Training and Development

Training in International Management
y Training y Process of altering employee behavior & attitudes in a way that increases the probability of goal attainment y The most common topics covered in cultural training include:
y social etiquette y customs y economics y history y politics y business etiquette

Reasons for Expatriate training
y Organizational reasons y Overcome ethnocentricism y Belief that one·s own way of doing things is superior to that of others y Improve the flow of communication between home office & foreign subsidiaries y Increase overall efficiency & profitability y Personal reasons y To improve the ability of overseas managers to interact effectively with local people in general & with their personnel in particular y Personal shortcomings in areas such as politeness, punctuality, tactfulness, sensitivity, tolerance, empathy y Arrogant demeanor (Ugly American problem) y Open criticizing by expatriate managers of home or host country y Improve overall management style (leadership, decision making, communication, group work) y Focusing on dispelling myths & stereotypes by replacing them with facts about the culture

Pre-departure Training 
Cultural Awareness Programs

y Dependent on degree of interaction required in host culture

and similarities between individual·s native culture and the new culture

Contingency Approach to Cross-Cultural Training
(Mendenhall, Dunbar & Oddou, 1987)
Length of Training
1-2 Months

Cross-Cultural Training Approach Immersion Approach

Affective Approach
1-4 Weeks

Level of Rigor

Less than a Week


Information Giving Approach
1 Month


1-3 Years

Degree of Integration Length of Stay
or less
2 - 12 Months

Cultural Assimilators
y A Cultural Assimilator consists of critical incidents. y Critical incidents are short descriptions of situations where there is a problem of cultural

adaptation, or where there is a problem rising from cultural differences between the interacting parties.
y In a Cultural Assimilator the incidents are equipped with alternative explanations &

feedback. Trainees are expected to choose the "best" explanation considering the context.
y This method helps to sensitize users to cultural differences between their own culture & the

target culture.

y Sensitivity training is about making people understand about

themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. 

Preliminary Visits

Preliminary trip of host country Accept or reject the assignment based on experience  Language Training Host country language skills and adjustment: improves expatriate·s effectiveness and negotiating ability, info of host country, social support

ole of English language y Knowledge of corporate language: a common company language ²English
y y Practical Assistance

Adaptation to new environment, assist in relocation

Cross-Cultural Training Programs
Major types of cross-cultural training programs
Environmental Briefings 

Provide information about things

such as geography, climate, housing & schools
Cultural Orientation 

Familiarize the individual with

cultural institutions & value systems of the host country

Language Training

Cross-Cultural Training Programs
Major types of cross-cultural training programs
Cultural Assimilators 


learning techniques designed to expose members of one culture to some of the basic concepts, attitudes, role perceptions, customs, & values of another culture

Sensitivity Training 

Develop attitudinal flexibility  Send participant to the country of

Field Experience

assignment to undergo some of the emotional stress of living and working with people from a different culture

Cross-Cultural Training Programs
y A variety of other approaches can be used to prepare

managers for international assignments including:
y Visits to the host country y Briefings by host-country managers y Training in local negotiation techniques y Analysis of behavioral practices that have proven most effective

Developing staff through international assignments
Outcomes of international expertise: ‡ Management Development : experienced international operators for future assignments ‡ Organizational Development : stock of KSA·s for future

Individual Development
y Career advancement y Exposed to range of jobs, tasks and challenges

Developing International Teams Employees with international experience ‡ Mechanism for fostering innovation, organizational learning ,R&D and transfer of knowledge ‡ Encourage diverse inputs into decisions, problem solving and strategic assessments ‡ Develop global perspective etc. ‡ Informal networks for composition of project teams

Individual Development International Assignment International Team/Cadre

Organizational Development