This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Electrical File Reference: EEX10301
For additional information on this subject, contact
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
CALCULATING AMPACITY RATINGS OF FEEDERS CONDUCTORS................ 1 Factors Affecting Ampacity Ratings ........................................................................ 1 Factors Affecting Continuous Current Ratings ........................................................ 2 Busway................................................................................................................... 14 CALCULATING SHORT CIRCUIT RATINGS OF FEEDER CONDUCTORS........................................................................................................... 16 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 16 Factors Affecting Conductor Short Circuit Ratings ............................................... 16 Conductor Temperature Rise.................................................................................. 20 Protective Device Clearing Times.......................................................................... 24 CALCULATING VOLTAGE DROPS OF A FEEDER CONDUCTOR CIRCUIT...................................................................................................................... 27 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 27 Factors Affecting Voltage Drop Calculations ........................................................ 28 Effects of Resistance Variables on Voltage Drop .................................................. 31 Effects of Reactance Variables on Voltage Drop ................................................... 33 Voltage Drop Limits............................................................................................... 34 Approximation Formula......................................................................................... 35 SELECTING FEEDER PROTECTIVE DEVICES...................................................... 38 Types of Protective Devices................................................................................... 38 Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker (LVPCB) Ratings......................................... 43 Protective Device Time/Current (T/C) Characteristics........................................... 45 Factors Affecting Selection .................................................................................... 60 SELECTING FEEDER CONDUCTOR RACEWAY SIZES ...................................... 63 Types of Raceways................................................................................................. 63 Factors Affecting Raceway Size ............................................................................ 65 WORK AID 1: RESOURCES USED TO DESIGN A LOW VOLTAGE NON-MOTOR FEEDER CIRCUIT............................................................................. 68 Work Aid 1A: 1993 National Electric Code Handbook......................................... 68 Work Aid 1B: ANSI/IEEE Standard 141-1986 (Red Book) .................................. 68 Work Aid 1C: SAES-P-114 ................................................................................... 68
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
Work Aid 1D: SAES-P-100 ................................................................................... 70 Work Aid 1E: SAES-P-104.................................................................................... 71 Work Aid 1F: Applicable Procedures for Calculating Ampacity Ratings of Feeder Conductors ............................................................................................. 73 Work Aid 1G: Applicable Procedures for Calculating the Short Circuit Rating of a Feeder Conductor ................................................................................ 75 Work Aid 1H: Applicable Procedures for Calculating the Voltage Drop of a Feeder Conductor............................................................................................ 78 Work Aid 1I: Applicable Procedures for Selecting a Feeder Conductor Protective Device ................................................................................................... 79 Work Aid 1J: Applicable Procedures for Selecting a Feeder Conductor Raceway Size ......................................................................................................... 80 Work Aid 1K: Feeder Circuit Design Flow Chart.................................................. 81 GLOSSARY................................................................................................................. 82
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
CALCULATING AMPACITY RATINGS OF FEEDERS CONDUCTORS Note: Work Aid 1F has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to calculate feeder conductor ampacity ratings. Factors Affecting Ampacity Ratings Although there are many factors that affect the ampacity ratings of conductors, this Module will restrict the discussion to the following three factors: • • • Continuous Current Short Circuit Current Voltage Drop
Continuous Current The National Electric Code (NEC) defines the continuous current rating of a conductor as ampacity, which means “the current in amperes that a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating”. The NEC recognizes that the maximum continuous current carrying capability of a conductor varies with the different conditions of use and the insulation temperature rating of the conductor itself. For example, ambient temperature is a condition of use. A 75°C conductor installed outdoors in Saudi Arabia would have very little ampacity capability compared to the same temperature-rated conductor installed indoors in an air-conditioned space. Another example of condition of use is the number of conductors that are installed in a raceway (conduit). Short Circuit Current The short circuit current rating of a conductor is the maximum current that a conductor can carry, for a specific and very short time interval, without reaching temperatures that will permanently damage the conductor insulation. Note: The next Information Sheet will discuss in detail the calculation of the short circuit ratings of conductors. Voltage Drop Because most electrical equipment is voltage-sensitive, it is very important to have within equipment and design standard tolerances, the proper voltage at the terminals that are serving the equipment. Any excessive voltage drop could possibly damage the equipment and impair its proper operation. Note: Calculating the voltage drop of feeder conductors will be discussed later in this Module.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
represented by the Greek letter rho (ρ). is defined as the resistance. and it is represented by the following equation: • • R = ρL/A where: R ρ L A = = = = dc resistance of the conductor in ohms (Ω) resistivity of the conductor in Ω-cmil/ft length of the conductor in feet (ft) cross-sectional area of the conductor (cmil) in circular mils The relationship should be very obvious that.0 Figure 1. in ohms (Ω). The most commonly used dimension for ρ is circular-mil-foot. Resistance (R) is directly proportional to ρ.0 33. Type of Material silver copper aluminum tungsten nickel iron nichrome Resisitivity at 200C Ω-cmil/ft 9. if the resistivity (ρ) of the material is greater (Figure 1).0 60. the resistance (R) of the material also increases. Resistivity Table Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Factors Affecting Continuous Current Ratings Conductor Material Types The resistivity of a conductor.0 50. of the material for a specific sample of given cross-sectional area (A) and with given length (L).4 17.0 650.8 10.
and an ACSR conductor. An aluminum wire. etc. to have the same conductivity as copper. overhead cable feeders. This section on aluminum is presented for general information purposes only. the center strand is most often made of steel. This lighter weight makes aluminum conductors the preferred choice for longer spans. only 45 percent of the tensile strength. insulators. Figure 2. Compared to a copper conductor of the same physical size. direct burial cables.. an aluminum wire would have approximately 75 percent of the tensile strength and 55 percent of the weight of a copper wire.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Aluminum is widely used as a transmission-line conductor. etc. Figure 2 shows the comparison (cross-sectional area) between a copper. an aluminum. ACSR is permitted for overhead distribution lines only. which provides greater strength. are required for the spans. especially on high-voltage lines. For the same conductor current carrying capacity. and only 33 percent of the weight. Conductor Type Comparison Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3 . When an aluminum conductor is stranded. Note: Although permitted by the NEC. crossarms. the aluminum wire only has 60 percent of the conductivity. ACSR is especially suited for long spans. SAES-P-104 does not permit the use of aluminum conductors for wires and cables in buildings. would have to be 1.64 (100/61) times larger than the copper conductor. fewer towers. each of which has equal current-carrying capacity.
Class C . which is often called “soft-drawn” copper. Note: SAES-P-104 requires the use of Class B or Class C stranding for all power conductors for normal power requirements. Most utilities use medium hard-drawn copper for distribution lines.Conductors are classified as either solid or stranded and by size. Large solid conductors also are easily damaged by bending. the copper is coated with tin or lead alloy for its own protection. Size AWG No. and annealed copper. To obtain soft or annealed copper wire. Three kinds of copper are used: hard-drawn copper. 1/0 and larger are the usual sizes for stranded wire. medium hard-drawn copper. Copper wire is hard-drawn as it comes from the drawing die. and Class H uses 259 strands. Copper is also quite often used in overhead distribution line conductors. because of its flexibility. it is available and readily used in smaller sizes as well. although.This class of stranding is used when there is a need for additional flexibility. Size AWG No. as well as for protection of the insulation. Classes G and H also are called rope or bunch stranding. Also. The number of strands varies from 19 to 169.000 volt power systems. because both copper and insulation contain substances that attack each other. 1 is approximately the largest solid conductor that is manufactured. When covered with rubber insulation. Stranded Versus Solid Conductors . especially in wire sizes smaller than No. As the name implies.These classes of stranding allow for extremely flexible cables. Classification of stranded cables for industrial applications are as follows: • Class B . The number of strands vary from 7 to 127. ranging from very small (AWG No. 2 AWG.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Copper (Annealed) is the most generally used building conductor in insulated wires and cables. Stranded conductors are a group of solid wires (single strands) made into a single conductor. The smallest number of wires in a stranded conductor is three. 4 • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . Anything larger would not be flexible enough to run in ducts. The combination of more strands and smaller diameter strands allows for more flexibility.This class of stranding is used for industrial cables for 600. etc. The strands of the conductor are arranged in concentric layers around a single core. Class G uses 133 strands. the hard-drawn wire is heated to a very high temperature (red heat) to soften it. and this number increases to a very large number for special applications. Welding cable is an example of Class G and Class H cables. and 15. 18) to very large (2000 kcmil) sizes. 5000. conduits. depending on the wire size. Classes G and H . the diameter of each strand is smaller than it is in wires of the same size that have Class B stranding. a solid conductor is a single strand conductor with a solid circular cross section.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 .
Figure 3. Stranded Cable Configuration Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 3 shows various strand configuration for cables.
The NEC ampacity ratings for building wire are based on an ambient temperature of 30°C.067 x 10-4 mm2 = 7.Saudi Aramco specifies the nearest metric wire size to the standard U. The NEC temperature rating classifications are 60°C.The ambient temperature is defined as the temperature of the medium (air or earth) surrounding the conductor. Figure 36.854 x 10-7 in2 Temperatures Operating Temperature . When the ambient temperature increases.S. As the ambient temperature increases. Larger wires greater than No. ICEA NEMA standard sizes (AWG or kcmil). The type of insulation surrounding the material ultimately determines the operating temperature. and eventually leads to early failure. Wire sizes range from No. See Work Aid 1 for other SAES-P-100 and SAES-P-104 listed ambient temperatures. 75°C. it is imperative to always state which numbering method is being used when stating wire sizes. The previous term for kcmil was MCM. The following formula is presented for informational purposes only: • 1 cmil = 5. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 . and 90°C. One cmil equals the diameter of the wire in mils (1/1000 of an inch) squared. which is based on the insulation material. the current carrying capability of the conductor must be decreased to prevent the conductor’s operating temperature. there is less of a temperature differential surrounding the conductor. Note: See Work Aid 1. Ambient Temperature . 40 AWG (very small) to 0000 AWG or 4/0 AWG (pronounced four-aught). Note: SAES-P-104 does not permit use of 60°C insulation. the insulation ages prematurely. from being exceeded. the most often used wire gage is Browne and Sharpe. whereas SAES-P-104 specifies 30°C in indoor air-conditioned spaces. If the operating temperature is exceeded for any long periods of time. which is also called the American Wire Gage (AWG). 4/0 AWG are sized in circular mils (cmil) or kilo-circular mils (kcmil). becomes hard and brittle. its resistance decreases.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Conductor Sizes American Wire Gage (AWG) System . which is once again expressed by the following formula: • R = ρL/A International System (SI) . SAESP-100 specifies an ambient temperature of 35°C in indoor air-conditioned spaces. where 1 kcmil equals 1000 cmils. As the wire size diameter and cross-sectional area (A) increases.The maximum continuous current carrying capability of a conductor is determined by the temperature at which it is allowed to operate over its lifetime. In America. which means that the heat dissipating rate of the conductor is less.Wire sizes are expressed in numbers. which is now obsolete. Because there are different numbering methods.
The maximum short-circuit temperature rating is 150°C. The maximum operating temperature is 90°C. and the insulation is designated as XHHW. solid dielectric Thermoplastic compounds. PVC cable is available in many different colors. Handout 1). What is the ampacity rating of the conductor at 35°C? The correction factor listed in the NEC is 0. Example A: NEC Table 310-16 lists the ampacity rating of a 500 kcmil (240 mm2) 75°C copper conductor at 380 A. and it is moisture and heat resistant. Answer A: Conductor Insulations Types .The five most common types of insulation are listed as follows: • • • • • Thermosetting compounds.Thermoplastic Compound This cable is flexible and has excellent electrical properties. the NEC requires derating of the conductor in accordance with the correction factors listed in NEC Table 310-16 (see Work Aid 1A. solid dielectric .94. These synthetic materials also have excellent electrical and mechanical properties. whereas thermoplastic will soften when reheated. The corrected ampacity is 357 A (. Saudi Aramcoapproved insulations for power conductors are the following: • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) .If the ambient temperature exceeds 30°C. Thermosetting type cables have little tendency to soften upon reheating. laminated tapes Mineral insulation. PVC cables are used for 600 volt systems. Their resistance to moisture and ease of handling make synthetic materials popular. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . solid dielectric Paper-laminated tapes Varnished cloth. • Cross-Linked Synthetic Polymer This cable insulation is also for 600 volt systems. Note: Polyvinyl chloride cable is not used on Saudi Aramco installations. Synthetic insulations are grouped into either thermoplastic or thermosetting. and it usually carries a designation of T or TW. The maximum operating temperature is 60°C.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits NEC Derating Factors .granular Current industrial applications use synthetic materials for cable insulation. The maximum voltage of PVC cable is 600 volts.94 x 380).
Thermosetting Compound This insulation system is highly resistant to flame. type XHHW copper conductor that is being used in a wet location? Because the conductor is being used in a wet location. For example. a type XHHW conductor is rated for 90°C in dry and damp locations. Per NEC Table 310-16. 4/0 AWG. For example. moisture-resistant. The voltage range of silicone rubber cable is from 600 to 5000 volts. corona. certain types of conductors may be used only in dry locations. NEC Table 310-13 (applicable provisions) lists the conductor operating temperature as 75°C. whereas another type may be used only in wet or damp locations. Corona affects XLPE type insulation. • Crossed-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits • Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) This type of insulation offers excellent resistance to ozone.000 volts. Silicone rubber insulation has a maximum operating temperature of 125°C with a short circuit temperature rating of 250°C. The maximum operating temperature is 90°C. The applicable provisions ultimately determine the conductor ampacity ratings. The maximum operating temperature is 90°C. XLPE cable voltages range from 600 to 69. The maximum short circuit temperature is 250°C. but it has very poor mechanical strength. the ampacity rating of a No. type XHHW copper conductor. Applicable Provisions .Thermosetting Compound This cable has excellent electrical.NEC Table 310-13 lists the applicable provisions for insulated conductors. heat. and environmentalresistant properties. Number of Conductors The ampacity ratings of conductors. and for 75°C in wet locations.000 volts. is 230 A. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . as listed in NEC Table 310-16. Exceeding the number of conductors (3) requires derating. • Silicone Rubber . The voltage range of EPR cable is 600 to 69. and ozone. and weather. Example B: Answer B: What is the ampacity rating of a No. 4/0 AWG. are based on no more than three conductors installed in a raceway (conduit) at a given ambient temperature of 30°C. Silicone rubber cable is used in high temperature areas or fire protection applications only. Some of the conductors may be used in both locations.
91) from NEC Table 310-16. and the same terminations.91 x 0. 4-wire.80 reduction factor).80 x 230). the ampacity is 230 A for no more than three conductors in a raceway. the equipment grounding conductor (green wire) is not considered a current carrying conductor.80) for 4 to 6 current carrying conductors in a raceway (Note 8A to NEC Table 310-16). and feeding a mercury vapor lighting load.80). For example. Note: For a complete listing of the reduction factors. the ampacity should be reduced to 80 percent for 6 conductors. Because of the skin effect in ac circuits. 4-wire. Because the ambient temperature exceeds 30°C. in a 3-phase. mercury vapor) lighting. same conductor material. Additionally. Therefore. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . Handout 2). type THHN insulation (90°C). the common conductor (neutral) carries approximately the same current as the phase conductors. What is the ampacity rating of 6.70 reduction factor).Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Current Carrying Conductors . Example C: Determine the ampacity of a 3-phase. the conductors must be derated using the correction factor (0. On the other hand. the ampacity rating is 315 A (430 x 0. 40°C ambient temperature. wye-connected system. 4/0 AWG copper conductors in a raceway? Assume that the ambient temperature is 30°C.NEC Article 310-4 permits parallel conductors as long as all of the following conductor conditions are met: same length. Note: See Note 10 to NEC Table 310-16 for other examples. 75°C. it is harder to dissipate the heat within large conductors. Seven to 9 conductors require that each conductor be derated by 30 percent (. same insulation type. Fill Rate and Derating Factors . 4 to 6 current carrying conductors in a raceway require that each conductor be derated by 20 percent (.Only conductors that normally carry current are considered as current carrying conductors for determining the number of conductors in a raceway. It is also more difficult to “pull” a large conductor through raceway. For example. Note 8 to Article 310-16 requires derating of the conductors. size No. Per NEC Table 310-16. exceeds 3 in a raceway. the conductors must be derated using the adjustment factor (0. Note 10 to NEC Table 310-16 also requires that the neutral conductor be considered as a current carrying conductor for arc discharge (i. see Note 8 to NEC Table 310-16 (Work Aid 1J. Per Note 8 to NEC Table 310-16. Therefore. and is therefore considered to be a current carrying conductor. feeder conductor that is using 500 kcmil copper conductors. Answer C: Example D: Answer D: Parallel Conductors . type THHW. installed in steel conduit.e. the ampacity rating is 184 A (.When the number of current carrying conductors. Therefore. the current carrying capability per cmil of conductor area decreases with the size of the conductor.. as explained above. The conductor ampacity is listed in NEC Table 310-16 is 430 A.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits For these reasons. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . it is often preferable to parallel small conductors rather than to use large conductors.
Greater Than 100 A .NEC Article 110-14 (c) (2) specifies that termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 A or marked for conductors larger than No.NEC Article 110-14 (c) (1) specifies that termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 A or less or marked for sizes No. including the 20 percent growth factor. However. but that a 20 percent growth factor must be added. SAES-P-104 allows deletion of the growth factor where 2 or more feeders serve the same load bus. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . 14 through No. Transformer Feeders . The termination provisions of the UL-approved equipment are based on 60°C and 75°C terminations (terminals. the size. Inc. The equipment is listed for the higher-temperature-rated conductors. except that the ampacity of the conductors is based on an operating temperature of 75°C. (UL) approves the use and conditions of the electrical equipment. size No.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Conductor Terminations Although the NEC specifies the ampacity ratings of conductors. 1 AWG conductors shall be used with conductors rated for an operating temperature of 60°C. Example E: What is the ampacity rating of a 75°C. etc. provided the ampacity of the conductors is based on the 60°C operating temperature ampacity ratings. 1 AWG shall be used with conductors rated for an operating temperature of 75°C. 4 AWG conductor that is being terminated at a 70 A molded case circuit breaker (MCCB)? Because the MCCB is rated at less than 100 A. type THHW. 100 A or Less . the ampacity rating of the conductor must be limited to its 60°C rating of 70 A versus its 75°C rating of 85 A.). the Underwriters Laboratories. The NEC permits the following two exceptions: • • Higher-temperature-rated conductors may be used. Answer E: Types of Feeders and Sizing Guidelines Bus Feeders .SAES-P-104 specifies that bus feeders be sized in accordance with the NEC. lugs.SAES-P-104 specifies that feeders shall have an ampacity rating of not less than the full load ratings (fan-cooled ratings if fans are installed) of all connected transformers and all other connected loads. The same two exceptions apply for circuits rated more than 100 A. must not exceed the maximum rating of the bus.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Other Feeders .Although not explicitly specified in SAES-P-104. other feeders should be sized to carry the load in accordance with the NEC.
Plug-in busways are available in ampacity ratings ranging from 100 to 3000 A and in short circuit current withstand ratings ranging from 10 to 85 kA.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Busway In large commercial and industrial complexes. high impedance feeder busway. which is a metal enclosure containing factory assembled conductors of copper bars. Feeder type busways are available in ampacity ratings ranging from 600 to 5000 A and in short circuit current withstand ratings ranging from 42 to 200 kA. An alternative method is to use a busway. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . Ampacity Ratings Busways are available in the following three design types: low impedance feeder busway. as well as Saudi Aramco practice. It is standard industry practice. it is usually not economical to use insulated conductors as feeders. and simple plug-in busway (Figure 4). to consider the use of a copper busway whenever the load is greater than or equal to 1000 A. where high density (ampacity) loads are connected.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 4. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . feeder busways are almost exclusively used for horizontal runs from the main switchboards to the major power centers located throughout the plant. Busway risers are also often used to distribute power to all floors of multistory buildings. Busway Types Industrial Feeder Uses In industrial applications.
The short circuit temperature is the final temperature of the conductor after the short circuit occurs. the conductor temperature should not be permitted to rise to the point where it may damage the insulation. the heat from I2R losses is almost entirely in the conductors.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits CALCULATING SHORT CIRCUIT RATINGS OF FEEDER CONDUCTORS Note: Work Aid 1G has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to calculate short circuit ratings of feeder conductors. 75°C. Cable conductor size that affects the I2R value and its capacity to contain the heat. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . raceway. This operating temperature is assumed to be the temperature of the conductor in a 30°C ambient temperature environment and at rated ampacity. The fault point may be on a section of the protected cable or on any other part of the electric system. For practical purposes. it is assumed that 100% of the I2R losses is consumed to elevate the conductor temperature. therefore. as a minimum. which is 60°C. Providing cable protection during a short-circuit condition involves. protective jacket. This short circuit temperature is assumed to be the maximum temperature rise that the conductor can sustain for a specified period of time without damaging the insulation. Introduction A cable must be protected from overheating due to excessive short circuit (fault) currents. or 90°C. the amount of heat transferred from the metallic conductors outward to the insulation and to other materials is very small. Maximum conductor temperature that will not damage the insulation. the following factors: • • • • Maximum available short circuit currents. Since the short circuit current should be interrupted either instantaneously or in a very short time by the protective device. followed by the insulation materials. During the period that the short circuit current is flowing. During a phase fault. Factors Affecting Conductor Short Circuit Ratings Operating Temperature Versus Short Circuit Temperature The operating temperature is the initial temperature of the conductor prior to the occurrence of the short circuit. and surroundings. the I2R losses in the phase conductor elevate first the temperature of the conductor. as discussed in the previous section of this Information Sheet. Longest time that the fault will exist and the fault current will flow.
Conductor Temperature Ratings Operating Speed of Protective Devices The extraordinary temperatures generated under short circuit conditions may damage cables over their entire length if the fault current is not interrupted quickly enough. 75. Short Circuit (Final) Temperature Rating T20C 200 250 250 150 200 200 Rubber Cross-Linked Polymer Silicone Rubber Thermoplastic Paper Varnished Cloth Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 .0551 Ω/1000 ft) can withstand the same 30 kA of short circuit current for almost 48 cycles (≈ 0. For example. The increased diameter of the cable allows the cable to absorb more heat without damaging the insulation. the increased crosssectional area of the cable increases the withstand capability of the cable.0297 log10 [(T2 + 234)/(T1 + 234)] Type of Insulation Continuous (Initial) Temperature Rating T10C 75 90 125 60. • (I/A)2t = 0. 2/0 AWG copper conductor having an impedance of 0. a 500 kcmil copper conductor having roughly half the impedance (0. which will be discussed in detail later in this Information Sheet. Cable Impedance Although the cable impedance decreases as the cable size increases.1150 Ω/1000 ft can withstand 30 kA of short circuit current for approximately 4 cycles (≈ . The temperature rise is related by the following formula.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 5 lists the initial and final temperature ratings for various types of insulation commonly used in industrial applications. a No.8 sec). Many engineers select cables and/or protective devices such that the backup protective device could also clear the fault before thermal damage occurs.067 sec). Conversely. The upstream protective devices must clear the fault before the damaging temperatures occur. 90 85 85 Figure 5.
it is industry practice to use X”d to calculate the asymmetrical current available. Type of System Grounding For solidly grounded systems. Cable damage in low resistance grounded systems is also typically not extensive because the ground fault current magnitudes are small (100 . high impedance arcing faults are often persistent and escalate into more serious. Note: Short circuit currents were discussed in detail in EEX 102. Line-to-ground faults in ungrounded systems can result in extensive cable insulation damage by the sustained overvoltages rather than by the fault current magnitudes (typically 1 . cable damage is limited unless the fault is not cleared and another ground fault escalates to a phaseto-phase fault resulting in extensive damage. Short Circuit Current Available (ISCA) It is general industry practice to use the subtransient reactance (X”d) to calculate the RMS symmetrical short circuit current available where instantaneous overcurrent relays (ANSI Device 50) are used to protect cables. usually provide adequate protection for the cables. Any prolonged load/ambient temperature combinations that increase the conductor temperature above the continuous (initial) temperature ratings. will also damage the insulation. And where cables are protected by fuses. Because of the very low current magnitudes in high-resistance-grounded systems.10 A). or low voltage breakers. and therefore. high magnitude phase-to-phase faults. On the other hand. cable limiters. Type of Fault Three-phase faults and line-to-ground faults in a solidly grounded system are typically of such a large magnitude that the protective devices quickly detect and clear the faults instantaneously.1200 A) and are quickly detected and cleared. Short circuits that elevate the conductor temperature above the final temperature. extensive cable damage is usually avoided because of the very quick detection and clearing of faults.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Conductor Insulation Figure 5 listed the maximum conductor temperature ratings. for example 75°C for a type THWN conductor. for example 150°C for the type THWN conductor. will damage the insulation. although the fault current magnitudes are high. resulting in extensive cable damage. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 .
Note: Saudi Aramco design standards do not permit use of ungrounded systems. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits In ungrounded systems. as a minimum. 133% or 173% insulation level ratings. cables should have.
The operating time of the protective device must.0297 and k2 equals 234.0125 for aluminum k2 = 234 for copper = 228 for aluminum Variables in Formula for Allowable Short Circuit Interrupting Time The initial (T1) and final (T2) conductor temperatures are predetermined on the basis of the continuous current rating and the insulation material. R1 equals 0. = = = = Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 .0297 for copper = 0. the magnitude of the short circuit current (ISCA in amperes). For low voltage thermoplastic conductors specified in Saudi Aramco design standards. however. The short circuit current (I) used in the formula to plot the cable damage curves is not necessarily the short circuit current available (ISCA) in the event of a fault. These variable are related by the following formula: • (I/A)2t = (k1) log10 [(T2 + k2)/T1 + k2)] • where: I A t T1 short circuit current (asymmetrical) in amperes (A) conductor cross-sectional area in circular mils (cmils) time of short circuit in seconds (sec) initial conductor temperature in degrees Celsius (°C). Size On the assumptions that all heat is absorbed by the conductor metal (copper or aluminum) and that there is no heat transmitted from the conductor metal to the insulation. T1 will equal 75°C or 90°C and T2 will always equal 150°C (see Figure 5).Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Conductor Temperature Rise Insulation. after the short circuit. as listed by the manufacturer k1 = 0. the temperature rise is a function of the conductor size (area in cmils). as listed by the manufacturer T2 = final conductor temperature in degrees Celsius (°C). Material Type. allow the device to clear the fault for all values of fault current in less time than the time (t) calculated in the above equation. Because Saudi Aramco design standards do not permit the use of low voltage aluminum conductors. and the fault duration (time in sec).
2667 sec). Figure 6 shows an Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) format for representing cable damage curves. What is the minimum size conductor (cross-sectional area in cmil) that will safely carry the 35 kA for 0.800 cmil.0297 log10 ((T2 + 234)/(T1 + 234)))]1/2 =[(35000)2 (.0297 log10 ((150 +234)/(90+234)))]1/2 =167.05 sec (≈ 3 cycles). Example F: Answer F: Example G: How quickly must a protective device clear a 30 kA (asymmetrical current) fault to protect a size No. Chapter 9. 165 cmil Answer G: • Per NEC Table 8. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . and Figure 7 shows cable damage representative curves used by many coordination engineers.05)/(. 4/0 AWG copper conductor can withstand a 30 kA fault for approximately 16 cycles (≈ 0. A low voltage power circuit breaker (LVPCB).05 sec? Rewriting the formula described previously in this Information Sheet yields the following: • A =[(I2t)/(. a size 3/0 AWG conductor has a crosssectional area of 167.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Short Circuit Cable Damage Charts Cable damage charts (curves) are often used to ensure that the protective device will clear the fault prior to damaging the conductor. is used to protect a 90°C rated thermoplastic conductor in a circuit where 35 kA of asymmetrical fault current is available. 4/0 AWG copper conductor? A No. with an instantaneous operating time of .
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
Figure 6. ICEA Cable Damage Curves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
Figure 7. Cable Damage Curves For Thermoplastic Insulation
(750C - 1500C)
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
Protective Device Clearing Times The total clearing time of various types of protective devices depends on the types of circuit breakers (molded case or low voltage power) or fuses (current or non-current limiting) that are being used. Circuit Breakers Note: All of the following times are approximate; the time/current characteristics of the specific device being used should be checked for exact times. Molded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCBs) typically operate in 1.1 (0.018 sec) cycles for less than or equal to 100 ampere frame (AF) sizes and 2.25 cycles (0.038 sec) for 225 AF and larger sizes in their instantaneous ranges (5 times ampere trip), and over 100 seconds for low magnitude overloads. Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers (LVPCBs) typically operate in 3 cycles (0.05 sec) in their instantaneous ranges, 6 - 30 cycles (0.10 - 0.50 sec) in their short time ranges, over 6000 cycles (100 sec) in their long time ranges, and 6 - 30 cycles (0.10 - 0.50 sec) in their ground fault ranges. Low Voltage Fuses Low voltage fuses clear faults in approximately 60,000 cycles (1000 sec) at 1.35 to 1.5 times their continuous current ratings and in 0.25-0.50 cycles (0.004-0.008 sec) in their currentlimiting ranges. Typical Time/Current (T/C) Plot Circuit Breakers - Figure 8 is a time/current characteristic plot of a LVPCB (DS-206) protecting a 500 kcmil copper conductor.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits
Figure 8. LVPCB Protection of a Cable
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
12 AWG copper wire and a 400 A fuse protecting a 500 kcmil copper wire. Fuse Protection of Cables Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Fuses .Figure 9 is a time/current characteristic plot of a 20 A fuse protecting a No. Figure 9.
but to ensure that the required voltage of a particular piece of equipment. Introduction Designers of power systems must have practical knowledge of voltage drop calculations. not only to meet required codes and standards. Note: The effects of voltage drops on different types of electrical equipment was discussed in Modules EEX 102.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits CALCULATING VOLTAGE DROPS OF A FEEDER CONDUCTOR CIRCUIT Note: Work Aid 1H has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to calculate voltage drops of a feeder conductor circuit.02 and EEX 102. for example a motor.04. is kept within manufacturer’s specified tolerances in order to prevent damage to the equipment. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 .
• • • Load Data Feeder Lengths Feeder Impedance Figure 10.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Factors Affecting Voltage Drop Calculations The voltage drop on a feeder depends on the following factors (Figures 10 and 11). One-Line Diagram Figure 11. Feeder Diagrams Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 .
Current . • • • Conductor Material Conductor Size/Length Conductor Operating Temperature Reactance .The voltage drop (VD) is the difference between the voltage at the source end (VS) of the feeder. which varies as a function of the load or feeder current (IL). which is assumed to be a fixed value.The inductive reactance (X) per unit of length depends on the following factors: • • • • Conductor Diameter Conductor Spacing Power Supply Frequency Raceway Type 29 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . and the line-to-line voltage drop calculated for a three-phase system is 3VD. Feeder Impedance Resistance .The resistance (R) per unit of length depends on the following factors.) of the load directly affects the voltage drop. the impedance of the line increases. Feeder Lengths The voltage drop (ILZ) is directly proportional to the feeder lengths because the line impedance Z depends on the length. Power Factor . As the length of the feeder increases. As the power factor decreases. For purposes of this Module.f.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Load Data Voltage .The current (IL) flowing in the circuit is assumed to be the load or feeder current. the line-to-line voltage drop calculated for a single-phase system is 2VD. The voltage drop is the load current times both the resistance (ILR) and reactance (ILX) of the circuit. the voltage drop will increase. The voltage drop VD calculated is a line-to-neutral drop (one-way).The power factor (p. and the voltage at the load end (VL) of the feeder. assume that all power factors are lagging power factors.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 .
0 Ω-cmil for aluminum. versus 17. of a given length and cross-sectional area. which is again expressed by the following formula: • R = ρL/A Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . is less than the resistance of an aluminum wire of the same length and cross-sectional area. the resistance of a copper wire.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Effects of Resistance Variables on Voltage Drop Conductor Material The resistance (R) of a conductive material is directly proportional to the resistivity (ρ) of the material as expressed by the following formula: • R = ρL/A Because the resistivity of copper is 10. Conductor Size/Length Resistance is inversely proportional to the size (cross-sectional area) and directly proportional to the length.4 Ω-cmil/ft.
Figure 12. for example. 30°C (86°F). either because of an increase in load or because of ambient temperature.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Operating Temperature Resistance values of conductors are usually provided at a given temperature. in degrees Celsius (°C). Resistance Versus Temperature Relationships Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . resistance will also increase. For a copper conductor. the change in resistance as a function of temperature can be represented by the following formula (Figure 12): • • R2 = R1 [(234.5 + T2)/(234.5 + T1)] where R1 and R2 are the resistances of the conductor in ohms (Ω) at temperatures T1 and T2 respectively. As the temperature of the conductor increases.
0725)[(50 + 234. Xa and Xd. Frequency As indicated by the following formula.0725 Ω R2 = R1 [(T2 + 234.029 Ω/1000 ft.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Example H: The ac resistance of a 500 kcmil copper conductor in steel conduit in a 30°C ambient environment is . the reactance of the conductor decreases because of mutual self-inductance.5)/(30 + 234. What is the conductor’s reactance at 50 Hz? at 400 Hz? Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 .096 Ω at 60 Hz. Conductor Spacing The total reactance of a line (X) actually consists of two terms.029 Ω/1000 ft)(2500 ft) = . the reactance (Xd) increases because of mutual inductance.5)] ≈ .078 Ω Effects of Reactance Variables on Voltage Drop Conductor Diameter As the conductor diameter increases (larger wire sizes).5)/(T1 + 234. This increase in reactance is typically not evident for low voltage conductors because the reactance values in tables already account for spacing. What is the ac resistance of 2500 ft of a 500 kcmil copper conductor in a 50°C ambient environment? Answer H: • • • T1 = 30°C. where Xa is a function of the conductor material and Xa is a function of conductor spacing. conductor reactance is directly proportional to frequency: • • Example I: X = ωL = 2πfL where: ω = angular frequency in radians/sec f = frequency in cycles/sec or Hertz (Hz) The reactance of a 2000 ft run of a 500 kcmil copper conductor in steel is . T2 = 50°C R1 = (.5)] = (. As the spacing increases.
such as aluminum or plastic conduit.64 Ω (2) Raceway Type If the material (raceway) surrounding the conductor is magnetic. states that “conductors for feeders as defined in Article 100. heating. the reactance is greater than if the raceway is non-magnetic.096) = .08 Ω X60/60 = X400/400 X400 = (400/60) X60 = (20/3)(. such as steel conduit. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . feeder. will provide reasonable efficiency of operation”.096) = . and from feeder breaker to panelboard shall be two (2) percent at full load. Voltage Drop Limits National Electric Code (NEC) NEC Article 215-2(b). Summation of voltage drops in circuit from main to distribution center. and where the maximum total voltage drop on both feeder and branch circuits to the farthest outlet does not exceed 5 percent.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Answer: (1) X60/60 = X50/50 X50 = (50/60) X60 = (5/6)(. or combinations of such loads. and branch circuit shall not exceed five (5) percent. Saudi Aramco Standard SAES-P-100 SAES-P-100 specifies the following criteria pertaining to feeder voltage drops for non-motor circuits under 600 volts: • • Maximum steady state voltage drop for a main. 2. sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 3 percent at the farthest outlet of power. FPN No. and lighting loads.
ohms (Ω) Z = R cos θ + X sin θ θ = load power factor angle. However. as presented below. degrees cos θ = load power factor. volts (V). exact methods of calculating line voltage drops require extensive knowledge of complex phasor algebra as was previously discussed in Module EEX 102. the approximate method formula. (one way) I = line current. • Approximate Method Formula: VD = IR cos θ + IX sin θ = I(R cos θ + X sin θ) = IZ • where: VD = line-to-neutral voltage drop. is adequate for most line voltage drop calculations. 3φ system) = 3VD Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . decimals sin θ = load reactance factor. line-to-neutral. ohms (Ω) X = circuit line reactance.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Approximation Formula Phasor Relationships Due to the phasor relationships shown in Figure 13. volts (V) VL = load voltage. amperes (A) R = circuit line resistance. volts (V) VD(line-to-line. such as found on Saudi Aramco installations.03. in most industrial electrical distribution systems. 1φ system) = 2VD VD(line-to-line. decimals VS = source voltage. line-to-neutral. ohms (Ω) Z = circuit line impedance.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 13. Voltage Drop Phasor Diagrams Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 .
an iterative method may be used. using the new load current calculated. Once the voltage drop is calculated. in the above formula. sin θ is considered to be positive for lagging power factor loads. However. the error in the calculation approaches zero. repeat the voltage drop calculation. the iterative method is not used. In other words.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Variable Assumptions The error caused by variation of load current and power factor because of the voltage applied to the load is not considered in the above formula for calculating voltage drops. the load current (IL) is assumed to be constant regardless of the voltage. As the angle of the load voltage approaches the angle of the line voltage. if the total drop calculated is less than ten percent. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . if the error is significant. Generally. and then. By convention. subtract the voltage drop (VD) from the source voltage (VS) and use this value to calculate a new load current.
LVPCBs can be used with integral current-limiting fuses to meet interrupting requirements up to 200 kA RMS symmetrical. LVPCBs are intended for service in switchgear compartments or in other enclosures of dead. and manufacturers recommend total replacement if a defect appears. and this sealing. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits SELECTING FEEDER PROTECTIVE DEVICES Note: Work Aid 1I has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to select feeder protective devices. MCCBs are generally not designed to be maintained in the field. direct-acting. Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers (LVPCB). like MCCBs. The thermal magnetic type. The integrally-fused type MCCB combines regular thermal magnetic protection. together with current limiting fuses. and solid-state types. MCCBs are available in several different types. The magnetic type MCCB employs only instantaneous magnetic tripping for cases where only short circuit interruption is required. Circuit Breakers Molded-Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB) are a class of breaker rated at 600 volts and below. precludes any inspection of the MCCB contacts. and ease of replacement. employs thermal tripping for overloads and magnetic tripping for short-circuits.front construction. They differ from MCCBs. and they consist of a switching device and an automatic protective device assembled in an integral housing of insulated material. in turn. repair. to respond to applications where higher short circuit currents are available. the current limiting type MCCB offers high interrupting capacity protection. In addition. Tripping units are field-adjustable and include electromagnetic. because they are typically open-construction assemblies on metal frames and all parts are designed for accessible maintenance. however. while at the same time limiting the let-through current to a significantly lower value than is usual for conventional MCCBs. MCCBs are capable of clearing a fault more rapidly than a low voltage power circuit breaker (LVPCB). MCCBs are generally sealed to prevent tampering. Solid-state trip units incorporated into some styles of MCCBs provide for their coordination with LVPCBs. Types of Protective Devices Note: SAES-P-114 restricts low voltage line protection to circuit breakers. which is the most widely used. are rated 600 volts and below.
Renewable cartridge fuses can be disassembled. and the fusible element can be replaced. The MCCB serves as the disconnect. and they are replaced after they open (melt) in service. and fault protection for the feeder circuit. and it responds to overcurrents in the short circuit range. A special type of low voltage fuse that is sometimes used is the dual-element or time-delay fuse. Figure 14 describes a MCCB. Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) Ratings The MCCB gets its name from the material (plastic) and manufacturing process (molded) used to make the frame (case) of the breaker. Fuses may be current limiting or non-current limiting. Note: Saudi Aramco has very limited application of low voltage fuses. The dual-element fuse has one element that is fast-acting. Nonrenewable cartridge fuses are assembled at the factory. Cartridge fuses are either renewable or nonrenewable.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Saudi Aramco Applications of Fuses Low voltage fuses (600 volts or less) come in two basic shapes: the plug fuse and the cartridge fuse. Figure 14. but melts if the overload is sustained. overload. while its other element permits short-duration overloads. Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Frame Size The frame size of the MCCB describes the physical size and continuous current ratings of the MCCB. More modern breakers use sophisticated electronic trip units. Figure 15 also lists the continuous current or trip ratings of typical MCCBs. Trip Ratings The function of the trip unit in a MCCB is to trip the operating mechanism in the event of a prolonged overload or short circuit current. MCCBs have many different trip and interrupting ratings for the numerous frame sizes. NEC Article 240-6 lists the standard trip ratings of MCCBs. Protection is provided by combining of a temperature sensing device (bimetallic strip) with a current sensing electromagnetic device. Figure 15 lists the different frame sizes for typical MCCBs. both of which act mechanically on the trip mechanism. Each different type and size of MCCB is assigned a frame designation. The traditional MCCB uses electromechanical (thermal-magnetic) trip units. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 . which can be more precisely modeled than the electromechanical trip units.
For example. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . but the same breaker applied at 240 volts may have an increased interrupting rating of 65. The interrupting capability of the breaker may vary with the applied voltage.000 A.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Interrupting Ratings The interrupting rating or short circuit rating at a 40°C ambient temperature is commonly expressed in root mean square (RMS) symmetrical amperes. a breaker applied at 480 volts could have an interrupting rating of 25.000 A at 480 volts.
000 75.000 30.000 30.000 -35.000 18.000 40.000 -30.000 42.000 100.000 35.000 65.000 15.000 100.000 -25.000 100.000 30.000 42.000 40.000 65.000 -20.000 -40.000 100.000 100.000 25.000 30.000 40. Low voltage breaker contacts separate and interrupt the fault current during the first cycle of short circuit current.000 25.000 22. Because of this fast operation.000 25.000 30.000 75.000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Figure 15.000 25.000 35.000 100.000 22.000 25.000 22.000 20.000 50. Therefore.000 100.000 -25.000 100. Figure 15 also lists the symmetrical and asymmetrical interrupting ratings of typical MCCBs.000 100. motors.000 22.000 -50. Frame Size (amps) (AF) 100 100 100 225 225 225 225 225 400 400 400 600 800 800 800 1000 1200 Rated Continuous Current (amps) (AT) 10-100 10-100 10-100 125-200 70-225 70-225 70-225 70-225 200-400 200-400 200-400 300-600 300-800 300-800 600-800 600-1000 700-1200 Interrupting Current Rating (AIC) (amps) 240 Volts 480 Volts 600 Volts Sym Asym Sym Asym Sym Asym 18.000 100. Line No.000 14.000 -25.000 42.000 35.000 25.000 100.000 100.000 25.000 42.000 25. all fault contribution from generators. the momentary and interrupting duties are considered to be the same.000 35.000 30.000 65.000 100.000 30.000 22.000 15.000 65.000 75.000 22.000 -25.000 75. Typical MCCB Ratings Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 .000 18.000 -35.000 35.000 14.000 20.000 -50.000 -50.000 30.000 -15.000 -35. and the dc components of the fault waveform must be considered.000 22.000 22.000 14.000 100.000 100.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits All MCCBs operate instantaneously at currents well below their interrupting rating.000 25.000 30. Nonadjustable MCCBs will usually operate instantaneously at current values approximately five times (5x) their trip rating.000 -25.
1600 100. Some manufacturers may have additional frame sizes. 800. Standard frame size ratings for low voltage power circuit breakers are 800. 600. at rated frequency. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . 150. 3200. 800 100. 300. Frame Size (amperes) 800 1600 2000 3200 4000 Available Sensor Ratings (amperes) 50. The temperature limit on which the rating of circuit breakers are based are determined by the characteristics of the insulating materials used and the metals that are used in the current carrying components and springs. 300. 400. 1600. 800. 1200.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker (LVPCB) Ratings Frame Size The rated continuous current of a LVPCB is the designated limit of RMS current. 400. Figure 16 also lists the sensor ratings for an LVPCB. 2000. 600. 600. 200. 150. 3200 4000 Figure 16. 300. LVPCPs have either an electromechanical trip or a solid-state trip that is adjustable or interchangeable from a minimum rating up to the ampere rating of the frame. Figure 16 lists the frame sizes of typical LVPCBs. 1200. 100. that it is required to carry continuously without exceeding the temperature limitations based on a 40°C ambient temperature. 200. 200. 1600. LVPCB Frame and Sensor Ratings Sensor Ratings A sensor on an LVPCB is simply a current transformer that reduces (transforms) the high magnitude line currents to a magnitude that the trip units (typically electronic) can safely carry for short periods of time. 2000 2400. 400. and 4000 amperes. 150.
000 50.000 65. LVPCBs can be used on any system where the voltage is lower than the breaker rating.9 for fused breakers.000 85.000 50.000 85.000 65. The short-time current rating of a modern day LVPCB without an instantaneous trip characteristic is usually equal to the breaker’s short circuit interrupting rating.000 65. The asymmetrical interrupting rating is implied. assume that the asymmetrical rating is 1.000 130.000 65.17 times the symmetrical rating. This time delay provides time for downstream protective devices closer to the fault to operate and to isolate the circuit. Under short circuit conditions.000 65.000 600V 30. if an asymmetrical interrupting rating is not listed by the manufacturer.000 65.000 85.000 42.6 for unfused breakers and on an X/R ratio of 4. The short-time delay on the breaker’s trip units corresponds to the short-time current rating. typically 30 cycles or less.000 85. MCCBs usually do not have a short-time rating.000 50.000 50.000 65.000 50.17.000 Figure 17.000 65. By comparison. Therefore.000 85.000 65.000 208-240V 30.6 corresponds to an asymmetrical factor (Ma) of 1.000 85.6. most low voltage systems have an X/R ratio of less than 6.000 480 V 30.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Short Time Ratings LVPCBs are designed and marked with the maximum voltage at which they can be applied. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 .000 65. Figure 17 lists the short-time interrupting rating of typical LVPCBs. An X/R ratio of 6.000 480 V 30. Frame Size (amperes) Interrupting Ratings (RMS Symmetrical Amperes) With Instantaneous Trip Short-Time Ratings (30cycles) (With Short-Delay) 800 1600 2000 3200 4000 208-240V 42. and 254 volts. The short-time current rating of a LVPCB specifies the maximum capability of the circuit breaker to withstand the effects of short circuit current flow for a stated period. 508 volts.000 42. Standard maximum voltage ratings for LVPCBs are 635 volts. The applied voltage will affect the interrupting rating of the breaker. LVPCBs are usually suitable for both 50 and 60 Hz.000 600 V 30. LVPCB Short-Time and Interrupting Ratings Interrupting Ratings The interrupting rating of a LVPCB is the RMS symmetrical current rating of the circuit breaker. and it is based on an X/R ratio of 6. Figure 17 also lists the symmetrical interrupting ratings of typical LVPCBs.
000 cycles.5 to 10.001 to 10.6 to 60. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 . type THWN feeder conductors.000 cycles). The vertical axis.00835 seconds). x100. 100. Thermal-Magnetic MCCB SAES-P-114 permits thermal-magnetic (inverse-time) MCCBs for the protection of feeders.01 to 1000 seconds and/or 0. Figure 19 shows a 600 A MCCB that protects a parallel set of 500 kcmil. Standard log-log graphs are 4.06 to 600. The horizontal current scale is also often “shifted” for a particular plot by multiplying the current scale by a factor of 10. Because current limiting fuses and molded case circuit breakers may operate in less than 0. The current axis ranges from 0. If the breaker rating being selected exceeds 800 A.000 seconds (. representing time. ranges from 0. manufacturers of these devices may reproduce T/C characteristic curves with 6 cycle vertical scales that represent times ranging from 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Protective Device Time/Current (T/C) Characteristics The response curves of all protective devices are plotted on common graphs so that they may be compared at all current and time points.5 cycles on the horizontal scale that represents current. The NEC permits the next standard size MCCB that is available to protect the conductor if the MCCB rating does not exceed 800 A. The MCCB is sized to protect the low voltage feeder conductors in accordance with their ampacities after all derating factors have been applied. x1000). The standard means used to plot device T/C characteristics is to plot the devices on log-log graph paper (Figure 18).5 cycles (. copper. the NEC requires the next smaller size breaker to be selected.000 amperes. or 1000 (x10.
Typical Log-Log Paper Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 18.
MCCB Protecting A Feeder Conductor Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 19.
as with any other overcurrent device. the performance of a breaker inside an enclosure. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 . without tripping. however. which covers continuous and noncontinuous loads. The nameplate specifies a value of current that the circuit breaker is rated to carry continuously. states that: “Where a feeder supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous loads. These factors must be considered regarding the ability of the breaker to comply with its nameplate ampere rating. The same NEC section permits the following exception: “Where the assembly including the overcurrent devices protecting the feeder(s) are listed for operation at 100% of their rating. Therefore. could be adversely affected by heat dissipation and temperature rise. Section 220-10(b) of the NEC.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits An MCCB is tested in open air (not in an enclosure) to verify its nameplate ampere rating. neither the ampere rating of the overcurrent device nor the ampacity of the feeder conductors shall be less than the sum of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load”. within specific operating temperature guidelines. In most cases. but not in open air. Figure 20a shows a typical application using a standard design approach and Figure 20b shows the same application using 100 percent rated MCCBs. the rating of the overcurrent device shall be less than the noncontinuous load plus 125% of the continuous load”. an MCCB is used in an enclosure.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 20. Typical MCCB Applications Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 .
Long time pickup (LTPU) functions or long delay pickup (LDPU) settings are adjustable from 0. Typical tolerances for a modern day solid-state trip (SST) (e. which establishes the continuous current rating of the breaker. Westinghouse Digitrip RMS) are 0%.g.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker (LVPCB) Long Time Functions include the long time pickup and the long time delay functions. The plug rating is also a function of the sensor rating (current transformer).0 times the plug rating (In).5 . Long Time Pickup (LTPU) T/C Characteristics Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50 .1.. Figure 21. + 10% (Figure 21).
Typical tolerances are + 0%. Short time pickup (STPU) or short delay pickup (SDPU) settings are adjustable from 2 to 6 times the plug rating (2 . Figure 22. Typical tolerances are + 10%.33% (Figure 22).10% (Figure 23).6In) plus two variable settings of S1 (8In) and S2 (10In).Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Long time delay (LTD) or long delay time (LDT) settings are adjustable from 2 . .24 seconds at 6 times the plug rating (6In). . Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51 . Long Time Delay (LTD) T/C Characteristics Short Time Functions include the short time pickup and short time delay functions.
Short Time Pickup (STPU) T/C Characteristics Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 23.
0.5 seconds.5* seconds. The asterisk (*) refers to I2t settings.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Short time delay (STD) or short delay time (SDT) settings are available with five flat responses of 0.3. Short Time Delay (STD) With I2t T/C Characteristics Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 .1. Figure 24.4 and 0. 0. 0.1*. and the settings revert back to a flat response at 8In (Figure 24). 0. I2t Function settings are available in three responses of 0. Typical tolerances are variable depending on the setting (Figure 24). and 0.2.3*.
as shown in Figure 26. Figure 25.6In) plug two variable settings of M1 (8In) and M2 (12In). Instantaneous Trip (IT) T/C Characteristics Ground Fault Functions .SAES-P-114 requires ground fault protection. unlike its MCCB counterpart. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Instantaneous Trip (IT) settings are adjustable from 2 to 6 times the plug rating (2 . where required by the NEC. that uses window-type current transformers (CTs) similar to the BYZ CT. The tripping function.10% (Figure 25). . Typical tolerances are + 10%. is part of the same SST unit.
GFP With Window-Type CT Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 26.
F. Figure 27 shows a sample listing of the settings for plug ratings of 100. and 300 amperes. 200. Typical tolerances are + 10%. Ground Fault Pickup (GFPU) T/C Characteristics Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 . In 100 200 250 300 A 25 50 63 75 B 30 60 75 90 C 35 70 88 105 D 40 80 100 120 E 50 100 125 150 F 60 120 150 180 H 75 150 188 225 K 100 200 250 300 Figure 27.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Ground fault pickup (GFPU) settings have eight discrete adjustments (A. K). C. D. which are a function of the plug ratings (In). E. H. . 250. Sample GFPU Code Letters and Settings Figure 28. B.10% (Figure 28).
4.5 seconds. I2t functions settings are also available for ground fault functions in 3 responses of 0. Typical tolerances are variable depending on the setting (Figure 29).3* seconds. and 0. and the settings revert back to a flat response at 0. 0.1.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Ground fault time (GFT) or ground fault delay time (GFDT) settings.625 In (Figure 29).2*. and 0. Figure 29.3. are available with 5 flat responses of 0. like the SDT settings. Ground Fault Time (GFT) With I2t T/C Characteristics Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 . 0.1*. 0.2. 0.
Modern-day larger frame breakers with solidstate (electronic) trips are much easier to coordinate. short-time. and ground fault functions. two LVPCBs in series will coordinate if their plotted T/C characteristic curves do not overlap or touch one another. Two MCCBs in series will coordinate if their plotted T/C characteristic curves do not overlap or cross one another. especially in the smaller frame sizes of 100 and 225 amperes. Even the larger frame breakers are difficult to coordinate unless sufficient impedance (very long cable runs) exists between the feeder breakers and the other downstream breakers. Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers (LVPCBs) are fairly simple to coordinate because of the numerous settings and adjustments available for their long time.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Coordination Principles Molded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCBs) are difficult to coordinate. instantaneous. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 . As with MCCBs. Figure 30 shows a main breaker (DS-632) coordinating with a feeder breaker (DS-206) that is protecting a 500 kcmil copper conductor.
LVPCB Coordination Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Figure 30.
Most manufacturers calibrate their standard breakers for a 40°C (104°F) ambient. altitude. for example. Note: The 40°C standards for MCCBs is based on the fact that 40°C is the average temperature of an enclosure. Recalibrating MCCBs is not a “user” option. etc. however. Nuisance tripping is not a problem under these lower temperature conditions. This condition promotes nuisance tripping. The ampere rating is the continuous load current that the breaker will carry in the ambient temperature for which it is calibrated. In addition. the factors affecting MCCB selection are limited to the following: • • • • • Temperature Thermal magnetic circuit breakers are temperature sensitive. A number of manufacturers offer circuit breakers that can be applied at 100% of their continuous rating. the circuit breaker should be recalibrated for the higher ambient temperature. For ambient temperatures above 40°C. The best option when ordering new breakers is to order ambient-compensated breakers. The continuous current ampere rating typically signifies the amount of current that the MCCB is designed to carry continuously in open air. breakers will carry less current than they are rated to carry in continuous current. frequency. In accordance with Article 220-10(b) of the NEC.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Factors Affecting Selection The properly rated MCCB for a specific application can be selected by determining the following listed parameters. a lighting panelboard. At ambient temperatures below 40°C. for purposes of this Module. unless specifically listed for 100% application. and it can create unacceptable temperature conditions at the terminals. for example. These 100% rated breakers specifically outline on their nameplates the minimum size Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 Temperature Continuous Loads Voltage Round-up Rule Round-down Rule . all overcurrent protection devices may be loaded to a maximum of 80% of their continuous ampere rating. the actual mechanical operation of the breaker could be affected if the ambient temperature is significantly below the 40°C standard. Under this condition. recalibration must be accomplished by the manufacturer. There are other factors. circuit breakers carry more current than they are rated to carry in continuous current. although consideration should be given to closer protection coordination to compensate for the additional current carrying capability. unusual operating conditions. Continuous Loads MCCBs are rated in amperes at a specific ambient temperature.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits enclosure. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 . and the minimum conductor size for application at 100% of their ratings. the minimum ventilation (if needed).
In panelboards. 380Y/220. An overly conservative selection can make a considerable difference in the cost. See NEC Article 240-3(b). The next higher standard device is permitted if the protective device does not exceed 800 A (round-up rule). Only IEC 947-2 breakers tested per Appendix C and marked accordingly (C 480V) are suitable for application on delta systems. See NEC Article 240-3(c). are all grounded “Y” systems similar to the U. Single pole testing at maximum voltage is not a requirement of IEC 947-2 except for this optional test under Appendix C. and governing standards be understood before any attempt is made to apply dual voltage-rated breakers. Article 240-83(e) of the NEC defines the allowed application of circuit breakers with straight or slash voltage markings. the most prevalent secondary distribution voltage in commercial and institutional buildings today is 480Y/277 volts. The conductor ampacity must be greater than the protective device setting/rating if the protective device exceeds 800 A (round-down rule). testing. where 415Y/240. and how the breaker is applied in the system. the type of distribution system. This test is a standard test under the UL 489 requirements for all voltage ranges. It is critical that the proper application. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62 . International applications. Round-up and Round-down Rules Per NEC Article 240-3. it is important that the MCCB have the lowest possible voltage rating that will do the job and meet the specifications. It is also a very common secondary voltage in industrial plants and even in some high rise commercial buildings that are centrally air-conditioned. with a solidly grounded neutral. conductors should be protected against overload in accordance with their ampacities as specified by NEC Article 310-15 and Tables 310-16 through 310-19 for conductors rated 0-2000 V. 480Y/277 volt system.S. For example. or 220Y/127 volt systems are used.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Voltage The voltage rating of an MCCB is determined by the maximum voltage that can be applied across its terminals.
above ground in outdoor. industrial facilities shall be hot-dip galvanized rigid steel. Figure 31 describes a typical length of wireway with a hinged cover. only wireways and conduits will be considered in selecting of feeder conductor raceway sizes. Wireways The NEC (Article 362-1) defines wireways as sheet metal troughs with hinged or removable covers for housing and protecting electric wires and cable and in which conductors are laid in place after the wireway has been installed. hot-dip galvanized rigid steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated or (b) type direct burial (DB) PVC conduit per NEMA TC 8. 63 • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . it must remain exposed.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits SELECTING FEEDER CONDUCTOR RACEWAY SIZES Note: Work Aid 1J has been developed to teach the Participant procedures to select feeder conductor raceway sizes. Length of Wireway Conduits SAES-P-114 lists the following specifications pertaining to conduits: • • Conduit. Note: The NEC does not permit concealment of wireway. Types of Raceways Note: For purposes of this Module. Figure 31. Direct buried conduit shall be (a) threaded. Other types of conduits shall be permitted where used and installed in accordance with the NEC.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64 .
Flexible metal conduit is not permitted in underground installations. The major difference between the two conduits is that RMC provides better mechanical damage for conductors than does IMC. EMT is not permitted in permanent moisture locations. resulting in damage to the insulation. Rigid Nonmetallic Conduit (PVC) is permitted for both concealed and exposed locations as long as it is not subject to physical damage. PVC is not permitted in hazardous locations. the heat buildup in the raceway could be excessive. Conductor Insulation Because each type of conductor has different insulation thicknesses. Additionally. or in any areas subject to physical damage. Note: SAES-P-104 prohibits the use of IMC in classified areas. and it also has very limited restrictions for use. RMC uses threaded fittings. Intermediate Metal Conduit (IMC) is very similar to RMC. RMC is most often used where moisture is present and where cables are subjected to mechanical damage. The total crosssectional area of the conductors. Factors Affecting Raceway Size The number of conductors permitted in a raceway is restricted by the NEC. in wet locations. must not exceed a specified percentage of the wireway or conduit cross-sectional area. Exceeding the percentage fill can cause physical damage to the conductors as they are being installed (pulled) through the raceway. of the NEC lists the dimensions (diameter and area) for each size and type of rubber-covered and thermoplasticcovered conductors. the percentage fill for each type of conductor (insulation) is different. in most hazardous locations.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Rigid Metal Conduit (RMC) has almost unlimited restrictions for use in industrial installations. The NEC refers to this restriction as “percentage fill”. which includes the insulation. Table 5. Flexible Metal Conduit is most often used for motor circuits or other types of circuits subjected to vibrations. EMT uses compression type couplings and fittings. although it is permitted for both exposed and concealed wet locations. Chapter 9. Electric Metallic Tubing (EMT) is a non-threaded metallic conduit used primarily for indoor protection of conductors. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65 .
Conduit Fill Rate Example Example J: Answer J: Referring to Table 3B of the NEC. what is the maximum number of 500 kcmil.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Number of Conductors The number of the same type of conductors (insulation) in conduit can be determined from Chapter 9. regardless of whether they are considered as current-carrying conductors. for fill rate purposes. For example. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 66 . Figure 32.NEC Tables 3A and 3B are based on a 40 percent fill rate of conductors in a given trade size of conduit (Figure 32). type THHN conductors in 3-inch conduit? Per Table 3B (page 914 of Work Aid 1A. the “green” equipment grounding conductor is considered for percentage fill restrictions even though it does not carry current except under line-to-ground fault conditions. Tables 3A and 3B of the NEC. The number of conductors in wireway. If conductor insulation types are mixed. Handout 1). must be calculated based on the fill rates permitted by the NEC. includes all conductors. the tables cannot be used and the fill rate for a particular mix of conductors in a given trade size of conduit must be calculated. the maximum number of 500 kcmil type THHN conductors in 3-inch conduit is 4. or mixed sizes and types of conductors (insulations). The number of conductors. Tables .
3904 + 1 x 0.1/0 4-No.1893 Feeder C: 4 x 0. All of the tables must be used to calculate the fill rate of a conduit. 1-No.2265 + 1 x 0. Table 1.0953 in2 (Table 5) 0. Table 4 lists the diameter.1182 Total = = = = 1. and/or the sum of all conductor areas shall not exceed a fill rate of 20 percent of the interior cross-sectional area of the wireway. and 40 percent fill rate area of conduit. Example K: Given the following list (Figure 33) of conductors. rubbercovered. Note: The derating factors specified in Article 310 for more than 3 conductors in a raceway are not applicable to the 30 current-carrying conductors and 20 percent fill rate specified above.4/0. 5A.2781 Feeder B: 4 x 0.1/0. a 3.NEC Article 362-5 restricts the fill rate of wireways to the following: no more than 30 current-carrying conductors.8754 in2 (Table 5) 3.5-inch conduit (3. and thermoplastic-covered conductors.2/0 4-No. 1-No. Tables 5. total area. when the insulation types and wire sizes installed in conduit are mixed.2/0.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Fill Rate Calculations . and 5B lists the dimensions (diameter and area) of bare.2 Figure 33. of the NEC specifies a fill rate of 40 percent for more than three conductors in a raceway. Chapter 9.1893 + 1 x 0. 1-No.4493 in2 (Table 5) 1. what is the minimum size conduit permissible to enclose the conductors? Circuit Identification Feeder A Feeder B Feeder C Insulation Type THHW THHN THHN Size of Copper Conductors 3-No.4200 in2 Per Table 4. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 67 .96 in2) is acceptable at a 40 percent fill rate. Example K Conductor Listing Answer K: Feeder A: 3 x 0.
8. Work Aid 1C: 1. 6. Instantaneous trips shall only be provided for dedicated feeders where there is no downstream protective device. refer to Handout 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits WORK AID 1: RESOURCES USED TO DESIGN A LOW VOLTAGE NON-MOTOR FEEDER CIRCUIT Work Aid 1A: 1993 National Electric Code Handbook For the content of Work Aid 1A. 2. and time-delayed ground fault trips. short-time phase overcurrent trips. 68 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . refer to Handout 2.7.2. Work Aid 1B: ANSI/IEEE Standard 141-1986 (Red Book) For the content of Work Aid 1B.3 specifies that protection of low voltage radial feeders may be provided by integral solid-state breaker trip devices. or A thermal-magnetic trip unit with separate adjustable 50G ground sensor and shunt trip device. where available from the manufacturer for the required frame size.1 specifies that all system and equipment protection shall conform to NFPA 70 (National Electric Code .NEC) as supplemented by this Standard. 4. Section 4. which shall be supplied with long-time. Section 4.7. SAES-P-114 Section 4.2.3 specifies that overcurrent protection for wires and cables connected to full-size molded case circuit breakers shall be based on NEC Article 110-14.1 specifies that low voltage feeder circuits shall be protected by circuit breakers and that all interrupting devices shall be fully rated.8. Section 10. Section 4. Section 4.3 specifies that all low voltage power circuit breakers shall include either an integral protective device with adjustable ground unit or shall be tripped by a ground overcurrent relay. 5. 3.4 specifies that low voltage 480 volt molded case circuit breakers rated 70 amperes and greater shall be provided with one of the following: a) b) An electronic trip device with adjustable ground unit.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 69 .
2. Section 6.1 (F) specifies that other voltage drops shall average two (2) percent with a maximum of four (4) percent to the most distant outlet at full load.2 specifies that the following criteria shall be used to establish equipment derating when specific requirements are not covered in an SAES or SAMSS. feeder. SAES-P-100 Ambient Temperatures Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 70 . SAES-P-100 Section 5. Location Ambient Temperature Average Monthly Maximum Normal Maximum Daily Peak 0 0 C C 45 40 35 50 50 35 3. Outdoors Indoors Well Ventilated Buildings Indoors Air-Conditioned Buildings Unmanned Areas Indoors Air-Conditioned Buildings Manned Areas 30 30 Figure 35.6 specifies that maximum steady state total voltage drop for a main. and branch circuit shall not exceed five (5) percent.6.1 (E) specifies that summation of voltage drops in circuit from main to distribution center and from feeder breaker to panelboard shall be two (2) percent at full load. 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1D: 1.6. Section 5. Section 5.
6. and PVC coated.3.3.3. 7. and on prefabricated skids. 3. 8.460 mm (18 in. Section 4. inside buildings.2 specifies that low voltage wire and cable (600 V or 600/1000 V and below) shall have a minimum rating of 75°C. 4.1 specifies that the minimum burial depths for 600 V and below underground installations shall be the following: • • • • Direct Buried cables .4 specifies that the minimum conduit size shall be 3/4 inch. Section 4.600 mm (24 in.2 specifies that conduit above ground in outdoor industrial facilities shall be threaded. SAES-P-104 Section 4.) Direct buried PVC conduit .2. 9. 14 AWG). hot-dip galvanized. 5. and other areas that are subject to vehicular traffic . Section 5. parking lots. Section 4. rigid steel.2.NEC). rigid steel. except that 2 solid copper conductors 6 mm (No.) 2. or duct bank under roads.) Duct bank and direct buried rigid steel conduit .1 specifies that design and installation of wiring and cable systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 70 (National Electric Code . the minimum size permitted is 2.1 specifies that direct buried conduit shall be threaded.2. Section 4.1 specifies that wire and cable shall have copper conductors.5 specifies that power conductors shall be of stranded copper. Section 4. or type DB PVC conduit.2. 10. Section 4.) PVC conduit. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 71 .3. as supplemented by this Standard.5 mm2 (No.460 mm (18 in. and be hot-dip galvanized. Section 4.10 specifies that for 600 V and below power conductors. where the minimum size conduit shall be 1/2 inch.6 specifies that electric metallic tubing (EMT) is acceptable only in nonhazardous indoor locations. except on instrument panels. Section 4.600 mm (24 in. rigid steel conduit. 10 AWG) and smaller may be used in nonindustrial locations and for specialty applications.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1E: 1.
1 specifies that feeders supplying transformers shall have an ampacity of not less than the sum of the full-load ratings (fan-cooled ratings. Section 8.2. if fans are installed) of all connected transformers and all other connected loads. Section 8.1 specifies that the sizing of power cables in the Saudi Aramco system shall be the following: • • • load factor . Section 8. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 72 .2. 12. but the size is not to exceed the maximum rating of the bus. 15. Section 8.2 specifies that a feeder cable serving a load bus shall be sized in accordance with the NEC plus a 20 percent growth factor. if fans are installed) of the transformer.40°C ambient temperature cable in conduit (in air) .3 permits deletion of the growth factor where two or more feeders serve the same bus. 13.2. Note: Section 8. 184.108.40.206 specifies that the ampacity of a feeder directly connecting the secondary of a transformer to a load bus shall not be less than the full-load rating (forced-air rating.5 specifies that a derating factor of 15 percent shall be applied to power cable that requires fireproofing.60°C exposed to sun and 50°C shaded or indoor.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits 11.100 percent of maximum steady state load direct buried cable . Section 8.
2 x kVA/( 3 x kV) or IL = 1.e. Step 3. Specify the selected conductor (or parallel conductors) as follows: • • • • Size . page 253)..i.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1F: Step 1. Note: Consider use of parallel conductors for required conductor sizes 500 kcmil and larger. THWN.AWG or kcmil Note: See Figure 36 for the nearest metric equivalent size conductor.f. Apply derating (correction) factors (if applicable) as follows: a) b) c) Fireproofing (where required): 15 percent Ambient temperature: Select the correction factor from NEC Table 310-16 (Handout 2. Initially select a 75°C or 90°C conductor form NEC Table 310-16 (Handout 2.2 factor is the 20 percent growth factor required by SAES-P-104. Step 4. More than three current-carrying conductors in a raceway: Select the correction factor from Note 8 to NEC Table 310-16 (Handout 2. 8/C Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 73 . THHN. IL = 1. page 248).. Number of Conductors .i.) Three-phase transformer feeder loads based on the self-cooled (OA) rating or forced-air (FA) rating if fans are installed: • IL = kVA/( 3 x kV) Step 2. page 248). 4/C. Three-phase non-motor loads: • • b. a.2 x kW/( 3 x kV x p. etc.Copper (Cu) Insulation Type . Applicable Procedures for Calculating Ampacity Ratings of Feeder Conductors Determine the feeder load current in accordance with the following formulas: Note: 1. Material . e.
5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 mm2 70 120 120 185 240 400 500 Figure 36. Standard Saudi Aramco Wire Sizes Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 74 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits CONDUCTOR SIZES AWG or kcmil* 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1/0 AWG or kcmil* 2/0 4/0 250* 350* 500* 750* 1000* mm2 2.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1G: Step 1. Iasy= maximum asymmetrical short circuit current in amperes calculated in Step 2. Calculate the magnitude of the fault current (total asymmetrical) in accordance with the following formula: • • Iasy = Isym x ko where: Isym = rms symmetrical fault current Note: Isym is assumed as a “given quantity” for purposes of this Work Aid.10 .0297 log10 [(T2 + 234)/T1 + 234)] x (A/Iasy)2 where: t = short circuit duration in seconds T1 = initial conductor temperature in degrees Celcius (°C) = 75°C or 90°C for NEC thermoplastic (PVC) conductors T2 = final conductor temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) = 150°C for NEC thermoplastic (PVC) conductors A = conductor cross-sectional area in circular mils (cmils) Note: See Table 8 of the NEC Handbook (Handout 1.3 for LVPCBs Step 3. 75 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards . and over 100 sec at low magnitude overloads. page 919). = 1. and 6 to 30 cycles (0. Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers (LVPCBs): 3 cycles (0. Applicable Procedures for Calculating the Short Feeder Conductor Circuit Rating of a Estimate the protective device clearing times as follows: a) Molded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCBs): 1.10 .6 for MCCBs = 1. over 100 sec in the long time ranges.5 cycles (25 msec) for 225 AF and larger in the MCCB’s instantaneous range (approximately five times the ampere trip).50 sec) in the short time ranges.0.05 sec) for instantaneous ranges. b) Step 2. 6 to 30 cycles (0.0. Calculate the duration (t) of of the short circuit in accordance with the following formula: • • t = .50 sec) for their ground fault ranges. ko= correction factor accounting for the dc component of current.1 cycles (18 msec) for less than 100 ampere frame (AF) and 1.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 76 .
Compare the short circuit duration (t) calculated in Step 3 to the estimated protective device clearing times from Step 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Step 4. increase the conductor size to the next standard available size and repeat Steps 3 and 4 until t is greater than the protective device’s clearing time. If t is less than the protective device’s clearing time. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 77 .
) Determine feeder impedance (ZΩ) per 1000 feet from NEC Table 9 (Handout 1. Step 2. sin θ = sin (cos-1 p.f. IL = (kVA)/[( 3)(kV)] = (kW)/[( 3)(kV)(p. Calculate VD as a percentage (VD%). Step 5. Calculate the load voltage (VL). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 78 . Step 4. VD% = 100[(VS . VL = VS . Calculate the load power factor angle θ = cos-1 p. Calculate the load reactive factor (sin θ). Calculate load current (IL). ZΩ = ((R + jX) Ω per 1000 ft) (number of feet) Step 7. increase the conductor to the next standard size and repeat Steps 6 through 11.f.VL)/VS] Step 11.f. VD = I(R cos θ + X sin θ) Step 6. Calculate the feeder impedance. VD = 3 VD (3f system) VD = 2VD (1φ system) Step 9.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1H: Step 1.VD Step 10. Calculate VD line-to-neutral. Step 8. page 920).)] Step 3. Calculate VD line-to-line. If VD% exceeds 2 percent. Applicable Procedures for Calculating the Voltage Feeder Conductor Drop of a Obtain the specified one-line diagram.
pages 142 and 143) lists the standard ampere ratings of circuit breakers. page 141) requires low voltage conductors to be protected in accordance with their ampacities as listed in NEC Tables 310-16 through 310-19 (Handout 1. Note: See NEC Article 2403(c) (Handout 1. the conductor ampacity must be increased to equal or exceed the device rating or the protective device must be decreased to the next standard lower ampere-rated protective device. pages 248 through 251) and their accompanying notes (Handout 1. Note: NEC Article 240-3 (Handout 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 79 . page 141). If the next standard ampere-rated protective device exceeds 800 A. Step 2. Applicable Procedures for Selecting a Feeder Conductor Protective Device Select the ampacity rating of an MCCB or an LVPCB based on the ampacity of the conductors as calculated in Work Aid 1F. select the next standard ampere-rated device. page 141). (Note: See NEC Article 240-3(b) (Handout 1. pages 252 through 255). If the conductor ampacity does not correspond with a standard ampere rating of a circuit breaker.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1I: Step 1. Note: NEC Article 240-6 (Handout 1.
compute the total crosssectional area of the conductors. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 80 . Select a conduit from Table 4 of the NEC (Handout 1. or 3C of the NEC (Handout 1. pages 913. page 199) based on the size of the selected protective device from Work Aid 1I. Step 2. page 915). 3B. Applicable Procedures for Selecting a Feeder Conductor Raceway Size Select the size of the equipment grounding conductor from NEC Table 250-95 (Handout 1. and the equipment grounding conductor. and 915).where the 40% fill rate area of the standard conduit size is greaterthan the conductor cross-sectional area computed in Step 3a. Step 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1J: Step 1. For type of conductor and number of conductors all of the same size. For type of conductor and number of conductors of different sizes: a) b) Using Table 5 of the NEC (Handout 1. 914. page 916). select the conduit (raceway) size from Tables 3A. the neutral conductor. Note: The term “conductors” includes the phase conductors.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits Work Aid 1K: Feeder Circuit Design Flow Chart Figure 37. Feeder Circuit Design Flow Chart Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 81 .
a switchboard. forced-cooled rating A kVA rating on a transformer that is the transformer (FA) rating with the fans operating. busway Solid copper bars that are insulated and covered in a metal enclosure and that are used to carry large currents for short distances. duct bank A method of underground installation of cable. circuit conductor The conductor that is the current carrying element of a branch or feeder circuit. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 82 . cable A stranded conductor or a combination of conductors that are insulated from each other. The complete assembly is buried in a trench or ditch. etc. This circuit conductor is usually cable or busway. bus feeder A type of feeder that supplies power to the main bus of switchgear. etc. or a panelboard. spacing. spacing. feeder circuit All circuit conductors that are between a source and the final branch circuit overcurrent protective device. where the duct bank consists of metallic or non-metallic conduit encased in concrete. where the cable is placed in a trench or ditch and covered with soil. direct burial A method of installing cable underground. conduit A metallic or non-metallic tube that is used to mechanically protect electrical wires and cables.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits GLOSSARY AWG American Wire Gauge branch circuit The circuit conductors that are between the final overcurrent protective device and the load. type of installation. type of installation. circular mils (cmil) A measure of the diameter of a wire that equals the diameter of the wire in mils (1/1000 of an inch) squared. derating factor Factors that are used to derate equipment due to high ambient temperatures. correction factor Factors that are used to derate equipment due to high ambient temperatures. See correction factor.
such as fans. cable size. A factor that is applied to equipment to allow for future Insulated Cable Engineers Association International Electrotecnical Commission A unit of measure of wire sizes that equals 1000 circular mils National Electric Code National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association A conductor or a group of conductors that supplies current to raceway Any channel that holds wires. Examples of raceway are conduit. cable duct. and cable tray. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 83 . NEC NEMA power cable equipment. ICEA IEC kcmil (cmil). cables. and length of cable. or bus bars and it may be metallic or non-metallic. voltage drop The amount of voltage that is measured (lost) on a conductor between the source and the load. transformer feeder A type of feeder that supplies power to a transformer.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Designing Low Voltage Non-Motor Industrial Feeder Circuits growth factor expansion. amount of current. The amount of voltage drop depends on the cable impedance. self-cooled rating (OA) A rating on a transformer that is the kVA rating of a transformer without the use of any additional cooling methods. Utilization voltage is the equipment’s rated operating voltage. utilization voltage The operating voltage required by a specific piece of equipment.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?