was born in famed Valley of Wyom- which is of Pennsylvania. it was ascertained one day on to attack the that large parties of Indians were gathered the mountains. in the State Not a long time after the close of War in that country. a Shiver. Indian I ever saw was in this wise. the Kevolutionary on the Susquehanna Kiver. armed and prepared white inhabitants. A The Old Valley of the Oc-qua-go Chill.CHAPTEK Wyoming Massacre Saw-mill Lick II. 1HE first I have before told the beautiful and ing. and been warned from year to year by the Indians to leave it. a settlement was formed in that while the Indian fertile valley by white people. After having practised great cruelty on the Indian tribes. out.

and destroyed them lives all. The Indians. but kept as prisoners . where the soldiers were to pass. sprang upon the whites with tomahawks . These several hundreds of prisoners. not treachery . lay secreted in ambush on both sides of the road. the Wyoming Massacre" Some have " called it treachery" It was strategy. who saved their by swimming the the latter river. is a merit in the science of all After this victory. and at a favourable spot. " history. and scalping-knives in hand. hundred. thus taken in the fort was also Amongst the prisoners my grandmother. and in an instant rush. and a child only seven my mother. Amongst was I mother's side. their wives of the valley in search of their enemies. advanced towards the head to the five or six The white men number of in the valley immediately armed. the Indians marched down the and took possession of the fort containing the women and children. with the exception of a very few. though in the hands of more than a thousand fierce and savage warriors. were not put to death. watching the movements of the white men from themountain tops. and leaving and children and old men in a rude fort on the bank of the river. and strategy warfare.28 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. to whom not one of the husvalley bands returned at that time. descended into the valley. at the sound of the war-whoop. from whom my grandfather on my have often had the most This onslaught is called in thrilling descriptions. who was then years old.

where he had purchased a beautiful plantation. which happened many years before I was born. made on my mind and Whilst my nerves by the thrilling incident I am about to describe. 29 for several weeks. having become startling legends of that region. impaired by the practice of the law. having hunted for them and supplied them with food. for the relief of with these his health. and painted their faces red. the Indian warriors left the fort." and to the honour of the Indian's character. called by Indian name " Oc-qua-go. resolving to turn his attention during the remainder of his life to agricultural pursuits. being . with the greatest pro- priety and kindness. when a reinforcement of troops arriving over the Pokona mountains for their relief. in the State of New York. its This lovely and picturesque little valley. with the women and children in it. treating them in every sense. calling them "sisters and children.VALLEY OF THE OC-QUA-GO. my infant mind was filled impressions. These brief facts. my father. removed some forty miles from the Valley of Wyoming to a romantic valley on the banks of the Susquehanna River." surrounded by high and precipitous mountains and deep ravines. with a thousand others which could be narrated. will account for the marvellous and frightful impressions I had received in my child- hood. be it for ever known (as attested by every prisoner both men and women). of and also for the indelible impression Indian massacres and Indian murders.

But I began now to feel a higher ambition that for which the rifles of my two of killing a deer elder brothers were the weapons requisite. when years old. The ploughs in my father's fields were at this time daily turning up Indian skulls or Indian beads. one of my father's ploughmen brought from his furrow the head of an Indian pipe -tomahawk. I had become At probably only nine or ten a pretty successful shot. and which (they being absent. quails. and one day. as well as those of the neighbourhood. the handle of which had rotted away.30 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and Indian flint arrow-heads. one by one. and whose paths and other markings were still recent. and pursuing their . as the most valued of its acquisitions. and squirrels was considered by the neighbouring hunters to be very creditable to me. father with a light single-barrelled fowling-piece which my had designated as especially my own. who had retreated before the deadly rifles of the avengers of Wyoming's misfortunes. pheasants. were bringing to me. and with which my slaughter of ducks. which was covered with rust. which the labouring men of his farm. I was in a position to increase rather than to diminish the excitements already raised in my mind relative to the Indians who had barricaded and bravely defended in their retreat. every defile and mountain pass. this early age. Mohawk and Oneida nearer to the straggling remnants of the defeated Indians. and with which I was enthusiastically forming a little cabinet or museum .

now In my " then recent visits to the " Old Saw-mill" on the Big Creek " a famous place. hemlocks and fir-trees. visits (a "deer lick"). 31 academical studies in a distant town) I began to lay temporary claim to. in the phrase of the a salt-spring which the deer visit in warm country. that of trout-fishing. under and around which I always had deer. and consisting only of masses of thrown-down timbers and planks. with an old it. weather. in a deep and dark gorge in the mountain's side. to allay their thirst. This solitary ruin. is A "lick" . converted into piles by the force of the water. my The "old saw-mill" was the shattered remains of a saw-mill which had been abandoned for many years. and deserted road leading to following mostly along the winding banks of the creek. to it down the mountain sides were freshly leading my trodden. showed me the fre- quency with which the deer were paying their to it.THE OLD SAW-MILL LICK. still riley with their recent steps. about one mile from my father's back fields. often called me I had observed that the saw-mill lick was much frequented by scene of and that I soon fixed as the more exciting operations. and to obtain the salt. overshadowed by dark and tall was the "lick" to which The paths aspiring ideas were now leaning. Near by it. to which my co-propensity. future and my greatest success in trout-fishing. and the mud and water in the lick. was enveloped in a dark and lonely wilderness. Most of the which seems necessary for digestion.

and taking the rifle into the fields. had every conBut the greater I my father that I ever. and putting my little fowling-piece in its place. from of herbivorous animals seem to visit these places as if necessity. and appear oftentimes under a sort infatuation in their eagerness for them.32 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I proceeded. between logs and rocks. my accuracy of my problem of aim. creeping along through narrow defiles. at a late hour of the night. until. howhanging against the wall. by a manoeuvre. by extracting one of them from the cover. of the recitals of several of the neighbouring hunters of their great success in the old saw-mill lick. The hour approaching. and fidence in difficulty was the positive order of was not to meddle with the arms of my elder brothers. which lie in wait for them. where I concealed it for my next afternoon's contemplated enterprise. to the old saw-mill lick . unless it was rested rifle A upon something for its support. through the winding and lonely road. and as yet sary was not strong enough to raise. and by recollections. and finding the rifle loaded. by a fair glance. in consequence of which they fall an easy prey to wild beasts. . as well as to hunters. yet fresh. Stimulated by the proofs aboved named. For this I foresaw a remedy. I resolved to try my first my luck there. for this enterprise was absolutely necesa weapon which I never had fired. with a light and palpitating heart. which were in covers and This I solved.

even after I had discovered what it was for it brought instantly into my mind the story which I had often heard Darrow relate. in the midst of this silent and listless anxiety. gave me one or two tremendous shivers. I here found myself in a snug and sly little box. which came tumbling down upon the hill side above and behind me. a poor man hood of my father. A SHIVER. it had not occurred to me . and at the proper distance for a dead shot. until that moment. CHILL. . however. at the old saw-mill lick John Darrow. and where the deer were in the habit of coming to lick. which it took me some time to get over.A moment. The nook into which I clambered and seated mywas elevated some twenty or thirty feet above the level of the lick. often worked living in the neighbourlor him in his fields. which had evidently been constructed and self used for a similar purpose on former occasions by the old hunters. I I found there was no game in then took to a precipitous ledge of rocks in the side of the hill partly enclosing the dark and lonely place where the salt-spring issued. not long before. with the muzzle of my rifle resting on a little breastwork of rock before me." which. which I mistook for the The falling of a footsteps of an approaching deer ! dry branch. took ! place. AND FALSE ALARM. I remained until near nightfall without other excitement than an occasional tremor from the noise of a bird or a squirrel in the leaves. of "killing the panther. it 33 at the at the lick. Having taken this position about the middle of the afternoon.

the ground. ran thus (as " : I was watching he called my father). which I was now revolving in my mind. Darrow had been in in the habit of "watching a great deal the old saw-mill lick. looking like a small Then secreting himself before dark on fire. His story of the panther. but was more fond of hunting. at the last night. Well." wildernesses. himself covered from head to foot with blood. and his his light was obscured. he had told on arriving at my father's house one morning at an early hour from one of these nocturnal hunts. on a level with his target. and of placing beyond the lick. his rifle resting in a couple of crotches and aiming directly at ball of phosphor light. at the height of the middle of a deer's body a small bit of phosphorescent wood fire. one can easily see how I became attached to this first wonderful man. and as he took a peculiar fancy to me for my hunting propensities. with a bullet hole between its eyes. at any time of the night when he heard the stepping of the deer in the lick. wood which often occurs in those and called by the inhabitants "foxprobably from phosphor) and which is always (a rotten visible in the darkest night. He often supplied my father with venison. to pull trigger was a certain death. and with a huge panther slung upon his back. . Squire old saw-mill lick. for which his success had gained him a great reputation in that vicinity. and how I came to take my " lessons in deer-stalking and bear-hunting with him.S4 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

and my cocked. I at length got hold of the do me no good in the dark. 35 and it getting on to be near midnight. I assure you). until just the break of day (the only thing I wanted it was but a few hours. for I feet. much heightened by such reflections in such a place and every leaf that turned behind me calculated more . with hands. and dropped me. though I could was total darkness. jump farther himself. " rifle in both In this position. Seated on the ground. no hope but from knowing that the cowardly animal had slipped and I had now will never spring while you look him in the face. when his outline. for it knew by the noise when was a painter. and landed me some ten or twelve feet. my it eyes knew exactly where he was but could lying. and feeling my way very gradually with my set upon the brute. but keeping rifle. I was waked by a tremendous blow. but it seemed a long time. My knife out of the scabbard in the struggle. like a stroke of lightning 'twas this beast. and my back leaning against a beech tree. and Old Ben there was ' : no time to be lost was about twenty feet now. at last I could see the head of you.STORY OF THE PANTHER. not hearing even a leaf turned by him. I knew see nothing. and I let from me/' slip ! The beast One can easily imagine my juvenile susceptibilities . as I it he stopped. I fell asleep. and made only one see . and then the wrinkles betwixt I can tell ' I could just begin to discover his eyes ! Time moved slowly then. I was badly torn. d'ye he sprung upon me. and felt the blood running in several places. I sat. My rifle was left in the crotches. Squire .

Just then I heard the distant proaching the lick. but they shook me. chills seemed to rise. which I was then believing I should have to forego for that day at least. nor to wait much longer for the desired gratification. and all things. stopping often to gaze. cocked. and sometimes looking me. My young blood was too boilable. or less to startle me. was rested before me the rock. and I was on the eve of descending from my elevated nook and wend- ing my sounds of footsteps in the leaves. and my nerves Successive decidedly too excitable for my business. The woodlark was at that moment taking its favourite limb in the lofty and evergreen hemlocks for its nightly rest. my shakes increas- at length it entered the pool. was not to trust myself in that gloomy place in the night. My resolve. each one of them. and shortly after discovered in the distance a deer (a huge buck !).36 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. timidly and cautiously descending the hill and ap- way home. of course. licking for and commenced and the resolve that the moment had arrived set my grand achievement. and making the wooded temple of solitude ring and echo with its liquid notes. until actually shaking the top of it after my head. I don't recollect where from. lest he should discover me. apparently. full in the face. they seemed to go out at The deer kept advancing. save my- . and ing. when I was afraid even to wink. whilst all else was still as death. . my teeth actually chattering. on the surface of My rifle.

much moment . until I could see more clearly the forward sight of my barrel.DEER IN THE self. I was getting my aim with tolerable accuracy. I must run to kick. my fowling-piece hundreds of times without harm. Just at this cool But I am he had stopped. I tried again events. like a snake running through me from my feet to the top of my head. and. for I don't tremble now. . stepping out of the lick. one minute longer. sure I could have if killed him. because I was just about sions for a few to pull trigger ! The deer at this time seemed to have got enough ! of licking. and at all trigger. or to explode fired little ! had those risks. veloped Just at this moment also popped into my head me one or two renewed I another idea that gave shivers. but before I could pull attempts from another chill and a shake. fortune ! What Oh. what a loss a chance is gone ! ! " what a misa coward. and again. seemed to be enin a sort of a mist. but I never had fired " It may be overloaded. What and what a poor fool am I though. or so long loaded as a rifle but never mind. LICK. as yet." the deer came gliding through the bushes and into the lick again." After checking my latter apprehen- moments. I lost it again. and feeling again more calmed. but in vain. disappeared in the thicket. when away went another of those frightful chills. 37 after several useless were perfectly ready I got my aim. and then more prudently resolved to lie still a few moments until I could get my nerves more steady. which.

as he pushed his red and naked shoulders.38 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and the blade of his bloody knife. but half bent forward. "Oh. and grace with which this . One little chill nearer than before. and drew himself slowly over the logs and My head little ! through the bushes. and then oh. but by gritting my teeth tight together I succeeded in getting a more steady aim. Trailing his rifle in his left hand. His rifle he leaned against a tree. horrid ! horrid to ! what what a life fate is mine ! what am I do?" No length of could ever erase from my recol- lection the impression which this singular and un- expected scene ease. which had fallen much nearer to me than it was when it was shot. while he suspended the animal by the hind legs from the limb of a tree to let it bleed. began ! . and tumbling upon the ground. showed me that I was too late! lowered a and the breech of my rifle were instantly more behind my stone breastwork. when bang went the crack and the flash of a rifle. nor ever dreamed of seeing in that place tall and graceful form of a huge Indian. quite dead. a little to the left of me! and the deer. made upon my infant mind. or the and composure. horrid what I never had seen bethe fore. bounding a few rods from the pool on to an elevated bank. he clenched between his teeth. and drawing a large knife with the other from its sheath in the hollow of his back. he ad- vanced to the carcase of the deer. which he had drawn across the neck of the deer.

I had not feeling nor a shiver my now was no longer the ebullition of childish anxiety. and I am perfectly cool a bullet would put an end to all my fears. which My seemed elongated as though they were reaching half-way to him. and drawing from his pouch his flint. in a moment" before me. and the blue streams were curling upwards from his mouth and bis nosc . and moved his piercing black eyes over and about the ledge where I was sitting. and spunk. but the awfully flat and stupid one of dread and fear . and Here was " perhaps death every muscle was quiet. the living figure of a Red Indian ! he sees me. he will scalp me and devour be- my me dear mother will never !" know what came of From another the crack of that chill. as if he were sending up thanks to the Great Spirit in the blue clouds of smoke that were curling around him." And a better one followed when he turned gently around. with which he lit his pipe. for the first time " If in my life. wiping his huge knife upon the moss and laying it by his side. Who will ever imagine the thoughts that were passing through my youthful brain in these exciting moments ? for here was before me. and me I'm lost . : however. . and from which it seemed. his An instant thought came to me. rifle. eyeballs.KED INDIAN AT THE LICK. when naked back and shoulders were turned towards me " My rifle is levelled. 39 phantom seated himself upon the trunk of a large and fallen tree. were too tightly strained to tremble. and steel. in a few moments.

His pipe burned out . but rifle. and such the mode of seeing an Indian. exclaiming as I approached . scarcely daring to look back. and reflections were still like lead that could not be removed. my attention was now turned to a different but more difficult By clambering the huge precipice still above me. he slung upon his back. in the momentary glance of that face. " last view. saw then (though a child). which I did without plan or reserve. with its fore and trils for I hind legs tied together. but solely " my first with youthful impulse . and none but human nature I saw humanity. he silently and quietly disappeared in the dusky forest. Such was the adventure. which at this time My position was taking the gloom of approaching night. AMONG THE INDIANS." Having seen him. was through the woods. taking his rifle in his hand. The last of these. was recovered on the following day. could express. at entirely out of my way. and. the next thing was to announce him. but the other never came to light. until a doubly reasonable time had elapsed for this strange apparition to be He having seemingly. I safely lodged in my father's back fields. what infant human nature could not fail to see. the deer. however. to have taken the direction of the old road" by which I had expected to return. which I did as soon as perfect safety seemed to authorise it. and by a run of more than a mile route. without hat or and without the least know- ledge of the whereabouts in which either of them had been deposited or dropped.4f) LIFE .

bed." I was mad I went to bed mad and crying knelt . where ye sae thit lattle areesin. and at last comforted poor dear mother came and me a little I believe My dear George. " yer parthen. was at the door. for I tal ye ther'll be nae smohk may pigs. and his pipe at his lips with his wife. and then they thought " the boy was mad. " Jist in the toother eend of the bag whate-field. has kimmed thae japsies. .JOHNNY O'NEIL'S " GIPSIES. and my father continued be bound these are George's Indians!" and putting on his hat. and taking me by the hand. " His legs were crossed. my ! ! No in the one believed me." where we Indian warrior (Paddy's gipsy) (Plate No. as no Indian had been seen neighbourhood for many years. That's almost a bull." 41 the vicinity of father's bouse. gude o' 'em. I related the whole of my adventure. ! he was not believed either . a faithful farm-labourer in and in the morning." I had a restless night. my father's employment. my seated on a bear-skin spread upon the ground.) big wheat-field. and my by my " by saying." Poor Johnny O'Neil for. " I bag for there are no gipsies in this country. sae ye be lookin' oot for yer toorkies." said "I'll Johnny . announcing that. and as pale as a " " I've seen an Indian I've seen an Indian ghost. Johnny O'Neil. I do believe you I believe your story to be true you have seen an Indian. an' yer suckin'an' yer chahkins. however. he and Johnny O'Neil and myself started off for the farther corner of the found I. when I awoke. his elbows resting on his knees. and ." said my father. Johnny.

he that he was an Oneida. Johnny O'Neil." said " I. reclining by the side of him . and had learned to sing their songs and . with a steak of venison cooking for their breakfast. you were right. and over them all.42 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Understanding and speaking a easily explained to my father little English. living near fifty way Cayuga Lake. " said to me. George." " Yes. soon dissipated all my fears. " There is the Indian. and." He was smoking away. my father's stepping up to him and taking him by the hand with a mutual " How how how/' and the friendly grip of his soft and delicate hand. " There's the japsies !" said were approaching. father !" said I and my father. to screen them from the sun. suspended by the corners from four crotchets fastened into the ground. in to feel something of the alarm I had felt the day be- fore. a blanket. and their necks covered with beads. that his name was On-o-gongHe asked us to sit down by (a great warrior). and a small fire in front of the group. which was extended to me also. with blankets wrapped around them. and turned my alarm to perfect admiration. when he cleaned out his pipe. who had been familiar with Indians. and that's the man I saw. it him. charging . some one hundred and miles distant. and looking us steadily the face as we approached and though I began very . his little daughter of ten years old. these are Indians. as we speak somewhat of their language in his early life. my boy.

as well as the motive which had brought him some hundreds ." meaning that I was a good hunter. as I had represented it at home. was a pledge of his friendship. and gave it to my and then handed it to me. My lick. my lighted. which was increased again as I listened to his narrative. and that half of the venison belonged venison. but not quite. tobacco. he proved to be no larger than an ordinary man. was no doubt a part of the animal I had seen in the lick. was earnestly looking me in the face. though it had appeared to me the day before. The saddle of venison. commencing a smile. The story finished. though very small." and trembling. father then explained to him adventure the to " day before at the the story of my old saw-mill every sentence of which I was nodding yes. " Good good good hunter. which. as the Indian was smoking his pipe. afresh with 43 father to smoke. of his history and of some of his adventures. stepped into the shade of the forest. you half very good. made to my father and myself. though on more familiar acquaintance. exclaimed. father explained. and brought it. hand on my head. where he had suspended a small saddle of and laying it by my side. he took me by both hands.THE SADDLE OF VENISON." and the Indian a giant. as he laid his to me. and very deliberately as he climbing over the fence. a "buck of the most enormous size. This generous present added much to my growing admiration. and almost." He laid his pipe down. " Dat you. to my great surprise. and repeated the words.

and whose deep-rooted hostility to all savages induced them to shoot them down whenever they met them in their hunting grounds. as one of the most difficult to carry. father. another army of white men came from the north. but at that time. " was a great battle. on those very fields. he being a boy about my size. through which the river passes) . His father. and one of the most valuable. "What!" the . of miles over a country partly of forest and partly inhabited by a desperate set of hunters whose rifles were unerring. The white see you (pointing to a narrow gorge in the " and mountains. had been one of the warriors in the battle of Wyoming. his father made him assist in carrying many heavy things which they had plundered from the white people. was a kettle of gold. " " now listen. a kettle of gold !" " Yes. and the poor Indians had no way but to leave . and were entering the valley on that side. at mouth of the Tunkhannock amongst which. During this disastrous retreat. he said. after many battles and great slaughter. lying beneath and in front of us). said my " father. which then were covered with soldiers " came through the narrows yonder trees " (pointing to my father's fields. up the shores of the his tribe Susquehana to the country where the remnant of now lived. and amongst them was afterwards driven by the white soldiers. where they fought a great battle. between the Oneida and Cayuga Lakes. father." said he. and many were the warriors that fell on both sides.44 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

but I see there no use in keeping it a secret and this makes my heart sad. which are now so . I saw my father and my mother bury the kettle of * gold.THE KETTLE OP GOLD. it. I have made the journey a great way. my father. father "When my was old and infirm. and where shall I go to look? This. 45 the river and all their canoes. on which the old saw-mill was and which passed in a serpentine course through " On the banks of my father's farm to the river). and all now is covered with green grass . and amongst them. but since he has gone to the land of his fathers. that creek many who were unable things were buried by the Indians. come a great way. on the farther bank. to dig up the ' kettle But I see this day. somewhere near that bridge. in the ground. " These green fields. father. and my road in going back I know is beset with many enemies. and I could not come . and make their way through the forests to Cayuga. " In passing these mountains. I have any longer. my father. my its lowed the banks of that creek to to the creek head father. to carry them over the mountains . " father My we buried the ' kettle of gold at the foot of a large pine-tree that stood on the bank . my where the road crosses.' with other things.' that there is no use in looking for is where I now sit. from of gold. they fol" (pointing built. and my heart ' very sad. my father. but I see the trees are all gone. and to cross these high mountains behind us. I is kept a secret for many years. I was obliged to hunt for him.

my father described to him the manner and place in which it was found. father. While this conversation was passing about the " kettle of gold. grounds of . one of his hired men. father asked him many questions about the "kettle of gold." and in answering these. and at the identical spot designated by the forefinger of the Indian and that kettle being brought by me from my mother's culinary collection. had ploughed up a small brass kettle a few years before. occasion) in my lifetime." My to me. than I ran and scaled the fences on this errand. he extended both arms in the form of a circle. * ." and beautiful trees. on the bank of the creek. perhaps. looked like gold. turned run down to the house ! and ask your mother to give you the little brass I kettle. was now under the eyes of the child of the forest. after a and " said.46 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS." said he.' and bring it here as quick as you can. which. and that it was made of brass. and we are your children." it had occurred to my father that Buel Rowley. There. were once covered with large and they were then the hunting and they were many and my but we are now but a very few we live a strong great way off. Whilst he was in silence gazing upon it. to be sure. and of much less . " it was about thus large. George study of a few minutes. and must be of great value." had run more nimbly (but on one never. but was much harder. and just as much as I could lift . beautiful to look upon. and turning it over and over. fathers. his fingers' My " ends just touching each other.

that he found it was not a The first error he attributed to his having carried it when he was quite a small boy. in his way for hundreds of miles through the wending forests infested with hunters whose rifles were His levelled upon every Indian they could meet. and those of his wife . and his little daughter. he laid it down. but that two things troubled his mind very much the first was. long journey had cost him no gold. as ii he recognised the long-hidden treasure. . which were to be retraced. that he had no doubt but it was the same kettle. After a pause of a few minutes. but drawing a deep sigh. learned amongst the white people that a very small piece of gold was worth ten dollars . . and the " kettle of gold" other.THE KETTLE OF GOLD. that the kettle should be so small. and in this wise accomplished his object but his dangerous steps. from having heavy load for him . said to my father. were life. and he had thus far escaped his enemies. and without the change of a muscle. as it was then a and the other. 47 value. for he had none his rifle had supplied him and his family to spend with food. and drawing a deep breath or two through his pipe. Poor ignorant child of the forest he had learned ! from his teachers something of the value of gold before he knew what it was and he had risked his . and having estimated from this standard the probable value of a " kettle of gold." not having as yet learned enough from the white people to know the difference between gold and brass. and rim of trying his knife two or three times on the upper it.

that he had dug up. for which he made it with his knife.48 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. a mystery which no one of the neighbours could solve. until it while bright. a " of gold" and several of his neighbours paid visits to his little bivouac . or a piece of hard hickory wood. and he gave a new gleam to mine." little thinking. and curiously carved brought to him. as wire. rendered tenfold more dangerous from the vague reports which had accidentally and unfortunately got into circulation amongst the hunters and bri- gands of the forests through which he had to pass. the pith of which is easily burned away with a heated hole. that the handle was made of a young ash. so completely were all my fears turned into admiration. as " there was no gimlet long enough to make such a he explained the secret to me. me a The handle was perforated for smoking through. when he filled the bowl . and was returning with. The handle finished. and I spent frequent kettle My father nearly all my time there. friend Johnny my O'Neil laid the head and blade of turned. This lighted the eyes of the child of the forest. I on the grindstone was everywhere silvery it and its edge as sharp as a knife. My rusty tomahawk head I handle.

my good and confiding friend now arose with the tomahawk in his right hand. the smoke passing through it when charged with tobacco. to my inexpressible delight. an Indian for substitute tobacco) and commenced smoking through it. The first of these characters of the tomahawk having been illustrated as above stated. of being turned into a luxury. and the tobacco all burned out . My (like young readers must know that the tomahawk Sheffield the scalping-knife. as quick as elec- . which generally has the mark upon it) is a contrivance of civilized invention and construction. and raised my astonishment and admiration still higher. when ! chick it seemed to pronounce. for which it is equally valued. And tomahawk was yet the great charm still to come and mystery of the yet to be learned.MY TOMAHAWK. breath of wind. when war is at an end. by throwing or striking with. then stepped back again some ten or fifteen with the end of the handle in his hand. too deadly and de- structive to have been made by the poor Indian. combining the two essential requisites of being capable of being used in war as the most efficient and deadly weapon. ing I its had not the power to draw it out but under his practised hand it seemed to leave the tree like a . of it 4-9 with tobacco (or k'nick-k'neck. He steps. explaining to me the certain fate of an enemy within an equal distance. by throwing it trunk of a tree some rods distant. and. and bury- at the blade in the solid wood.

and while he was maturing a plan for sending them home by a different route. even to the . with the arrows in it. present day. which he He made me looked upon with an evident gloom. and from a young hickory he made me a beautiful bow. and the blade. What of my could more completely have capped the climax boyish ambition than this ? The honesty and childlike simplicity of these poor people gained them many friends in the neighbourhood. and my attachment to them laid iny mother's pantry under daily and heavy contributions. and yet there were. murderous enemies in disguise plotting and prowling around them. always entering the tree. and was there buried again more than twenty times. no matter what the distance. . My father was under constant apprehensions for their safety. and. to the astonishment of my father and others looking on the weapon revolving many times in the air. without failing once. and never have been able to solve. ! This he did tricity. it was discovered one morning that their smoke was missing in the corner of my father's . no doubt. slung it on my back." which I would have killed) he made me a quiver. and ornamented it with woodpeckers' feathers and from the skin of the fawn (the " huge buck. and at his own expense.50 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. My father made them many presents. Here I was left in one of the several inexplicable mysteries which I have met in Indian life. My flint arrow-heads I brought to him. shafts (which he feathered) to a number of them .

he had left this silent parting gift. with one of the beautiful and well-known eagle from the head of On-o-gong-way fastened ! in it! Poor. by throwing it at the trunk of a tree and when thrown by the hand of one of the boys. to meet the chances for his life on his long journey home. by which I was . and through the neighbourhood. Upon my be shot if word. and a scar which any one readers may always know opportunity of seeing me. his choicest plume. and with it. " when he looked upon taining the saddle of venison conexclaimed. covered with blood . which was a fine saddle of venison. The Indians are gone the Indians are gone ? was echoed everywhere. and felling me a to the ground." and on the same morning was father's side. it glanced from the tree. when the sharp blade struck me on the left cheek. an' the " I'll eagle's quill. thase is nae japsies " thot mon's not a gintleman ! A few days after the departure of the Indians. cutting deep into the cheekbone. found hanging in my always open on one quills wood-house. squire. and poor Johnny O'Neil. standing too closely. me by. giving me wound which was several of months in healing. two neighbouring boys and myself were practising with my tomahawk.MY TOMAHAWK. " ! to identify the giver. and as an unmistakable evidence of his friendship and gratitude. if youthful they have the my . " 51 big wheat-field . as he could not write his name. honest. in the morning. and harmless man he had left.

but not . This was the first catastrophe growing out of the singular acquaintance thus recited. some eight or ten miles from my father's plantation. What became of his poor wife and the interesting and innocent little daughter.52 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. never furnished any clue to the villainy. notwithstanding his exertions from year to year. in Randolph Valley. the saddest that came to our and in this lamentable knowledge a few days form that the dead body of poor On-o-gong-way was found. . a dark and dreary wilderness. new and later. pierced by two rifle bullets. no mortal was ever able (or willing) to say and the " kettle of gold. to the detection of so foul a murder." which my father had confident hopes would have led . which it was necessary for him to cross in order to reach his own country and friends.

with its vast prairies. . I entered the forests to learn more of it. 53 . Portraits and Costumes The Sioux Sionx Wigwams Skin-builders Drying Meat Grass -builders Indian Dirt- Slavery builders Scalp-Day Bark-builders Timber-builders. and lakes. and some of the finest races of mankind in America or in the world the principal. which occupied some five or six years of my life during which time I visited many tribes. as I have said. IN the foregoing chapter received I have shown how I my earliest .CHAPTER Indian Tribes Village Interior of III. we will now enter upon scenes that I witnessed in those pursuits. was the first field of my roamings. and most numerous. from my boyhood to the age of thirty-three. containing nearly one-half of North America. and mountains. when. and most interesting of these were the Sioux the Blackfoot the Crows the Mandans . The great valley of the Mississippi and Missouri. Indian character impressions of the and skipping over the intervening part of my life. from which a more intimate knowledge of these people and their customs may be gleaned.

the Garibbees the Arowaks the Ghaymas the Gooagives the Macouchis the Guarani the Tupi the Botocudos the Connibos A all the Chiquitos the Moxos. my young not fatigue you by travelling over the whole ground I will take a shorter way. and fifty others. connected narrative of my wanderings amongst of these remote people large and perhaps tedious readers. from the scenes of my younger days just described. let me describe a painting from life. where men and animals are roaming in their native beauty and independence. where the Indian tribes have all disappeared many great still American years since.54 the LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. they live. but. I will introduce you at once to the people themselves and their modes of living. Camanchees Osages subsequent travels west of the Eocky Mountains. and in my the Arapahos. you will more easily and correctly understand how they act Will you not ? We now take an immense stride of twelve hundred miles in a moment. in the State of New York. and in South and Central America. a few of the numerous the Apachees the Shoshonees tribes. which my portfolio . to the centre and heart of the wilds. which you will then be better able to After knowing how they look and how appreciate. on the great and almost boundless grassy plains of the Upper Missouri In the absence of a pictorial illustration. and others. and afterwards to their customs. I will would require a very book. the Flatheads Ojibbeways Pawnees and Choctaws .

comprising the head war-chief of the great Sioux nation. orna- mented with porcupine quills. before white men come to It will be destroy their game. except in weather. hand he held his lance . in his right of deer-skins. a curious mode. and the seams embroidered with porcupine His moccasins. people for in their native state. and was very prettily embroidered and painted. with her infant (papoose) slung in its pretty crib. or cradle. very warm D . young woman was made of the more light and more soft than deer-skins. and was surmounted by a pair of horns. .PORTRAITS AND COSTUMES. with his daughter (an unmarried girl) and his wife. were handsomely embroidered . The costume of the wife of the chief was much the same as that of the daughter her leggings and moccasins being beautifully garnished. when it is more agreeable to be naked. they are abundantly and comfortably. which I found to be the same in most of the tribes. made dress. clad. and. quills and fringed with scalp-locks. dyed of various bright colours. of a family group. extended quite to the ground. they have an abundance of skins and furs to clothe themselves with . seen by this description that these " " are not always the poor naked Indians . 55 contains. The dress of the skins of the mountain sheep. The chief wore a robe made of the skin of a buffalo. and his head- made of war-eagles' quills and ermine skins. with the battles of his life painted on it. partly and oftentimes elegantly. denoting his office as head warchief of his tribe. His shirt (or tunic) and leggings were made of deerskins.

in form * Pronounced See-oo. We discover in this family group. also. they form the government of the nation . in council. the mother. at full speed. . or wield their long and fatal lances in the chase of the buffaloes. divided into forty bands. or who are better mounted. and also in war with their enemies. the children . These people. the wife. clearly showing as that these people have the institution of marriage. we have it in the civilized world. construct their wigwams with them. each band having a chief at its head. which chiefs are again subordinate to one head-chief . By my observa- tions amongst them I find that they feel and observe those conjugal. oftentimes in groups of several hundreds. some striking examples of in this little book. where they easily procure the buffaloskins. Here is the father. a good illustration of the domestic relations existing amongst these poor people. numbering about twenty-five thousand. They catch an abundance of wild horses. the husband. living mostly in a country of prairies (meadows).56 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which are grazing on the prairies. and with him. they deal their deadly arrows. who live in better houses (wigwams). is the custom amongst most of the other There is no tribe better clad. and such tribes. than the Sioux. which will yet be given The Sioux* is one of the most numerous and powerful tribes in North America. those paternal and filial affections as strongly as any people in more enlightened society. and from their horses' backs.

when they are busily engaged in drying tion. covered with one entire piece of fifteen or twenty buffalo-skins sewed together. and no one rises to salute you. The family are all seated. you rise up and find a lofty space of some twenty feet above your head. 57 which are more comfortable than rude huts constructed of timber. of tents. and have the advantage of being easily transported over the prairies . All lower their eyes to your feet. all built much in the same manner some fifteen or twenty pine poles forming the frame.SIOUX VILLAGE. of all colours : . From the view (Frontispiece) of a Sioux village. but when you are in. and most curiously painted and embroidered. consumpand on also for barter to the fur traders. the Inside of these tents. and at night the inmates all sleep on buffalo-skins spread upon the ground. are more easily built. meat for their winter's for their and dressing robes this own clothing. centre. instead . live. by which means the Indians are enabled to follow the migrating herds of buffaloes during fall the summer and seasons. and not uncomfortable mode. the fire is placed in the smoke escaping out at the top . a most When you enter safe. Upper Missouri. with their feet to the fire . one of these wigwams you have to stoop rather awkwardly . my little correct notion of the manner readers will get a very in which these curious this village people There were in about four hundred skin tents. presenting one of the most curious and beautiful scenes imaginable. whatever your office or your importance may be.

and their arms and head also. and your heels drawn quite close under you. apparently without an effort. the ground with the same ease and grace that we sit down in. to sit you in the and you are asked down. you are seated. selves to the ground.58 of staring LIFE AMONG THE face. to feel at ease your legs crossed. sit down upon. and when down. robe or a mat of rushes is spread for you. and rise from. INDIANS. accustomed to this from childhood. slowly and regularly lower their bodies when quite to the sitting posture on the ground and neat. and without touching their hand to the ground. and as they have no chairs you are at once embarrassed. like the men. This is very curious. and get a fair and deliberate glance at things around you. and extending their arms and head forward. closely locked together. and rise Both men and women lower themfrom. without a hitch or a jerk. It is an awkward thing for a white man to sit down A upon the ground he is until he gets used to it. and rise. The men generally sit cross-legged and to sit down they cross their feet. and. he don't know what to do with his legs. lower and raise themselves without touching the ground. The Indians. : they rise they place their feet in the same position. but it is exceedingly graceful . and then you can take the pipe when it is handed to you. and rise to a perfectly straight position. The women always sit with both feet and lower legs turned under and to the right or the left. When must be . a chair.

and pouches. to which they are fastened by thongs . and spears. 59 The furniture in these wigwams is not much. suspended from the poles of the tent. and buffalo masques (which each man keeps for dancing the buffalo dance). they pass it through For this. with fire. and showing their teeth. a another process. The skin-dressing of the Indians. and you see shields. but very curious in effect. both of the buffalo is generally very beautiful and soft. the whole presenting. and bristling. and picturesque. and a great variety of other picturesque things hanging around. and medicine bags. the picturesque group around the most curious scenes imaginable. and lances. These hushed. dressing robes and drying meat. you can take a look at other things. when we look at it. The first startling thing you will meet it is on entering will be half-a-dozen saucy dogs. of doing this is curious : they stretch the skin. either on a frame or on the ground. and oftentimes as many screaming children. and quivers." . Their mode some three or four days with the brains of the buffalo or elk spread over the fleshy side. that of "smoking. barking. frightened at your savage and strange appearance. and saddles.INTERIOR OF WIGWAMS. and cradles. they grain it with a sort of adze or chisel. and after it has remained and deer-skins. made of a piece of buffalo bone. as seen in the illustration. one of the In front of these wigwams the women are seen busily at work. " After the process of graining/' and the skin is apparently beautifully finished.

in which the grained hang for three or four days. smoking his pipe. to keep the poor women at work.60 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. producing a strong and peculiar sort of smoke . cured. it into thin (as seen in the cut). and constantly. does not yet belong skins to dressed skins in civilized countries. it Men are here seen also with their horses loaded with meat and skins. coming in from the hunt. and therefore are less thought of. and husband. After this prothe dresses made of these skins may be worn cess. made of two or three buffalo-skins. dashes amongst the herds in the chase. and so closed as to prevent the smoke from escaping. for it is not exactly it is so. and over this a little tent. passer-by as She labours very hard She does most of the and wigwam." Don't believe this. when he mounts his horse. is hole of some two or three feet in depth dug in the ground. as he is looking on. repeatedly in the rain. and will always dry perfectly soft a quality which. true. etc. and a smothered fire kindled in the hole with rotten wood. . and working every nerve and every muscle. " " slices Drying meat and exposing is done by cutting in the sun. and is seen This all looks to the the slavish compulsion of her cruel who is often seen lying at his ease. with his His weapons in hand. without salt hung upon poles where it dries. I believe. and is successfully and without smoke. It is proverbial in " the the civilized world that poor Indian woman has to do all the hard work. labours are not seen. drudgery about the village transporting heavy loads.

or in one the country. in civilized communities. in a tap-room. and she may be a slave to an husband. and tends to her little children. and see the industry and the slavish labour of poor woman She works all the days of her life. makes fires. their humble dwellings in all cities and towns.INDIAN SLAVEKY. and help to defend his country. brings water. to protect them from the assaults of their enemies. about the encampment. . she voluntarily assumes the hard work . spending his time and his as well as her own earnings. to be sure. is The world is full of such slavery as this . but amongst the American Indians such a system does not and cannot exist . Look into equally poor in all civilized countries. " Slaves to their husbands " is an epithet so often and so inappropriately applied to the poor Indian woman by the civilized world. and scours the country both night and day. for which she depends upon his labours. to provide food for his wife 61 and his little children. at the constant risk of his life. and so frequently reiterated and kept alive by tourists who have . The Indian woman's life is. every man is a hunter and a soldier he must supply his family with food. considering their labours about equally divided. like the ! poor Indian idle woman . who civilized money. a slavish and equally so are the lives of most women . The education of woman in those countries teaches her that the labours are thus to be divided between herself and her husband and for the means of subsistence and protection.

have its . In the relationship of man and wife. and I do not believe that. as " amongst white people. happened to see an Indian woman or two at work when their husbands were asleep or smoking their pipes. that they cannot be induced to labour men for any remuneration that can be offered. By the custom in all the American tribes. All efforts made (and there have been many) to enslave these people. nor injustice to the Indian. either within the pale of the domestic relations or out of it. the person of every individual in society. both are one. that stamps his character as One American mentally superior to that of the African and some other races." they can and do labour for mutual interests and mutual subsistence. in which. and such an abhorrence have they for each other or for white of the system. my young pass it readers. is considered sacredly protected from the lash or a blow. possibility. in common honesty to you. that I cannot. is his uncompromising tenacity for un- bounded freedom. which in themselves imply degradation or servitude. have resulted in failures . without incurring this reproach .62 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. consent to by in this place without some further comment. lest the disgraceful epithet " " slave should be applied to them by their tribe. among the poorer class of any civilized people on earth. of the distinguishing natural traits of the Indian. If this system should. and in all cases they may be revenged by with death. a better and a more voluntary division of the toils of conjugal life can be found than exists amongst the American Indians.

We ment in here see the Indian women in the full enjoy- of their domestic happiness. happens to be of the other tribes. like most scalp-day . . having several days in the year for " counting scalps. and of course be unable to appreciate some extraordinary and amusing Sioux customs. which are estimated by the number of scalps he has taken. and understand each warrior's standing is . lest we should But we left lose about sight of a Sioux village before we know all it.SCALP-DAY. to be explained further on as we advance. This " " the Sioux. his race. disadvantages. and erects " over it a pole called the scalp-pole. and claims to promotion." from which which he has taken. work. and the little cupids taking their first lessons in archery. with their little children and dogs around them. which is the most important feature in their education. and it to the redound to the honour of and what a lesson is for the civilized world. so the signal for all the warriors to do the same that the chief and every person in the village can count them. 63 it how much does credit of the Indian's character." which are observed somewhat The chief on those days passes through an aperture in the side of his wigwam. which are suspended the scalps as holidays." dressing back to them for a few moments yet. that there never was known to exist amongst them the unnatural brute that has beaten his wife or his little child ! " slavish these poor women at their Let us go robes and drying meat. the villagers dressed their ordinary costumes.

the Omahas.64 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. A warrior is one of those who has taken one or more a brave is one who goes to war as a soldier. will be more fully described hereafter. these ingenious people. and the timber-builders. build their wigwams. with the mode of taking it and using it. all of whom will be noticed in their proper places. the dirt-builders. never yet have adopted the mode of build- probably not the result of or want of invention. which I have thus briefly explained. Amongst tary the Indian tribes every man is a mili- man. a brave. but from their ignorance All the universal policy of leaving no monuments. and live much in the manner of the Sioux. From the Sioux mode of constructing their villages. scalps but as yet has taken no scalps. the bark-builders. All are armed and ready to go to war if necessary. and yet several other tribes living in the vicinity of the herds of buffaloes. the Crows. The Assinneboins. the Shiennes. and to which we shall have occasion again to return. or a chief. we will now take a glance at some other modes practised by other tribes living at great distances from . How curious it is that have invented so ing with stone. and yet other builders. which. Taking the scalp is practised by all the American tribes much in the same way. All of these I would denominate "skin-builders. and for the same objects. . the Blackfoot. a warrior. them. the Camanchees." There are also the grass-builders. who many ways This is of constructing their dwellings. has killed no enemy.

and " smoothing over the graves of their parents and children. if they cannot take them with them. ." The Pawnee. burning their wigwams. a wams by a sort of thatching of long prairie grass. build their wigahge). which is only practised by that tribe. they destroy their marks. smaller tribes subjugated by the Pawnee-Picts. when combent in at their tops . 65 migratory . American tribes are more or less all and by when they move.Picts (in their own language Tow-eenumerous tribe living on the head waters of the Ked River. pleted. is very convenient . in Western Texas. and partially so by the Kiowas and Wicos. they are comfortable dwellings. This singular mode. a frame of poles fastened in the ground and over the structure.GRASS-BUILDEES. having much the shape and appearance of a straw beehive.

are the only dirt-builders. for a foundation. are always made by excavating. from which they make a superstructure of round timbers lying against each other. on the Upper Missouri. unlike the Sioux and other tribes and who are constantly roaming live in permanent villages. by the bank of a river on one side. . the Minatarees. The tribe of Mandans. and they all seem to construct their wigwams much in the same manner. in a cirsome three or four feet into the ground. demolished when they are left.66 LIFE AMONG THE and easily INDIANS. and uniformly fortify them against the assaults of their enemies. and a stockade on the other. and the Riccarrees. These living in skin tents. by putting a fire-brand to them. These tribes. easily constructed. and construct their wigwams with more labour and more strength. wigwams cular form. about the country. the Pawnees of the Platte.

to preserve . using a thousand different shapes in constructing with those materials. always built in the centre. then. are the only modes of construction which are confined to any uniform shapes the woodbuilders. which. timber-builders and palm-builders in Central and South America. I have fearlessly said. and supported within by beams resting on upright posts the whole is covered with willow-boughs. . permitting the whole family. dogs and all. and obtain important information in support of the character of these abused people. from which I We intend you shall draw more amusement. with the The fire is smoke escaping at the apex. the dryness and soundness of the timbers. So much for the various modes in which these will now take a little curious people live. and then proceed to their actions and usages. further view of their personal appearance.BARK-BUILDERS AND TIMBER-BUILDERS. 67 the butt ends placed in the bottom of the excavation. and the smaller ends concentrating near the top. to recline and gambol on the top of it in pleasant weather. as seen in the illustrations. entitles them to a high position amongst the families of the world. like the . and covered again with a foot or two in thickness of a concrete of tough clay and gravel. and the bark-builders. and others. and many of them sixty feet in diameter. and found the smallest to be forty-five feet. These. In the Mandan village I measured several of these.

in war dress and war paint. the Thunders Nest. actions. for the Buffalo-hunts. have described to you the family of an American wild man.) three distinguished Indian warriors.CHAPTER Warriors IV. the Dog-feasts. how the people look first and then. III. foundation for what is skip over nothing. my little readers. in full last chapter I In the dress. "War the Dress Smoking Whistles Shield Flags and War Paint War WeaponsWarfare WarWar-Whoop Scalps and Scalping Prisoners of War Calumet (Pipe of Peace). with his wife and children around him present to . and equipped for war. and your acquaintance (Plate No. These I have I now selected 68 from amongst my numerous Dortraits painted . etc.. Don't get impatient for the description of Scalps and Scalping. |OW. ing word as you pass along. we will more easily understand their . an officer of the highest rank. the Stone- man Medicine. but read every for we are so far getting a to follow. but learn as I have said. we are soon coming to scenes and events that will be more excit. the head war-chief of his tribe.

of Indian the key. These gallant young men were all my familiar and hospitable friends. and yet they were the those of these who have taken men were people on earth to meddle with mine. Every Indian tribe is a separate community. With these . that I can convey to you of Indian character and Indian modes can poslast of all sibly be more interesting and more important than the chapter I am now entering upon. from the life. run races and in hunting with them I have confidently and safely trusted my life with them in our excursions over the prairies. and ready at all times to afford me any aid or facilities in their life. They have no settled (but always disputed and imperfectly . power ready to guard my property and even at the hazard of their own. are men are warriors. wrestled. my young readers. Nothing. Warriors. whilst I was living amongst them . fine young men I have smoked. 69 will be able to get ideas of the appearance of that lasting class of citizens who are found in all the tribes of faithful and from them you and the American Indians. in fact. These young said. fringed with scalp-locks taken from their enemies' heads . I have The leggings scalps. and places far distant from their homes.WARRIORS. surrounded by other tribes with whom they are generally at war. to warriors and Indian warfare Indian life and Indian doings yet to be described in the following chapters. owing to several causes which don't exist to the same extent amongst civilized nations.

a his his 2. and always ready at an instant his buffalo robe. in War). defined) boundaries. and more frequent the popular ambition to signalise : who have but themselves. Seekh-hee-de (the Mouse-coloured Feather). I have already said that every tribe has its civil and men war chief. and armed. and that all the young and braves. an dressed. Loo-ra-wee-re-coo (the Bird that goes to warrior. over which their fierce hunting excursions often lead them. who are all volunteers. No.70 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. No. if they are willing to meet the disgrace that attaches to them on their return. back . and at liberty to desert the chief at any time. and without the least compulsory power leads his warriors. Of the three warriors shown its military. that of being a great warrior. exposing them to the attacks of their enemies cause of warfare. No. and his leggings are fringed with scalp-locks. with his battles painted on it. and painted for war with his bow and several arrows clenched in Omaha warrior. his hand. wrapped around him and his quiver slung on his back. filled with arrows. a Pawnee war paint and war cos- . or are warriors in Plate II. which is felt amongst all Indian warriors. the one mode to rise to enviable dis- tinction in their tribes. and his quiver slung on he wears a necklace made of the huge paw bow and arrows of a grizzly bear. In war. 1 represents Om-pa-ton-ga (the Big Elk). is another. Mandan warrior. 3. the war-chief takes the command. in war costume and war paint ready.

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from his own familiar friends. at a distance at which they would not distinguish him from his comrades from the natural . which make a frightful rattling noise when he dances or walks he wears a beautiful kilt made of eagles' quills. so as to afford the greatest facility for the free use of his weapons . consisting of a thick daubing or streaking of red and white clay. to go to first consist- war in war dress and war paint . and. his body is curiously ornamented with his war paint his ankle ornaments are strings of antelopes' hoofs. and charcoal. his limbs being chiefly dress at all naked. oftentimes. and at other times the whole face black. in shape much sembling a Grecian helmet. . warriors of all Indian tribes in America. covering various parts of his body and limbs. and and his spear in his left hand . the ing in a mode of dressing the person just as each individual may fancy for himself. most generally amounting to (nearly) no And the second. 71 bow and arrows. in fact. a beautiful red crest tail made of the hair of the deer's re- dyed red. . " War dress and war paint" here. and shield. is something It is the invariable custom of the very curious. as well as his face. Each warrior has some peculiar and known way of painting. mixed with bears' grease. and his head is shaved (according to the uniform custom of the tribe) and ornamented with quiver. and horse-hair.WAR tume with DRESS AND WAR PAINT. vermilion. by which he is recognised by his fellowwarriors. in such a manner as even to be disguised. sometimes half black and half red.

And I also everywhere learned that It that I apprehended through life. as to enable them to enter the flesh of the buffaloes or their enemies. Their arrows are giving them great elasticity. for . so great is their air resemblance in the open when naked and in action. being mostly covered on the backs with layers of buffalo sinews. was one of the curious and unaccountable facts met with in my travels. all warriors The principal arms (or weapons) of all the American tribes are seen in the portraits of these three their bows and arrows. leaving the points standing out. but when they are going into battle. their arrows are carried in the quiver with the points downwards. These arrows are carried in a quiver slung on the back. short and light. with the greatest the possibility and the misfortune of losing solicitude. When not in service. and generally made of the skins of animals adapted in shape and size to hold them. for protection . mostly pointed with flints. differences. with a point and two sharp edges. broken in so ingenious a manner. on whichsoever they may use them. the arrows are reversed. . their lives when they are not in their war paint. Their bows are warriors horseback easy and effective handling on but they have great power.72 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. being thus more ready to be drawn suddenly and without obstruction. that I never in any instance was able to get a warrior to stand for his portrait until he had spent the requisite time at his toilette (oftentimes from sunrise until eleven or twelve o'clock) to arrange himself in his war dress and war paint.

that they are proof against arrows. 73 Besides the bow and arrow. These shields are carried by every horseman. Indian lad one can't is or eighteen years old old enough to go to war he is sixteen he wants a shield "must have go to war without one. ("Medicine you will understand in a few moments. and oftentimes painting the representation obliquely. are used in warfare. An to be seen in the Indian countries. completing his dress and equipments. the tomahawk.SMOKING THE SHIELD. already shown and explained. Can he buy one ? " it won't protect him if he might. a smaller boy than he can do . No . it one of the grandest and. and lances. most imposing ceremonies Let's see. These shields are invariably made of the skin of the buffalo's neck. and war clubs of various shapes and materials. Why. perhaps. the thickest part of the hide . and shields carried on the left arm for protection. and add to their picturesque appearance by suspending eagle quills and other beautiful plumes from them. tanned and hardened in such a manner with the glue remaining in them. They and ornament these shields in a great variety paint of ways. and even against a gun shot when held which they do with great skill.) " Smoking the Shield" Have you ever heard of " ? Smoking the Shield I believe not. of their " bags " is medicine bags upon them. completely in the classic style of the ancient Koman and Grecian cavalry. but " he must make it for himself and how ? does He He must kill With a gun ? the buffalo bull with his own hand.

to give it the hard- ness and stiffness required. all the warriors of the village had assemsuccess. and at his leisure ? No Indian soldiers are counted by their shields. and take the and then Well." they call order to and legitimately to publish its owner's change from the phase of boyhood to that of warrior. stretched horizontally. and must be made in a public way the riors are the property of their Indian lad secretly enlist. In the great Camanchee village. I was " invited to go and see the Smoking a Shield. the which in (or roasting) shield. To witness "smoking insure its this ceremony. and over it. of a hundred feet or more in diameter. . Indian warwhat ? . he must kill it hide off with his with an arrow. In the centre of this circle a young man had dug a hole in the ground. he has got to make his shield. then . nation. within which a circle. while the glue extracted from the buffalo's hoofs. Can any and make himself a warrior ? Have they any newspapers to announce their the making of a warrior is a enrolments ? No public act. was preserved by a line marked on the ground.74 that : LIFE AMONG THE own hand INDIANS. Can he do this privately. of which he was to forge his shield." An immense crowd was assembled a little out of the village. a little elevated above the surface. the bit of bull's hide. tightly strained by a great many pins driven into the ground. : : warriors help in this. in 1836. and a fire burning in the excavation underneath. was frying and roasting into it. and spread over the skin. Why.

in full war dress and war on their arms. have explained the principal causes of their wars. and invoking the fire-spirit to give strength and hardness enough to that of the young warrior. and a book might yet be written on Their their modes of conducting and ending them. Warfare amongst those people is generally conducted by small parties who volunteer under a warchief. vaunting forth the wonderful effici" " own. I arms. his shield finished. and entertain the villagers with the dance and other ceremonies. 75 bled at his invitation. and paint. and consequently their wars are not so devastating. to guard and protect him from the shields over it. scalp As these people have fewer and less efficient weapons. to their avenge some wrong or cruelty inflicted by enemy. make a great boast. take a scalp. he then becomes a warrior. as I have shown. as you have been told.WARFARE. and when a few scalps are taken. they generally return. and each one passed it brandishing their war clubs. who formed and danced in circles around the roasting shield. he this and ceremony his was a brave a soldier He enlistment no more. they depend somewhat more upon strategy to gain advantages than white men do and in these . If he can can go to war. ency of their weapons of his enemies. nor so destructive as those used by civilized nations . All the American tribes may properly be said to be warlike. Was he then a warrior ? . their tomahawks. No . are not numerous. with their shields in rings within rings. . sufficient for retaliation.

and with a swell. when It is a shrill and piercing note. under such . and revolvers. should than cowardice. partially appreciated) . instead of coming " out into the open field and " taking a fair fight coming out and standing before the cannon's mouth. in the open field and their refusal to stand before them and be cut down. as "cowardly. This is (i. on the highest key of the voice. the poor Indians know the advantages wrong which white men have. precisely alike.76 they are LIffE AMONG SHE all INDIANS.e. be called prudence rather There are no people on earth more courageous and brave than the American Indians. with the most rapid vibration possible. of these. pursuit Their signals in as well as curious. and evading if necessary. . and very intelligent The world-wide notorious (but war-whoop (or war-cry) is one and is given by all the tribes. and being shot down like pigeons)." because they prefer secret ambuscades and surprises. rushing into battle.. and cannons. Their sagacity in tracing or reconnoitring an enemy. with their rifles. beyond conception ingenious and inventive. civilized forces. if they can only be assured that they are contending with an enemy with equal weapons. circumstances. war are many. the In the warfare waged between these people and Indians are often condemned for their strategy. is almost beyond the reach of comprehension for those not familiar with their modes. both in North and South America. sounded long.

who know it its meaning and that give terror. raising an unnecessary and disastrous alarm. but none other. WAR. except in the war-dance and other ceremonies countenanced by the chiefs. It is the associations of those its character. would shudder at its sound. which is very curious. in themselves far terrifying than the war-whoop . Another signal is the war-whistle. is of the hand or the nothing so very frightful in the sound the for many sounds can be produced by more human voice. and weapons are its raised for shedding blood. Every chief leading in war carries a little whistle of six or eight inches in length. its being known to be the infallible the war-whoop never being signal for attack sounded until the rush is made. perhaps. aware of its meaning. No Indian is allowed to sound the war-whoop in time of peace.WHOOP made by There itself. lest it should be echoed by their sentinels on the hill tops and their hunting parties through their country. when others.WAR. the two ends of which have two very different sounds. flat 77 the striking of the fingers against the lips. and so different from the mingled war-cry and other din in battles. . and so distinctly in the din and confusion of battle. A person listen to the not accustomed to Indian modes might war-whoop as the Indians were rushing on to him. made of the bone of a turkey's leg. that they can be distinctly heard an immense distance blowing in one end is the signal . so shrill and so piercing. without alarm.WHISTLES. that could be heard so far.

and advance with it even into their enemies' ranks. but where savage." But then the No . because savages do it .78 for " LIFE AMONG THE on " . Has an Amerieven in the din and rage of battle the ! can Indian ever been of the known to violate the sacredness white flag in time ? of war? No. would be strategy 1 treachery'. an emblem of peace. . INDIANS. and as sacred and inviolable. war-whistles suspended from his neck and and no warrior goes to war . him the cruelty would be in killing . and in the Christian world we kill hundreds of our fellow beings . its better Such a disgraceful act name would be "savage cruelty of scalping!" of course. The white in all tribes a flag of truce. without knowing the distinction and meaning of also are used as war-signals. is the piece of the skin of a cruelty of scalping ? man's head is cut off after he is dead it don't hurt A . Have Christian nations ever done so in their wars with the Indians " We shall see. strange (not that the Indians should brought the custom out of savage life) but how strange that the native races of all the world should use the same colour as emblem of peace . and a red flag the challenge to combat. their lives sacred and protected under it. How use it. No chief goes into battle without one of these little hanging on his breast these sounds. in the midst of battle. for civilized nations have . for advance on and in the other retreat. the same as in civilized nations. All savages are found using the curious is this Flags flag is How ! white flag.

He must keep some These people have no reporters to follow them into battles. The scalp. their customs sanction the mode. of course. or the gold from their pockets ! But the Indians sometimes happens. record. and killed by enemy's head. but would be buried. the wounded and fallen. to be a genuine one. These scalps. It would be almost as bad as taking their watch. and which their superstitious fears would induce them to get rid of. the hand of him who carries and counts the scalp. and. and have after- wards risen from the field of battle and recovered. ! 79 where the poor Indians kill one Cutting a small piece of the skin of a dead man's head is rather a disgusting thing but let us look What . must be from an and that enemy dead. have sometimes been scalped. scalp the living? Yes. would not be carried. and in the hurry and confusion of battle.SCALPS in battle off AND SCALPING. I have seen several such. as the Indians were rushing over them. and the better can the Indian take? chiefs If demand civilized it. . There would be no motive or apology for it. and chronicle their victories to the world. that but very rarely. sup- posed to be dead. The scalp being only the skin with the hair. without destroying life. warriors should treat their fallen victims thus. as things which warriors would not have a right to claim. it would be far worse. a man might be scalped without injuring the bone. if the Indian should ever be made aware of the fact.

himself in such case by taking the scalp. All tribes exchange prisoners. he can neither buy nor sell them without disgracing himself and when he dies. in the few instances that we know been much of. the remainder of those not exchanged are adopted into the tribe. almost beyond but these occurrences . precisely as is the practice in civilized nations. as far as equal exchanges can be made . prisoners of war. . where they are captives . the surplus are adopted into the tribe. and for the last half-century have not been heard of at all. and make reliable and even against their own nation. which he must procure by his own hand . and go to war with them. Scalps are the Indian's badges or medals. and as far as there are widows of warriors who have been killed in to battle. in slaying a mm. they are buried in his grave with him his sons can't inherit them if they want scalps. the reach of imagination have been cruel and diabolical. their father got his. with all the rights and privileges of other citizens. efficient warriors. they must procure them in the same way as . these prisoners are compelled marry them and support them and their children. in savage warfare as of savages sometimes but this has Their modes of torturing exaggerated. nave been but very rare at any time. .80 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Prisoners of war are made well as in civilized nations. . man in his own tribe but he would disgrace Indian . to their prisoners is The cruelty terrible. An may have sufficient provocation to justify under the customs of his country.

one white. In the isolated cases which have been known. differing in appearance and in its uses It is public property. as the world has been led to believe. nor a frequent mode. no doubt. to the women related to the person or persons who have suffered. after a long deliberation and hearing of the grounds of the claim. and their modes of cruelty have. peace establishments amongst them are less solid. in some cases. The calumet is strictly a sacred pipe. to wreak their revenge upon the chiefs. . and only used on such occasions. peace) others. have handed over the who have been .CALUMET (PIPE OP PEACE). the relations of persons cruelly tortured by the enemy's have demanded of the chiefs one or two of the tribe. The chiefs and warriors come together in treaties under the white flag. and treaties of peace made amongst the Indian tribes. is used. informing their enemies that they are ready for war or for In these treaties the calumet (or pipe of peace. and take their seats in two semicircles on the ground. . from all and always kept in the possession of the chief. and of less duration. each warrior having his head decorated with two eagle's quills. prisoners demanded. 81 The torturing of prisoners is therefore nowhere a general custom. facing each other. Wars are ended. and the other blood red. much in the same manner as amongst civilized nations but from the causes above named. been as cruel and fiendish as the accounts we have heard of them. and prisoners taken.

draw one whiff of smoke through the sacred stem. in turn. have no means of recording them and the smoking through the sacred stem is equivalent to the " signing in writing. as they " These treaties are all verbal. the treaty.82 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. of course. each warrior of the two tribes. For this purpose. and ready to be smoked when the treaty stipulations are agreed upon . and after him. in the centre of the circle formed by the chiefs and warriors seated in treaty. charged with tobacco. of a treaty. which they are unable to do . when each chief. the calumet rests in two little crotches. as the solemn engagement to abide by the terms of .

and also pretend to great and marvellous cures by mysteries. that it is necessary we of them fully to understand and their customs. and here we a different suddenly enter upon a chapter. and all have their physicians.CHAPTEE Medicine V. 83 . mysteries are so mixed up with the actions and thoughts of their lives. who were the first traders on the frontiers. and herbs. and other specifics. " Me'decins" the French word for physicians and by . and consequently superstitious. which they practise should know something as the last resort with their patients. when all the other attempted remedies have failed. who deal in roots. These Indian doctors were called by the French- men. the people The American Indians are all more or less superstitious. people. new and Amongst ignorant. Men Looking at the Sun Medicine WeddingBain Makers Rain Stoppers Medicine Lodge The " Great White Medicine "Medicine Bag. or a kind of sorcery. |NDIAN life has many phases.

who gains laurels without going to war stays at home and takes care of the women and His fame and his influence. . and who breathed his last under his strange and even frightful gesticulations. Medicine great before many other medicine things to deal we are at the end of this little book." as synonymous with mystery. Whilst residing in the American Fur Company's Factory at the mouth of the Yellowstone Eiver. in this identical costume (the skin of a yellow bear). " Medicine. We Medicine Drums. and a shall have. and in the full dress and performance of his mysteries over a dying patient. in the manner that a bear might have done. To begin. with illus- tration of a Medicine a Professor of mysteries (a Blackfoot doctor) in the full sense of the word . which often exceed that of the chief of the tribe. n a subsequent frontier population. Medicine Rocks. are gained without risk of life. Medicine Rattles. Here is a gentle- man who children. by a little legerdemain and cunning. which are easily practised upon a superstitious people.84 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. whom he had placed on the ground. On the title-page we have an Man. Medicine Men. "Medicine Men. Dances. over a dying patient. Medicine Fire. and groans. who are weak enough to believe that his mystic arts often produce miracles. and all mysteries. on the Upper Missouri. and pawing about with his hands and his feet. and growls. I had an opportunity of witnessing a Blackfoot doctor's display. and was hopping over and over. therefore.

lifetime of practice. and if they fail. of toads. their grating made by with his face hidden underneath his dying patient. to interfere with their complete success. strung with skins of deformed animals. conjures frightful conception for his of these Indian physicians. in Paris. which has formed an interesting object in my Indian Collection. and everything else that he can gradually gather to consummate his ugliness. and birds the claws and toe-nails of the hoofs of animals birds the skins of frogs. of bats. during his up and constructs some medicine dress. as he dances and jumps over and around the sounds dances. I painted his portrait as here seen. the extraordinary dress. reptiles. at an extravagant price. 80 The day after this pitiable farce. Every tribe has its physicians and There is by the powers of nothing but what they will attempt to do their medicine .MEDICINE MEN. they have generally not much trouble in making so superstitious a people believe that something was wrong in the time of day (what is more probable) in Each one in their the weather or want of faith. and been examined by hundreds of thousands of persons in London and . . and also purchased. all physicians deal (or profess to deal) in mysteries (or medicine). and crying with their hands over their mouths. adding to them the frightful flats and sharps of his growling and squeaking voice. and the frightfulness of and rattling as he them. upon which some hundreds of his tribe were looking. and the stamping of his feet. with all its appendages.

he gets along by with the relations. and when he moves through the village with this dress on. every tribe. and call the villagers together witness the miraculous cure of a patient whose previously discovered to disease they alone have have taken a favourable change. and assuring them that condoling for some purpose which they are not allowed to course is know. And on the other hand. All persons in Indian societies breathe their last under the operation of these frightful mysteries. One such success in presence of the whole village it gains him presents to last him his is enough lifetime. I have said. they are in some instances these official ingenious jugglers to sometimes put on the garb of monstrosities. it is known to all the villagers that the patient is dying. as well as from a general custom. they all gather around in a crowd to witness the ceremony. and all. and from sympathy. the Great Spirit has called their friend away and that when such is the case. These jugglers. if his patient dies. if a doctor be near . and a renown that nothing can shake. commence crying and moaning in the most pitiable manner. his medicines are of no avail. exist in . less faith in the efficiency of this dernier (as From what said I have seen and learned to cure).86 LIFE AMONG tHE The doctor never puts on his frightful dress until he goes to pay his last visit to his patient. . with the hand over the mouth. which of generally the case. and all the crowd seem to have more or ressort.

and are entitled to a seat with the chiefs in the councils of the nation. the usual badge of or other effect. at first inter- view. officiate in all religious ceremonies. times experienced. will be sure to be a kind and friendly welcome and most likely. little matters an Indian to the appellation of mystery or medicine and once lucky enough to gain the public confidence in this way.MEDICINE MEN. a regular and formal installation. They are a sort of octroi to every village. and for the traveller passing through their country. and and smoking a pipe with the chief. it requires no very great degree of tact and cunning. with a little his great present given expressly in compliment to which you have heard of at a long distance. They therefore. first entitles . amongst those ignorant people. of which they have many . Their influence. at one's first entry. it is as necessary to have the good will and countenance of these dignitaries. to keep it up through the remainder of life. as soothsayers." fame. as sorcerers. what. it Some unaccountable cure. as Doctor (or Fellow) of Mysteries. as it is to have his passport to travel on the continent of Europe. 87 and are invariably looked upon by the people as oracles. after conversing. " The results of this little prudence. by the presentation of a shia mystery rattle. as high priests. shi-quoin ! that enviable Order. the next important inquiry should be for the great medicine man . as the author has several everywhere. in a convocation of medicine men. is very great. Medicine men are perhaps more often made by .

and reciting the heroic deeds of his life. and in this position was endeavouring to look at the sun. with the danger of a great lasting as their failure. to encourage him and increase his strength. of his with splints about the size of a man's finger run through the flesh on each breast. singing. resulting in a disgrace as fame would be in case of success. naked. and which he was trying. and his many virtues.88 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. . which was bending towards him. as the sun moved. His friends were gathered around him. with the exception . some mere accident. which often costs them great pain. could to embarrass and defeat him. and their other ends tied to the breech-cloth top of a pole set firmly in the ground. from its rising in the morning until it set at night moving himself around the circle. whilst his enemies and the sceptical were laughing at him. with his feet slightly resting on the ground. they call " Looking at the Sun" Here was a man. I was one day attracted by a great crowd surrounding a man who was endeavouring to show his people that he was great medicine. than by any long and laboured design. . For instance. He held his medicine bag in one hand and his bow and arrows in the other. when I was residing in a large Sioux village on the Upper Missouri. and doing all they If he succeeds. inch by inch. to which cords were attached. The custom which is often practised amongst them. and beating their drums and throwing down for him many presents. by nearly the whole weight of his body hanging under it as he was leaning back.

and other presents in the world) to marry four wives in Major Sanford. and no efficient in its results. and and gave him nine horses. the government agent.MEDICINE WEDDING. took into his head (when his father old enough to a handsome wigwam to live to start him he was a man. a gallant warrior of eighteen it and son of the chief. But if his strength fails him and he falls. I witnessed another the bank of the of mode the creation of a medicine conceive to man. which one will easily have been much more agreeable. and myself were lucky enough to be present on the . and compliments and presents are bestowed upon him in the greatest profusion. but the scars left on his breasts are pointed to as a standing disgrace in his tribe. no matter how near to his complete success. for having dared to set himself up as a medicine." and therefore he is great medicine. in. without fainting and these difficulties. Whilst I was residing amongst the tribe of Punself- living farther down. under holds all 89 day. had told him one day. shouts and hisses are showered upon him. for the rest of his life. him up. a medicine man . as long as he lives. and his disgrace not only attaches to him for the moment. and marry. on Missouri. and he has nothing else to do to make him. in looking at the sun all " the Great Spirit falling. Hongs-kay-de. others that might be named. little doubt equally years. It is easily seen that this is a somewhat dangerous experiment to make. and is therefore more seldom resorted to as the mode of making a doctor than many cahs.

and afterwards to a fourth chief.90 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and for whose hands he stipulated precisely in the same manner as with the first. and made arrangements for her hand in marriage. where the horses would be ready. seems he had gone to one of the subordinate chiefs. on a certain day. He then went to a third. each of whom had a beautiful daughter. and appointing the same hour and the same place for the ceremony. and which they as yet but partly anticipated. and also on the same condition of secrecy. where he had assembled the whole tribe to witness the plan which he contrived. and the exchange made. who had a very pretty little daughter of thirIt teen or fourteen years of age. and the chief was to meet him exactly at noon on the top of that little hill. on the top of the little hill. having thus disposed of eight of his horses. who also had a beautiful daughter about twelve years old. and made with him a similar arrangement. but the condition of this until was to be profound secrecy he asked for the hand of the girl at that place. keeping one for his own riding. He then went to a second chief. where all the villagers assembled. for which he was to make him a present of two horses and other things. and to witness the exciting scene which took place on a little hill just back of their village. back of the village. enjoining in each case profound secrecy. It . merry occasion. which was to take place at noon. he invited the whole village to attend his wedding. according to promise . The appointed day arriving. with his daughter.

your daughter/' The chief rose and led up his little daughter. " who were little then about to disperse. where the ceremony was to take place. 91 was a beautiful scene. the hill was completely covered. The chiefs were all seated around on the ground. The proud chief with fellow then said to the crowd. you promised me the hand of your daughter in marriage this day. placed her in that of the young chief j and precisely in . " . placing her hand in that of the young chief. and. I " was to present " . and sitting by his side in a very pretty dress My friend. and you two horses was this so ? " The horses are standing Yes.MEDICINE WEDDING. which was followed by a great shout of applause by the multitude. leaving a little space in the centre. your promise I in marriage. was this so ? Yes. like the first one. turning to the second whom he had arranged " My friend. be patient and. and addressing himself to the chief whom he had " first whose little daughter was arranged with." replied the chief." little " Then I expect you to perform demand the hand of your daughter The chief then arose and led up his band daughter. and I was " " to give you two horses . At in the moment appointed new-made chief (for his father the gallant young and had that day abdicated his favour) presented himself with his waving plumes. you agreed to give me the hand of your beautiful daughter in marriage on this day and at this place. My friends." replied the chief I now demand the hand of here and are ready. in the centre .

how (Yes. How. he said to the chiefs. the constituted medicine men take especial care not to run any risk by making a second attempt . and. I have before said that the medicine men will undertake to do anything and everything by their mystic operations. leaving younger aspirants to run the chances of failure or success. however impossible or ridiculous it may be. to his own wigwam. yes Hongs-kay-de then descended the little hill triumph- antly. two in each hand. when their maize and other vegetables are dying for want of makers" and also . the crowd all following. or for having stopped it raining when the rain was continuing to an inconvenient length. For -this purpose. which was thenceforth the wigwam of the medicine chief. taking two in each medicine?" cine chief ? " This day makes me hand. received the manner he demanded and hands of the daughters of the other two chiefs whom he had last arranged with. in a very dry time.92 the same LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. from the astonishing fact of their having made it rain in an extraordinary drought. but they superintend and manage the preliminary forms. leading off to the village his four beautiful wives in their pretty dresses. In the Mandan tribe I found had " Rain- they "Main-stoppers" who were reputed medicine men. But in these efforts where the results are in the least uncertain." father has this day "My I not a medimade me chief of the Puncahs ! Am !) " to which the whole " ! tribe shouted with one " voice. "Yes.

is " his medicine not strong. on any occasion. takes his turn to mount on the top of the wigwam at sunrise. councils. some one more lucky than the rest happens to take his stand on a day in which a black cloud will be seen moving medicine reported through the village that "his when the whole tribe will gather round him to hear him boast. " There ! my friends." bend his bow upon the clouds. and comes down at sunset without having succeeded. as the string snaps. with a clear sky. rain. commanding it to rain and when he sees the rain actually falling in the distance. from day to day smoking and praying to the Great Spirit for rain. and sit around a fire in the centre. while the requisite make number of young men volunteer to try to Each one of these. can never. to see him let fly his arrow (which by . it is is better. with his bow and arrows in his hand. you have seen my arrow go. shield for rain his on his arm. etc. commanding it to rain. and it rain. by ballot.RAIN-MAKEBS. talking to the clouds and asking or ranting and threatening the clouds with drawn bow. the 93 the Medicine expressly for medicine Lodge (a large men assemble in public wigwam built medicine operations. in presence of the crowds gathered around him. his dexterity.). . One of these young men. to see him strut and up. who flourishes through- out the whole day in this manner." After several days of unsuccessful attempts have passed off in this way. is turned into his hand with the bow). again pretend to medicine. and pointing with his -finger.

94 there is LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. granted to me as the place to paint my which they always looked upon and treated as great medicine. which are closed most of the year. and I would rather give other young men a chance. and a rattle). When is a "medicine man. in which their councils are held. that those who once succeed in making it rain. that the Mandans may have no him a feast he comes down he give further cause to complain. in it presence of the whole village. strictly a public building. for painting their chiefs and warriors. and all their religious ceremonies performed. shi-quoin (a doctor's These manoeuvres are very wonderful. but this successful debutant in mysteries still stands. never undertake "The whole village have seen second time. and myself as the greatest of medicine men. we soon have rain enough. for when the ceremony is once begun. sawing the air and commanding it to continue raining. and there are two things about them that are curious the one. a me make it rain. were generally portraits in. that when the doctors commence "rain making" they never fail to succeed . the gaping multitude are hidden in their wigwams. they all know what I can do.'* Every Indian village has its medicine (or mystery) lodge. until he is completely drenched." The rain begins to fall in torrents. shall a hole in that cloud. and the other." the doctors shi- and a great ceremony. These sacred places. a sort of town-hall. they are obliged to keep it up from day to day until rain begins to fall . in whose portraits they often discovered " the corners of the .

and was regularly named. My wigwam was filled the chiefs and warriors from day to day. which they had not seen before. The remaining half of a box of lucifer matches I had. offers I was obliged. I received the doctor's badge. and no one was willing to touch them. who turned it to great account after I it to him. from the portraits I had made of the warchief and the great doctor. by a mode he soon discovered." which he had given did with wonderful villagers. though reasons seemed to be sufficient. was styled the greatest of all medicine. and was soon exhausted by one of the medicine men. and making fire in his mouth. until the effect. pretty costumes. in them. and the interpreter to explain. a beautiful shi-shi-quoin. to decline. to give no offence. was also great medicine. amongst the astonished box was unfortunately exhausted. His medicine was much improved for the while by . Amongst the Mandans I was soon the talk of all the village. therefore.THE GREAT WHITE MEDICINE. to know if I should like to marry all of which complimentary and tempting . " Te-hee-pe-nee Washee!" (the Great White Medicine). that there must be life. The wives of several of the chiefs brought their beautiful and modest little daughters to the door of my wigwam in splendid. were great mysteries. the matches by drawing them between of igniting " his teeth. from various reasons." considering. to a certain degree. with percussion caps. My answers. and my My gun and pistols. 95 mouth and the eyes to move. a disappointment. and with I the whole village assembled in crowds around it.

AMONG THE INDIANS. tains not only to This curious appendage to the person permedicine men. This is one of the most important and extraordinary medicine things in all Indian losing caste tribes. and introduced him in his dream. he con- absence he to siders the Great Spirit has designated. and which. that he is "making is his medicine" During this fasting the whole time. that he dreams of. . by which he could light his pipe anywhere when the sun shone. but he told out. he could never wear out. and more highly valued. his medicine. He returns home. to be his mysterious protection through life. A lad of that age is said to be "making his medicine" when he absents himself from his father's wigwam for several successive nights and days. . or to suppose. over the age of fifteen or sixteen years. beautiful pair of leggings for it. or bird. was a greater wonder to him than the He gave me a very other. This. the usual time of life when it is first instituted. me he lost it all when his matches gave The poor fellow seemed by the unfortunate exhaustion of his matches.96 this little LIFE lift. but to every male person in Indian society. I explained. reptile. and I presented him a little sun-glass which I carried in my pocket. therefore. and the first animal. and until the day that I left them he had crowds about him to see him " draw fire from the sun !" Medicine Bag. whether warrior or brave. during which time no one makes any inquiries about him it is enough to know. relates his dream to his parents.

then reinstated . hidden under the dress. to which he invites and as many of his friends as lie chooses. in battle." and under the conviction go that he would be killed. a badger. though such things have in several instances been presented to me by warriors who had No money taken them in battle. from the skin of a mouse. After the feast he starts out and his relatives who make him a it. which he prepares and preserves as nearly in the size and shape of the This he carries about his living animal as possible. as "a man without medicine" until he can procure another. and even sometimes . and to which he attributes all the good luck of his life . but by no means can he ever institute a second medicine if he loses his medicine is first. a loon. who all compliment and congratulate him on his success. and which he confidently believes is to accompany and protect him in the world to come it always being buried with him with the greatest care. a charm person that protects him from all harm. the most of his life as his talisman. no matter by what means. together with the scalps of their enemies. These talismans are of all sizes. by adopting that of an enemy whom he has slain his .MEDICINE BAG. . 97 choice feast. therefore could purchase an Indian's medicine bag. to battle without his medicine bag would be with a " faint heart. traps or hunts for the animal or bird until he kills and obtains the entire skin. to the size of a duck. To lose it in battle is to to live To go in disgrace in his tribe. an otter.

Yes. lifting up his Medicine men and mysteries I need say no more of in this place. which another chief. sitting by. as he was sitting on the ground. and therefore exceedingly to carry. gave me. and inquired if he had ever carried a wolf ? to which he " replied. I was painting the portrait I inquired his name. I recollect that awkward of a when Camanchee chief. his getting such a name. I always carry a wolf. the skin of a wolf." medicine bag made of the skin of a white wolf. . here. I shall therefore end this chapter and have something more to say of them and their doings in future pages. as Ish-a-ro-yeh I expressed my surprise at (he who carries a wolf). and lying by the side of him.98 to LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

and other tribes. the Gamanchees. of which they have many. in South America. 99 . there are the and the beautiful Grows. the loways. let us take a little further look yet at the numerous tribes and their modes. in the chase. the . the Pawnees. the Omahas. Besides the Sioux and the fierce and terrible Blackfoot. the Ojibbeways. Mandans. JN the midst of those vast plains denominated the valley of the Missouri. before we sweep off across the Rocky Mountains. to each other. and the country about us. in their ways of life. the Shiennes. or and the into the ever-green valleys of the Essequibo Amazon. the sages. all of whom I have lived yet many amongst. the Winnebagos. and in their amusements. in war. the Saukies. Wild Horses and and Form Indian's Painting Buffaloes The Prairies. with their long and glossy-black hair trailing on the ground as they walk the Knistineux. and studied their looks and their modes.CHAPTER Indian's Colour VI. Assinneboins. they bear a strong resemblance as well as in their colour and features. In general.

their effect is black) are of a deep and eyes (though and their teeth.100 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. owing chiefly to the facts that they are so constantly exercising their naked limbs in the open air. sometimes a light . almost without . little more dark. much more so than those of any civilized people. giving straightness to the life. Their forms are generally very perfect and hand- somely proportioned. spine and the limbs. the exact colour of cinnamon bark red. and at others more but that may with truth be said to be the standard of colour amongst the American tribes. and also the rigid which all American Indian infants. without exception. their backs lashed to straight boards for the space of six months or a year. which last them through Indians have straight and black All the American hair. . but more correctly described as cinnamon colour. is not exactly either . which has often been described as and more often as copper colour. Their colour. and generally (though contrary to the opinion Their of the world). exceedingly fine and silky. as yellow. free from the enervating and weak- ening effects of manner in heavy costumes. reddish-brown. are reared in cribs (or cradles).

and used to. The habit grease of painting is much the same in all the various tribes. and This would seem to be a great deal of trouble. but it then will little else to do. society. and ready for and. Paint is considered by them as a part of their dress . rather than from their natural colour. and white and sound. and painting their faces and limbs. and manly figures. and well they may be. have a roundness and beauty which the civilized world cannot produce. in painting their bodies and faces. to occupy much of their time uselessly . their favourite colours. their fine in. they daub the paint on with their fingers used for brushes. uniform and regular in their arrangement. oiling and arranging their hair. without the flabbiness and emaciation which overclothing generally produces. with the aid of a looking-glass. be borne in mind that these people have and time is not so valuable to them as it is to other people. even to old age. These people have probably got the appellation " of " Ked Indians from their habit of using so much red ochre and vermilion. which I have already said is not red. They mix their colours with bears' little bit of broken which they buy of fur traders. . for. reared G . They are excessively vain of their personal appearance. and few Indians allow themselves to be seen in the morning until they have spent an hour or so at their toilette.INDIAN'S PAINTING. the open air. as I have said. 101 exception. after which they consider themselves in full dress.

which were no doubt first in- troduced into America by the Spanish invaders of Mexico. clothing themselves and constructing their dwellings with their skins. when cured. who catch and convert them to their use. have been created for the use and happiness of the Indian tribes. The tribes which I have above named. and what is best of all. we have a right to believe. are amongst the greatest of luxuries. a pleasurable and healthful mode buffaloes the open plains. and converting almost every part of of exercise in these useful animals to the supply of their various Their tongues. strength The buffaloes. the rest of the flesh is about equal hump to the best of beef. The wild horses. the strings bones of the shoulders form the trees for their Their saddles . and many other purposes . Of their skins their comfortable their beautiful robes. to their bows. the means of killing the and other game with more ease. and equally so the (or fleece. and also of carrying on their warfare with more effect. as dwellings are made. as it is familiarly called) on the shoulders . who exist almost entirely on their flesh. living chiefly in a country stocked with buffaloes and wild horses.102 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. have in time wandered away and spread over the prairies as high as the fifty-first degree of north latitude. their brains are used for dressing their . so conducive to and manly beauty. affording the Indians. wants and comforts. also hunt and go to war much in the same manner. already and sinews are used for explained.

or perhaps in the It is over these interminable carpets of green. no doubt. and are often seen in richest of butter glue. and it is here. and his mind as free as the air that he breathes that man. the But. which they use in the construction of their beautiful bows and other weapons. world. One can easily that here is the easiest and most independimagine ent region for the Indians to live in . the bones of their legs are broken up for their marrow. extends. dotted with flowers of all colours where the Indian gallops on his wild horse. what shall I say little ? I am here beginning to fear that this to be five times too small for book is going want to describe to you. 103 skins. his wants all supplied. before he has been ensnared by the craft and cunning of the mercenary white man. These noble and useful animals roam over the same vast and boundless prairies of green grass where the wild horses graze. to all strangers in his country. in the unshackled freedom of his nature. dwellings of savage steeds and savage beeves. which resembles and equals the and their hoofs are boiled up for . that the healthiest and most beautiful races of men are found that are to be met with in America. If we could together leap from the deck of a steamer upon one of the grassy banks of all that I . and has extended his hand in friendship. few words must be said of the prairies.BUFFALOES. herds of and from these causes. A my anxious little readers. many thousands together.

under his . with the bristles raised on his ugly back as he stands and scans us as we pass. horses' feet the surface from its next. from our faces the' purple violets under our feet till from its rounded top over the vast expanse of green and of blue beneath and around us of the serpentine and leaving . with its vast alluvial meadows alternating on one side and the other . to smell and follow in our track behind us we should then be gathering . and. and of red. . Upper Missouri. the thousands of shorn and green bluffs sloping down like infinite ranges and redoubts and. in the east ." and are sweeping away elks have to the right or the left the stately moose. but terminating in a horizon of blue you would get in that glance.104 the LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and the gay sunflowers. . knocking of yellow. the bowing lilies on our hands and feet. horses together. But we go on the noble " taken the wind. a partial knowledge of an American But if at this point we could mount our prairie. an ocean of green. and farther on. licking his hungry chaps as he walks slowly out of our way. back of them. back and the west. and blue. . the swift antelope bounding over the frightened deer rising and springing lair . enamelled with all colours at our feet. the huge white wolf. with a dogged sauciness and reluctance. and clamber up the sloping sides of the bluff. further knowledge of the prairie. and gushing ripe strawberries we come back. and gallop to the east or to the west here a covey of grouse fluttering from under our of grass-covered ramparts of them again. and take a glance windings of the river above and below us.

a band of wild and starting horses. individual objects moving in various directions. And yet farther on. to the right. farther yet . and on on on again.THE PRAIRIES. we now in the midst of a great and level prairie we are " " out of sight of land . as we discover. my young friends . barking from the tops of their mounds of dirt. still wiser. with a party of Sioux Indians with arrows and lances pushing them up on the flanks and in their rear. passes out of sight the funny little prairie dogs in myriads. a cloud far ! of smoke fire ? is rising from the ground " ! That can't are be a " No. On on. put off for a five-mile heat before they stop . and our horses are brought to the ground by breaking into their vaulted underground villages and the huge and frightful rattlesnakes are seen coiled and ready for a leap we are . and looking. like like a newly-ploughed field. And at last mere specks in the distance. and at length the black streak disappears. the black streak you see is formed by the backs of a large herd of buffaloes. is raised by their feet. dart into their burrows. which shows us they are in motion. and evidently nearing us. a straight black line forms all the western horizon and over it. glaring upon us. and the cloud of dust which you see. but the cloud on we go. and eyeballs beyond. as we move on. and his mighty horns. here and there. with their rising manes and tails. they are all out of sight . the herd has here . . 105 long and unbroken trot. in the distance. much still rises and rises yet. Next we find the green sward under our horses' feet cut to pieces.

come dashing up from different directions. or be . leaving the We women and children to do the rest. of all colours. coming out from their village to skin the slaughtered animals. with three or four times that number dogs. have a dread of the savage and we must dismount. for the port it to their village. unintelligible dismounted. and in the distance we discover here and there black specks lying upon the surface. and the pipe is lit and passed round. for all are tired. like civilized people. A converand in the midst of this. and remounted. as they shake their heads to part their falling locks from before their eyes. and horse- galloping to them and dismounting. all.106 passed . with inflated nostrils and shaggy manes. Here is a pause and a rest for all. on their puffing and snorting little horses. . we fall in their wake. and. and cut up the meat and transsee no more. they rush up with the friendly hand extended but our horses. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. mass. Smiling and exulting. at last. We are all upon our feet. a moving. Indians and and our horses held a shaking of hands takes Next moment we are seated on the ground. what sation takes places do we see ? In the distance. rein up our horses to them don't be afraid men We will : put on a bold and calm front (the Indians always admire a bold and daring man). and offer them your hand. refreshed hunters have invited us to their village. . with bows and lances in their hands. we of see it is a phalanx of several hundred women and children. . It approaches . place. a hundred warriors astride their horses' naked backs.

before we should find its end. for a month We have of days. seated on beau- tifully-garnished robes and rush mats spread upon the ground . But where are we ? only one day in the prairie And so we might go on from day to day. . and lodge in it during the to us in night. tent Their village. the chief's sons Our horses have been and relations. well taken care of by and brought when we are ready to start back. take a different route. 107 covered wigwams. as I have described. we feast with him and the hunters in his hospitable dwelling. have we seen all ? Not quite we yet to return the morning ! .THE PRAIKIES. is built of skinWe are taken to the chief's we smoke the pipe with him.

and the buffalo and deer oftentimes within dead-shot distance for a before they take to flight. are the shyest animals of the prairies. while made they ride at full speed. thrown from the back of another horse. I have said. with a noose at the end of it. and being drawn dropped and the Indian.CHAPTER Catching Wild Horses Circle VII. the loop is over the horse's neck. will generally run in immense herds. when the elk may be approached within half-a-mile. rifle. five feet. The Indians have a hard struggle in capturing these animals. and drawing on the length- . which they generally do with the lasso. which being open some four or his own horse 106 gradually." such is and oftentimes The wild horse the power of his eye in distinguishing his enemy man from wild animals. checking tight chokes the animal . The lasso is a strong cord of raw hide. without getting the wind. Buffalo Chase Turning to the Left Walking the The Giant Bull JILD horses. run from the approach of a man at a " mile distance.

109 ened cord. the animal's fear is increased to the highest degree. at last brings the animal to the ground. and the Indian approaching nearer and nearer (inch by inch) to its nose. and at length begins patting the horse on the nose. allowing the which. on the shortened halter. prepared to prevent its rising on to its feet. standing in front of the animal. The horse makes a its fore-feet. the .WILD HORSES. the horse remaining yet in its sitting posture. proceeds to secure his prey. At it this moment . by leaning back. After a few breaths exchanged in this manner. in a few moments. it still struggle to rise. the lasso animal to breathe is by loosened. prevents it from doing. with the weight of his body on the throw halter. The horse who it. which the Indian. back of the teeth. and yelling as loud as he can. The Indian still advances nearer on the tightened halter. its hind feet. it requires to its head quite back. and then fastens a short halter with a noose around the horse's under-jaw. it finds the Indian at the end of the halter. By a great many useless struggles to rise. their noses being together. and gradually slipping his hand over its eyes. while its mouth is wide open and it is gasping for breath. as is getting strength to rise. and then to tame For this he hobbles the animal's two fore-feet together. is then completely at its captor's mercy. getting only on to together. which falls for want of breath. begins breathing in its nos- trils. which are fastened and it Before can rise on remains in a sitting posture.

Earey has not the wild horse to catch. riding quietly off the moment of this unaccountable compromise. the animal seems to make no further effort to it ! From becomes attached to its master. got it if not more difficult. and this compromise being effected. to its new master. You have all read of Mr. show that its fears are at an end recognises a friend instead of a foe. and to attach it at once. in some respects. the horse in the first place. and always have viewed them with escape. seems to disarm the spirited animal. in its captor . and otherwise caress ing it and in fifteen or twenty minutes he is seen . but Mr. Karey an Indian could not break a vicious horse and at the same time it might . which I believe. Rarey's wonderful mode of breaking and taming vicious horses. its the muscles and other that it motions. and actual pain. and painful to look upon . I have witnessed these exciting scenes on a number of occasions. and conquer and break it. as an Indian does. but the excess of fatigue. but it : It requires a severe effort to catch great surprise. and then a struggle ensues which is cruel. and stop career. the Indian is seen stroking down its mane. Rarey to take the lasso from an Indian's hand when he has its over the neck of a wild horse. . whom which it always seems recognises by the breath fond of exchanging from that moment. be equally. fol- lowed by soothing and kindness. is very similar . It is very likely that as well as Mr. for Mr. in a mysterious way.110 relaxation LIFE of AMONG THE horse's INDIANS. of fright.

and to fall a prey to feebler efforts. In the beginning of the chase. the greatest possible speed. though he seldom is able to overtake the fleetest of them. But here is something more Shiennes. to get alongside of a wild horse. on an animal of less speed. and a little parched corn in his pouch. he stops and looks back for his pursuer. the Indian separates some affrighted animal from the group. which he chews as he runs and at a long lasso coiled left .CATCHING WILD HOESES. : of wild horses while on the back of his own horse. the horse discovers his pursuer coming towards him. surprising yet capture more wild horses than any other tribe. the poor creature's to over- fatigue itself in its first efforts. animal he Throwing himself between the troop and the is after. which they overtake the wild horse on their own legs is done in this way Plunging into a band . he starts upon his own legs. when he puts off at and at the distance of a mile perhaps. and forcing it off to the right or to the left. Ill The judgment of man in guiding his horse enables him. he dismounts from his own horse. close on to . catch a great proportion of their horses without the aid of a horse to the who ride . but more judiciously expended. which puts off at full tilting pace. is which he speed. who is coming at his regular pace. on his and able to keep all day. and hobbling or leaving it in the hands of a friend. a whip fastened to the wrist of his right hand. his body chiefly naked a arm. its feet. he follows the affrighted animal. and forcing it to run in a different alarm causes it direction.

that the wild horse.112 LIFE ! AMONG THE INDIANS. and getting nearer to him. . and caressing through the night (for they encamp upon the ground). and what compromise is effected. him Away goes again the affrighted steed. and other animals. animal . strength is all gone he is covered with foam. never run in a they always straight line : make a curve in their running. for the Indian village the rides his captured horse into the next morning. having attached his lasso with a noose around its under-jaw. and another. the elk. and at its highest speed. while his cool and cunning pursuer is known It is a curious fact. and by a day's work of such and such alarms. as he becomes more and more exhausted . before sun-down the animal's curves. to all the Indians. have said that the horse and other animals fact. more alarmed than ever. and having taken up " I his hobbled horse in his way. gets near enough to throw the lasso over the animal's One must imagine the rest what kindness neck. The Indian seeing the direction in which the horse is " leaning. and as his curves are shortened at last to a few rods. whose pace has not slackened. and generally (but not always) to the left. and steers in a straight line to it. his steady pursuer. The alarmed is off again." knows just about the point where the animal will stop. the horse having run a mile. where they arrive nearly at the same instant. and another . each time shorter and shorter. the deer. generally turn to the left" How curious this . while his pursuer has gone but half or three-quarters of the distance. and makes another halt.

he always runs in a curve. and we kept . never follow him. pany me. in order to be using my brushes amongst I left the steamer with one man to accomthem. and they don't wish to leave them but why bend to : the left? I never have forgotten one of the first lessons that dear friend Darrow." Why bend their course? Because all animals have their homes their wonted abodes. and when he stops he always watching his back track" is But man "bends his course. some years since. but turn to the left." said he. having no compass with me at the time. and you will be sure to meet him . and my sketch-book on my back. lost in the wilderness or on the . in deer-stalking " " in the forest. the vessel got aground. In our course we had a large prairie of some thirty miles to cross. and the second day being dark and cloudy. which might not be the case for some weeks. if the ground is level. first During the day the sun shone. on a steamer. we had no object by which to guide our course. travels in a curve.TURNING TO THE LEFT." man. and there was no prospect of getting it off until the water rose. I was anxious to reach a Sioux village on the bank of that river. and always bends his course to the left : why this ? While ascending the Upper Missouri. we started to perform the journey on foot. 113 and from what cause? All animals "bend their course. when a deer gets I had from my up. and with my rifle in my hand.prairies. George. about one hundred miles above where we were detained.

though we started right ("laid our course") we no doubt soon began to bend it. the horizon around us. our course very well but on the next morning. Late in the afternoon. and broken it for the purpose. and no doubt . able to come alongside of any animal . The next day. and which we had left on that morning. and when we were very much fatigued. and all me that whenever a . having laid (and kept) our course without any difficulty. we see him (Plate III. all travelled all day in a the sunshine. and in the same manner also he contends with his enemies in battle. of and also that he invariably turns which singular fact I have become doubly convinced by subsequent proofs similar to the one mentioned.) in the chase. by which means he supplies his family with food. we came upon the very spot. There was nothing to be seen about us but short grass. The horse being the the rider on its back is swiftest animal of the prairies. man the chiefs united in assuring is lost on the prairies he travels in a circle to the left. the Indians all laughed at us On very heartily. though we appeared to be progressing in a straight line. where we had bivouaced the night before. We had turned to the left. we circle.114 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. to our great surprise. arriving at the Sioux village. and at the little distance necessary to throw . The Indian having taken his wild horse in the manner above described. and relating our singular adventure. everywhere the same and in the distance a straight line.

The bow used for this purpose is very short. and oftentimes (as I have myself witnessed) sent quite through the animal's body. leaving a wound resembling that of a gunshot. and be again upon its back. with his horse trained Besides the bow. and generally not more than two feet and a-half in length. speaking of buffaloes." easily rides near enough to the side animal to give the fatal lunge of his lance. which is attached to its neck a different thing from . which seldom fails to reach the heart. and with much ingenuity the main part frequently one entire piece of bone. tumbling the animal instantly to the ground.BUFFALO CHASE. is often used. the first 115 arrow is generally fatal . in case he is thrown from his horse. In battle and in the chase. I'arrdt (the stop). but more often of wood. This is called by the French. by the horse falling or stepping into holes. and covered on the : back with buffalo's sinews. so closely glued together as seldom to come apart. and with more deadly effect in the chase than perhaps the arrows . larriette. that he may grasp hold of it and The recover his horse. but made of great strength. and by some travellers and writers. for the Indian. Now. the Indian always has dragging behind his horse a long cord of raw hide. being sent with such force as to penetrate the heart of that huge animal the buffalo. being more convenient for handling on horseback. I must be allowed to . his arrows. the lasso. object of this cord is. a long lance to " of the approach.

" to the age of thirty-three. and in rifle-shooting . say a few words of myself. prairies its ! had me into the great Poor Darrow he was good for nothing else but hunting but what a veneration I had for him How he could trace a deer or a bear . from the affair of the " kettle of gold. and to come back to where I left forests to " trailed. and that I had greatly increased. he will easily my believe that during that period. and which eventu- weight in leading ally of the Far West. in our white hunting shirts and ! . when I have said. I started on Indian campaigns . as my teacher. and will scarcely believe that my my ing propensities lay dormant during the gap that I have mentioned. instead of diminishing that passion which first led me to the old saw-mill lick. and how deadly . entered the deep the day in a good " trackspend rifles you. The young reader will recollect that I commenced early career with a strong passion for guns and huntfishing-poles. making constant progress in the slaying art.116 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. white caps. surrounded as I was was with all the temptations. John Darrow. amongst buffaloes in the prairie country. in the buffalo range. my young readers. with our and lonely ing ! snow But to fight off" from these scenes in my native valley and my boyhood. and with my old Nimrod I companion. . and some of ray own exploits. ! the crack of his rifle What music it was to my young ear when I heard it sing amongst the lofty and how happy were those days when forest trees John Darrow and I.

They furnished me with a tremendously tall horse. at the as soon as the animals took the alarm. with one-horse carts. the dust was in the midst of them rising. ready to make gallop. and we were ! . Several others of his men were ordered to follow at a proper distance. when it was announced one morning by one of his men. on horseback. and himself took the lead. M'Kenzie. and were then grazing on a beautiful plain across the river. where the American Fur Company have a large factory. M'Kenzie instantly resolved that he "wanted some meat. all hands started off upon a the dash signal given. called "Chouteau" (for what reason I never knew). somewhat like a regular of When we had arrived within half-a-mile or so the unsuspecting animals." and invited me to join the hunt. and we caravan. At the buffalo hunt. or trading house. on the prairies mouth of the Yellowstone River.BUFFALO CHASE. said to be a very good animal in the chase. to bring in the meat. for which he turned out some five or six of his best hunters. all moved off. with a small and exceedingly light and short single -barrelled fowling-piece in his hand. on the banks of the Missouri. This done. two thousand miles above St. and but two or three miles distant. to decide upon the best mode of attack that de: cided. and ready for 117 my first of the Missouri. I was residing with Mr. that a large herd of buffaloes had arrived during the night. Louis. the chief factor. we were called to a halt.

but I had quite a different ambition . who had risen up . My first shot seemed to have no effect. and Chardon were the most experienced. and ready to have trampled me to death in a moment if I had lost my balance. When I got relieved giant of the band. and the herd I was swept along a great distance passed on. I reloaded and rode back to my noble prize.118 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. as they seemed to be buried in the moving mass of black and dust. The repeated flashes of their guns I distinctly saw. M'Kenzie. that I might get my shot from the proper point. and. These men were hunting " for meat/' and of course were selecting the fattest and the sleekest of the young cows for that purpose . and made a desper: often ate rush for his right side. I saw in the crowd the back and horns of a huge bull towering so high above all the throng that I resolved upon his scalp or nothing. no doubt with a most imprudent risk of my life . but the second one brought him down upon his knees. Major Sanford. for hundreds on hundreds were plunging along behind me. having no further ambition than the capture of this overgrown. before I could extricate myself from the throng. from the herd. in fact. My gun was a double-barrelled fowling-piece. several desperate lunges with old Chouteau" into the various openings which seemed to I made " afford me a chance of coming near to him and as was closed in and jammed along with the moving mass. and consequently the most successful in the mel^e. I at length saw my way clear.

as he was making lunges at me. it drawback to when which. in perfect safety. which . and partly tumbling to the ground at each attempt. and laughing most excessively at me for attacking a poor old bull which scarcely the wolves would eat. While I was engaged in this operation. my horse's My sketches completed. and was perfectly satisfied with that I my first exploit. near to his head. His frightful mane was raised. which had not observed. I finished the old bull with another shot in the head: and joining M'Kenzie and Sanford. six fat cows in the run.THE GIANT BULL. for all the world : and having my sketch-book with me. I was astonished to find that the former. and made my model upon his positions as I wanted them. It is imchange to describe the demoniacal looks of this possible my enraged animal when he bristled up and was just ready to spring upon me. I claimed a great victory nevertheless. had selected and shot through the heart. and with a flint lock. where my first ball had undoubtedly passed. M'Kenzie and Sanford came riding up to me. and his eyes bloodshot with madness and rage. and stood balancing his 119 legs. with a singlebarrelled gun. who were looking up and claiming their victims left upon the ground they had run over. huge carcass on three one of his shoulders being broken. had a little Sanford asked me how it was head was covered with blood. however. and which was found to be issuing from a round hole through one of old "Chouteau's" ears. I sat horse. Here was just the subject I wanted.

I said at the end of the last chapter. and speed ! conveyed the meat. with the head and horns of venerable bull. so we will leave our horses and take a canoe. that my we had not seen the whole of the prairies that " we should We are a great way from return by another route. was probably not over a mile distance.120 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. . to the factory's larder." home. in which time he must have reloaded his gun five times at full The carts were soon up. in the rear.

for a voyage to St. 121 . and the whole of that way without other habitations than the occasional villages of the wild Indians and without inhabitants. which. were two discharged hands who had been for eight or ten years in the employment of the Fur Company. ex.CHAPTEE VIIL Stores laid in Coffee-pot The Tame Eagle Bivouacing Melting the Freaks of the Eagle Stoop of the EagleGrizzly Bears inspecting us Grizzly Bears overhauling us to the Grizzlies. Louis. cepting wild men and the wild animals that roamed over and through it. a Mississippian. and were now returning to St. trapping beavers and other furs at the base of and in the Rocky Mountains. Adieu tiste. Louis and of myself. Ba'Bogard. more . a Frenchman. and I took leave of M'Kenzie and his |EATED in a light of the colony. Jean Ba'tiste. at the mouth of the Yellowstone River. was but about two thousand miles . little and frail canoe in front American Fur Company's Fort. by the winding course of the Missouri. and Abraham Bogard. will be learned hereafter.

. and rifle double-barrelled fowling-piece. a coffee-pot. whilst the boiling current swept us along. as well as the gratification of Indian propensities. We had powder and ball in abundance laid in. and salt . to the wharf in St. and a belt with two side pistols for nearer quarters took our seats in our little in the bow. and most of the time all three. the second in the centre. and Ba'tiste and Bogard. a knife. Louis. There are now interest before us. and sawyers. a fryingpan. and rocks. and sand-bars. to cut. and our fishing tackle some good robes to sleep upon and under a tin kettle. and myself in the stern. paddled. whose accidents. ahead of me and he will be just about as much disposed to skip over the now coming . imagination is pretty strong. We three. and a tin cup and though we had no bread or butter. with which I steered it in safety. for geese. and ten thousand things of curious I must needs again be brief. will easily see we had a tolerable chance for enough to eat. the first amid snags. . then rifles.122 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and prairie hens. the little reader. my my part of this to little have left my little outfitted book. each man a spoon. . plenty of ground coffee. have taken a nearer and footed it over land. and a first-rate for long range. . the two first of whom with good and knowing well how to use them and myself . but not without some bark . of sugar. with a good ducks. as I would have been inclined canoe and the beauti- ful shores of the Missouri. and that there was a glorious prospect for the indulgence of sportive passion. with my steering-paddle.

I had a perch erected for it some six or eight feet high. silently surveying all that we passed above and below . domesticated war-eagle. From day rising the beautiful shores day we thus passed on. which the crack of a rifle would set in motion the if . over the bow of the canoe. The sand-bars in the distance sometimes seemed as if they were covered with snow. and a great many " other things to speak compagnon du which I had almost forgotten to mention. green carpets of sometimes speckled with herds of buffaloes grazing on their sides. At our we had another grown. from the quantities of pelicans and white ewans that were grouped upon them. without being fastened. voyage. for 123 we shall have other of. rivers. . and the quills of which they so much value to adorn the heads of chiefs and warriors. thus forming for our little craft the most picturesque and appropriate to figure- head that could be imagined. surveying the grassy and rounded bluffs in groups. sometimes hundreds on hundreds. M'Kenzie had made me a present of a fullstarting.THE TAME EAGLE." Mr. the noble bird which the Indians so much esteem for its valour. seemed in the distance like black snakes drawing their long carcasses over and around the hill sides. : appearing in the distance as velvet were spread over them scattered herds grouping together and running in little and winding paths. The white wolves that were looking at us from the banks got an occasional pill from one . on which it rested in perfect quietude.

and usually stopped at eight or nine in the morning. I resolved that would have another cup of coffee before we started. and the buffaloes often left fastened in the mud. and while making a sketch of a very pretty scene in front of me. more or were generally off again at daybreak. my two men. where we could discover dry wood enough to make a and ate our supper . fire. observing a herd of buffaloes grazing on a hill at a short distance. in just such cases. paddled on till some time after then. We went ashore every afternoon a little before sunset. and for which we are. and our fire. hauling our buffalo-skins out. and strike a blow upon us in their sudden way. and. scarcely knowing what was around us. of our rifles. mistaking us for their enemies or for some of the fur traders. cooked beds upon the grass. quietly spreading our fire with. after we had been some days on our voyage. liable to pay the forfeit. that trace the water's edge for the carcasses of dead fish. We At one of these delicious breakfasts. and placed the coffee-pot on the fire to make it hot. took up their rifles I remained by the and went for some meat. to make and to take our breakfast. and sometimes the terrible grizzly bears. leaving dark. against less of whom these people have long and causes of complaint. lest prowling war-parties mi^ht be attracted by the smoke of our fires. where large herds have been crossing the river.124 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. The sound of their rifles soon announced to me that they had got some meat (for they made it a rule I . when we had just finished.

because Ba'tiste and Bogard had got meat enough to last us for several days. Our tin kettle having fallen overboard a few days sort of coffee a few times in the frying-pan. and wicked . and placing myself in the bed of the stream then dried up. but were left for the wolves to devour. of the deep ravine). was easy. and clambered up the other. and probably unheard by them (such was the thundering of the throng as they came plunging down one side. and several thousand passing by me within gun-shot. This wanton slaughter. I seized my rifle and ran to a deep and narrow defile where the whole herd were aiming to pass. Was not this retribution ? I shot not for meat. and the seams of my poor coffee-pot all unsoldered. but this was excessively awkward. Not even the skins. was simple. and the fabric falling to pieces. the tongues. and reloaded and fired until I had shot down some twelve or fourteen of them. nor the humps. having heard my firing and when we went to our little bivouac. and proved a decided failure. and behind a small bunch of willows. and the moment came the throng dashing down the hill near by me. of these poor creatures were taken. nor in self-defence and I never shot for the mere pleasure of killing after that.MELTING THE COFFEE-POT. I made a . My two men joined me. and Bogard. each one tumbling down within a few paces from where he was struck. which I always regretted. who had a before. I found my coffee all boiled away. 125 next never to lose a charge of powder for nothing). I stood unobserved.

He knew them. which had vanished with the loss of our tin kettle. a few feet above our heads. and could easily have gone to them in a moment. or even in the clouds. filling his rabid taste for coffee. and which they invariably answered. and could not have been to leave He was well fed with fresh us. for the rest of the voyage at an end. and spreading them over us. would hover and soar for miles together. when he became tired of his position. . he would raise himself upon his long and broad wings. had the privilege of pocket with ground coffee and sugar.126 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which was sometimes the case. this monarch of the air would gaze at from his perch and whenever he discovered one of his own made buffalo meat. which he daily ate from the hollow of his hand. and sometimes with fish. and fanning us at times with fresh air. for there he was sure of his daily food. His eagle eyes gazed upon all around him. while it lasted . We always found him on his stand in the morning and during the day. but the perch that he clenched in his feet he preferred. and thus was our luxury of coffee. and in precise progress with the canoe. he commenced a chattering of recognition which no other excitement could bring forth. and at other times shading us from the rays of the sun Birds of all kinds and wild fowl. . as we were gliding along. with that of delicious soup. species soaring in the sky. Our noble and at : beautiful pet was a picture to look he held to his perch. looking down upon us. ! . and he seemed to be owner and commander of the expedition. as they flew over.

" " ! He has gone he has taken air. luckily perhaps. but a harmless reptile. of feet in height. from which he lifted a huge snake. but he made a circuit or two in the and then a stoop. not to be a rattlesnake. and . and flapping his long wings. while we were passing through what is * called the Grand Detour. with precipitous clay banks. and unusually high from his perch. Ba'tiste's and now on his perch. we generally selected a barren sand-bar or sandy beach as the place of our bivouac. and sometimes almost to death. head." a deep gorge through which the river passes. and kept rising. flew back some hundreds some leave distance.STOOP OP THE EAGLE." Annoyed to agony. our royal guest rose suddenly. on each side. and which he had gone back directly over poor making a delicious for. as the snake. to was to eagles than to us. was regularly Ba'tiste soon got over meal of. his fright. when we ! all of one final accord exclaimed. probably better known his perch. that was writhing and twisting in his deadly grasp as he was coming towards the boat. that we were all hunters and adventurers together. which the eagle's eyes had discovered basking in the sun as we had passed. when the eagle ! was on hang right over his head It happened. for they generally fly only as far as the grass extends. by the mosquitoes that infest the shores of that river in some places. "Sonnette! sonnette!" exclaimed poor Ba'tiste. and admitted that "it was all right. Having one night selected such a beach. 127 One day. just grazing the side of the ragged clay bluff.

(Plate No. although they are sure to attack him if We all alike knew the they meet him on his feet. sitting a few rods from us on the slope of the prairie. Mr. Mr. waiting. that these terrible beasts had been in our canoe and hauled every article out of it on to the beach.128 LlfE AMONG THE INDIANS. that that grizzly bears will not attack a man when he is asleep. the female with her two cubs . and pawed them open. for which they were no doubt. and knowing the danger of attacking them. motto of the country. . ! up. A council of war was the first thing that was necessary . and swallowed. on looking around. no . and their attention fixed (as the trappers of these regions habitually call the " " upon a monster of a grizzly bear. about enough alto- gether for us three to have furnished a comfortable breakfast. yet I believe none of us were quite disposed to go to sleep for our protection. we spread our robes and got a comfortable night's rest . with some impatience. and scattered them about and that our poor eagle was gone. and at a little distance farther. IV. and probably a true " man lying down is medicine to a bear " one. for it is a curious saying of the country. drawn our canoe on the soft sand. regularly reconnoitring us . I heard " Voila. little well on to it. and found Bogard and Ba'tiste rising gradually. and a after daylight in the Ba'tiste exclaim" morning. doubt . and as we discovered. with their hands on their rifles. Caltin voila Caleb ! ! grizzly bear) I raised myself regardez.) The time had passed heavily with them while they had been waiting for us to wake up.

.

.

all of which were devoured. and green. and nothing left in it the brushes were scattered over the beach. and robes. We over everything. safely were as regularly untied as if done by human hands . and leggings. arose. and many of the bladders with colours tied in them. with a doubtful and suspicious canoe. Some packages were carried several rods from the portfolios of drawings and everything excepting a couple of large which they could not untie. and a quantity of pemican. and the contents scattered and daubed. were as regularly unrolled and looked into (and smelled) as they would have been in passing a custom-house in France or in Brazil. tied with thongs. The animals made no move towards us in the mean time. or to be dis- . and a roll of canvas which had stood the test. were daubed in the mud and spread out upon the beach as if to dry. had three or four days' supply of fresh meat and some delicious dried buffalo tongues. simultaneously and got our paddles into it. We moved our canoe into the water. 129 we agreed that our canoe scattered remnants of have time to was the first thing . and headdresses. passport. My paint-box was opened. but was sadly pawed about in the mud. in strange mixtures of red. chewed.GRIZZLY BEARS OVERHAULING US. Two packs of Indian dresses. the our property (if we could collect them) the next preferring to have our battle afterwards. and all colours. laid in. and shirts. and we began to gather our robes and other things which were strewed in all directions. and our guns safe in our hands.

From what hill-top or ledge this noble creature descended. which were not more. no one had the least knowledge.130 posed of in LIFE lots AMONG THE at INDIANS. or where he got his night's lodging. and seemingly shrugging his shoulders with satisfaction at being back to his old stand. the long and yellow legs of our illustrious passenger were reaching down for their perch. whilst he was drawing in his long wings. and felt again that the grizzly bear will never afloat. The moment our canoe was with the accustomed flappings of his wings. an auction ! What an unprincipled overhauling this In taking up our sleeping robes. enter the water for anything. on^'s nerves a Was not here enough to shake little ? Our for a better things thrown in confusion into our canoe arrangement at a more agreeable place. which he gave to the female as she came. Now we were ready for the attack we were brave we could flourish trumpets. sale. which he seemed to be aware of. to the water's edge . as he was casting his piercing eyes around and over the gathered wreck. and out of danger. than two or three feet apart. showed us that these stupid and terrible beasts had passed many times around and between our beds. the enormous footprints sinking two or three inches into the hard sand. knowing from the shore. in all fury and with horrid growls. perhaps. Bogard and I he being the nearest to us levelled at the male Ba'tiste reserving his fire. she received his ball in . little we pushed out a at ease.

or to cure their . followed her companion. and. were now floating down stream again. galloping off. and entered a thicket of high grass and weeds. in thdlr own way. of following those creatures into a thicket die. We so we left them to wounds if they could. they both had fears. 131 her breast. which had got our two rifle balls. and though I urged my two companions to go back with me and complete the engagement. and most likely very prudent ones. .ADIEU TO THE GRIZZLIES.

My canoe and all my women to the chiefs be kept in safety until not a sixpence to pay. two hundred and fifty miles below the mouth of Yellowstone. as they call themselves. People of the Pheasants). on the west bank of the Missouri. where they are to I want them. ]E are now at the village of the kind and hospitable Mandans (or. See-pohs-ka Nu-mah-kah-hee. guest while I stop The Mandans (of whom I have shown you one of their warriors in Plate No.CHAPTER Mandan Singularities IX. inasmuch as their customs.. from which we started : a tribe of two thousand. and of whose medicine operations in rain-making and rain-stop ping I have before alluded to) I considered one of the up by the wigwam. as well . Mandan War-ChiefLance of the Mah-to-toh-pa and the Crow Chief Indian Belles Singular Names Tradition of the FloodDestruction of the Mandans Taking leave of the Mandans Riccarree Chief A Silent Gift. living in a village of claycovered wigwams. and I a welcome things are carried most interesting tribes that their language and many of 132 I visited. III.

MANDAN

SINGULARITIES.

133

as personal appearance, were so decidedly different from all other tribes in America.

As
they

they were not a roaming, but a stationary tribe,
all lived

protected against

in one village, which was effectually Indian assaults by a high and

precipitous bank of the river on two sides, stockade of large timbers set in the ground,

and a on the

back

part.

tribe, not following the migrations of the herds of buffaloes, like the Sioux and other tribes, secured themselves against want by raising considerable fields of maize (which they always kept hidden)

This

in sufficient quantities to answer them when the buffaloes might for a time leave their vicinity.
singularities in the personal of these people were those of complexion, appearance and the colour of their hair and eyes. I have before

The most striking

said that black hair, black eyes,

and cinnamon colour

were the national characteristics of all American savages but to my great surprise I found amongst
;

the

Mandans, many families whose complexions were nearly white, their eyes a light blue, and their hair of a bright, silvery grey, from childhood to old
age! This singular appearance I can account for only by the supposition that there must have been some
civilized colony in

of which neither history nor tradition to furnish any positive proof.

some way engrafted on them, but seem as yet
several distinct
their skin canoes

From having found
in use

Welsh words
round like a

amongst them

;

134
tub,

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

and
of

mode

precisely like the Welsh coracle, and their constructing their wigwams like that in

use at the present day in the mountainous parts of Wales, I am strongly inclined to believe that this
singularity has been caused

people
after

by some colony of Welsh the American coast, and having wandered into the interior, have been

who have landed on

taken into this hospitable tribe. The Mandans I found to be a very peaceable people, not engaging in warfare except to defend
their for village and preserve their existence, which they have had many hard struggles with the Sioux and Crow Indians. When I was with the Mandans, there were living amongst them two chiefs of great distinction, the Wolf chief, head civil-chief, and Mah-to-toh-pa (the

Four Bears), head war-chief of the tribe. I painted the portraits, at full length, of these valiant and proud men ; and the latter, who became very much
attached to me, I shall always consider one of the most extraordinary men who has lived amongst the

American tribes. He was in every way graceful, elegant, civil, and and at the same time most gallant and polite, After I had painted his invincible as a warrior. with which he was much pleased and portrait, astonished, he presented me his robe, with all the battles of his life painted on it, his wife being allowed time to make him an exact copy of it. On this extraordinary robe he was represented, at full length, in fourteen battles in which he had been

LANCE OF THE RICCARKEE CHIEF.
victorious,

135

and for which he had the scalps as proofs which no one could deny. When he gave me the robe, lest it should be unappreciated by me, he spread it upon the ground, and inviting me to sit

down by the side me each group,
fought, success
;

and and

he proceeded to explain to the place where the battle was the manner in which he gained his
of him,

for each

battle

he showed

me and

placed in my hand, the scalp. Several of his most celebrated warriors,
familiar, of course,

who were
to

with his military exploits, were

listening to his explanations,

and nodded assent

every scene which he described, and which I wrote

down, word for word, in my note-book ; and amongst those fourteen achievements there was one which he
described in this

way

:

ground behind him, and laying

up from the on the robe a spear of some eight feet in length, and ornamented with a number of red and white eagles' quills, and
spear,"

"This

said

he, taking it
it

with a long blade of

"
steel,

this spear

once be-

longed to the war-chief of the Eiccarrees (a tribe about equal in numbers to the Mandans, and living

two hundred miles below them on the same bank of The Riccarrees have always been makthe river). ing war upon us, and in one of their cowardly midnight attacks upon our village,
of our

when a

great

many

young men,
;

as well as

women and

children,

were

my brother, younger than myself, was and three days after the battle, in which missing we had driven our enemies away, I found the body
killed,

136
of

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

my

brother amongst the willows, with the blade

I recognised of this spear remaining in his body. the spear as belonging to the treacherous war-chief

of the Kiccarrees, having seen

when we had
in of

it and handled it and smoked the calumet a treaty of peace but a few months before many

sat together

;

I prewarriors also recognised the spear. served it, with the blood of my brother's body dried

my

on

its blade,

and

I then

swore to avenge

my brother's

death with
"

my own

hand.

I kept this spear for three years, and no opportunity occurring, and unwilling to spill the blood of the innocent by bringing the two tribes into conflict, For I resolved to get my revenge in another way.
this

purpose I put

my

body and face into war

paint,

which a

chief, by our custom, is not in the habit of I took parched corn in my pouch to last doing. me several days, and without other weapon than

this spear in

my

hand, I started

off,

unknown

to

my
day.

people, for the Riccarree village, travelling over

the prairies by night, and lying secreted during the

"In

this

manner

I

came near

to the Eiccarree

village on the sixth day. the last day, and when

I secreted myself during it was dark I approached

and entered the
tected.

village without

danger of being deof the war-chief, I

Knowing
it,

the

wigwam

and often peeped in and saw him seated by the fire smoking his pipe. " His wife at length went to bed and after he had sat and smoked out another pipe by himself, he
loitered about
;

LANCE OF THE RICCARREE CHIEF.
went
to
;

137

The time for me had then was almost out, and the wigwam I gently opened the door and walked quite dark. in with the spear in my hand, and sat down by the fire. There was a pot hanging over the fire with some meat in it, which I commenced eating, as I was almost starved to death. Whilst I was eating I heard his wife ask him what man that was eating from the pot in their wigwam to which the chief
bed
also.

arrived

the

fire

;

'

replied,

No

matter

;

I suppose the

man

is

hungry/

After I had satiated
stirred the fire a little

my

hunger, I very gradually with my foot, until I just got
to

light

enough to

see

my way

my

enemy, when

I

arose and drove the lance to his heart.

I darted

from the wigwam with the lance in one hand and his scalp in the other, and made my way as fast as
possible towards the

Mandan

village,

without their

knowing where the enemy was from, or which way he had gone.
I travelled fast all that night, and lay secreted during the following day, and so travelled night after
"

night until I entered the Mandan village in triumph, with the scalp of the war-chief of the Eiccarrees
resting

on the point of his own
"
is

spear.

This,

my

the scalp of that enemy, and this is the spear which I drew from the body of my brother, and with which, I believe, it was the will of
friend," said he,

You the Great Spirit I should avenge his death. see, uiy friend, that I have done it, and the blood of
both
is

now

dried upon
friend,

its blade.

This,

my

was unlike the deeds of Mah-

138
to-toh-pa deserved.
;

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

but I went to slay a dog, who died as he Though he was a war-chief, and had
he was not an honourable man; he

many

scalps,

hung about our village like the sneaking wolves in the night, and even scalped our women and children

when they were bathing on
If

the shore of the river.

he had been an honourable man, Mah-to-toh-pa would have given him a chance for his life in equal
but as his life had been that of a coward, would not have been just that he should die the death of a brave man." Now, the rest of this little book might be filled with the exploits of Mah-to-toh-pa ; but I will describe one more, and then we will pass on. While sitting upon the robe, Mah-to-toh-pa showed me
co Abat
;

it

the scalp of a brave

man

a celebrated chief of the

and, pointing to the illustration on the ; dictated while the interpreter described in this robe,

Crows

way: " The Crows have long been our enemies their war-parties have often attacked our village and our
;

when they have been upon the few years since, many hundred Crow plains. warriors appeared on the prairies, not far distant from the Mandan village, when Mah-to-toh-pa, with
hunting-parties

A

his warriors,

went out

to

meet them.

When

the

two war-parties were coming near to each other, on a level plain, and just ready for battle, they halted, and the war-chief of the Crows sent a white flag Is Mah-toto the Mandans, with this message
'
:

toh-pa, the war-chief of the Mandans, there

?

He

MAH-TO-TOH-PA AND THE CROW CHIEF.
is

139

a brave man.

If he leads the
alone,

Mandan war-party
and he and
I will

to-day, let

him come out

decide this combat, and save the lives of our brave warriors. Hora-to-ah, war-chief of the Crows, sends
this

message/

Hora-to-ah is Mah-to-toh-pa replied a chief and a brave warrior, and worthy of Mah-tothis

"

To

'

toh-pa.

party this day.

Mah-to-toh-pa leads the Mandan warMah-to-toh-pa is glad to meet the

war-chief of the Crows, and save the blood of his

brave warriors.

It is Mah-to-toh-pa, war-chief of the Mandans, who sends this reply/ "After the messenger had returned, the Crow chief was seen galloping out upon the plain, on a

milk-white horse, with a shield on his arm and a gun in his hand.

Mah-to-toh-pa was not slow to meet him. They passed each other twice, and fired with their guns
without effect;

"

but Mah-to-toh-pa's powder-horn was shot away ; he held it up, and showing that he had no more powder, the Crow chief drew his powderhorn from his neck, and flung it to the ground and his gun also, and drew his bow, his shield and quiver
being slung upon his back. Mah-to-toh-pa did the same, and the combat was now with bows and arrows. Many were the passes that were made, and

many

the arrows that were shielded off. Each chief was wounded in the legs, and the horse of Mah-totoh-pa fell, with an arrow -through its heart. Mahto-toh-pa was on his feet, but his bow and his shield were before him.

clad with skins. stood before his antagonist. and oftentimes very beautifully. they were in each other's arms The wounds of Mah-to-toh-pa were ' brandished his ' ! ! ! several . but he at length wrested it from his enemy's hand and plunged it to his heart. Thus fell Hora-to-ah. and here they are. The began again. for at last the Crow chief raised and shook his empty quiver. His knife was not in his belt but it was too late. extending from the throat quite to the feet. and the ri^ht knife. and . were very beautiful. the two-edged blade of his antagonist's knife was twice drawn through his hand. the reputed belles when I was there were Mi-neek-e-sunk-te-ca (the mink). drew and battle here terrible knife. The scalp of that chief and his war with his own blood dried upon it. and observed exSome of them ceeding propriety in their conduct. and was worthy of Mah-to-toh-pa he sprang npon the ground. as you see. Amongst the Mandans. but was near its end. belong to Mah-to-toh-pa. and driving an arrow through the heart of his horse. and he said quiver Yes as both were rushing on. and throwing it to the ground. Mah-to-toh-pa's was also hurled to the ground. hand of Mah-to-toh-pa. of which the Indians seem to have a correct and high appreciation. They were generally modest and timid. is crippled for the remainder of his days. the war-chief of the Crows. The Crow chief gallant and brave warrior .140 " LIFE AMONG THE was a INDIANS. like those of most of the neighbouring tribes." The women in the Mandan tribe. were comfortably.

How curious their names. or glow-worm). Seet-see-be-a These were all very beautiful (the mid-day sun). but with ermine.SINGULAR NAMES. and how pleasing! The sweet-scented grass is a sort of grass with a delicious odour which these little girls gather in the prairies. and sometimes how droll They have no . daughters of two of the subordi- amongst the Riccarrees. Hee-la-dee (the pure fountain). All of these have been brought to the chiefs me to paint. and Mong-shong-shaw (the bending willow). And the names of the men also ! . of the loways. and whom I have painted. Chin-cha-pee Amongst (the fire-bug that creeps. how infinitely various. and (then) unmarried girls. amongst the Assinneboins. Pshan-shaw and amongst the Minatarrees. Kay-te-qua (the female eagle). I painted their portraits full length. the Shawanos. and beautifully nate chiefs . by and braves. (the sweet-scented grass). as their most beautiful and modest girls. and amongst the Kiowas. amongst the hundreds of female portraits which I have made in the various tribes. Shee-de-a (wild sage) . 141 Sha~ko-ka (mint). Ru-ton-ye-wee-me (the strutting pigeon). and among the Puncahs. also And Among the Pawnee-Picts. made of the mountain sheep-skins. Wun-pan-to-mee (the white weasel). and which they wear in braids amongst the strings of beads on their necks. in their soft and white dresses. not with scalp-locks. and fringed. embroidered with porcupine quills. a few miles above the Mandans.

and which . like John and George. Bush. as we have in the civilized world. as they may get them from some achievement. nor Christian names. etc.142 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. especially and entirely his As in the few examples selected amongst the : and braves whose portraits I have painted The Thunderer The Thunder The Roaring Thunder The Whirling Thunder The Red Thunder The Yellow Thunder He who comes on the The Cloud The White Cloud The Thunder The Black Cloud The Driving Cloud Flying Cloud The Strong Wind The Sleep Wind The Walking Rain The Hail-storm The Moonlight Night The Deep Lake The Round Island The Hard Hickory The Earth Standing Both Sides of the River To fix with the Foot The Man of The Busy Man The Mouse -coloured Sense Feather The long Finger-nails The very sweet chiefs Man He who sits everywhere He who travels The Smoke There he goes No Fool He who carries a Wolf New Fire Tobacco Stone with Horns He who fights with a Feather The Wolf tied with Hair Hair of the Bull's Neck The Bow and Quiver The Handsome Bird The Flying Gull The Bear's Fat The Bear's Shoulder The Buffalo's Back-fat The Bird of Thunder The Grizzly Bear The Bear's Track The Yellow Bear The White Bear He who drinks the juice of the Stone The Grass. but own. every one has a name. And yet ten thousand others. . some resemblance. or some whim or accident of their lives. and Bloseverywhere som. family names.

TRADITION OF THE FLOOD. muck-a-nah. whom they then 0-kee-pa-ka-see-ka (the conductor of the ceremonies). The Mandans related to me a very curious and distinct tradition they have of the Deluge. often changed and and it matters little to these poor . professes to come every season (about the middle of June) and open the Medicine Lodge. and that all the present human family have descended from that man. of this personage is very grotesque he. telling the people they may be sure he will reappear the next year. as they are nowhere en rolled in tax schedules. who landed his big canoe on a high mountain. nor have they ever to sign their names to contracts or promissory-notes or bonds. The name of this " first. and was saved. and happy people how often their names are changed. and have an immense they kept solely for this purpose. and then returns over the prairies to the high mountains. The appearance and curious . lest ceremony wigwam should happen again. to open the ceremonies again. teaching that all the human race were destroyed by the rising of the waters. Nu-mohkMedicine Lodge. and to commence the celebration call by appointing a medicine man. in commemoration of the event. excepting one man. and they held an annual religious ceremony. or only man. no doubt. 143 new ones taken from these circumstances. This strange called 0-kee-pa. is a medicine man who . are. not far from their village. called the it This strange man. or what their names are. lasting four days." was Numohk-muck-a-nah. where he professes to dwell.

fortunate people. where he tells them he has resided from the time that he landed in his big canoe. and enters the village at sunrise. ascending the Missouri River to trade with the various tribes. and. like all religious customs. otherwise naked. is covered with white clay. was fortunate enough to be present during the four days' ceremony. practising such self-inflicted but it was a part of their religion. and to supply their trading establishments with rum . poor ungone. apparently. It was pitiable to see so kind. so hospitable. He wears a robe made of four white wolf-skins. and their errors The second summer after my visit to them. and breasts. almost too shocking to describe. his head-dress is made of two raven-skins. to personate a white man. under the influence of cruelties ignorant superstition. they are are done away with ! But. as a religious penance. and his face and his cheeks painted. and entirely too long to be place.144 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and I otherwise torturing themselves in various ways. from the mountains in the west. and his body. . fully explained in this I consider it altogether the most extra- ordinary and curious of all the customs I have met in the savage countries. one of the American Fur Company's steamers. in which the young men were suspending their bodies by splints run through the flesh on the shoulders. and arras. goes out upon the prairies the night before. and apparently so happy a people. would have required time all and patience to have corrected.

Potts." am What an illustration is this of the wickedness of mercenary white men. a staunch and honourable man Major Dougherty who remonstrated against the steamer's advancing to the Mandan village with the small-pox on board. and other articles of 1 45 commerce. writing. and. written by a Mr. luxury at similar ruinous prices There was a government Indian agent on board of the steamer when this unfortunate occurrence ! and other village at that time.DESTRUCTION OF THE MANDANS and whisky. formerly of the City of Edinburgh. as these poisons were sold at the Mandan per gallon. reach of the laws. there are but thirty-two of these poor people in existence. who push their commerce into the Indian country. at eighteen dollars articles of extravagance and took place. in a country where brute force was the law of the land. The disease was soon taken into the Mandan the two village. and at that time a clerk in the Fur Company's factory at the and who says " At the moment I Mandan village. thousand Mandans were reduced to the exact number of thirty-two. calling these poor people up to trade under the cannon's mouth. This I give to the world on the authority of a letter in my possession. and selling rum and whisky to them. in Scotland. im- prudently stopped in front of the while there were two of their Mandan village men sick with small- pox on board. and ordered the commander to turn it back but he was two thousand miles beyond the . in the space of three months. and what could he do? He . and they mostly women and children.

and myself were again afloat.146 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. canoe and all my packs were brought down in safety to the water's edge canoe placed in the water the whole tribe upon the beach. and the Great Medicine. Louis. and how many other thousands perished. the warriors and braves shook hands with me. embraced me in their arms . a Wolf successively . and. no one knows. and seeing me attempting . and made a sign for me to lay it down in the canoe. I took in my paddle and opened the parcel by untying a great many thongs. and we were off. when we had got too far into the current to stop. and the women and children saluted me with shouts of farewell and Ba'tiste. All now was done. and well under way. leaning over. At this exciting moment. and how much farther towards the Pacific. After we had got a mile or so from the village. gallant young warrior whom I recognised followed opposite to us. Mah- My my to-toh-pa. -My friend. and the disease went to the Blackfeet. and on our way for St. tossed safely into the canoe a parcel which he took out from under his robe to unfold it. and fur-traders are not the most reliable sources for information. to my great surprise. . was at the shore of the river in front of their village. could do nothing against the weight of a solid cargo rum and whisky. for newspapers are not received from those regions. and so the poor Mandans suffered . and Bogard. and. The last I saw of my friends the Mandans. he waved his hand and shook his head. which I did. the all chief. at the water's edge. of of whom twenty-five thousand perished.

warriors would laugh at him if he sold them. containing the eagle plume. the "Four Men. quills. he compels me to accept as a present what he could not sell to me the day before for the price of I a horse and envelops which he had intended ! it I in an intricacy of thongs should not be able to untie until the current bility of my had wafted me beyond the possimaking him any compensation for like the gift of the saddle of them ! and how much left in venison my father's wood-house. by the unfortunate Ou-o-gong-way.A SILENT GIFT." and the had been for some time trying to which I had offered the young man a horse. but got no reply. and handsomely garnished with porcupine- These I instantly recognised as belonging to the son of a famous chief. fringed with a profusion of scalplocks. and for What a beautiful trait this Having parted with me without the least prospect of ever seeing me again. as the scalp-locks were so precious as trophies. and his fellow." identical pair I purchase. 14? found the most beautiful pair of leggings which I ever had seen. and which so opened the eyes and the heart of poor Johnny O'Neil ! . excepting that " he could not sell them.

greensward. and for weeks of nights. instead of ploughed houses and hedges removed. with tufts and copses of trees. with their verdant sides. hills and knolls. are still and behind us. and at every turn a new and cheerful landscape is presented. with here and there beautiful meadows. The river still winds in its tortuous course. before. no still glides our little boat. and more must be said of them before they will be fully understood. around. with the Such are yet the American prairies.CHAPTER Indian the Signal X. still fields. and many of the hill-sides dotted with solitary oaks the whole presenting a continued and never-ending view as of an old and beautifully cultivated country . Doctor An Excitement Fort Pierre The Sioux Sioux Portraits Jealous Sioux Chiefs Story of Death of Mah-to-chee-ga Dog Pursuit of the Dog Death of the Dog The Author Challenged. Night after night. enamelled with beautiful wild flowers. as Ba'tiste and Bogard paddle and I steer the unceasing banks of greensward. and the countless sloping ]N . 148 .

bang! went a gun on the shore opposite to us. in whose countries they had been trapping and trading. Bogard was anxious go . and our robes spread upon the grass or upon the barren sand-bars. but to is generally the second invitation. and continued on. I having stopped a few minutes to make a sketch of the snug little box in which the band were luxuriating. and there Our larder are probably some days yet between us. tempted us ashore. but discordant notes of the bands of howling wolves are hourly serenading us as we are getting our night's rest.) we got our three tongues and our three fleeces (or humps) without the slightest trouble. quietly sleeping and grazing on the right bank. while the silvery. the first being by signals and by calling. The great tribe of Sioux are below us. Whilst we had enough to eat. skipping. and nicely approaching in a deep ravine (Plate No.SHOOTING IN A RAVINE. and a lazy little herd. our little craft is 149 hauled ashore. and skipping. V. alone. and making signs and calling to us to come ashore. and and Bogard were relating to me some exciting and amusing stories about the Crows and the Blackfeet. and whilst Ba'tiste a bullet across the water. and our paddles were constantly at work. was low. a rod or so ahead of our canoe! An Indian was standing at the water's edge. where we silently landed our canoe. came to whistle. The shot fired ahead of us was the usual friendly mode of inviting parties ashore on that river. and to tell stories for amusement. it was natural to sing.

what would have been the instant conse- . said in rather an authoritative tone. and. drew in their paddles and violently threw them down in the bottom of the canoe. having their backs. " and Ba'tiste said. for this man could scarcely be supposed to be there alone . luckily.150 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and I won't go ashore said. nor the position of things . but I did not exactly like the mode of invitation. " " . would bring us in quite near to a it. towards me. and steered the canoe nearer to the opposite side. which were lying under a buffalo robe between them and me. for which I or any I other traveller might be liable to suffer. there being then existing tribe many unsettled feuds between some of that and some of the river fur-traders. go ashore " and I Oui. Bogard. if he had any. when both . who was a drunken fellow. would naturally conceal themselves in case they had any unfriendly design upon us. in case we drifted with rocky shore. as they might easily have . oui . I instantly seized my double-barrelled gun. where the current running in very swift. and cocking both barrels. and I believe thought it be an opportunity for getting something to might " We will drink. and were evidently looking over their shoulders for their rifles. ashore. In this place his com- panions. from my looks. " I don't like the look of things ashore . and he had placed himself on the shore just above the sudden bend in the river. They perfectly understood the meaning of this movement. to prevent floating with the current into the bend. The was very wide where we were. No the canoe is mine. laid it across my lap.

poor. Just at this time. we have nothing to do but to row." river. Bogard. " No. seeing that we were not coming in. I then commenced paddling the canoe myself. and in forcing it towards the opposite side. as he I. and succeeded. and three paddled with all our might. in every man about in the middle of the I kept the canoe order to take advantage of the strongest current. " II faut combattre rifle. . and running down the shore to meet us below the bend. raising the war-whoop. rose from behind the rocks where we should naturally have landed if we had gone ashore." said exclaimed Ba'tiste. which showed us beyond a doubt what their Notwithstanding all our exertions. " ! seized his pas. "on ne combattre " II faut Ba'tiste. solitary Indian/' some twenty or thirty naked warriors. 151 quence if either of them had reached for his gun. We must knock over some of those fellows. and to ply his paddle. and when the two men were snarling and growling at me for " being afraid of one. were in a little time some distance below us. Seeing them thus ahead of us. by a violent effort. " ramer ! ramer ! On rame ! " said laying down his rifle and taking up his all paddle." " No . they object was. and nearing the boat. holding their bows and arrows in the left hand above the water. who was a I said. when some eight or ten of them sprang into the water and came swimming towards us. " said. in not allowing it to fall into the current near the shore. and the Indians were running on the beach and sounding the war- whoop. desperate and sullen fellow.AN EXCITEMENT.

Now. I felt no further alarm. and resolved not to use any unIf they had begun necessary cruelty upon them. and some of them within a few rods. we should have been obliged to upon fire. Getting ashore." rifles We all took in our paddles. and Those on shore were still running and setting them on us again. whether Sioux or Eiccartheir design. however. and we paddled on till after and bivouaced on the opposite side of the these people were.152 I then said to LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the whole party followed opposite to us for several miles. us. with fifteen hundred skin wigwams of Sioux . they turned back. or what was but learn . when they sunk almost entirely under the water. but finding the chase unprofitable. but don't fire unless I give the word. I beckoned to and them to go ashore but still coming nearer. take up your rifles. I raised my rifle as if to fire. several of them approached us a second time but in a similar manner were turned back. and with our cocked. a large trading establishment amongst the Sioux. they use these with great effect in the water. has been a source of continual that gratififire cation to me we had the forbearance not to upon them. that Seeing they were armed with only bows and arrows. I never was able to it river without further molestation. dark. A few days more cf paddling brought us to Fort Pierre. Who rees. . " my men. though . when yelling. towards the shore. and commenced returning in our hands. and could easily have killed every one of them as they approached our boat.

This is the wonderful work of a great white medicine man. quite silent about my wigwam. Ha-won-je-ta (the One Horn). until this private opera- only to the chief and his doctor. box. known the great medicine. in a beautiful costume. head civil-chief of the Sioux. and as many children and dogs guarding them. my friends we : ! have now got two chiefs other will live smiles see me. My canoe. my face will upon you. and I was soon at work with my brushes. he is now sitting and smoking with the chief. frame. held by the corners of the finished. look at is when the one is dead the him and be ashamed he ! upon you and Be patient. my to-morrow you will friends I am but a little alive . was and his portrait. and my advent but little cared about or known.) " Mine is put in a . and plenty of . but . I have shown you how the Sioux Indians build and ornament their tents. was the first whose portrait I hit off. and you can easily imagine now how picturesque and beautiful a scene was around us. (I had made a dead colouring of the old and set it by to dry. you cannot see him. as amongst the Mandans. Hundreds on hundreds of horses were grazing on the prairies. was carried by the squaws (as they call their women) a tent was prepared for my painting operations. crying to the gathering multi" tude in front of my tent Look. to shine grow over-night to-morrow. the All had been size of life. 153 Indians grouped upon the plains around it.FORT PIERRE. was elevated above the heads of the crowd by tion. picturesque subjects to paint. ! boy." doctor.

the astonished multitude was one of the most curious an interminable mass of red sights I ever beheld and painted heads. he sees you all at one alike. of beads and brooches. Laidlavv. our chief and look at the chief again. spears. through some little crevices in my tent. and the eyes of which actually turned and followed all as they changed their positions. ! ! " eyes is My friends. My a great chief but here is a chief whose eyes are on you all at the same time . perhaps he will sometime walk through our village. and I think so. and all gazing in wonder and astonishment at the one the chief "that had a little life" (as they object the corners of whose mouth many of them said) could see to move.154 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. He says I can do the same thing. my friends!" The doctor's harangue was long and very curious. lances. shields. of eagles' quills. for a photographic lens what a picture or two I could have got . and others quivers. and Some were mounted on horses. ! let you see the chief's him walk round friends. put your hands over your mouths and be silent. the factor at that several of the fort. Oh. to-morrow you will see me!" Mr. move ! " if any doubts that. brought into my wigwam and warriors most distinguished chiefs . raised upon the shoulders of their friends. and then you can look at him. time What chief can do that ? My in friends. whose house I was made welcome. of ermine-skins." said the doctor. and you must make but little noise. The Great Spirit has shown him how to do these things. and.

and hushing them into respectful silence. magnifying my wonderful powers. relating all the anecdotes. with orders not to allow any one to enter except those whose and the facetious had enough to do outside. a sort of police placed there by the chief. which was this It had been represented to these chiefs and warriors that I was a great chief in my own country." In the meantime the door of my wigwam was tinual guarded by a warrior with a lance in his hand. when they were not sparing in criticisms on its good looks and in " anecdotes of his life. and unable to deny anything that was said.SIOUX PORTRAITS. and the laughing and fun was increased when the operation was over and the portrait placed before them. and I had full employment. with his mouth shut. The scene was one of con- merriment and laughter. creditable or otherwise. Thus progressed the mystery operations inside and outside of my wigwam from day to day and I had but one difficulty which I could apprehend before me. that I had heard they had some very distinguished chiefs and warriors amongst them. rank entitled them to admission old doctor . and . which it reminded them of. whilst he was under the operation of the brush. : . and warriors were seated round the sides of the wigwam and smoking their pipes while I would be at work at one. whilst he was keeping back the women and children and dogs. to be 155 The painted. and each one waiting patiently for chiefs his turn to come. This time they seemed to while away very merrily. of his life. and the importance of medicine.

a fine and war said and fully young man in his war dress armed and equipped. Laidlaw brought into my wigwam paint. Mr. In the midst of these growing difficulties. and ten times that number of medicine men and great warriors. some of the ugliest looking men I ever saw . I put a canvas on my easel commenced immediately. for Catlin. chief decided that it was all right. and to obtain their portraits to hang on the walls alongside of the great men in the civilized world. and ready to take their turn as decided by the chiefs. according to rank." sure the chiefs will agree that he shall be To this the chiefs all agreed. but he is a young warrior of such distinction. I have brought in a friend of mine Mah-to-chee-ga (the Little Bear) he is not a chief. and he taking his position. arid "Mr. I am painted. raised by several of the jealous chiefs. that you to paint . but that was a fait accompli. This made head the necessary that they should be painted in I had begun with the order.156 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I began to apprehend a serious diffi- also culty approaching. and finding new subjects waiting in my wigchief. had come a vast distance to see who they were. and amongst these jealous spirits. and gone on number wam every day in full dress. as to being the right of the great medicine being painted next Some remonstrances were to the and the head chief. it until I had painted nearly that I cared about painting. and of so good a character. and from necessity. and knowing that the Sioux tribe contained forty bands. His first attitude and was . with forty chiefs.

what " call a one-half of we . it painters three-quarter face. While I was painting. beautiful." Shon-ka proves that man knows one-half of your face is good for nothing. the white medicine it. in a low tone of voice. and without the evil-disposed change of a muscle or the direction of his eye. and somewhat sarcastic. he addressed chiefs. I am man enough for Shon-ka in any way he pleases to try it. crept round behind me. as if gazing over a boundless prairie the face was. which was carried on tant prairie. and what I wanted. in this way . and whose portrait I had painted some days before. . and those of Mah-to-chee-ga still stretching over the disIn this dialogue. " Shon-ka says it." says chee-ga. to the great amusement of the chiefs. 157 looking off. Mah-to-cheega seemed to have the advantage of his adversary. and had the portrait pretty well advanced. " I see that you are to him this insulting remark " Who that ?" said Mah-tobut half a man. as he has left it out in the picture.STORY OF THE DOG." Mah-to-chee-ga replied. one of the secondary chiefs. "If I am but half a man. by the name of Shon-ka (the Dog). He was towards the sides of the wigwam. and for a while overlooked the operation of my brush. rather a surly-looking fellow." replied the Dog. the Dog keeping his eyes upon the portrait. " Let Shon-ka " prove it replied Mah-to-chee-ga. therefore." thrown into shadow. disliked by most of his fellowand jealous of this rising warrior." Here a sharp repartee took place for a few minutes. Being an man. having a full view of the portrait.

and went out. from the change in still their mansub- ner. and prostrating himself upon the ground. evidently in a rage. his wife . shook hands with me. and asked me to accept them as a present. down and smoking a pipe with the and hearing their comments on his portrait. and wrapping his robe around him. and returned with his gun in his " If Mah-tohand) was heard in front of his door chee-ga is man enough for Shon-ka. After sitting chiefs. but set his gun aside. which excited the apprehensions and inquiry of his wife. as he had left my wigwam. fringed with scalp-locks of his own earning. to which he made no reply. passing into his own wigwam. Apprehensive of what might happen from the last expressions of the Dog. his face to the dirt. and set it down and at the next moment. when he deliberately took off from his legs a beautiful pair of leggings. while my stood without a change or apparent emotion. he got up. let Jura come out Spirit. ject and so stood until the portrait was finished. to prevent misextracted the ball from his gun without his knowing it. according to their mode when danger is near. with which they were all well pleased. suddenly darted out of my violently who sprang upon wigwam. his feet. he took down his gun and loaded it in a hurried manner. chief. The chiefs seemed. . the voice of the Dog (who had gone to his own wigwam. to be apprehensive of the result. he prayed a moment to the Great and during that moment. which was but a few paces from mine.158 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

that side of his face entirely blown away which had been "left out" in the painting. his gun in his hand. and decided by the Dog to be "good for nothing . I was slipping my pistols into my belt. and children. and leaping were heard in all directions. I was At left not a word for some time. and disappearing in an instant. and the instant he rushed out. of the firing of the guns. each one raising the tent behind where he sat. when Laidlaw " Now we shall have it " said dashed into my tent. were fired Mah-to-chee-ga fell. the twilight was apand the dogs were howling. and the thumb of his left hand carried away. where he called upon the warriors of his band to protect him. " That splendid fellow. chee-ga was upon his feet." and the Dog. . proaching. the Little Bear. lapping over each other. I have urged these sit for ! people to these pictures. but footsteps . and they are saying everywhere that you are the cause of the Little The warriors of the Little Bear's band Bear's death. 159 Mah-to- and prove it. and saw women. running alone I peeped through the crevices in my medicine house.PURSUIT OF THE DOG." Like a flash of lightning. the two guns. and men running in all parts the horses were caught and brought in at . with his face a little blackened. the chiefs all rushed out my wigwam. from the prairies. and examining the caps of my double-barrel. now for the pictures he full gallop ! ! . left is dead ! all that side of his face you ! I out in the portrait is shot off Hang the pictures have been afraid of them. welter! ing in his blood. fled to the outer part of the village occupied by his band.

. at the time. and now and then the flash of a gun or two. and. cut off before morning/' all with him. protected by his warriors. and at last a rapid succession of flashes on and over the prairies. convincing us that the Dog was retreating. and myself." At " this moment guns were heard firing in the out- skirts of the village. whilst the warriors of the Little band were pursuing him into the country. and stood listening and waiting results during the greater part of the night in almost breathless anxiety." said " and come into the fort you know it is Laidlaw. took possession of one of the unarmed bastions. which we loaded.160 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. One of Laidlaw's clerks. and seemed sullen. and receiving from the Company's stores some two or three dozen of muskets. appearance. all open it is but half-finished. and we may all be . are all arming. by the name of Halsey. We kept our quarters darkened. a small log building. but the village and fort had assumed quite a different All was silent. they have said they will look to you for satisfaction. Leave your tent as quick as lightning. and could hear the constant trampling and running in different parts of the village. Bear's Several fine young men on both sides were reported . and our position therefore was extremely I followed behind me critical. if they can't kill the Dog. On the following morning all was quiet. leavarms and ammuniing excepting my Most of Laidlaw's men were off on the prairies tion. barricading the windows and doors as well as we could.

da-hair. widow and which saved us perhaps from violence." There was no meta. My We paintings and all things were speedily packed. was in no wise to blame . near the base of the Rocky Mountains. raising an honourable monument over his grave . to be on the water again could. The chiefs treated me apparently satisfied that I with friendship afterwards. " clusive physics amongst these people to rebut such conreasoning as this . just as I had left it. Louis. though wounded. and though we had the breach as well as mended we the safest way was . or I would not have left it out in the portrait and if I had not left it out there would have been nothing said about it. who descended affair. but a very fine man. . My wigwam was found solitary and unentered. He had just learned that my medicine was must have known that that too great. that in pursuing the Dog. they succeeded in killing the Dog. and whose portrait I had also painted. killed Tah-tech-a. M*Kenzie in St.* * is easy to imagine I lost no the Missouri some months after this I learned from Mr. was still reand pursued. and afterwards. and all made liberal presents to his of his relations.PURSUIT OF THE DOG. treating. I thought as quickly which it as possible time in effecting. and that therefore the Little Bear would still have been alive. notwithstanding all his kindness and attachment to " me. but the medicine man was of a different opinion. the friends of Mah-to-chee-ga had." and that I side of the warrior's face was good for nothing. joined together in burying the remains of the fallen warrior. 161 and the Dog. a brother of the Dog. killed. by mistake.

apparently in a somewhat surly and melancholy mood. having painted several of the chiefs and warriors. but I had observed him coming in and sitting and going off. and may be worth relating. as me to alter it. who was not a warrior. strongly illustrating. always in the habit of looking white men in the face but here they would all see him with his face turned . Another brief anecdote. because it was looking the other way. young man. the high and chivalrous jealousy existing in their society. and a striking instance of the extent and certainty to which they are sure to carry their revenge.162 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. looking straight forward. and said " he did not like his picture it was not good." The portrait was a three-quarter face. While ascending the Missouri Eiver on a subsequent occasion. growing out of the unaccountable process of my portrait painting amongst these people. and the He said " I had painted all the eyes looking off. from its beginning to its end. He had been for several days afterwards. the other way. exciting and lamentinterviews with these Thus ended one of the most able affairs growing out of my curious people . . and looking at his portrait a while. but a brave. others right. One day he brought in the interpreter. it looked ashamed. if he was ashamed." He requested and make his eyes look straight for- . down. will help to show further how far their superstitions will sometimes carry them. and stopping in the tribe of Omahas. The portrait was recogafter I painted the portrait of a fine nised and approved by all .

that I had not thought he was so much offended with his portrait. and the next day. I ex: plained to him that I was very much surprised. I would do it with the greatest pleasure the if to alter next day. that the young man was in front of my wigwam. with me. and to be he was. and made me a present of a pair of leggings as an evidence of his satisfaction. I painted him a new set of eyes. which pleased him exactly. a some clean water took off the pair of eyes. and the eyes of his picture was all that he wanted. ward. and he believed there was alternative. On my new was piece of sponge with return to St. and the interpreter came into my wigwam. went out with sure. no I and ready.THE AUTHOE CHALLENGED. and said I had got to fight . Louis. as He shook hands they were looking straight forward. which the chiefs all liked so much . seeing what I had done. and that I loved him too much to fight him and also. advised 163 it. and the portrait now stands as it originally made. here my palette in my hand. a year afterwards. all pleased with and me not to do He had learned a few days afterwards that I was not going to change his eyes in the portrait. The chiefs were so. and he sitting a few minutes. This prevented all necessity of our meet- ing. my L . staring in a prodigious manner across the bridge of his nose. with some water colours mixed on my palette with some dry white lead. one of the most interesting in collection. entirely naked and ready.

so that my friends might know me. Peter's Packs Stolen The Root Diggers. was stolen from me at the . were now in flames . rendered me a laughingstock for the space of two or three weeks. Louis within two hours after our arrival and my beard being thoughtlessly shaved off. wharf at St.CHAPTER XI. we need . for unfortunate affair of my razors were lost in for the six the tin kettle. my little readers. JUT. for the fall on. through season was approaching. and the broad prairie though Ba'tiste meadows. so safely taken care of by the the Sioux. constant danger. and their months our beards had had own way. until the sunburnt redness of the upper half could be made to 164 . with their waving grass eight or ten feet and our long beards in high. Louis it is a long distance. and Bogard and I did jog smoke and through fire. not go on all the way to St. My poor little Mandans and canoe. Canoe Stolen Pawnee War-PartyFalls of St Anthony Fox and Wisconsin Rivers St. Peter's River Pipe-stone Quarry Stone Man Medicine The Thunder's NestDescent of St.

is getting too bad here too. on the Missouri. it is but a step of two or three hundred miles to the Platte Kiver. their heads all Pawnees. Shon-ha-ki-hee-ga (the Horse chief}. Murray was entertained. These are the gentlemen who catch such vast quantities of wild horses. Mr. are prancing along over the prairies in the distance. oftentimes called Wee-tar-ra-sha-ro. " " Tour Prairie Bird. and yet beautifullooking set of warriors they are . and surmounted with the beautiful red crests. and made welcome on his visit to the Pawnees in 1833. but the smoke gloom . and painted blood-red. shaved. and also in the most numerous herds of buffaloes. 165 harmonise with the death-like paleness of the nether portion of tny face. for several subsequent years.PAWNEE WAR-PAKTY. bowing and waving in the wind. was Master of her Majesty's Household. with the blades of their long lances glisten- ing in the sun. Charles Au^. is the head chief of this It was tribe. they look like a bed of red poppies mingled with the silvery heads of barley. Murray. a very dignified and hospitable man. on their war horses. as I have before described to you ! When a war-party of them. on the banks of which dwell the numerous tribe of Oh. All is the fires are all around us ." and his (Have you read his " on the Prairies ?) We are now near the base of the Rocky Mountains. the prairie hens . in this man's wigwam that the Hon. protected. From the Sioux. their country abounding in countless numbers of them. what a terrible.

in the summer of 1834. drawing our light little craft upon the beach at night. and loways. My paintings were made. INDIANS. Mississippi the distance is Anthony. which was discovered and christened after his patronymic saint by the good old Father Hennepin in I860. a distance of nine hundred miles. . all in are flying in all directions the deer are motion . and supplying our little larder from day to day with rock bass taken from the rocky eddies. the Winnebagos. Louis. With Corporal Allen. on the Upper but a thousand miles. which indicate the destructive scenes which have been enacted there. seated in a beautiful birchbark canoe. where perhaps there is a clear sky. and we were treated by . the Foxes. wending our way amidst the towering cliffs and grassy plains of the mighty Mississippi to St. second only to Niagara. I started from this beautiful scene. has been a dividing boundary line. The Indian tribes which we saw on the banks of this river were the Sioux. the frogs and reptiles are looking for their burrows. This dashing. Imagination (how lucky) can waft us in a single moment to the falls of St. for centuries past between the Sioux and the Ojibbeway tribes. which we killed with our rifles. he paddling while I steered. the Henomonies. the Saukies. and consequently hostile ground. and shrouded nature has lost its charms. and wild fowl and deer. foaming cataract.166 LIFE AMONG THE . and the vicinity around is strewed with human bones. the black and smoking plains are strewed with bleaching bones.

raising it fear. At the head of that making the portage to the head of the Wisconsin. "But what are we to do here?" "Well. in bark canoe. to remain for a few hours until I could find a place to store it." said I. I never again could hear of In the next succeeding summer. and placed in the water when we were prepared to proceed on our way. from Green Bay to its source. also in a river." Turning the canoe bottom upwards. My little bark canoe. for it it was gone. which he played with great " . I ascended the Fox Eiver. 167 them all with kindness. what shall I do with my dear little wife?" (meaning his beautiful little guitar.POX AND WISCONSIN RIVERS. was always taken care of by them while we stopped. I will take the canoe on my shoulders and your guitar case under my arm. I had my pretty little canoe lifted on to the deck of his steamer lying at the wharf. now we have " got to carry our canoe. for the sake of safety. we had but a distance of two miles over a level prairie. Never pack which I have now made up. Louis. "we have got to take turn about with our little canoe . " taste). which was beautifully painted. but. with an English gentleman. and. our luggage was lifted and sent to my hotel. with the captain's permission. When we arrived at the wharf at St. My companion said. which we were to descend to the Mississippi. and when I came it." said I if you will carry the . Mr." Oh. my dear sir. Wood (now residing in Philadelphia). it has carried us a great way.

I very easily carried it the distance. . some "up-hill work" again. Peter's Anthony we ascended the visit Eiver one hundred miles. commenced our descent of some hundreds of miles to the Mississippi. the hill. encamping at night upon its grassy and picturesque shores. but from the peculiar features of the country. there but a few yards wide. paddles in hand. From the Falls of St. I "Up-hill work" we all know the meaning of. and laying it on the clear waters of the Wisconsin. The difference between them is." with a somewhat similar meaning. Men in these regions sometimes have to use their arms Falls of St. This place we found to be one of great interest. and have had much of it to mar my progress in life but . and. to the red pipe-stone quarry on the Grand Coteau des Prairies. we are encouraged by the pleasure we anti- cipate in riding down. and the singular character of the pipe-stone. not only from the Indians' traditions about it. After we entered the Mississippi we had some hard work against its boiling current before we reached Prairie du Chien and from that to the . like the boy who drags his sled with hard labour up . is a term less perfectly understood. as well as legs in travelling. "up-river work. we took our seats. and getting the middle beam on my shoulders. St. that the one may be very hard work. and the other is sure to be but in the latter.168 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Anthony. upon one end. where the Indians procure their red stone for making their beautiful pipes. a distance of four hundred and fifty miles.

Great Spirit told them it was their own flesh. and must be used of their pipes. protected from the weapons of their enemies. or perhaps in the world.PIPE-STONE QUARRY. 169 a species of steatite. provided twenty of their days. Many of the contiguous tribes have no doubt been in the habit of visiting this place to procure the red stone for their pipes. that we were but two private persons. it being pre" that it is a part of their it that the Great Spirit gave to them expressly for their pipes. however. under the belief they all have that the Indians were cisely their ilesh made from own colour and it the red stone. because it was a sacred place. in whose country stopped and detained us several quarry is. that told . they permitted us to go and see it. who had only curiosity to see it. The Sioux. having been given to them all alike. and that none were permitted to go. and that we would respect all their feelings. warriors could accompany us probably to see we committed no sacrilege about the place. the Great Spirit would be angry if they raised their weapons against their enemies going to or The returning from the red pipe-stone quarry. but differing from any other sort found in America. and they did not wish to sell it." for no other purpose than the bowls this and made resistance to our going there. Assuring them. While at the pipe-stone quarry the Indians . asserting that no great white people had been there. so as to try to buy it from them. They said they believed we were sent by the government to see what it was worth.

don't tell us all about it that will spoil it all let's go and see it. told us was on the highest ridge of and the Indians believed that in the very hottest days. previous to the thunder-showers. we were " nest!" within twenty miles of the " thunder's "Thunder's nest! why. "it the place where the thunders are hatched out. the bird was sitting on her eggs. and must be something Our interpreter that this strange place the c6teau. the last of which we found on the top of a high and rounded bluff. a " Never place where every Indian who is going " mind." said Mr." about it. what on earth is that?" is Why. covered with short . he would take us a little and we would see the " stone man medi"is a great curiosity " cine" "This." said he." said Why.170 us LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I have heard a great deal it I venture to say very curious to see. way to the thunder's nest to the west. and spent the day in looking at these wonderful places. we must go and Well. it's very small" " most as large as the end of your little finger men of the Sioux have seen it. . on our way to the "thunder's nest" and the "stone man medicine" We rode off at an early hour with three of the [ndian party. and guide. does it ?" " It must be a " pretty large bird to lay Certainly." " " How large ?" such eggs ?" No. Wood. then. Wood. ." So we took an early start the next morning. of the medicine my see that by all means. a half-breed. and when they hatched He told us that on our out it made the thunder." said one of the medicine men." " The thunder comes out of an egg. about ." " " friend Mr.

There this strange mass. and even the fingers and another. arms and his legs distended. nothing of the character of a barrow in no one stone lying on the top of and the number may well be said to be exhibiting. which had been brought by Indians. a On surface. a war-party in that direction. toes of a human figure. has. I could not discover another stone the size of a pigeon's egg for several miles on ably good proportions. which couple of acres of slightly rounded " It was the stone man medicine. of some three or four hundred feet in length.STONE grass." success unless he stops at the and adds a flat stone to the figure . probably through centuries. 171 could be seen and from the top of which no tree or bush all around was a mass of rolling and : green stretching off the top of this mound. what was singular. perhaps. and explained all they could to " thunder's nest" us. and deposited there and. countless . man either side of it. of a his . Our Indian companions having each deposited their stone offering." sloping hills of to the horizon. no matter how far it be out of his way. Whatever led to the beginning of this strange monument no one knows but the Indians tell us that no Indian going on a hunting excursion. lay the figure. or is how far he has to carry the stone. the features of the face. we started for the . MAN MEDICINE. by size and different colours. or on . composed entirely of flat stones. in toler- lying on his back. has any confidence in " stone man medicine.

showed no sign of human trespass . took all the plumes out of their heads. This terrible-sounding mystery we reached after a of hard ride. as if to shoot upon the wing. and near to the wonderful place. where we observed a small bunch of hazel bushes. under our feet and behind us. forward of us. to see if the paint was all right. the doctor requested The Indians us all to dismount and wait a little. but. and placing them under their robes. and hear- .172 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and each one tossed a plug of tobacco into the grass. The leader of our States army in the vicinity of the Falls of St. Anthony. with their robes wrapt around them. Within some two or three rods of the bushes the Indians halted. which. thickly matted. occupying some two or three rods little party at this time was a " Blue Medicine" very droll old fellow. leading the horses by their halters. and the doctor leading the way. and then. I started to walk into the hallowed ground and see if I could put up the little bird . and found it. smoothed down their long glossy-black locks. and when we were ascending the side of the mound. called the extensively known to the officers of the United of ground. and as high as a man's waist. of passing I and with gave the reins of my horse to my companion. all marched slowly towards the bunch of bushes. and with their little lookingglasses took a squint at their own faces. on the top a high prairie mound. my gun in both hands. like the other. seemed much trodden down by the frequency visitors.

to its junction with the Mississippi at the Falls of St. and at which they throw their hard earnings as propitiatory offerings. nately sleep " dear of his when we pleased little pleased. stream (not down hill. and little little ! seated ourselves again in our canoe. but a wafted off. and seeing the poor Indians all with their hands over and evidently in great distress. guitar. that had been thrown by the poor their mouths. Peter's River. Anthony. or fish when we . or alteror listen to the sounds his for rich tenor voice. retreated superstitious children of the forest as sacrifices to the " The Thunder Spirit" in Spirit they there invoke dread of whom they always live. lying in the grass." accompanied with which he told me had echoed many in " years on the stage of the Italian Opera-house London. I and came out without seeing anything excepting some hundreds of bits of tobacco. PETER'S. Thus we descended the St. Mr." etc. and then the mighty Mississippi again. I looked back. 173 ing a deep groan behind me. And our canoe was still going on on on as the hills resounded and echoed with Away to the Mountain's Brow. At the " coteau. These are but two of the numerous shrines to which the poor Indians travel out of their way.DESCENT OF ST. and oh how happy like it) and down we were for we could paddle when we pleased. as Corporal Allen and myself had descended it the . Traverse de Sioux/' at the base of the Wood and myself left our horses.

and from under the same rocks. . . Louis too late in the evening to remove my and in the morning I was saved the trouble this occasion. sir. of these things on his vessel I remonstrated with the captain. I related to the captain my former misfortunes in losing my and canoes at St. and canoe. etc." We arrived at St. Louis. and with ourselves had our little canoe and its contents lifted on board. and severely so. should take more care of heartily. and that you will never see it " again unless it goes ashore with you ? said. containing several very beautiful For the loss articles of Indian costumes. summer before spreading our robes upon the grass. Louis. pipes. with my name on it. For this he laughed at me in the face again. The day before we reached the city of St. and on Why. for the parcel taken from the cabin of his steamer with my name on it. and told him I this. with George Catlin marked on it. and having a strong wind against us. said. with it had departed for ever a large package which I had left in the cabin. but you shall at least be sure of one. that if you leave a box or a parcel in any steam-boat on the Missouri or the Mississippi. it is known at once by all the world to be filled with Indian curiosities. AMONG THE INDIANS. don't you know. and supplying our larder in the same manner often bivouacing on the identical spots. being fatigued with paddling nine hundred miles. we hailed a steamer descending the river.174 LIFE . " . "You He laughed at me have been very unlucky. and as often lifting our beautiful rock bass from the same eddies.

nor can the horsemen twas). and transported them over long distances in safety for me. we go ? In the Rocky Mountains there are the funny little fellows. Louis. Anthony . the "Root Diggers" who burrow amongst something new shall Where the rocks. after I St. they are everywhere. from various remote places in the Indian countries. a comment civilization is this ! upon the glorious advantages of But we Indians are are yet at the Falls of St. The prairies are yet here. the Paunches. everywhere steeping in smoke and ashes. the Kayuses. on the Snake . and their modes are curious.THE BOOT DIGGERS. Beyond them are the Banaks. and let us be off to more fresh and more congenial. they have no guns and no horses. . to cured. but much is like what we have the country is seen. and therefore never venture out upon the plains. and carried them over rivers. and live by digging roots and killing rabbits and pheasants with their short clubs (beng- which they throw very dexterously . 17 5 This accounted for the losses I had met with on former occasions of boxes and parcels sent by steamers and other boats. containing one-third at least of all the Indian manufactures I ever pro- had purchased them at exorbitant and oftentimes the poor Indians had stored prices them. What . overtake or injure in them amongst the rocks and crags which they live. Every- thing here gloom . the many around us. the Kayuls. and the Snakes.

constantly trembling and half-a-dozen other "hos" living west of the . and their lasso always in hand. we may take . no winters. not at present. America has two hemispheres we have seen the wild people and their modes in the one. with their long lances." I can show you the terrible Apachees. no fires. who wear great round blocks of wood. no. are probably. Eocky Mountains. and fruits and flowers are always growing. I can show these. before whom the Californian gold-diggers are the Arapahos. whose birds and insects always sing. fuming in smoke and cinders. several inches in diameter. the Navahos. at this season. that has no smokes.176 Kiver . and below them. who squeeze those of a rat caught in a dead-fall. I know of a country that is always fresh and green. Shall If we take a look at these ? we have space. take a peep into the other ? Allans I . and like those we have just seen. and the Nayas. why not . on the Columbia. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. passed through their under-lips "to add to their good looks. them on our way back their countries are all prairies. the Flat infants the heads of their very young between boards until an unnatural and distorted shape is given. and their eyes stand out like Heads.

and a dozen other os and " was " in Western Texas. the Kaskaskias. the Kickapoos. the Potowatomies. the Cherokees. the Delawares. There are yet the bold and daring Camanchees. with their shaved and crested red heads (like the Pawnees). And and yet others. the Konzas. iheKiowas. I have before said. build their wigwams of shape of straw bee-hives). all of whom I have lived amongst. the tall and manly Osages. the Weeahs. grass. the Pawnee-Picts (who. the Shawanos. the Muskogees. in the . dagos. the Peorias. " " the Wicos. then the Senecas. the Oneidas. JUT stop ! we are travelling very fast. the Chocktaws.CHAPTER XIL Ride to the Camanchees Charley Bought ! Deer Stalking ! The Author Decoyed "Booh the Panther Walking the Circle Indians About Stampado ! to you. the Mohigans. the Ononthe Mohawks. who hang on the sides of their horses on their fields of battle . too "Story of A Creasing a Wild Horse False Alarm Indian Honesty. the Seminolees. 177 .

therefore. to make a first acquaintance with those tribes. We had proposed to travel and maintain ourselves quite independent of the regiment. Louis. on the Arkansas River. Joseph Chadwick. Armed and equipped. and with our own weapons and horses. on a visit to the Camanchees. was ordered to start from Fort Gibson. which were at that time becoming very alarming on those parts of the frontier. and other wild tribes on the western too far and of some whom borders of Texas. seven hundred miles west of the Mississippi. In the spring of 1836.178 LIFE of AMONG THE I INDIANS. only asking for their protection. This favourable opportunity of seeing those remote and hostile tribes I took advantage of. for the pleasure of shooting. under the command of Colonel Henry Dodge. For this expedition I had purchased the horse then finest known in that section of the country. a young attached to me. and ready. Joe Chadwick and myself were on the spot. we wander must say a few words before away from them. . of man who was their country. We had. at Fort Gibson. with my faithSt. and of seeing the Indians and ful friend. by obtaining from the Secretary-at-War the privilege of travelling under the protection of the regiment. and to put a stop to border difficulties. and willing strongly to give his time and risk his life for me. the Pawnee-Picts. supplied ourselves with a mule to carry our packs and our culinary and other requisites. a regiment of mounted dragoons.

made of the bark of a young sapling. who had become a little afraid to ride him on parade. his black tail sweeping the ground.CHARLEY BOUGHT. who take great care never to break the spirit of those noble animals. as hunters and guides for the regiment . where he attracted the and admiration of all the officers . which he had bought of an Indian hunter. 179 belonging to Colonel Birbank. and his black mane nearly so. an aged officer of the garrison at Port Gibson. for some weeks before the regiment was ready to commence and my friend Joe. on his nimble. but by and prancing. with several of other tribes. rode and galloped beguiling him into the I Charley about. He had been taken and broken by the Camanattention his flourishing gaiety chee Indians. and slender-legged while resting in the encampment for the regiment to start. of cream colour. they amused Joe and me by the ingenious preparations they were modes making for their different and entrapping game. gradually relationship. the march . semi-civilized. new little buffalo charger. was everywhere my companion. "Charley" (the name he answered to) was an entire horse. he had too much excited the nerves of his rider. a mustang. a sort of whistle. who was willing to sell him for the price of two hundred and fifty dollars. Colonel Dodge had employed two famous Delaware Indians. Amongst these there was one that attracted our of decoying particular attention. of two or three inches in M . which I gave for him.

and . and about the middle of the day." a range of hills and heavy-timbered country. Ridge. rifles So the next morning. and lying secreted in the grass. many their white number of times. they would invariably great bring the deer up to them. and without success we we saw met. by sounding this. and the perfect by that curious instrument. but had got no shot. delay we resolved to shorten one day at least. at an early hour. led to their certain death by the natural sympathy which that animal has for the calls of imitation produced Joe and ahead of I. I came to the edge . some eight or ten miles from the garrison. times. by taking a " day's amusement at deer-stalking on the Maple us. having for a long time lost sight and knowledge of Joe. from our impatience for the pleasures became exceedingly fatigued with the of the dragoons. and to shorten weary time. and which they carried in their pouch. we entered and traversed these dark and laying out and carrying out our numerous drives and meets. we mounted our hand and our and galloped off. in luncheons in our pockets. the accomplishment of our designs.180 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. by blowing in which they would precisely imitate the bleating "ma!" of the young fawn. Leaving our horses with a half-breed Indian who lived at the foot of these mountains. We flags a drove. and other schemes for solitary haunts. which was said to be steeds full of deer and turkeys. we approached. the young. so that when- ever they discovered a deer on the prairies at too a distance to shoot. length.

with shoulder. and presently and I then began to creep slowly and on my hands and knees. 1 heard the sudden bleating of a fawn. lying concealed in the grass. 181 of a small prairie. my rifle cocked and drawn to my to my inexpressible surprise. My down by hunting pretensions were a good deal cut this little occurrence. and . . I kept it my called again. when. I beheld. as moving. I felt sure that I was going to get a carefully. and at too long a distance for a dead shot. towards the and getting near. and heartily laughing at me. and at last again and believing that one or both of its parents was with it. but without changing my position. hunters. but with greater and greater caution." we spent an hour or so in the shade. the two Delaware Indian called out "ma!" right 'behind me. until I got quite close to the copse. it called again. I kept creeping on. resolving to wait a while until it might come out. within ten feet of where I had passed. which was ma ma!" Frtm several times repeated "ma its direction I was sure the little creature was in the shade of a small copse of bushes farther in the prairie. shot. so I dropped myself upon my knee in the grass. and stepping a little into it. and learning from them that there was not the slightest use in stalking at " no game at that time of day was that hour.THE AUTHOR DECOYED. eye fixed upon the place. the poor little thing and on turning my head slowly around. but I sat down with these good-natured fellows. bushes.

and saw no game . rifle with his in his left hand. but heard nothing of him. and as slowly and cautiously I started in a straight line towards as I could step. . and laughing at the jump he was to make if 1 could only get a step or two farther without his hearing me which accomplished (as he was chew- ing away). and there seemed little chance of getting any game. not to make a thus advanced with after creeping noise in the leaves to startle him. through an open but dark and gloomy forest of large timber. I let my right hand fall upon his shoulder with a "booh!" at which instant came a heavy red to paw on my own Poor Joe I ! shoulder. remaining in the air where my and his right still shoulder had left it. so I resolved on giving Joe a little shock. I often sounded then entered the timber again. I thought jokes would be better than nothing . And in the very tracts that I had left. but descending a gently-sloping hill. As I had had my shock. until I had got very near to in this manner for some gradually and him.182 I LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and my rifle in my left hand and : forty rods and thirty or carefully setting one foot lifting the other. I travelled on and on. I espied Joe sitting on a large log. which he had brought in his pocket. iny whistle for Joe. while he was engaged eating his lunch. a huge Osage Indian. stood smiling at me. him. he made his leap near nearly as far in a twenty and made mine different direction. with his back towards me and his rifle standing by his side. with a "booh / you too /" feet.

but We all straightened up. . about four or six inches deep. there was a fine tracking snow. he had stepped his foot into every one of my tracts in the whole of that distance the instant that my foot was lifted out. on the Mississippi. Louis. that. we had somemyself times had better luck. which amused us very abilities much. and a little canteen of brandy which Joe had in his pocket. and "My us. "when this "One day last winter. one of the wheels got broken and they stopped the boat at the shore. My friend and I separated after we got a little way into the woods. and the expression of the Indian's face set us all when he related to me. he related several of his hunting feats. and took different directions. him that notwithstanding my friend and had killed nothing that day.STORY OF THE PANTHER. I felt more ashamed of my hunting than I ever had felt before in my life. young man and I were on a steamboat. and there were a great many signs of deer. The Osage was a good-natured and harmless Indian." said I. The day was very gloomy and dark. and spoke a little English. would take day to mend the friend here and I both had our rifles with and we went ashore into the woods to hunt. and having shared our lunch with him. 183 good-natured right . by the side of a great and dark it forest of cotton-woods. going from the mouth of the Ohio to St. and that we had hunted many I told days together. knowing my object. and the all captain told us wheel.

I began to think I had missed my bearing and was lost. ! he perhaps. " who could. in order to overtake him. as I am I'll push on and overtake him. had travelled a long distance without getting fell into the track of a man who had just gone along ahead of me. with a large dog following him That can't be my friend Joe ? no he had no dog with him? I followed on. probably. and following the track. and walked pretty a shot. for he has Never mind. for I know I am lost and going wrong/ I continued on. ' ! ! own track ! I But that dog ? ing me a dog's!' ! am lost He steps ! I in ! am walking my track in a circle ! he is stalkis like I have no dog a panther's track I was at this moment rifle sitting it log. and this is the very log I brushed the snow from and sat upon half-an-hour and that is my since It can't be it must be is lost . resolved to overtake the person on whose track I was following. and had leaned my against upon the by the side . put me on the right course. but the forest being so dense.184 after I LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I'll push on and overgot a dog also. fast. I ' : . and the day so thick. and he is following that man with the dog. and brushing the snow from a large log. take him. I then started on again. I at length found another man's ' track coming into it. and at length came to a large log where the snow was brushed off. The man has been sitting down Yes . I sat down. "After walking a long distance farther. After a long walk I stopped. But stop this can't be my friend Joe. . That's Joe Very likely .

as he rested his fore-paws upon it. I was enabled to lay my course to I met Joe near the boat. and its length. without winking or moving a muscle ! " I I. 185 it cocked for it to lose behind me . I just walked up as confidently as I would have walked up knowing exactly where the bullet had This fellow made no more tracks! gone. deliberately into my hands and no time if there should be need and rising slowly. and found to be Both Joe and I were complinearly nine feet.DEATH OF THE PANTHER. ' his heels tied together. coming in with a it. and the little black wrinkle between the gentleman's eyes so snugly took the bead. on his " With back. was measured. I took it. heavy and hearing the carpenter's blows on the as it was boat at this time. to a target. I . . my nerves were perfectly steady. from the end of the nose to the end of its tail. saddle of venison on his back. "My panther was laid upon the deck of the steamer. and was staring me in the face. One was ' my old. and looking back on my back track. that when he fell behind the log. at the distance of some six or eight rods I discovered the head of a huge panther raised over the top of a log. of me. and slung on my was able to walk under his weight. to bring in. back track. boyish shivers began to rise as But/ said raising my rifle to my shoulder of ' ' ' . for which he was just sending two men from the boat. that won't do it won't do to miss this time/ And by the time I had got my barrel levelled. and he told me he had dressed and hung up two more.

on their march. and galloped home. we rode till we sup- . . a band of wild horses grazing. their usual mode of marching and Joe and I. After a week or two of days and nights thus " Little Blue. Bands of wild horses were running from us.186 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. While moving on and on in this manner. with our little pack horse. we galloped off towards them for a nearer reconnais- On nearing them we discovered a ravine. mented by the officers of the boat. and also by the passengers. and so encamping at night our buffalo robes spread upon the grass. and we shook hands and parted. we had forded the " the Canadian. at too great a distance to the right to be frightened by the dragoons." and were now creeping along on the dividing ridge between the Canadian and the Ked River. So ended that day of our amusements. Joe and I got back to our horses. and through the timber two by two." My story pleased the good-natured Osage Indian very much. Joe and I espied one day. sance. and placing our pack-mule in the leading of one of the soldiers. and throwing ourselves into this. by our heads. were hanging on one or the other wing. our saddles for our pillows. and our horses picketed at length prairies The dragoons were stringing off over the . and from herds of buffaloes the rifles of our Delaware hunters were supplying us with a daily abundance of fresh meat." and swam passed. from day to day. and near to their sources. for our day's work. near the banks of which they were grazing.

of all colours. and commenced our ambuscade march on foot.CREASING A WILD HORSE. striped. grey. Their tails different colours intermingled. as we lay concealed. and others spotted and Some were silver. We successfully approached behind some tufts of hazel bushes on the brink of the ravine. which gave us. snow white. Poor Joe and I saw no way of encompassing or nor appropriating this noble and beautiful stud . and dismounting. three hundred in the group. had we approached them with the least mercenary view but a thought instantly suggested itself. we fastened our horses to some alder bushes. that of " " creasing them. I had always in my pocket a powerful operaglass. which seemed generally to cover their eyes. and sometimes three. and. with a rifle through the fleshy (or rather gristly) . who cannot take them in the usual way with the lasso. like a kennel of their hounds. from jet and glossy black to chestnut. generally dragged on the grass. some were iron. and oftentimes were feet. notwithstanding their exceeding shyness. fell under their from both sides of the neck. and their long and shaggy manes. which is done by shooting them . We both had heard of the mode which the Spaniards and other frontier hunters often use. displaying all their blemishes and all There were perhaps some two or beauty. posed 187 we were near their vicinity. a perfect view of them. to within a fair rifle-shot of them without being discovered. and dragged on the grass as they were feeding. others were pied and with two.

which we did not mean to injure. a beautiful silver grey. and he tumbled down. difficulty again : Well. Let's crease one whispered Joe. said Joe." said But here was a to travel light and handy. to find. this adventure a profound secret. part of the neck. and had more tears to this shed. the troop. was never known to any of the regiment. and it for keeping Joe ! his heart . and alongside of . as if Beautiful ! beautiful " ! by a blast of wind. the halter upon rises again. as the herd were " off. and leave We had the best of reasons for the wolves to eat. and being more easily rifles. to and the hunter having advanced and fastened it.188 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. both Joe and I had left our heavy rifles at Fort Gibson. and passed through the animal's heart ! we arose and we did to our was too tender and too noble to stand he was younger than I. and he wept bitterly over the fate of this noble creature. and falls . turning himself round to a fair broadside. on the top of the shoulders. I fired. by which the animal is stunned for the moment. for creasing. but we resolved and one of the handsomest and noblest of to try . by throwing shot as well as ball. carried and reloaded on horseback than our There was no certainty of sufficient accuracy with them. as approached the animal. that the ball had fallen from my Poor aim. it be subjugated by !" its cruel master. as horror and shame. as better adapted for our daily support. and armed ourselves with light and short single-barrelled fowling-pieces. " " I. Joe and I were soon remounted. at that distance. and hobbled its feet together.

our fowling-pieces. and heretofore considered hostile to the whites us." About this time began to be heard through the " Indians Indians Indians about !" regiment. and were now undergoing something like the pulsations and vibrations which a certain little boy once underwent at an old saw-mill lick. announcing to us that the gaze and reconnoitring of a war- party of Camanchees. The Camanchees one of the most powerful and warlike tribes in America. in front in rear of us. Joe. long travels over the prairies and through the oak open- ings we had many a fine chance for a rifle-shot. and probably many of the officers. Cat. in squads of flying cavalry. constantly more or and less in full view. evidently not For several days' and as many uneasy nights of bivouac. never had seen an Indian. these march. which were easy to handle and deadly in the chase from our horses' backs. and undoubtedly the most bold and efficient warriors on horseback. and during the daytime. ! " ! plumes and the glistening blades of their long lances began to be seen. and it became a motto in such light little Crease him. and though in our long.INDIANS ABOUT ! 189 the dragoons again ." or " Crease him. and at last their waving cases. reconnoitring us at a distance. Most of the men in the command. and dis' . hordes of mounted horsemen were gathering around a great distance ahead of us. now and then dodging about over we were under the tops of the grassy hills. were but a poor reliance. were now hovering around and their villages. us . Their signs were fresh.

close by the side of each other. is a small stake of iron or of wood. and perhaps more intel- when a party horses. of some hundreds of bold and furious Indian warriors. in the stillness and darkness of midnight. picket. to be always ready when the encampment is to be formed. which brought them nearer to me glass.190 LIFE AMONG THE IKDIAKS. for their pillows. We in the kept moving on." much the same. of a stampado. made to be driven into the ground. in case of a and each within its owner's reach. " Stampado" little is Did you ever hear my readers? No. sudden surprise. mounted on their darting war- in brandishing hand. meaning "a trampling. or (what is a Spanish word. the men inside the square. to which the horse is fastened. hills as we approached them. we'll have it. with a tremendous scrambling and scampering. then. dash at full speed. were altogether one of the most beautiful sights I ever beheld. like a flash of lightning lances and war-clubs . and is generally carried A during the day attached to the saddle or crupper. the grace and elegance of their movements. well. than they thought for. in that country. when wearied soldiers and their horses are fast asleep. they were beautiful to behold the fierce and manly expression of their faces. with their horses picketed hollow squares. Stampado ligible). the companies forming into laying their knapsacks and saddles on the ground. and bivouacing in the nights open prairies. fierceness and elasticity of their horses. and the appearing over the With my .

with broken legs. dash against and the horses. and in the confused escampette. and where are they? Why. into and through an encampment. with their enemies behind them . and tific . over each other and their owners. mingling the frightful war-whoop with their the unearthly sound (not unlike theatre thunder) of parchment robes shaken in the hands to frighten The instant flash of a few guns begins the frightful mel^e. gazing through the dark in vain for some moving object to " draw a bead" upon. a play spell for the Camanchees' lassos before breakfast. all preparing for them. twenty miles off run and pressed to the last breath. and none was looked for none was wanted or thought of horses were wanted. en masse. Every man slept with his rifle in his arms. and his A . leaving the scienwarriors with broken arms. upon their hands and knees. It is like a tornado that's And where is it ? did it stop ? is it passed on. No scalp was taken. and every precaution in the regiment was made for the event.STAMPADO 191 with the thunder following. and by the daylight next morning an easy prey. All were talking of stampados. coming back ? No. and broken guns. Such is a stampado. ances as we learn stampado had been apprehended and feared for from the surrounding appearfrom the dark and gathering clouds and their electricity that a storm is gathering and preparing to break forth. several nights past. . the affrighted horses. and are off like a whirlwind upon the prairies at the highest speed.

voyance of the vicinity of the bivouac than anybody About midnight. on one starlight night. preferred spreading little out- all. and had at least ten thousand of the most desperate mounted warriors in the world and we resolved . their nocturnal discipline with the spy-glass. and poor Joe and I. nor to lose our horses if we could help it. for reasons which the world will never guess. and on the uphill side. and hobbled them at the same time. and I Joe happened to be ogling fast asleep was when flash went a gun. and doubtless had. and took the precaution while on dangerous ground. excepting and I. a few days after the Indians had ceased to show themselves on the my left friend Joe and the whole caravan. whatever deaths we might die. horse picketed within his reach . and therefore to relax a little in hill-tops. whilst the other was taking straight up his nap. had begun to think they had the vicinity. therefore. My lorgnette we else in was a pretty good night-glass. and laying our own saddles a side of quarters. not to be trampled to death. a better sort of clairit. for I that the Camanchees were thirty thousand. to spell each one sitting other in our sleeps during the night and awake. within a few rods of where we were and bang ! . .192 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. notwithstanding we were invited to sleep in the officers' our robes. in the centre. knew These were trying times for Joe and me. close by a little bunch of hazel bushes. We therefore drove their pickets close to our heads.

as he was trembling and alternately glancing his eyes over the flying mass. to wit. my friend Joe had Charley's halter ! in one hand.A FALSE ALARM. only a vanishing of steeds. at some risk of his life are no Indians !" this a- he has shot Saying this. and turning his head to smell my breath. that " a sorrel . and then said Joe. other. lying. where a sort of council of war was held." poor horse there. to know if I was frightened. Cat. hold my ensued. of groaning ! of a gun. his nostrils raised. or groaning with their wounds. it's that fool of a fellow yonder who has done all " bushes. ! ! notwithstanding. tails and manes. the trampling of hoofs. A moment of silence Here. like a fleet (but swifter) under full sail disappearing in a mist In the camp all were d genou. and Joe made his report. with his mane and his tail spread his eyeballs glaring and a picture in himself to look at . when his little charger in the I arose. " Don't shoot don't shoot me there exclaiming. or " lying close. and that of Charley stood. from which came a deep and frightful groan ! And in the camp. horse . When I awoke. that carried terror with their elevated and confusion as they fled and disappeared. oh. awful ! the snapping of cords. 193 his and where a sentinel had been walking rounds. Poor Joe." cocked and ready. but no war-whoops nor rattling of parchment skins. in the Joe walked into the camp amidst pointing and aimed rifles and fixed bayonets. instantly followed by a struggling and rustling in the bushes. succeeded in arriving at the officers' quarters. the sounds Now and then the flash of grunting.

went to sleep. excepting those whose wounds were being dressed during the rest of the night by the surgeons and their assistants. some were never taken. by the very people . some within fifty miles. and it lasted for some weeks. whose guns had gone off accidentally or otherwise in the meUe. and that from necessity for the horses. and a great many were brought in by the Indians. horse. had got loose. Here. and delivered to their owners. and our horses. though not all gone. Joe and I soon after. as well as I can remember. a halt for some days was ordered. taken with the lasso. and also Corporal Nugent.194 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. of course. and after he had observed the poor creature feeding it presented its head and breast bunch of hazel bushes near to one of the sentinels. who took it. little out of a ' poor brute through the heart. who fired at Lieut. and the rest of the caravan. and after not learning Who's there ?' and getting no countersign. and carefully and most honestly brought to the camp. and also three or four others. Hunter and missed him. blazed away and shot the about for some time. The poor affrighted creatures had taken the direction of their back track in their flight. as he was holding on to his horse. belonging to the commissariat. Some were retaken within twenty miles. and was mistaken for a Camanchee Indian. because he wore a fur cap. for a Camanchee Indian." The sentinel was put under arrest. were so reduced in numbers that they must be recovered or replaced before the regiment . of course. could proceed.

in and who knew by the flight of our horses what had taken place. . whom we had friendly assistance.INDIAN HONESTY. and that we stood in need of dread of. and even marching. 195 been sleeping.

Pawnee-Picts Fort Gibson Charley saddled Cherokees and Creeks Seminolee Treaty Death of Seminolee Chief " Dade's Massacre" Capture of Osceola Sad Story Death of Osceola Charley's Freaks Shake and a Koll in the Grass Bivouac with A A Charley Thunder Storm on the Prairies Buck Charley Tracking the Buck Crossing Shooting the the Great [HE reader can easily imagine.CHAPTER Grand Review for St." which was done in a few with two or three of the secondary chiefs who days. Louis XIII. they presented one of the most thrilling and exciting scenes that I there ever beheld. and fully equipped and As they came galloping and dashpainted for war. all mounted on fine horses. that there tfas little difficulty in making acquaintance with the . with their long lances in hand. 196 . from the close of the last chapter. and a wish on both " sides to shake hands. beautiful white shields on their arms. and their ing up. were sent out to meet us with a hundred or more of their most beautiful and celebrated warriors. Camanchees after this for it was soon learned that was a mutual good feeling.

in the meantime. and breaking the hill. what they never before had seen. for the chief and the cavalry of the tribe were coming out to Colonel meet and welcome us. some three or four days' march. at the distance of three or four with eight or ten thousand horses and mules grazing on the plains around it They then led us into the valley. and his flag colours flying on each side the one a white flag. by which they furnished the regiment with daily food . they invited us to the great Camanchee village. to which they conducted us. with his body-guard around him. that he was ready for either war or peace. and after resting an hour or so in that position. advance. they requested the regiment to halt. Dodge formed his regiment in three columns. in real mili- The chief was in tary order. and at the distance of a mile or so from the village. they gave also to the officers and men. requested us to halt again. an exhibition of their powers of taking wild horse. The white flag was seen waving in the hands of . Arrived on the summit of a overlooking an extensive and beautiful valley. two or three thousand horsemen were seen. and. village. 1 97 After a general shake of the hand with the officers. as we passed along. and the other blood red showing . showed us the great Camanchee miles. with his staff . a of truce. advancing towards us. himself occupying the front.GRAND REVIEW. and showed us daily. their astonishing feats in slaying the buffaloes. whichever we might propose. and pointing.

and thatched with long grass. in a beautiful village of twelve hundred skin tents. dancing. length. chief then indicated a suitable spot for our encampment. made with them also. Here was material enough for the remainder of this little book horse-racing. but we must go on. and then formed his army in a double column of nearly a mile in. which afforded the writer of this and Joe Chadwick. and plenty to do. . and the pipe of peace was smoked. shook hands with Colonel Dodge and the rest of the officers.198 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. ball-playing. eighty miles farther on. and then to all the other officers as he passed. Everlasting peace and commerce with the United States was agreed on. amusement enough. After an exchange of friendly feelings between and his staff Colonel Dodge and the chief. dressed and manoeuvred with a precision equal to any cavalry manoeuvre I ever saw. and we went to the Pawnee-Picts. and the red flag was lost sight The chief now advanced. their allies.. etc. the whole Indian force passed in review. each one extending his hand to Colonel Dodge. councils. on the banks of a clear stream. and the officers were embraced of his faithful friend. himself taking their position in the centre. and facing the officers of the dragoons. where I have said their wigwams were made in the form of straw beePeace was hives. each of our ensigns. in studying their manners and customs. buying and selling horses. and we were soon settled for a residence The two weeks. of.

or could ill with bilious and went to bed. to last for ever. and aftercompanion. and also the far more important designs of the author. I at this time was taken extremely fever. had grown to a perfection felt. though I had rode him more than two thousand miles and our . in the 199 sha-ro. which but few horses or few men have probably fully understand. and a thousand abuses. arms of the venerable chief Wee-tar-raWe saw also the Kiowas. and until I was my ever faithful friend and was constantly by me. but its interest- incidents need not be recounted here that Charley was as fat and sleek on sufficit. the consequences of which were. in a convalescent state. as with the " Camanchees. our return as he was when we started.FORT GIBSON. familiarity variety of and mutual attachment. the Wicos." The mission of the dragoons was accomplished. and has remained so ever whilst the works that I did have not faded since . or changed. the whole ground that we travelled over in peace and friendship became hostile ground. for under the treaty of friendship and commerce came rum. and Charley went to pasture in a large field overgrown with white clover and other delectables. and whisky. all were friendly. During my illness of . and the Arapahos . and was established. Back to Fort Gibson was a long and yet an ing journey. from a great circumstances. two months. Joe. and peace with all was easy. that in one year after. but remain as fresh as the day they were made.

Dr. Wright. and then up the Mississippi nine hundred. and with ing. evidently recognising at my . from the Valley of Wyoming. but the answer was soon brought back. Charley . but to send him down the Arkansas seven hundred miles. Louis. and I resolved that just as soon as I should be able to ride. started me to the field where Charley was busily graz" ! and on entering the field I called " Charley which the noble animal. left for the Mississippi. and plenty of ammunition. of five hundred and forty miles. Charley and 1 would start for St. I felt no apprehensions whatever for So one morning in the beginning of the result. which are entirely wild and without roads. and a clear sky. where his business called him. would be a heavy expense. and learned that he was doing well. who had attended me through my illness. by steamer. I could not see during this siege two months but I heard reports of him often. in a straight line. and with a little compass in my pocket. a distance. Louis by a shorter route. I sent for Charley to be brought up and saddled. " that Charley couldn't be caught. then surgeon of the port. and that no one could get near him/' An old schoolmate of mine.200 wards of LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I knew the point of compass. I was anxious to take Charley to St. and that he had got so wild and so independent that no one could get near him. September. by crossing the intervening country of prairies. feeling sufficiently strong to mount Charley with a little aid. and having prepared my little outfit.

and Florida. and mane. of 15. . In half-an-hour's time. I was ready to mount Charley and be off. in their own countries many of them semi-civilized were owning large plantations. built school-houses and churches.000 . came up to me with mouth " another " eegh-ee-e-hee etc. of 25. Creek (Muskogee) chiefs assembled to take leave of What have I told you of them ? Nothing. and 1800 miles from their former localities in the States of These people are Georgia.000 and the Seminolees of the Choctaws. of 21. and with which I led him to my quarters. which he forgot to chew.CHEROKEES AND CREEKS.000 . and about the half pistols in of a boiled ham. and soon increasing his pace to a trot. 700 miles west of the Mississippi. which had always seemed a pleasure to him. . voice after 201 and his also his beautiful black tail two months' separation.. raised his head. salt. a small coffee-pot and a tin cup tied to my saddle. The Cherokees.000 the Creeks. and held his head down. but here were the Cherokee. and with the grass still out of his mouth. and my fowling-piece in my hand. and then to a gallop. commenced smelling hanging ! my breath. with plenty of ground coffee and sugar. and 1200. and 1400. with a " eegh-ee-e-hee !" and started instantly replied walking towards me. . and lived in comfortable houses. and with full of grass. and were raising extensive fields of cotton and corn. and some my my belt. are located in this vicinity. Alabama. the Choctaw. and opened his mouth for the bridle which I put upon him. 12. with a couple of buffalo robes for my bed. and the me.

202 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and their fields. given to them by the Great . crops growing in their that they must not trespass on their white neighbours on the east. which they were to agree to exchange their lands by for a country west of the Mississippi. sides. he decided that the Indian tribes should be removed west of the Mississippi. who all refused to sign it. all is easily explained. and the Indians were bad all neighbours. and the south. and the them here. and their houses and lands. But how came they in this wild and desert region ? there's medicine here. not at all . No. their and printed and published several newspapers in own language and English. for a country given to with a boundary line on the east. north. and " These lands were too valuable rich. was laid before the chiefs in council. but that they might. assigning as their reason that their parents and their children were buried around them. for Indians to possess. and that the country was their own. but too long to be detailed in this place. meaning. the process of moving them was a very disastrous one on both The draft of a treaty for the chiefs to sign. they were forced to leave the graves of their parents and their children. and was cruel . but none at the west . With the Seminolees in Florida. destroy as many of the buffaloes and wild Indians to the west of them as they pleased. It took a long time." at that time General Jackson was elected President . These people owned and occupied vast tracts of in this. with their rifles. and it was done. is were therefore the best cotton-lands in Georgia and Alabama.

the table. but it being announced to the eleven subordinate chiefs one day. and no railroad or telegraph in those parts at that time. but a desperate warrior. The and though it was subseon the floor of the Senate that the quently proved chief Charley Omatla had been bribed with 7000 dollars. This treaty was sent by an express to Washingtheir hands. " ton. was the treaty. signed. had agreed to sign the treaty which they could not believe they all assembled. still the tribe was removed by force under treaty ratified. 1 With these chiefs . and leaning over the table. the bullet from Osceola's rifle." (!) to be ratified in session) before the by the Senate (then news of the manner of signing should reach there. to see if their chief treacherous an act. Spirit. and as he was rising up from the table. . the head chief. as we shall see. and Charley Omatla.SEMINOLEE TREATY. made his signature to the treaty. 203 and that they would therefore never remove from it. and went to the Government agent's office. supposing the other chiefs would follow him. The treaty was several times urged upon them without success. where he fell a corpse. and of great The treaty was spread upon influence in the tribe. and then six others from the chiefs. whose name you all have probably heard he was not a chief. where it was to be done. a distance of 1800 miles. were through his body before it was to the ground. according to his promise. that Charley Ornatla. with their rifles in the next day was going to do so came Osceola. stepped forward.

204 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. last captured. the chiefs followhim as their leader for. by the custom of all tribes. he is at once destroyed. who had lain in ambush. retiring before some 10. American Indian he who kills the chief in his long as they allow him to live if his act is approved. as . One hundred United States troops were then sent commence a war upon the Semiand to move them. the announcements were headed " " glorious victory ! The gallant Osceola. He was at bravely disputing every foot of ground. ing Osceola fled into the wilderness. chief. This was echoed through all the newspapers in the United States. . a number of the Indians were killed. no one can object to his lead and if it is not approved. battle for six years afterwards when the Indians had the best of the fight. a very meritorious officer.000 disciplined troops. under nolees. " " as a horrid massacre . kept them at bay for six years. . with the exception of one man. had been destroyed by the Indians. by force of arms. and whenever. however (or rather kidnapped). into the forest to Major Bade. de facto. and gained an advantage by springing upon them before they could use their rifles much in the manner of the " Wyoming massacre/' mentioned in an early part of this little book. at the head of his Spartan band of warriors. by an equal or more cunning stratagem. and of course across the Atlantic. with . and so was every successive the treaty. had command of this invading force and in a few days the news arrived that Major Bade and his whole force. tribe : own is.

at Charleston in South Carolina. and 2000 innocent and defenceless men.CAPTUKE OP OSCEOLA. my little readers. Thus was broken the spirit of the Seminolees. 205 four of his principal chiefs and 200 of his warriors. Administration discountenanced the act. white flag in reply in his own hand. and sent to Port Moultrie. but the chiefs were too valuable a prize to be released. they were encompassed by an order from the officer in command. where we now find them. the lives of 28 officers and 600 soldiers. whose lives are always perilled vicinity. as many Indians. and their weapons left behind them. and it by every is officer in the probable that the shame and repentance it. a dis- . Here. with a by a flag of truce.000. and. by a stratagem too disgraceful to have ever been They were called up practised by an Indian tribe.000 of dollars. after an expense to the Government of 32. of the one who was guilty of The punished him for it. living exposed on the borders of their country. to the wilderness frontier. nothave sufficiently withstanding . as " PKISONERS OP WAR. were made prisoners of war. and as Osceola advanced." through the States. we have arrived at last to " a definition of Treachery in Warfare" This disgraceful act was condemned United States army. and children. pinioned and fastened on horses* backs. and all were sent. women. known to be im- when an Indian war the city of is waging in their From New York to Charleston. and thus ended the Seminolee war.

and also those of Mic-e-no-pa. the " white man's evidence was so strong that he was convicted. I travelled with my canvas and brushes to paint the portrait of this extraordinary man. and the sentence of the chiefs. women. who took cognisance of it. I English enough to describe to me many of the interesting events of the war. Cloud. complaint was laid before the chiefs. the four chiefs captured with him. of having The stolen a chicken from him the night before. There were at Fort Moultrie at this time 250 men. and pleasant man. only ever know Did any Seminolee asking the chiefs. vegetables. however. and spoke fort. Chee-ho-ka to steal?" However. his . while the young man accused had no evidence to give. He was a half-caste. which he made out to be very conclusive. hearing the proofs advanced by the accusing party. One young men of the handsomest men I ever saw. a producer of poultry and of the this party. was. and the shameful manner in which he had been entrapped. living in the vicinity of the fort. the next morning. I painted his portrait full length. and all held as prisoners of war. who were taken with Osceola. by the custom of their country. and children. and King Phillip.206 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Osceola. though prisoners of war (they being partly civilized). At seven o'clock. Co-a-ha-jo. Though a humble prisoner in the found him an easy. tance of 1500 miles. but broken-hearted. and one of was one morning accused by a white man. that he should be publicly whipped the next morning at nine o'clock. affable.

The news. and alive. don't strike a dog !" I let the monster go. announced as a sudden attack of the quinsey. like waiting under the saddle. I learned that Osceola was dead. not been stolen ! This wretch was standing right by my side at the moment. He died the next day after I left the fort. and his disease was express. for several of the officers stepped forward and begged me to use no violence . that I never expressed in my face. by my had passed me on the road. while the officers of the garrison and the Indians were in a group around him. with a noose around his neck.DEATH OF OSCEOLA. him with both hands by the throat with an was capable of before or since and lynching. And a little time after. and from an impulse quicker than thought. and the women and children hooted and hissed him out of the fort. without waiting. don't. and great surprise on my arrival in that city. myself. don't hurt him . when he whispered. "Don't. the fiend came up who had sworn against him. and what had ten times more effect. and confessed that it had of the wall of the fort. But this is an awful long time to keep poor Charley for. my friend. must have been I seized iron grip. and gave him his chicken to carry home. when he . 207 body was found suspended from a spike in the side by a thong of raw hide. the soft and delicate hand of Osceola was laid lightly on my shoulder. with the chicken under his arm. After these events I returned to to New York. and quite dead.

and another that labours without one. and five Charley and I mounted the grassy hills back of soon disappeared. and the chiefs who. to be off. we both required the solitary and mutual dependence we were now entering upon to fully develop the actual strength of sympathies that had long existed between us. Dr. The country for hundred and forty miles ahead of us (about twice the breadth of England). Wright. I.208 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. life. and myself in a . to bid me good-bye. and oak openings. autumn around me. was ready. and therefore were sorrowful but my farewell to the country was quite the reverse for the officers and men of the garrison were dying at the rate of six or eight per day. and rivers. I said. from a deadly fever raging at the time. the fort. the officers of the post. though heretofore the best of had always before had too much company with us to know how much we loved each other . had gathered These good-byes were for ever. with brooks. of hills and dales. I entered upon sure that few can appreciate with the bracing air of it with a plea- who have seen and felt but the monotones of Charley and friends. and apparently tedious but as my departure from the deadly atmosphere of Fort Gibson was a sort of escape. of meadows and grassy plains. and the extent to which such sympathies may be cultivated between an animal that works for an object. and of the Indian tribes in the vicinity almost an equal proportion. state of convalescence. was vast. . he was always impatient I took leave of Well. my old friend.

CHAKLEY'S FREAKS.

209

much

There was another advantage we had that took of the apparent hardships of our coming cam;

paign from our shoulders that arising from the fact that Charley and I were old campaigners together,

and knew exactly how to go at our work And there was yet another advantage that cheered the way very much. Twenty-five days is a long time to
be entirely
voice

mum, without

the power of speaking to

any one, or hearing the cheering sound of any one's

and from a long familiarity and practice, Charley and I had established a sort of language which was at times very significant at all events and therefore very cheering in better than none
;

breaking the awful monotony of a solitary campaign on the prairies. As, for instance, when I went to
the field to catch Charley, as I have before mentioned, after a separation of two months, when I said,
" Charley, is that you ?" he instantly replied, Eeghhere was an affirmative, distinctly ee-e-eh" (yes);
"
;

some might call this gibberish, but still it had its meaning and if he sometimes used it in a wrong sense, he was nevertheless sure to be right, provided I put him the right sort of questions ; and certainly he had one agreeable peculiarity which by no means
;

belongs to
countries,

all travelling

companions in those desert
immediately
either

that

of answering

night or day, to any question I put him.
shall see.
I said

But we
our

we had

set off;

we were now wending

way

over the prairie hills and knolls, crossing beautiful green fields, passing through forests of timber,

210

LIfE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

leaping and wading brooks, and, when night overtook us, bivouacing in the grass. By the sun,

while
it

it

shone,

we

easily kept
little

was obscure, our
I

and when showed it pocket compass
our course
;

to us.

was

ness,

feeble, having just risen from a bed of sickbut meeting a cool and bracing autumnal wind,

I was every hour gaining strength, though I had every alternate day an ague chill and fever, and

them coming on, I dismounted from Charley, and lay in the grass until they were over.
for these, as I felt

Charley profited by these halts, as his saddle and packs were taken off, and he had an hour or two to luxuriate on the prairie grass, of which he was very
got a good roll or two in the grass in the meantime, which seemed to be a great luxury to him ; and these rolls he took a peculiar pleasure in
fond.

He

performing as near to me as he could without rolling on to me. The shake and the fever, the bait and
the roll
over, and Charley saddled again, we on our course. Carrying one of my barrels always charged with shot, ready for grouse or other small game, and the other with ball, our larder was easily supplied from
all

would

start

day to day with fresh food without the trouble of
dismounting, except to
tie it to

my

saddle for

my

Grouse supper and breakfast where I encamped. were many times a-day rising under Charley's feet, and now and then a fine fat doe was gazing at us,
little

thinking that in

five

minutes the choicest part

BIVOUAC WITH CHAELEY.

211

of her rump-steaks would be suspended from Charley's saddle-strings.

With the exception
I

managed

to bivouac

of one night in the twenty-five on the bank of some little

stream or
coffee,

river,

where there was water to make
to

my

and wood

make a

fire.

We generally halted

a

before sundown, so as to give Charley abundof time to get his supper before I took him up; ance that is, before I took up his picket and brought him
little

in.

The moment

his saddle

was

off I

drove

down
and

his picket

where the grass was plenty and

fresh,

gave him

the full length of his lasso to feed around.
;

I would then gather my wood and make my fire and that well going, I would dress my prairie hen or prepare my venison steak, erecting them on little sharpened stakes before my fire, and get my coffeepot on the coals, and spread out all my little traps, such as a tin cup, a bowie-knife, an iron spoon, a little sack of salt, some sugar, and a slice or two of cold ham. I was in the habit (and this was a habit of long standing with Charley and me) of leaving my little bivouac just at such times and going to Charley with a little treat of salt, of which he was very fond, and which he no doubt took with an additional relish from the fact that I always stood by him, while he
licked

This might perhaps have it out of my hand. been one of the causes of Charley's affectionate attachment to me and on this occasion I had taken
;

care to lay in enough to keep up friendly feelings between us during our campaign.

o

212

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

little

also, of receiving this attention at that particular time when his meal was about half enjoyed and mine about ready ; and

Charley was in the habit,

he had learned the time so

well, that if I

was not

ready at the moment, his head was up and his tail spread out like that of a turkey-cock, while he would
stand gazing at me.
I did not ask

him on

these

occasions what he wanted, for he might have been perplexed to answer emphatically, but I would say
to him,
"

Charley

!

do you want your

salt ?"

"

Eegh-

He never failed to answer me in ee-e-eh !" (yes). the affirmative on these occasions, and I never failed
to carry it to him.

After finishing my supper, and just at dark, having brought in and driven his picket close by the side of
me, I was in the habit of spreading one of my robes upon the grass, and using my saddle for a pillow, with the other robe drawn over me, head and all
;

thus sleeping soundly and

comfortably until day-

light, when Charley became restive ; getting up and moving his picket, I generally got another good nap Fire of an hour or so before rising for the day. built, breakfast eaten, and Charley saddled, we were

jogging along again. In one instance we crossed a large prairie of many miles in extent, without a tree or a bush in sight, all
a short grass of some six or inches high, and the country all around us, eight when we were in the middle of it, perfectly level,

the

way covered with

" and the horizon a perfect straight line, out of land," as it is termed in those regions.

of sight

Night

THUNDER-STOKM ON THE PRAIRIES.
overtook us in the midst of
this,

213

and we were obliged
fire.

to bivouac without water, but not without

We

had no

night ; but a venison steak I cooked very nicely with a fire which I made
coffee, of course, that

of dried buffalo dung, which
prairie.

I

gathered

on the

I was awoke in the middle of the night by thunder and lightning approaching in a terrible thunderI got up and drove Charley's picket doubly storm. strong, and folding up my nether robe to keep it dry, and laying it on the saddle, I took my seat upon it it, and spread the other one over my head falling to the ground all around me in the form of a tent, sheltered me and all my things perfectly from the The rain fell in torrents, and the flashes of rain. lightning seemed to run like fiery snakes over the surface of the prairie, as if they were hunting for and I feared at every flash something to strike that Charley and I might be snapped up for that
;
;

purpose. The rain continued until morning, and I got some sleep, but not of the most satisfactory kind, as I was

obliged to keep

my

upright position

all

night.

The monotony of these broad and level prairies sometimes became exceedingly tedious, and even
doleful.

I repeatedly fell asleep while riding,

and

waking, I always found Charley not only going Sometimes for along, but keeping on the course. hours together, creeping along, without a moving
bird or beast in sight, while both were in deep

thought and contemplation,

I

have

"
said,

Charley

!

a

214

LIFE

AMONG THE
"

INDIANS.

Eegh-ee-e-eh !" Charley penny for your thoughts." both bracing up our nerves, and would reply evidently moved along with a new life, and conse;

quently increased speed. One day, while we were thus jogging along, each one wrapped up in his own thoughts, suddenly sprang

up from

his lair, right before us, and within eight or ten rods, a stately buck, with a pair of horns that looked as if he had a great chair on his head!

Charley raised his head suddenly and stopped, and was gazing at him, while I was getting my left barrel to bear upon him, and he was trembling so from fear or anxiety, that I had difficulty in getting my
aim.

When

I fired the deer staggered back a
off,

little,

but recovered, and bounded
ing his flag,"
right.
hill,

but without

"

show-

A

by which I knew I had struck him few rods took him over the top of a little

and he was out of our sight. I pushed Charley where he had stood, and I saw a proup fusion of blood on the grass, showing me that all was right. While I sat reloading, Charley had his nose to the ground surveying the bed where the animal had been lying, and also smelb'ng of the blood
to the spot

upon the
I

grass.

I then guided Charley along

on the track, which
traces

could

easily

follow
hill,

by the

of

blood.

Getting over the

the deer had gone

into a

meadow of high grass which came quite to the top entered the high grass on of Charley's back. the animal's track, and observing the extraordinary

We

excitement that Charley was under, which I could

CHARLEY TRACKING THE BUCK.
feel

215

by his motions as well as

see,

his disposition to trace the deer, I

and observing also had curiosity to

slacken the rein and let him take his course. He went on in an unnaturally fast walk, snuffing and

smelling along at the blood, keeping the exact track
as precisely as a hound would have done, followed it for half-a-mile or more; and

and so
finally

breaking out of the high grass at the foot of a small hill, he suddenly turned his elevated head to the left,

and his ears pointing forwards, exclaimed, " Eegh-eee-eh
direction,

(here he is, evidently) ; for I looked in the and at twenty or thirty rods from us, on the side of the hill, lay our noble buck, with his
!

"

frightful horns, quite dead I never straightened the
!

rein

even then

;

but
tail

Charley started upon a
(oh, I

trot,

with his head and

wish I had a picture of him !), and brought up me within a few paces, and stopped. I then pushed him up, and he smelled of the animal's nose and
the
"

bleeding wound.
"

"Are you
"
(yes).

"

Charley
I,

?

Eegh-ee-e-eh
I
"

sorry," said " Oh, no," said
"

I,

I,
;

"

Charley, you are not.
"

put the question wrong

didn't
right."

Charley

?

Eegh-ee-e-eh."

That's

I dismounted, and Charley looked on while I cut out a nice steak, and looked and smelled

back at me as I was tying it to his saddle, and knew, no doubt, as well as I knew, that he was going to carry it, and that I was to cook it for my
supper.

The almost

incredible attachment of this noble

animal, and the rest of the curious incidents of this

must. I said. and . and put him out to graze with his picket." about this. I then took up Charley's picket. have been written. " " Do you know what you Charley ? Eegh-ee-e-eh. There was no mistake he was used to . and then. I got Charley's packs off. leading him to the water's edge " and taking off his lasso. its banks full with a freshet. We came to it it was half-a-mile wide. picking up drift-wood that I could find near it. I formed them into an awkward raft. The greatest difficulty Charley and I had apprehended on our route was the Osage Kiver.216 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and its muddy and boiling current pouring along at Here poor and I both looked chapfallen give it up Charley we can't. we cannot go round it. St. may omitted in this place. Having gathered enough in that way to form a raft sufficiently large to carry rny saddle and other things dry above the accumuwater. which it was absolutely necessary to cross. I began following the shore down and floating these as I advanced along. where there are no bridges or boats. however. to inform the young reader how we travellers in those rude countries get across rivers which we often meet. be necessary here. enough for ft and must be One incident. Louis. and laying these at the water's edge. journey from Fort Gibson to book of themselves. laying down my gun. and cross it we the rate of five or six miles an hour. I followed up the river-shore for full a mile. and lating getting them all together. as it was a thing have to do.

and get . and. whirling it round. I laboured steadily and hard. were I all taken off. as the stream wafted us down. absorbing the water. tree. and. but very slowly. my things Some of the long timbers of my raft. But I had no them and hold alternative it I must force it against from pulling to pieces. and I went to work. caught in the limbs of a tree lying in the water." Charley then went to grazing. and my gun. and throwing me out again quite into the stream. which eegh-ee-e-eh ! . however. and my clothes. but with two alarmthe dried logs and sticks with was constructed were many of them my rotten." had no axe to make them of equal lengths. The current swept him down a considerable distance. but he got to the bank and out upon the prairie. and I wish you the same. if possible. were sinking so low as to bring some of my things into the river and the shore where I was to land was lined with logs and ing apprehensions raft : which . brought rne to a little better . moved my it. as I ashore.CfcOSSlKG I ffifc GBJSAf OSAG& off pointed to the other bank and drove him in. and was at length nearing the other shore. at all events. raft into the stream. and thereby threatening to pull it to pieces. and then he turned about and looked at me with a tremendous " I am meaning this time. it and swimming I behind with one hand on propelled it. safe over. however. " myself. and then my robes. and he started for the other shore. arranging my things on my raft laying my saddle on it first.tops extending into the water. no doubt. A second effort.

and that he loved me. as he was round. and as I turned " " said Charley. of course. and at length I got my feet the ground and my traps all safely landed.218 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. . I was startled by a cracking noise in my rear. Eegh-ee-e-eh ! the thick weeds and nettles crowding through disappeared behind the point of timber. " Ration ! of what Of salt. mile below where ing with his and full a had lost sight of Charley standhead and tail up. place for landing." Was he a noble animal ? and for what ? Could I repay Charlie for such affection ? I have said that Charley " was a " noble animal/' I " ? gave him a double ration. and watching me as I I Getting things ashore. upon I was then in front of a dense forest. my clothes on and all behind me. and preparing to start through the woods for Charley.

! I have said that I knew the delicious this. nor is it from it. The Scylla Plains of Venezuela Caracas Indians of Venezuela The Handsome Dance The Bolas Catching the Wild Horse Canoeing on the Orinoco Opening of a Spathe The Pirates at the Spathe Campanero (The Bell Bird) Wakened Sloth Mouths of the Orinoco Wigwams in the Trees. but it is on a sandy. of bloom. Who has breathed seen the gaudy colours. jOW for the fields and forests of everlasting and never-ending green. this aviary of the grand and boundless valley of the the world Amazon and who will not. and song where dreary winter's blasts are not known. of gaiety. It is in Venezuela. of all Nature's uninterrupted joy. this music-hall. if his life it ? and his purse be long enough. and buds and flowers are ! growing at the same time such a place as air. and leaves are dropping. scorching 219 the beginning. of Caracas is not in Amazon. go there and see But we are not quite in it yet the valley of the exactly. not a great way . and heard the sweet notes of this flower-garden.CHAPTER XIV. South America.

bello wings can be heard only 600 miles off! and a block of granite of 327 cubic feet it was able to profeet laid " high.000 " its cinders at the top of Chimborazo.220 coast. built in Philadelphia. ject a distance of only nine miles The Orinoco is a large river not far ! from us the Amazon larger than the Missouri. only 1800 . What is furnace underneath us." a 140 ! gun-ship. occupied by individual nabobs. at the head of tide water it is is . and it was there that I first is there we will begin. and the largest of them. Natural things are on a large scale in the country now ahead of us. could go only as high as Tabatinga in low water : that is. larger but not quite so long . you may still see the frightful chasms which were opened at that time. only Chimborazo (Tchimboratho) is now at work is Cotopaxi up of equal height its groanings and (Cotopassi). the chimney . and how long forged in the mighty it has been worked. LIFE It AMONG THE INDIANS. landed. a terrible shock and a shake were given in the From some unknown beginning of this century. destroying ten thousand inhabitants . much but thirty miles wide it has but about 1500 islands.000 head of horses and Naval engineers who have surveyed the bed cattle of the Amazon at the expense of the United States Government report that the " Pennsylvania. nobody knows. . contain only 50. back of the town. It formerly threw out its smoke and 19. and. and for a long distance on the coast. accident in the giant furnace that is burning underneath that region of country.

France. where is the town ? and where the ocean ? If the day is perfectly clear and sunny. you may see a and some little red patches to the at your feet." down from its Can one climb it ? No. the waters lie still in that divorce capped summit ! ! place. But by a hard day's work you may get to its summit by going a great way round. And then. and you them. not in the bottom of the ocean. but the sky and the ocean are one.CARACAS. here's another. you can see neither. If the weather is thick little strip of white sand and overcast. if the water was low ! The valley of These distances are not very great the Amazon is rather large . What but stop. if you can venture near enough brink can't . and then . but it could not pos! more than the populations England. Belgium. and the United States put together: for putting more than that number in might make some men's farms rather sibly hold with comfort of too small ! The town in the precipitous wall of rock just back of the ! of Caracas is only " " " shakes it 6000 feet in height and shook and shuddered so that the stones and trees were tumbling reeling sides in all directions. ! 221 and ordinary passenger miles from its mouth steamers could go only 1000 miles higher. for there are no waves there. without being liable to get aground. and on the top the cloudwhat's here ? Here is a pebble a sea-shore pebble worn round by the waves on the sea-shore . thousands of others ! bird could have brought this here ? and another.

escaped me ? Yes.222 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. He . into silex before they were rolled? and to be how long have they lain here ? and then. He carries no knapsack and the escape from one rattlesnake. from one tiger. for thousands of years. Have any Indian tribes ever Shall I ever see them all ? I reader travels ! don't believe How easily the across the Atlantic how soon he how quick upon the summit ! is of His sea the Scylla and the plains of Venezuela don't cost him fifty pounds his knees don't voyage I home. with all their curious and intricate tentaculae. how came they here ? or where has here been ? But don't let us go mad . their beds have been cretaceous. let us get down from this place. . only 6000 feet above the sea. and perhaps for thousands of centuries. must cross them. rounded as they are ? In what cretaceous bed lay they for thousands of years. in one minute. We are ! . perhaps. waves of the sea ? Where. and looking into it at When were these pebbles rolled by the our feet. we are too high. These pebbles are flint they contain silicified Everything has a life and a death zoophytes these have lived zoophytes live and grow only in the sea . and I. smiles at our sits at . so." the sweeps off to the Orinoco. we now on grand plateau that There are Indians on these much trouble to get back the top of the " Scylla. one drowning produces. it's too again . plains. No are . or from ache like ours. while he reads and and groaning but he loses tugging much that we see. to be changed from the living animal. of course.

the hedges are bending with wild plums and wild The orange and fig-trees are on every little grapes. Angostura is on the Orinoco .PLAINS OP VENEZUELA. with beautiful clear streams winding through them. Hentz. resolve to cross these beautiful plains on our legs My knapsack it. and still white with Pinks of a hundred colours and sweet blossoms. and now and then a huge rattlesnake ! . and yellow with fruit. oh. and copses and bunches of timber and bushes on their sides and along the banks of the streams. are with me. But those bunches and copses when we come near There are the beautiful to them. rolling and sloping about in all directions. lofty. a German botanist. palmettoes. The meadows are filled with lilies of various hues . ! The busy little humming-birds are buzzing about . at their feet. but I have resolved to Dr. but we man. may carry be so who can contradict it ? is heavy. and fifty kinds of flowering plants. and violets of all hues are under our feet. it is but a hundred may be and fifty miles that's nothing. will help us. the Gauchos. how lovely bananas. and. acres on acres of geraniums in flowers of all colours and of various odours of wild roses. We . with their mules. in shape and distant appearance they are much like those which Charley and I passed over between Fort Gibson and St. and dwarf palms. Louis. patterns. the pennated. hillock. 223 This more pleasure than he enjoys in a month. and his have no horses. The prairies in this country are pampas.

Goo -wa. and rum. Who time ? is the happiest man in the world just at this Why.gives. I. and packing them in his large books. we Man begins here to feel less than he does in England. and ten thousands of beetles and other clumsy flyers. and these swarm in myriads about them. are there any? Yes. The sun looks haps a have to his little it does at home.224 us. The Indians. semi-civilized. and so far behind him. amongst them. are knocking and butting against us. because the Indians are pleased with us. but quick and powerful men. of these beautiful scenes into my portfolio . and no deformities . the next happiest? Why. it don't follow him so exactly. and whisky have destroyed the Here are the Chaymas and the most of them. but not many. and putting What dance ? yesterday. rather small and slight in stature. beautifully formed. much like the Ojibbeways in North America. the mach-ee-o-a (handsome or glad dance). or thankful. glad. Spathes of palmflowers are opening. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. as per. that beautiful dance ! Chayma is And who course. mostly mixed with Some full-bloods colour and character Spaniards. while he is gathering these beautiful plants and lovely flowers. and perhaps have received some valued . though and more over our heads bend our necks more to look at it. smaller. that no one stops to inquire about. who am Why. Doctor Hentz. which a employed to help to carry to Angostura. Small-pox. shadow is shorter.

. upon which she danced their spread hair. always the tiger-skins. it was an extraordinary compliment paid to my medicine. and also because the medicine them that I am great medicine. beautiful women were selected by the chief to give this dance . Did they separate their big . And then and then. Did they on raise their feet they danced ? from the ground when not quite. for many years it had not been seen. How were these Each one had a beautiful tiger. but not often. The chiefs portrait was held up by the corners in the same way. what? ! . Why then came the handsome dance. their toes were No. with white clay. And then the warriors danced the war-dance.skin under her feet. exactly the ! man same as in North America. long pins of silver were run through their under lips. with strings of blue and white beads on their slender wrists and ankles their cheeks were painted red. What medicine men here too? in South America? Yes. Was it beautiful ? The most girls beautiful thing I ever saw. . What the war-whoop here too ? Precisely the same. The young Three women dance young and in this country. and their bodies were coloured white dressed? . fastened by a silver band passing around the head.THE HANDSOME DANCE. 225 has told present. and polished brass bands were worn. and strings of blue and white beads were dangling from them large and small beads hung in great profusion around their necks. was falling down in shining tresses. and gave the war-whoop. and the medicine men had a grand dance around it.

which answer all the same purposes for food to the Indians as well as to white men. Orinoco. The bolas is a cord of raw hide. with a long lance from his horse's back. with a leaden ball of half-apound or so in weight at its end. and the head and becomes an easy and certain prey to its assailant. One of these balls horse the rider holds in his right hand. Did they dance to music? In perfect time to the beat of the drum and a chant Were they graceful ? Yes. each branch being some eight or ten feet in length. can be more beautiful of their kind than Nothing the rolling plains between Caracas and the of the chief's. while his is at full speed. till one of the cords strikes the neck of the animal. but with the deadly bolas. and the other two are swing- ing around and over his head until he is in the right position. This mode is used only for "killing/' horses are killed in this The wild manner for their skins and . does the rest. around which and its legs the cords instantly wrap themselves. branching three ways from the centre. balls keep their respective opposite positions as they are whirling about in the air. or with his knife. These are taken both by the Indians and the Spaniards. The three giving them all a sling at the same time.226 toes? LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS Not an inch. who. by disanimal falls upon its mounting. They are abundantly stocked with wild horses and wild (not buffaloes. not with the bow and arrows or lance. when he lets go the ball in his hand. but) cattle.

employed of the Gauchos. and entangled would break the animal's neck. which had suddenly broken out. they strike it with a short baton (loo-tank) " loaded with lead (something like a life-preserver"). and it falls to the ground. therefore. recovering from the blow. By the effects of this mode of breaking.CATCHING THE WILD HORSE. their hair. skins. stopped. soon yields to the wishes of its cruel master. for in nine cases out of ten the of the horse while at full speed. or disable For catching the wild horse. that when the horse is arrested by the lasso. I believe the natural spirit of the animal is irretrievably lost. which has been described only with the difference. places a bandage around its eyes. and its speed is . on the back part of the head. this mode would not answer fall . which I have seen and closely studied. cattle for their flesh. about sixty miles from the Orinoco. and back. their and In taking wild horses for their use. At the small town of Chaparro. was marching on Angostura and by the aid of mules which we . and gets upon its The horse. which stuns the The captor then animal. we got posted on to SanDiego. not daring to run with its eyes blinded. 22? and the wild their horns. in the folds of the bolas. we learned that a large armed force of insurgents in the civil war at Venezuela. rising. the lasso is used by these people much in the same way as it is used by the Indians in North America. to such a degree as greatly to diminish its value. and from that to a point thirty miles below . it for life.

towering mora. "Stately. tso-cano no. forests there anything like lieve it. Is overhanging the shores of the Orinoco. and twenty others. to the banks of the Orinoco . with their little ones on their the copal locust. and saluting us " Tso-cano. and hanging vines. cunningly ogling us as we The solitary tocanos bowing passed. were flapping their long wings and on the air before I could " Sam " to bear upon them. we saw from our little "dug-out" the stately and dark . and why should we ? What did we see. and lofty. mingled and intermingled with cordage and ropes of creeping. ! ! and pelicans also. Angostura." and the olow. and climbing. with its tall and elegant shaft. to us from the withered tops of the lofty moras.228 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the green-heart. no. the ebony. and the graceful resin. Demerara. with their sweet gushing . a canoe took us to Barrancas. the queen of the forest. no go on there. and from that we got a steamer to Georgetown. Sam. a six-shot little rifle . " Sam who's get ! Sam?" Why. the miiiti. Cult. backs. as white as the snow. But stop we did not come to Demerara in a moment. the tough hackea. and what did we do ? Why. them on earth? I don't be- did I say? The Yes. the beautiful hayawa. in British Guiana. banana. go on there!" The beautiful white swans by hundreds. with clumps and bouquets of beautiful flowers of all colours and at all heights and chattering monkeys leaping from branch to branch. we could not.

for they chatter as they travel. some loungers. and all sizes. for birds and wild fowl. and all colours some slow and some fast. John! go on! go on !" . was sure a red tear these were but don't interrupt me. actually they dart through the crowds like a shot. (an omnibus the crowd " must give way is in a triangle. Many So are gossipers. The to drop last of everywhere basking in the sun and plunging off from their slimy logs as we approached. as all There are on the wing. are what the Strand and London Bridge are It is . and these twisted. John get in. and in my arms during the night. as he echoes. 229 always lying before me during the day. John ! Paddington Paddington!" while the beautiful tocano turns his head sideways. a flock of wild geese must pass !) . with their matted. by which a tiger's or an alligator's eye. and rolls his piercing eye down from the tops of the mora. easier to fly over the water and between hundreds of islands. once in a while. at a hundred yards. taking shelter under the waves whilst their enemies passed.CANOEING ON THE ORINOCO. with their elevated came pacing out of the forest where they roam. sorts. their leader distinctly cries. John ! go on. and some evidently expresses. ! they fly a "conductor" and ! ! Get in. and almost wedged foliage. than through them and these crooked avenues. The timid turtles were shoving down from the heads. "Go on. and in the midst of there is din as well as motion . banks of sand. to the Londoners. and the tortoises. this.

" and 111 tell its fruits in its own shape. of pink. when a bright and clear morning shows them their feast opened and spread before them. for the back-loads of three or four men." There are over two hundred different varieties of palm-trees in this country. of when opened. "that's you." said Dr.230 " LIFE Here's a AMONG THE INDIANS. are visible for weeks. and each sort has its blossoms and of all true. its only the opening of a spathe . and gather in myriads around them. before they are sufficiently perfected to These spathes on some palms are large open. I admit. swarm shall of bees ahead of us. That is the scene now before us. and before the fruit comes large immense sacks or spathes." said the Doctor. that's in your line. and other colours. Hentz. containing the for flowers. and here is now just going on the 'set-to* and pell-mell for honey." "Well. and you know what a spathe is better than I . perfuming the atmosphere for a great distance around them. . and sometimes months. enough and. "The honey. These busy little creatures. You see in the midst of that whirl- ing cloud of insects the spadix of a palm in full bloom. Doctor. present from ten to one hundred fragrant thousand and honey-bearing flowers purple.sucking birds and insects generally get a few days' previous knowledge of these important approaching events. Doctor. The fruit start palms grows just where the leaves and branches out from the trunk. There's no danger of being stung now. "we be stung to death!" "No. ready for the onslaught.

where were they ? darting and glistening sizes and all hues. .PIRATES AT THE SPATHE. they have their little ones to feed. Whilst thousands of honey- and humming-birds. but sucks it not. and other honey-sucking insects were whirling around it. of humble-bees. and others. where others could not enter but Like too many of the then. are all at work. fearless. world who enjoy the sweetest things. of the bright-eyed little beethese mats of flowers. he loves honey. little bees. the Doctor had given us many. 231 though most of them with stings. Doctor. the nearest to eternity. of beetles. of all whose long and slender bills entered every approachable cell. freshest sweets. ready to dart away when danger comes. and culled their choicest. . These seemed masters of the feast. But there were others apparently even more successful the busy. . and humble bees. little humming-birds. . he gets it in a shorter way he picks up these little labourers as they come The sharp claws hawk suspended him from . Through my opera-glass the scene was indescribably curious. The surface of these clusters of flowers seemed chiefly engrossed by the swiftbees. let's step and look at them a while. botany stopped our canoe. like all other riches and luxuries of the world. and looked at the busy Thank We group. as they balanced on their trembling wings. that crept between and through the winding maze of flowers. it was easily seen that these were divided amongst the lucky few." This was a short lecture in you. and no time now to sting.

and there ("Let's go ashore.232 LIFE AMONG THE he INDIANS. do you see that little green snake. on the wing. in the grass." said the Doctor. masses of contending and jealous insects. and knows the gauntlet he too has to run his enemies are of his own kin. and we shall probably see many of them before long. "the cocoa-nut is not a native of America. out with their rich loads. but stronger . and stoop upon him and snatch him up as he passes Amidst these incongruous through the open air." any near here. but heavily. Doctor?" "Doctor. and puts them in his crop. many conflicts and many deaths and many such. and that white one too ? they are both of one species. we were jogging along on the Orinoco. They know just as well as these insects when a spathe of flowers is opened. with his plundered prey. with their accumulated ensue . the thing wish most to see is a cocoa-nut tree. They sit like silent on the dry limbs of overhanging trees." "How "From I did you learn this curious the Indians. they both are honey-eaters. drop to the ground beneath. " and I'll show you") and he did show me. and to hear your description of "I don't think there are it. were I but . His feast finished. They take the honeyloaded carcasses of the unlucky combatants that fall. though their colours are different." said I. "next to the Indians. "There. but it has been introduced. with their fleeter and sentinels deadly weapons." said the Doctor. flies. though the world don't believe it. have not met one yet. and here they are. treasure." Well." fact.

a size larger than the equally beautiful in plumage. if we could understand them. around. and distant. it it's equally near." this does not fly." Is it a bird? or is some sort of ? a distant cow-bell mirage of sound ? Is it not It's not a phantom. next time you go to the Museum. Though these forests and these lovely river-shores are constantly ringing with song. phantoms it's "fly before us. They are all here. . and behind us. We hear their strange notes. from some mystery in sound not yet explained. and perhaps hunt for it again. set of songsters are done. we can't tell which way they are if we go one way or the other . 233 Look. before. still one -half of animal nature seems to sleep during the day for . are solitary birds. in great numbers are darting about amongst us. exactly like the tinkling or tolling of a bell. and then. another begins The songs of the day are all but how different joyous and cheering. for we never see them. I never could see though it I am a "medicine man. and travels with us but we'll drop it. all . ! . there are several sorts of them. There's medicine in this like the thunder- bird of the "thunder's nest. is it tolls it." one. I take it. cotingas . just at daybreak. They They give the forest the most singular character. to look for them. when it when the ! too late to see or difficulty is the It's same. only just at night. and and their notes And the campanero (strange bird !). but may be within a few yards . all all the same the sound is around us it seems a mile . humming-birds.CAMPANERO (THE BELL we not ? for the beautiful BIED). when one .

we'll go away ! ping too long in this place well jog on we are stopbut then. and if you have a hen-roost I advise you to beware fat What a gentleman hammock. But he is a . hanging under a branch of that hayama tree ? That ? That's a sloth. who lights upon a limb as nearly over us as he can in safety. Bang he falls into the river but he swims and now upon the bank and at one leap upon the side He can't move ha ! ! ! ! ! . the doleful howl. fast asleep under the limb of a tree. sir. unprotected. prey ! The frequent roar we . hangs by his long toe-nails. how emblematic of the gloom and loneliness about us. and perfectly harmless . and characteristic of that stealth with which the animals of the dark steal upon their sleeping. in his coarse and perfectly masculine and human . it upon its legs. the world is full of such hand me " Sam. "Who . the laziest animal of all hasn't the energy to stand all the world. one word . I'll prick him up a little. that I see yonder. of him. more before we What great ugly beast is start. that's easier than to stand and sleep . are you? go away go away !" Well. . characteristic of the glow and warmth of sunshine but in the dark. ! its like sleeping in a all ! Sleeps day I believe he is up all night looking fellow. ings of the red monkeys the hooting of owls and every night the inquisitive goat-sucker. and see what he's made of. but hangs day without moving. and shocks our nerves. often hear of the hungry jaguar . voice. What! hangs and sleeps all day ? Well. he seems well fed ." gentlemen. and.234 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

First-rate. Barrancas is a large but what are large towns to us ? London is This steamer goes to Demeconsiderably larger." your plants. Dr. . rascal. out of sight That's Why. their trunks standing in the water. ha catch that fellow in the water no dog could catch him on the land. and amongst the trees. Why." a strange looking place. exactly I see you are an Englishman. are at Barrancas now . We town rara . not exactly I am an American that's not far from it" . we must " good chance to overhaul and go. they The tide is getting well so in low water. they seem like a grand colonnade. I believe he is a great a tree ! another tree ! ! ! ." grand and magnificent the forests around Those thousands and tens of thousands of lofty palms. no alligator could your lazy gentleman. just where our " little canoe can't go. captain. actually us ! How or portico of " some mighty are edifice !" truly so . . a vast number of islands there are ahead of us is " This What ! We are at the " " mouth of the Orinoco ?" Not It quite/' has a hundred mouths. I . am told ?" " " ! No only fifty. and where air A Mynheer. sir?" nigh up now. of 235 and at another of forty feet. Hentz. upon and the next.MOUTHS OF THE ORINOCO. " No. . few monkeys would be a match for him. but they don't look Yes. captain.

what you call birds." (Plate No. I think." "That's quite easy. and never venture out except when the tide is tide is out." They are too large "Well. and go up to them by a ladder from their canoes. sir. . if and them the " bow yonder. sir. the air they live upon fish and oysters and I exsome fresh supplies from them by-and-by. may have visit a first-rate opportunity you wish. and on that island ahead of us for rooks. for I am going to send the yawl to one of them with that Spanish gentleman and his two daughters sitting in too. sir. are Indians. VI. am Give us your hand. before you go below. Guaroanes (Caribbees) . stranger you know who I we'll have a long talk after a while. captain." " But.236 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.) "Captain. . what sort of . splendid . . and that always in their canoes is deep mud and slime about them. don't now! if You'll make me smile. they build their houses in the trees. . ! who are going to them. for I've got to lie-to a little till the tide gets high enough to take us over the bar. pect "These. all when the up. They are a large sort of bird. . birds' nests are those in those trees ? on the shore. sir not in time. I would give almost anything if we could stop near some of these for a little time. and you'll see them hovering about us in a little These birds fly upon the water. sir." " ! Splendid captain. which nothing can walk through. you don't take care. and you to see them.

Demerara. a large and very flourishing town.CHAPTER XV. and everybody knows what they are but it is not all the world who knows what's before better key to that can be given at this than the following extracts made from a series place of letters written at Para. we are not travelling to see large towns and cities and cotton. spend his life here. [EORGETOWN. in fact. who (like my faithful Chadwick. in Brazil. One could stop a long time. in is British Guiana. Joe me name of Smyth. where coffee. great perfection. in North America) accompanied across the Acary (or Tumucumaque) Mountains of the to the valley of the Amazon. have no time. And no man friend. and. but. Demerara Paramaribo Rio Essequibo Howling Monkeys Village Treachery of Interpreter Indian Hospitality Indian Superstition Showing Revolver to the Indians The Young Revolver Hill of the Shining The Old Mini Stones Picking up a Rattlesnake A Bed of Poppies. These letters were 237 . in we . and sugar are raised and in great abundance. as I have said. with pleasure . by a fine young us.

My tin was about all out. BRAZIL. I have been permitted so graphically and scenes and country we passed. when the crowd had cleared . that I had been killed haps. ing myself at the top of the stairs. There was a great crowd in the place. who was standing before He didn't observe me. and. &nd I am sorry to say I found it not to be the I lounged about there for thing it was said to be.238 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.year since. or swallowed by an alligator before this. and at the farther end of the chamber I recognised the old veteran. out. amused at the red heads of some Caribbee Indians. I arrived in Georgetown. 1854. written to his brother in Berkshire several years since . and I backed quietly him. by a tiger. with his palette and brushes in his hands. and findout of a chamber window. looking I ventured in. whom you will remember. painting the portrait of an Indian chief. You of London. six months without making a sixpence. when I fell in company with an old acquaintance will "DEAR BROTHER. which " PARA. to make these extracts. one . since my return. that correctly describe I consider them well deserving of this notoriety. without my knowing what to do. whose Indian Collection we went often to see in the * * * Egyptian HalL " I one day espied a crowd in the street. have thought. Catlin. Mr. " An hour or so after. I got a peep in and saw what was going on. Demerara. perfrom my long silence.

hunt for him. their noses and faces tanned and burnt almost to the colour of Indians. * " # * * There was a German Doctor with him. offer "You know can do . large table in the room was loaded with plants and skins of animals and A birds. I proposed to the gentleman. " I soon learned they were going to start in a few days for a journey across the Tumucumaque Moun- tains into the valley of the Amazon. offered my I said.PARAMARIBO. as I had a first-rate Minis' rifle with me. I would go with him. in Brazil. over six years since you saw me . 239 and the chamber was pretty much and advancing. and the sides of the room around lined with Indian portraits and views of the country. You won't remember me. empty. little time in painting some tribes in this neighbourhood and in Dutch Guiana. This saved him the expense of hiring a worse man. and at last and you may . and they had just arrived from Angostura. I entered again. at the risk of my own life if it was necessary. and suited him exactly. sir it is hand. the 'old Minie' well. and then we were prepared to cross the mountains. on the Orinoco River. that if he would pay my expenses and furnish me with powder and ball. and protect him. and the arrangements were * * * * soon concluded. and what she there was easily imagine He spent some enough now preparing for her. at Paramaribo. chiefly away. just the place precisely where I wanted to go of all others. ' .' but he called my name in an instant.

Mr. lined with its stately palms and other evergreen trees. and the Indian party in our boat were constantly amused and astonished at the distance at which I would in knock the alligators off their logs. Catlin (or governor.240 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. after I course was sisted of up the Essequibo. a Spaniard. and then took off to an Indian town. with a family of Indians who had come large down to Georgetown to make their trade. We ascended this magnificent river for a hundred or two miles. river is alive with wild fowl and alligators. as we called him) the German Doctor and his servant an Indian halfbreed. and the manner which the scales would fly when I struck them. was lined with from the one immense forest of palms and other trees over- hanging the and many of these. Our set out. and the lead which she hove ashore was curious. . I The assure you. . where we were told we could get horses and mules to take us on to the base of the mountains. had got pretty tired of waiting. in a canoe. " The Indians in this country use no guns. . are beautiful beyond anything that can be described or imagined. The old Minie' was almost constantly in my hands. and the shores abound in wild animals as we pass along. our interpreter and myself. " whom the governor had hired as a guide . and our party con. * " * # * The banks of this noble river. * " * # sides * The whole shore on both river. to near the great falls.

At night the Indians always slept in their canoe. and they seemed to gather around us every As soon as it was nightfall. the canoe and our Indian party. but we stretched our hammocks and slept upon the high banks amongst the trees. 241 ground to their very tops. when they always " When we left each one had to carry his share of the luggage. and left in the we were all loaded down. morning. with nothing but a footpath to follow. Peccaries. were covered with white and pink flowers. through swamps and quagmires. Some of these were as large as and the mosquitoes. and took to the land. we had a hard siege of it. oh. and keeping it up all night. a sort of wild pig. . Their branches were constantly shaken by squeaking monkeys looking out at us and leaping from tree to tree. and good " eating. keeping opposite to us as we passed along and parrots were chattering and scolding at us as if we had no right to be there. were running on the banks in great numbers. getting to sleep until ten or eleven o'clock at night. ! . . "There is a sort of monkey that howls in the night. horrid a leather apron they were the worst enemy we had the old Minie There was no such thing as couldn't touch them. disappeared. lighting a strong fire.HOWLING MONKEYS. making the most hideous noise that ever was heard. and our guide brought us to a small Indian village We just before night. The Indian . to see the bats come out and sail about over the shores of the river. they are fine game. it was curious night.

Some skins were placed for as to sit upon. he was an oldish man. who raised his head a little. very beautiful. through the interpreter. who received us very kindly. and there were a great number of horses and mules grazing around them. hands quickly together. reply. ing him his brother !' " A further conversation then took place between the two for some time. and striking both his . and amongst them some of the handsomest mules I ever saw. " The conversation went on for some time. the governor soon Commenced a conversation with him . without much change. he began making signs in The governor began to smile. with small palms in groups standing out upon it. " The huts of these people were all thatched over with palm-leaves. very suddenly. however. town.242 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. seeing they mutually understood each other. and was seated on the ground. was smoking a long pipe his head was cast down. telling him where we were going. jumped upon nimbly as a boy. while the old chiefs limbs his feet as ' . and I saw that the governor began to show a little concern. and. and he now and then gave a sort of grunt. and object was. and what our The chief was sitting cross-legged. when the governor commenced making some sort of masonic signs with his hands to the chief. and the chief. The governor and the chief embraced him in his arms. callarose. and after watching them closely for a minute or so. he laid down his pipe. " The guide led us to the chief's hut. was upon an open plain.

TEEACHERY OF INTERPRETER. demanded his money again but the muzzle of the old Mini about that observing instant near his short ribs. These people : and you are their father/ The governor told the chief what our views were. seeing himself detected. the chief turned to the interpreter. as he had acted the traitor in his house. The governor then explained to him that he had come from a great many tribes of red people exactly like himself. ! . At this. who it seems had been giving him a different interpretation. and not for the white man. and placing his hand upon the handle of a large knife which he wore in his waistband. and told him he was a great scoundrel to deceive the white men who had employed him. and smoked the pipe in the same manner to which the chief replied. was in a great rage. and to try to deceive him also. it was for him. when he advanced up suddenly in front of the governor. 243 trembled with pleasure and excitement. " The Spaniard. The governor for which time he was employed. and that we wanted to hire some horses and some of his young men to take us to the base of the mountains. and a click (a sort of a hiccup she has when she is just about to speak). and demanded his pay for three months. " The chief then said to him. he drew a little back. . living three or four hundred days' all march to the north (in North America). who understood the ' same signs. refused to pay him a sixpence. " . of the young men of the tribe to be a great scoundrel. to pay him that he was known to many are our brothers.

the passed old chief holding the long stem in both hands. The . but he would do all he could to make us sleep well. We all and and his were seated at that time by the side of him. which the good old man could not at all comprehend. like . we never heard of him afterwards. Perhaps few men on earth were ever more suddenly amused and astonished than full " more this old veteran " was at that moment. with all our things. The governor commenced the conversation the next morning. as he walked round and held the pipe to our mouths. by telling him he was going to show him and his people how the red-skins looked in North America. buffalo hunts. and no other Indians in the hut. and passed the night very comfortably. in a small adjoining hut. We were placed. and not very good. until the governor opened a large portfolio with a hundred or portraits of Indians. etc. the and the sooner and the more quietly he got out of way the better. . young men they were almost entirely naked. upon the ground. The . and the pipe was round several times for us all to smoke . The scamp then walked off. all in blazing colours. " The chief told us that his house was small.244 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. where he had come from. with the German Doctor man. and we should be welcome. most of the tribe but I only wish that I had limbs I often thought so round and beautiful as theirs. how beautiful a racecourse of such young men would be.. " All was now friendly and cheerful old man about my age introduced us to his two sons.

and in the middle a He handed this string of blue beads hanging down. which he sat by. began to howl and sing the most droll song I ever heard in my life. to the old doctor. both he and the doctor got up. spirted upon from his lips at three or four efforts. whose visage was filled with wrinkles. his seat was an Indian doctor. which seemed at last to be the signal for a strange-looking being to enter. who took by the side of the chief. who took it in his hands. and the rest of this day village The whole . like a paper scroll long.INDIAN SUPERSTITION. or what it was none of us could tell. The chief then laid it on the fire. I learned. This done. at least a pint of some liquid as white as milk. covering it from one end to the other. but supposed what was the it was Great Spirit. " This. and after they had looked over the pictures. while he in silence gazed upon it. where we went. but very fast . with a fan in one hand. and when he was done. which had several yellow ribands tied around it. Where on earth this was concealed. it and raising it near his mouth. 245 old man looked at them all. and a which he was shaking as he entered. curiously painted. entirely " The governor never could to the learn meaning some offering " of all this ceremony. and kindled up until it was consumed. was by this time assembling out-doors. the old chief got up hastily and took down from quite up under the roof of his hut a little round roll some eight or nine inches of bark. and smilingly gave us their hands in a hearty shake. his face most rattle in the other.

in looking at the pictures. they were all perfectly satisfied. on having appealed to the crowd. when the chief advanced and said it would be wrong to expend more powder and ball. and placing it at some sixty or eighty yards. You know the 'old Minie/ examining and the governor had always in his hand one of 7 was spent had nicknamed Sam. and the bolas. charged and ready with six His rifle was raised and levelled at the shots more. as they never had heard or thought of a revolver and I having given out that the governor's gun would shoot all day without stopping. which was stretched on a hoop. who was standing by the side of us. The governor's gun. the governor. whether that was enough at which. and he was about to proceed. and also in our guns. made an exhibition of its powers Colt's six-shot rifles . necessary. without their observing it. target.' These people had but three or four light and short guns in their village (and good for nothing). their weapons being bows and arrows. with a bull's-eye in the centre. the governor took his two three four five position. which he always carried in his pantaloons pocket. While this little parley was going on. had slipped off the empty cylinder and placed another one on. and lances. . and had been the door of a hut.246 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I at that moment touched him on the shoulder. therefore. " For this I took an old cow-skin. as we might want it all on ! . was the greatest of curiosities to them. and let off one ! ! ! ! ! six By an understanding. this he ' " . till we could learn from the chief.

" But the funniest part of this scene place. and when they saw me strike it the first shot. but very with their hands over their mouths and a ' as they gave a sort of a groan ya. 247 our journey. : ' for hitting the target at such a distance. and myself a little so amongst the number. began to smile. vinced them that the pistol was a young one . who had all along been in Yes. had reported it to of the young men. ' Here the squaws. conrifle. They were both considered great mysteries. ya. held the pistol by the side of the and the exact resemblance.THE OLD MINIE. governor not having thought of his pistol during the some excitement. now took Some of the little boys standing near the governor having discovered in his belt a revolver pistol. " The target was brought up. " Next came the old Mini I was anxious to show them what she could do. and the shots all in fche space of the palm of one's hand they were still more astonished. my gun was an equal curiosity. except in size. though it could not fire so fast. and that his people were now all convinced that his gun would fire all day.' an J ' The governor . And I carried the target and set it up at about two hundred yards. which he always carried. said. and drawing it out.' This was " really amusing. and there was not a man in the tribe who was willing to touch the triggers of either of them. who came up to him very The timidly to ask him if he hadn't a young rifle. all now began to come up. cautiously.' the background.

If these poor people had had the shillings to give. with his man. The doctor. by exhibit' old Sam and the young one! ing " The governor having painted some portraits. the governor placed his pistol in ' his belt. women than The governor explained that it was very young. and was getting weak. resolved. and wrapping his capot around him. and we never heard anything further how they got on. and fired a couple of shots. it had At this he levelled it got so as to do pretty well. " All satisfied. at the trunk of a palm-tree. but the report was they had not got to them before we left.' " The report of the ' medicine gun. just half the number we gone back. to their " For these. standing some six or eight rods off. to go back from this place. the boys were cutting and digging with their knives for several days. at a shorter distance. . I could very soon all the fortune I ever wanted.248 if it LIFE AMONG THE ' INDIANS. who was a feeble man. however. but notwithstanding. the raised a shout of approbation. it could have said mamma. all were waiting to see it. and I think a little afraid of the Indians. we were prepared to move on. and the moment we arrived. that could little fire day without reloading/ went ahead of us to all the tribes we afterwards visited. Here our party was started with split. and his friend the German doctor having busied himself have made in collecting his roots and plants. squaws poor all all Keep the thing warm. great amazement.' would not have created greater sympathy amongst the it did.

and horses to ride until we reached the base of the mountains. the much the same. with here and there little patches of timber. most of the way rolling prairies.HILL OF THE SHINING STONES. and we started off. The governor bought a strong mule to carry our packs. We him visited several villages of Indians.' that he to a little village had heard of from the Indians. a fine man. and told the governor he was a first-rate and honest man. and very beautiful. who all were much and the son seemed to be acquainted with them like those we had chief's all. and striped. . and on ' the other bank. " language being pretty Immense herds of all colours of wild cattle and red. perfectly transparent as water but one could cut them with a knife. left. and conversed with them. who knew the route. and. about a mile. black. " 24)9 The chief gave us one of his sons and a nephew. well.' They were glistening in the sun. to be sure. In one place the governor was induced to go about thirty miles ' out of our way to see the hill of the shining stones. and as wild as deer or any other animal. They were in myriads. were seen grazing. soft. sticking in the clay. were the shining stones. they were so were very beautiful . " The country we now passed over was beautiful and delightful. got to to look at but when we them the governor said they were crystals of gypsum. white. and we had yet the faithful The chief knew half-breed. and in a hundred different shapes. We came on the bank of a small lake. . and of no value.

gathered and brought away some ten or pounds' weight of the most beautiful of them. and not fully understanding what he was doing.250 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and nearer to the base of the mountains. on the bank of a some four or five miles long. . and putting others into his pocket for The Indians gave him the name of the his dinner !' ' Stone Eater. the most beautiful things I ever beheld. At another village much farther on. ran ' back and told their parents that here . with figures of a thousand shapes in them. but seeing him picking up the stones and breaking them with a little hammer which he always carried. was the strangest man in the world declaring that they had seen him every morning making his breakfast on stones. which I should think it once had been.' I forget the Indian for it. These pebbles were flint. we stopped for several days in a large town better lake built. and some of them. and when he found a right handsome one. some of which were exactly like the rays of the setting sun. Many of them were beautifully transparent. when broken. The western shore of this had a broad beach of rounded pebbles. resembling exactly the sea-beach. putting it in his pocket. difficult as it was to carry them. and then wetting them with his tongue to see the colours. fifteen " We " this The governor was in the habit of going along beach every morning and collecting these pebbles . and of all colours. and the little Indian children skulking about in the bushes and watching him at a distance.

The governor must be from some mineral substance.PICKING UP A RATTLESNAKE. many miles length. and handsome enough for the lawn of an English gentleman's we had taken our supper. house. when we of wild poppies about . I lifted up a huge arm. when we encamp one night in a beautiful little valley filled with wild flowers and vines. and both heard the rattle of were knocked on the head. off. and we were preparing our beds. him down and then coiling he commenced buzzing his brought up and was ready for a spring! My outcry all the party. * " * * * As we were n earing the base of the mountains we in discovered ahead of us an unaccountably strange appearance a streak of bright red. I took it beginning to be a it little darkish. and I must say I never beheld so frightful a beast before in all my life. and reaching down for what I took to be the girth lying on the ground. He made circle. at a few rods' distance. after having rods left it on the bank of the little stream a few up the saddle. which was soon looked up by the Indians. I went for my saddle to make me a pillow. and were obliged to wait till we got to it for found it to be an immense bed an explanation. but rattlesnake. and we steered towards it. a grand pass at . We its mate. and it was approaching nightfall. my just missed as I flung himself up in a rattle. " 251 halted to Not long after we left this village. it thought and perfectly straight. Our Indians knew without doubt what it was. but they had no word for it which we could understand.

left the rest to # * be called for/ * * selecting a " . went back. their red heads being so thickly grouped. could only see their heads and horns above the flowers as they were moving along. and we then took to our feet. with their horses. the flowers formed one complete mass of red. but before we started. when they looked It took us a mile or as if they were swimming in a lake of blood * * * ! * " At the base of these mountains the two Indians.252 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. two to go through it. with our mule to carry our packs. and the quantity of deer that were jumping up and We trotting off through it was really surprising. the governor and I sat down and looked over our pretty little ' stones. and dozen or so. as high as the stirrups of our saddles. and so thick that no vegetables whatever grew between them. without another colour mixed with " it. that in looking over them at the distance of thirty feet from us.

our pack-mule. We left behind the heaviest of our articles.CHAPTER Valley of XVI. " We When we struck off into the valley. own backs and got on much Horses' legs are not made for . Amazon Head of the Trombutas A " Strong Lie " Assemblage of Tiger Shooting Bridling an Alligator Monkeys Monkeys' Theft Obidos Beheaded Rattlesnake Turtle Butter Shooting a Rattlesnake Turtles' EggsTurtle Hunt Para. very rugged and barren. one hundred miles to selves and we often wished our- back again . and we can creep along almost anywhere now. which rise in a number of ridges. * " * * * got at length the first glance into the great of the Amazon as we came out of a deep valley * * chasm we had followed for many miles. took us at least cross. and we had to leave it. two legs are far handier these mountains of rocks and better managed. we 253 had. poor beast. gave out about the middle of them. and took the rest on our better than before. I . Santarem JHESE immense mountains. one after another.

* * * " * We down some dry.254 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and many of them * " filled * with beautiful crystals. we got a chance to go down with . and others as pure these the governor called geodes. do think. in fair range dead shot. . kill them. have easily killed some forty or fifty for a per day. covered with grass and wild flowers. * * We struck at last upon the Eio Trombutas. and herds of wild cattle and wild horses grazing on them . and then standing to look at us. when he broke them open. and the deer that were springing up from the shade of every little bunch of palm-trees were tilting along for a few rods. for one feels in seemed a pity to shooting them as if he was It shooting in some nobleman's park. which. stones. and followed it miles. were filled with the most beautiful quartz crystals of various colours some were purple. the old Minid. it being nearly was filled with countless numbers of round some of them two feet across. some were yellow. There were also waggon-loads of others shaped like rains' horns some of these as large as two men could lift. where we found some very hospitable villages of Indians and finding a couple of half-breeds and several Indians loading a large canoe with hides and other things for Para. as water : . the most beautiful scene in the world before us the beautiful rolling prairies. the bed of which. crossed here a large stream. never having heard the report of a I am sure that in some places I could. by regular stalking. with gun.

telling his it was very silly to be listening to such stories. by endeavouring to explain to these people how different the country was that he came from He tried to describe hail and snow to them. and would carry tons with ease. them. we see "Frost never was known here. dug out. and laughed at him excessively. and the governor got himself quite into disrepute in one of the small villages. On the head of this river we were exactly under There the equator . and had its sides built up a foot and a-half higher. they became entirely incredulous. This canoe. and ripe fruit and fresh flowers on the same trees at the same time. so as to keep out the waves when five some four or " heavily loaded. where he stopped a few days to make his portraits. but there seemed to be no words in their language for them.HEAD OF THE TEOMBUTAS. 255 five feet wide. who had been strongly opposed to the taking of the portraits. and they could not understand him at all. one of their doctors). And an old man (it seems. All the trees are evergreens. in a people . some forty or fifty feet long and was made from a solid log. and becoming so hard that we could walk and run. the sun right over our heads. with ribs interwoven with palm-leaves. Everything out in full blossom all the year round. And when he told them of ice of our rivers freezing over. got up and began spouting most violent manner against him. and even drive our horses and wao-gons over them. is no winter in this country: it is one perpetual summer and spring-time here. and they were rapidly beginning to haul off.

the governor getting only name the squaws called him 'Hard Water. who was a very pleasant and dignified man. and said the old doctor had behaved very foolishly. and there would soon be a fight.256 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and some of the squaws clapped their hands over their mouths. where the greater part of the village were assembled to witness the operation of his tiger-skin around his off in quite a huffy mood to- painting the portraits. and the facts no easier to at the time . at a few rods' distance. " The chief. we all set off towards the Amazon. which I easily did but this only made the trouble worse. the lie stronger. be believed. we had got a little recruited.' will. for the doctor told them. We had no other means of proof to offer and the old doctor wrapped shoulders. and a hard so the affair dropped. "The greater portion of the crowd got up and followed the doctor to the village. the canoe and the governor had laid in a goodly number loaded. We were sitting under the shade of some palms on the bank of a river at the time. and you After . believing that the insult given by the doctor was such as the governor would feel bound to resent. perhaps then some three hundred miles off. and walked wards the village. by which name he " no doubt. be spoken of for a long time to come. and began to howl and cry. remained seated by the governor's side. The governor sent for me I was on the boat and got me to testify to the truth of what he had stated.' " ' it only made . of sketches. however.

where they lie until they are hungry .TIGER SHOOTING. All the animals. and I have eight. We might find sport. for their favourite tigers live chiefly along the shores of the food is the soft-shell turtles come out of the river to lay their eggs in the sand in the night. no sport in killing these fellows in this way. " The river. and rush upon them at that time. and digging up their out of the sand as a sort of dessert. however. which we never miss. one a beautiful black very scarce here. and plants seemed much the same as on the Essequibo but tigers and monkeys were at least three to . skins. There is. one. they just eggs creep up on to the top of the bank in the shade of eating as much the timber. every one of the eyes as " which shows the bullet-hole as exactly between you could put your finger. in fact. "When We The governor counts five tiger. and are discovered creep up looking at us. and birds. 257 can well imagine that the old Minie* had plenty to do again. showing only their heads above the steer our canoe near enough grass and weeds. to the shore for a dead shot. when they have only by this means they keep glistens as if there to slip down and eat so fat that their hair it. they to the edge of the bank. and turn great numbers that of them on their backs with their paws . was oil upon they hear us talking and rowing. and trees. and after as they want. The tigers watch them. for it is only like shooting at a target at some thirty or forty paces (this you will say is child's play). again. if we .

but gradually turned . and fast asleep.258 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. who was lying a couple of rods from us. generally know where they are by the carcasses of turtles on the sand-beaches. his face. who was lifting lying on his and paws one fast asleep ! He was of the half-breed's feet. where we saw no signs. but we had no time nor much inclination for that. an inch a splendid tiger just behind you I held on to the frying-pan. in the direction of our half-breed guide. Smyth be perfectly calm and cool and don't spill the gravy and don't move ! " ' . under the shade of some small palms. there ' is ! my head around. Indians were asleep in the canoe. We " We were in the habit of making a halt and lying by a couple of hours every day at noon in the In one of theserests we had lande d heat of the day. and in such cases we are all on the look out. . The governor said. and while the governor was sitting down on one side and I squatting down on the other. should go ashore for these chaps . and were roasting a fat pig which I had shot from the boat. when I saw the beast lying on all fours alongside of the half-breed. I observed his the eyes staring at something over my shoulder. and took good care not to go ashore where we saw fresh signs of them. and he was with a wooden spoon lading some rich gravy over the pig from a short-handled frying-pan which I was holding underneath. by the side of a high bank. and the governor and the half-breed and myself were a-top of the bank the governor and I had built a large fire. up with and playing .

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and feet foremost. to the boat. game. secreted bunch of weeds about fifteen feet behind the governor's back. endanger the man's body. I was in hopes he would have taken up the old Minie' . with it 259 apparently as carefully and innocently as left his a kitten. "After our pig was roasted. when he had been sitting at the arose in a fire. far in the other direction . which directed the attention of the animal to him. the male. The Indian leapt nearly as falling perfectly dead. and at the same instant and darted into the thicket. and over which he must shoot very close. when he let fly. " The governor who had at this time sliding hat behind him. The next moment he had one foot upon its deck and his rifle in his hand. he gave a sudden whistle. losing our . in but we hopes the male would show himself again waited in vain. and caused it to raise its head and its eyes towards him. which was in front of the tiger. was the grass-covered bank backwards. . and this beautiful animal was taken on board.). but he rifles preferred his own and getting it to bear upon the beast (Plate No. VII. we pushed out a little into the stream and waited a couple of hours. "At the crack of the rifle screech.TIGEE SHOOTING. he was obliged to stand a minute or so for it to raise its head high enough not . and leapt about fifteen the tiger gave a frightful feet into the air. and started on our course. to Not succeeding in this. where our down were left.

and long. towards it. and kicked and dragged it. and six or eight feet The half-breed took this in both hands. with its ugly mouth wide open. better acquainted with these beasts than we were. broadside. meeting it face to face. terrible all its down came upon it the upper jaw. without any weapon. advanced up and threw it. as quick as lightning. the upper jaw almost falling over on to its back. one of the men. and commenced the most frightful hissing " ! little half-breed kept his position. and lay stock still. range of long and sharp teeth deeply driven into it. on a broad sand beach lying between the river-shore and the timber. . * * gone ashore one day. when. and with a crash. but our daring little half-breed. running a little way up the beach.260 * " LIFE AMONG THE * INDIANS. into and across the creature's mouth with . and we discovered a huge alligator coming at full pace towards us. When we had We were about springing into the boat. but nothing would make it quit its deadly grasp upon the log of wood. turned the stupid creature over and over. balancing it in a horizontal position. " The little half-breed then stepped by the side of the animal and got astride of its back. ran. brought a log of drift-wood The the size of a man's thigh. and called out for a block of wood. we were startled by a loud hissing. When they had got within ten or twelve feet of each other. from the edge of the timber towards the water. and we all gathered round. the brute pulled up.

but) little bunches of boughs and leaves shaking. middle of the day. "Our little half-breed smiled at our alarm. and said they must have stolen something from the canoe to the canoe. They kept coming up and increasing every moment. The governor and I began to get alarmed for fear they were going to attack us. where they and the parrots are peepin one ing out to see what is going on. we found the monkeys assembling in vast numbers over our heads. for the Indians us it would live some eight or ten hours. when all and not a leaf on a tree in motion. * * * * "In one of our noonday halts. and . without your seeing hide or hair of them. at one view you may see in the tops of the overhanging trees five hundred (not monkeys. 261 all told and nothing ever could while it lived. where have kicked up such a rumpus.ASSEMBLAGE OP MONKEYS. and not much underwood or vines. as they were leaping around from tree to tree. when we were taking our lunch under a grand forest of lofty trees. but * of a not longer. minute a thousand voices were going and looking up and down the river. sometimes was silent. for one has no idea of the fuss it makes when the old fired in the Minie* speaks. I ran down to all hands were asleep at the stern . and there was no knowing where the crowd and the bedlam were to end. * " * * The noise gun I don't believe was ever I have before heard on this river. and chattering with an unusual excitement.

262 end. but the powder-flask never came down. flask could hear knocking about amongst the limbs of the trees. it was im- possible to cure the it wound of this poor brute. and soon discovered that two beautiful feather head-dresses. and aiming at a large monkey which he said was the leader of the fracas. " we One of the half-breeds from the boat had come up the bank in the meantime. which we had left on the deck. they were all silent in a moment. that he took the old Minie before I observed him. Though it had been agreed by all parties at our start that no one should kill a monkey. and the governor's powder-flask. The screams understood by of this poor creature's distress being the throng. 7 with his backbone shot " off. and others with them as regularly stuck behind their ears as the pens of counting-house clerks are carried and the powderwhilst . which the governor had that morning purchased of some Indians we had passed. had been carried off. others were leaping around with bunches of the quills in their mouths. and became so enraged. while it was leaning against a tree. " These thievish little creatures had taken the two head-dresses into the tops of the trees. and returning. though we could not see it. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and some were engaged in pulling them to pieces. he fired and brought him down. and in less than one minute they were all out of sight. and was knocked on the head . I soon saw the proof of the theft by the hundreds of feathers that were falling over our heads.

and after ascending a step or two. had been killed here of immense size. and with his eye fixed on something before and above him which I did not see. While passing along close to a high bank one where there seemed to be no timber on the top. the governor got the men to land him a moment. at one leap. which was instantly at his face. Kattlesnakes we killed several times.SHOOTING A RATTLESNAKE. The governor stepped ashore. as " we met them swimming the river. he said in a quick tone. He said that he had fired at a rattlesnake and had missed it . as he was reaching his hand back. much higher than his head. 'No! be quick as lightning I prefer Sam/ I handed him his gun. The bank was fifteen feet or so in and covered with grass and flowers to the height. it fast I held top. the governor sprung at the same ' ! " ! time. I saw a huge snake leap from the top of the bank. the Indians told us. drew himself back a little. and cracked. but we were not able to see either of them. Symth hand me my rifle!' 'Take old Minid?' said I. that he saw the rattling creature coiling up for a jump. I assure you. day. and as pale as a ghost. and by the . as he was anxious to climb the bank and see what was The canoe came to the shore. right towards him. This was quick work. " 263 The snakes on this river are very numerous. and by grasping to some bushes at the water's edge. and some of them very large. with his rifle in his hand. and fall at his feet. in the distance. The anacondas and boa constrictors. quite on to the boat.

and perfectly still. and just where he represented he had been struck I saw a spot of blood the size of a half-crown piece. ' lie said. little half-breed The blood was washed off. by which means the Indians are in the habit of extractbut looking a moment for the ing the poison wound. He said that he had missed the snake and it had struck him on the breast. unless the ' ball had been lost out of the cylinder. the frock the blood was also All hands gathered around untied and opened We upon his flannel more upon his shirt worn under it. . Indians and all. which were still ripped open. and the faithful was down upon his knees. and with a smile of exultation. You . and looking me right in the face.' "One of the Indians then stepped ashore near where the governor had stood. tied across the throat and breast with strings. was covered with blood. showed us the monster. and pushing some weeds aside with his paddle. are bitten !' him and then. The snake's head was raised high up/ said he. and how he could have missed the snake he could not tell. There's no harm ! you'll find the snake without a head. he got up. and with . regularly coiled up where he had fallen.264 he LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. but that luckily he was not bitten . knew there was not an instant to lose when I handed him the gun. and at sixty ' yards I could not have missed such a mark/ "The governor wore a stout brown linen frock. and I ' said. and on the breast a spot as large as the palm of my hand. and prepared to suck the poison from the wound. on the skin.

where they often * go on a turtle hunt. it is dead in a minute ! when. and children.' They invited us to join them. told us the scene of their operations . blow with the edge of a " A paddle finished the battle. if you with even a feeble This we proved on . his 265 headless spring! trunk erect and ready for another Its head was shot regularly off. being at the instant so near the spring and so ready. " its The length of this brute thickness about that of my arm that if How if curious it is you cut off the head of a rattlesnake its body will live for hours. and we kept company with them. " Farther down the river. provided he had missed his mark.TURTLE HUNT. The bleeding trunk had printed its mark with blood where it struck. and at jump you you touch it with a stick blow. and above the elbow. men. several occasions. and the creature. with its aim made. was four feet. and encamped all together a little "These people before night. that it leapt and struck the governor probably in the spot where it would have struck him and have made him a corpse in ten minutes. break the spine near the tail. as 'Sam* had designed. as they proved to be. women. coming down the river in canoes behind us at a rapid rate a party. one day we had a great alarm by the yelling and singing of two hundred or more Indians. and driven the blood through the dress to the skin. from one of the friendly villages we down the river to a had passed going a little farther famous beach.

seen in the day time. fires which would take place a little before midnight. the river " The Indians. were aware of the time of night and the mode in which the attack was to be These turtles have soft shells. they had eaten nothing for four or five days. and creeping up the sand-banks some five or six rods from the shore. the each one. was a long sand-beach just around the point. some sand a foot or more deep. perfectly lay. and are made. Their were built. size of a barn-fowl's shells . had encamped half-a- mile or so distant from the sand-bar above. excellent eating and at certain seasons of the year come out in vast numbers from the river. and fifty or sixty eggs. about egg. dig holes in the . round. but no feasting nor dancing before the hunt. .266 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which they had rolled up in their canoes. generally about midnight. knowing the shape of the ground. so that the turtle . The governor said he would not miss these scenes He tried to get some of the men for fifty pounds. and they. neither men nor women. belcw where we were landed. " It seems curious that these creatures are never if you go the whole length of nor can you see them in the night before midnight the time that they come out to lay their eggs to be hatched by the heat of the sun. and made sorts of tents with mattings made of palm-leaves. aware of this. they are all yolk. but they said their bellies were too empty. and a great deal of merriment passed off. to give him a dance. and with soft and quite as good as barn- fowls' eggs to eat.

his hand to see the way nor and the me . the men leaving the women behind to bring up . our friend and two or three others. perhaps a quarter a mile. he held a long cord for the goverto hold on to. a sort of a conjuror. made the party rather desponding and dull. He point of timber of took the lead of the party through the we had to pass. with the oovernor and myself. feast 267 might taste good. after that there would be plenty of dancing. who seemed to be the leader of the party. that we might not lose way the rest of the men file/ all followed in each other's tracks. which had been arranged before night for the purpose. the rear with the torches but they were all ordered not to speak a loud word from that moment. 'Indian and without a word spoken. " all started. . was one whose portrait the governor had painted while stopping in his village a few days before.TURTLE HUNT. some sort of witchcraft to make the turtles come he had told them he was afraid they wouldn't come up that night. and many believing him. and the rest of the men. who was performing doctor. "Daring this time the women were all at work making torches. However. Coming up to the edge of the timber opposite to the sand-bar. which they construct from a sort of There was a palm-leaf that burns like pitch pine. perhaps a " . and had a small torch in . about a quarter-past eleven. " One of the men. and finding there was nothing on it yet. were seated behind some palmetto bushes.

when leg. had been given to the rear-guard.268 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the sands for a great distance seemed. which looked white . but a few paces back of us. hundred. was very quick work. the signal was given by the cord which extended from " who passed on the each other. I felt a pinch on my and looking through the screen. and they could not have lost signal "The all and knew what was on much time were all . smoothed moving towards the water. near the water. at length. Nothing was seen signal by touching for half or three-quarters of an hour . creatures having got up some five or six rods from the water. for in the space of half-an-hour the holes over. were all lying flat. the beach though they These couldn't see. I was just falling asleep. They seemed to come up like an army of soldiers. given. to be black with these creatures coming up out of the water. Such a scrambling as this I never saw or thought of Some hundreds of them were upset in this before ! . in a row parallel to the shore of the river. the Indians were upon them and turning them upon their backs. the conductor to the rear rank. From behind the screen of palmettoes we had a fair view of the sand-bank. making the holes and laying their eggs. They kept moving up farther and farther. and when the turtles appeared on the sand. went to heaving up the sand with their This paws. and the black mass was seen The signal was then and as quick as the wind. but all lay as still as death. and the Indian kept pinching my leg till I was almost ready to holloa out.

The chief then sounded a loud whistle. each one carrying a blazing torch. we should easily. . The soup and the meat were delicious.TURTLE HUNT. " all When we got back to the encampment. it was equally astonishing and amusing so see how handily and how quickly these animals were cut up and cooked. "This torches. like them. leaving the prisoners on the field of battle till the next morning. the party went back to the encampment. and how quick the soup was made. " The squaws now selected a dozen or so of the finest of the turtles for their feast. the women and children. who plunged in after them. " All this onslaught was completed in less than half-a-minute. overlooking the field of battle. and in five minutes came down the beach. manner. the governor said was the most magnificent thing he had ever beheld. scene. and then how fast and how long it was devoured. when they joined the party with the lights. which was for the torch-bearers to come. and some thousands plunged into the water. where the pots were boiling. at full speed. have eaten ourselves into stupidity. and with their torches lighted. and no noise but laughing and grunt- ing heard. I am sure no picture could ever do it justice. and counting the number of their victims lying on their backs. and if we had had the empty bellies that these people had. and many of these were dragged out again by the Indians. with the wild figures. the blazing and the magnificent forests lighted up.

it was a woman's task. and the men went around with large knives. they started in a their victims lay. With the paddles brought from their canoes. after they had all feasted again. and then how they were deposited " It . to our surprise. and beneath the dignity of a warrior the men sat and : smoked it. and then eaten much that they could scarcely move. and slicing off the under-shell and opening the carcasses of the animals. mass and went to the sands here . no one moved towards it asleep as if they before ten or eleven o'clock. out the yellow fat from their intestines. so In fact they had been up all night. the ! women and " This children went in for the eggs was one of the scenes most curious of all. and tearing their baskets. an Irish potato " field. nor any other weapon. As this part of the business required no knife. the women approached. and got up at an early hour to see the manoeuvre on the battlefield. The governor and I slept in our canoe that night.270 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. they went into the hidden treasures like so many Irishmen into a field of potatoes and in much less time the surface of the ground was more completely covered than ever was seen by the heaviest crop in . and some more of the best animals selected for food. but. for all were had been in a drunken carouse. their pipes whilst the women accomplished was really incredible the quantity of eggs that were in the sand. threw it into After the fat was all obtained. The women brought large baskets. "About noon.

for they were going to remain there some days expressly to . which is very rich and like the best of butter. and it would be unnatural that they should all be ready to lay on same night and at the same moment. saw that all this thing was under the control of the doctors or mystery men. The governor tried again to set them dancing. the carcasses. and there might have been hundreds that got back was taken. were not only the eggs laid by the animals killed. and we stayed over night again. were all laid while we were secreted and watching. and he said it was best not to question it. however. ! 271 so quick These. and the eggs. however. should deposit so many in that time . the Indians assured us. and packing them in their canoes. and sold at a high price. " These eggs. but by the whole party. " It was too late for us to start off that day.TURTLE BUTTER. But the Indian doctor told him it was true. " The women and children for the most part of the afternoon were taking up the fat. and on inquiring how long before they would be ready for a dance. and is taken to Para in earthen jars which they manufacture. but the old doctor told him that now their bellies were too full. This the didn't believe it was impossible that they governor to the water to one that . and that the he could always come out " tell the very night they would The governor. he said it might be several days. The fat is taken to their villages and put into large where they pound out the yellow oil or grease. troughs.

from that to Santarem. two hundred houses. J. there was a thing that bothered the governor there was not a stale egg among them. three " * " * * * " Your ever affectionate brother. we started off. and a place of. * * * * . a journey of we had From that we got a chance down coast. the eggs more particularly so . and full a bushel of eggs laid in. it and while they were feasting was difficult to dance. S. is a large and where a great business is flourishing seaport town. with three or four fine large turtles. " " After striking out into the mighty Amazon at some six or eight days Obidos. and left some months since in company with a member of the Brazilian Parliament. as the Indian doctor had told us. several hundred miles nearer the done.272 eat. to Para. Para The governor was here a while. which is at the head of tidewater. may be. very much but all fresh. on a steamer up the Amazon. and for me. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. for I never before and in the eating of enjoyed any food so much them. So at an early hour the next morning." . " Our turtles were a great luxury to us.

Acary Mountains Amazon Slope of The Amazons The American The Equator Cannibals " Dirt Eaters" and "Stone Eaters "Scenery of the Trombutas Forest above a Forest Music of the Acary Trombutas Treed by Peccaries Fight with the Peccaries. he has forgotten my friends the Indians." Before leaving Demerara with my little S outfit. and also the is "story of the pigs. at least.CHAPTER Caribbee Indians XVII. and events which and because. as well as fidelity and attachment. pigs pigs in that wild country ?" tell "What! : and I'll you more about them by-and-by. |HE above ally rather lengthy extracts I have ventured to make because they so graphicdescribe scenes . such an acknowledgment is due to the talents." " Yes. . He has left out many things . Smyth narrates well and correctly but he travels He has brought us to Para Para fast too fast we witnessed together . with which this young man volunteered to accompany and aid me through a wild and difficult country. I 273 ." "Pigs?" "Yes. a great way.

inferior to the North American races. Paramaribo and New Amsterdam . which occupy one-fifth at least of the Southern hemisphere. and have since been destroyed. and them in features and colour. to evade the slavery endeavoured to be fixed upon them by the Spaniards. and their modes of dress very different . showing them to be a family group. on the Eio Corontyn Antilles at the time of the discovery of those islands by Columbus. are. The weather in the tropics admits of but little clothing. as a part of the great and national American family. Their skin is a shade darker than that of the North American races. which show a strong resemblance to one another in complexion and customs. without a doubt. and these tribes are almost naked. which. neighbouring tribes in that vicinity the Caribbees and Macouchis. This numerous tribe also occupied all the Lesser . to stamp them. but not like inferior to enough some that may be found there. in fact. on the headwaters of the Essequibo. in the neighbourhood of and the Arowaks. with those on the plains of Venezuela. These tribes in this vicinity. both . . and on our way. the Accoways and the Warrows. the latter of which is undoubtedly the result of the difference of climate. where they are living. as well as in customs. or fled from the islands. and These people are generally rather small in stature.274 visited the LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. also speak a kindred language. in Dutch Guiana. but the names of different bands or sections of the great Garibbee family. to the coast of South and Central America. the Tarumas and Oyaways.

and women and men though often reputed far more cleanly and filthy. heavy. 275 have and support a strict . and the sun. were. loaded with a burthen of rags that don't have a daily (and oftentimes not a weekly. Their naked limbs and bodies are rubbed over with some soft and limpid grease every day. as their my the valley of everlasting friend Smyth has said. and the ocean again before us How warm and how cheering . and sometimes not an annual) ablution. and our packs are now . yet they sense of decency and modesty at the same time. not unlike the Kocky Mountains in North America in some respects. where they are.ACARY MOUNTAINS. We the (or are now in the great and verdant valley of Amazon What shall I say first ? The Acary Tumucumache. when here ! is the blue ? sky. We ! awful ravine think back have come out from that gorge! that It is frightful to look back or to ! Why should we. truly grand and magnificent. nor a monthly. they are nevertheless filth free from and vermin than any class of people equally poor in any part of the civilized world. forming the boundary line between British and Dutch Guiana and Brazil. and graceful slopes off into green. The descent from these mountains. or Crystal) Mountains which we ! have passed over. are truly sub- lime. Let us sit down a few moments we are weary our mule died ten days ago. for which these poor creatures deserve great credit. and very much unlike them in some others. from necessity.

There is gold.276 LIFE AMONG THE ! INDIANS. what a boundless ocean of green and blue we are looking over. . they are beautiful crystals of quartz. under our . how beautiful! let's fill got. and far more and now and then there is one of carmine. and others that are purple . But here are some that are quite yellow." Gold-mines were worked in these mountains two hundred years ago. it . and not a vessel to be seen! But stop! it ! And what that can't be. clay. beautiful These are topaz and amethyst. down. a curious eloud what a straight line makes across the sky And Yes. There! there's no ocean We Not are steerit lies ing into the valley of the we are right! before us Amazon and here And what's at our feet? at all Green grass and beautiful flowers? And what yellow and blue clay. it must be. else . No. let's throw away those we have oh. That can't be the ocean! we are on Give our course! that's south me the pocket compass. and nothing else. so far below us? and nothing else. beneath us? Clay. . feet? is Not a doubt of but we can't wash there . they may be diamonds? Clay. sand winding. then. Yes. but they are very our pockets. And it just still ! And more scarce now call occurs to me that some of the Spanish writers these the "Crystal Mountains. . there. twisting channels. lovely these are smaller and more are rubellites. something they glisten in the sun they have specks that sparkle like the Bude light . that seem to soften into blue in the distance. down. And what those thoubeyond. These are washed down they from the mountains? Undoubtedly.

and spangled. The first of these are the rolling prairies. the rays is little of the sun are straight down. and up. Tronibuias. . think so. Shall way. and afterwards. and our tin kettle is of no use. met tufts of grass and sage. 277 no water within some miles. patches and fields. and. we wandered and crept along over the winding gullies of clay and. stretching off into the ocean. But where's the end of it ? It has no end. . the same it rises Take the glass and look it's up. At noon We . up. as it were. don't we? . speckled. with its dark and boundless forests of palms. at length. they become a solid mass of green. Like ants. at last. to is the timber skirting the Rio which we have got to wend our we reach the timber to-day ? I don't We to step feel like boys here. and spotted.THE EQUATOR. an ocean of grass. and then the level valley. ! that blue line It we ! see in the clouds It can't be so see ! must be so And that black streak we on the left beneath us. Our shadows are all under our feet on one's own head under the equator. all It is infinite. with all the beautiful colours of the . and then of . But we begin to see more clearly we see streaks of light green running down between these crevices and ravines. black. How droll But this clay is not so hot No. ! Exactly so. and there refraction. how awkward are now exactly is where the south ? Which can is the north? No ! one but our little compass ? tell. until it forms . at last.

Zumas. which may be said to occupy the whole of Eastern and Northern Brazil. which we were now These Indians to descend. each little group like a palmettoes. speaking the same language. peep into the glass-house at Kew. showed us we were again in the land of the living. The Indian trails. They belong to the great family of Guarani. what could we want more? fine A Some three or four days' rest put us on our legs and on our route again. though we were worn almost out of it. They are a taller and a heavierbuilt race. and a clear and running brook for bathing and for washing our shirts. immense herds of wild cattle and horses of various colours were grazing. and and geraniums. War-kas. and somewhat lighter in colour. We had plenty of good beef. fat cow was here felled by the old and we were again happy. AMONG THE INDIANS. and often called Tupi. but for what reason I cannot tell. though more beautiful. We were kindly received and treated by all the tribes on the Trombutas. Zurumatis. are very different from the Caribbee races living on the other side of the mountains. with very little variation. and several others. Clumps and bunches of palms. and filled with gay and chattering birds and insects. of the Guarani. Tupi is the name of a band (or section) only. Tupis. and no doubt from the . And on and over these beautiful plains.278 floral LIFE world. Minie'. and flying before us as we approached. and at last the feeble smoke of their distant wigwams. and raw hide for soling our moccasins.

the I had all foreigners who ventured amongst them. historians have placed them on the banks of the Trombutas. ever. where the Indians have been successful in keeping their invaders at a distance. From the early Spanish history of South America we learn that there were somewhere in the valley of the Amazon. . " " Thunder's Nest But than the approach to the ! see how many close to marvellous things vanish ! when we come them I soon found that there this river. if possible. but hosts of Their young Gladiators. for whichever they are. these frightful reports to contend against. it was easy to suppose. as yet. 279 how- It is matter of little consequence. and it will easily be imagined how my nerves were excited. a nation of Amazons . whether they are all called Guarani. as they that these people were cannibals. nor Bacchantes. and Fauns. having found the Amazons. resided. as they certainly were no- where same time. and the river and the seem to have taken their names from The Spaniards and Portuguese have pushed their conquests and subjugations of the Indian tribes as far as they have been able to do. and never will be. or all called Tupi. their valley this tradition. same stock. of Apollos. and where it was natural to infer that more modern the Amazons else. were no Amazons on nor Dianas. any boundary fixed between them. there never has been. At This required a stronger nerving up.THE AMAZONS. and not. and ate reported.

were the women in some of the tribes. that they never had heard of before. with his infant Bacchus in his arms. their skins to Paris for the manufacture of ladies' gloves . as they told us. there are some such persons farther down the river. a thing. entirely on the flesh of those poor brutes This was the nearest approach to cannibalism ! . I was laughed at even by the women and children for asking so ridiculous a question .280 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. but they might perhaps be reduced some time or other to the necessity of doing it. killing monkeys. and sending . who were famous for mounting their horses. and. The nearest thing I could discover or hear of to the Amazons. what was worse. we found these cannibals. a tell young man stepped forward and said. at its mouth. they sell their skins !" This created a great laugh amongst the Indians and. may be often seen amongst them. several Frenchmen and Americans. some distance above Obidos. apparently. could bring down the wild ox or the wild horse as easily as their husbands. and living. And on inquiring amongst the various villages for the cannibals. and. "Yes. two or three wigwams on the left bank of the eat the flesh of their who own relations. the white man. with the deadly bolas. and old Silenus. And in the midst of this conversation. on descending the river. men and boys are all Fauns. Castor and Pollux. He will find some white men diffident living in river. One said they had not got to be quite so poor as to have to eat each other yet.

THE AMERICAN CANNIBALS. if who they penetrate farther into their country. We have frequent reports of such practices from Cannibalism be. in some of the South Sea Islands. ! but the wilderness without it I have travelled and lived fifteen years amongst Indians. travellers tell they tell believe. and amongst other things. as a cannibal. to overlook system of trade and abuse. and I have not yet found it . but these reports don't prove the fact. but when we enter these tribes . us they have seen it. and still under certain circumstances. and those very respectable men. Not from the savages they can't speak with them. Every savage race on earth has its foreign traders amongst them. and I don't believe that any man has seen anything nearer to it in these countries than what I have above described. their nefarious These traders have an object in representing the savage as ten times more cruel and murderous than he is is . These are generally the interpreters for travellers who come. may may have been practised. It is the custom with most savage tribes (and this in America as well as in Africa) to apply the term cannibal to their enemies around sure to kill and eat travellers them as a term of the reproach . and what they But how do they get their information ? . that I have discovered in 281 my travels or South American Indians. and in some parts of Africa. is amongst North Books are full of it. No doubt us what they have heard. and jealous of all persons entering these tribes. None of these travellers.

. religious rites. relative to the existence of a custom both against nature and against taste. They leave us as history. before us. cannibals are not there." Grandfathers and grandmothers I should scarcely think would be If these people eat each other very good eating. and eating die of old age. and so they tom. those who killing them to eat them. etc. raising presumptions formidable enough to stand against very strong positive proof. for the pleasure of eating. and then in the next. they are in the next tribe. to conquer or to be eaten 1" Some the of the most recent several travellers in Africa (and reliable) most recent ought to be the most that " assure us the tribes they were amongst were cannibals. As a ceremonial. by custom. and the practice. human flesh is sometimes eaten . in order to inflame " their warriors going into battle : You go to fight a set of cannibals . observed as a necessary form but this is not cannibalism. . and that they eat the very of aged people. . in the celebration of victories. they weaken their own evidence.282 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. like a phan- The leaders of war-parties also apply the epithet of cannibals to their enemies. assertions without proof. If these travellers would merely tell us that these people eat each other. one would suppose that they would take the middle-aged or the young and tender. we might believe it possible . but when they qualify their statements by telling us that they only eat the very aged ones. fly.

and even ten feet high but modern travellers who go and live amongst them find the tallest of them to be but ! . seven. I don't believe. Some very respectable and accredited early travellers and explorers averred that they saw the Patagonians on the Atlantic coast. White men have in some instances been reduced to the dire necessity of eating each other. will kill and eat their own people for the But that pleasure of eating. to use their enemies stomachs . it would be easy. that by the system of robbery and abuse practised on the American frontiers. any race of human beings. thousands of the poor Indians will soon be compelled to become cannibals. The poor Indian's remark above quoted ("We have not got to be so poor as to have to eat each other yet . though we may some time be reduced to that necessity ") is not without its significance. might with truth be predicted. and have cast lots to decide which of the party should be first killed for food . and having no commissariat to supply them with food. but this it is not cannibalism.THE AMERICAN CANNIBALS. one can easily believe." and to help and " in travelling through their to protect and feed them country. with humanity to treat unprotected strangers amongst them enough " with " kindness and hospitality. If this were cannibalism. 283 enemies That savage tribes may sometimes eat their whom they have slain in battle. and almost natural. Savages always go to war on empty and at the end of a battle. days' fasting for food. after many and under great exhaustion. eight.

It is evident that the atmos- phere.284 a little LIFE over six AMONG THE INDIANS. under certain circumstances. little familiar acquaintance made Some wigwam writers (who take a peep into an Indian's without knowing the meaning of things around them. has a magnifying power. which every Indian stores up for cleaning his dresses. before they prepare such astounding information for the world's reading. my little readers will recollect. We were near the head of the Trombutas on its . Indian I ever saw. and of which he sometimes swallows a small pill to cure the heartburn. just as my good old mother used to make me do when I was a boy) have reported some of the tribes " " when they are in a as dirt eaters" asserting that state of starvation. and becomes a very uncertain medium. and first The particularly so when persons are frightened. feet. was a giant but a him much smaller." of clay per day on a famished stomach absurdity ! some time upon dirt a pound ? what an . see little balls of clay piled away. ! And what a pity the revealers of such astonishing facts should not live a while in some of these poor people's wigwams. . they live for What eating a pound of clay per day. and learn what the Indians do with these little balls of clay. and painting his body and limbs. dirt is much more digestible than 7 was a " stone eater " a little way back " " and one story has just as much both are giants stones ! truth in it as the other. But stop.

has not yet made its way over the Tumu! cumache seem to be . pennated foliage I think. bending stems and The graceful banana of Guiana. with their leaning. and all But look these gay and cheerful songsters in it ! ! What snake is that ? That's not a rattlesnake. it never bites . with this very clump of trees for its centre. let us sit a while in the shade of these beautitoo. ful bananas but no these are not bananas. I don't see it anywhere. it's only a pilot. such as we saw on the pride and grassy plains . and oh. ? Well. Then the rattlesnake is close What a gentleman ! by us ? Undoubtedly lie .SCENEKY OF THE TEOMBUTAS. Why. little boat rolls and glides along from day to and palms. most likely behind us : they in the shade during the heat of the day. always Let's move off. No. and we enter with Our . down here banks of the Essequibo and the Orinoco. no . beautiful 285 Yes. and enamelled rolling prairies. it's quite a harmless creature . it's the rattlepilot ? A snake's pilot. I can't say that I fancy the company of such gentlemen. but they are palms. with a white ring around its neck ? Oh. I don't understand. nevertheless . always with him. All the rest How prairies beautifully and gracefully these bespangled roll their wind and ! the river shore What sloping sides down to a beautiful lawn for a noble- man's mansion. here. gay and chirping birds are everywhere. with these myriads of wild flowers. and day. the and grace of the forest. looking out the way. how charming and elegant. The river enters the deep and shady forests.

the one just as distinct in How grand the The touch of the oar upon the boat comes mirage back from these solitudes with a redoubled sound " every cough and every " ! . who is echoed back. in clumps and bouquets. Crowded out from these thickets of trunks and branches. are reflected in the mirrored water . ! before us at one view. others hanging suspended in the air like broken cordage. and thus we have four forests all form and colour as the other. we see the strangled palms and other trees pushing their heads out. and with them " whoop " from who. through and above these matted forests. Who knows is that next point ? turn what we shall see when we turn and the next ? and the next ? Each new. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. their heads show us a forest above a forest. . and more and more lofty forests.286 it. so thickly grouped that neither sun nor wind can penetrate. like Twining serpents. some clinging to their trunks. the pennated one apparently growing out of the other. into grand. like the columns of vast and boundtall And less edifices. The dense and and twisting which the sun's us. are rising to their tops . rays can never penetrate. and bending over the river for a breathing-place. the wilderness . the most huge beautiful parasitic flowers. the and straight trunks of the lofty palms are seen in the distance. leaves and vines. and spreading over and above all. each is beautiful. and on them. are before vines. with all their grandeur. How sublime I These.

with their graceful yellow and leaning heads. this path the tigers' walk Let's go ! ! ! on . and taking a peep at us. side of us. The grass. and on it a forest in miniature. But. some six or seven feet high. reptiles . stopped our boat one day for our accustomed rest. and this butterflies are working here it's path ? Why. What myriads of humble-bees. a vast and beautiful meadow. and build a fire on each The fire protects it. and dotted with wild flowers . us from animals and both are afraid of We mid-day forests. and the sleeping alligators tumble from their logs into the water. and before us we have. A the branches in the tree tops ahead of us.THE FORESTS. push off. the tall and straight shafts of the sunflowers. Not in these prairies ? No. and pink. a hundred squeaking and chattering hundred monkeys are shaking voices in motion. leaving their circular waves behind and around them. forming a forest of black and gold above the green. like and filled the stately palms in the forest. We sleep in hammocks here. with tufts of timber and gaudy prairies . in the cool shade of one of these stately group of where there was a beautifully variegated hills. but always in the timber. and red. We turn another bend. and humming-birds. and above and through it. but we don't the rifle sets 287 Every crack of know from whom. But these solitudes are not everywhere. We sling our hammocks between two trees. on one bank. with twisted and knotted vines. and blue below.

it was impossible to conceive and they were still coming. he fired it off over the water. in the boat. and raising the old ! Minid. in full view. whilst five scratching." said Smyth. that their curiosity might be fully gratified. shore. upon their feet in an instant. " How awfully not the sound of a bird silent and doleful it seems or a cricket can be heard suppose we have some " music. with myself. Where on earth those creatures gathered from in so short a time. Like pigeons. that to take a peep at us. in such numbers. down Our men had to the river on the opposite fallen asleep." Agreed. tenor. with flats and sharps. and beauty of these wonderful creatures until I saw them in that way. who. sat in an open place. Then the concert began a hundred monkeys could be heard chattering and howling. which I took from my pocket. they sat in rows upon the limbs. treble. as fast as they could be got off The party in the boat were all. in their native element and unrestrained movements. and bass. and gathering over our heads. I hands. and . and we rose up to show ourselves at full length. Sam followed ! with three cracks. and I said to my friend Smyth. bright-eyed faces near . I brought all these little enough to shake and had the most curious view of them. of course. inquisitive. and we sat smiling at them. hundred at least were and vaulting about amongst the branches. We they might have a full view of us. and semitones. leaping. With my opera-glass. as usual. and baritones. was seated on the top of the bank. never before knew the cleanliness. and falsettos. the grace.288 sloping LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

were creeping out and hanging on to the outer branches to get a look at what was going on. and another. To give the inquisitive multitude a fair illustration. were seen sailing over the river from their shady retreats in the copses and little groves on the hillCurious sides. the hideous roar of a tiger was heard. John . they now began to venture out thickets and the towering T . and they were soon done there was little music in But then the songsters came the joyous. satisfied) . and when done. these. with your red breasts and throats. the white swans were piping in the distance. ! ! ! k tops of the highest trees . another answered on the other side of the river. The woods were ringing at this time with a hundred voices " " came from the Tso-cano Tso-cano Go on. and blue tails. who only open their throats at night. and every trace and shadow of them. your white cockades. not far off. and inquisitive little strangers. I fired another shot. and red.MUSIC of THE TKOMBUTAS. and curiosity not from the and in hundreds forests. 289 even were in some places piled on each other's backs. of fear. and lighting on the trees around us. your blue jackets. and the quacking ducks and geese were passing to and fro in flocks up and down the river. and such a scampering I never saw before ! in half-a-minute every animal. were out of sight nor did they come near us again. The howling monkeys. merry pipers (when fear was over. with their long. and all gazing at us. So far we heard but the notes of alarm. gave us a strain or two . The gabbling parrots and parroquets and cockatoos.

They swelled their little throats to the highest . gazing and the . and another. as an announce- ment ever that danger was passed and no aviary that was heard could produce such a concert and such a chorus of sweet sounds as was here . el-der-gin !" and then a terrible bull -frog.290 and purple All yet LIFE tufts. and dropping ! his last notes ! bow of the head and a " they can't beat that beautiful!" mine is certainly There. and at length. each little warbler hopping nearer and nearer with a to us. I wish I knew your hundred names were silent. and I with my opera lens but a chirp or two opened the concert. and others solos. whose snout and ears were raised ! " a little water-lilies above the surface of the water. all must . first impulses they with their sharp eyes. a smaller one. . eyes. possible key in the din of their concert and after it gradually died away. amongst the and rushes near the shore . some hangers-on gave duets. presented. and then. on both sides of the river by the custom of frogs. and piercing and turning ! heads. One song ogling were piercing little brought on another. his mouth the size of the clasp of " Kr-r-r-ow kr-r-r-ow !" and at a lady's reticule. music is contaThe crickets and grasshoppers were singing gious. said a huge frog. AMONG THE INDIANS. thousand more. As we sat still. there the most "But hark!" said I. "Smyth. a big fellow." P-r-r-out p-r-r-out I" in the grass. "Peut! pent!" and another. when one sings. " El-der-gin ! ! least five for. another.

resembling. and said down the river. An individual one is not able to cope with the strength of a man. than one-half the size. in colour and in proportion. We had taken our dinner one day on the bank in a large and open forest. ness and enjoyment what a happy community this! Pigs. a species of wild hog. All animals and birds sing in this country it is Music is the language of happithe land of song. and see his game falL . and it seemed to be matter with him what it was. as well as in character. no matter what time of day or night. numbers of these animals are found throughout the whole valley of the Amazon and the Essequibo. the wild Now for the " boar of the continent of Europe. if he could hear the "old Minie' speak" (as he called it). large and small.PECCAEIES. in this country. and are equally pugnacious. when Smyth took his rifle " he was going to take a walk in his hand. but to tear when in groups they are able a man Immense to pieces in a little time. are pigs. but have They all are not more the ferocity and sagacity of that animal. and see what he could murder. 291 join in. living chiefly on the great quantity of mast that in falls from various several trees. They and often run unite in terrible conflicts with man or beasts for their own protection." peccaries. as far as their voices can be heard by each other. groups of hundreds." His passion was little for shooting .

we dis- advance with caution. and seizing up my rifle. and getting near the place. as they were foaming at their mouths and whetting their white tusks. ! ! Indians of the boat. with his quiver of poisoned arrows slung. the branches of which had lodged against others. that he had help coming in that quarter . his in his left hand. and without . with the bristles all standing on their backs. at this time the firing stopped. We then ran as fast as to we could. and taking one of the . their attention to and a hundred of them at least began to turn us. and underholding neath and around him a dense mass of some two or three hundred peccaries.292 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and by the other he was on to a branch to balance himself. and to take care of called out to me These sagacious little creatures knew. preventing it from coming quite to the ground . from the direction that he was giving to his voice. I heard the crack of his rifle and in the half of a minute another and in the quarter of a minute another and after the lapse of two or three minutes he commenced firing again I began to fear that he had met hostile Indians or some other dangerous enemy. and I at length began covered him standing on the trunk of a fallen tree. Smyth saw us approaching. my life. we started for his assistance . and after he had been gone a quarter of an hour or so. and were starting to come towards us without having been us. He strolled off down the river bank. and we heard him calling out at the top of his voice for help. and rifle was looking up at him.

He told me that he had discovered some parts of the group whilst they were scattered about and hunting nuts . when his powder had given out and he was obliged to call out for help. . and the Indian with his bow drawn behind me. and having no idea of their numbers. he would have been torn to pieces in a very few minutes. we waited till the foremost of this phalanx of slowly. like the Indians. and some eight or ten of the leaders which Smyth had killed. seeing their foremost and bravest falling so fast and thinking perhaps. when the others. they gave a grunt and made a wheel. behind which we took our positions. from all quarters. us.FIGHT WITH THE PECCARIES. and getting my rifle to bear. that this was to last all day. gathered around him. leaving the four I had shot. not having yet seen When within some seven or eight rods. he had shot one. on the field of battle. I began upon the nearest and the next and the next and having shot down four of the leaders. and that if he had not luckily found the fallen tree close by him. for in one instant they were all off at full speed. the sagacious little fellows. I stood so as to look around the tree. and were soon out of sight. or that if his foot had slipped after he got on to it. The only shelter for us was the trunk of a large mora tree. which seemed to be a signal understood by the whole troop. and my position to be right for firing. 293 our having spoken a word to notify them of our approach. little warriors came advancing up and whetting their tusks.

I had not a doubt of this fact when I saw the manner in which they had cut and marked with their tusks the log on which he had stood. . by their custom. they had fallen upon and torn to pieces in .294 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and also the mangled bodies of those he had shot which. their fury.

CHAPTER South American Indians the Amazon XVIII. The hand of his fellow-man is everywhere raised him. condition. and birds. studies of my wanderings have been the looks. are not without their interest These and importance. and reptiles. and customs of native man. and against and why ? because the hyenas are allowed to live 295 . for a subject of far The greater interest and importance. but they can be seen in the wilderness alive. with his modes. the tigers. character. hundreds of years to come. and not even his skin will be found in our museums. but native man. how- ever. as well as now. and these their incidents or accessories merely. The Steamer "Marajo" Shores of the AmaUpper Forest Nature's Temple Opera-Glass on the Indians on Tribes of ]ET us now for a while leave beasts. and in our museums. is soon to disappear from the American forests. whilst the grizzly bears. Nest Builders of Canoe-Indians zon Amazon Passing Obidos A Scene at Obidos the Amazon Indian Missions Lingua Geral Upper Amazon.

296 he to is LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. a in this country. I have aimed at gathering everything pertaining to a full and just account of them. as in North America. greater mixture of races and languages has been produced . and most of the others (though we may journey together yet a little farther) must be left for a larger book. semi-civilized or not. the Indians in these regions. go almost naked. and very seldom full bloods. some of which have been already briefly told. without so dually completely destroying them. and seldom extinction. but without the devaspay Much tation which it carries with it in some parts of North America . there is yet an immense extension of demi-races. which I have before alluded to. unfortunately a landowner. and has the means for rum and whisky. Their character and customs are nevertheless equally full of interest. dispossessing the Indians of their country. very in this country are therefore. and though there is little high civilization. From the warmth of the climate. The true original looks and customs of the Indians most generally. By this process. difficult to see. because there are no immigrating masses here to push forward a frontier so rapidly. the same system of traffic and dissipation. sort of civilization has been longer established A and more generally and more grainfused amongst the savage races. and in this country. is destroying these poor people in this country. the reader can imagine that I have had many long and tedious journeys by land and by water . . In doing this.

though exceedingly rude. they must necessarily be in their canoes. There are the remnants of several Indian tribes living around Para. In the dense and lofty forests of palms on the islands and shores between Para and the ocean. \Ye were at Para. from the palms and other trees and shrubs of the forests. They never travel in any them seldom set their These stupendous forests of palms (called miriti) constitute one of the curiosities of the Amazon. These constructions. are nevertheless comfortable and secure for the people who live in them. who bring into its market fish and oysters. and to obtain them and to travel anywhere. 297 Para is ing commercial town. are equally curious. as we saw at the mouth of the Orinoco. we see again. These are very properly called Canoe Indians. tfhich is almost incredible. other way. for they live exclusively on fish and oysters. a large and floutishfifty thousand on the south side of the great estuary of the Amazon. and Hundreds. the Canoe Indians living in "nests" built in the trees. and on any errand whatever. and thousands. of forty or inhabitants. and one hundred miles from the coast of the sea. and fruits of fifty kinds.CANOE INDIANS. and very many of feet upon the dry land. in many other respects. and whose modes. perhaps of the world. They cannot step out of their houses except In their canoes they dart through the dense forests of lofty palms with a swiftness into their canoes. of thousands of acres around the mouths of and tens .

and those of the thousand songsters above his head and around him. How curious it is that a part of mankind should build their houses in the trees these are. and he is as sure to be lying. it lifts his canoe to the steps wigwam. and at high tide they are rising out of the water. his spears. odd people. They are so far from the sea that no . and his black-headed little he steps into it and darts off amidst the myriad columns of this mighty temple. reach them . almost perfectly straight and smooth. with his gay red feathers in his head and his vari-coloured paddle in his hand. strictly ! You will recollect I told you speaking. without knot or limb. in his canoe. rise like the columns of some lofty temple to the height of one hundred or more feet.298 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. At low tide these trees may be said to be rising out of the mud. and actually has that appearance. papooses his nets. which are interlaced together so thick that the sun seldom shines through them. the Dirt-builders. But when of his the tide rises. and the water of the rising tide creeps in and around them as quietly and unruffled as if it came out of the ground. and eating. At low tide the Indian's canoe lies in the mud. somewhat in the form of an umbrella. and drinking. when. or even of the river. as he glides. the happy notes of his song. and then throw out their graceful branches. echoing and re-echoing. the Bark- . waves of the ocean. or sleeping in his wigwam of sticks and leaves. of the Skin-builders. the Amazon and the Orinoco are completely covered and shaded by these noble trees their trunks.

eighteen hundred the western boundary of Brazil and from miles. I passed several things on the way. if one could have spoken their language." 299 the Grass -builders. Santarem. the Tabatinga. and yet four hundred miles farther. that. on a steamer. . on the Bios Tocanand Zingu. The first day at noon brought us into the bay of the Amazon. the most beautiful city in the world! But this is travelling too fast again. and the second. take a look at them. the second or third voyage she had made. I visited a dozen or more tribes. Lay map of South America on the table. and realise their lengths. shall see. and the Timberand here we have the Nest-builders! and what sort of builders shall we have next? We builders. on board several Portuguese gentlemen from Rio de and several others from Para. your and then. and see what I had before me! Look at the rivers. with its hundred islands . at the head of tide-water. and the first There were steamer that ever ascended that river. I took the largest first. " MARAJO. and leaving Amazon rode to . and we will go back and From Para. three hundred and fifty miles. tins In the neighbourhood of Para.THE STEAMER builders. with their forming together a very pleasing and agreeable travelling party no doubt. between Peru and Equador. I started on the steamer Marajo. started to see others. to families. crossed the Andes to Lima. the steamer. at the mouth of the Yucayali. Janeiro. to Nanta.

change itself became was just as beautiful. but why stpp ? for the coming one every moment as Conversation was at an end. and. and stemming the current and shores and of the viewing it on both sides at once. some . Above the we began first time. for had evidence that we were ascending a river . of yellow.300 LIFE this AMONG THE INDIANS. to stem the current. A never-ending mass of green. for exclamations . this only served to inspire me with the real magnitude and magnificence of the was running near the case. which was generally the evade the strength of the current. which gave me some basis for its measurement. and red and that without monotony. and interjections took its place. I had a few months before crept and drifted along its mouth sluices in a humble craft. from the Trombutas. But when the vessel shore. no pen or pencil can describe the gorgeousness and richness of the overhanging and reflected forests that changed we passed. and for the first time. from the never-ending changes. their actual grandeur. also. the deck of a steamer. to sweeping current intervening. From the middle of the river the distance was so great that the forests on either shore settled into monotony and tameness but with my knowledge of . white. of the boat was in itself a picture to Every length stop and look at . and pink. unless. we were fully sensible of the majesty and grandeur of its movement. monotony ! Here the rounded tops of the lofty trees. without being able to see But we were now lifted upon or to understand it.

supporting their dome of branches interlocked. like a thousand open and the graceful fans. an opening! We see the high sloping bank. Huge trees have been uprooted. gorgeous. falling vegetation has lodged on these until a super-soil has been formed . like the pillars of some mighty portico. sweeping the sides of the boat as we passed. And it. and impenetrable river. there. and. and and into with pink and purple flowers palmettoes. 301 some pink with blossoms. were crowding out their flowery heads amongst the mass of green. and " farther on.UPPER FOREST. and extending their long branches down quite into the and a hundred twisting vines hung in knots and clumps. spangled to the water's edge. and trees and flowers are growing in a second forest some fifty or sixty feet above the . ground ! . leaning and bowing around . and interwoven and lashed the mass to the encircled trunks and branches nuts and fruits have fallen on these and taken root. mass. an upper forest /" The wind has done this. have lodged their branches in the crotchets of others . while they hid from our view the lofty bank on which their stately trunks were standing. the straight and lofty trunks of palms and other stately forest trees. white. rolling. seemed to be tumbling down upon us. tumbling half-way down. and festoons of parasitic flowers were the jetting down from the tops of the highest trees overhanging. but a part of this. descending vines have taken root in them and clambered again to their tops. and above the bank.

and festooned. and embraced with clinging and hanging vines. the open air must be around him. but and man is its tenant. to salute ! us as we pass. Blue curls of smoke are seen floating around amongst the trees. they are rounded they are hidden they are looped. and in hundreds they are yelling are puffing along by them. but when we get near spices with We see them. Sometimes their villages stand upon the bank. hundreds of canoes as we pass on. This is its roof is not tiles nor slates. like a . and disappear in an instant. ing bouquets of beautiful flowers and fig-trees bending with their blossoms and ripened fruit at the same time. ! How splendid a roof he has here. and from underneath. Man's abode! how splendid. they dart into the mass of overhanging branches and leaves. But how gloomy and desolate Nature's temple a bed of flowers . and saluting us as we . a hundred pair of black and sparkling eyes from behind the logs and trees. gliding along the shores in different directions. how Man wants but a roof cheap. bespangled with flowers and dropping ambrosia! and how delicious the air that he breathes.302 LIFE AMONG THE like ? INDIANS. supportlike a misfortune . how grand. and a dozen or two of the bravest and boldest of both sexes come leaping to the brink of the bank. rustling through the blos- soms and which he is encompassed. and how comfortable in this country . And wreck do these look loathsome ruins No. ? Not so. filled with red heads and red shoulders.

with the and the bouquets of beautiful He can scan the ugly flowers in the tree-tops. and with . should by no forget to take such a companion with him. wild and simple as Nature made them. It's a long time since . it he can converse with animals at a distance birds. and should at any period of his pages life make a tour to the Trombutas or the Amazon The means It is (and I believe there will be such). opera-glass the that reveals so thanks to you. best of all travelling companions much.OPERA-GLASS ON THE AMAZON. no incumbrance in the pocket. see the bright eyes of the cunning little monkeys peeping down from the branches of the trees he . my little . or the silvery texture of the basking alligators. What a beautiful sight ! Men and women. happy human nature refined were half as Thanks ! faces ! Oh. why have they remained so ? What gleaming. What do you show and interpret to me on such a voyage ? All nature in this country will let me come within rifle-shot. laughing. little reader who runs his eye through the of this book. looks of the staring tiger. ! but you move near enough to shake hands One day's seat with you upon the deck of this boat. can scan the beautiful colours of the tocanos. that ! happy. streaked. and asks no questions. to shake hands. bowing . and feathered Indians. and the fruits. 303 They have no but my little they are at a safe distance . or the gazing multitudes of He can painted. is worth a week of nights in Her Majesty's Opera me House. opera-glass brings them near enough fears .

may almost imagine himself it With lifted in the claws of the soaring condor. It of the Indians. and groups of them were booked as I sat upon the deck. Amazon thousand five tended towards me. and by lying on his back. He can what lie never can see in museums amongst glass the little humming-birds. and all the feathered tribe of songsters. giving aid and expression to their music. had joined in the turtle-hunt six months who now were down in their canoes on a visit to Obidos. and many hands exthe broad . at the mouth of the Trombutas. . lofty from the tops of the mora. and all eyes were upon me. Some The passengers got out. Our steamer was alongside and moored. seems that amongst the crowd were a number men and women. Here was work for my pencil. and see glistening in the sun as they are drawing honey from the flowers. straining their little throats.304 their heads LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. he can explore the highest and unapproachable cliffs and rocks in the Andes. is where my friend Smyth and myself first launched out into a little Spanish town of one hundred or two thousand inhabitants. Obidos. and all gazing in wonder at us. inhabitants were all upon the bank. whom Smyth and I before. a sudden outcry was raised amongst the squaws and then amongst the men. eyes and wiry attitudes as they are balanced on their buzzing wings. And just before the vessel was to start. and others came on board. and amongst them several groups of Indians. as I was walking on the deck.

shook me by the hand. when several of the men embraced me in their arms. I told them I was glad to see them.. on the wheel-house. and the boat delaying a little. I wishing me farewell This scene excited the sympathies of the ladies aiid other passengers on board. who was and handed to the captain. and the wheels began to revolve. I opened a box in my luggage. both men and women. which I had laid in for such went ashore and distributed them. one can imagine the pleasure which these poor people felt in discovering me. and not now being quite so poor as I was when I was among them. The boat was ordered to go ahead. if the captain would wait for me a few minutes I would make them some little presents. who threw them many presents.A SCENE AT OBIDOS. and supplying my pockets with a quantity of knives. nor could I deny my- self the pleasure of shaking hands with these good these "Amazons/' these "Cannibals. a little just as lad ran to the water's edge. fish-hooks. a beautiful standing U ." creatures of the Trombutas. 305 and who. I explained my views to the captain. This compliment I could not resist. in money and other things. and all. and he granted me the time. beads. and of the captain also. were calling to me to come ashore and shake hands with them. to the great surprise of all the passengers. occasions. and then seeing me No come ashore to shake hands with them. I leaped ashore. gave me time for the interview. etc. having recognised me.

by feelings of curiosity whilst the latter. having passed some fifteen or twenty small Spanish towns and missions. but no doubt a grand chorus was con- stantly raised behind us after we had got by. fashion has something native remaining in it yet. It is estimated that there are over one hundred tribes. moved by Ten days from Para brought us to Nanta. and raised their voices to the highest pitch. how pleasing such meetings are to I me how love to feel the gladdened souls of native men. it would seem as if the gathered country was swarming with human inhabitants. speaking different languages. on the shores of . and salute it. in the extraordinary numbers river-shore. who seemed to have got notice in some way of our approach. for as yet they neither have them nor know the use of them. hid themselves in the forests in silence as we passed . while in the whole distance these interminable forests and shores showed us not a monkey. Oh. nor a tiger! no doubt. nor a The former were led to the parrot. which we saw. from fear at the puffing and blowing of the the .306 LIFE AMONG THE made INDIANS. natural. for "blow-gun" it and signs him to hand ! to me. uninfluenced by or a mercenary motive ! Mine. and at least one hundred encampments and groups of Indians on the islands and shores. From steamer. and had assembled to take a look at the boat. I know. but fired no guns. They stared at us with uplifted hands. human impulse. immense numbers of Indians we saw on the banks.

and have effect in all parts of that country to cut the angles that belong to all natural society unaided by the advances of civilization. the 307 to its Amazon.INDIAN MISSIONS. in their vicinity. mouth and at this point we have probably . Bands of the same great family or tribe are often improperly called tribes. down These missions are everywhere and around them. at last. If it be true that there are one hundred tribes on the banks of the Amazon. . There is a general system of teaching by the Catholic Missions throughout all parts of South America. could give the names of near one hundred tribes Amazon. I passed something like three-fourths of them. which I doubt. who live by a mixed industry of agriculture and the chase. The soothing and parental manner padres who conduct these missions had the of the venerable is calculated to curb the natural cruelties of the savage. always more or less extensive settlements of Spanish and Portuguese. and have languages very dissimilar. in agriculture. but the that I have already learned of in the valley of the list would be of little interest here. and from which they have received more or less instruction in Christianity. from its rise at the base of the Andes. called in the Spanish language Gauchos (Gautchos). and be ignorant of their own. to which all the tribes have had more or less access. their real names. and in the Spanish and Portuguese languages. . and therefore the endless confusion in classification. we may easily get five hundred different names for them.

two steamers were building by Americans. it is exceedingly perplexing and embarrassing for the traveller. who may think that his Spanish and his French. much alike. which will be the great commercial depot of Western Brazil and Eastern Peru and Equador. . and at others. and Indian languages are all about equally mixed. eighteen hundred miles above Para. by Spaniards. is spoken by all. were being built to run on the Amazon. which he has learnt for the occasion. which is one of the most extraordinary features to be met with in the country. At Tabatinga.308 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. this amalgamation ensues a blending of languages. or learn to speak the Lingua Geral. This language. He must employ an interpreter. which they call " Lingua Geral. and by the Indians. who had brought the whole machinery from the United States These vessels complete and ready to be put in. or be as mum as if he were in the deserts of Siberia. and in such a way as sometimes to appear the most laughably droll and ridiculous. are going to answer him through the country. the Portuguese. the most absurd and inexplicable of all jargons on earth." larly so tributaries. and particu- on the lower half of the Amazon and its and also throughout the whole northern and eastern portions of Brazil. where the three languages the Spanish. and with This population mixes easily with the native races. by Portuguese. and though it no doubt is a handy language for the country. and a few years will no doubt show us a fleet of these and other vessels at that place.

the Remos. the Huachipasis. the Sensis.TRIBES OF THE UPPER AMAZON. the Urarinas. and have therefore the fewest inducements to adopt civilized modes of life. of Ando-Peruvian and Guarani. amongst which are the Zeberos. the Pacapacuris. the Amahovacs. and rivers full of fish. . the Sipibos. and for their skins and hair. Of the South American tribes there are none nearer approaching to their primitive state than many of the tribes about the heads of the Amazon . and their physiological traits and colour altogether prove them to be only bands or sections of one great family. their languages all dialectic. perhaps. the Antis. It would be next to impossible for any stranger to trace the Amazon from its mouth to its true source in the space of his lifetime. to their true fountain. and amongst these I spent some time. the Connibos. and all the varieties of palms with their various kinds of and also the immense plains or pampas. From these combined advan- tages they insure an easy and independent living. and it would be ten times more difficult to trace the savage races in South America. which are articles of . commerce with them. the Chetibos. the Tuirenis. and at least a dozen others . the Peebasy the Turantinis. They have forests full of game. fruit stocked with wild horses and wild cattle for food. the Siriniris. the Tambos. through all their displacements and migrations. and that family only the fusion. 309 In the vicinity of Nanta are a great many Indian tribes.

the shores of the Yucayali are not unlike those of the the animals. and some of the most interesting visits I have ever made to Indian tribes . and their languages strongly Sipibos. the the Chetibos. of some two or three thousand .CHAPTER Connibos Shed-Builders XIX. but a 310 . the birds. These tribes are all much alike. afforded me some of the loveliest views of country I ever beheld. the flowers. and the Sensis. Trombutas The Connibos. . inhabit its shores. RIDE across the Pampa del Sacramento. and a passage of the Yucayali in a canoe. The Connibos live upon the borders of the pampa. everything the same. of an equal number. though only the river separates them. of three thousand resemble each other. yet they are constantly at war. Pottery of the Connibos Chetibos Blow-gun Poisoned Arrows Experiments with Poisoned Arrows Fatality of Poisoned Arrows Waw-ra-li (Poison for Arrows) Trouble with a Medicine Man A Monkey Skinner Unpainting Indian Portraits. the trees. A village generally consists of but one house. but build their villages in the edge of the forest.

Houses in this country. the pigmies of the Shoshonee race whom I found on the heads of the Colorado in North America. no walls. but creep in and sleep amongst the Shed-builders to give crevices of the rocks. and sometimes thirty or forty rods in length. How curious are houses without doors. constructed of posts set in the ground. The Connibo wigwam. suspended across the shed. the Dirt-builders. have no sides. they sleep in sheds. and the sides and partitions in those can be perforated with the but a web of palm-leaves. curious house it 311 is. though only separated from the Connibos by the river. instead of walking in. I have said. the Bark-builders. and that is very . to the tops of which are fastened horizontal timbers supporting a roof most curiously and even beautifully thatched with palm leaves. and we now come to the And if I have room enough. as they are are separated only by a hanging screen or partition. who build no houses. trees. hammocks slung between the posts of their when at home and when travelling. made Like of all palm-leaves. except those of the Gauchos.CHETIBOS. the Timberbuilders. the tribes in the valley of the Amazon. contains sometimes several hundreds of persons. or shed. it is a shed. I intend ! you a brief account of the No-builders. the Grass-builders. where. The Sipibos and Chetibos. and the families finger. we walk under ! I have given an account of the Skin-builders. have no communication with them except in warfare. or stakes driven into the ground. between . the Nest-builders.

provided there The Chetibos are much like the Winnebago and Menomonie Indians on the shores of the great lakes in North America. and even to Para and back again. They descend the Yucayali to Nanta. it is less often passed over than those of tribes who have only an ideal line of division. to their own each confining themselves in their canoes shore . to the Barra. their country being a dense and impenetrable forest. they they all strike with their paddles at almost be said to bound over the waves. and the women wear a cotton wrapper that fastens about the waist and extends nearly down to the . and if placed by the side of them would scarcely be distinguished from them. throwing them. in less time and with more ease than they could do were roads. they are indeed one of the prodigies of the travelling . Like all dress. When may once. upon the river for subsistence and the means of and in their narrow and light little dugout canoes. against a strong current for the distance of two thousand miles. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and where they are at times entirely lost to the view from the foaming spray that is rising around them. from necessity. and their boundary line being so definitely established. which is most generally the case.312 seldom . world. the Amazon to Tabatinga. The Chetibos and Sipibos may properly be said to be Canoe Indians. the Indians in this country they wear very little The men always wear a flap or breech-cloth. it on horseback. They ascend and descend the foaming rapids which in some places are frightful even to look at.

The Pacapacuris. and ingenious. knees. the Remos. and the Gonnibos. according to his or her freak or fancy. the Amahovacs. and in appearance are more the Sioux and Assinneboins on the buffalo plains in North America. much way as the North American tribes. The Gonnibos. who dwell around the skirts of the Pain pa del Sacramento. and a the tribes. and also. fastening back the hair. and all other tribes on the Yucayali and the Upper and Lower Amazon. and They seemed proud intelligent tribes I met with. and in some respects would do credit to any civilized race. and also into a hundred different . where the women mix and beat the clay with a sort of mallet or paddle. Both men and women daub and streak their bodies and limbs with red and white and black paint. have in the same same fondness for "dress. the Remos. and of afterwards mould (or rather model) it into jars for their turtle butter.POTTERY OF THE CONNIBOS. lead a different life from the Canoe Indians dozen other small I like have just mentioned. the Antis. They have a place somewhat like a brick-yard on the edge of the prairie near their village. The Gonnibos interested me very much. 313 The necks and wrists of the women are generally hung with a profusion of blue and white beads. in many instances. which have a pleasing effect. brass and silver bands around the ankles and around the head. They are one of the most curious." which is paint. showing me their mode of manufacturing pottery. In this custom I see but little difference. which was in itself a curiosity.

314 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. with a talent worthy of a better With red and yellow. Painted. and brushes they make from a fibrous plant they get amongst the rushes at the river shore. cups. in giving form. whose days for moulding and painting have gone by. but who are still able to gather wood and build fires on the sands at the river side where old they are carried and baked . these are all made in the most perfect roundness and proportion without the aid of a wheel. pots. and often blended and grouped in forms and figures that exhibit extraordinary taste. and plates and what is actually astonishing to the beholder. blue and black colours place. with hands clenched. artists. by the rotary motion of the hand and adjustment of the fingers and mussel-shells which they use . evidently. painting operation begins. which they extract from vegetables. these colours are laid on. they dance in a circle around them. singing and evoking the Evil Spirit not to put his fatal hand upon and break them in the fire. though it anwsers their purpose. and most ingenious forms into pitchers. whilst the old women are tending to them. pottery. ia . Thit. Those that come out with- out the touch of his fingers (uncracked) are then to the village and glazed with a vegetable varnish or resin which they gather from some tree removed in the forest. the is a curious scene. which and performed by another set of After these are dried in the sun sufficiently. they are then passed into the hands of women. and some of them.

and of course so many shots ready to make . was numerous a great curiosity amongst them. had thought that I He showed me that he had a perfectly understood. and not proof against those The sole weapons of these people. therefore. being proof for a short time only against cold liquids. and had my illustration. hundred arrows in his quiver. a very handsome young man stepped up to me with a slender rod in his hand of some nine or ten feet in length. with a short quiver containing about a hundred poisoned arrows. whose . and smilingly said that he still believed his " gun was equal to mine it was a beautiful blowgun.) The young man got the for him. that are hot. and used with the most deadly effect. as with the other tribes I had passed. but under his arm. and lances." and slung. fragile 315 and short-lived. After finishing diffident and . (The reader will recollect that such a weapon was presented to me on the just steamer when we were about leaving Obidos. I and which. and showed me by his motions that with it he could throw twenty of them in a minute. and blow-guns. and that without the least noise. and in fact of most of the neighbouring tribes.BLOW-GUN. are bow and arrows. effect. all of which are constructed with great ingenuity. as he explained the interpreter to interpret powers of his weapon. My revolver rifle. not on his back. and without even being discovered by his enemy. I fired a cylinder of charges at a target to show them the the whole tribe as spectators. until this moment.

This species of palm is only procured in certain parts of that country.316 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and the most extensively. of the proper dimensions and straightness to form those wonderful They are manufactured most generally. ranks he would be thinning. at Santarem and Para. more than two hundred miles from the Connibos. in order to protect it from warping. of very hard wood. at the Barra. as well as the Sipibos and all the other tribes in those regions. and two hundred miles above Nanta and they are sold to the Connibos. from three to five dollars each. and even taken in large quantities to Para and sold in the market-place. The prices that these blow-pipes command in the country where they are manufactured are from two to three dollars and on the lower Amazon. Some of them were made . by the Maycas and Zeberos tribes on the Amazon. but the greater and most valuable portion of them were made of knitting-needles. the young man showed and explained to me his deadly arrows. It was made of two small palms. or without frightening the animals or birds who were falling by them. . Opening his quiver. one within the other. and the certainty of death to whatever living being they touched ! This tube was about the size of an ordinary man's thumb. Amazon. with . and then there was the accuracy of his aim. and also to all the tribes of the Lower weapons. according to the original mode of construction . and the orifice large enough to admit the end of the little finger. some eight or nine inches in length.

POISONED ARROWS.

317

which they are now supplied by the civilized traders. These are sharpened at the end, and feathered with
cotton,

which just fills the orifice of the tube, and The arrows are pushed steadies the arrow's flight.

in at the end held to the mouth, and blown through with such force and such precision that they will strike a man's body at sixty yards, or the body of a
squirrel or a small bird
tree.

on the top of the highest an inch or more,

The ends

of these arrows, for

are dipped into a liquid poison, which seems to be known to most of the tribes in those regions, and which appears to be fatal to all that it touches.

This liquid poison dries in a few moments on the point of the arrow, and there is carried for years

He explained to that a duck, or parrot, or turkey, penetrated with one of these points, would live but about two
without the least deterioration.

me

minutes

;

a

monkey

minutes

;

and a

tiger,

or peccary would live about ten a cow, or a man, not over

fifteen minutes.

Incredible almost as these state-

ments were, I nevertheless am induced to believe, from what I afterwards learned from other abundant information, that they were very near the truth.

One thing

is

certain,

that

death

ensues almost

instantaneously when

the circulation of the blood
it

conveys the poison to the heart, and
results that the time, instead

therefore

of being reducible to exact measure, depends upon the blood-vessels any If the arrow into which the poison is injected.
enters the jugular vein, for instanee, the animal, no

318
matter what
live.

LIFE
size,

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

would have but a moment to

The interpreter assured me that neither the bodies of birds or animals killed by these poisoned arrows were injured for eating, and that the greater part of
the food of the Indians was procured by them ; the poison being a vegetable extract, and the quantity at the same time so exceedingly small, that it

becomes neutralised, so as not to interfere with
digestive action.

was anxious to witness some experiments made it, and observing that these people had a number of young peccaries which they were raising for food, I bought one of them by giving the owner a couple of papers of Chinese vermilion, and allowI

with

ing

carcass of the pig to eat. He was with the arrangement, and brought pleased I got the young man to aim an arrow the pig out.

him the

much

at the neck, explaining to

him

that I wished

him

to

strike the jugular vein ; but, missing that, it passed some five or six inches into the neck. The animal
still, and in two and stagger, and soon fell to the ground upon its side, and in six minutes from the time the arrow struck it, it was dead. I was then informed that there was another animal which I might like to kilL An immense rattlesnake had been discovered a few days before near their village, and as their superstitious fears prevent them from killing a rattlesnake, they had made a pen around it by driving a row of stakes,

made no

signs of pain, but stood
reel

minutes began to

FATALITY OF POISONED ARROWS.

319

preventing its escape, until they could get an opportunity of sending it on some canoe going down the river, to be thrown overboard, that it might land on the banks of some of their enemies.

We

proceeded to the pen, and having excited the

when it coiled itself up and was ready for a spring, I blew the arrow myself, and striking it about the centre of its body, it
reptile to the greatest rage,

writhed for a moment, twisting its body into a knot, and in three minutes, straightening itself out upon
the ground,

and on

its

back,

was quite dead.
fair test of

This might be considered a very

the

horrible fatality of this artificial poison ; for I have often held the enraged rattlesnake down with a

crotched stick until it has turned and bitten itself ; and even then, excited to the most venomous pitch, and giving itself several blows, it will live some ten
or fifteen minutes.

bought the young man's blow-gun and his quiver of arrows, and I have also procured several others from other tribes, and several sacks of the poison, for experiments on my return, which may lead to curious and possibly important results. How awful and terrific would be the effects of an
I

army of men with such weapons, knowing their powers, and skilled in the manner of using them
!

This poison

is

From

the facts

undoubtedly a recent discovery. that I gathered in this and many

other tribes, I learned that anciently the Indians went to war much oftener than they now do ; that

and shields, and large they then fought with lances,

320

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

bows, but since the discovery of this poison for their arrows, they dare not come so near as to use those

weapons; and that
warfare.

it

had almost put a stop
that his tribe

to

The young Connibo assured me
resolved not to use these arrows

had

upon

any of their

enemies, unless they began to throw poisoned arrows, and, in that case, to be ready to kill every one of

them.

And

to convince

me

of the cruelty

and

horror of warfare waged with these weapons, he
to

related to me, as matter of history, much as it seems partake of the marvellous, that "some time

was discovered, and these blowguns were made, the war-parties of two neighbouring tribes met in a plain, all armed with these weapons, and their bodies were afterwards discovered
after the poison

where every

man was killed on

both

sides.

Getting

so near to each other, every man was hit ; for each one, after he was hit, had time to strike his enemy,

or half-a-dozen of

them

before he

was dead."

Poisoning arrows has been a very ancient custom amongst savage tribes, and no doubt has been
practised
for

many

American races, and

as well as

centuries amongst the South amongst the North American

is too generally known and used to be any longer a secret but the acme of poison, which seems to be that now used on the points of these little darts, I believe to be very different from that used by the same people on the blades of their lances and arrows, and to be a modern discovery.
;

This poison

is

no doubt a vegetable

extract, or

a

WAW-RA-LI (POISON FOR ARROWS).
compound
extensively

321

of vegetable

extracts;

and though so
tribes,

known and used by

the Indian

seems to be by them treasured as a secret so important and so profound as to have, so far, baffled It admits of all attempts to obtain it from them.

no chemical analysis which leads to anything, except that it is a vegetable extract. That vegetable, and
the

mode

Amongst

of the extract, the analysis does not show. the Macouchi and other tribes on the

Essequibo, in Guiana, I obtained similar blow-guns, and, I believe, the same poison (though the colour
is different).

The Indians there

call it

waw-ra-li.

Many travellers, French, English, and German, have made great efforts to obtain the secret, and though some have thought themselves in possession of it, I
still
I,

very
like

much doubt

the

fact.

many phantom a long but in vain ; and if I had found it, what good time, would it do ? I don't wish to poison anybody and
;

others, followed the

and I can always kill without and ball from Sam are rank poison. it powder Amongst the Chetibos, the Sensis, and other tribes, I had painted a considerable number of them very much, and portraits, which surprised gained me many compliments and many attentions as a great medicine man ; and of the Connibos I had also painted several portraits, and passed

game enough

"

Sam

"

amongst them,
midst of
all

for

a wonderful

man

;

but in the

my

success,

my

medicine met with a
I

sudden

reverse.

The Great Medicine, whom

had heard much

of,

x

322
and who

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

was absent, returned from a with a party of young men who pampas had been out with him to visit a neighbouring tribe.
at that time

tour on the

He was an ill-looking, surly, wrinkled-up old gentleman. Of myself and my works he soon had a view, and from his people, no doubt, a marvellous account. He soon had his face painted black, and was parading about with his rattle in his hand, and singing a doleful ditty his death-song, I was told ;
telling his people
'*

this wouldn't

do

that

it

was

very fortunate for them that he had arrived just as he had that here was something, to be sure, very wonderful, but that it would do them no good."

These things/' said he, " are great mystery ; but there you are, my friends, with your eyes open all they never shut ; this is all wrong, and you night You never will be are very foolish to allow it. afterwards if you allow these things to be happy
"

always awake in the night. My friends, this is only a cunning way this man has to get your skins ; and the next thing, they will have glass eyes, and be
placed amongst the skins of the wild beasts, and Don't hurt this man that is my birds, and snakes
!

advice

;

but he

is

a

'

bug-catcher and a monkey-

skinner!'"*
easily see the trouble that was here for me, and easily imagine, also, how brewing quickly I lost caste from the preaching of this

One can

* term of reproach which they apply to naturalists and other scientific men, whom they often see making collections of natural history.

A

A MONKEY -SKINNER

323

infallible oracle of the tribe, and how unavoidable and irrevocable was the command when I was informed that my operations must cease, and the portraits which I had made must be destroyed. Those whose portraits I had made all came to me, and told me they would rather have them destroyed, for if I took them away they might have some I told them we would let them remain trouble. over another night, which would give them time to think more about it (give my pictures more time to dry), and if on the next day they still continued in their resolve, I would destroy them as they desired. I had yet another motive for this delay the hope of being able, by a little compliment and flattery, to get the old doctor to change his views, and to take

up the right

side

;

but in this I entirely

failed,

almost

for the first time in

my

life.

He had

been to Para,

or other places, where he had seen the stuffed skins in a museum, with glass eyes, and the poor old fellow

had got the idea fixed in his mind that I was gathering skins, and that by this process the skins of his people would find their way there, and soon have
glass eyes
!

I luckily
;

found in the bank of a

little

stream some

white clay and the next morning, when the Indians came in with the doctor, I had a good quantity of clay on my palette, mixed with water and some
water-colours.
portraits
;

I

then

"
said,

There are

your
let

I

am

very sorry that you don't

me

have them to show to
people; but

my

friends

you have resolved to

amongst the white have them destroyed.

which would perfectly preserve them until I wanted All were satisfied. and they all sat down and smoked and talked a while. From this I went west. there will be a . ! There are three ways may drown them can destroy them ! or you in you may burn them or you You may shoot them own way. I then said there was another way I had. my canoe and came off. many rivers. all good friends. on the Pacific. who has frightened you about them. can tell you. which I have before said is the most beautiful city in the world. covered in with a thick coat of clay. time My . and in a few moments they were all unpainted. I saw (and felt) the Andes. from which there could be no possible harm. I took to to see them again. that of unpainting them. I saw many Indians. when he informed me that they were a little afraid to do either. This seemed to afford them a great relief. tour was there half -finished and a book for the rest. most likely. many rocks.324 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which way will be the least dangerous ! " The old doctor lit his pipe. and entered Lima. Your medicine your ! man. but it required each one to sit a few minutes for the operation.

in a concise way. to be well We should be seen in different lights. and at the same time help to illustrate the true character ]HE reader bears in of this little of these interesting people. a general and truthful knowledge of the character. Indiana in London Indians before the Queen War-Chiefs Speech to the Queen loway Indians An Indian Doctor's Speech in London Baling Park War-Chief's Speech to Duke of Cambridge Savage Devotion Episcopal Clergymen talk with the Indians War-Chiefs Reply to Clergymen The Indians' Belief Charity of Indians The Doctor's Speech on Charity Indians' Charity on a Steamer. 325 . and customs of the American Indian races. understood. have seen how these people look and act in their different phase. mind that the main object work has been to convey. Leaving scenes and scenery now for a while. In order to prevent it from being tedious. we will take a look at the Indians and learn more of them in a Everything.CHAPTER XX. condition. I have thus far endeavoured to weave into it such scenes and incidents which I have witnessed as were calculated to interest the reader.

for the avowed object of acting out their modes before the English people. Their exhibitions were made both in England and France. AMONG THE INDIANS. I had but a partial knowledge of the character of these curious people. and their mingling and mixing with all ranks and grades of society. added exhibitions. I learned when they were society. and that the rest of it. . from the Indian frontiers. In both instances I was applied to by the persons bringing them out to take the management of their which. and even some of its most admirable four parts. mixing and mingling with the polished and enlightened of the world. with my whole Indian collection. brought out points and shades in their character which I never should have learned in their own country and I confess that until then. with all my . there came to London two successive groups of Indians from North America.326 LIFE . and all the information which I had gathered in eight years' residence amongst them. as I was able to appreciate and explain all their modes. to which I was a constant witness and interpreter. from two different tribes. countries we will now take a peep at them. and under the charge of two persons. study. which I did much to their interest. and in the midst of the most enlightened . Whilst I was residing in London a few years since. We have seen them in the own darkness of the wilderness . thousand miles from their homes. their conductors. we will now see how they bear the light. no doubt.

so completely enabling me to learn the whole of their character else . No mode and there is on earth that I can communicate to the nothing reader with so much pleasure. They gave several of their dances before the royal in the Waterloo Gallery. and with so much justice to the savage. in their native state. of charity. decorum. of all who saw them. others will be met with surprise. The first of these ways from Canada. in the remaining pages of this little book. strict adherence to decency. I will here add a few extracts from notes made at the time. and social propriety of conduct. are endowed with a high degree of morality. then. of honesty. but gained for them the admiration and respect. and many will furnish convincing corroborations of the statements I made in the beginning of intelligence. of the rest of their character. of this book. ever suggested itself to me while I was travelling amongst these people (nor could anything else have ever happened). as the following brief account of incidents which many of the civilized world witnessed.INDIANS BEFORE THE QUEEN. in the palace at Windsor. of honour. whom parties consisted of nine OjibbeI had the honour of pre- senting to Her Majesty the Queen and His Eoyal Highness the Prince Consort. and They exhibited at all times a religious sentiment. that not only excited the surprise. as I learned it myself. that these people. 327 To give a brief account. and which all the civilized world ought to know. and afterwards sat party down to a splendid ddjedner in an adjoining hall . some my of which will be amusing.

we believe that it shines fire in this a great from this great wigwam to all the world. and handsome and . and our light is not strong. and perfect composure with this old man delivered the above address before glare Her Majesty. I This is all have to say/' The which grace. amid the admiration of in a kind all. since we came here . " Mother have often been told that there was . but we have plenty of food. in protecting us on our long journey here. around him. See the remarkable speech which the old chief made. and which I wrote down word for word: " Great Mother. We country. Her Majesty and all the household. listened to in the councils of our nation. My friends here children we have used our weapons . Our wigwams " are small.328 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. We are not rich. your children. and we are now happy that we are as he stood before allowed to see your face. that its light shone across the great water. which was interpreted to Her Majesty by their own interpreter. and dignity. and myself are your against your enemies our hearts are glad at what we have this day seen . have seen many strange things "Mother. We and the light that is in them is bright. and when we get home our words will be Mother. and we think we see now where that great light arises. we see that your wigwams are large. The Great Spirit has been kind to us. . seemed to excite the surprise and splendour that was and His Royal Highness Prince Albert replied to him and feeling response.

Women. war-chief. arrived. See-non-ti-yah (the blister (the fast dancer). 2. Shon-ta-y-ee-ga (the little wolf). No-ho-mun-ye (the Koman nose). feet). from the Upper Missouri. Euton-ye-wee-me (the strutting pigeon). and more completely in their native state and native habits. They gave their dances and other amusements in various parts of the kingdom. The names of this party were as follow : Jeffrey Doroway.IOW AY INDIANS. 10. After their return. another party of fourteen loways. 8. 7. Mew-hu-she-kaw (the white cloud). were a much better illustration than the first. Neu-mon-ya (the walking rain). Interpreter. This party. Wa-ton-ye (the foremost man). chief. warrior. Melody. warrior. 11. doctor. or ever will cross. 9. from a tribe living much farther west. warrior. 5. in charge of a Mr. . wife of chief. 329 genuine presents were made to them by Her Majesty. 1. 3. Euton-wee-me (flying pigeon). Wash-ka-mon-ye 6. 0-kee-wee-me (female bear). civil. warrior. and probably the best that ever has crossed. 4. Wa-ta-wee-buck-a-nah (commanding general). the ocean for such a purpose. and under the sanction of the United States Government. boy.

again on to his feet at the edge of the platform. when the dance stops at intervals. This party. and his . and was followed by an The old doctor was a bacheenthusiastic applause. took exhibition rooms and great pleasure in visiting in seeing me. all its features to the audience. etc. brandishing his war club over the heads of his audience in a manner that caused great excitement in the crowd. eagle). I erected a strong platform in my exhibition room. relate the exploits of his life how he has killed and scalped his enemies in battle. when they arrived in London. (papoose). to step forward. And in this dance. in their own village. and I stood by and explained In the war-dance. it is customary for each warrior. and. On the first evening of their amusements they gave the war-dance. Ta-pa-ta-mee (wisdom). and had. Koon-za-ya-me (female 13. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the old medicine man made a tremendous boast. 14. and which were then hanging in my collection. And this compliment brought him for the ladies. in turn.330 12. in a boasting manner. painted the portraits of the two chiefs of this party. on which these people gave their dances and other amusements before immense crowds of visitors assembled to see them. and had the most exalted admiration and respect lor. as I had visited that tribe some five my or six years before. all dressed and painted like warriors going to war. with his buffalo robe wrapped around him.

") is "My many friends. which lasted for know they are not "My this pleases I see the ladies are pleased. It makes me very happy to see so many smiling faces about me . over friends. pehola* and we see the medicine things which he has done. hear. it has in a large carriage (Red paint) the Author.) and has given you no offence. for when people smile and laugh I (Immense some time. how. which the Great Spirit has allowed him to bring over safe." (Great laughter and applause. Chiphere. 331 hand waving over the heads of the audience. ." " (Applause and how. (Applause. because I know that if the ladies are pleased they will please the men.) " are always in his hands. how.) "My "My friends. and friends. and we are thankful for this." from the Indians " . We have found our chiefs' faces on the walls. and first for keeping us safe/' My friends. me." have come a great way. hanging all around us. I believe that our dance was agreeable to you.AN INDIAN DOCTOR'S SPEECH right IN LONDON. to see you and offer you our The Great Spirit has been kind to us. : when he began " My friends. * This . meaning yes." or " hear. hands." applause and laughter. the great Salt Lake. fine wigwams we rode a large village. We have met our old friend.) angry. and this makes us very happy. We We know that our lives we must thank him (Applause.

the mansion of Mr. where they all sat at a table splendidly set out. but they received many friendly invitations." (Applause. by which means they were enabled to see every part of London and into its suburbs.) An omnibus with four horses was engaged to give the party a drive of a couple of hours each day. Disraeli. had. A which the Indians use as a . and at * medicinal herb. laugh. " down this country was very beautiful. We think there were Indians and buffaloes in this country then." (How. the roots of cathartic medicine. their enemies. and great apI have to say.) and saw it all" (A My friends. . which Mr. and also its institutions. and hear. These poor people were much disappointed in not being able to see the Queen. where they were treated with They were invited to a dtjedner at great kindness. We came all the way from the ship on your great medicine road it pleased us very much and we were drawn by the iron horse. that they might see and appreciate the panied most of benefits of civilization. how. We came very fast along the (from Liverpool). near Hyde Park. we think that before the trees were cut . My friends.) "My friends. we should like to know. medicine road plause.332 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and we think we saw some quash-ee-quano* but we were not This is all certain. as the party of Ojibbeways. how. Melody and myself accomthem. (an omnibus) the other day.

When the entertainments were over.BALING PAKK. " My friends. they partook of a splendid dejedner on the beautiful lawn back of her mansion. and the Princess Mary and the Duchess of Camlovely and Mrs. the Duchess of Cambridge and the Princess Mary. Your face to-day has made . of little After the fete. and taking gave their ball-sticks in hand. the war-chief said : My friends. at which H. Lawrence. and other distinguished personages were present. 333 which the private friends of Mr. of Baling Park. Disraeli were assembled. The most perfect decorum and apparent sangfroid attended all their motions and actions. Lawrence carried round to them bridge.E. several of their favourite dances. and we hope the Great Spirit will be kind to you all. many The Duke Cambridge carved the roast beef. and Mrs. We wish to shake hands with you all. the late Duke of Cambridge. the Duchess of Gloucester.H. and tne Indians were about to depart. and then we will bid you farewell" ful to all " Spirit will not allow us to forget it. the war-chief stepped forward and addressed the Duke of Cambridge in the following words " : My great Father. and at parting. The Great Spirit has caused your hearts to be thus kind to us. they their plates of plum-pudding. illustrated their beautiful game of ball on the lawn. and we hope the Great around you also. your friends whom we see We are thank- Invited by Mrs.

the . We feel thankful to the lady who has We shall and these fine fields. how.) Duke of Cambridge then took the " That war-chief by the hand.) and ignorant people from the wilderness. and that your brother was the fear that we shall go king of this rich country. whose eyes are not yet open and we did not think we should be treated so kindly as we have been this day. pray for in our prayers to the Great Spirit." (How. and next to the Queen.334 us all LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.) "My Father.) " My Father. so great a chief should and we therefore feel the more proud that come so far to see us. we shall be we have seen the great chief who (How. except We as we saw it happy is '' to say that in her carriage . very happy. and we are very happy that it has been so. This. how. first. We have been told that you are the uncle of the Queen. how. and replied to him he and all his friends had been highly pleased with go home. and to all the ladies and gentle- men who all are here to see us. my father. this fine house. and who has invited us here to-day. home without seeing the face of your Queen." H. The Great and we are thankful The Great Spirit inclined your heart to let us see your face and to shake your hand. We are poor . our ways are not so pleasing as those of the white people . but if so. we never shall forget. how." My Father. Our skins are red. Spirit has done all to him. this for us.RH. and you we shall be obliged to shake hands with you all now and (How. how. for it. how. how." (How. how.

of the truth which should be learned translated sentence as the basis of all human education. this appropriate. and over . and trusted that the Great Spirit would be kind to them in restoring them safe to their friends again. we must all soon appear. What a beautiful illustration have we here. and written by myself. but the sentiments that are daily uttered in the forests." Very beautiful and liberal presents were then be- stowed on them by the hands of the ladies. He thanked the chiefs for the efforts they had made to entertain them. by sentence. that no diction. Let us turn back for a moment to this wonderful speech of the war-chief.SAVAGE DEVOTION. 335 their appearance and amusements. with the reverential manner in which he had just spoken of the Great Spirit. and to whom his daily thanks and prayers are to ascend! And these are not the empty pretensions drawn out of them by the society they are in. and read it over again to this concise. and the party took leave in their omnibus for London. word for word. this reverential. and most of all. this humble and eloquent address. and no study could improve by one of the best interpreters. even state. whether red or white. before whom. and how convincing. in his most ignorant wilderness with a knowledge of his Creator of an Almighty Being on whom his existence depends. from the lips of a wild man from the heart of the American wilderness that no language. that nature has endowed man. in my note-book as it was spoken.

Apprehending the interesting and important nature . and they always begin by thanking the Great circumstances. but each individual has some solitary and sacred haunt where he occasionally goes for several days and nights together. I and with Jeffrey. the lakes. as the reader has learned. under all Their speeches have been made to and I have heard them made a hundred times to me. others. even at the risk of his life from wild beasts and his enemies. seen them there. and they all agreed. Before eating. These people have no churches or places of wor- ship where they congregate together as white people do. no man speaks without inviting the Great Spirit to witness what he is going to say. as he is crying to the Great Spirit. two Episcopal clergymen called on me one day and desired to know if they could have an opportunity of conversing with them on the to which I replied that I would subject of religion do all in my power to bring it about. Melody and his party. during all the days of their lives. lying with his face in the dirt. and the day and hour were appointed. Spirit first. they invariably and audibly thank the Great Spirit for the food they are going to partake of. the interpreter. the mountains. to preserve the . of these conversations.336 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. While these people were creating a great excitement in London. and the rivers of their own I have countries. resolved to attend them. and to aid him in speaking the truth. In councils. I mentioned the subject to Mr. without food.

and in each case (for there were ultimately several interviews) submitted my reports to the reverend gentlemen for their approval as to their correctness. as well as he could to their simple minds. man's heard which you have explained. In the interview already appointed to take place. was all this pipe. it was the only The war-chief. one of the reverend gentlemen. explained to them the objects of their visit. and explained. we have same way in our own country. in the kindest and most friendly manner. and though it might be difficult. We are glad to As to the white see you and to hear you speak. which I did. 337 most perfect report of all that was to be said on both sides.for them to understand at first. and with his arms resting on : his knees. and there are white men and women there now trying to teach it to our people. replied " My friends. with his chief. and with their permission. and having heard what the clergyman was anxious to explain. who was spokesman on most time sitting and smoking hia head cast down as he was listening . yet he told them he was sure that certain way to salvation. and he has opened our ears to hear them . he handed his pipe to White Cloud. which we have done.WAR-CHIEF'S REPLY TO CLERGYMEN. it told to us in the y . He urged upon them the the mode of redemption. the occasions. We do not religion. necessity of taking up this belief. The Great Spirit has sent you to us with kind words. gave them an account of the life and death of our Saviour.

which has taken our fathers to the 'beautiful hunting-grounds/ where we wish Great to meet them. are told that all your these in our village. that the Son of the Great Spirit was necessary this should be killed for white people. If it yet got to be so wicked as to require that. it. but for us.338 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. " be so for white My friends. unless people. "My We We . . have not white people. from " know that into our country we or are driven is are when white men The unhappy. We come men. and this we don't doubt. sary for it may be neces- them to believe all this. which white men cannot take You have told us that the Son of friends. Spirit sent Him Now. we think. have some of is in your hands. we cannot understand Book which You speak to us of the Good friends. and the The Great Spirit has made our skins red. We to don't believe that the live together with Spirit the pale faces in this world. it think your religion good. before the white Indians all die away Our hope us. and that My He was killed by white men. forests for us to live in. He has also given us our religion. we don't understand this may have been necessary for but the red men. and we think that He has intended we shall live separate in the world made us to come. "My friends. to enjoy our hunting-grounds in the world to come. the Great Spirit was living on the earth. and that the Great here to get killed.

I don't know . and still we find that they are not so honest and so good a people as our own this we are sure of. are all honest and good. " My friends. I think it is diffi- to tell how much the Great Spirit wishes is us to do. Such is the case in the country around us. who have so many to preach to them." The reverend gentleman said "That we wish to teach you. it will make good I would now ask why it don't make of us. and In our country the white people their tongues branch in different that this displeases We know the it Great to our and we do not wish to teach children. as well as cult bad white people. and so many of the Good Books to read. but here. to which the war chief replied " : My friends. and good people of the whites living around us ? They can all read the Good Book." One chief if of the reverend gentlemen here asked the he thought the Indians did all to serve the Great Spirit that they ought to do. and if you can * what to learn Missionaries. we have no doubt but the white people. Spirit.WAE-CHTEF'S REPLY TO CLERGYMEN. 339 words about the Great Spirit are printed in that if we learn to read it. have two ways. people Book. . . and understand all that the Slack-coats* say. faces. all that the Great Spirit required of them . that we do all the Great Spirit wishes us to do there are some Indians There are some bad Indians I know who do not.

state " Being whom they denominate the Great Spirit" and of a "world to come.] . and to love our friends. We requires that and to thank believe that the Great Spirit good. We we should pray to him."* of white people. they require no teachers for the . truth. 144. him for everything we have which is know that he requires us to speak the We to feed the poor. 157. 168-173. and other appropriate presents. read this Good chief continued Book will explain all that." We have had many reports from the American * [The reader may compare these words of the Indians in London. but we don't The reverend gentleman. paint and reach for their bows and arrows as companions to supply them " with food on the long journey that is to take them their faces with their finest colours. 83-98. here bestowed upon the Indians several beautiful Bibles. when dying. most ignorant of them all pray to the Great Spirit when they are in danger . and took leave. with their superstitions and practices. and several ladies attending them. as recorded by Mr. which we do.340 LIFE AMONG THE it INDIANS. Of revealed religion the Indians in their wild have no knowledge before it is explained to But of the existence of a God a Supreme them. 143. He may demand more know that." or a spiritual existence beyond the grave. and. Catlin." The "My friends. and narrated in pp. as seen by him. to their beautiful hunting-grounds. don't know of anything more that he demands.

341 " heathen frontiers of tribes of "heathens'* dogs. who assured the woman there was no danger. was stand- whose pity was touched by the poor woman's appearance. of which I made notes. but which ing. in support of which many presented anecdotes of this travelling party might be but I will confine myself to an individual . of whom I have before spoken. Every American Indian. for. and begging for the means of existence. she was afraid to take.CHARITY OP INDIANS. . One day whilst they were in Birmingham." belief in a God or a future Don't believe one word of these. and who beckoned her to come in by holding out and showing her some money. instance or two. with her little child. where the Indians were all seated on the floor. both in rags. I need not say which. from ignorance or a motive. has an intuitive knowledge of a Creator and belief in a future pleasurable existence and. by which she was induced to enter the Indians' apartment. I stated amongst their other virtues. . ! In speaking of the leading characteristics of the American Indians in the beginning of this work. The doctor went for one of the men in attendance. every one of these are false. if he be not an idiot." so low in the scale of human nature as to have been "found without the state. happy people they have no metaphysics or sophistry of their own to induce them to believe to the contrary. a miserable-looking woman. that they were kind and charitable to the poor. where the old doctor. presented herself in front of the door.

all LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. getting Jeffrey to interpret for him.342 and ance. if she would come every morning at a certain hour. and informed her by signs that. Joseph Cadpresent when the chief handed 16s. and reminding them of the importance Cadbury made . as he found his patient every morning at the door and waiting was strictly for him. she would be sure to have food enough for herself and her little child as long which as the party should remain in Birmingham . dividing the receipts with the two would be very popular. 72. for they were her friends when the doctor walked up to her and put . their exhibition and it was agreed to. sufficient to last her and her child for several days. It was thought by some friends. The war five shillings into her hand. on which occasion Mr. president of one of the hospitals. told her not to be frightened. some very feeling and friendly remarks. one-half of the receipts . hospitals. sympathising with her miserable appear- chief. bury. that if the Indians would give their exhibition for a couple of nights in the Town Hall. and no doubt with an inexpressible satisfaction. The profits of the two nights amounted to 145. which she The Indians filled her apron with cold explained. The kind-hearted old doctor then politely escorted her to the bottom of the stairs. 12s. The war-chief then asked her some questions as to the causes of her becoming so distressed. And the next day I was to Mr. performed by the doctor. thanking them for the very handsome of donation. meat and bread.

but we know that you will make good use of the money for them . friendship. he spoke as follows was genewas left addressand it : " My friend. The Great Spirit has been . rally the Though the war. and we have this day handed you three hundred and sixty dollars to help the poor in your hospitals. We have not time now to see these poor people. I rise to to us. spokesman on as I have said.chief. " You have advised us to be charitfriend. and at we " are thankful for them. women My We hand in tion. as well as am amongst the white and I always pray to the Great Spirit I believe that the chiefs and the warriors of my tribe. and even the pray every day to the Great Spirit. also.THE DOCTOR'S SPEECH ON CHARITY. in the wilderpeople. We red men are poor. and your words of advice will not be forgotten. you have spoken thank you for the words They have been kind. and the most sure to gain them friends and happiness. Your My able to the poor. these occasions. by coming " this way. My friend. " have this day been taken by the friend. My friend. for the doctor to reply in this instance. we shall have made the poor comfortable. ness. and we cannot do much charity. Cadbury. and we shall be happy if. When I am when I home . and this gives us great consola- friendly words have opened our ears. ing himself to Mr. and he has therefore been kind to us. sobriety and charity to lose sight of them 343 recommending to them never which were two of the greatest virtues they could practise.

and we believe the Great Spirit will reward you for it. kind to us though. have given to the poor in this city. praying that ." Another incident relating to this subject is worthy of being recorded. who could not pay her fare. and kind to the poor and we give you our hands at parting. should be made public. there was a little girl in the fore-cabin. a subsequent time. nor shall we it is in this country we know that a sin to drink fire-water. We admit that before we left home we were all fond of fire-toater. It makes us unhappy. as she . the Great Spirit will assist you in taking care of the poor. " My friend. And if you can tell them to the white people who make the fire-water and bring into our country to sell. since we came to this country. in a country where there is so much wealth. to see so many poor and hungry. We know you are good people. then we think your may do a great deal of good. and it is due to these poor people that such acts as the above. it words "My friend. and when the captain was collecting his passage-money. " and making people sober. and your words to us on that subject are good. but we have not drunk it.344 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I have no more to say. while passing from Edinburgh to Dundee on a steamer. and so many as we see drunk. where the Indians At were travelling. and the one to be related. and we have given more than two hundred dollars to the we came here poor people in the streets of London before and this is not the first day that we .

when the doctor advanced and placed the money in her hand. all seemed affected money by her distress. and in presence of all the passengers who were gathering around. when the poor child's distress still continued. all this. The kind-hearted old doctor. 345 had no money. The interpreter. much more than was necessary. " Now go to the cruel captain.INDIANS' CHARITY ON A STEAMER. which. and cried herself almost into The passengers. amounted to only a quarter of the sum required. and take her back to Edinburgh and put her in gaol The poor little girl fits. I was not on board at the time. and told the captain that she expected to meet her father at Dundee. of whom much there were a considerable number. and that he would certainly pay it as soon as she could find him. who was frightened and ran away. She was in great alarm. and commenced raising the amongst them for defraying her passage. informed was in a great and that the captain abused the child for coming to me on board without the money pay her fare. giving a penny or two each. saying to her. silently observing went down below and related it to the party of Indians. prevailed upon her to take the money. and said that he should not let her go ashore at Dundee. however. was frightened. but that he should hold her a prisoner on board. assuring her there was no danger. and never be afraid . through the interpreter. and in a few minutes came up with eight shillings in his hand. and offered it to the little girl. but my men rage. when done. and pay him the money.

and are amongst strangers. come to us. as you wish. shall and if money is necessary you have more. if you do not find your father. And when you are in Dundee. wherever we shall be. and you shall not suffer. where we are all going together. . man again because his skin is red but be always sure that the heart of a red man is as good as that of a white man." .346 of a LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

CHAPTER

XXI.
Louis Philippe

War-Chief's Speech to the King and Queen in an Indian Village.

the loways had finished their provintour in England, I accompanied them to Paris, and had the honour of presenting them to His Majesty Louis Philippe and the Queen, in the Palace of the Tuileries, when most of

jFTER
cial

the other

members of the royal family were present. His Majesty, in the most free and familiar manner (which showed them he had been accustomed to the modes and feelings of Indians), conversed
chiefs,

with the
"

and said

Tell these

good

glad to see them the wigwams of the Indians in America

to Jeffrey, the interpreter, people that the Queen and I are that I have been in many of ;

when

I

was a young man, and they treated me everywhere with kindness, and that I love them for it. "Tell them I was amongst the Senecas, near Buffalo, and the Oneidas; that I slept in the wigwams of the chiefs ; that I was amongst the Shawanos and the Delawares on the Ohio and also
;

347

348

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

amongst the Cherokees and Creeks in Georgia and Tennessee and saw many other tribes as I descended the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in a canoe to New Orleans, more than fifty years ago.
;

"

Tell

their wives

here
are

;

them also, Jeffrey, that I am glad to see and little children they have with them and glad also to show them my families, who
nearly
all

now

around
;

us.

Tell them, Jeffrey,

that this is the

Queen

this lady is the Princess

Adelaide,

my

sister; these

young men are two
;

of

my sons, with their wives and these little lads (the Due de Brabant and the Count de Paris) are my grandsons this one, if he lives, will be King of
;

the Belgians, and this one, King of the French." The king afterwards took from his pocket two

heavy gold medals, and hung them on the necks of the two chiefs, saying that silver medals of the same

form and

size

would be sent

to the others,

which
in

were received the next day, with a liberal money, to be divided amongst them.

sum

They gave the war dance

at the request of the

king, for the amusement of the royal family ; and before taking leave, the war-chief advanced towards

the king
"

and queen, ard spoke as follows Great Father and Great Mother, The Great Spirit, to whom we have prayed for a long time for
:

an interview with you, kindly
this day,

listens to

our words

and hears all that we say. "Great Father, You have made to us rich presents, and I rise to return you thanks for the chief, and his warriors and braves who are present.

WAR-CHIEF'S SPEECH TO KING AND QUEEN.

349

But, before all, it is necessary that we should thank the Great Spirit who has inspired your heart thus to honour us this day.

Great Father, We shall carry these presents to our country, and instruct our children to pronounce the name of him who gave them.

"

Great Father, You know that when the Indians have anything to say to a great chief, they are in
the habit of

"

making some present before they
ordered

My

chief has

me

to

begin. place in your hands

and these strings of wampum " (placing them in His Majesty's hands), " as a testimony of
this pipe,

the pleasure we have felt in being admitted this day into the presence of your Majesty. " Great Father and Great

Mother, You see My us this day as we are seen in our own country with our red skins and our coarse clothes. This
day, for you, is like other days ; for us, it is a great day ; so great a day that our eyes are blinded with the lustre of it. " are happy to tell you that Great Father,

We

when we

arrived in England, we had much joy in our old friend, Chippehola, who has lived meeting amongst us, and whom we are happy to have by

our sides this day, to tell you who we " Great Father and Great Mother,
to the Great Spirit to preserve

are.

We will pray
lives
;

your precious

we will pray, also, that we may return safely to our own village, that we may tell to our children, and to our young men, what we have this day seen.

My

parents, I have

no more to

say."

350

LIFE

AMONG THE
"

INDIANS.
for his

The king thanked the
remarks, and said,

chief

eloquent

Jeffrey, tell the chiefs that I

am happy
tribes

to

them, that in

have this opportunity of saying to all my travels amongst the Indian

they always treated we with honesty and kindness, and that I love them for it."

What

I

a king, in his

palace,
!

loves the poor,
;

Yes and, therenaked savage of the wilderness And wherefore what a noble man is a king fore, " Let us see. "love them ?
!

"Fifty-two years ago," said the King, "while stopping in Buffalo, on Lake Erie, I went some
three or four miles out, to visit the Seneca Indians ; and being conducted to their village, and to the

wigwam, I shook hands with the chief, who came and stood by my horse's head. And while some hundreds of men, women, and children were gathering around, I told the chief I had come to make him a visit of a day or two to which he replied, that he was very glad to see me, and that I should be made quite welcome to the best they
chief's
;

had.

"He said there would be one condition, however, which was, that he should require me to give him everything I had; he should demand my horse, from which I would dismount; and having dismounted and given him the bridle, he said, I now want your gun, your watch, and all your money
'

;

these are indispensable/ " I then, for the first time in

my

life,

began to

think that I was completely robbed and plundered.

LOUIS PHILIPPE IN AN INDIAN VILLAGE.

351

But at the moment when he had got all, and before T had time for more than an instant thought of my awkward condition, he released me from all further
apprehensions by continuing, If you have anything else which you wish to be sure to get again, I wish
'

me have it for whatever you deliver hands now, you will be sure to find safe my when you are about to leave otherwise I would not be willing to vouch for their safety, for there are some of my people whom I cannot trust to/ " From this moment I felt quite easy, and spent several days in the village very pleasantly, and with
you to
into
let
;
;

much amusement.

"When

I

was about to

leave,

my

horse

was

brought to the chief's door and saddled, and all the I property I had left in his hands safely restored.
then mounted my horse, and having taken leave, and proceeded a short distance on my route, I discovered that I had left my favourite dog, which I had been too much excited and amused to think of, and did not recollect to have seen after I entered
the village. " I turned the
chief's

my
'

horse and rode back to the door of
inquiries for it. intrust your dog
'

The

chief said,

wigwam, and made But you did not
'

to my care, did you V 'No, I did not think of the Well then,' said he, I can't poor dog at the time/ answer for it. If you had done as I told you, your

dog would have been
for it/

safe.

However,
of his

I will inquire

"At

this

moment one

little

sons

was

352

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

ordered to run and open a rude pen or cage, by the corner of the wigwam, and out leaped my dog, and

sprang upon
"

my

leg as I

I offered the chief a

was sitting on my horse. reward for his honesty, but

he refused to accept it, but added, that whenever I should again visit red people, he advised me to
1

repose confidence in their word, and feel assured

that all the property I intrusted to an Indian's care I should be sure to find safe whenever I wanted it
"

again.'

THE END.

.

58 Catlin. George Life among the Indians C3532 18 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .

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