The present performance is, so far as the end could be reached, the fulfillment of a design, formed about twenty-seven years ago, of one day presenting to the world, if I might, something like a complete grammar of the English language;--not a mere work of criticism, nor yet a work too tame, indecisive, and uncritical; for, in books of either of these sorts, our libraries already abound;--not a mere philosophical investigation of what is general or universal in grammar, nor yet a minute detail of what forms only a part of our own philology; for either of these plans falls very far short of such a purpose;--not a mere grammatical compend, abstract, or compilation, sorting with other works already before the public; for, in the production of school grammars, the author had early performed his part; and, of small treatises on this subject, we have long had a superabundance rather than a lack. After about fifteen years devoted chiefly to grammatical studies and exercises, during most of which time I had been alternately instructing youth in four different languages, thinking it practicable to effect some improvement upon the manuals which explain our own, I prepared and published, for the use of schools, a duodecimo volume of about three hundred pages; which, upon the presumption that its principles were conformable to the best usage, and well established thereby, I entitled, "The Institutes of English Grammar." Of this work, which, it is believed, has been gradually gaining in reputation and demand ever since its first publication, there is no occasion to say more here, than that it was the result of diligent study, and that it is, essentially, the nucleus, or the groundwork, of the present volume. With much additional labour, the principles contained in the Institutes of English Grammar, have here been not only reaffirmed and rewritten, but occasionally improved in expression, or amplified in their details. New topics, new definitions, new rules, have also been added; and all parts of the subject have been illustrated by a multiplicity of new examples and exercises, which it has required a long time to amass and arrange. To the main doctrines, also, are here subjoined many new observations and criticisms, which are the results of no inconsiderable reading and reflection. Regarding it as my business and calling, to work out the above-mentioned purpose as circumstances might permit, I have laid no claim to genius, none to infallibility; but I have endeavoured to be accurate, and aspired to be useful; and it is a part of my plan, that the reader of this volume shall never, through my fault, be left in doubt as to the origin of any thing it contains. It is but the duty of an author, to give every needful facility for a fair estimate of his work; and, whatever authority there may be for anonymous copying in works on grammar, the precedent is always bad. The success of other labours, answerable to moderate wishes, has enabled me to pursue this task under favourable circumstances, and with an unselfish, independent aim. Not with vainglorious pride, but with reverent gratitude to God, I acknowledge this advantage, giving thanks for the signal mercy which has upborne me to the long-continued effort. Had the case been otherwise,--had the labours of the school-room been still demanded for my support,--the present large volume would never have appeared. I had desired some leisure for the completing of this design, and to it I scrupled not to sacrifice the profits of my main employment, as soon as it could be done without hazard of adding another chapter to "the Calamities of Authors." The nature and design of this treatise are perhaps sufficiently developed in connexion with the various topics which are successively treated of in the Introduction. That method of teaching, which I conceive to be the best, is also there described. And, in the Grammar itself, there will be found occasional directions concerning the manner of its use. I have hoped to facilitate the study of the English language, not by abridging our grammatical code, or by rejecting the common phraseolgy [sic--KTH] of its doctrines, but by extending the former, improving the latter, and establishing both;--but still more, by furnishing new illustrations of the subject, and arranging its vast number of particulars in such order that every item may be readily found.

THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, An other important purpose, which, in the preparation of this work, has been borne constantly in mind, and judged worthy of very particular attention, was the attempt to settle, so far as the most patient investigation and the fullest exhibition of proofs could do it, the multitudinous and vexatious disputes which have hitherto divided the sentiments of teachers, and made the study of English grammar so uninviting, unsatisfactory, and unprofitable, to the student whose taste demands a reasonable degree of certainty.


"Whenever labour implies the exertion of thought, it does good, at least to the strong: when the saving of labour is a saving of thought, it enfeebles. The mind, like the body, is strengthened by hard exercise: but, to give this exercise all its salutary effect, it should be of a reasonable kind; it should lead us to the perception of regularity, of order, of principle, of a law. When, after all the trouble we have taken, we merely find anomalies and confusion, we are disgusted with what is so uncongenial: and, as our higher faculties have not been called into action, they are not unlikely to be outgrown by the lower, and overborne as it were by the underwood of our minds. Hence, no doubt, one of the reasons why our language has been so much neglected, and why such scandalous ignorance prevails concerning its nature and history, is its unattractive, disheartening irregularity: none but Satan is fond of plunging into chaos."--Philological Museum, (Cambridge, Eng., 1832,) Vol. i, p. 666. If there be any remedy for the neglect and ignorance here spoken of, it must be found in the more effectual teaching of English grammar. But the principles of grammar can never have any beneficial influence over any person's manner of speaking or writing, till by some process they are made so perfectly familiar, that he can apply them with all the readiness of a native power; that is, till he can apply them not only to what has been said or written, but to whatever he is about to utter. They must present themselves to the mind as by intuition, and with the quickness of thought; so as to regulate his language before it proceeds from the lips or the pen. If they come only by tardy recollection, or are called to mind but as contingent afterthoughts, they are altogether too late; and serve merely to mortify the speaker or writer, by reminding him of some deficiency or inaccuracy which there may then be no chance to amend. But how shall, or can, this readiness be acquired? I answer, By a careful attention to such exercises as are fitted to bring the learner's knowledge into practice. The student will therefore find, that I have given him something to do, as well as something to learn. But, by the formules and directions in this work, he is very carefully shown how to proceed; and, if he be a tolerable reader, it will be his own fault, if he does not, by such aid, become a tolerable grammarian. The chief of these exercises are the parsing of what is right, and the correcting of what is wrong; both, perhaps, equally important; and I have intended to make them equally easy. To any real proficient in grammar, nothing can be more free from embarrassment, than the performance of these exercises, in all ordinary cases. For grammar, rightly learned, institutes in the mind a certain knowledge, or process of thought, concerning the sorts, properties, and relations, of all the words which can be presented in any intelligible sentence; and, with the initiated, a perception of the construction will always instantly follow or accompany a discovery of the sense: and instantly, too, should there be a perception of the error, if any of the words are misspelled, misjoined, misapplied,--or are, in any way, unfaithful to the sense intended. Thus it is the great end of grammar, to secure the power of apt expression, by causing the principles on which language is constructed, if not to be constantly present to the mind, at least to pass through it more rapidly than either pen or voice can utter words. And where this power resides, there cannot but be a proportionate degree of critical skill, or of ability to judge of the language of others. Present what you will, grammar directs the mind immediately to a consideration of the sense; and, if properly taught, always creates a discriminating taste which is not less offended by specious absurdities, than by the common blunders of clownishness. Every one who has any pretensions to this art, knows that, to parse a sentence, is but to resolve it according to one's understanding of its import; and it is equally clear, that the power to correct an erroneous passage, usually demands or implies a knowledge of the author's thought. But, if parsing and correcting are of so great practical importance as our first mention of them suggests, it may be well to be more explicit here concerning them. The pupil who cannot perform these exercises both



accurately and fluently, is not truly prepared to perform them at all, and has no right to expect from any body a patient hearing. A slow and faltering rehearsal of words clearly prescribed, yet neither fairly remembered nor understandingly applied, is as foreign from parsing or correcting, as it is from elegance of diction. Divide and conquer, is the rule here, as in many other cases. Begin with what is simple; practise it till it becomes familiar; and then proceed. No child ever learned to speak by any other process. Hard things become easy by use; and skill is gained by little and little. Of the whole method of parsing, it should be understood, that it is to be a critical exercise in utterance, as well as an evidence of previous study,--an exhibition of the learner's attainments in the practice, as well as in the theory, of grammar; and that, in any tolerable performance of this exercise, there must be an exact adherence to the truth of facts, as they occur in the example, and to the forms of expression, which are prescribed as models, in the book. For parsing is, in no degree, a work of invention; but wholly an exercise, an exertion of skill. It is, indeed, an exercise for all the powers of the mind, except the inventive faculty. Perception, judgement, reasoning, memory, and method, are indispensable to the performance. Nothing is to be guessed at, or devised, or uttered at random. If the learner can but rehearse the necessary definitions and rules, and perform the simplest exercise of judgement in their application, he cannot but perceive what he must say in order to speak the truth in parsing. His principal difficulty is in determining the parts of speech. To lessen this, the trial should commence with easy sentences, also with few of the definitions, and with definitions that have been perfectly learned. This difficulty being surmounted, let him follow the forms prescribed for the several praxes of this work, and he shall not err. The directions and examples given at the head of each exercise, will show him exactly the number, the order, and the proper phraseology, of the particulars to be stated; so that he may go through the explanation with every advantage which a book can afford. There is no hope of him whom these aids will not save from "plunging into chaos." "Of all the works of man, language is the most enduring, and partakes the most of eternity. And, as our own language, so far as thought can project itself into the future, seems likely to be coeval with the world, and to spread vastly beyond even its present immeasurable limits, there cannot easily be a nobler object of ambition than to purify and better it."--Philological Museum, Vol. i, p. 665. It was some ambition of the kind here meant, awakened by a discovery of the scandalous errors and defects which abound in all our common English grammars, that prompted me to undertake the present work. Now, by the bettering of a language, I understand little else than the extensive teaching of its just forms, according to analogy and the general custom of the most accurate writers. This teaching, however, may well embrace also, or be combined with, an exposition of the various forms of false grammar by which inaccurate writers have corrupted, if not the language itself, at least their own style in it. With respect to our present English, I know not whether any other improvement of it ought to be attempted, than the avoiding and correcting of those improprieties and unwarrantable anomalies by which carelessness, ignorance, and affectation, are ever tending to debase it, and the careful teaching of its true grammar, according to its real importance in education. What further amendment is feasible, or is worthy to engage attention, I will not pretend to say; nor do I claim to have been competent to so much as was manifestly desirable within these limits. But what I lacked in ability, I have endeavored to supply by diligence; and what I could conveniently strengthen by better authority than my own, I have not failed to support with all that was due, of names, guillemets, and references. Like every other grammarian, I stake my reputation as an author, upon "a certain set of opinions," and a certain manner of exhibiting them, appealing to the good sense of my readers for the correctness of both. All contrary doctrines are unavoidably censured by him who attempts to sustain his own; but, to grammatical censures, no more importance ought to be attached than what belongs to grammar itself. He who cares not to be accurate in the use of language, is inconsistent with himself, if he be offended at verbal criticism; and he who is displeased at finding his opinions rejected, is equally so, if he cannot prove them to be well founded. It is only in cases susceptible of a rule, that any writer can be judged deficient. I can censure no man for differing from me, till I can show him a principle which he ought to follow. According to Lord Kames, the standard of taste, both in arts and in manners, is "the common sense of mankind," a principle founded in the

THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, universal conviction of a common nature in our species. (See Elements of Criticism, Chap, xxv, Vol. ii, p. 364.) If this is so, the doctrine applies to grammar as fully as to any thing about which criticism may concern itself. But, to the discerning student or teacher, I owe an apology for the abundant condescension with which I have noticed in this volume the works of unskillful grammarians. For men of sense have no natural inclination to dwell upon palpable offences against taste and scholarship; nor can they be easily persuaded to approve the course of an author who makes it his business to criticise petty productions. And is it not a fact, that grammatical authorship has sunk so low, that no man who is capable of perceiving its multitudinous errors, dares now stoop to notice the most flagrant of its abuses, or the most successful of its abuses? And, of the quackery which is now so prevalent, what can be a more natural effect, than a very general contempt for the study of grammar? My apology to the reader therefore is, that, as the honour of our language demands correctness in all the manuals prepared for schools, a just exposition of any that are lacking in this point, is a service due to the study of English grammar, if not to the authors in question.


The exposition, however, that I have made of the errors and defects of other writers, is only an incident, or underpart, of the scheme of this treatise. Nor have I anywhere exhibited blunders as one that takes delight in their discovery. My main design has been, to prepare a work which, by its own completeness and excellence, should deserve the title here chosen. But, a comprehensive code of false grammar being confessedly the most effectual means of teaching what is true, I have thought fit to supply this portion of my book, not from anonymous or uncertain sources, but from the actual text of other authors, and chiefly from the works of professed grammarians. "In what regards the laws of grammatical purity," says Dr. Campbell, "the violation is much more conspicuous than the observance."--See Philosophy of Rhetoric, p. 190. It therefore falls in with my main purpose, to present to the public, in the following ample work, a condensed mass of special criticism, such as is not elsewhere to be found in any language. And, if the littleness of the particulars to which the learner's attention is called, be reckoned an objection, the author last quoted has furnished for me, as well as for himself, a good apology. "The elements which enter into the composition of the hugest bodies, are subtile and inconsiderable. The rudiments of every art and science exhibit at first, to the learner, the appearance of littleness and insignificancy. And it is by attending to such reflections, as to a superficial observer would appear minute and hypercritical, that language must be improved, and eloquence perfected."--Ib., p. 244. GOOLD BROWN. LYNN, MASS., 1851. TABLE OF CONTENTS. PRELIMINARY MATTERS. Preface to the Grammar of English Grammars This Table of Contents Catalogue of English Grammars and Grammarians INTRODUCTION. * Chapter I. Of the Science of Grammar * Chapter II. Of Grammatical Authorship

THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, * Chapter III. Of Grammatical Success and Fame * Chapter IV. Of the Origin of Language * Chapter V. Of the Power of Language * Chapter VI. Of the Origin and History of the English Language * Chapter VII. Changes and Specimens of the English Language * Chapter VIII. Of the Grammatical Study of the English Language * Chapter IX. Of the Best Method of Teaching Grammar * Chapter X. Of Grammatical Definitions * Chapter XI. Brief Notices of the Schemes of certain Grammars THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS. Introductory Definitions General Division of the Subject PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY. * Chapter I. Of Letters I. Names of the Letters II. Classes of the Letters III. Powers of the Letters IV. Forms of the Letters Rules for the use of Capitals Errors concerning Capitals Promiscuous Errors of Capitals * Chapter II. Of Syllables Diphthongs and Triphthongs Rules for Syllabication Observations on Syllabication Errors concerning Syllables


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, * Chapter III. Of Words Rules for the Figure of Words Observations on Figure of Words On the Identity of Words Errors concerning Figure Promiscuous Errors in Figure * Chapter IV. Of Spelling Rules for Spelling Observations on Spelling Errors in Spelling Promiscuous Errors in Spelling * Chapter V. Questions on Orthography * Chapter VI Exercises for Writing PART II. ETYMOLOGY. Introductory Definitions * Chapter I. Of the Parts of Speech Observations on Parts of Speech Examples for Parsing, Praxis I * Chapter II. Of the Articles Observations on the Articles Examples for Parsing, Praxis II Errors concerning Articles * Chapter III. Of Nouns Classes of Nouns Modifications of Nouns Persons


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, Numbers Genders Cases The Declension of Nouns Examples for Parsing, Praxis III Errors concerning Nouns * Chapter IV. Of Adjectives Classes of Adjectives Modifications of Adjectives Regular Comparison Comparison by Adverbs Irregular Comparison Examples for Parsing, Praxis IV Errors concerning Adjectives * Chapter V. Of Pronouns Classes of the Pronouns Modifications of the Pronouns The Declension of Pronouns Examples for Parsing, Praxis V Errors concerning Pronouns * Chapter VI. Of Verbs Classes of Verbs Modifications of Verbs Moods Tenses Persons and Numbers


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, The Conjugation of Verbs I. Simple Form, Active or Neuter First Example, the verb LOVE Second Example, the verb SEE Third Example, the verb BE II. Compound or Progressive Form Fourth Example, to BE READING Observations on Compound Forms III. Form of Passive Verbs Fifth Example, to BE LOVED IV. Form of Negation V. Form of Question VI. Form of Question with Negation Irregular Verbs, with Obs. and List Redundant Verbs, with Obs. and List Defective Verbs, with Obs. and List Examples for Parsing, Praxis VI Errors concerning Verbs * Chapter VII. Of Participles Classes of Participles Examples for Parsing, Praxis VII Errors concerning Participles * Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs Classes of Adverbs Modifications of Adverbs Examples for Parsing, Praxis VIII


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, Errors concerning Adverbs * Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions Classes of Conjunctions List of the Conjunctions Examples for Parsing, Praxis IX Errors concerning Conjunctions * Chapter X. Of Prepositions List of the Prepositions Examples for Parsing, Praxis X Errors concerning Prepositions * Chapter XI. Of Interjections List of the Interjections Examples for Parsing, Praxis XI Errors concerning Interjections * Chapter XII. Questions on Etymology * Chapter XIII. Exercises for Writing PART III. SYNTAX. Introductory Definitions * Chapter I. Of Sentences The Rules of Syntax General or Critical Obs. on Syntax The Analyzing of Sentences The several Methods of Analysis Observations on Methods of Analysis Examples for Parsing, Praxis XII * Chapter II. Of the Articles


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, Rule I. Syntax of Articles Observations on Rule I Notes to Rule I; 17 of them False Syntax under Notes to Rule I * Chapter III. Of Cases, or Nouns Rule II. Of Nominatives Observations on Rule II False Syntax under Rule II Rule III. Of Apposition Observations on Rule III False Syntax under Rule III Rule IV. Of Possessives Observations on Rule IV Notes to Rule IV; 5 of them False Syntax under Notes to Rule IV Rule V. Of Objectives after Verbs Observations on Rule V Notes to Rule V; 8 of them False Syntax under Rule V Rule VI. Of Same Cases Observations on Rule VI Notes to Rule VI; 2 of them False Syntax under Rule VI Rule VII. Of Objectives after Prepositions Observations on Rule VII Note to Rule VII; 1 only


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, False Syntax under Rule VII Rule VIII. Of Nominatives Absolute Observations on Rule VIII False Syntax under Rule VIII * Chapter IV. Of Adjectives Rule IX. Of Adjectives Observations on Rule IX Notes to Rule IX; 16 of them False Syntax under Rule IX * Chapter V. Of Pronouns Rule X. Pronoun and Antecedent Observations on Rule X Notes to Rule X; 16 of them False Syntax under Rule X Rule XI. Pronoun and Collective Noun Observations on Rule XI Notes to Rule XI; 2 of them False Syntax under Rule XI Rule XII. Pronoun after AND Observations on Rule XII False Syntax under Rule XII Rule XIII. Pronoun after OR or NOR Observations on Rule XIII False Syntax under Rule XIII * Chapter VI. Of Verbs Rule XIV. Verb and Nominative


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, Observations on Rule XIV Notes to Rule XIV; 10 of them False Syntax under Rule XIV Rule XV. Verb and Collective Noun Observations on Rule XV Note to Rule XV; 1 only False Syntax under Rule XV Rule XVI. The Verb after AND Observations on Rule XVI Notes to Rule XVI; 7 of them False Syntax under Rule XVI Rule XVII. The Verb with OR or NOR Observations on Rule XVII Notes to Rule XVII; 15 of them False Syntax under Rule XVII Rule XVIII. Of Infinitives with TO Observations on Rule XVIII False Syntax under Rule XVIII Rule XIX. Of Infinitives without TO Observations on Rule XIX False Syntax under Rule XIX * Chapter VII. Of Participles Rule XX. Syntax of Participles Observations on Rule XX Notes to Rule XX; 13 of them False Syntax under Rule XX


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, * Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs Rule XXI. Relation of Adverbs Observations on Rule XXI Notes to Rule XXI; 10 of them False Syntax under Rule XXI * Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions Rule XXII. Use of Conjunctions Observations on Rule XXII Notes to Rule XXII; 8 of them False Syntax under Rule XXII * Chapter X. Of Prepositions Rule XXIII. Use of Prepositions Observations on Rule XXIII Notes to Rule XXIII; 5 of them False Syntax under Rule XXIII * Chapter XI. Of Interjections Rule XXIV. For Interjections Observations on Rule XXIV False Syntax Promiscuous Examples for Parsing, Praxis XIII * Chapter XII. General Review False Syntax for a General Review * Chapter XIII. General Rule of Syntax Critical Notes to the General Rule General Observations on the Syntax False Syntax under the General Rule


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, False Syntax under the Critical Notes Promiscuous Examples of False Syntax * Chapter XIV. Questions on Syntax * Chapter XV. Exercises for Writing PART IV. PROSODY. Introductory Definitions and Observations * Chapter I. Punctuation Obs. on Pauses, Points, Names, &c. Section I. The Comma; its 17 Rules Errors concerning the Comma Section II. The Semicolon; its 3 Rules Errors concerning the Semicolon Mixed Examples of Error Section III. The Colon; its 3 Rules Errors concerning the Colon Mixed Examples of Error Section IV. The Period; its 8 Rules Observations on the Period Errors concerning the Period Mixed Examples of Error Section V. The Dash; its 3 Rules Observations on the Dash Errors concerning the Dash Mixed Examples of Error Section VI. The Eroteme; its 3 Rules Observations on the Eroteme


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, Errors concerning the Eroteme Mixed Examples of Error Section VII. The Ecphoneme; its 3 Rules Errors concerning the Ecphoneme Mixed Examples of Error Section VIII. The Curves; and their 2 Rules Errors concerning the Curves Mixed Examples of Error Section IX. The Other Marks Mixed Examples of Error Bad English Badly Pointed * Chapter II. Of Utterance Section I. Of Articulation Article I. Of the Definition Article II. Of Good Articulation Section II. Of Pronunciation Article I. Powers of Letters Article II. Of Quantity Article III. Of Accent Section III. Of Elocution Article I. Of Emphasis Article II. Of Pauses Article III. Of Inflections Article IV. Of Tones * Chapter III. Of Figures Section I. Figures of Orthography


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, Section II. Figures of Etymology Section III. Figures of Syntax Section IV. Figures of Rhetoric Section V. Examples for Parsing, Praxis XIV * Chapter IV. Of Versification Section I. Of Verse Definitions and Principles Observations on Verse Section II. Of Accent and Quantity Section III. Of Poetic Feet Critical Observations on Theories Section IV. Of the Kinds of Verse Order I. Iambic Verse; its 8 Measures Order II. Trochaic Verse; its Nature Observations on Trochaic Metre Trochaics shown in their 8 Measures Order III. Anapestic Verse; its 4 Measures Observations on the Short Anapestics Order IV. Dactylic Verse; its 8 Measures Observations on Dactylics Order V. Composite Verse Observations on Composites Section V. Improprieties for Correction * Chapter V. Questions on Prosody * Chapter VI. Exercises for Writing KEY TO THE ORAL EXERCISES.


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, THE KEY.--PART I.--ORTHOGRAPHY. * Chapter I. Of Letters; Capitals Corrections under each of the 16 Rules Promiscuous corrections of Capitals * Chapter II. Of Syllables Corrections of False Syllabication * Chapter III. Of the Figure of Words Corrections under each of the 6 Rules Promiscuous corrections of Figure * Chapter IV. Of Spelling Corrections under each of the 15 Rules Promiscuous corrections of Spelling THE KEY.--PART II--ETYMOLOGY. * Chapter I. Of the Parts of Speech Remark concerning False Etymology * Chapter II. Of Articles; 5 Lessons * Chapter III. Of Nouns; 3 Lessons * Chapter IV. Of Adjectives; 3 Lessons * Chapter V. Of Pronouns; 3 Lessons * Chapter VI. Of Verbs; 3 Lessons * Chapter VII. Of Participles; 3 Lessons * Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs; 1 Lesson * Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions; 1 Lesson * Chapter X. Of Prepositions; 1 Lesson * Chapter XI. Of Interjections; 1 Lesson THE KEY.--PART III.--SYNTAX.


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, * Chapter I. Of Sentences; Remark * Chapter II. Of Articles. Corrections under the 17 Notes to Rule 1 * Chapter III. Of Cases, or Nouns Cor. under Rule II; of Nominatives Cor. under Rule III; of Apposition Cor. under Rule IV; of Possessives Cor. under Rule V; of Objectives Cor. under Rule VI; of Same Cases Cor. under Rule VII; of Objectives Cor. under Rule VIII; of Nom. Absolute * Chapter IV. Of Adjectives. Corrections under the 16 Notes to Rule IX * Chapter V. Of Pronouns. Corrections under Rule X and its 16 Notes Corrections under Rule XI; of Pronouns Cor. under Rule XII; of Pronouns Cor. under Rule XIII; of Pronouns * Chapter VI. Of Verbs. Corrections under Rule XIV and its 10 Notes Cor. under Rule XV and its Note Cor. under Rule XVI and its 7 Notes Cor. under Rule XVII and its 15 Notes Cor. under Rule XVIII; of Infinitives Cor. under Rule XIX; of Infinitives * Chapter VII. Of Participles. Corrections under the 13 Notes to Rule XX * Chapter VIII. Of Adverbs. Corrections under the 10 Notes to Rule XXI * Chapter IX. Of Conjunctions. Corrections under the 8 Notes to Rule XXII * Chapter X. Of Prepositions. Corrections under the 5 Notes to Rule XXIII * Chapter XI. Promiscuous Exercises. Corrections of the 8 Lessons


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, * Chapter XII. General Review. Corrections under all the preceding Rules and Notes; 18 Lessons * Chapter XIII. General Rule. Corrections under the General Rule; 16 Lessons Corrections under the Critical Notes Promiscuous Corrections of False Syntax; 5 Lessons, under Various Rules THE KEY.--PART IV.--PROSODY. * Chapter I. Punctuation Section I. The Comma; Corrections under its 17 Rules Section II. The Semicolon; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section III. The Colon; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section IV. The Period; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section V. The Dash; Corrections under its 8 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section VI. The Eroteme; Corrections under its 3 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section VII. The Ecphoneme; Corrections under its 3 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section VIII. The Curves; Corrections under their 2 Rules Mixed Examples Corrected Section IX. All Points; Corrections Good English Rightly Pointed * Chapter II. Utterance; no Corrections * Chapter III. Figures; no Corrections


THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, * Chapter IV. Versification. False Prosody, or Errors of Metre, Corrected THE FOUR APPENDIXES. Appendix I. (To Orthography.) Of the Sounds of the Letters Appendix II. (To Etymology.) Of the Derivation of Words Appendix III. (To Syntax.) Of the Qualities of Style Appendix IV. (To Prosody.) Of Poetic Diction; its Peculiarities INDEX OF MATTERS. A DIGESTED CATALOGUE OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS AND GRAMMARIANS,


WITH SOME COLLATERAL WORKS AND AUTHORITIES, ESPECIALLY SUCH AS ARE CITED IN THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS. ADAM, ALEXANDER, LL. D.; "Latin and English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 302: Edinburgh, 1772; Boston, 1803. ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, LL. D.; "Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory;" 2 vols., 8vo: Cambridge, N. E., 1810. ADAMS, Rev. CHARLES, A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 172: 1st Edition, Boston, 1838. ADAMS, DANIEL, M. B.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 103: 3d Edition, Montpelier, Vt., 1814. ADAMS, E.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 143. Leicester, Mass., 1st Ed., 1806; 5th Ed., 1821. AICKIN, JOSEPH; English Grammar, 8vo: London, 1693. AINSWORTH, ROBERT; Latin and English Dictionary, 4to: 1st Ed., 1736; revised Ed., Lond., 1823. AINSWORTH, LUTHER; "A Practical System of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 144: 1st Ed., Providence, R. I., 1837. ALDEN, ABNER, A. M.; "Grammar Made Easy;" 12mo, pp. 180: 1st Ed., Boston, 1811. ALDEN, Rev. TIMOTHY, Jun.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 36: 1st Ed., Boston, 1811. ALDRICH, W.; "Lectures on English Grammar and Rhetoric, for Common Schools, Academies," &c.; 18mo, pp. 68: 11th Ed., Boston, 1847. ALEXANDER, CALEB, A. M.; (1.) "Grammatical Elements," published before 1794. (2.) "A Grammatical Institute of the Latin Language;" 12mo, pp. 132: Worcester, Mass., 1794. (3.) "A Grammatical System of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 96; written at Mendon, Mass., 1795: 10th Ed., Keene, N. H., 1814. Also, (4.) "An Introduction to Latin," 1795; and, (5.) "An Introduction to the Speaking and Writing of English." ALEXANDER, SAMUEL; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 216: 4th Edition, London, 1832.



ALGER, ISRAEL, Jun., A. M.; "Abridgement of Murray's E. Gram.," &c.; 18mo, pp. 126: Boston, 1824 and 1842. ALLEN, Rev. WILLIAM, M. A.; "Grammar of the English Language," &c.; 18mo: London. Also, "The Elements of English Grammar." &c.; 12mo, pp. 457: London, 1813; 2d Ed., ALLEN and CORNWELL:; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 162: 3d Edition, London, 1841. ALLEN, D. CAVERNO; "Grammatic Guide, or Common School Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 94: Syracuse, N. Y., 1847. ANDREW, JAMES, LL. D.; English Grammar; 8vo, pp. 129: London, 1817. ANDREWS & STODDARD; "A Grammar of the Latin Language;" 12mo, pp. 328: Boston, 1836; 11th Ed., 1845. ANGELL, OLIVER, A. M.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 90: 1st Edition, Providence, R. I., 1830. ANGUS, WILLIAM, M. A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 255: 2d Edition, Glasgow, Scotland, 1807. ANON.; "The British Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 281: London, 1760, or near that date. Boston, Mass., 1784. ANON.; "A Comprehensive Grammar," &c.; 18mo, pp. 174: 3d Ed., Philadelphia, T. Dobson, 1789. ANON.; "The Comic Grammar," &c,: London, 1840. ANON.; "The Decoy," an English Grammar with Cuts; 12mo, pp. 33: New York, S. Wood & Sons, 1820. ANON.: E. Gram., "By T. C.;" 18mo, pp. 104: London, 1843. ANON.; Grammar and Rhetoric; 12mo, pp. 221: London, 1776. ANON.; "The English Tutor;" 8vo: London, 1747. ANON.; English Grammar, 12mo: London, Boosey, 1795. ANON.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 161: London, 1838. ANON.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 85: London, 1838. ANON.; An English Grammar, with Engravings; 18mo, pp. 16: London, 1820. ANON.; English Grammar, pp. 84: 1st Ed., Huddersfield, 1817. ANON.: "The Essentials of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 3d Edition, London, 1821. ANON.; "A Plain and Comprehensive Grammar," in "The Complete Letter-Writer;" 12mo, pp. 31;--pages of the whole book, 215: London, 1811. ANON.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 131: Albany, N. Y., 1819. ANON.; (A. H. Maltby & Co. pub.;) Murray's Abridgement, "with Additions;" 18mo, pp. 120: Newhaven,



ANON.; (James Loring, pub.;) Murray's Abridgement, "with Alterations and Improvements; by a Teacher of Youth;" (Lawson Lyon;) 18mo, pp. 72: 14th Ed., Boston, 1821. ANON.; "The Infant School Grammar;" (said to have been written by Mrs. Bethune;) 18mo, pp. 182: New York, 1830. Jonathan Seymour, proprietor. ANON.; Pestalozzian Grammar; 12mo, pp. 60: Boston, 1830. ANON.; Interrogative Grammar; 12mo, pp. 70: Boston, 1832. ANON.; Grammar with Cuts; 18mo, pp. 108: Boston, 1830. ANON.; "The Juvenile English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 89: Boston, 1829. B. Perkins & Co., publishers and proprietors. ANON.; "The Little Grammarian;" 18mo, pp. 108: 2d Edition, Boston, 1829. ANON.; An Inductive Grammar; 12mo, pp. 185: Windsor, Vt., 1829. ANON.; "A Concise Grammar of the English Language, attempted in Verse;" 18mo, pp. 63: 1st Edition, New York, 1825. ANON.; "Edward's First Lessons in Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Boston, T. H. Webb & Co., 1843. ANON.; "The First Lessons in English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 90: 1st Edition, Boston, 1842. ANON.; "A New Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 124: New York, 1831; 2d Ed., Boston, 1834. ANON.; "Enclytica, or the Principles of Universal Grammar;" 8vo, pp. 133: London, J. Booth, 1814. ANON.; "The General Principles of Grammar, edited by a few Well-Wishers to Knowledge;" 18mo, pp. 76: Philadelphia, Lea & Blanchard, 1847. ANON.; "English School Grammar;" small 12mo, pp. 32: London, 1850. A meagre sketch, published by "the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge." ANON.; "An English Grammar, together with a First Lesson in Reading;" 18mo, pp. 16: James Burns, London; 2d Ed., 1844. Not worth a pin. ARISTOTLE; his Poetics;--the Greek text, with Goulston's Latin Version, and Winstanley's Notes;--8vo, pp. 320: Oxford, England, 1780. ARNOLD, T. K., M. A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 76: 2d Edition, London, 1841. ASH, JOHN, LL. D.; "Grammatical Institutes;" 18mo, pp. 142: London, first published about 1763; New York, "A New Edition, Revised and Corrected," 1799. BACON, CALEB, Teacher; "Murray's English Grammar Put into Questions and Answers;" 18mo, pp. 108: New York, 1st Edition, 1818; 5th Edition, 1823, 1827, and 1830. BADGLEY, JONATHAN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 200: 1st Edition, Utica, N. Y., 1845. Suppressed for plagiarism from G. Brown.



BALCH, WILLIAM S.; (1.) "Lectures on Language;" 12mo, pp. 252: Providence, 1838. (2.) "A Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp, 140: 1st Edition, Boston, 1839. BALDWIN, EDWARD; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 148: London, 1810; 2d Ed., 1824. BARBER, Dr. JONATHAN; "A Grammar of Elocution;" 12mo; Newhaven, 1830. BARNARD, FREDERICK A. P., A. M.; "Analytic Grammar; with Symbolic Illustration;" 12mo, pp. 264: New York, 1836. This is a curious work, and remarkably well-written. BARNES, DANIEL H., of N. Y.; "The Red Book," or Bearcroft's "Practical Orthography," Revised and Enlarged; 12mo, pp. 347: New York, 1828. BARNES, WILLIAM, B. D.; (1.) English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 120: London, 1842. (2.) "A Philological Grammar, grounded upon English, and formed from a Comparison of more than Sixty Languages;" 8vo, pp. 312: London, 1854. BARRETT, JOHN; "A Grammar of the English Language;" 18mo, pp. 214: 2d Ed., Boston, 1819. BARRETT, SOLOMON, Jun.; (1.) "The Principles of Language;" 12mo, pp. 120: Albany, 1837. (2.) "The Principles of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 96; "Tenth Edition, Revised:" Utica, 1845. (3.) "The Principles of Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 407: "Revised Edition;" Cambridge, 1854. BARRIE, ALEXANDER; English Grammar; 24to, pp. 54: Edinburgh, 9th Ed., 1800. BARTLETT, MONTGOMERY R.; "The Common School Manual;" called in the Third or Philadelphia Edition, "The National School Manual;"--"in Four Parts," or Separate Volumes, 12mo: I, pp. 108; II, 302; III, 379; IV, promised "to consist of 450 or 500 pages." First three parts, "Second Edition," New York, 1830. A miserable jumble, in the successive pages of which, Grammar is mixed up with Spelling-columns, Reading-lessons, Arithmetic, Geometry, and the other supposed daily tasks of a school-boy! BAILEY, N., Schoolmaster; "English and Latin Exercises;" 12mo, pp. 183: London. 18th Ed., 1798. BAILEY, Rev. R. W., A. M.; "English Grammar," or "Manual of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 240: 2d Ed., Philadelphia, 1854. BAYLEY, ANSELM, LL. D.; English Grammar, 8vo: London, 1772. BEALE, SOLON; English Grammar, 18mo, pp. 27: Bangor, Maine, 1833. BEALL, ALEXANDER; English Grammar, 12mo: 1st Ed., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1841. BEATTIE, JAMES, LL. D.; "Theory of Language:" London, 1783; Philadelphia, 1809. "Elements of Moral Science;" 12mo, pp. 572; Baltimore, 1813. See, in Part 1, the sections which treat of "The Faculty of Speech," and the "Essentials of Language;" and, in Part IV, those which treat of "Rhetorick, Figures, Sentences, Style, and Poetry." BECK, WILLIAM; "Outline of English Grammar;" very small, pp. 34: 3d Ed., London, 1829. BEECHER, CATHARINE E.; English Grammar, 12mo, pp. 74. 1st Ed., Hartford, Ct., 1829. BELL, JOHN; English Grammar, 12mo, pp. 446: (2 vols.:) 1st Ed., Glasgow, 1769.

THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, BELLAMY, ELIZABETH; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1802. BENEDICT,--------; English Grammar, 12mo, pp. 192: 1st Ed., Nicholasville, Ky., 1832. BETTESWORTH, JOHN; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1778.


BICKNELL, ALEXANDER, Esq.; "The Grammatical Wreath; or, a Complete System of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 804: London, 1790. BINGHAM, CALEB, A. M.; "The Young Lady's Accidence;" 18mo, pp. 60: Boston, 1804; 20th Ed., 1815. BLAIR, HUGH, D. D., F. B. S.; "Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres;" 8vo, pp. 500: London, 1783; New York, 1819. BLAIR, JOHN, D. D.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 145: 1st Ed., Philadelphia, 1831. BLAIR, DAVID, Rev.; "A Practical Grammar of the English Language;" 18mo, pp. 167: 7th Ed., London, 1815. BLAISDALE, SILAS; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 88: 1st Ed., Boston, 1831. BLISS, LEONARD Jun.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 73: 1st Ed., Louisville, Ky., 1839. BOBBITT, A.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 136: 1st Ed., London, 1833. BOLLES, WILLIAM; (1.) "A Spelling-Book;" 12mo, pp. 180: Ster. Ed., N. London, 1831. (2.) "An Explanatory and Phonographic Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language;" royal octavo, pp. 944; Ster. Ed., New London, 1845. BOOTH, DAVID; Introd. to Analytical Dict.; 8vo, pp. 168: London, 1814. Analytical Dictionary of the English Language: London, 1835. E. Grammar, 12mo: London, 1837. BRACE, JOAB; "The Principles of English Grammar;" (vile theft from Lennie;) 18mo, pp. 144: 1st Edition, Philadelphia, 1839. BRADLEY, JOSHUA, A. M.; "Youth's Literary Guide;" 12mo, pp. 192: 1st Ed., Windsor, Vt., 1815. BRADLEY, Rev. C.; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 148: York, Eng., 1810; 3d Ed., 1813. BRIDIL, EDMUND, LL. D.; E. Gram., 4to: London, 1799. BRIGHTLAND, JOHN, Pub.; "A Grammar of the English Tongue;" 12mo, pp. 800: 7th Ed., London, 1748. BRITTAIN, Rev. LEWIS; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 156: 2d Edition, London, 1790. BROMLEY, WALTER; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 104: 1st Ed., Halifax, N. S., 1822. BROWN, GOOLD; (1.) "The Institutes of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 220-312: New York, 1st Ed., 1823; stereotyped in 1832, and again in 1846. (2.) "The First Lines of English Grammar;" early copies 18mo, late copies 12mo, pp. 108: New York, 1st Ed., 1823; stereotyped in 1827, and in 1844. (3.) "A Key to the Exercises for Writing, contained in the Institutes of English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 51: New York, 1825. (4.) "A Catechism of English Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 72: New York, 1827. (5.) "A Compendious English



Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 22: (in Part I of the Treasury of Knowledge:) New York, 1831. (6.) "The Grammar of English Grammars;" 8vo, pp. 1028; first printed in Boston in 1850 and 1851. BROWN, JAMES; (1.) An Explanation of E. Grammar as taught by an Expensive Machine; 8vo, pp. 40: 1st Ed., Boston, 1815. (2.) "The American Grammar;" a Pamphlet; 12mo, pp. 48: Salem, N. Y., 1821. (3.) "An American Grammar;" 18mo, pp. 162: New York, 1821. (4.) "An Appeal from the British System of English Grammar to Common Sense;" 12mo, pp. 336: Philadelphia, 1837. (5.) "The American System of English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 216: Philad., 1838. (6.) "An Exegesis of English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 147: Philad., 1840. (7.) "The First Part of the American System of English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 195: Boston, 1841. (8.) "An English Syntascope," a "Chart," and other fantastical works. BROWN, J. H., A. M.; (with Gengemhre;) "Elements of English Grammar, on a Progressive System;" 12mo, pp. 213: Philad., 1855. BROWN, RICHARD; English Grammar, 12mo: London, 1692. BUCHANAN, JAMES; "A Regular English Syntax;" 12mo, pp. 196: 5th American Ed., Philad., 1792. BUCKE, CHARLES; "A Classical Grammar of the E. Language;" 18mo, pp. 152: London, 1829. BULLEN, Rev. H. ST. JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 140: 1st Edition, London, 1797. BULLIONS, Rev. PETER, D. D.; (1.) "Elements of the Greek Language;" (now called, "The Principles of Greek Grammar;") mostly a version of Dr. Moor's "Elementa Linguæ Græcæ:" 1st Ed., 1831. (2.) "The Principles of English Grammar;" (mostly copied from Lennie;) 12mo, pp. 187; 2d Ed., New York, 1837; 5th Ed., Revised, pp. 216, 1843, (3.) "The Principles of Latin Grammar;" (professedly, "upon the foundation of Adam's Latin Grammar;") 12mo, pp. 312: Albany, 1841: 12th Ed., New York, 1846. (4.) "Practical Lessons in English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 132: New York, 1844. (5.) "An Analytical and Practical Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 240: 1st Ed., New York, 1849. BULLOKAR, WILLIAM; (1.) "Booke at Large for the Amendment of Orthographie for English Speech." (2.) "A Bref Grammar for English:" London, 1586. BURHANS, HEZEKIAH; "The Critical Pronouncing Spelling-Book;" 12mo, pp. 204: 1st Ed., Philad., 1823. BURLES, EDWARD; E. Gram., 12mo: Lond., 1652. BURN, JOHN; "A Practical Grammar of the E. Lang.;" 12mo, pp. 275: Glasgow, 1766; 10th Ed., 1810. BURR, JONATHAN, A. M.; "A Compendium of Eng. Gram.;" 18mo, pp. 72: Boston, 1797,--1804,--1818. BUTLER, CHARLES; E. Gram., 4to: Oxford, Eng., 1633. BUTLER, NOBLE, A. M.; (1.) "A Practical Grammar of the E. Lang.;" 12mo, pp. 216: 1st Ed., Louisville, Ky., 1845. (2.) "Introductory Lessons in E. Grammar," 1845. CAMPBELL, GEORGE, D. D., F. R. S.; "The Philosophy of Rhetoric;" 8vo, pp. 445: London, 1776: Philad., 1818. CARDELL, WM. S.; (1.) An "Analytical Spelling-Book;" (with Part of the "Story of Jack Halyard;") 12mo, pp. 192: (published at first under the fictitious name of "John Franklin Jones:") New York, 1823; 2d Ed., 1824. (2.) An "Essay on Language;" 12mo, pp. 203: New York, 1825. (3.) "Elements of English Grammar;"

THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS, 18mo, pp. 141: New York, 1826; 3d Ed., Hartford, 1827. (4.) "Philosophic Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 236: Philadelphia, 1827. CAREY, JOHN; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 220: 1st Ed., London, 1809. CARTER, JOHN; E. Gram., 8vo: Leeds, 1773.


CHANDLER, JOSEPH R.; "A Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 180: Philad., 1821. Rev. Ed., pp. 208, stereotyped, 1847. CHAPIN, JOEL; English Grammar; 12mo, pp. 252: 1st Edition, Springfield, Mass., 1842. CHAUVIER, J. H., M. A.; "A Treatise on Punctuation;" translated from the French, by J. B. Huntington; large 18mo, pp. 112: London, 1849. CHESSMAN, DANIEL, A. M.; Murray Abridged; 18mo, pp. 24: 3d Ed., Hullowell, Me., 1821. CHILD, PROF. F. J.; "Revised Edition" of Dr. Latham's "Elementary English Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 236: Cambridge, N. E., 1852. CHURCHILL, T. O.; "A New Grammar of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 454: 1st Ed., London, 1823. CLAPHAM, Rev. SAMUEL; E. Grammar: London, 1810. CLARK, HENRY; E. Grammar; 4to: London, 1656. CLARK, SCHUYLER; "The American Linguist, or Natural Grammar;" 12mo, pp. 240: Providence, 1830. CLARK, S. W., A. M.; "A Practical Grammar," with "a System of Diagrams;" 12mo, pp. 218; 2d Ed., New York, 1848. CLARK, WILLIAM; E. Gram.; 18mo: London, 1810. CLARKE, R.; "Poetical Grammar of the English Language, and an Epitome of Rhetoric;" 12mo, pp. 172; price, 2s. 6d.: London, 1855. COAR, THOMAS; "A Grammar of the English Tongue;" 12mo, pp. 276: 1st Ed., London, 1796. COBB, ENOS; "Elements of the English Language;" 12mo, pp. 108: 1st Ed., Boston, 1820. COBB, LYMAN, A. M.; (1.) A Spelling-Book according to J. Walker; "Revised Ed.:" Ithaca, N. Y., 1825. (2.) "Abridgment of Walker's Crit. Pron. Dict.:" Hartford, Ct., 1829. (3.) "Juvenile Reader, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and Sequel:" New York, 1831. (4.) "The North American Reader;" 12mo, pp. 498: New York, 1835. (5.) "New Spelling-Book, in Six Parts;" 12mo, pp. 168: N. Y., 1843. (6.) An "Expositor," a "Miniature Lexicon," books of "Arithmetic, &c., &c." COBBETT, WILLIAM; "A Grammar of the E. Language;" 12mo, New York and Lond., 1818; 18mo, N. Y., 1832. COBBIN, Rev. INGRAM, M. A.; English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 72: 20th Edition, London, 1844. COCHRAN, PETER, A. B.: English Grammar; 18mo, pp. 71: 1st Ed., Boston, 1802.

CORBET. C. London. London. 12mo. Ithaca.) "Modern Practical E.. JOHN. Ct. M. pp. Paul's. XI. CORBET. DAVENPORT. 12mo: London. pp. Albany. DAVIS. S. CONNEL. D. 24to.. 162: Glasgow.. PARSONS E." 12mo. pp. CORNELL." 12mo. 2d Ed. English Grammar. 30 COMSTOCK. M. a small "English Grammar. 1831. N. Much indebted to S.. JOHN. A. M. 1772. 1818. D. Ireland. Rev.. 120: 2d Ed. Philad.." 18mo. 12mo: Shrewsbury. the "English Introduction" to Lily's Grammar. ALEXANDER. 1840. Gram. See Gram. N. W..) "A Plain and Practical English Grammar. pp. Gram. 1841.. English Grammar. DAVID. "Elements of English Grammar. A. DALTON. pp. Brown. 2d Ed. 139: 1st Ed. Del. "A System of Elocution. F. S. 364: Philadelphia. 12mo. WILLIAM. 1834. English Grammar. Greene. 12: 1st Edition. 1826.. or Grammar." 12mo. pp. DAY. COOTE. CROCKER. A.. English Grammar. Mandeville. 8vo. C. Belfast. 281: 1st Edition. 153: 1st Edition. 12mo: Lond. 200: Philadelphia. M. John. ANDREW. Glasgow. (1. ¶¶ 3. 1815. CUTLER. 122: London. DAVIS. 264: 1st Ed. 219: 3d Ed... and G... pp. English Grammar. WILLIAM M. LL. 1845." 12mo.. ROBERT. Dr. 18mo. and 5. JOAB GOLDSMITH. A. "English Grammar Simplified. "A Treatise on Phonology. 15th Ed. New York. BISHOP.. "District School Grammar. Y. dedicated to Lily in 1510.. ANDREW. Rev.." 18mo. 188: 1st Ed. COMLY. English Grammar.. 425: London. DAVIDSON. W." 12mo.. on the English Language." 18mo.. (2. COOPER. Brown. Gram. 1846: &c. R. of E. T. LL. pp. 1844.. JOHN. "Punctuation Reduced to a System. 1784.. Philad. "English Grammar Made Easy. pp. 72: 1st Ed. pp... pp. D. 18mo. 168: Edinburgh. GEORGE. L. "A Digest of English Grammar. 1801. "The Principles of Language." 18mo. ABRAHAM. 4to. 210: Philad.." 18mo.. 175: 1st Ed. Introd.." 8vo... DAY. 1847." 12mo. 1809. 1828. CRANE. 1st Ed. pp. (1. 1823. Wilmington. PARDON. 1788. a Syntactical Treatise. M. 1832." (largely stolen from G. 147: 3d Ed. pp. COVELL. 56: 1st Ed. DALE.. pp.) 12mo. 1743. 1845.. pp. T. England. COLET. English Grammar. London. "A Treatise on the Etymology and Syntax of the English Language...) An Epitome of E. Boston. 1831. 192: 6th Ed. Dean of St. 1830.. 1836.. "English Grammar and Parser. pp. pp. pp. Chap. pp. (2. CONNON.... A.) "An Abridgment of Murray's English Grammar... 1843.. . H. 1844." 12mo.. Philad. 1820. 168: 1st Ed. JOHN. pp. JAMES.THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS. pp. 4th Ed. 1853. Y. 4. CROMBIE." 12mo. Plainfield.

Brown's copy is a "complete edition." 12mo. a Flemish grammarian. pp. Despauter's Latin Grammar. 40th Ed. Andover and New York. 1828. EMMONS.. "The first complete edition of Despauter's Grammar was printed at Cologne.. G.. Norwich." 18mo. at one time. 1825.. Pa. (1... 39: 1st Ed. whose books were.. 1740: 26th Ed. 148: London. Blair's Preface. "Principles of General Grammar.. in great repute. Part II. 1832. ELPHINSTON.. J. 270: 1st Ed. 18mo. 12th Ed. DOHERTY. pp. London. Syntax."--Univ. 12mo. and Versification... C. (2. English Grammar. in the "Preface to the Fourth Edition" of his Grammar. "The Grammatical Instructer. 1764. ELLEN. London. London.. pp. HUGH. D. 1835. THOMAS. M. 1st Ed. 10: London.. English Grammar. in Two Parts. ELMORE. ENSELL. pp. pp. Edinburgh. 8vo: Brentford. Dict.. or Natural Analysis. pp. E." 12mo. 1st Ed. 153. 1830.. BENJAMIN. Boston." 12mo." 12mo. "A Grammar of the English Language. 1829.) An Introduction to E. pp. ALEXANDER J. pp.. Biog. Rev. EVEREST. B..--comprises 858 octavo pages. 12mo. Boston. 1816. 36: 1st Ed.) undated. 168: Boston.. EARL. pp." is doubtless an other and much larger work.. B. A. "English Grammar. Brown.. SYLVESTRE. 1842... 31 D'ORSEY. A. (used by G. Jun. pp. Ct. Treatise on English Grammar. pp. his Syntax had been published anno 1509. Part I. 130: London and Dublin.. on the English Language. "National Spelling-Book. pp. 12mo. Troy. 8vo. spoken of in D. Y.. A." G. Adam says. 1710. WELLS. in Three Parts.. JAMES. Mrs.. ." 12mo. S. pp. W. 240. 18: 1st Ed. 18mo. Baron. England. pp. 104: Edin.. Fosdick. Dr. English Grammar. A. 1841.. Suppressed for plagiarism from G. pp. by D. a Treatise on English Grammar. 1st Ed. "Columbian Grammar. 142: 1st Ed.. New York. E. 1795. N. EGELSHEM." translated from the French." 12mo. EMERY. D. 115: 1st Ed. "DESPAUTER. 1834. 18mo.. DEVIS. 1796.. EDWARDS. 1842. as being too "comprehensive and minute.THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS. 1781.. anno 1522. DILWORTH. DE SACY. DRUMMOND. 156: 1st American. 8vo: London. DEARBORN..--Etymology. 1845. "An English Grammar.. A mere trifle.. EVERETT. 1777. MARY. English Grammar. English Grammar. BENJAMIN D. pp. "A System of English Versification. 298: 1st Ed. Wellsborough." printed partly in 1517. DYCHE. Worthless. JOHN. "A New Guide to the English Tongue. 160: 1st Ed. 198: 1st Ed. 1797. pp. EMERSON. 1st Ed. ERASTUS. Boston. 17th Ed. DEL MAR. [Fist] Devis's Grammar. 140: 1st Ed. M. 12mo: London. M. B. 1765. 18mo. THOMAS. from the 5th French Edition." in English and Dutch. CORNELIUS B...) A Duodecimo Grammar.. 612: Rotterdam. JOHN. English Grammar. 8vo. Gram. 8vo. 1767. 1796. Gram. and partly in 1518. pp. J. he died in 1520. pp.

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" 12mo.. WILLIAM. pp. Vt. 1854. SAMUEL. London. 1807. D. 164: 1st Ed. pp. 124: Boston. (1. B. 1834. English Grammar. Boston.. pp.. "The History of European Languages. RUFUS. pp." in two vols.. pp. (2. PARKER. F. English Grammar. THOMAS. 72: Edin. 1809. 1806. 377: 1st Ed." in two volumes.. NESBIT. 1836. 12mo. 12mo.. 684: 4th American from the last English Ed. "Easy English Grammar. D. AMOS C. D. NIGHTINGALE.) Same Abridged for Schools. N.. English Grammar. 12mo. pp. English Grammar.." 12mo. M. A.." 12mo. MOREY. 144: 3d Ed..) "Abridgment of Murray's English Grammar." 12mo.. "An Abridgment of Walker's Rules on the Sounds of the Letters. Gram. 23d Ed. London.. D. ALEXANDER. MOORE. CHARLES.. London. 1796. 18mo. 1829. Fudge! 38 MULLIGAN.. pp.. 1819. "School Grammar. Boston. Ct. "A Practical Grammar. 1844. 12mo: England. pp.. (4." 18mo. Rev. New York. A. ODELL. pp. 800." 12mo.. J. "An Introd. 1826. 1823. OLIVER.. MURRAY. English Grammar. London.. Montpelier. pp.) A Spelling-Book. pp... MYLINS.. EDWARD. 12mo. A. York. LINDLEY. WM. English Grammar. pp. octavo. ALEXANDER. pp. MORGAN. MILLIGAN." 18mo. English Grammar. 8vo.) "The English Parser. 2d Ed. RICHARD GREEN.. M. 176: London. D." 18mo. 194: 3d Ed..THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS." 12mo.. Schoolmaster. JOHN.. 1817.) "Exposition of the Grammatical Structure of the English Language... PALMER. MORLEY.) "New and Comprehensive English Grammar. (2. 1795. Hallowell. 1852. B. 574: New York. .. 180: 11th Ed. 1803. 301: N. M. 1793. (1. MYLNE... 1822. JOHN. 2d Ed. pp. Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners. 1816. London. 18mo. Edinburgh. English Grammar. 18mo. A. pp.. H. 1826." 12mo." small 8vo. pp. 1825. JONATHAN. Rev. London. 1833. 1810.. NUTTING. GEORGE. 96: 1st Ed. pp. 18mo. pp. D.. NEWBURY. 180: New York.. London.. 12mo. Y. 1833. Jun. 86: (with Cuts:) 1st Ed.) "Aids to English Composition. Rev. England.. 152: 5th Ed. NIXON. pp. 1787. London. to English Parsing. (1. pp. Eng. 105: "From the 30th English Ed..) "English Grammar. A. pp. 12mo. 205: 1st Ed. 8vo.... Me. MURRAY.) "An English Grammar. MULKEY. 1832. 1831. Y. (3. 106: 3d Ed. pp. pp. 1814. "Orthography and Pronunciation. pp." New York. MARY. 213: 2d Ed. 106: Albany. 284: York. 1819. A. pp. 418: 1st Ed. (1... 405: 1st Ed. Hartford. A. English Grammar.. pp. OLIVER." 12mo. 1839. English Grammar.) "Exercises in Composition.. (2. (2.. MURRAY. 178: 1st Ed. 12mo." 12mo: 1st Ed. 48: New York. J.

Philadelphia.. 1828. 70: 18th Ed. M. Grammar in Dict. pp. PULLEN. 211: London. pp.. 384: 1st Ed. W. for Beginners:" Cincinnati.. D. PAYN. Modified." 18mo." 12mo. pp. 18mo. (1. New York... Philadelphia. D.." 12mo. Grammar. 108: 1st Ed.. Ster. English Grammar. Mass.. 216: Cincinnati. 1845. Boston. 18mo." (Murray's... PICKET. PINNEO. English Grammar. PEIRCE. 122. H. 240: Cincinnati.. (1. ALBERT. 1853. PERRY. JOSEPH. EDWARD. 12mo." in three separate parts. 1835.) "Pinneo's English Teacher. PICKBOURN." 18mo. 108: Improved Ster. 162: Concord.) "First Lessons in Composition. pp. pp." 18mo.. 180: 1st Ed. Mass.) "English Grammar for Beginners. 1822. London. PARKHURST. 1824. pp. Abridgement of the same.. OLIVER B.THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS. Andover. pp. 12mo. 1835." 12mo. M.) 18mo. pp.) A Comprehensive Grammar. 1836. "The Grammar of the English Language. SAMUEL H.. Mass.) "Advanced Course of Composition .. pp. A. 1825. PEIRCE. H.. pp.. Mass...) "Analytical Grammar of the E. pp. 1841. 18mo. (2. 12mo:--Part I. 1825. "Analytical School Grammar.. (1. Dover.. N. pp.. POND. M. New York. 188: 1st Ed. 1834. 1820. M. D. PINNOCK." 18mo. Improved.. pp. Also. Philadelphia. pp. "Murray's System of Eng. London. pp. POWERS. English Gram.. 144: Boston. PENGELLEY. 12mo.. 96.. 1839. Boston.) A Catechism of E. (2. 1840. 149: 1st Ed. 228: 5th Ed. ENOCH. "Dissertation on the English Verb:" London. QUACKENBOS.. PRIESTLEY. pp. PERLEY. JOHN L. 1829. Boston. PARSONS. 318: 1st Ed. 252: New York." 18mo." (2. (2. S. 12mo: Edinburgh.. D. D. 1835: Part III.. DANIEL. Grammar. pp. PUTSEY. WILLIAM. 39 PARKER and FOX. This Grammar is mostly copied from Harrison's. "Progressive Exercises in English Grammar. GEO. JOHN. 18mo. "The New American Spelling-Book. London. 2d Ed. 79: 1st Ed." with "A Plain and Easy Introduction to English Grammar. West Brookfleld. DANIEL. a petty Grammar with Cuts. in which is taught the Structure of Sentences by Analysis and Synthesis. 1840. W. Also. Language:" 12mo. PUTNAM. pp. JAMES. 321: London. (1.. English Grammar. 1820. Ed. pp.. 2d Ed. 107: 1st Ed. pp. 2d Ed. LL. 200: 6th Ed. pp.... SAMUEL. 1838. PUE. HUGH A. "A Grammar of the English Language.. N.. PUTNAM.. Worcester. H. Grammar. pp. 202: 3d Ed. "English Grammar. 1850. P. M. 1821. 1840. London. 1804. 1829. "The Rudiments of E.. 1831. 104: Concord. E. 1854. 71: New Ed. 1772.. (3. "Putnam's Murray. 1789. 60. 18mo. 1801. T. English Grammar. A. Worcester. J.) "A Systematic Introduction to English Grammar.) "A Primary Grammar. Andover.. 18mo. Rev. 1824. 1823... pp. 1834: Part II." 18mo. N." 12mo.. pp. pp.. Gram. H. under the same title. 2d Ed. 18mo.

. 1847. 8vo: London. N.. 492: Cork.." 12mo.. Grammar. 1854. English Grammar. a Treatise on Oratory and Elocution. SCOTT. Y. F. pp. Rev. CALEB.. Northampton. CHARLES W. 1702. 142: Hartford. "The Young Grammarian. D.. pp. pp. J. H.) "Lessons in Enunciation:" Boston. Hartford. pp. pp. Boston.) "A Grammar of Composition. pp. I. N. SARGENT... 1813. 18mo. RIGAN. T. 1847. 30: 1st Ed. 455: New York. 18mo. 46: 2d Ed. (2. English Grammar. RAND. A. Rev.." 8vo: Philadelphia. A. 1842. 1830. "The Standard Speaker.. 1832. and J.. JOHN. 1833. SABINE.. 300: improved Ed. 1830. R.... ASA. 12mo: Edinb. 12mo: 2d Ed. 168: London.. 18mo. pp. English Grammar. WM.. 164: 1st Ed.. 1839. 299: 1st Ed. JOHN. JAMES. D. 18mo.. English Grammar. H. London. D. Y. 120: 1st Ed. ROBERT." 12mo. 1826. an American Grammar. 1797. pp. N. Gram. ROBINSON. SANBOBN." &c. Grammar.. 1836. REED. 1797.. 10th Ed. REID. Ct.) "Orthophony. pp. A. 1841. "An Analytical Grammar of the English Language. 12mo: England. 18mo. English Grammar. 68: 1st Ed.. SANDERS. with Grammar prefixed. RUSH. ROZZELL. "Philosophy of the Human Voice. London. 12mo. pp.. 1835. 1823. (3. English Grammar. J. pp.. 1855. Eng. 1795. A. . pp. ROOME. pp. RYLAND. 12mo: Dublin.. 1823. Dictionary.: "An Abridgment of Murray's Grammar. C. 1767. 558: Philadelphia. and Rhetoric. and Synt. "The Youth's Grammar. JOHN. 40 RICORD. English Grammar. pp." 18mo." small 8vo.. pp. M. Maysville. Concord.. M. 12mo. 1821. Boston. Easy Lessons in Etymology. 150: Newhaven. 1810. 1819. 95: 1st Ed. ROBBINS." 12mo.." 12mo... D..THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS. 12mo. 1852. 90: 1st Ed. M... pp. 1782. English Grammar in Verse. 70: Prov." 12mo. pp. M. RUSSELL. Boston. MANASSEH. ROTHWELL. pp. 120: Rochester. or. "Rudimental Lessons in Etym. London. DYER H. square. 199: 7th Ed. WILLIAM.. EPES. 118: 1st Ed.. pp. ROSS. WILLIAM E. Glasgow. REID.. W. RUSSELL. "Teacher's Manual. M. 18mo. JOHN.. or the Cultivation of the Voice. English Grammar.. RUSSELL." 12mo.. (1. WILLIAM." 12mo.

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86. 1838. JAMES. [Asterism] The Names. ALBERT D. 12mo. WORCESTER. 1st Ed. JOSEPH W. pp.. 72: 1st Ed. the other Books are 85. pp. 1831. "A First Book of English Grammar. English Grammar. END OF THE CATALOGUE. WOOD. English Grammar.. D. INTRODUCTION HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL . "Analytical Orthography." 12mo. "Universal and Critical Dictionary of the English Language. N." 1st Ed. pp. D.. in the foregoing alphabetical Catalogue. 112: 2d Ed. N. the Works mentioned are 548. Y.. E. Rev. the Grammars are 463." 12mo. 252: New York and London. Y.. 6th Ed. 207: London. "A Philosophical Grammar of the English Language. A. WOODWORTH. 1842. WOOD. Auburn.. Boston.. WRIGHT. Cazenovia.. 1823. 1841. SAMUEL.. "Grammar Demonstrated..." 18mo. 1846.THEGRAMMAROFENGLISH GRAMMARS. HELEN. pp. pp. are 452. 44 WRIGHT." 18mo. 12mo: London. WORCESTER. 1827. or Heads. Boston. 1778. JOSEPH.

deserve to be despised. iii. Fifthly. OF THE SCIENCE OF GRAMMAR. in the proper use of it. Language. to the ocean. a practical science. is peculiar to man. nor fail to give to the consulter an intelligible and satisfactory response."--QUINTILIAN. grammar is a science. Cap. like navigation. and. "ars rectè scribendi. our grammar is a text-book. and makes it most a favourite with the most gifted minds.CHAPTER I. arithmetic. But language is an attribute of reason. De Inst. And though there be some geniuses who affect to despise the trammels of grammar rules. Such is our meaning. grammar is an art. logic. p. That science is Grammar. that. In these relations. Secondly. of which. or view him as an individual preëminent among his fellows. or liberal branches of knowledge. It is as a chart. First. Speech results from the joint exercise of the best and noblest faculties of human nature. as Dr. It is as a single voyage. It is to language. It is as navigation. and grammar becomes. whether we compare him with other orders in the creation. It is as skill. Orat. (quod infinitum erat. which nautic skill alone enables men to traverse. grammar. with division of thought. 2. It is the first of what have been called the seven sciences. whether pleasing or painful. with welded links. and makes the tongue or the pen explain the uses and abuses to which both are liable. and as such. and immediately concerns the correct and elegant use of language. none but human beings can make words the vehicle of thought. Hark to that sweet far-reaching note: . and as power. In these relations. 4. some may begin to think that in treating of grammar we are dealing with something too various and changeable for the understanding to grasp. in which there is not an intelligible meaning. when we speak of the grammar of a particular text or passage. in such a manner that he shall neither escape from our hold. Lib. theory and practice combine. to whom it must be conceded that many things which have been unskillfully taught as such. Again: Grammar is to language a sort of self-examination. or use as a help to our own observation. to bind this Proteus. But let the reader or student do his part. and distinction of words. "The study of Grammar has been considered an object of great importance by the wisest men in all ages. rhetoric. to the thing to be done. geometry. follow us with attention. It turns the faculty of speech or writing upon itself for its own elucidation. by which they indicate their feelings. In this relation. 3. may be exhibited by parrots. but even from all the chattering. We will endeavour. and presents nothing that can seem desirable to the sensual and grovelling. Hence that science which makes known the nature and structure of speech. in the proper sense of the term. "Hæc de Grammatica quam brevissime potui: non ut omnia dicerem sectatus. Thirdly. as knowledge is to the thing known. rectèque loquendi" the art of writing and speaking correctly. a dodging Proteus of the imagination. 45 CHAPTER I. In this relation. generous youth. the peculiar ornament and distinction of man. and is. as well as the nature and excellency of that power. and acquires from each a nature leading to a different definition. so that.. Be not discouraged. if he please. without a miraculous assumption of human powers. astronomy. these are the two grand instruments. and as doctrine. Adam remarks. to a coast which we would visit. namely. Fourthly.. x. 1. to the truths it inculcates. and music. to the open sea. while it surpasses all the conceptions of the stupid or unlearned.) sed ut maxima necessaria. and sometimes by domesticated ravens. From this account. An imitation of some of the articulate sounds employed in speech. has an intrinsic dignity which highly commends it to all persons of sense and taste."--Preface to Latin and English Gram. Grammar bears to language several different relations. i. to the instruments it employs. and elude the vigilance of the inquirer. has long been defined. the highway of nations. which we take as a guide. yet it is true. from our rational understanding and our social affection. and babbling of our own species. who is ever ready to assume some new shape. jabbering. and differs essentially not only from all brute voices. and we know that almost all brute animals have their peculiar natural voices.

46 5. is exclusively that which has reference to a knowledge of letters."--Webster's Dict. is of incalculable importance to the welfare of man. which at one period embraced all learning. Lowth embraces both terms in a more general one. of others. too. which occurs in most of the foregoing Latin definitions." Vossius. either from mere imitation. But even if this be true as regards its earlier application. beware To strain his fetters with a stricter care. Melancthon says. in the various parts of the world. reversed the terms writing and speaking. Modern science assigns to these their separate places. A consideration of the subject in these relations. and restricts grammar. as respects its fitness to be the vehicle of any particular thought or sentiment which the speaker or writer may wish to convey by it." It is. speaking. which are beneath the dignity of grammar. The English word correctly seems to be less liable to such an objection.") is still usually employed to tell . it may well be questioned. He says."--Introduction to Dict. There are. because it is not to language as the vehicle of moral or of immoral sentiment. for it is but the art of understanding and speaking correctly that which we have before us on paper. the province of grammar. and our interpretation of the words. and either this brief term. of good or of evil to mankind. And in proportion as books are multiplied. "Sed. "Grammatica est ars rectè loquendi." Dr. "Grammatica est rectè scribendi atque loquendi ars. "Ars benè loquendi eóque et scribendi. grammar has no control. and the knowledge of written language is diffused. Dr. And Nugent has accordingly given us the following definition: "Grammar is the art of reading. there is yet great room for improvement: barbarisms and solecisms have not been rebuked away as they deserve to be. the more he varies forms. and writing a language by rules. Perizonius. it is not only ambiguous by reason of its different uses in the Latin classics. to guide us not merely in the expression of our own thoughts. in commenting upon Sanctius's imperfect definition. in his Grammatical Commentaries.[1] 8. "Grammar is the art of writing and speaking correctly. too. Lily says. local dialects. Accordingly grammar is commonly defined. "Grammatica est certa loquendi ac scribendi ratio. however. by writers upon the subject. in his definition." not improperly asks." Despauter." Ruddiman also. whether by frequency of use it has not acquired a signification which makes it proper at the present time. 7. pertains rather to the moral philosopher. For it ought to be remembered. IV. Nor are the arts of logic and rhetoric now considered to be properly within the grammarian's province.. But this reflection does not directly enhance our respect for grammar. 6. The word rectè. p. "Grammar is the art of rightly expressing our thoughts by words. "ars recè loquendi scribendique. that the attention of the grammarian is particularly directed. we shall with one voice acknowledge. And even where it has been applied. this arrangement of the words has been followed by most modern grammarians. that over any fugitive colloquial dialect. atque id Latinis Latinè. "But thou. xii. and to which. but also in our apprehension of the thoughts. the definition or true idea of grammar. and defined grammar. the art of reading is virtually a part of grammar. to improve speech. If for a moment we consider the good and the evil that are done in the world through the medium of speech. to the knowledge of language. not improperly placed writing first. will always be found to grow fewer." and." that is. 411. and that the speaking which the art or science of grammar teaches. Hence. on account of the vagueness of its meaning. which has never been fixed by visible signs. Prat. which is quoted in a preceding paragraph. is censured by the learned Richard Johnson. as being that with which grammar is primarily concerned. "et quidni intelligendi et explicandi?" "and why not also of understanding and explaining?" Hence. or some other of like import. quanto ille magis formas se vertet in omnes. truly. magis contende tenacia vincla." VIRGIL. therefore. nate. many languages to which the art of grammar has never yet been applied. in his Institutes of Latin Grammar. and their differences less. however general. does not properly extend. in the special sense of an art--"the art of speaking or writing a language with propriety or correctness. Latinis Latinè. "Grammatica est rectè loquendi atque scribendi ars. It is the certain tendency of writing.CHAPTER I. Tanto." DRYDEN'S VIRGIL. "with correctness"--"with propriety. but also the manner in which it is used. correctly. but destitute of any signification proper to grammar. or from the general observation that speech precedes writing. rightly. that not only the faculty itself. and is now honoured as a popular branch of study. (as. Geor. and says.

"Hence. and as being a point very much overlooked. No word is ever required to stand immediately before or after an other. which treats of the several parts of speech. of this relation. by making it to be "the art of expressing the relations of things in construction. like spelling. but there are many more. number. which treats of the use of those things in construction. To the right use of language. Syntax. But perhaps he gives to the relation of words. nor can be. 10. by grammarians in general. To this one part of grammar. and formations." Again he adds: "The word relation has other senses.. The relation of words. their definitions. can communicate to him that learns it. but no simple definition of this. that no word ever necessarily agrees with an other. from any of these terms. then grammar is too hard. means. It is true. which treats of spelling. From these positions. I vary the language. as pertaining to lexicography. with which it is not thus connected in the mind of him who uses it. and pay a due regard to accent in pronunciation. And it seems to be as applicable to nearly all the grammars now in use. agreement. And it is plain. So. (though he sets aside the first. except incidentally. That we should observe the relations that words have one to another in sentences. Johnson speaks at large of the relation of words to each other in sentences. taken by itself. is but to understand the meaning of the phrase or sentence. and orthography in writing. therefore. That we should learn to write words with their proper letters. and in the other parts also. No rule or principle of construction can ever have any applicability beyond the limits. then. instrument. the true definition of Grammar is this: Grammar is the art of expressing the relations of things in construction. government. but not the substance or the order of his positions. declension. but the general idea of grammar will not be brought nearer to truth. the skill of an artist. 11. R. that the relation of words--by which I mean that connexion between them.) an earlier introduction and a more prominent place. That we should acquire a knowledge of the proper sounds of the letters. 9. But can a boy learn by such means what it is. and the like. and these make up the whole of syntax--but not the whole of grammar.CHAPTER I. and the forms of words. the relation of words is central and fundamental. with which it has. to which the sense does not direct it. of words in sentences." Thirdly. than it ought to have in a general system of grammar. to which it has not some relation according to the meaning of the passage. but yet the relation of words one to another in a sentence. or very badly explained. which the train of thought forms and suggests--or that dependence which one word has on an other according to the sense--lies at the foundation of all syntax. Orthography. To see what it is in any given case." &c. and not to grammar. according to the foregoing definition. accidents. which treats of accenting in pronunciation. of cause. according to the custom of those whose language we learn. therefore. p. pronunciation. that the young will as easily apprehend them. and particles. end. His censure is just. he cannot. with due accent in speaking. any grammar without them. (which is merely their dependence on other words according to the sense. spelling them as literary men generally do. as constituting in his view the most essential part of grammar. has no other signification than what I intend by it. no connexion. adjunct. according to their relations. And if such things are too hard for children. and Prosody." See R. and represent those relations by such variations. Here then are the relation. and therefore the most proper words to explain them to others. First. or contrary to the order. "there arise Four Parts of Grammar. Johnson's Grammatical Commentaries. some idea of grammar as distinguished from other arts. in fact. as it formerly did. In citing these. and whatsoever belongs merely to letters. or of any other art.) the learned critic deduces first his four parts of the subject. No word ever governs an other. syllables. as are usual with authors in that language. he makes four things to be necessary. for there neither is. and arrangement. as to those which he criticised a hundred and thirty years ago. and other grammar-terms. which are names given by logicians to those relations under which the mind comprehends things. he can. 47 what grammar is. 4. there are some things to which the consideration of it is incidental. should be clearly and fully explained in its proper place. . That we should speak and write words according to the significations which belong to them: the teaching of which now pertains to lexicography. And a little experience will satisfy any man. derivation. Fourthly. under the head of syntax. and then his definition of grammar. to speak and write grammatically? In one sense. as gender. He may derive. Analogy. object. and not now to grammar. and in an other. effect. manner. "Secondly. namely." says he.

requires only the former of these analyses. with Lindley Murray and some others. the former. nor is the science or art. and it is manifest. which. who represent this art as mean and barren. a certain science or philosophy of language. consists of certain combinations either of sounds or of visible signs. Latin. The art or science to which this term is applied. and that comparatively small. resolves speech not only as a whole into its constituent parts and separable elements. without regard to any of the idioms of particular languages. and are founded on the very nature of human thought. however different. The term grammar is derived from the Greek word [Greek: gramma]. not in cursory speech. are unfit to be incorporated with any system of practical grammar. Universal or Philosophical Grammar is a large field for speculation and inquiry. had its origin. as they sometimes have been. "they are little to be respected. or Universal Grammar. "Wherefore. however.[2] For every cultivated language has its particular grammar. in which many or all of the different languages preserved in books. Yet. in which. yet as consisting of materials. such a system should have little to do. and embraces many things which. is language in general. Philosophy. and. 15. dealing in generalities. Nor are such things to be despised as trivial and low: ignorance of what is common and elementary. in which whatsoever is universal. consonants. they coincide in a most admirable manner. 13. &c. and are treated. The first thing is." is to adopt a twofold absurdity at the outset. must first be learned in their application to some one language. as anatomy shows the use and adaptation of the parts and joints of the human body. and these curiously modelled to a particular figure. both from reason and from experience. some solid and some fluid. may best acquire a knowledge of those principles. in their own nature. Many may profit by this acquisition. though true enough in themselves. whether universal or particular. to the hearing. employed for the expression of thought. common or peculiar. to the sight. except with reference to different languages--as when we speak of Greek. before they can be distinguished into such classes. But to teach. though often heedlessly confounded in the definitions given of vowels. All speculative minds are fond of generalization. in proportion as it approaches to universality. is but the more disgraceful for being ignorance of mere rudiments. or English grammar. universal or general principles form only a part. There is. When such principles alone are taken as the subject of inquiry. who extend not their inquiries to the analogies or the idioms of other tongues. It is true. it descends to the thousand minute particulars which are necessary to be known in practice. Philosophical. which is first in the order of nature. properly so called. that "Grammar may be considered as consisting of two species. Letters and sounds. in the vastness of the views which may thus be taken of grammar. being made up of those points only. There are points of a philosophical character.CHAPTER I. being of two kinds. 48 12. and in consequence of an almost endless variety in the combinations of either. but also as a composite into its matter and form. 14. Grammar. With what is merely theoretical. but of which. But the pleasure of such contemplations is not the earliest or the most important fruit of the study. But the principles of all practical grammar." and that the latter merely "applies those general principles to a particular language. namely. such may find an entertainment which they never felt in merely learning to speak and write grammatically. They address themselves to different senses. to furnish a sure medium for the communication of thought. The matter or common subject of grammar. as one may contemplate that same body in its entireness. and that of the sounds or other signs which are used to express it. is necessarily included. We find therefore in grammar no "two species" of the same genus. that every item of grammatical doctrine is the more worthy to be known and regarded. to effect the great object for which language was bestowed or invented. Many authors have erred here. have many things in common. are found to coincide. which result alike from the analysis of any language. Universal and Particular. are. the latter. which has been denominated Universal Grammar. and in conducting the same. very different things. as commonly defined and understood. spoken and written. by a peculiar relation arbitrarily established between them. that the youth of any nation not destitute of a good book for the purpose. as I have suggested. French. susceptible of division into any proper and distinct sorts. All languages. a letter. they constitute what is called General." says Quintilian. to know and understand the grammatical construction of our own language. however comprehensive its plan.. is last with reference to grammar. and speech. unless you faithfully lay the . but in the practice of writing. and the preservation of knowledge. from the grammatical study of their native tongue.

"is not an invention of human ingenuity. iv. because. there can never be any grammatical authority. and not from art. of some kind or other. solicits the imagination. there will appear in many things a great subtilty. or falsehood. must the same purpose be ever paramount. Grammar appeals to reason. is not very essential: to the learner. and is addressed to. and is a necessary introduction to the study of other languages. or the art of speaking. without design. pleasant to the old. these higher studies seem to have greatly the advantage over particular grammar. For all language proceeds from. unless thou give thyself wholly to laborious research into the nature of things. and essential to them in practice. absurdity. the sweet companion of the retired. To the science of grammar. makes no acquisition even of the language itself. But the minds of many are preoccupied with a certain perverse opinion. and one which in reference to every kind of study has in itself more of utility than of show. but who is willing to be an ungrammatical poet.--than which idle notion. of all practical treatises on the subject. or logician? For him I do not write. with a view to delight. But I would persuade my readers. but the most easy to be understood. 16. as well as to authority. it is highly important." and. for the encouragement of the student. whatever superstructure you raise will tumble into ruins. to distinguish consonants from vowels. is of primary importance to all who would cultivate a literary taste. i. but to what extent it should do so. is still too distinct from each to be identified with any of them. facts. Not because it is a great thing. It was the "original design" of grammar. thou shalt but see with other men's eyes. 49 foundation for the future orator. necessary to the young. 18. do. and hear with other men's ears. Hear Plato himself. says Dr. is still that usage which is founded upon the common sense of mankind. in some particular direction. the nature of the ideas conveyed by casual examples. "The knowledge of useful arts. orator. without learning at the same time a great many opinions. or rather ignorant conceit. which are necessarily embodied in it. which is fit not only to sharpen the wits of youth. Again. this is still the main purpose. both the judgement and the sympathies of men. the understanding. designing to move. Here the art of logic."--De Institutione Oratoria. who affirms that names and words subsist by nature. the usage which gives law to speech. Adam. who positively declare that nothing comes to pass without a cause. and contends that language is derived from nature. And it may here be observed. and he whose knowledge of words is the most extensive. Let no one therefore despise as inconsiderable the elements of grammar. because such language is not only the most worthy to be remembered. applies itself to the affections in order to persuade. Lib. I know of nothing more foolish. and in general also to instruct. A distinction is also to be made between use and abuse. In those books which are to prepare the learner to translate from one tongue into another. to those who enter the interior parts of this temple of science. that as grammar is essentially the same thing in all languages. addresses the understanding with cool deductions of unvarnished truth. and the "original design" be kept in view. of the arts which spring from the composition of language. has overcome more than half the difficulty of learning another. as Minerva sprung from the brain of Jupiter. and afterwards divide them into semivowels and mutes. In those also which profess to explain the right use of vernacular speech. has been matter of dispute. believe me. that an acquaintance with that grammar which respects the genius of their vernacular tongue. but also to exercise the loftiest erudition and science. various in its character and tendency. Wherefore. he who has well mastered that of his own. But grammar. however language may be abused. and poetry. seldom is any thing else attempted. But the grammarian may teach many things incidentally. though intimately connected with all these. to facilitate "the acquisition of languages. there are no causes. and without understanding? Hear the philosophers. rhetoric. say. and he that perceives not the meaning of what he reads. aiming solely at conviction. but an emanation from the Deity.--nothing can be thought of which is more offensive. In regard to dignity and interest. and principles. The best thoughts in the best diction should furnish the models for youthful study and imitation.CHAPTER I. and diligently examine the causes and reasons of the art thou teachest. and that reason is scarcely to be appealed to for any thing. but because. It is an art. has the fewest obstacles to encounter in proceeding further." says Sanctius. that in grammar. Shall man. 17. endowed with reason. Cap. One cannot learn a language. or contrive any thing. In nonsense. descending from above for the use of man." .

" 20." he remarks further. "I know. 23. Latinæ. were brought to light by Plato. but no one will doubt that names are the signs. use does not take place without reason. But. 'Nothing can be lasting. surely. Cap. gathers the common fashion of speaking. i. "that the Aristotelians think otherwise. the names of things were taken from Nature herself. while they explode reason from grammar. "Grammatica est scientia loquendi ex usu. Moreover." 21. though he found within them room for the exercise of much ingenuity and learning. and.) 'which is not based upon reason. Lib. and other grammatists.' says Curtius. "These several observations. that the thing. * * * There is therefore no doubt. for when it recedes from use. we ought rather to confess that we do not know. even of their fooleries. but this can be nothing else than affectation. though it is in many cases obscure. since the usage of the learned is confessedly the basis of all such instructions. may be made the more clear. such as they are. We cannot therefore but believe that those who first gave names to things. yet I can easily persuade myself that in every tongue a reason can be rendered for the application of every name. For truth lies hid. when one and the same thing is called by different names. are forward to offer reasons. But you will say. after the death of Plato. and this. that of all things. but. that the acquisition of a good style of writing is the main purpose of the study. 2. seems to limit the science of grammar to bounds considerably too narrow." This limited view seems not only to exclude from the science the use of the pen. "Grammar is the science of speaking according to use. of the same thing there may be different causes. 'Language is established by reason. indeed. and with a saw we cut wood. but this is the true account of the matter. But the instrument of any art is so adapted to that art. are no less audacious than if they would endeavour to persuade us. antiquity. thus with an auger we bore. belonged to that age in which the exegesis of histories. it ought to be called abuse." continues he. we may bring forward testimonies. Cap. Nay. but we split stones with wedges. "You will see. and other writings. Many things which were not known to the earlier philosophers. Cap. He therefore. 6. and not according to use. was considered an essential part of grammar. many were discovered by Aristotle. if it can be done. even of words. and custom?' He therefore does not exclude reason. though I cannot affirm this to have been the case in other tongues. from whose opinion Sanctius dissents above. but nothing is more precious than truth. neque enim constituit regulas scientibus usus modum. iv. in a manner. an other. Lib. authority becomes nothing: whence Cicero reproves Coelius and Marcus Antonius for speaking according to their own fancy. that the whole order of the universe was framed together fortuitously. but from the settled and frequent usages of these. in the several parts of the world?' I answer. He says. when we are asked. 50 19."--De Causis L. and then. of things. quam discentibus traderet. and wedges are driven with heavy mauls. 22. a reason is to be rendered: and if we know not what that reason is. "that in the first language. the proficients and adepts in the art can desire for themselves no such exemption. and others. "I have unwillingly brought together against those stubborn critics who. having every advantage. sometimes affect to despise the pettiness of all grammatical instructions. i. Julius Cæsar Scaliger. who says. and several of the loftiest of their own rank appear on the list of grammarians. Aristotle himself understood when he said.CHAPTER I.) that. whatever it was. and with abundant authority. (Lib. is nevertheless worthy of investigation."--Sanctii Minerva. sed ex eorum statis frequentibusque usurpatiombus colligit communem rationem loquendi. which it should deliver to learners. that for any other purpose it must seem unfit. But I have said. and as it were the instruments. . poems. ad placitum nomina significare. otherwise. I imagine. and that this reason. But from use authority derives all its force. than to affirm that none can be given. authority.' It remains. 'How can there be any certain origin to names. as well as Diomedes. that of all things the reason be first assigned. (Lib. of which some people may regard one. did it with design. For those who contend that names were made by chance. 76. for it does not establish rules for those who know the manner of use. Quintilian. iv. and Aristotle was ignorant of many which are now everywhere known. Men of genius. insist so much on the testimonies of the learned. I know that Scaliger thinks otherwise. but makes it the principal thing. and not use. whose authority is appealed to above. but to exempt the learned from any obligation to respect the rules prescribed for the initiation of the young. Laurentius." says he. therefore. But have they never read Quintilian.

they help to show us whence and what it is."--QUINT. certain persons familiarly demanded of me. who were great masters both of grammar and of philosophy. I undertook of my own accord a much greater task than had been imposed. 48. and before he wrote his most celebrated book. Orat. Nor has its application to our tongue. either despising as little things the studies which we first learn. but for a long time I withstood their solicitations. or thinking them not to fall to their share in the division which should be made of the professions. that while I should thus oblige my very good friends by a fuller compliance. the grammarian. at least that of judging concerning the old. custom is the surest mistress. Varro. 26. hoping no praise or thanks for their ingenuity about things which. ever been made in such a manner. and writers. by whom many things which might pertain to such a work. 24. it seems proper to make here an ampler citation. but sometimes etymology. was at first slow to undertake the work upon which his fame now reposes. in the fourth century before Christ. especially analogy. but we must remember that the concern itself is of no recent origin. and the stigmatizing of the unworthy. the force of which is. and. Of the opinion referred to by Sanctius. as well as some ." as the poet Martial called him. diligent to execute it worthily. that one may refer what is doubtful. have their rules to observe. religion. if not the labour of producing new instructions. For most other writers who have treated of the art of speaking. Cap. But. But the reason which I thought would obtain for me an easier excuse. the necessity of metre mostly excuses the poets. because. But the reader may ask. for speech is evidently to be used as money. Lib. had been very diligently written. authority. I understand the author to say. of the art of speaking. to something similar that is clearly established. that it might turn both to his own honour. and. It shall be attempted in English. "Speakers. I might not enter a common path and tread only in the footsteps of others. i. de Inst.. Orat. whatever we may suppose to be its just limits. which has upon it a public stamp. so that my friends seemed to have a right to enjoin upon me. in particular. because I knew there were already illustrious authors in each language. But although I was persuaded not so much by the hope of supplying what was required. taught these things ably at Athens. was contemporary with the Saviour and his apostles. even error seems right to those who follow great leaders. Yet all these things require a penetrating judgement. Language is established by reason. yet. 51 and other ancient writers. after it was begun. lie far from ostentation: the tops of buildings make a show. and custom. at the commencement of his book: "After I had obtained a quiet release from those labours which for twenty years had devolved upon me as an instructor of youth. what indeed is next to this. This "consummate guide of wayward youth. When the judgement of the chief masters of eloquence passes for reason. 25. that I should compose something concerning the proper manner of speaking. Some acquaintance with the history of grammar as a science. as I might say. Plato and Aristotle.CHAPTER I. taught a school twenty years in Rome. Prooemium. "What have all these things to do with English Grammar?" I answer. antiquity. Authority is wont to be sought from orators and historians. as well as the improvement of their taste by the exhibition of what is elegant in literature. though the paragraph is not an easy one to translate. some of whom were not even consistent with themselves. did but excite more earnest entreaty. divided the grammarian's duties into two parts. theirs. although necessary. and thus prove uncertain things by those which are sure. Quintilian lived in the first century of our era.."--Quintiliani de Inst. The development of the intellectual powers of youth by instruction in the classics. as to do great honour to the learning or the talents of him that attempted it. usually styled the most learned of the Romans. and left to posterity. amidst the various opinions of earlier writers. as by the shame of refusing. Of reason the chief ground is analogy. and the other the explanation of authors. some of whom may seem to effect great improvements. What is new to a nation. Ancient things have a certain majesty. The science of grammar. p. and received from the state a salary which made him rich. is continually engaging the attention of new masters. to commend them. nor disposed to think it a light task to prescribe the right use of his own language. the choice had become difficult. or. their foundations are unseen. and to the real advancement of learning. the one including what is now called grammar. He says. as the matter opened itself before me. does not appear to have been better cultivated in proportion as its scope was narrowed. too. being neither ignorant of what had been done by others. may be old to the world. 6. have proceeded in such a manner as if upon adepts in every other kind of doctrine they would lay the last touch in eloquence.

suggests: "If Time of course alter all things to the worse. however contrived.. It is true. which would frequently mislead us. the only infallible guide in this matter. with an implicitness little to be commended. what shall be the end?"--Bacon's Essays. without any regard to their ancient construction and application. and is it to the honour of England or America. "It is never from an attention to etymology. and where they are so. Hence the need that an able and discreet grammarian should now and then appear. that the meanings of words in present use must be learnt. whom I shall notice in an other chapter. but of authors and teachers.--Grammar of Rhetoric." as was said of old. is necessary to him who professes to write for the advancement of this branch of learning--and for him also who would be a competent judge of what is thus professed. are but imperfectly seen by the man of one language. But a grammarian presumes to be a judge of authorship. he will do all this without a departure from any of the great principles of Universal Grammar. indeed. 28."--Kirkham's Gram. sorry artist. p. either of this country or of Britain. to make out a strong case. 188. but if he is properly qualified for his task. that. and Wisdom and Counsel shall not alter them to the better. 52 knowledge of the structure of other languages than our own. 27. Grammar must not forget her origin. The whole history of every word. that neither any ancient system of grammatical instruction nor any grammar of an other language. who can read no language but their mother tongue? English Grammar is not properly an indigenous production.CHAPTER I. sprung up from the old stock long ago transplanted from the soil of Greece and Rome. p. "makes all he handles worse. must result from a view that is neither partial nor superficial. Etymology is neither the whole of this view. p."--Philosophy of Rhetoric. or species. and yet be very deficient in what is peculiar to our own tongue. seeming to have this adage in view. The national literature of a country is in the keeping. and even that which is called the same. with a certain modern author. 64. because it is but a branch of the general science of philology--a new variety. and. But the general analogies of speech. Campbell. It is folly to state for truth what is so obviously wrong. will be the view under which he will judge of what is right or wrong in the language which he teaches. but from custom. p. 28. which are the central principles of grammar. On the other hand. . for languages must needs differ greatly one from an other. I concur not therefore with Dr. "He is bound to take words and explain them as he finds them in his day. 42. He will surely be very far from thinking. who with skillful hand can effect those corrections which a change of fashion or the ignorance of authors may have made necessary. extravagantly says. Jamieson too. so far as he can ascertain it. and a teacher of teachers. takes this passage from Campbell. that in both countries so many are countenanced in this assumption of place. Criticism must not resign the protection of letters. not of the people at large. the latter can hardly be deemed infallible. Etymology and custom are seldom at odds. can be entirely applicable to the present state of our tongue. may come in time to differ greatly from what it once was. Real improvement in the grammar of our language. who. with no other change than that of "learnt" to "learned" publishes it as a corollary of his own." And Lord Bacon. nor yet to be excluded from it. it is possible to know much of those general principles. "Time.

but this circumstance affects no settled usage in either. Et Grellius veræ grammaticæ fuit diligentissimus doctor. or his religion. firm to adhere to it. and to commend it in words. 53 CHAPTER II. is equally remote from philosophy. incurs at least a hazard of seeing his edifice overthrown. for error in first principles is fundamental. or actually do influence. for philosophy. whether and how far the principles of his philosophy. nor can any man strengthen his title to the former character by claiming the latter. quia ipse Plinius ejusmodi grammaticus fuit. his politics. He who formed the erroneous sentence. for every grammarian gravely to consider. is that species of custom which critics denominate GOOD USE. 3. in this sense of the term. learned. and abide by it in . sic et ipse Datus. for we do not speak or write by statutes. On the other hand. It is of primary importance in all discussions and expositions of doctrines. and every person of sense and taste will choose to express himself in the way least liable to censure. or to deny the authority of the rule. and produced books which are disgraced not merely by occasional oversights. The proofs of what is right are accumulative. but either to acknowledge the solecism. in the name of grammar. many unprofitable discussions. that is. True grammar is founded on the authority of reputable custom. as the only true standard of grammatical propriety. Yet a slight acquaintance with the history of grammar will suffice to show us. seems to be one of the most difficult points of a grammarian's duty. properly speaking. from grammar. denounced others with intemperate zeal. calculated rather to embarrass than to inform the student. but even the truth may be urged unseasonably. then. that a most disheartening proportion of what in our language has been published under the name of Philosophic Grammar. Alii sunt grammatici professione. departed themselves from sound doctrine. willing to submit to it. grammar is so interwoven with all else that is known. Mere collisions of opinion. quia scribimus indocti doctique. dupliciter aliquem dici grammaticum. in relation to this point. the evidence of what is wrong is rather demonstrative. 1. general use. his theory of language. is found in everything. There are disputable principles in grammar. Syntaxis. Grammatici vera arte paucissimi sunt: et hi magna laude digni sunt. his morals. therefore. and to see that they be such as are immovably established in the nature of things. "Respondeo. on the use which men make of their reason. From misapprehension. 4. many authors have started wrong. at all times. et ii plerumque sunt inceptissimi. narrowness of conception. is similar to that upon which are established the maxims of common law. or spoken of among men. and his practical instructions respecting the right use of words. Yet. than to ascertain what it is. All are free indeed from positive constraint on their phraseology. and from common sense. arte et professione. OF GRAMMATICAL AUTHORSHIP. conducted without any acknowledged standard to guide the judgement. have sprung up. et de arte grammatica libelos edidit. of any sort. Hence. because our proofs from the best usage. too. to which we appeal. fol. that it is much easier to acknowledge this principle. Grammar is unquestionably a branch of that universal philosophy by which the thoroughly educated mind is enlightened to see all things aright. believed. and he who builds upon an uncertain foundation. that to determine its own peculiar principles with due distinctness. and important facts are things liable to be misjoined. and that custom."--DESPAUTER. we exhibit it in contrast with the established principle which it violates. and on many points there can be no dispute. to ascertain well the principles upon which our reasonings are to be founded. the true grammarian is not a philosopher. present. It is proper. for when we would expose a particular error. reputable. has in this case no alternative. but by central and radical errors. 2. never tend to real improvement. or improper bias. et indignissimus quisque hanc sibi artem vindicat:----hos mastigias multis probris docti summo jure insectantur. and whimsical systems of teaching. The lover of truth will be. as there are moot points in law. In practice. ut patuit: hos non vituperant summi viri. and it is certain. 1. are both obvious and innumerable. The ultimate principle.CHAPTER II. ought to influence. But the ground of instruction assumed in grammar. diligent to seek it. and ready to promote it. in jurisprudence.

as they lose of their merits. the appearance of a deformed and ugly dwarf among the liberal arts. may be presented in a very small compass. it might be expected that a book written professedly on the subject. And if mere copyists. "'T is true. compilers. All science is laid in the nature of things. for the progress of improvement in any art or science. Treatises are multiplied almost innumerably. Grammar unsupported by authority. But who with that mean shift himself can please?" Sheffield. several excellent scholars. will go far to sustain this opinion. 5. retouch the canvass of Guido? Shall modest ingenuity be allowed only to imitators and to thieves? How many a prefatory argument issues virtually in this! It is not deference to merit. to the imagination of some. when we descend to minute details. is indeed mere fiction. and he only who seeks it there. and even bears. Nay. Style is liable to be antiquated by time. but still the old errors survive. 54 practice. for that authorship which has produced so many grammars without originality? Shall he who cannot write for himself. for whatever loses the vital principle of renovation and growth. and to ascertain with clearness the decisions of custom. corrupted by innovation. Good use is that which is neither ancient nor recent.. on the Greek Alphabet. Names are rapidly added to our list of authors. nor reason in following with blind partiality the footsteps of others. who is capable of a judgement independent of theirs. I have before suggested that in no other science are the principles of good writing so frequently and so shamefully violated. abridgers. debased by ignorance. There have been. and sentences that were never good English. it surely will not advance. but to assume to be an author by editing mere commonplaces and stolen criticisms. Must not from others' work a copy take. till in our language grammar has become the most ungrammatical of all studies! "Imitators generally copy their originals in an inverse ratio of their merits. who have thought it an object not unworthy of their talents. that is. Here is a field in which whatsoever is achieved by the pioneers of literature. practising on the credulity of ignorance! Commonness alone exempts it from scrutiny. 6. neither vulgar nor pedantic. is to make a proper use of books for the advancement of learning. but impudent pretence. 7. and vitiated by caprice. can be appreciated only by thorough scholars. The code of false grammar embraced in the following work. as if authority had canonized their errors. perverted by conceit."--KNIGHT. and positions that were never true. Nay. where usage is various. should exhibit some evidence of its author's skill. Duke of Buckingham. is but the wages of its own worthlessness! To read and be informed. or none had eyes to see them! Whatsoever is dignified and fair. But it would seem that a multitude of bad or indifferent writers have judged themselves qualified to teach the art of speaking and writing well. p. but modesty does not consist in having no opinion of one's own.CHAPTER II. that in every living language. But the knowledge of grammar may retrograde. tends to decay. even while they were pretending to record its dictates. improve upon him who can? Shall he who cannot paint. and it will be found that no few have in some way or other departed from it. But with what shameful servility have many false or faulty definitions and rules been copied and copied from one grammar to another. is equally beneath the ambition of a scholar and the honesty of a man. neither local nor foreign. and the success it has. can rightly guide others in the paths of knowledge. it is a matter of much inherent difficulty. and modifiers. old ones have been allowed to stand as by prescriptive right. have been published and republished under different names. be encouraged as they now are. can be known only to those who can clearly compare its ruder with its more refined stages. Grammar being a practical art. But what apology is this. however. English grammar is still in its infancy. and the application of just criticism. so that correctness of language and neatness of style are as rarely to be found in grammars as in other books. while new blunders have been committed in every new book. And nothing but the living spirit of true authorship. to prescribe and elucidate the . while little or nothing is done for the science. to reach the standard of propriety. with the principles of which every intelligent person is more or less acquainted. impaired by negligence. He alone can know whether his predecessors went right or wrong. by adding as much to their faults. can counteract the natural tendency of these causes. is also modest and reasonable. and it often happens that what is effected with much labour."--Cowley. "Who to the life an exact piece would make. the ancients we may rob with ease. 117. But it is not to be concealed.

if they have any thing to communicate. "A fool's mouth is his destruction. any pretensions to a knowledge of grammar as a study. But these.. with scarcely any exception. conveyed in the following scornful quotations: "Grammarians. and to those who were best qualified to write. who could court the favour of the vulgar. The old maxim recorded by Bacon. which is worthy to be accepted in a homely dress. 91. "The words of a man's mouth are as deep waters. nor can make. The body is more to be regarded than raiment. "From a labyrinth without a clew. I have shown that "the nations of unlettered men" are among that portion of the earth's population. Hence. and some. are either professed grammarians and philosophers. in writing to the Corinthians. or all that may seem nice. shall offend vastly too much with his tongue. while it gives cause to regret their lack of an inducement to greater labour. in which the most enlightened scholars of Europe have mazed themselves and misguided others. Vulgarity of language. and therefore approved. are by no means to be despised or undervalued for the want of such knowledge. 4." is not to be taken without some limitation. upon whose language the genius of grammar has never yet condescended to look down! That people who make no pretensions to learning.CHAPTER II."--Ibid. and learn from them the rational art of constructing your grammars!"--Neef's Method of Education. and no few seem naturally prone to the constant imitation of low example. 62. sentiendum ut sapientes.. xvi. 9. descending for a day from their loftier purposes. For whoever literally speaks as the vulgar. needful indeed. to use speech fairly and understandingly." which he himself had taught him. or authors who. p. in all those from whom nothing better can be expected. go to your tailors and shoemakers.. both as to the matter and the manner. "The wise in heart shall be called prudent. not as men engaged in their proper calling. 55 principles of English Grammar. who neither make. but think as the wise. can furnish better models or instructions than "the most . may make the manner of it a little thing. but very far from supplying all the aid that is requisite to a thorough knowledge of the subject. Men of high purposes naturally spurn all that is comparatively low. till they turn authors and write for the public."--Ib."--Cardell's Gram. Hence St. xviii. than for neglecting dress. suggests that the design of his preaching might have been defeated. The same apostle exhorts Timothy to "hold fast the form of sound words. Grammatical inaccuracies are to be kindly excused. though some have evinced an ability which does honour to themselves. In all untrained and vulgar minds. but as mere literary almoners. that all those upon whose opinions or practices I am disposed to animadvert."--"We should speak as the vulgar. Again: "The nations of unlettered men so adapted their language to philosophic truth. Hence the enormous insult to learning and the learned. They are subject to no criticism." or "wisdom of words. p. 21. and the well-spring of wisdom [is] as a flowing brook."--Ib. p.."--Prov. and making baize and rags the fashionable costume. and the sweetness of the lips increaseth learning. the least scrupulous of our lexicographers notice many terms but to censure them as "low. Even the most meritorious have left ample room for improvement.." But this view of things presents no more ground for neglecting grammar. 10. and turned his attention to mere "excellency of speech. ostentatious. But let it be remembered. 8. "Loquendum ut vulgus. and his lips are the snare of his soul. have executed their inadequate designs. to the practice of every abuse of which language is susceptible. or finical. have laid themselves under special obligations to be accurate in the use of language. Nor can it be denied that there is an obligation resting upon all men. nor stipulate for a reward. Yet we have had pretenders to grammar. then. 15. for people are often under a necessity of appearing as speakers or writers. overwrought. the author ventures to turn aside. The mere grammarian can neither aspire to praise. that all physical and intellectual research can find no essential rule to reject or change. if they show themselves modest in what they profess. Paul. before they can have learned to write or speak grammatically. to have either the understanding of the wise or the purity of the good. Unlearned men. and ever must be. had he affected the orator. Hence the great mass of uneducated people are lamentably careless of what they utter. ever has been. the ambition of speaking well is but a dormant or very weak principle. and making coarse and vulgar example our model of speech. though at the expense of all the daughters of Mnemosyne. 12mo. by extraordinary pretensions. and the substance of an interesting message." and omit many more as being beneath their notice. repudiated by grammarians. xviii. 7. And even then they are to be treated gently. the subject could offer no adequate motive for diligence. to perform a service. as every scholar knows.

the whole process of education must begin anew. and there may be many who know it now. that the general ignorance on the subject of . but if they will attend to the history of our language.. it must be considered the exclusive privilege of the unlearned to despise them--as it is of the unbred. and a desire to express the most ideas with the smallest number of words and syllables. What marvel then. has ever been open to as various and worthless a set of quacks and plagiaries as have ever figured in any other.. in place of the ancient ones. there is no tribunal but the mass of readers. There always have been some who knew this. it is presumed. consonant with the best usage? For this. or are not. may be available to him: it is the public voice in his favour. the vision of human perfectibility is far enough from any national consummation. based upon such authority? Who shall decide whether the contributions which any individual may make to our grammatical code. bounden. to which we owe all their regularity and all their melody. the fashion established by the concurrent authority of the learned. is to be considered as belonging to the science. It is a fortunate thing for language. for five hundred years past. 78. Webster. or the comparative merits of the different methods by which they profess to teach. and so strong is this disposition. 13. has well-nigh taken ground with Neef and Cardell. even on grammar as such. I am prepared to prove. to contemn the rules of civility. that they who need instruction." is an opinion which ought not to be disturbed by argument. enlightened scholars. and the use of the regular participles. Hence this great branch of learning. With every individual who is so fortunate as to receive any of the benefits of intellectual culture. primary principles of all languages."--Webster's Philosophical Gram. are. worked. and. have been introduced by authors--men who have made alterations in particular idioms which they did not understand. may. be proved by reference to different authorities and irreconcilable opinions. p. swelled. by supposing the true principles of every language to be best observed and kept by the illiterate. So much for unlettered erudition! 12. Whatever any may think of their own ability. It is to unlettered people that we owe the disuse of holpen. that the common people have actually converted some of our irregular verbs into regular ones. p. whatever improvement may actually have been made. And here an author's reputation for erudition and judgement. for all that has ever been urged either for or against it. This popular tendency is not to be contemned and disregarded. Yet every man is at liberty to form his own opinion. But who shall determine whether the doctrines contained in any given treatise are. 119..[3] for it is governed by the natural. 56 11. were it consistent with the nature of this work. and content to follow. and many who must make this choice for their children. because they cannot control it.[4] may at least have some standard to refer to. are not likely to be soon obviated. that nineteen-twentieths of all the corruptions of our language. It is commonly supposed that the tendency of this practice of unlettered men is to corrupt the language. helped. have no adequate means of ascertaining either the qualifications of such as offer themselves. in itself too comprehensive for the genius or the life of any one man. and a preference of an easy natural pronunciation. that all his multifarious grammars of the English language are despised? Having suggested that the learned must follow the practice of the populace. that these natural principles generally prevail over arbitrary and artificial rules.CHAPTER II. I regret to say. by all that sober minds can credit. and to alter it whenever better knowledge leads him to think differently. as some of the learned affect to do. but the credulity and ignorance which expose so great a majority of mankind to deception and error. sitten. and on men of letters indiscriminately. viz. that even Dr. with all his obligations and pretensions to literature. it will be impossible ever to determine in what estimation the study of it ought to be held. or are not. and has not forborne to throw contempt. But the fact is directly the reverse. he adds: "Men of letters may revolt at this suggestion. of whom few perhaps are very competent judges. a love of uniformity in words of a like character. or however fondly we may listen to boasts and felicitations on that topic. Improved Gram. they will find the fact to be as here stated. If every thing that has been taught under the name of grammar. or however some might flout to find their errors censured or their pretensions disallowed. But all who are studious to know. The tendency of unlettered men is to uniformity--to analogy. and if a grammarian's rules be based upon this authority. are not qualified to choose their instructor. The same remark is applicable to the orthography and pronunciation. But the great misfortune is. 14. upon such a principle. as above cited.

Their history will give no encouragement to future innovators. more intelligible to students and more helpful to teachers." says Dr. They are original. that not a few are chargeable with both these faults at once. for the interests of learning are no less injured by whimsical doctrines. and the appeal. is too obvious to be denied. the latter have attempted too little. stealing the very language of his amendments from the man whom he had so grossly vilified! It is true that grammarians have ever disputed. a calm and dignified exhibition of true docrine [sic--KTH]. But it is manifestly much easier to raise even plausible objections against this system. have multiplied grammars almost innumerably. and all her triumphs be told. than the rights of authorship by plagiarism. and immediately afterwards. Then shall Science honour them that honour her. The remedy lies solely in that zeal which can provoke to a generous emulation in the cause of literature. by abridging or modifying the books they had used in childhood. to illustrate the nature of the signs which convey it. profitable only to their makers and venders. which long use has rendered venerable. in a new edition of his book. that can direct the knowledge expressed in words. Too many of our grammars. shall swallow up the spurious. Amidst this rage for speculation on a subject purely practical. Books professedly published for the advancement of knowledge.[5] 19. renounce the errors which had been pointed out to him. to overthrow that system of instruction. have meddled much with philological controversy. and weary themselves in beating the air. and a mind likewise. the number of ill-written books is not to be diminished by ceasing to write. among its greatest impediments. then." 16. like Aaron's serpent. that it would be difficult to mention an opinion not found in some of their books. as Lord Bacon observes. and accurate. 18. the visionaries. are very frequently to be reckoned. or at least anonymous. who have fallen into opposite errors. blasted by disputes. cannot but desire to see them all displaced by some abler and better work. where there should . has often more influence than ever openly appears. nor is there any domination in the republic of letters. extensive. Even over noisy gainsayers. perhaps equally reprehensible. habits of calm philosophical induction. but by writing others which. in "sound speech that cannot be condemned. and judge every thing to be ungrammatical which appears to them to be unphilosophical. I have even seen the author of a faulty grammar heap upon his corrector more scorn and personal abuse than would fill a large newspaper. It may be added. and the copyists. So that they who are at all acquainted with the origin and character of the various compends thus introduced into our schools. Again: While some have thus wasted their energies in eccentric flights. than are usually united in those who pursue it:--a sound penetrating judgement. have well illustrated the couplet of Denham: "The tree of knowledge. and to the common sense of all. p. as I have before suggested. fit to be conducted by ignorant pedants or visionary enthusiasts. The former have ventured upon too much originality." 15. For. are like weights attached to the heels of Hermes. than to invent an other less objectionable. They who set aside the authority of custom. and a just one cannot but desire to be set right in all things. It is discouraging to know the history of this science. we find among writers on grammar two numerous classes of authors. all her instructions be delivered. an erudition various. and often with more acrimony than discretion. but for offering more. It requires more qualifications to succeed in it. So various have been the notions of this sort of critics. as above stated. Alexander Murray. Thus. What then is the remedy? and to whom must our appeal be made? Knowledge cannot be imposed by power."--Murray's History of European Languages. 17. A generous man is not unwilling to be corrected.CHAPTER II. not better deserved. vainly supposing that the learning of ages would give place to their whimsical theories. render the whole ground forever disputable. till every false doctrine stand refuted. Vol. is a reason. must be pressed home to conviction. in elementary treatises. and every weak pretender exposed or neglected. But the multiplicity of treatises already in use. Those who. Such attempts have generally met the reception they deserved. more honourable to its author and more useful to the public. others. 57 grammar. "is not a frivolous study. and others too little. I have said that some grammars have too much originality. not for silence. Produces sapless leaves in stead of fruits. which has recourse to the learning of the learned. with more success. "The science of philology. and long experience proved to be useful. 333. ii. various attempts have been made.

modifier. which. and not a mere compiler. are not the didactical portions of the book. for every language. yet. Yet. This remark refers chiefly to the corrections in the Key. that the ancient exactness on this point would often appear pedantic. however. poor imitations. for it was not supposed that any reader would demand for every thing of this kind the authority of some great name. yet even upon these a man of any genius will be apt to set some impress peculiar to himself. in truth. to be expressed in his own language. But so much have the makers of our modern grammars been allowed to presume upon the respect and acquiescence of their readers. and no more. why. was the task which he at first proposed to himself. with whatever authority any grammarian may weigh with me. according to the custom of the ancient grammarians. the grammarian may perhaps be allowed to use at his pleasure. which there was occasion to repeat in different parts of the work. The author of this volume would here take the liberty briefly to refer to his own procedure. where the author should have shown himself capable of writing in a good style of his own. not only quotations from others. but the proofs and examples. With respect to quotation. "it is scarcely necessary to apologize for" this. ought to be taken from other authors. unless he shall have confirmed his assertions by reason. for. copyist. Epistle 95. but most examples made for the occasion. and what the degree. Grammar is not the only subject upon which we allow no man to innovate in doctrine. of language. or plagiarist. For those citations. 22. In the doctrinal parts of the volume. and then by testimony and usage. the authorship of which he supposes may now be ascribed to an other more properly than to himself. should it be the only one upon which a man may make it a merit. nay. is already sufficiently proved or detected. if a grammarian makes "use of his predecessors' labours." These. not regularly quoted." why should any one think with Murray. that no writer on grammar has any right to propose himself as authority for what he teaches. and illustrated by that of others. for. not a line has he ever copied from any of them with a design to save the labour of composition. and they are copies. will therefore be found among the illustrations of the following work. and elucidation is often the sole purpose for which an example is needed. For. It is obvious enough. the references being given in the Exercises. Nor is there in all the present volume a single sentence.'"--Sanctii Minerva. it would seem an injurious reflection on the understanding of the reader. or common to everybody. at best.CHAPTER II. not to compile an English grammar from others already extant. none ought to wonder if we sometimes deviate from the track of great men. which are to be commended in works of this sort? In the first place. 7. names have been inserted. Where either authority or acknowledgement was requisite. p. not the authors. 'Grammarians are the guardians. 2. 8vo. "Since the matter of which we are treating. the best materials found among the instructions of his predecessors and rivals? Some definitions and rules. was of course chiefly derived from the writings of other grammarians.. an author. he has always had great respect. What then is the middle ground for the true grammarian? What is the kind. to accumulate proofs . to almost every thing which is really taken from any other known writer. a name or reference is added. Though the theme is not one on which a man may hope to write well with little reflection. if not to establish them. to distinguish them from the main text. which in the lapse of time and by frequency of use have become a sort of public property. it is true that the parts of this treatise which have cost the author the most labour. and to their concurrent opinions and practices. "or for omitting to insert their names?"--Introd. he shall win no confidence in respect to grammar. Lib. ii. 20. a single reference has sometimes been thought sufficient. in general. while. "is to be verified. of originality. however. are marked with guillemets. But the doctrines of his work ought. to L." says the philologist of Salamanca. he has all the liberty of other writers. Many phrases and sentences. either original with the writer. being the common property of all who use it. and especially against that presumption which might attempt to impose erroneous or arbitrary definitions and rules. For. 58 have been given other authority than that of the compiler's name. 21. as what is intuitively seen to be true or false. a man who observes and thinks for himself. Cap. Anonymous examples are sufficient to elucidate principles. Murray's Gram. but to compose one more directly from the sources of the art. as Seneca says. then. to work up silently into a book of his own. or. first by reason. many points in grammar need nothing more than to be clearly stated and illustrated. abridger. are those which "consist chiefly of materials selected from the writings of others. ought to be carefully guarded against the caprices of individuals. His knowledge of what is technical in grammar. a grammarian must be a writer. and also by examples.

works of little or no real merit. of what cannot but be evident to all who speak the language. since which time. have not scrupled to bestow the highest praise of grammatical excellence! And thus the palm of superior skill in grammar. that "little can be expected" from the office he assumes. and where the praise of his ingenuity and the reward of his labour must needs be inconsiderable. they will of course be variously estimated. mostly professing to be abstracts of Murray. must claim to know more of the matter than the generality of English grammarians. without entering a warfare for life to . still too widely influential. he cannot but feel a wish that the integrity of his text should be preserved. under the wing of such authority. and that with perfect fairness towards other writers. what is most remarkable. a man will become a grammarian or a connoisseur. he himself might one day seem to some to have copied that from others which was first taken from him. who had so mean an opinion of what his theme required. as to deny it even the common courtesies of compilation! What marvel is it. whatever else may befall. like Perizonius. and that the multitude of scribblers who judge it so needful to remodel Murray's defective compilation. that by such a frittering-away of his work. have been added to our list of English grammars. feel himself reduced to an "humble drudge"--or. but it is enough for any ingenuous man to have toiled for years in solitude to complete a work of public utility. grammatical authorship has been reduced. and. but in competition there is nothing dishonourable. far more has been done for the grammar of our language than any single hand had before achieved within the scope of practical philology. like Johnson. were it not possible. they are. The author has examined as many as thirty of them.) about forty new compends. have been discouraged from attempting any thing like a complete grammar of our language? What motive shall excite a man to long-continued diligence. while all who were competent to the task." the doctrinal parts of which are embraced in the present more copious work. makes a man a critic among critics. when he is held to have done much. by virtue of these qualifications alone. not only unnamed reviewers. 24. to improve upon this most happy design. 59 23. or enables him to judge of literary merit. that in the production of the books which bear his name. so far as they become competitors for the same prize. while excellence alone obtains distinction. And if. even for an indifferent performance of this low office. would forbear to publish under his name or their own what they find only in the following pages. but. By the force of a late popular example. and it is worse than idle to prevaricate. was published in the year 1823. The mere rivalry of their authorship is no subject of concern. It is evident that we ought to account him the best grammarian. Being various in character. That is but a spurious modesty. Neither the ordinary power of speech. and no advantage is sought by unfair means. in the view of many. But no worthy design can need a false apology. he would have been inclined entirely to disregard the petty depredations which the writers of several of them have committed upon his earlier text. that. that his inferior pretensions may be accepted and honoured under the name. many writers have since sprung up. must be wrongfully contradicted. where such notions prevail as give mastership no hope of preference. Among men of the same profession. and he who begins with saying. who has the most completely executed the worthiest design. which prompts a man to disclaim in one way what he assumes in an other--or to underrate the duties of his office. that he may boast of having "done all that could reasonably be expected. Trusting to make it manifest to men of learning.CHAPTER II. to little or nothing more than a mere serving-up of materials anonymously borrowed. he can hold the rank only by courtesy--a courtesy which is content to degrade the character. (within the space of twelve years. apologize for the apparent folly of devoting his time to such a subject as grammar? 25. The first edition of the "Institutes of English Grammar. so far as he can judge. and seen advertisements of perhaps a dozen more. has been borne away by a professed compiler. nor even the ability to write respectably on common topics." Whoever professes to have improved the science of English grammar. till some honoured compiler usurp them both. For which reason. but several writers of note. will not now. who that has generously yielded to the impulse. and not likely to be much patronized or long preserved from oblivion. 26. without exception. and bring his "most useful matter" before the world under better auspices? If the love of learning supply such a motive. there is an unavoidable rivalry. with improvements.

Hence. Accidental coincidences in books are unfrequent. it is not easy. or with what labour. original. so ample a report as this. The common notions of mankind conform more easily to fashion than to truth. or is not. And even of those who are honestly engaged in teaching. is worth intrinsically more than that of half the nation: I mean. will be everywhere preferred. ill stowed with plunder. And who will undertake such a task but he that is personally interested? Of the thousands who are forced into the paths of learning. The favour of one discerning mind that comprehends my subject. for the making of books. But what this work contains. and more are stranded on dry shelves. in this beaten track of literature. may sometimes speed as well. the half of whom my gentle reader is not one. Dates must be accurately observed. under her capricious favour. and even of some things within their reach. "They praise and they admire they know not what. though the criteria of plagiarism are neither obscure nor disputable. But. And know not whom. Far more are now afloat. their way was cast up for them. will also meet his approbation. The goddess of the plenteous horn stands blindfold yet upon the floating prow. The fortune of a grammar is not always an accurate test of its merits. 60 defend and preserve it. any pirate-craft. But common sense might dictate.CHAPTER II. it is vain to expect that that which is intrinsically best. than can be here reported. few ever care to know. as barges richly laden from the golden mines of science. adequately appreciated. but as one leads the other. and a multitude of minute things must be minutely compared. by what pioneer."--Milton. . and I will hope. and. the majority seem contend to take their opinions upon trust. that learning is not encouraged or respected by those who. being thought sufficient. or that which is meritoriously elaborate. not many are adequate judges of the comparative merits of the great number of books on this subject. and not often such as to excite the suspicion of the most sensitive. 27. for persons of little reading to know what is. of course. prefer a pair of scissors to the pen. is candidly designed to qualify the reader to be himself a judge of what it should contain.

100. The Latin grammar which was for a long time most popular in England. et hac viâ ad famara contendere. It would seem in general most prudent to leave mankind to find out for themselves how far any commendation bestowed on individuals is inconsistent with truth. "Non is ego sum. ad Græcum Lexicon. that celebrity is not a virtue. which has chiefly been made by the hand of interest. and that of a multitude now gone to oblivion was never worth telling. may have been highly serviceable to the cause of learning. but none perhaps have had greater success and fame. but that eulogy which one knows to be false. shall it be thought illiberal to criticise it? Is the author himself to be disbelieved. 61 CHAPTER III. 2. The reader will not be likely to be displeased with what is to be stated in this chapter. He cannot suppose that too much is alleged. For all excellence is but comparative. shall be taken away even that which he hath. and thrown the learning and talents of others into the shade. who will charge detraction upon me. may well be enhanced by ascribing to him that which he himself. p. vii. and if any man dislike this freedom. have been greatly overrated. showing wherein it is wrong or unfair. on the other hand. is experience the cheapest of teachers. Yet it is possible that many. "is near akin to detraction.) Let him. and both. nor. in learning to write and speak. let him rebuke it. 22. that has yet appeared. The amiable author just quoted. in 1805. and the doctrines of those who. Itaque non libenter dico. As the science of grammar can never be taught without a book. first understand wherein it consists. they have taken the very foremost rank among grammarians. and he shall have abundance. and to grant them this superiority. it is of some importance both to teachers and to students. for the protection of his own honour. since it is manifest. but from him that hath not."--Jo. Criticism may destroy the reputation of a book. has been constrained to disclaim. to make choice of the best. that the extravagant praises bestowed upon him may be justified? "Superlative commendation." (See his Reflections. . if learning and talent are to be taken into the account. In the distribution of grammatical fame. But. The real history of grammar is little known.CHAPTER III. wherever we meet with it. live only in their works. he cannot but reckon impertinent. p. and many erroneous impressions are entertained concerning it: because the story of the systems most generally received has never been fully told. that with no extraordinary claims to either. may have derived no inconsiderable benefit from a book that is neither accurate nor complete. quod præsens institutum dicere cogit. and what the Imperial Review. and not be inconsistent with a cordial respect for the private worth of its author. therefore. I go not so far as this." was compiled by the other. or properly taught by any book which is not itself grammatical. 3. that it would be well. And doubtless they have both been rightly judged to excel the generality of those which they were intended to supersede. Others have left better monuments of their learning and talents. in their day. Few writers on grammar have been more noted than WILLIAM LILY and LINDLEY MURRAY. if he can believe. aut adeo opus sit. OF GRAMMATICAL SUCCESS AND FAME. has commonly been ascribed to the one. though it may have been both unexpected and undeserved. is liable to be thought an envious detractor. that no man's merit as a writer. pronounced "the best English grammar. and the dissenting critic. I shall criticise. Melioribus artibus laudem parare didici." Some whom fortune has made popular. is neither to prefer them now. is apt to be claimed and valued as part and parcel of a man's good name. cui aut jucundum."--Ib. 1." says Dillwyn.. though ever-so candid. AUGUSTI ERNESTI Præf. to treat it as a vagrant. or made them tributary to their own success and popularity. Fame. we have had a strange illustration of the saying: "Unto every one that hath shall be given. to us. freely. A good man may not have done all things ably and well. Are authors apt to undervalue their own performances? Or because proprietors and publishers may profit by the credit of a book. says again: "Praise has so often proved an impostor. It is an ungrateful task to correct public opinion by showing the injustice of praise. and it is certainly no small mistake to estimate his character by the current value of his copy-rights. de aliis detrahere. beyond all comparison. if he will admit that a grammarian's fame should be thought safe enough in his own keeping. be it remembered. Knowledge will not advance where grammars hold rank by prescription. nor to justify the praise which has been bestowed upon their authorship. both the works of the living. p.

The style also may serve to illustrate what I have elsewhere said about the duties of a modern grammarian. that about one half of what has thus gone under the name of Lily. Lily appears to have taught with great credit to himself till 1522. directed to be made by the bishops at their stated visitations. though not voluminous. born at Odiham. to whose various labours in the compilation of books our . Lily. Prefixed to this book. By the aid of the latter. by Erasmus. he went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. he took precedence of the former. Lily was an Englishman. that guarded and maintained as it was. to teach those who are to be teachers. ("because. speaking of the art of type-foundery. Yet it is certain. what is worthy of remembrance. the book appears to have been honoured with a royal title.CHAPTER III. which he seeth to be the readiest meane." The only remedy for such an evil then is. as Sir Thomas Elliott says. then recently founded by this gentleman's munificence. only every where to be taught. to return. But. desert sound doctrine. In 1510. for that every schoolemaister liketh that he knoweth. In this situation. The Printer's Grammar. by becoming himself. these two grammarians were three centuries apart. has taken the entire scheme of his Grammar. and also at Paris." 7. It neither produced uniformity in the methods of teaching. shows also. imposed the book on all the established schools of the realm. nor. after the publishing of it became a privilege patented by the crown. even royal interference was here ineffectual to its purpose. and perfectest kinde." Lily's Grammar was preferred for the basis of the standard. at the age of 56. and to have been familiarly called King Henry's Grammar. Paul's School. for three hundred years. appointed him the first high master of St. For the use of this school. says the letter. to prevent the injury which schoolmasters were doing by a whimsical choice. This is the grammar which bears upon its title page: "Quam solam Regia Majestas in omnibus scholis docendam prcæcipit. during which period. "As for the diversitie of grammars. that neither the scheme nor the text was original. for the use of learners. they cast a letter not much inferior to the best types of the present age. "he had so considerable a hand in the composition.) to be everywhere adopted and taught. 1474. 8vo. the English language received its most classical refinement. A law was made in England by Henry the Eighth. says: "The Italians in a short time brought it to that perfection.[7] Being long kept in force by means of a special inquiry. in London. soon gained a general popularity. written by Omnibonus Leonicenus. John Colet. commanding Lily's Grammar only. "The varietie of teaching is divers yet. 6. for the childrene of his lovynge subjects. Paul's church. Colet. London. But. or frequent changing.[6] in Hampshire. and favorably providing the remedie. it is well and profitably taken awaie by the King's Majesties wisdome. Latin and English grammar. With respect to time. and to desert all who. On his return he was thought one of the most accomplished scholars in England. as the common standard of grammatical instruction. caused one kind of grammar by sundry learned men to be diligently drawn. that in the beginning of the year 1474. When he had arrived at manhood. Hence." That is. And of the other half. and alwaies will be. who. became in a great measure reversed. foreseeing the inconvenience. 5. Of the authorship of this work many curious particulars are stated in the preface by John Ward. dean of St. as may be seen in a Latin Grammar. for any whim of their own. to bring a learner to have a thorough knowledge therein. Lily had able rivals. and for the hurt in changing of schoolemaisters. 1770. from whom our grammarian. and while abroad studied some time at Rome. and therefore judgeth that the most sufficient waie. in 1466. and the relative estimation of the two studies. "the chiefe authour and setter-forth of an introduction into grammar. it has been incidentally asserted in history. even for instruction in a dead language. and seeth not the use of that he knoweth not. of grammars. as well as learned coadjutors and friends. 1787. So that when an arbitrary king saw fit to silence competition among the philologists. which may be seen in the edition of 1793. or by others who improved the work after Lily's death. there appears a very ancient epistle to the reader. See also the same thing in the History of Printing. and printed at Padua on the 14th of January. entirely prevented the old manual from becoming diverse in its different editions. he wrote and published certain parts of the grammar which has since borne his name. Dr. and his publications. without paying any regard to the memory of this author. and transcribed the greatest part thereof. (or that which has commonly been quoted as Lily's.") was written by Dr. this law. 62 4. when he died of the plague. and so to be set out." The historian then proceeds to speak about types." says one of the patentees. London. Murray was an intelligent and very worthy man. which while it shows the reasons for this royal interference with grammar.

4. and which every man of genius or learning must repudiate. 12mo. p. must consist chiefly of materials selected from the writings of others. p. which. that. to expect the perfection of grammar from him who cannot treat the subject in a style at once original and pure. in common with others. his language on this point is highly injurious towards the very authors whom he copied. Murray. is absurd. 188. Lowth. 5. proper to acknowledge." that. Harris." that."--Introd. and Coote. grounded on any supposed unjust and irregular assumptions."--Introd. To justify himself. Octavo. or for omitting to insert their names. The acknowledgement on which he thus relies. 9. Sheridan. to suit the connexion. cuts off from it all pretence to literary merit. of this language sprung from necessity. "The greater part of an English grammar must necessarily be a compilation . at some period. "The Exercises and Key were also composed in about a year. An impossible case was to be made out. and published in the spring of 1795--though he had an intervening illness. for the sake of doing good. Priestley. But his notion of grammatical authorship.[8] He improperly imagined. introduced into his short preface. to L. From the very first sentence of his book. 8vo. His biography. If none of our older grammars disprove his assertion. "His Grammar. 3. informs us. and I trust this acknowledgement will protect me from all attacks. it is time to have a new one that will. were no part of a grammarian's business! And again.. Johnson. nor the folly to waste his time in labours utterly nugatory." in the following well-meant but singularly sophistical terms: "In a work which professes itself to be a compilation. By turning his own abilities to their best account. in general terms. he seems to have done much to promote and facilitate the study of our language.. p. it appears that he entertained but a low and most erroneous idea of the duties of that sort of character in which he was about to come before the public. Beattie. Murray's general idea of the doctrines of grammar was judicious. are Harris. that the authors to whom the grammatical part of this compilation is principally indebted for its materials."--Introd." and that. Murray's Gram. and Campbell. was completed in rather less than a year. See "The Friend. thus carefully selected. or absurdity. or "Introduction. could need a burnish or a foil from other hands than those which fashioned them! 8. as it appeared in the first edition. as if the jewels of scholarship. p. namely. taken in any other sense than as a forced apology for his own assumptions. to Lindley Murray's Gram. for several weeks. iii.CHAPTER III." Vol. "Grammar did not particularly engage his attention. But if this could have been generally done. Walker. "It was begun in the spring of 1794. Blair. Sheridan. It is certain and evident that he entered upon his task with a very insufficient preparation. "originality belongs to but a small portion of it. and some degree of improvement in the mode of adapting it to the understanding." and adds. for. and. He says. Walker. it is scarcely necessary to apologise for the use which the Compiler has made of his predecessors' labours. from the nature and design of it. till his grammar had gone through several editions."--Life of L. in many instances. 7. Priestley. As if. the insertion of names could seldom be made with propriety. with reference to his own. until a short time previous to the publication of his first work on that subject. Duodecimo Gram. however. however. does not appear to have been made. for he had neither the vanity to suppose he could give currency to novelties. This I have acknowledged. 10. The fallacy. Coote. after they had informed him of certain complaints respecting the liberties which he had taken in his work. "the grammatical part of his compilation is principally indebted for its materials. . stopped the progress of the work. as many others have done. equal to the inconvenience of crowding the pages with a repetition of names and references. p. Lowth. which was commenced by himself and completed by one of his most partial friends. that "little can be expected" from a modern grammarian. a work of this nature would derive no advantage from it. 63 schools are under many obligations. and." he confesses. But in original thought and critical skill he fell far below most of "the authors to whom. From the alterations which have been frequently made in the sentiments and the language. It was. from the uncertainty to whom the passages originally belonged. and to adapt them to the particular purposes for which they are introduced. Johnson. besides a careful selection of the most useful matter. or (as he chose to express it) "from a new compilation. and which.. 34. to be master of his own art--to think and write well himself. It is. and the gradual progress of learners." This quotation is from a letter addressed by Murray to his American publishers.. he ungenerously places them. p. 7. He attempted no broad innovation on what had been previously taught. Beattie. p. under a degrading necessity which no able grammarian ever felt. in 1811.

that both mean and means for the singular number. to which he himself had previously given all the tenses without inflection. In nine cases out of ten. in its proper place."--to make the most of it. he generally copied without alteration. are hardly to be thought the more worthy of acceptance. The origin of a sentiment or passage may be uncertain to one man. may very well be credited to him who claims to have written the book. and those parts of a grammar. and it is chiefly to the others. all needful references might easily have been added without increasing the size of his volumes. and. so that one cannot with propriety use the singular form. and for the most part also in his duodecimoes. that in copying these two authors. it is but partial and relative. In his later editions. That the noun means is necessarily singular as well as plural. though ever so fair. of the duodecimo Grammar. Are they friends to learning? Let them calmly consider what I reluctantly offer for its defence and promotion. and so widened the field for commonplace authorship. now and then. There remains one more: "A work of this nature would derive no advantage from it." But. the most that can be proved by quotation. in compilations of grammar. satisfying his own mind with making. I have shown. With regard to the later point. so that either form may yet be considered grammatical. that the author owes his popularity as a grammarian. For if he so mutilated and altered the passages which he adopted. The embarrassment which a compiler may happen to find from this source. Let me not be understood to suggest that this good man sought . only when it is used in this particular sense. no other grammar ever before so multiplied the difficulty in the eyes of teachers. to signify that by which an end is attained. a modesty and a diffidence. on the other hand. the compiler. long have been. agreeably to what he says above. in other instances. is not different in form from the indicative. that may be variously estimated. together with his Exercises and Key. is plainly destroyed: because his position is thus far contradicted by the fact.CHAPTER III. surely. 12. as they allege. in which the matter is to be very closely condensed. that these books do not differ much. or injuring their appearance. upon what other authority than his own do they rest? But if. "They have nearly superseded every thing else of the kind. in good use. mean. I have thus disposed of his second reason for the omission of names and references. Murray appears to have been totally unacquainted. assumed to be himself the sole authority for all his doctrines and illustrations. both before and after he changed his opinion. is worthy of little sympathy. and concerning the former. 11. except in quantity of paper. But Murray has in general allowed himself very ample room. to wit. in truth. at the outset. is. that general apology which we are now criticising. The chief. though others perhaps may have shared the fate of these in being "superseded" by his. it is said. in a larger type. but have found in it a candour and a liberality. In these. His octavo Grammar is but little more than a reprint. It may be seen by inspection. or sanctioned by many elegant writers. and still are. however. is not grammatical authorship. this argument has considerable force. the names would only have been occupied what is now blank space. The two positions thus distinguished. That the subjective mood. if not the only school grammars which were largely copied by him. while his first reason for leaving them so. which. ought to protect him from all animadversion. the name of an author appears. equal to the inconvenience of crowding the pages with a repetition of names and references. with several of the best English grammars published previously to his own. are these: First. by concentrating the remarks of the best authors on the subject. In one of the recommendations appended to Murray's grammars. 64 For compilation. omitted all names and references--even such as they had scrupulously inserted: and. were Lowth's and Priestley's. The remarks of the best grammarians or the sentiments of the best authors. that he taught erroneously. there are two opinions which the compiler thought proper to support by regular quotations. The demand for this expensive publication has been comparatively small. as has the compilation in question. As to the advantage which Murray or his work might have derived from an adherence on his part to the usual custom of compilers. and. For he cannot but know from what work he is taking any particular sentence or paragraph." With regard to a small work. though the irregular can claim to be so. As to his second reason for the suppression of names. "the uncertainty to whom the passages originally belonged. especially in his two octavoes. except in the present tense. as to make it improper to add the names of their authors. It is to be remembered. But some of the commenders of Murray have not only professed themselves satisfied with this general acknowledgement. Second. his examples are still anonymous. for being concentrated in such a manner as to merge their authenticity in the fame of the copyist. which are new to the eye of a great grammarian. some years afterwards. and perfectly well known to an other.

Kirkham. blemishes almost innumerable might be pointed out. an abler grammarian than he who compiled it. has escaped the notice of all these. Smith. must consist chiefly"--nay. even inferior to his. with a few exceptions. Murray's Gram. It might easily be shown that almost every rule laid down in the book for the observance of the learner. or Frost. and utterly unworthy of any man who is able to prescribe and elucidate the principles of English grammar. "from the nature and design of it. that because this work is a compilation. in order to secure it. for.. his example would have been worthier of imitation. On the law of language. Comly. exhibits no excess of modesty when he claims to have "done all that could reasonably be expected in a work of this nature. and carefully barred the way to any such interference. is to claim a sort of authorship. Greenleaf. that a compilation.--have been eminently successful . but the nature and design of grammar. and highly commended even by those who were most interested in the sale of them. are well written. which. about sixty pages were extracted from Blair. Lyon. To the Short Introduction alone. R. 9. there are fifteen pages from Campbell. But the right of authors to the credit of their writings. had a far better cause than requital. A delineation from new surveys is not the less original because the same region has been sketched before. as well as of many others who have found it easier to copy him than to write for themselves. There is no part of the volume more accurate than that which he literally copied from Lowth. Introd. Correctness of language is in the mind. Greene. But let the first sentence of this apology be now considered. p. his own alterations may have given rise. 13. than to the vast number of errors and defects which were overlooked by Murray in his work of compilation. He that sees with other men's eyes. Cooper. can rationally be supposed to have greatly excelled him. wholly--"of materials selected from the writings of others. and the fourth. being extolled in the reviews. are matters for which the author alone is answerable. It is here suggested. and how can he be the ablest of surveyors. Maltby. to enable a man to write well himself. how frequently a grammatical blunder committed by Murray. is a delicate point.." But what able grammarian would ever willingly throw himself upon the horns of such a dilemma! The nature and design of a book. He that cannot do this. This author's oversights are numerous. for to pretend to have produced an improved copy of a compilation. Bacon. Nor is there among all those who have since abridged or modified the work. To some of these reasonings."--L. where he "persuades himself he is not destitute of originality. however." he is often arguing against the text of his own earlier editions. Merchant. was repeatedly violated by the hand of the master. Russell. 16. had he left no ground for the foregoing objections. Fisk. is a gross blunder. both in England and in America. 65 popularity at the expense of others. Who will pretend that Flint. for there was no generosity in ascribing them to peevishness. by booksellers of the most extensive correspondence. yet it was he. even such an acknowledgement as the author makes." This is too much to say. or some one of his predecessors. at whose doctrines were pointed most of those "positions and discussions. through lack of skill or industry. needless repetition. and it requires no great critical acumen to discover. is peculiarly liable to errors and inconsistencies: uniformity is seldom found in patchwork. Yet one may readily admit. though the passages in question were not worth copying." which alone the author claims as original. The rules for spelling are the same as Walker's: the third one. Alger. Woodworth. rather than in the hand or the tongue. does little more than transcribe the field-notes and copy the projections of his predecessors? 14.CHAPTER III. Were this a place for minute criticism. for I do not believe that either fame or interest was his motive. But Murray's grammatical works. 15. that they are miserably deficient in both. who. some originality of thought is necessary. G. Webster's well-known complaints of Murray's unfairness. Many of the best practical notes were taken from Priestley. and made common stock in trade. he was indebted for more than a hundred and twenty paragraphs. however. Miller. are no less repugnant to the strain of this apology. No man professing to have copied and improved Murray. On perspicuity and accuracy. Alden. has exhibited greater skill? It is curious to observe. and. is "scarcely necessary. a. whatever they may be.--being published. Ingersoll. and even in these there are many things obviously erroneous. surely. or accuracy in secondhand literature. It is the express purpose of this practical science. and. Jaudon.

" Necessity has urged this reasoning upon me. is satisfied with being useful as an author.. 1811. till he brought it to a degree of perfection which will render it as permanent as the English language itself. The name and character of Lindley Murray are too venerable to allow us to approach even the errors of his grammars. suppresses the names of other writers. trusts that such a general acknowledgement will protect him from all censure. His liberal authorship is profitable in trade. Philadelphia. without some recognition of the respect due to his personal virtues and benevolent intentions. on the one side. He himself knew that he had not brought the book to such perfection as has been ascribed to it. 'the rights of living authors. his American correspondents and publishers. to impute to him any thing more or less than what his own words plainly imply. for.CHAPTER III. "at least five millions of copies of his various school-books have been printed. A recent eulogist computes. upon this tender point of right. and usurp his honours. "contented with the great respectability of his private character and station. Nor has the force of this argument been overlooked by those who have written in aid of his popularity. 33. perhaps. p. and. But it is due to truth." particularly commends him for his "candour and liberality towards rival authors. and. Vol." acknowledges that originality belongs to but a small part of his own. "will agree with him. in order to obtain from some an impartial examination of the following pages. even if it be proved that causes independent of true literary merit have given him his great and unexpected fame as a grammarian. that. In a New-York edition of Murray's Grammar. "that the whole of these mutilated editions have been seen and examined by Lindley Murray himself. as was Lindley Murray. there was inserted a "Caution to the Public. 12mo. Here we see the tables turned. regarding the compiler's confession of his indebtedness to others. examining and correcting his Grammar.. 17." by Collins & Co. iii. Nothing is argued against these. under pretence of improving it. by way of apology for his frequent alterations. and. and leaves his examples to rest solely on his own authority." 18. p. It is the strong point in most of the commendations which have been bestowed upon Murray as a grammarian."--The Friend. his own voice is overborne: the trumpet of fame has drowned it." He. that it is possible to compose a better grammar than Murray's. and the interests of science and literature. to avert the charge of plagiarism. but as a mark of "his exemplary diffidence of his own merits. it seemed necessary first to convince them. have met with his decided disapprobation. on the contrary. and other men judging it "scarcely necessary to apologize for the use which they have made of their predecessors' labours. 19. iii. we have the feeling and opinion of Murray himself. that. In this article it is stated. never complete. I entertain as cordial a respect as any other man." avers that." adds. and which of course he did not discover." censures (and not without reason) the "presumption" of those "superficial critics" who have attempted to amend the work. p. through all its forty editions. 33. and that they. demand the abolition of this ungenerous practice. N. "he went on. and continue to applaud his works as if nothing more could be desired in the study of English grammar--a branch of learning which some of them are willing emphatically to call "his science. 66 with the public. and yet."--The Friend." continue these gentlemen. as are Murray and his commenders. then. and are. Every rational mind. under what circumstances could men have stronger desires to avoid apparent contradiction? They. It is really remarkable to find an author and his admirers so much at variance. and other places. It is not intended by the introduction of these notices." with an earnest remonstrance against the several revised editions which had appeared at Boston. he says. and against the unwarrantable liberties taken by American teachers. (in very bad English. and interest has power to swell and prolong the strain. to correct erroneous impressions. printed in 1812. and in the opinion of the world. supposes it impossible to write an English grammar the greater part of which is not a "compilation. claim for him the highest degree of merit as a grammarian. in which are set forth the unparalleled success and merit of the work.'" (See this also in Murray's Key. in altering the work. in relation to his grammatical authorship. except those inaccuracies and deficiencies which still disgrace his work as a literary performance. Y. "Works of this nature admit of repeated improvements. without being particularly indebted to him. "as it came in purity from the pen of the author. or any sordid motive. If this . iii. success is the strongest proof of merit. By the high praises bestowed upon his works. I am as far from any invidious feeling. For the private virtues of Murray. Vol.) Here.) "Perhaps there never was an author whose success and fame were more unexpected by himself than Lindley Murray. disclaims almost every thing in which any degree of literary merit consists.

In the republic of letters. as forcibly as to him. and it is incredible that these should ever be satisfied with any mere compilation of grammar. that the style of the "best philologists. the achievement is no fit subject for either pride or envy.--between a due regard to the opinions of others." in any considerable degree. "an English grammar must necessarily be. August 22. is dated. and in "the grammatical part" of the work. than what their master had before achieved. but the names of many will find frequent place in my code of false grammar. and present it in so small a compass that the learner can become familiarly acquainted with it . with the same disinterestedness. Hence there is reason to believe. than what may be derived from the "SECOND EDITION. all compilation beyond a fair use of authorities regularly quoted. on such a theme." that is. I can give no earlier account. as a new map.. and it is impossible that these should ever be converted to any whimsical theory of language." generously doing honour to rival merit--nor "exemplary diffidence. who. I shall therefore bestow a few brief observations. unless his performance excel all earlier ones designed for the same purpose. 67 treatise is not such. A good style naturally commends itself to every reader--even to him who cannot tell why it is worthy of preference. there will always be some who can distinguish merit. or of materials either voluntarily furnished or free to all. unless such excellence result from the exercise of his own ingenuity and taste. but with the modest assumption. and innovation in doctrine. "English Grammar in familiar Lectures. will never be generally superseded by any thing which individual caprice may substitute. "Fredericktown. that the true principles of practical grammar. there is not one to whom the foregoing remarks do not apply. a great deal of time has been thrown away upon a useless project. there is no recognition of any obligation to Murray. If I do not overrate this author's literary importance. that. Among the professed copiers of Murray. the tracing and the colouring are more original. Of this work. of which I have recently seen copies purporting to be of the "SIXTY-SEVENTH EDITION. bribing the public by the spoils of genius." and others again of the "HUNDRED AND FIFTH EDITION. The region and the scope are essentially the same. 22. and an actual usurpation of their text. He who makes a new grammar. Kirkham's treatise is entitled. is SAMUEL KIRKHAM. if at all. drawn from actual and minute surveys. does nothing for the advancement of learning. may be made an instructive lesson to some of our modern literati. For no one of them all has attempted any thing more honourable to himself. were I to show them all in their true light. and (if the reader can pardon the suggestion) perhaps more accurate and vivid. a fair exhibition of the character of his grammar." In it. For it is not true. accompanied by a Compendium. The preface. It is comical to observe what they say in their prefaces. or with any such authorship as either confesses or betrays the writer's own incompetence." modestly veiling its own--but inadequate skill and inferior talents. I should have much to say. or to any other grammarian in particular. Between praise to sustain their choice of a model. as that which was contrived when grammar was identified with compilation. There will always be some who can discern the difference between originality of style. deduced from custom and sanctioned by time. It differs from his. and nothing for his own honour." each published at Baltimore in 1835." needed to be retouched. they are often placed in as awkward a dilemma." nay. and from all the pretended amendments of his. nor is there any one. 20. Upon this gentleman's performance. enlarged and much improved.[9] Few of them have had such success as to be worthy of notice here. The one who seems to be now taking the lead in fame and revenue. has guarded his design from the imputation of a pecuniary motive. and seeking precedence by such means as not even the purest desire of doing good can justify." which was published at Harrisburg in 1825. differs from an old one. the book is presented to the world under the following pretensions: "The author of this production has endeavoured to condense all the most important subject-matter of the whole science.CHAPTER III. and blame to make room for their pretended amendments. 1823. or more beneficial to the public. and if it is. compiled chiefly from others still older and confessedly still more imperfect. Md. The book is a striking sample of a numerous species. which appears to have been written for his first edition. by a folded sheet. "a compilation. 21. filled with glad wonder at his own popularity. which goes to make void the learning of past ages. most unavoidably implies--not conscious "ability.

Is the common language of two of the largest and most enlightened nations on earth so little understood. the obscurest of men. to look narrowly into the faults of an author who peddles a school-book for bread. what profit there is in grammar. however. if not in the general literary history of his age. to profit mainly by the chance. and thereby made himself rich?" Is there such a charm in the name of Murray. "This man. Yet not for this do I judge him worthy of notice here. it were to be hoped. an immunity from criticism. as young--though. 24. he proceeded. was then. and its true grammar so little known or appreciated. to prosody. that the man who could plausibly boast of being the most successful and most popular grammarian of the nineteenth century. Commencing his career of authorship under circumstances the most forbidding. however.) found no place in his "comprehensive system of grammar. to the sounds of the letters. yet receiving encouragement from commendations bestowed in pity. It is cruel in any man. p. can be no other than that which his own labours have purchased: here.. and. or the absurdest of teachers. utterance. It will presently be seen that the author of "English Grammar in Familiar Lectures. 89. The common supposition. and say. (as punctuation. from the fortune of the undertaking? Let us see what we can find in Kirkham's Grammar. that what this author regarded as "all the most important subject-matter of the whole science" of grammar. has no parallel. and then. in authorship. The character of his alleged improvements. has patched up a grammar. Whatsoever relates to derivation. p. "It is much better to write than [to] starve. his equal in years. in this item of literary history. in the name of humanity. that by these two implements alone. but rather to take it for granted. and. Most of the principles laid down. Nor need I be told. by contrast of circumstances. as circumstances alter cases. demands." boasts of a degree of success and popularity. 1825. and poetic diction. not quite so immature. and proud. He makes but small pretensions to originality in theoretical matter. and must have. grow conceited and arrogant. of the English tongue--beyond which his scholarship appears not to have extended. so time and chance alter circumstances. versification. like a man of business. its publication requires no further warrant." or that noble results sometimes follow unhopeful beginnings. cannot but be a scholar of such merit as to deserve some place. If his work is entitled to any degree of merit. or that. to dispute any of his assertions on these points. the reader shall see. would seem to imply. can the artifices of quackery be thought excusable in him who claims to be the very greatest of modern grammarians.CHAPTER III. in this age of the world. and I. in some sort. included nothing more than the most common elements of the orthography. even as he says."--Kirkham's Gram. at least in the particular history of the science which he teaches. if not the patronage of the public. and popular. The ways and means to these grand results are what I purpose now to consider." nor do his later editions treat any of these things amply or well. Far be it from me. Under no circumstances. without ever acquiring either the feelings or the habits of a scholar. But. In short. his own merit alone must be his pedestal. by the help of Murray's text only. figures. though he can scarcely write a page of good English. proud enough at least to have published his utter contempt for me and all my works. Stereotyped. If this critical sketch be unimpeachably just. that in reputation and revenue he is altogether as preëminent as he pretends to be. I shall inspect with the eyes of one who means to know the certainty for himself."--Kirkham's Grammar. to notice any such character. The niche that in the temple of learning belongs to any individual. The correction has been forborne. except with kindness and charity. for he is a bad writer. and syntax. may work his passage to fame. that tenderness is due to the "young. and the word improvement. These things are understood and duly appreciated. The gentleman was young once. but for the easy mode adopted of communicating these to the mind of the learner. The starveling wretch whose defence and plea are poverty and sickness. perchance. have been selected from our best modern philologists. soon learned by experience that. but merely as an apt example of some men's grammatical success and fame. till the subject of it has become rich. he treats nothing well. 68 in a short time. 10. etymology. that the world is steadily advancing in knowledge and improvement. that one of the most unscholarly and incompetent of all pretenders to grammar can have found means to outrival all the grammarians who have preceded him? Have plagiarism and quackery become the only means of success in philology? Are there now instances to which an intelligent critic may point. It is not intended on my part. which. . It will be found on examination. which will go to answer these questions. 23. it is not on account of a judicious selection of principles and rules.

"All participles are compound in their meaning and office."--Ib. that when we add to the possessor."--Ib. but we cannot say. and have power to control it." "RULE. and Blair. the property. 26." how."--Ib. but. Take first from one page of his "hundred and fifth edition. that "more than one hundred thousand children and youth" should be daily poring over language and logic like this? 27. PARTICIPLES. as. it is certainly not easier for the learner to conceive of all these things distinctly. p. An HONEST MAN IS the noblest work of God. and a rule. "It can be easily shown.. differ each from the others? From the rote here imposed. p. or relation to the property."-. The man eats. or en.' an entire system of grammatical principles. For the sake of those who happily remain ignorant of this successful empiricism. 143.CHAPTER III. and grammatical accuracy. and dog.[10] which signifies to partake. in reality." "PRINCIPLE. a definition." a few brief quotations. which custom has established for our observance..."--Ib. p."--"Participles are formed by adding to the verb the termination ing. 37. and Lowth. Why not? Because the man is here represented as the possessor. the possessor shall take a particular form to show ITS case. and every honest man to be long since dead! So it stands in all his editions. Nay.--"The term Participle comes from the Latin word participio. is being continued."--Ib. as deduced from what appears[11] to me to be the most rational and consistent philosophical investigations. do a principle. 36. he supposes the neuter verb is to express an action. Ing signifies the same thing as the noun being. showing the work to be deficient in clearness. THE PRESENT TENSE. it is desirable that the record and exposition of it be made brief. p. Is it not a pity. as a sample of his thoughts and style: 69 "They. "Johnson." "DEFINITION. not only the state or manner of being. ed. as "a rule describes a peculiar construction. under the head of 'Philosophical Notes. all the other parts of speech have sprung. but they are intrinsically the mere NAMES of actions. 62. the first requisite of style.. the compound word thus formed expresses a continued state of the verbal denotement. in one of which. Did his praisers think so too? "It is correct to say. But the . Verbs do not. When postfixed to the noun-state of the verb."--Kirkham's Grammar. had they essayed to thrust any thing like our modernized philosophical grammar down the throats of their cotemporaries. 78. page 18."--Ib. 'Seneca reasons and moralizes well. express actions.Ib." and "a principle is a peculiar construction. They may even be reduced to one.. however. than it is to understand how a departure from philosophy may make a man deservedly "conspicuous. 52. he dog eats.. are conspicuous among the number of those who form that language. Now." It were easy to multiply examples like these.--A rule describes the peculiar construction or circumstantial relation of words. he eats. the thing which he is represented as possessing. or thing possessed.. who introduce usages which depart from the analogy and philosophy of a language.--A principle in grammar is a peculiar construction of the language.--"This tense is sometimes applied to represent the actions of persons long since dead.--"Verbs express. would have been laughed at. VERBS. It implies that what is meant by the verb. 25. p. The following passages may serve as a specimen of the gentleman's taste. p. p. all the different actions and movements of all creatures and things. 138. p.--A definition in grammar is a principle of language expressed in a definite form. more. PHILOSOPHICAL GRAMMAR. The man dog eats.'"--Ib. and the genius of our language requires. There is little danger that it will long survive its author. 79. according to this grammarian. that from the noun and verb." and "a definition is a principle. likewise. sanctioned by good usage.--"I have thought proper to intersperse through the pages of this work. whether animate or inanimate..

you will find it very easy. and the vast improvements of the age. It has the advantage of being new. with the greatest ease imaginable. You must exercise a little patience. . p. Such was the author's perseverance in his measures to increase the demand for his book.. "will in general be found to accord with the practical theory embraced in the body of his work?"--See Kirkham's Gram. The following is a sample of the gentleman's method of achieving what he both justly and exultingly supposes. p. "By examining carefully the conjugation of the verb through this mood. or Blair. The pretty promises with which these "Familiar Lectures" abound. yet. by pedants and their dupes.' and the pill will be swallowed."--Ib. p."--Ib.' and you will pass for a very learned man. 144. had never yet been heard of in this clever world![12] Upon what merit this success has been founded. 133. you will. p." He trusts to have "gained the latter point. and make all the good housewives wonder at the rapid march of intellect. 141. than is commonly obtained in two years. and for their adoption. The grand boast of this author is. "Call this 'philosophical parsing. as if they had been the production of some other impostor. p. too. Probably no other grammar was ever so industriously spread. 29.. you will acquire more grammatical knowledge in three months. as being among the peculiar attractions of the performance. 28. that he has succeeded in "pleasing himself and the public."--he plainly offers this urgent engagement. you can. 148. which he declares. are also worthy to be noticed here.. was less a subject of concern. that henceforth no man can safely question the merit of his performance. "By studying these lectures with attention."--Ib. My confidence in your perseverance. according to the original laws of nature and of thought. "You will please to turn back and read over again the whole five lectures. that even the attainment of such accuracy as he was capable of. from the eleventh to the "one hundred and fifth edition."--Ib. it sounds large. and with such security of tenure. you will scarcely find an obstruction to impede your progress.. Happy mortal! to whom that success which is the ground of his pride. or Lowth. "Although this mode of procedure may. moreover. as it is necessary. could not have effected. on reasoning principles. 36. at first. learn to conjugate any verb. "For the satisfaction of those teachers who prefer it. will be transformed into a few hours of pleasant pastime."--Kirkham's Gram. "The supposed Herculean task of learning to conjugate verbs."--Ib. and. He scoffs at his own grave instructions.. that in the following instances. induces me to recommend any course which I know will tend to facilitate your progress. Let it be distinctly understood that you teach '[Kirkham's] philosophical grammar. p. and the conjugation of verbs. 82. "If you have sufficient resolution to do this."--Ib. founded on reason and common sense."--Ib.. and will make the commonalty stare. The following may serve as a specimen: "If you proceed according to my instructions.."--an advertisement which. as if the prosperity of the wicked." has been promising "to the publick another and a better edition. you will be sure to acquire a practical knowledge of Grammar in a short time. "By pursuing the following direction. is also the glittering ægis of his sure defence! To this he points with exultation and self-applause.. be able to speak and write accurately." to so great an extent. in a short time. or the popularity of an imposture. 49. p. perfectly understand the nature and office of the different parts of speech. and. appear to be laborious. If it is not quite so convenient and useful as the old one. p. that. p. when I shall have finished this slight review of his work. that Johnson... in a very short time. 82. they need not hesitate to adopt it.. "I will conduct you so smoothly through the moods and tenses."--Ib. p. instead of finding yourself involved in obscurities and deep intricacies. my readers may judge. For in an article designed "to ward off some of the arrows of criticism. as "an apology for its defects:" "The author is apprehensive that his work is not yet as accurate and as much simplified as it may be."--Kirkham's Gram. p.CHAPTER III. If."--Ib. I trust you will not hesitate to adopt it. 147. 142.. 70 present subjects of it are sufficiently numerous to deserve some pity. he speaks of what he himself teaches?--of what he seriously pronounces "most rational and consistent?"--of what is part and parcel of that philosophy of his. 147. Can the fact be credited. in a few weeks. p. and the rules of syntax that apply to them. 62. their various properties and relations. a modernized philosophical theory of the moods and tenses is here presented.

for any forbearance or favour that may have been won by this apology? It is well known. I present my claims. whether innovator or copyist. or for any thing which a coming age may think of his character: saying." Murray simply intended to do good. (Adv. but from choice. And. upon the very face of it. 346. Now. till phrenology became the common talk. that. and all sympathy be added. Being no rival with him in this race. a degree of success and fame. But Kirkham. in the publick mind. in a very few years. the language of that eminent philologist. scruples not to disavow and to renounce all care for them.. and quite in accordance with his own interest. and to turn this publication to profit. In 1829. unfortunate or successful. of 1829. it is enough to say of that. 71 however. this active contention between business and the vapours. unless he conceived that. and torture the text of that able writer. as far as consistent with his own views. and torture. a strong predilection for the doctrines contained in Mr. merely to gratify an itching propensity to figure in the world as authors."--Kirkham's Gram. As to a "compromise" with any critic or reviewer whom he cannot bribe. 33. 32. to adopt. Had any Roman grammatist thus profited by the name of Varro or Quintilian. and the demand for it had become so great as "to call forth twenty thousand copies during the year. at which both the eulogists of Murray and the friends of English grammar may hang their heads. is at all to be compared to this gentleman for the audacity with which he has "not scrupled to alter.--Not that he would beg a truce with the gentlemen criticks and reviewers. after weighing and comparing his various pretensions: "Aware that there is. To the present generation only. seeing his entered classes of boys and girls must soon have done with him. thought it expedient to retract his former acknowledgement to "our best modern philologists. no other man. he would have been filled with constant dread of somewhere meeting the injured author's frowning shade! Surely. the author's principal business was. by "not much less than one thousand written recommendations. for . intending to veer his course according to the trade-wind. a paltry scheme of present income. Murray's grammar. His whole design is. as himself suggests." and to profess himself a modifier of the Great Compiler's code. This honourable industry. moreover. it is morally impossible. the height of my ambition will be attained. In no instance has he varied from him. to prove himself not lacking in "self-confidence."--Advertisement.) are any apology for his defects. p. to this painful struggle. he has doubtless acted wisely." the prudent author. Any compromise with them would betray a want of self-confidence and moral courage. Where then holds the anchor of his praise? Let the reader say. and good that might descend to posterity. speaking of posterity. (active as far as imperfect health permits him to be. 1829. but. what better is the book..CHAPTER III. in so doing. the text of that able writer. "My pretensions reach not so far. and grant me its suffrages. aided. mutilate. among the professed admirers of Murray.) p. he has thought proper. to select his principles chiefly from that work. as an aid to the studies of healthy children. Should it lend me a listening ear." [13]--Kirkham's Gram. to have made all possible haste in his career. and gain an ephemeral popularity by arrogating to themselves the credit due to another. not merely from motives of policy. 10. mutilate. be willing to avow. therefore." only by daring do right. to escape the censure so frequently and so justly awarded to those unfortunate innovators who have not scrupled to alter." He can show his "moral courage. snatched from the active pursuits of a business life. he hopes that the candid will set down the apology to his credit. 31. some practical advantage would be gained." is said to have wrought for him. let all credit be given. and. Nor was it necessary for such an author to throw the gauntlet. and of being able to devote to this subject only a small portion of his time. to commend his own method of teaching grammar. therefore. 30. and I know not on which supposition they are most creditable to the writer. after his book had gone through ten editions. p. and this just and generous intention goes far to excuse even his errors. and having no personal quarrel with him on any account. 7. I would. which he would by no means. Now these statements are either true or false. in his Elocution. He hopes. the disadvantages of lingering under a broken constitution.

I have once had the story from his own lips. like a vowel. has been thought worthy of insertion. p. the "comprehensive system-of grammar" was gradually extended from 144 small duodecimo pages. backed and guarded as it is by facts and proofs irrefragable. defines the term in a manner peculiar to himself. 97. seizes upon different opinions. These are but specimens of his own frequent testimony against himself! Nor shall he find refuge in the impudent falsehood. And what his title-page denominates "A New System of Punctuation. 35. But the publication of an other work designed for schools. Take a second example. But facts may well be credited. was next invented to supply a deficiency which he at length discovered. But the vindication of a greatly injured and perverted science. and scores of others which might be added to them. 34."--Elocution. "An Essay an Elocution" shows the progress of the author's mind. p. He makes "ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS" a prominent division and leading title. have nothing new for history. Six thousand dollars a year. it was finally stereotyped in 1829. no intention to say more than is due to the uninformed and misguided. that testimonials more fallacious have seldom mocked the cause of learning. as any doctrine he has ever yet inculcated. are not his own.[14] These contradictory texts. 347. rest on a sandy foundation. To two thirds of the community. by the addition of new matter inconsistent with the old. prefers and uses it in all his parsing. one grammar is just as good as an other."--Kirkham's Elocution. except that its errors and contradictions have been greatly multiplied. of forming. like some others. He evidently cares not what doctrines he teaches. is little the fashion of these times. been promulgated in the name of grammar. such a thing as an adjective-pronoun cannot exist. "A System of Philosophical Grammar. though I dislike the book. Again: "Rules 10 and 11. But. that his books may contain something to suit all parties. and doubly absurd in him. because he had either written them badly or made an ill choice: "But some of these rules are foolish. certainly. are as rightfully his own. than are some of his declarations and professions. Upon his own rules. And. Though a thousand of our great men may have helped a copier's weak copyist to take "some practical advantage" of the world's credulity. the work is now essentially the same as it was at first. fain rejoice at his success. may still be ingeniously ascribed to an ill motive. p. moreover. have seldom. and that he reports the sale of sixty thousand copies per annum. and because he has not. as various theories are noised abroad." though but an idle speculation. more strangely inconsistent. and yet. and the good people who purchase books upon the recommendations of others. Notwithstanding the author's change in his professions. when there are the author's own words and works to vouch for them in the face of day. or such as he had borrowed. a separate syllable. p. it is safe to aver. if ever. Nothing can be more radically opposite. will not be unwilling to think me so. p. and mixes them together." though mostly in the very words of Murray. and some other additions. upon the credulity of ignorance. in this compass. even in his own account. They overrule all in favour of cue of the worst grammars extant. in opposition to courteous flattery. he comments thus. he receives from his publishers ten cents a copy. "it is now studied by more than one hundred thousand children and youth. to 228 of the ordinary size. or less sustained by taste and scholarship. copied me instead of Murray. that pretensions less consistent with themselves. on this occasion. They did not read his book.. 19.--of which he says. The booksellers say."--Kirkham's Gram. and comments truly. so that the ninety-four editions published since. but. and unimportant. because they neither know. I have. 32. more than may be learned from the very worst. on this most . but. his high-sounding certificates and unbounded boasting can impose any thing. nothing. constrains me to say. p. 59. than are some of the elementary doctrines which this gentleman is now teaching. and even this freedom. may be slow to believe there is no merit where so much has been attributed. and is more extensively used than all other English grammars published in the United States."--Elocution. and withhold my criticisms."--Grammar. For some who are ungenerous and prejudiced themselves. that the things which I quote as his. To admit these. because he is said to have been liberal with his gains.CHAPTER III. on this work. For instance: "A consonant is a letter that cannot be perfectly sounded without the help of a vowel. They appear not to be based on the principles of the language. by the third sentence of the story. 105. trifling. Again: "A consonant is not only capable of being perfectly sounded without the help of a vowel. Such has of late been his public boast. in the face of dignity still greater. and of course congratulated him. An honest expression of sentiment against abuses of a literary nature. 72 his sake. in treating of the pronouns proper."--Grammar. the learner is conducted to this just conclusion: "Hence. nor wish to know. Once more. as being flatly contradictory to his main text. or whose.

now. and in the same preface. p. namely. 73 miserable modification of Lindley Murray's Grammar! Be it so--or double. and fifty-four at the end. so long as he finds it inadequate to his own great merits." Let him remember this." The first treats of sundries. 'the order of the understanding. exercises in parsing. that within the last six years it has passed through fifty editions. Murray had so little originality in his work. that his books were not written by himself. 3. Their subjects run thus: 1. illustrations. he complains. p. figures of speech. In length. more deficient in symmetry. remarks. Hence he gives us. The author himself could not see through the chaos. shall not be satisfied with silver. rhetoric. more imperfect in distinctness of parts. nor he that loveth abundance. are to be connected. and says. hints to teachers. but chiefly of Orthography. 18. or so little selfishness in his design. This too clearly favours the report. rules. A man may boast and bless himself as he pleases. Orthography. and Defective Verbs. he ought to be satisfied. being additional to his main text. false syntax. 6. advertisement. but a line of his own experience. his fortune. of the most common remarks. "Of all the labours done under the sun. can never be worthy of an other's envy. to teach simultaneously all that the author judged important in either. 12. But I must confine myself to the Grammar. 5. "Since the days of Lowth. "has not followed the common 'artificial and unnatural arrangement adopted by most of his predecessors. these pretended lectures vary. and the last is three pages and a half. All these things. is "more judicious. Moods and Tenses. or more difficult of reference."--Ibid. Articles. Interjections and Nouns. Language. 11. punctuation. recommendations. through this record. 14. scarcely any thing is found where it might be expected. Irregular Verbs. or the arrangement which has been common from time immemorial? Who that has any respect for the human intellect. 12. or whose powers of mind deserve any in return. It is the only thing which makes him worthy of the notice here taken of him. the world will see. 13. Kirkham claims to be second only to Lindley Murray. not his employer's feeling. and unworthy of his own poor gratitude. If this boasting has any truth in it. Passive. systematic parsing. As a proof of this. occupied by the title. contents. on Derivation. he is greatly to be pitied. Prepositions. to eight-and-thirty. In this volume. What these will achieve. 10. 37. in some new and inexplicable catenation found only in the arrangement of the lectures." he says. in a strange congeries. p. A book more confused in its plan.CHAPTER III. Adjectives. But I choose to ascribe the passage to the professed author. he would mention. Possibly. surely. Derivation. versification. he found. that he would not take any thing. "He may doubtless be permitted emphatically to say with Prospero. Having once attempted in vain to explain the order of his instructions. two different orders of notes. Which. 12. preface. Bating twelve pages at the beginning. at the same time. and his may ultimately prove the better bargain. But if this is the order of his understanding. and a Key. with increase. "The author.'"--Elocution." as he tells us in his preface. all in the sequence here given. and advice to lecturers. shall not easily be found in stereotype." and more than all he sought. p. 4. 8. the Etymology and Syntax of the ten parts of speech are commingled. shall become yet more famous. 36. 7. will avouch this . orthography. prosody. Participles. Auxiliary. that. But I cannot sympathize with his complaint. orthoëpy. He accordingly made his table of contents a mere meagre alphabetical index. and to hold him answerable for the inconsistency. Murray's only excepted. under half a dozen titles. I am glad of his present success.'"--Grammar." such confusion as this. Willing to illustrate by the best and fairest examples these fruitful means of grammatical fame. the anonymous helper may here have penned. in the mind of the learner. Grammar. provincialisms. Nouns and Verbs. absurdly called "Familiar Lectures. Conjunctions. As a grammarian."--Preface to Elocution. but by others whom he hired. In his last "Address to Teachers. Let the reader try to follow us here. because he never sought any but "the poorest reward. the work consists of fourteen chapters of grammar. 9. "He that loveth silver. 2.. and an attempt is made. if he and the public please. the labours of the pen meet with the poorest reward. 5.[15] He now announces three or four other works as forthcoming shortly. and a variety of other titles merely occasional. In the remaining twelve. 'Your breath has filled my sails. with the parts of speech successively. But it is written. Adverbs. has been so favourably received by the publick as his own. Pronouns. he actually gave the matter up in despair! 38. more wanting in method.' yet he has endeavoured to pursue a more judicious one. from three or four pages. which. And. no other work on grammar. embracing syntax. three different orders of questions.

let the history of this his vaunting modifier cap the climax of vanity. "have now-a-days got a strange opinion that every thing should be taught by lectures."--Grammar. But to this gasconade the simple-minded have given credit--because the author showed certificates that testified to his great success. and then to let the reasons of their judgement be known. he says: "By pursuing this system." It is to this mischievous facility of recommendation. what is still more surprising and monstrous. totally inappropriate? If these chapters have ever been actually delivered as a series of lectures."--a term manifestly adopted as a mere decoy. his preface avers. And as to his new way. profess to teach all sciences! 41. lives after them. is but to know better than others wherein grammatical excellence consists. with respect to the work itself. under pretence of improvement. his amendments of "that eminent philologist. and the wildest absurdities. it is so much out of his reputation. when he taught in the old way. a direct impeachment of his own scholarship or integrity." --Boswell's Life of Johnson. this gentleman claims to have invented a better method of analysis than had ever been practised before. less amiable. palmed off upon their own and the public credulity. 40. or into the writer's pretensions in regard to his predecessors. and men that understand nothing well. and yet. prostituted to give a temporary or local currency to a book which it would disgrace any man of letters to quote! With such encouragement. a host of titled connoisseurs. or less modest? In illustration of my topic." says Dr. he can. With singular ignorance and untruth. and conceive the merit which has made him--"preëminent by so much odds?" Was Murray less praiseworthy. And. 39. For no one will question the fact. presidents. Of other grammars." [16] Kirkham's Grammar. doctors. and called him "amiable and modest!" But who can look into the book. how often have we seen the honours of a high office. governors. p. and here.CHAPTER III. because the thing itself is so. the reader must have been employed on some occasions eight or ten times as long as on others! "People. does not appear. that the inconvenient diversity of school-books. The man who thus prefixes his letter of recommendation to an ill-written book. but to the vilest thefts. in two months. and. "Nothing is thought so easy a request to a great person as his letter. All praise of excellence must needs be comparative. I shall hereafter have occasion to show that that is sufficiently bad also. advance a pupil farther in the practical knowledge of this abstruse science. I have selected that honoured "Compiler" to show the abuses of praise." presenting himself as a model. with incredible facility lend their names. that a vast number of the school-books now in use are either egregious plagiarisms or productions of no comparative merit. and for the sake of literary justice. the sentiment of which is worthy of an author's recollection: "The evil deed or deeds that men do. nonsense wrestles for the seat of learning. "They have all overlooked what the author considers a very important object. and the continued use of bad ones. and converted into bad English a beautiful passage. And. not only to works of inferior merit. Johnson. 74 jumble to be "the order of the understanding?" Are the methods of science to be accounted mere hinderances to instruction? Has grammar really been made easy by this confounding of its parts? Or are we lured by the name. p. if it be not in a good cause. and lawyers. Doubtless something sufficiently bad. a systematick order of parsing. except where experiments are to be shown. "Familiar Lectures. clergymen."--Grammar. I cannot see that lectures can do so much good as a private reading of the books from which the lectures are taken. original writers are plundered by dunces. It belongs to those who understand the subjects of which authors profess to treat. publishes. 12. than he could in one year. p. exploded errors are republished as novelties. to judge fairly and fully of their works. are in a great measure to be attributed. and his book as a paragon. professors. as in the powers of the mind. this prostituted influence of great names. in his "Hints to Teachers. In general. 75. You may teach chymistry by lectures--you might teach the making of shoes by lectures. out of mere courtesy." are not more skillful than the following touch upon an eminent dramatist. Now. or even of a worthy name. To excel in grammar. The good deed or deeds is oft interred with their bones. it is plain. Lord Bacon observes. Yet. The limit to improvement is not so much in the nature of the subject. What his "old way" was. 9. I know of nothing that can be best taught by lectures. and judges. namely. senators. with less labour. and in the inducements to exert them upon a theme so . he has mistaken two nouns for adjectives. Hence there is no fixed point of perfection beyond which such learning may not be carried.

next to commending good writers. what right of the critic has been lost by nonuser? If the interests of Science have been sacrificed to Mammon. I could not but speak of its authors. that either in the faulty publications of Murray. honestly told. who can only in that way be made of any use to it. whose fault is this but their own? If all grammatical fame is little in itself. Real greatness cannot suffer loss by the dissipating of a vapour. and it remains for other men to determine. among the makers of grammars. If reputation has been raised upon the mist of ignorance. both of pleasure and of interest. I have humbly endeavoured to supply this desideratum. Intending to develop not only the principles but also the history of grammar. in the face of such facts and confessions as have been exhibited. let the broad-axe of the critic hew up to the line. the scribblings of some." Who then will suppose. and the filchings of others. to expose the bad. diminish the stature of some. "certainly. to give sound instruction to the future. For." [17] And if. The writer who looks broadly at the past and the present. must not judge of men by their shadows. and other times to know. are discreditable alike to themselves and to their theme. in his masterly preface. the greatest service to learning is. how can the abatement of what is undeserved of it be much? If the errors of some have long been tolerated. "that a whole life cannot be spent upon syntax and etymology. in the general story of this branch of learning. let the reader consider. and that even a whole life would not be sufficient. it does it merely by clearing the sight of the beholder. If the truth. 75 humble and so uninviting. how great must be the intrinsic worth of that study which still maintains its credit in spite of all these abuses! . what place shall be given to these my labours. till every beam in her temple be smooth and straight. Dr. Johnson suggests. or among the various modifications of them by other hands we have any such work as deserves to be made a permanent standard of instruction in English grammar? With great sacrifices.CHAPTER III. what rebuke can do injustice to the craft? Nay. who but the builder shall lament its overthrow? If the works of grammarians are often ungrammatical.

"--Blair's Rhet. can reason upon this subject as they do. But. and then verbs. nisi nova quadam arte critica præmissa. could surely have fallen upon no man but Adam. Blair is not alone in the view which he here takes.. and some of them teachers of religion too. previously to language. 54. without any ground or reason. Under an other head. when he himself confesses that he does not know whether language "can be considered a human invention at all. Lect. and equally so to discover how language could have obtained. according to their different constitutions. in their speculations. tot hallucinationibus demersum. prior to society. in their endeavours to explain the origin and early progress of language. vi. a peculiarly interesting point in their history. on the other hand."--SCIPIO MAFFEIUS: Cassiod. in the garden of Paradise. is to suppose an effect without a cause. in the use of words in general. with sundry questions. that.. The origin of things is. though probably augmented by those who afterwards used it. they must have sprung up simultaneously. though thousands have gravely pored over it since. Thus Dr. It is far more reasonable to think. "consequently. were probably the origin of .. Nor is any thing that has ever yet been said upon it. the one language of the earth for more than eighteen centuries? The task of inventing a language de novo. tot adhuc tenebris circumfusum studium hocce mihi visum est. p. it has been matter of dispute."--Wilson's Essay on Gram. Blair very obviously accords: "To suppose words invented.CHAPTER IV. or ought to have believed. "must have been poor and narrow. xxx. p. as may be gathered from his giving of names to all creatures. 55. Among those who have thought fit to inquire into the prime origin of speech. p. because he was "the first. cannot be denied. of Philadelphia. What signifies it[18] for a man to tell us how nations rude and barbarous invented interjections first. as a part of the study of rhetoric. had doubtless some aids and facilities not common to every wild man of the woods. several learned men. a natural connexion between the sounds uttered and the things signified. if neither could be previous to the other. to suggest."--Robinson's Scripture Characters. so much to which nature affords no clew or index. The learned Doctor was equally puzzled to conceive. 4. among whom is this celebrated lecturer. That there is in some words."--Rhet. with the Bible in their hands. that this whole process of communicating thought by speech. whose 'howl at the appearance of danger. We find them. those first rudiments of speech. With the reasoning of that zealous instructor. "Tot fallaciis obrutum. that the speech of the first man. which are manifestly contrary to what has been made known to us on the best of all authority. says: "It is difficult to discern how communities could have existed without language. assumptions.[19] and then nouns. I have already cited from Sanctius some opinions of the ancient grammarians and philosophers on this point. that. 4. have needlessly perplexed both themselves and their readers. conspiring to represent primeval man. I know not how so many professed Christians. there is. 1. to use their own words. the following sentence from Dr. vi. previously to society formed. as a "savage. and whose exclamations of joy at the sight of his prey. in an octavo published in 1817. Complexiones. and he." which alone the supposition allows to him or to his family. in a peopled world. and reasonings. and perhaps in some of every language. and that. essentially. 3. 54. 1. OF THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE. was. for. or an acquisition of industry--a natural endowment. p. There must have always been some motive which led to the assignation of one name rather than an other. And it is a sort of slander upon our prime ancestor. p. 76 CHAPTER IV. or how words could rise into a language. p. ut nihil satis tuto in hac materia præstari posse arbitratus sim. "Adam had an insight into natural things far beyond the acutest philosopher. "either how society could form itself. or an artificial invention. 2." and when he believed. reiterated. Wilson.[20] and finally the other parts of speech. This too was but an idle perplexity. in a manner purely arbitrary. Lect. seems to be artificial."--Blair's Rhet. The same thing has bean suggested by other learned men. for many reasons. yet. sufficient to set the question permanently at rest. But Dr. or varied with the change of objects. James P. whether we ought to consider it a special gift from Heaven. or names given to things. with a later author." he must have been "the rudest" of his race..

Beattie says. 19. the darkness Night. xiv. that the last of the ten parts of speech was in fact the first: "Interjections are exceedingly interesting in one respect. in creating the world and its inhabitants. whose influence extends over all the others. but as speaking to the first human pair. such questions as the Deity alone could answer: "Myself I then perused. is an art. or was not. he is certainly represented. the young constantly learning to speak by imitating those who were older. Blair seems not to be quite consistent with himself: "Those exclamations. instinctively. Wilson remarks. They are."--Gardiner's Music of Nature. were. "were the words most early introduced. grave. concerning the origin of human wisdom and understanding. So that the order of the events cannot be clearly inferred from the order of the narration. 4. But. which by grammarians are called interjections. "Plato attributes the primitive words of the first language to a divine origin. if so. but. On this point."--Ib. Necessity produced both.. as it would appear. eternal power. who did not sit down like philosophers to invent it. Horne Tooke says. "The names of sensible objects. Bat what says the Bible? 5. ii. "Mankind must have spoken in all ages. 55. may also be a subject of doubt. says: "It shows satisfactorily. in some measure. and to every beast of the field. uttered in a strong and passionate manner. p. In the dawn of society."--Rhet. our first parents must have received this art. p. "Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every fowl of the air. p. but as expressly calling the light Day. 31. may be questioned. in the preceding chapter. Here Gardiner quotes Booth with approbation." says Murray too."--Bucke's Classical Gram. is apparently a parenthesis in the story of the creation of woman. The manner of this communication to man. that was the name thereof. with the vehicle of our thoughts. and a glorious one. with little more converse than what these efforts would produce. the Deity is represented not only as calling all things into existence by his Word. Revelation informs us that our first progenitor was not only endowed with the faculty of speech. 7. Dr."--Diversions of Purley. Thus are we taught by a multitude of guessers. ages may have passed away. there can be little doubt."--Gen. and to their dominion over it."--Study of the Scriptures. and oracular. but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him. and in which finally all science whatever must centre: but an art springing from necessity. and godhead. to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature. Vol. And. the first elements or beginnings of speech. may have borrowed his ideas from Blair.. if he will use them. 1. and that voice to have been raised. 336. however. to have sprung from the hearing of his own voice. that religion and language entered the world by divine revelation. and may be considered the elements of speech. therefore. 20. p. And Adam gave names to all cattle. 78. Dr. manifested his own infinite wisdom. and the latter. p. in commending a work by Dr. surely. as with the vehicles for our bodies. vi. p. made by a voice of words. This account of the first naming of the other creatures by man. implies an effort of the understanding too great for man. Lect. and brought them unto Adam. like Wilson. 6. p. and the gatherings of the mighty waters Seas. and. 77 language... actually incited by the Deity to exert that faculty in giving names to the objects by which he was surrounded. in an animated inquiry concerning his own origin--an inquiry in which he addresses to unintelligent objects. the words most early introduced. and inferior creatures. it is true. and to the fowls of the air. 27."--Octavo Gram. the firmament Heaven. learned. i. in the inspired record of his work in the beginning.. does not lack words. and over all the living creatures formed to inhabit it."--Essay on Gram. man had not been a rational or religious creature. and limb by limb Surveyed. when he spoke them into being. "I imagine that it is."--Rhet. Dr. Milton imagines Adam's first knowledge of speech. the dry land Earth. p. 20. beyond doubt. Ellis. Thomas Hartwell Horne. "The transition from silence to speech. or any other means of signification. that Being who. i. But. Vol. and originally invented by artless men."--Moral Science. by inspiration. Whether it was. without the aid of which." and Dr. with reference to their increase in the earth.. Lect. with which the second chapter of Genesis concludes. as well as some others. or spontaneously. Again: "Language. the oldest words in all languages. in all languages. and sometimes went. p.'--Booth's Analytical Dictionary. 259.. Vol. p.CHAPTER IV. i. not only as naming all things imperatively. 135. and sometimes ran With supple . "The names of sensible objects were.

But to civilized life. man seems to possess it from nature. even in the utterance of sounds. But. if preserved at all from oblivion. (which are not natural but positive. Ye Hills and Dales. and polish is the work of taste and refinement. Tell. which belongs not to philosophy.) this he possesses by way of peculiar eminence. 'fair light. When a nation changes. I therefore think it proper rapidly to glance at many things remote indeed in time. 'Thou Sun. and as wood exists in nature. fair Creatures! tell.'" Paradise Lost. In goodness and in power preëminent: Tell me how I may know him. becomes the more permanent.' said I. We may easily err by following the example of our early writers with more reverence than judgement. without other parts of speech to form them into sentences? Nay. or even to that which is in any degree social. have ceased to operate upon those which are learned only from ancient books. that language is partly natural and partly artificial. language is absolutely necessary. and which indeed have ever constituted the peculiar characteristics of those forms of speech. There is therefore no danger that the language of any nation shall fall into disuse. the inventive power of the mind is discerned. is properly denominated a state of nature. or sentences combining these. must remain forever as they are. as to the simple power of producing vocal sound--which is as it were the organ or instrument of the soul's faculties of knowledge or volition--as to this vocal power. that on several occasions our prime ancestor expressed himself like an intelligent .CHAPTER IV. and abundantly more worthy of the student's consideration. than a thousand matters which are taught for grammar by the authors of treatises professedly elementary. or become themselves extinct. I say. and from the pen of inspiration we seem to have testimony against it. p. but the signification of ideas by nouns or verbs is something positive. both in metre. And. therefore. But of this they offer no proof. how came I thus. shall either adopt some other. Uniformity springs from the steady application of rules. a freedom is allowed. that. so is the mere utterance of vocal sound founded in nature. how adore. 11. if ye saw. and Plains. the language. And feel that I am happier than I know. Greek. and operate to the production of arts. ye Rivers. and then allow those names to be immediately forgotten? Did not both he and his family continually use his original nouns in their social intercourse? and how could they use them. 8. and the wild independence of the savage. Did Adam give names to all the creatures about him. producing by a gradual amalgamation of materials drawn from various tongues a new one differing from all. de Interpr. and readily could name Whatever I saw. to speak I tried. without a knowledge both of the history and of the present state of the science which they profess to teach. nor is it possible for us to do justice to the grammarians. to the imagination of a poet. and Latin.[21] 9. Monkish seclusion is manifestly unnatural. only in contradistinction to that state in which the arts are cultivated. but dancing is something positive. the first stages of its grammar will of course be chaotic and rude. We have not always the means of knowing how far he literally believes what he states. so fresh and gay. or where. 78 joints. From whom I have that thus I move and live. My tongue obeyed. and from the first period of human existence the race were social. And thou enlightened Earth. So that. abundantly prove. its language. how here? Not of myself. as is the case with the ancient Hebrew.. by some great Maker then. The inflections which now compose the declensions and conjugations of the dead languages. Knew not. and without metre. Man was made for society. whether early or late. as did our forefathers in Britain. as the following quotation from the Greek of Ammonius will serve in some degree to illustrate it. as lively vigor led: But who I was. When the latter event occurs. And ye that live and move. 51. in like manner as irrational animals. And hence it is. or from what cause. My own opinion is."--Ammon. Woods. As we have already seen. 10. some have supposed that the formation of the first language must have been very slow and gradual. yet nearer to my present purpose. till the people by whom it is spoken. l. I present the passage in English for the consideration of those who may prefer ancient to modern speculations: "In the same manner. do we not know from the Bible. but a door is something positive. 267. and forthwith spake. but as to the power of using significantly nouns or verbs. because he alone of all mortal beings partakes of a soul which can move itself. as mere motion is from nature. because the causes which are constantly tending to improve or deteriorate every living language. Book viii. as the various elegant compositions.

after his creation. either an acquisition of reason. in the opinion of many learned men." to that paradise into which the Lord God put the new-created man. is to be traced. not to the cries of savage hunters. all of whom. and regain the blissful seat. and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman. the fairest and loveliest work of God. and careful research. living in the simple manner ascribed to our early ancestors in Scripture. and that. . with Dr. but a groundless assumption. So runs the story "Of man's first disobedience. according to the understanding of some. a plausible conjecture. let it be remembered that the first language spoken on earth. 4. because she was taken out of Man. a knowledge of good withdrawn. however. by a vain desire and false conceit of which. then. and I hid myself?" What is it. and must always have been. any more than men do now: this. and humble docility. And. it seems. "That was not first which is spiritual. in which he was pleased to confound their language. entire and wanting nothing." a life which our first parents forfeited and lost on the day of their transgression. whose mortal taste Brought death into the world."--Phipps. and of one speech. and left to contend with foes without and foes within. followed the first transgression. was presented to him? "This is now bone of my bones. free in the exercise of perfect faculties of body and mind. while yet they stood blameless and blessed. to make him and his immediate descendants ignorant savages. and used all the parts of speech which are now considered necessary? What did he say. but that which is natural. Their differences are indeed great. into conscious guilt and misery. and I was afraid. xi. as revelation teaches. that this "one language." It was here that Adam and his partner learned to speak. was bestowed on the first Adam. has been thought by many to be sufficiently frequent and clear to suggest the idea of their common origin. that "their speech must have been poor and narrow?" It is not possible now to ascertain what degree of perfection the oral communication of the first age exhibited. At any rate. That is. in whatever degree attained. But. "The whole earth was of one language. the whole world of mankind consisted only of the descendants of the eight souls who had been saved in the ark." which all men understood until the dispersion. as enabled him to give names to all creatures according to their several natures. p. mankind became what history and observation prove them to have been. could not originally bring any real knowledge into the world with him. till the year of the world 1844. by painful experience. or a revelation from God. 79 man. From the same source we learn. Yet Adam. must be. must they gather the fruits of knowledge."--Gen. but to that eastern garden of God's own planting. originated in Eden before the fall. on Man. does not prove the immediate formation of any new languages.CHAPTER IV. Then occurred that remarkable intervention of the Deity. the spirit of Christ. I think. and afterward that which is spiritual. but perhaps not greater. "In Him was life. as languages are now known to improve in proportion to the improvement of society in civilization and intelligence."--1 Cor. that. and were consequently scattered abroad upon the face of the earth. With loss of Eden. because I was naked. 1. sprung from one common stock. Abandoned then in great measure by superhuman aid.. and to affirm. This.[22] At that period. whatever it was. having nothing which he did not receive. even in the beginning. and also favoured with immediate communications with their Maker. "to dress it and to keep it. echoed through the wilds and glades where Nimrod planted Babel. The analogy of words in the different languages now known. that the primeval tongue was at least sufficient for all the ordinary intercourse of civilized men. and all our wo.. and of evil made too sure. 46. 12. than the differences in the several races of men. xv." And again: Had he not other words than nouns. human speech subsequently declined far below its original standard. and the fruit Of that forbidden tree. capable of acquiring knowledge through observation and experience. wherein grew "every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. Blair. till one greater Man Restore us. and so many of the eight as had survived the flood one hundred and eighty-eight years." 13. For. and as we cannot reasonably suppose the first inhabitants of the earth to have been savages. they had forfeited the tree of life. A lapse from all this favour. when his fit partner. in many instances. when he made answer concerning his transgression: "I heard thy voice in the garden. so that they could not understand one an other's speech. as the life and the light of the immortal soul. the second Adam. and henceforth. "It was undoubtedly in the light of this pure influence that Adam had such an intuitive discerning of the creation. and the life was the light of men. and cautious faith.

and the partial introduction of them could seldom with propriety be made a subject of instruction or record. as she did not furnish the words. he ventures into the regions of conjecture. we are not able with much certainty to account. "We have in use two kinds of language. in which the . but verbs! 16. and a learned man may. which were to be the symbols of his ideas. Nor is there even much plausibility in the speculations of those grammarians who have attempted to explain the order and manner in which the declensions. In his sixth lecture. of such of his nobler faculties. and what is their original and proper signification according to their derivation. the reader regrets. but he cannot marvel. is liable to this strong objection. that the moods of English verbs. and supposes certain tones of the voice to be things invented by man: "Accordingly. And it is better to be content with ignorance. the tenses. which were to manifest. but uttering a new one as necessity prompted. to find out and agree upon such articulate sounds. xiv. and although. though.CHAPTER IV. p. He even goes farther. as they should choose to make the symbols of their ideas. in my opinion. has this ever happened? That no dates are given. but the folly of supposing that in our language words must needs be of the same class. The words the and an may be articles in English. but supposed to have been wholly unknown in the early ages of the world."--Ib. have become what we now find them. 80 14. Of this art. and able to support them with some show of learning. But. our words in general. the other. By most authors. Every word must have had its particular origin and history. that it proceeds on the supposition. Etymological inquiries are important. But even here the utility of his curious inquiries may be overrated. were first introduced. may do some service to science. both parts of our question would seem to be resolved. I now proceed to that of writing. Its antiquity. as chiefly distinguish him from the brute species. They came into use before they could be generally known. the event. laid the foundation for that diversity which subsequently obtained among the languages of the different nations which sprung from the dispersion. that nature did no more than furnish the power and means. she did not give the language. than in contending that if. he comments on the gift of speech thus: "But still we are to observe. but left them also. Having suggested what seemed necessary respecting the origin of speech. and his guidance is peculiarly deceptive. not speaking a language learned chiefly from their fathers. than to form such conjectures as imply any thing that is absurd or impossible. be better employed. merely as such. deserves to be rebuked. For he afterwards makes the former kind of language as much a work of art. enough has already been presented. whether new languages were thus immediately formed or not."--Elocution. 147. published in the Classical Journal of 1819. p. to the care and invention of man. and whenever. in all probability. and to divert ingenious teachers from the best methods of instruction. or places mentioned. By what successive changes. as that to which they may be traced in an other. though obviously traceable to something else in Saxon. though it exhibits ingenuity and learning. for the sake of some favourite theory. since the building of Babel. the internal exertions and emotions. Language is either oral or written. or other leading features of the languages. than all other visionaries put together. as any one will suppose the latter to have been. the spoken and the written: the one. and especially the minor parts of speech. Sheridan says. But this great rhetorician either forgot his own doctrine. the gift of God. But when or where. If this ascription of the two things to their sources. or allows himself to be seduced from the path of practical instruction. even if there were letters and learning at hand to do them this honour. and I do not mean to censure or discourage them. alphabetic writing is not only considered an artificial invention. or part of speech. the question of its origin has consequently two parts. Men fond of such speculations. were invented in a certain order by persons. But for the immediate origin of the peculiar characteristical differences which distinguish the various languages now known. and of several other derivative tongues. his errors are obstinate. however. and communicate by their own virtue. neither did she furnish the tones. are not conjunctions. 15."--Ibidem. were as just as it is clear and emphatical. like words. On this branch of the subject. 17. For instance: Neilson's Theory of the Moods. or did not mean what he here says. the invention of man. and hence it may be regarded as the remote cause of the differences which now exist. is great. the moods. but left it to the industry of men. and he who in such things can explain with certainty what is not commonly known. have done more to unsettle the science of grammar. as in the case of the passions. the etymologist may often show to our entire satisfaction..

"That the first inventor of letters is supposed to have been Memnon. The power of words by figures rude conveyed. In the thirty-first chapter of Exodus. Part ii. considers him as a god. some chronologists make it between two and three centuries later. that Cadmus invented the sixteen letters of which he is said to have made use. however. and all writing artificial: "Of how many primary kinds is language? It is of two kinds. unless the book of Job may be regarded as an exception. in his General Preface to the Bible. or to what country. Charles Bucke has it. it is said. that God "gave unto Moses. seem willing to think writing coeval with speech. "for a memorial in a book."--British Gram. 24. Some authors. and the writing was the writing of God. C. "paid divine honours to the Inventor of Letters. written with the finger of God. who was.. A."--Bucke's Classical Gram. for Moses had been previously commanded to write an account of the victory over Amalek. upon Mount Sinai. that Adam gave names to every living creature. l. B. that the art of writing was first communicated by revelation. i. (on the fiftieth day after their departure from Egypt. or alphabetical. the Phoenician. among the learned. There is no reason to believe it was antecedent to the time of Moses. Thus Bicknell. p. or what sort of characters he made use of. "there is some probability in the opinion. seems likewise to favour the same opinion. and almost absolute necessity." And again.) Moses received the ten commandments of the law.[23] but how those names were written. and it is not decided. tables of stone. was "the first writing in alphabetical characters ever exhibited to the world. we are not able to trace the commencement. upon the top of which. iii. or marks. suppose that in this instance the order of the events is not to be inferred from the order of the record. is peculiar to man. it belongs. p. and that there consequently remains a strong probability. B. "Indeed. introduced this art into Greece. which God himself delivered to Moses on Sinai. 18. 32. (the representation of the passions. do not appear to have been the first writing. and laws. 14. It probably originated in Egypt. and artificial or written. Adam Clarke. and its beneficial effects. They first. Some. Express'd the meaning of the thinking mind.CHAPTER IV."--Bicknell's Gram. And useful science everlasting made. Dr.) common to brutes as well as man. Vol. in the thirty-second: "The tables were the work of God."--Exod. fabled to be the son of Aurora. by the interchanges of a few letters. 81 science of grammar originated.[24] 19. with admirable flippancy. 21. among whom is Dr. cuts this matter short. to a limited extent. p.." See Clarke's Succession of Sacred Literature. 5. at or near Horeb. or that there is room to doubt whether the use of letters was here intended. that the sacred Decalogue. and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua. "Natural language is. nor indeed whether Adam ever made use of a written language at all. in consequence. His whole story is so wild a fable. for the preservation and communication of true religion. those facts. goddess of the morning." But these divine testimonies.--satisfying himself with pronouncing all speech to be natural. is not known to us. Scott. in order to perpetuate. in the history of the nations. natural or spoken." Rowe's Lucan."--Oliver B. or a god-like man. but artificial language. The writings delivered to the Israelites by Moses. if ancient fame be true.. 15. This first battle of the Israelites occurred in Rephidim. The time at which Cadmus. 2513. 16. p. writing. xvii. since we find no mention made of any in the sacred history. Peirce's Gram. being the work of invention. Nor is it very probable. 20.. p. xiv. from Martin's Physico-Grammatical Essay: "We are told by Moses. two tables of testimony. p. Different nations have claimed the honour of the invention. as follows. a place on the east side of the western gulf of the Red Sea. The sacred mystery of letters knew. with certainty. when he speaks of him. A certain late writer on English grammar."--Ib. truths. The art of expressing almost an infinite variety of sounds."--Scott's Preface. in various lines design'd. For. p. are more ancient than any others now known." it is said. but before they came to Sinai.. 334. Learned men find no traces of literary. thus miraculously written. 1491. 5. however.. till long after the days of Moses." says he. than a human invention. cannot be precisely ascertained. M. whom they called Theuth: and Socrates. to whom. "The Egyptians. seems more like a discovery to man from heaven. The ancients in general seem to have thought Phoenicia the birthplace of Letters: "Phoenicians first. that nothing certain can be inferred from . which he was employed to deliver to Israel. graven upon the tables. favour the conjecture. to Moses. by sound.

is a position with which I am by no means satisfied. however. heaven. and. and the things of God. I would not willingly rob him of this honour. except by language. in pity from above."--Ib." [27]--Milton. "have never been at all presented to the senses of any men but by words. "No man can have the least knowledge of true and sound doctrine. till the truth is manifest. Dr. 11. In oral discourse the graces of elegance are more lively and attractive. but where it is perverted. the remedy is to be sought by opposing learning to learning. he prayed the gods to release him from the burden of such a life. i. 136. it would seem that the Spirit of God alone can fully show us its bearings.. if it may be considered an invention.[26] angels. "arises from its authors." says Dr. and who still gives to His own holy oracles all their peculiar significance and authority? Some seem to think the Almighty has never given to men any notion of Himself. however. devils. and that which is reprehensible. there is no feature of the story. are alike interested in the cause of letters. the truths contained in the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments: "Left only in those written records pure. that some great men have presumed to limit to a verbal medium the communications of Him who is everywhere His own witness. consequently. p. "The chief glory of a nation. Had Adam. and whenever that occurs. p. except that as the great progenitor of the race of authors.." Literature is important. 82 it. Calvin says. a perversion of it.[25] It cannot be overrated. very far from supposing there is any other doctrine which can be safely substituted for the truths revealed of old. and hell. Ch. 22. both he and his beloved Hermíonè were changed into serpents! History. I have said. by ascribing to him the invention of letters. Wayland. but where it is perverted. has made him generous amends. "All these being facts. whether there is reason to expect it again or not. noblemen value it as gold. as God. after a series of wonderful achievements and bitter misfortunes. of what is. in his Elements of Moral Science. that these same facts were otherwise made known to the prophets. carried off by Jupiter--he found a wife in the daughter of Venus! Sowing the teeth of a dragon. because it is subservient to all objects. p. Johnson.CHAPTER IV. It was a saying of Pope Pius the Second."-. repeatedly avers. which I can conceive to give any countenance to his claim. and princes prize it as jewels. and the proudest achievements of human intellect. Of the great truths of Christianity.) and that which has been done. no such knowledge? And if such they had. liberty and government. except by words. but well-written books are the grand instructors of mankind. Religion and morality. which had devoured his companions." The uses of learning are seen in every thing that is not itself useless."--On the Sublime and [the] Beautiful. 23. Though not but by the Spirit understood. Abel. fame and happiness. learning cannot be overrated."--First Edition. they could be made known to man in no other way than by language. can never be known. 132. B. even those of the very highest concern. are certainly very great. 97. I am. is not impossible. That God can never reveal facts or truths except by words. is it not by an inference more erudite than reasonable. and. loaded with grief and infirm with age. Again: "All of them being of the nature of facts. If the illumination of the Spirit is necessary to an understanding and a reception of scriptural truth. i. And so far as this point may have reference to theology. or is not. (1 Pet. "Many ideas. and accounting him the worthy benefactor to whom the world owes all the benefits derived from literature. what Scripture taught them? We ought to value the Scriptures too highly to say of them any thing that is unscriptural. his sufferings correspond well with the calamities of which that unfortunate generation have always so largely partaken. without having been a disciple of the Scripture.Institutes. is made to appear so. But men may differ in their notions of what learning is. But I must confess. that is. Searching in vain for his stolen sister--his sister Europa. by revelation. all of which have however a great influence over the passions. then. But it should be remembered. and Abraham. the most enduring monuments of human greatness. Enoch. So of the Bible. Noah. "Common men should esteem learning as silver. he saw them spring up to his aid a squadron of armed soldiers! In short. The benefits of this invention." says the celebrated Edmund Burke. that. 6. .

i. because a just conclusion is often avoided. and often they that use it.. "Quis huic studio literarum. of admiration or contempt. quin omnem illarum artium pæne infinitam vim et materiam scientiæ cogitatione comprehenderit?"--CICERO. as signs. "But I say unto you. by the adroit substitution of one phrase or one word for an other. Where competent intellectual faculties exist. are things in themselves. in some sense. is a moral action. the righteous and the wicked. iv. "No word can be to any man the sign of an idea. The power of an instrument is virtually the power of him who wields it. or reflection. Words. "Was it Mirabeau. till that idea comes to have a real existence in his mind. Dr."--Spurzheim's Treatise on Education. To make signs. In instruction. The representatives are called ideas. will not the words "call internal feelings" into action? And how do feelings differ from thoughts?[29] Hear Dr.[28] and. has neither power nor value to him who does not understand it. or may not. the intelligible signs of thought do move the mind to think. and to think sometimes with deep feelings too. But why is it. whether of assent or dissent. that it is hard to say to what ends the language in which it speaks. Spurzheim was not the first to suggest. may. but as the sign of it. or ill-meaning a thing they make of it. 1. So wonderful a thing is a rational soul. and words. To speak. 3. that every idle word that men shall speak. as language is used in common. 1833. and. De Oratore. it may perhaps seem to the reader a difficult matter. OF THE POWER OF LANGUAGE. are obviously the instruments of such representation. or to refuse to listen. and. then."--Matt. so it is the nature of an instrument. and for which we are strictly accountable. to be that with which something is effected. by the wise and the foolish. These ideas are the simple passive pictures of things. is to do something. speech ought not to be regarded as the foundation or the essence of knowledge. But let a scornful expression be addressed to a passionate man. vi. necessarily implies an agent. 2."--Logic. they shall give account thereof in the day of judgement. the quality of which depends upon the motive."--Mark. to be the doer of something. with whatever inherent force or dignity. and not in that of recording or communicating thought. xii. quod profitentur ii. the candid and the crafty. 63. and things of mighty influence. 36. but. is a moral action also. "It is time to abandon the immense error of supposing that words and precepts are sufficient to call internal feelings and intellectual faculties into active exercise. 37. like all other actions. not only in addresses to the passions and high-wrought feelings of mankind. who has told us that words are things? They are indeed things. when he gives the ability to understand them. James Rush: "The human mind is the place of representation of all the existences of nature which are brought within the scope of the senses. in Congress. 3. be sufficient. Lib. for by thy words thou shalt be justified. therefore. and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. its fitness or efficiency to or for the accomplishment of the purposes for which it is used.CHAPTER V. or consciousness. 62. is spoken or written in vain? Is language impotent? It is sometimes employed for purposes with respect to which it is utterly so. as being the instruments of their communication or preservation. being things by means of which other things are represented. 83 CHAPTER V. Mr. capable of so affecting the physical . When God wills. or a false one reached. may. penitus se dedidit. the signs of knowledge are knowledge. 24. 94. for knowledge has its origin in the power of sensation. The peculiar power of language is another point worthy of particular consideration. but in the discussion of legal and political questions also. as they are received or resisted. I mean. absurd. and there is meaning in the injunction. p. the mighty and the impotent. which represent thoughts. To listen. We are often unable to excite in others the sentiments which we would: words succeed or fail. so all signs. Let experience determine. to speak intelligibly of its peculiar power. What is said. become--"spirit and life. or [else] they exist with an activity. "Take heed what ye hear. But to this it may be replied. or what other master of the human passions. They are relative also to him who utters them."--Daniel Webster. by this phrase. know not how insignificant. President. as Professor Duncan observes. as well as to those who may happen to be instructed or deceived by them. qui grammatici vocantur. p. As it is the nature of an agent." See John. they are relative to other things. that so much of what is spoken or written.

Our literature contains occasional assertions bearing upon this point. or designs. This is[31] the language of nature. it is of consequence that their nature and differences be understood. and third. Its improvement is the improvement of our intellectual nature. being afterwards recalled to the mind."--Ib. being conveyed to others by language or any other vehicle. becomes in that circumstance an idea of memory. p. from interest or incitement. "Speech." says he."--El. It fitly represents[32] the quickness of sentiment and thought. depends on the structure of speech. From this. Ideas derived from original perceptions. The first kind is derived from real existences that have been objects of our senses. and again. to the highest energy of passion: and the terms. Nor does there appear to be any line of classification. are but the verbal signs of these degrees and forms. But when we want to make known to others the particular conceptions of the ." But among the real objects from which memory may raise ideas. Hence we always express our stronger feelings by these natural signs. and consciousness the act by which through the latter we know what is within the mind. he imagines. or any other sign that has the same power with language. beyond the bounds of a ready-formed language. and the elevation of national character. Children first express their feelings by motions and gestures of the body. without changing their nature. Ideas of imagination. that Sanctius says. and as it were the instruments. thought. 328. of things. becomes in their mind an idea of the second kind. that an idea of this kind. Dr. Lord Kames. p. by cries and tears. Ideas communicated by language or other signs. emotions. as the necessary means of his progress. sentiment. for with the ideal systems of these philosophers. that there is no way in which the individual mind can. and a man's imagination is to himself the cause of the third." But what he meant by "instrumenta rerum" is not very apparent. Whether. defining perception to be the act by which through the former we know outward objects. 3. beyond the immediate perception of sensible objects. Again: "An attentive investigation will show. often assume the colour of passion. p. or to avoid it. or how far. These ideas differ from each other in many respects. p. he includes the workings of the mind itself. that neither the reason of men. 4. and. but I submit them to the reader. 84 organs as to induce us to seek the continuance of that which produces them. and a duty to God who gave it. Adam says. feeling. but I know of no full or able discussion of it. that the author is not remarkable for that sobriety of judgement which gives weight to opinions. Vol."--Essay on Language. properly termed ideas of memory.. for separating thought from passion: since simple thoughts.CHAPTER V. "That perception of a real object which is raised in the mind by the power of memory. of Crit. "As ideas are the chief materials employed in reasoning and reflecting.) is. it may be laid down as a broad principle. and passion. Every process of the reasoning powers. emotion. of the social transmission of thought. language is the cause of the second. do. (which he says is precise and accurate. in a great degree. The functions of the mind here described. originally of imagination. but by the intervention of words. that no individual can make great advances in intellectual improvement. nor even that of superior intelligences. We have seen. that an idea. ii. but chiefly in respect to their proceeding from different causes. This active or vivid class of ideas comprehends the passions. is a question of great importance in the philosophy of both. from the simple idea. "The principles of grammar may be traced from the progress of the mind in the acquisition of language. according to his definition. to any extent. These positions might easily be offset by contrary speculations of minds of equal rank. divides the senses into external and internal. and therefore universal. he by no means coincides. language is to the mind itself the instrument of thought. can ever operate independently of words."--Philosophy of the Human Voice. and their followers. "is to the mind what action is to animal bodies.[30] Cardell's instructions proceed upon the supposition. might have saved Locke. An idea. It appears now that ideas may be distinguished into three kinds: first. or with those of Aristotle and Des Cartes. second. 384. combine its ideas. among the citations in a former chapter. with the single suggestion. This author says. in the Appendix to his Elements of Criticism. according to the excellence of this chief instrument of all mental operations. from much vain speculation.. which are as instantaneous as the impression of light on the eye. within itself. Berkley. 9. or whatever we remember of our former passions. exist then in different forms and degrees. "Names are the signs. will be the means of personal improvement. 5. It is scarce [ly] necessary to add. Such a definition. 6. thoughts.

into their more conspicuous parts. Philosophers have calculated the difference of velocity between sound and light." [37] 8. can think. that. but persisting till it even separate those elementary principles which. The utterance of words.[36] If so. we must represent them by parts.[35] but it is here suggested by Dr. 362. is not simple continuity apt to exclude it from our conception of every thing which appears with uniform coherence? Dr. and consequently."--Hermes. Why. not only dividing them as wholes. and can. avers. as though they had never been united. there surely can be in it neither division nor union that was not first in the intellect for the manifestation of which it was formed. 10. and body without its accidents: as distinctly each one. all thoughts must be so too."--Hermes. manifest a similar division. as the seeing of colour is familiar to the eye. First. "to combine its ideas. that thought is "as instantaneous as the impression of light on the eye. p. Beattie says. Let us hear a third man. are prone to a philosophy which reverses the order of things pertaining to the mind. in a wonderful manner. have not in themselves any of that generality which belongs to the signification of common nouns. Sec. as we have seen. "If we consider the ease and speed with which words are formed. as compared with pictures. our thoughts are thus divided. Harris says. though uninstructed and utterly ignorant of language. And what else can be meant by "the division of thought. 9. as equalling in speed the progress of our very thoughts.-an ease which knows no trouble or fatigue. and tends to materialism. "The human mind. and they well deserve that name." than our notion of objects. 7. It is remarkable that this philosopher. they are not the only instruments by means of which the same thing may be done.CHAPTER V. and a speed which equals the progress of our very thoughts. Chap. by rude signs of their own inventing. be no such division respecting that which is perfectly pure and indivisible in its essence. as all things are individuals."--Harris's Hermes. as existing severally. in the admirable economy of the creation. with respect to generalization. but." Philosophy here too evidently nods. It is certain. has represented the formation of words. subservient to the operations of the higher. compared with the rapidity of thought. colour without superficies. p. of great name. i. If. Adam. then. though susceptible of being retained or recalled. but of the division of thought.[33] and join these together. The deaf and dumb. while. Vol. But it is manifest. our first ideas are such as are conceived of things external and sensible. if . that if they effect this. and that. natures subordinate are made. 23. they have not the smallest claim to that title. Mechanical separations are limited: "But the mind surmounts all power of concretion. I would ask. Secondly. 1. we must divide and analyze them. 85 mind. naturally flash upon the mind with immeasurable quickness. as Cardell suggests. being blended together after a more mysterious manner. The Doctor does not affirm that words are the instruments of thought."--Preface to Latin Gram. that sentiment and thought." says Harris. or the making of signs of any sort. And thus it is. and. of equal note: "Words have been called winged. and can place in the simplest manner every attribute by itself. and symbols preferred. there is little need of any instrument to divide them further: the mind rather needs help. requires time. but who will attempt to calculate the difference between speech and thought!"--Horne Tooke's Epea Pteroenta. Hence all men whose intellect appeals only to external sense. that it penetrates into the recesses of all things. an other author. when their abbreviations are compared with the progress which speech could make without these inventions. accordingly. 307. "by an energy as spontaneous and familiar to its nature. or as being distinguishable into parts? There can. that. corresponding to the individuality of things. 336. Thus words are both the instrument and signs[34] the division of thought. and who has displayed such extraordinary acuteness in his investigations. according to the order of their relations. as this author infers. are united in the minutest part as much as in the mightiest whole. So far as language is a work of art. discerns at once what in many is one. who had so sublime conceptions of the powers of the human mind. We express each part by certain signs. p.[38]--we may plainly perceive an answer to the question here proposed. what in things dissimilar and different is similar and the same. "It appears to me. p. or the utterance of language. with respect to division. and not a thing conferred or imposed upon us by nature. superficies without body. in the common intercourse of men with men. they must originate in something more spiritual than language. I think. imitations have been rejected. convex without concave. In showing the advantage of words."--Moral Science. i.

" [42] and make the mind either a material substance. "is not sufficiently amenable to the test of . 393. 9. A doctrine somewhat like this. or intelligible forms. but only are by these outward things excited or stirred up. though apparently repugnant to the polytheism commonly admitted by the Stoics. they are not begotten in us by outward objects or outward causes. or bones to reason. than the explosion of a cannon. In short. but. with great confidence. Zeno. except that he makes a distinction between a natural and a supernatural idea of God. Collier's Translation. and in natural ideas of the natural principles of human understanding. p. Socrates. Parmenides. for the influences of the one are no less vital. 12." [41] A doctrine apparently at variance with this. did not originate with Boëthius: it may be traced back a thousand years from his time. That which really produces motion. which altogether differs from this natural idea--I say." I quote only to show the concurrence of others. It is here it looks for the origin of intelligible ideas. and Pythagoras. cannot itself be inert. How much truth there may be in this new "science. we find Barclay. which lies as open and pervious to your mind. it seems to me not only to clash with some of the most important principles of mental philosophy. This correspondence is very practicable: for there is an ambient omnipresent Spirit. among the professed discoveries of Phrenology. one God to govern it. or essential condition."--Book viii. virtually deny that ancient doctrine. are made happy by the same exercises of it. in all men."--Hermes. the leading phrenologists. the early defender of the Quakers. cannot itself be devoid of intelligence. as the better philosophy teacheth. For. And thus beings of the same kind. it were impossible they should so know God. and endued with the same reason. but to make the power of thought the result of that which is in itself inert and unthinking."--Book vii. 14. and one law to guide it. to whom he belonged: "The world. I am not prepared to say." as it is called. because all men are capable of salvation. with Harris's position. and the true index to their measure. or a mere mode without substantial being. 54. Assuming that the primitive faculties of the human understanding have not been known in earlier times. Aristotle. For though sensible objects may be the destined medium to awaken the dormant energies of man's understanding. In short. for whatsoever is clearly and distinctly known. for. number. For the ideas of all things are divinely planted in our souls. Sec. take it all together. in the physical organization of the brain. not only in supernatural ideas of God and things divine. or (what is more important) between man and God. yet are those energies themselves no more contained. But the doctrine of ideas existing primarily in God. "But"--to refer again to Harris--"the intellectual scheme which never forgets Deity. and you will find reason and truth but single and the same. philosophizing thus: "If the Scripture then be true. as sometimes held forth. in an argument with a certain Dutch nobleman. even of those which exist in human capacities. and conclusions thence deduced by the strength of human reason. 13. and consequently of enjoying this divine vision. Agreeably to these views. is found in the Meditations of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus." says Dr. 620. run through the whole system of rational beings. in the spark which gave it fire. 86 not to atheism. by acknowledging no spiritual substance. but even in the ideas of outward objects. to which also the Cartesian philosophy agreeth. "The doctrine of immaterial substances. there could be no intercourse between man and man. And this is true. in sense. are similar and congenial. 11. has recently been taught. Were it otherwise. it professes to have discovered.[40] Plato. which are perceived by the outward senses: as that noble Christian philosopher Boëthius hath well observed. neither can it otherwise be clearly and distinctly known. "For knowledge can alone produce knowledge.CHAPTER V. their proper source. through the philosophy of Proclus. See Sewell's History. postpones every thing corporeal to the primary mental Cause. and being divinely planted in our souls. and that which actually causes the human mind to think and reason. It is absurd to suppose any production or effect to be more excellent than its cause. that they have such a supernatural idea in themselves. is known by its proper idea. Spurzheim. there is but one sort of matter to make it of. p. folio. "It is not in flesh to think. there is in men a supernatural idea of God. Now this capacity consisteth herein. Barclay carries on his argument with much more of a similar import. all minds that are. Sec. Again: "Let your soul receive the Deity as your blood does the air. and distribution. and so too are their ideas. is but one. than those of the other.[39] For if there were no such idea in them. as the air you breathe does to your lungs: but then you must remember to be disposed to draw it.

Task: Winter Morning Walk. which appears to the eye as spread upon a substance. the result will be an act of perception. it may perhaps be admitted. whom his works adore. it does not affect my argument. deriving the term from the Latin. 178. non sensibus. that. than is the light by which he beholds it. we necessarily suppose to have some support."--Moral Science. 17. Mind is that which thinks. to the brain. how it show'd In prospect from his throne. that our notion of material substance. But it does not follow. and upon what principle of causation. then he hath the idea of them in him: for he made them by counsel. 16. * * * and the word colour denotes. and that one. an absurd supposition. for then he should have needed them. Language from kindling thought is born. extended. Beattie. and reasons. "Colour. To read his wonders. Answering his great idea. In favour of what is urged by the phrenologists."--AKENSIDE. Akenside. p."--COWPER.: a Poem in imitation of Coleridge. A material object can only occasion in our sensible organs a corporeal motion.CHAPTER V. in the mind. "Original Truth. in whose thought the world. i. may be said (as it were) to shine with unchangeable splendor. says: "Colours inhere not in the coloured body. existed ere it was. Passions and other obstacles may prevent . and remembers. in respect to vision. "Thought shines from God as shines the morn." [43] says Harris. Book vii. or the mind in which that idea is formed? Lord Kames avers. and the impression be communicated. line 554. "If a picture of a visible object be formed upon the retina. but the sublime conception of the ancients. 20. The addition of his empire. p. canorum illud. as Milton. of sound. that these forms and qualities had an abstract preëxistence in the divine mind."--MILTON. i. is just as much a matter of hypothesis. All accidents. and occupies space. as a natural law. that perception is a mere act or attribute of the organized matter of the brain. ii. Pleasures of the Imagination. but in the light that falls upon it." ANON. What do we mean by matter? and what by mind? Matter is that which is solid. Divine wisdom has established the senses as the avenues through which our minds shall receive notices of the forms and qualities of external things. divisible. "Illud est album. 15. an external thing. that. This is clearly proved by Locke. "Then the Great Spirit. sees it nowhere: to him all natures are one. has no existence but in the mind of the spectator. rather than in the senses. Lib. enlightening throughout the universe every possible subject. Here are qualities in the one case. Here are two definitions as totally distinct as any two can be. by nature susceptible of its benign influence. i. Fair as it is. 4."--Ciceronis Acad. Paradise Lost. of smell. Book i. Here is some difference of opinion. operations in the other. "And in the school of sacred wisdom taught. or hypostasis. and wills. p. and not by necessity."--Elements of Criticism. p. if we choose to borrow from the Greek. whether they be qualities or actions. is more properly the cause of the idea conceived of it. hoc dulce. 150. how good. The forms eternal of created things. that the thing which he sees. and others. or hypostasis. not only of colour. and only supported by hypothesis. however. Cowper. is. 87 observation. and he that sees not in them a difference of substance. hoc bene olens. that to perceive or think is an act or attribute of our immaterial substance or nature. 7. 54. 16: Lond."--Phrenology. movable. which has not in it the nature of thought or perception. we know not. and worships. And Cicero placed the perception. and never a sensation of the mind. and they have a parhelion of that wisdom that is in his Idea."--Richardson's Logic. by the nerves. which is."--Wayland's Moral Science. hoc asperum: animo jam hæc tenemus comprehensa. For example: "Now if Ens primum be the cause of entia a primo. is a common doctrine of many English authors. but of taste. 1657. how fair. shall a man believe. But it should be remembered. and not to be supposed the effect either of the objects perceived or of our own corporeal organization. nor did the writer of this sentence believe. Dr. But what this substance. independently of its qualities or actions. and of touch. but however the thing may be. "having the most intimate connection with the Supreme Intelligence. it is founded on belief. Vol. "Thence to behold this new-created world. Within his own deep essence view'd the forms. and this we call substance.

and belief. and that of Virtue. and if we can draw it into such an orderly combination as . These it behoves us to correct as far as possible. were it not aided by that curious concatenation of names." says Duncan. local sentiments. that in some of its operations and intellectual reaches. and then. Thus by a connection perhaps little expected. quintillions. with respect to itself. for. to examine our ideas. and proceed till we have used it a million of times. Although it seems plain from our own consciousness. we begin and proceed. as bodily motion is seen to bear to material substances. "lies in managing with skill the capacity of the intellect. we must ease the view of the mind by taking them to pieces. introduced to prevent confusion. that they who are acquainted with words. has nine hundred and ninety-nine distinct repetitions in connexion with the preceding terms. of this. and then. the mind is greatly assisted by its own contrivances with respect to language. as clouds and vapours may obscure the sun. to distinguish exactly the several stages of this long progression. and those peculiarly fitted to the purpose. formed from these in their regular order. 88 indeed its efficacy. if they strengthen not its natural powers. and help itself forward in its conceptions. first to itself to make two. And though I do not conceive the position to be generally true. for ten hundred thousand. As far as twelve we make use of simple unrelated terms. This one new word. it being the business of both. or calculation. p. and although it must be obvious to reflection. But there seem to be some processes of thought. in which the mind.. Thenceforward we apply derivatives and compounds. we introduce the new word million. conspire in many instances to furnish us with ideas. the turbulence of passions. trillions. that all its ideas. Now can any one suppose that words are not here. with billions. when the objects before it are in themselves perhaps infinite in number or variety. are. till the word thousand has been used nine hundred and ninety-nine thousand times. idleness. which may go on to infinity. because the darkness respects only particular percipients. by other causes outward as well as inward.CHAPTER V. and then to each higher combination successively. that words are to the mind itself the necessary instruments of thought. and (what is worse than all this) with many that are erroneous. education. inattention. With this name we begin again as before. language is admitted to be properly the instrument. 20. perceptions. yet. that the mind is an active self-moving principle or essence. and then extends forward. 18. we form a series of different numbers. and contriving such helps. the mind would not be able to go tar without the help of words. some too partial. and emotions. the imperfections of sense. When ideas become very complex. till we arrive at a hundred. quadrillions. by a wonderful artifice in the combination of terms. By the continual addition of this. it cannot well be denied. in my apprehension. By this leisurely survey we are enabled to take in the whole. yet we know. and denominated by terms destitute of this artificial connexion. and to amend them by the standard of nature and of truth. after its own manner. opinions. of a spiritual nature--bearing such a relation to the spiritual substance in which alone they appear. and setting before it the several portions separately. appear to coincide. by cool suspense and candid examination. Here the computation begins anew. each combination denoting a number clearly distinguished from every other. the cause of Letters. hundred. runs through all the former combinations."--See Hermes. and for that subordination of intelligence which is their natural consequence. yet capable of being moved. may yet expose them to no unnecessary fatigue. and see at a glance how far it is from the beginning of the series. and contrary to truth. No idea is more obvious or simple than that of unity. The understanding would lose itself in the multiplicity. it may well be doubted whether the greatest genius in the world would ever be able to do what any child may now effect by this orderly arrangement of words. in like manner. the instruments of thought. as. In the consideration of these. mentally to associate their internal conceptions with the verbal signs which they have learned to use. or of the intellectual process thus carried on? Were all these different numbers to be distinguished directly by the mind itself. from experience and observation. I refer not now to the communication of knowledge. nor change. one after an other. 19. that is. and by the multiplicity of their parts grow too unwieldy to be dealt with in the lump. but itself neither admits diminution. and thus brings us to a thousand. etc. "The great art of knowledge. We have an instance of this in numeration. in some true sense. contrives to prevent embarrassment. are apt to think in words--that is. or one. 406. which has been contrived for the several parts of the succession. Partial views. to any extent we please. Among these therefore we must look for ignorance and error.

Bishop Butler remarks. and that if a man always knew what to say to an other in order to persuade or confute. that from his book alone the Art of English Poetry might be learned. p. 23. to encourage or terrify him. have all they could desire in this respect. step by step. Language is. 69. p. in concluding his chapter about words as signs of our ideas. that by the help of words alone. are innumerable. and has selected the melodious words with such diligence. As words abstractly considered are empty and vain. Vol. 89 will naturally lead the attention. "seem to be under the influence of one common delusion. in apologizing for Milton's frequent use of old words and foreign idioms. and no insufficiency of this kind would ever be felt or imagined."--Part ii. may there not be an insufficiency in the very nature of them all? 22. at least in part: "Lamentable is the imperfection of language. (a most valuable work. but is the imperfection less. they can communicate all that passes in their minds. Cicero. 297. or its culpable abuses. "I may further add. in any succeeding consideration of the same idea. that we are sufficiently provided with the means' of communicating our thoughts one to another. This. 92. whatever may be its inherent defects. and some may say. as significant of our ideas or thoughts. or declared. it is evident that he who would either speak or write well. p."-Johnson's Life of Milton: Lives.[44] 21.[45] But so well are they fitted to be made at will the medium of mental conference.CHAPTER V. p. that great master of eloquence. mere arbitrary symbols. even from negligence. he would always succeed. i. Hence we may infer the great importance of method in grammar. and with a single glance of thought be able to run over all its parts. and was unequal to that greatness of soul which furnished him with such glorious conceptions. will often be found inadequate to convey the impression with which the mind may labour. and that the mistakes so frequently complained of on this head. the particulars of which. are infinite. in his Analogy of Religion. for being sometimes traceable to an ulterior source? Or is it certain that human languages used by perfect wisdom. being in their nature mere signs. But. and even when tuned with the greatest skill."--Logic. may be thought to have been uttered as a mere figure of speech. that both in prose and verse. "The truth is. while they also deplore its misuse. that nothing else can be conceived to equal them for this purpose."--Lectures on Elocution. must be furnished with something more than a knowledge of sounds and letters. xi. it is still to be honoured as almost the only medium for the communication of thought and the diffusion of knowledge. Chap. "All writers. This also is plausible. Words are in themselves but audible or visible signs. On the other hand. however. used. "It is apparent. that Milton's sentiments and ideas were so wonderfully sublime. If there is imperfection in any instrument. 37. liable to infinite abuse. is but an incident of the common weakness or ignorance of human nature. Words fitly spoken are indeed both precious and beautiful--"like apples of ." says Sheridan. that the imperfection I speak of. Johnson seems to regard as a mere compliment to genius."--Spectator. frequently confessed. however. 86. says. ambiguous. Lord Kames. and yet I find no small difficulty to express it clearly in words. "Whatever be the faults of his diction. Yet it does not follow that they who have the greatest knowledge and command of words. he had formed his style by a perverse and pedantick principle. No. which derive all their value from the ideas and feelings which they suggest. Addison also. too. Our language sunk under him. he cannot want the praise of copiousness and variety: he was master of his language in its full extent. p. This. or tokens. inadequate. Duncan. seconds this complaint. 24.) "So likewise the imperfections attending the only method by which nature enables and directs us to communicate our thoughts to each other. in not sufficiently defining the terms we use. as Quintilian says. though defective in style. that it would have been impossible for him to have represented them in their full strength and beauty. without having recourse to these foreign assistances." But the grandeur of his thoughts is not denied by the critic."--Duncan's Logic. would all be perfectly competent to their common purpose? And if some would be found less so than others. we find that some of the best and wisest of men confess the inadequacy of language. Dr. that every man can deceive and betray by it. according to common practice and consent. 3. or perhaps not connecting them with clear and determinate ideas. we shall have it ever at command. For language is in its own nature but an imperfect instrument. almost in every particular that falls not under external sense. and so liable to it from design. in its very nature. says. are wholly owing to ourselves. for of Milton he says. that words failed him. I am talking of a matter exceedingly clear in the perception."--Elements of Criticism. nor is his language censured without qualification. there is so much the more need of care and skill in the use of it.

whose designs are selfish. It is not for him to exhibit the true excellency of speech. . to fire the imagination with glowing imagery.. 2. xxxii. for the soul of manly language. or win with graceful words the willing ear of taste. to convince the judgement with deductions of reason. to say with the son of Amram. is the soul that thinks and feels as best becomes a man. whose affections are dead. as the small rain upon the tender herb. my speech shall distil as the dew. or whose thoughts are vain. when men are present. 90 gold in pictures of silver. "My doctrine shall drop as the rain." But it is not for him whose soul is dark. It is not for him. His wisdom shall be silence. whatever be the theme. and as the showers upon the grass.CHAPTER V."--Deut. because he cannot feel its power.

that things of great moment are often left without memorial. will be better repaid. 5. than any thing that is to be discovered in the dusk of antiquity. 3. For. while the hand of Literature is busy to beguile the world with trifles or with fictions. 4. to oblivion. quæ euntem retinere possent. to pass away unnoticed and nameless. they are resolved into the variable. 91 CHAPTER VI. easily makes up his mind. "Qui respiciunt ad pauca. the attractions of novelty hold a much greater influence. therefore. than if he proceed in the order of history. de facili pronunciant. it seems necessary that we should know something of the course of events through which its acknowledged melioration in earlier days took place. are among those transitory things which unsparing time is ever hurrying away. 4. All old books contain a greater or less number of obsolete words. The value of a language as an object of study. Lib. to read some of our older authors in retrograde order. both extensive and luminous. to gain a practical knowledge of the changes which our language has undergone. De Lingua Latina. more difficult and less worthy. if the opportunity for writing it be not neglected. the extent of a man's knowledge is the strength of his argument. in former times. unsettled orthography. Tradition knows not what they were. unsettled and diverse. on its connexion with others more worthy to be thoroughly known. The best way. is still easily understood. in this case. And even the most common terms. and may have also its particular history. or has such a manner of existence as time can affect. irrecoverably. Whatsoever is successively varied. the study will be less difficult. whose kindred fate it was. and no few even of our writers on grammar. gave particular attention to the culture of the English language. must have had both an origin and a progress. Philosophy tells us. As Bacon quotes Aristotle. are often so disguised as not to be readily recognized. depends chiefly on the character of the books which it contains. and that which was good two centuries ago. and soon dispose him to rest . ubi hæc captanda: neque eon. OF THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE." He that takes a narrow view. and. with fancies or with lies. The subject of our inquiry becomes. when they appear in their ancient. though considerably antiquated. which puzzle the reader. Pursued in this manner. are comparatively very deficient in style. It is not to be expected that inquiries of this kind will ever engage the attention of any very considerable number of persons. 1. is. if further knowledge of facts can confute it? 2. and that we may the better judge of the credibility of modern pretensions to further improvements. Over the minds of the reading public. and attempt at first the Saxon remains. But what is any opinion worth. p. The rude and cursory languages of barbarous nations. As our language took its rise during the barbarism of the dark ages. We have now a tract of English literature. Modern English we read with facility. which may be suspended or resumed at pleasure. but. In order that we may set a just value upon the literary labours of those who. fleeting breath of the successive generations of those by whom they were spoken. secondarily. impose a labour too great for the ardour of his curiosity. Upon the history of the English language. till the genius of Grammar arise to their rescue. In this instance. These circumstances (the last of which should be a caution to us against innovations in spelling) retard the progress of the reader. quo pervenire volumus semitæ tritæ: neque non in tramitibus quædam objecta. becomes in some degree familiar. "Non mediocres enim tenebræ in sylva. darkness thickens as we tread back the course of time. till the style employed at times more and more remote.CHAPTER VI. for of their changes she takes no account. and the labour of the curious inquirer. and call him too frequently to his glossary. than it is at the present day. lost in the elements from which they sprung. at every step. But such is the levity of mankind. it is safe to affirm that the English language in general has never been written or spoken with more propriety and elegance."--VARRO. and though many modern writers. and antiquated modes of expression. the books through which its early history must be traced. there are several circumstances which are calculated soon to discourage research. are not only few and meagre. iv. in respect to grammar.

in the ancient Celtic tongue. unlettered people from Germany. or. with human sacrifices. or to the early inhabitants of Italy. provoked the Romans to destroy them. These ancient priests. and Claudius destroyed the Druids of that country. But Cæsar informs us that the name was more particularly claimed by the people who. who had but lately overrun the Roman empire. drove the remnant of them into the mountains of Wales. Julius Cæsar. or almost total absence."--Hints on Toleration. as a noun. The ancient languages of France and of the British isles are said to have proceeded from an other language yet more ancient. as any other part of Europe. so that. not for the good of others. according to Strabo's etymology of it. nor is it easy to be conjectured. who makes them but ninety-five. Some of the Druids. as now found in our language. superstition. and Dr. and spread them before her votaries. at that period. Hence. she hid her precious relics in solitary cells. and fleeing from degraded Christendom. ancient authors are little read. she will amass her treasures. of one period of the world's history. and as exercising it in some respects beneficially. which was the place of their retreat. the son of Japhet. "Tiberius suppressed those human sacrifices in Gaul. or even have retained them in vassalage. which. is not likely to expose him to censure. she ever speaks with horror--that "long night of apostasy. beyond which we find nothing that bears much resemblance to the English language as now written. does not appear from books. and depravity. whom the ancient Britons had invited to their assistance against the Picts and Scots. but their horrid rites. in his day. In the tenth century. when Paulus Suetonius reduced the island of Anglesey. England was sunk as low in ignorance. To this. and the real antiquary is considered a man of odd habits. that is. this mental darkness appears to have gathered to its deepest obscuration. 8. that he might have spoken the language he is so curious to know. Charles Bucke." What unity. Gaul. p. 263. enumerates but one hundred and eleven. but to accommodate themselves. called the Celtic. and have appeared in the costume of an age better suited to his taste. Johnson. and overwhelmed them with such unexpected and sudden destruction. but the leaden reign of unlettered Ignorance defies her scrutiny.[46] The term Celtic Dr. The Celtic tribes are said to have been the descendants of Gomer.CHAPTER VI. "This awful decline of true religion in the world carried with it almost every vestige of civil liberty. Spain. The English language gradually varies as we trace it back. Difference of languages she easily overcomes. and wherever her institutions flourish. according to this. are represented as having great power. and becomes at length identified with the Anglo-Saxon. and it will generally be found in experience that they must all stand or fall together. destroyed or enslaved the ancient inhabitants." during which. and destitute of any history but oral tradition. that the Saxons could not have mingled at all with these people. 7. Cruel and ignorant. but they subsisted in Britain till the reign of Nero. 92 6. warlike. spent twenty years in learning to repeat songs and hymns that were never committed to writing. the present Irish. and seems to have been almost as general as our word Indians. lived in France between the Seine and the Garonne. as well as the regions of space. and. These Saxons were a fierce. satisfied with an ignorance. that all their . Smollett says. Of Welsh or ancient British words. and of scientific knowledge. sought refuge with the eastern caliphs." and. like a lone Sibyl. who.[47] Many ancient writers sustain this broad application of the term Celtæ or Celts. who invaded Britain about half a century before the Christian era. "Pertaining to the primitive inhabitants of the south and west of Europe. and who by the Romans were called Galli. they paid great attention. with the dialect spoken by the Saxons after their settlement in England. it is said in Cæsar's Commentaries. For these reasons. and Britain. from one common source. "The language of the Celts. there was. Webster defines. or Gauls. which. or diviners. by a singular propensity. But Learning is ever curious to explore the records of time. however. like their Gothic kindred. as an adjective. is led into studies both unfashionable and fruitless--a man who ought to have been born in the days of old. or Gauls. and the present Highland Scotch. who settled on the opposite shore. being general. more probably. teaching every thing in verse. argues from their paucity. They accordingly seized the country. or could have been. they came. means horsemen. of classical literature. found the inhabitants ignorant of letters. The English historians agree that the first inhabitants of their island owed their origin and their language to the Celtæ. are supposed to have sprung the present Welsh. who says in his grammar that he took great pains to be accurate in his scale of derivation. 9.

if not to soften the grimness of the portrait. The only remaining monument of the Gothic language is a copy of the Gospels. over which the Sun of Righteousness had diffused his cheering rays. and forlorn a condition. The Saxons entered Britain in the year 449. at least to give greater distinctness of feature. p. the abbot of Canterbury. the wretched vicissitudes of which there was none to foresee. They did not sow among them the seeds of any permanent improvement. the Silver Book. and greater as a scholar. and the lights of science were put out by both.CHAPTER VI. perished at once. This dialect was first changed by admixture with words derived from the Danish and the Norman. that had kept them together under their old dynasties. a hundred and thirty-three years after their first invasion of the country. It is true. customs. we can derive from no quarter a favourable opinion of the state of England after the Saxon invasion. §7. churches. and leaders. The glory of the Romans now passed away. as well as of the laws. but rather. who does little more than give examples. 4to. 14. Ch. of Eng. to papal superstition. had they completed their conquest of England.. than is there supposed. great as a prince. the luminary of the eighth--to Alfred the great. But what was the form of their language at that time. The Romans considered Britain a province of their empire. 93 10. the greatest theologian. was enveloped in a darkness more awful and more portentous than that which of old descended upon rebellious Pharaoh and the callous sons of Ham. except some few of Sclavonian origin. Letters and arts. cannot now be known. We possess not yet in America all the advantages which may be enjoyed by literary men in the land of our ancestors. Civil liberty gave place to barbarism. Christian truth. and in a situation even less desirable. and not till Anno Domini 78. But it seems strange. settlements. which is preserved at Upsal. Johnson. buildings. which is considered the parent of all the northern tongues of Europe. even in these dark and rugged times. the victors carried with them. &c. withdrew its forces finally from Britain in the year 446. The shades of night gathered over all. institutions. The mighty fabric of their own proud empire crumbled into ruins. laws. 11. and now deserted by their foreign protectors. translated by Ulphilas. If justice were done to the few names--to Gildas the wise. a portion of king [sic--KTH] Alfred's paraphrase in imitation of Boëthius. i. seminaries. i. they were apparently left at the mercy of blind fortune. and during the tumultuous and bloody government of the heptarchy. but the northern part of the island was never entirely subdued by them. 13. 12. merely from our own ignorance of it. they should at last have left the Britons in so helpless. knowledge and tradition. "till almost every point of that wide horizon. fortifications. and under their auspices some knowledge of Christianity was."--Smollett's Hist. an example of the Anglo-Saxon in its highest state of purity. conveyed to them in the songs of their predecessors. afterwards received . But this language of Alfred's is not English. so far at least as these are necessary to the purposes of war or government. The Roman government. introduced into Britain. that after all that is related of their conquests. who appears a solitary star in the night of the sixth century--to the venerable Bede. and only historian of the seventh--to Alcuin. and. none to resist. In tracing the history of our language. settling and condensing. both ancient and modern. the memorialist of his country's sufferings and censor of the nation's depravity. but the stores of literature. It was a dialect of the Gothic or Teutonic. It is neither liberal nor just to argue unfavourably of the intellectual or the moral condition of any remote age or country. 310. at a very early period. we might find something. as the learned doctor himself considered it. and the art of printing is fast equalizing. the glory of the ninth. the privilege of drinking at its ancient fountains. for a period of about five hundred years. B. seen in the evening twilight of an age in which the clergy could not read. and called.--if justice were done to all such. best scholar. But I will not darken the picture through design.. degraded. Dr. cities. still being comparatively rude and meagre. Deprived of their native resources. are somewhat more familiar to us. to all nations that cultivate learning. their ancient independence of spirit. leaving the wretched inhabitants almost as savage as it found them."--Hints on Toleration. from its embellishments. being unable to sustain itself at home. cites as his first specimen of ancient English. This old work has been three times printed in England.

Towards the latter part of the fourteenth century. Thirty years afterwards. as did in a later age the Aristotelian philosophy before that which Bacon drew from nature. our just admiration of the character of the reformers must be not a little enhanced. Thomas Aquinas. Peculiar honour is due to those who lead the way in whatever advances human happiness. for which they were revered in their own age. 1535. first introduced metrical psalmody into the service of the church. and it gave considerable aid to the reformation. 94 15."--Hist. The reformation of religion and the revival of learning were nearly simultaneous. completed the work: and though its appearance was late. for it is delightful to trace the progress of great and obvious improvement. and it was not long ere six thousand persons were heard singing together at St. Luther was a poet and musician."--Constable's Miscellany. the French. and its progress was retarded in every possible manner. Wickliffe died in 1384. and imbibed something of the spirit of the reformation. was the still greater poet. the angelical doctor of the thirteenth century. Paul's Cross in London. had not gained them the contempt of all posterity. 17. It was completed. The formation of our language cannot with propriety be dated earlier than the thirteenth century. though it had no immediate connexion with that event. The first of these changes was effected by the early grammarians of Europe. he completed the Psalter. and first introduced into England. Learning does not consist in useless jargon. The literary history of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is full of interest. gradually fell into contempt. Vol. which the good taste . he himself had not seen it in any language. the father of English poetry. 19. neither Saxon nor English. p. large accessions from the Latin. and the Holy Scriptures expelled the other. who wrote in the latter part of the fourteenth century. Wickliffe furnished the first entire translation of the Bible into English. In like manner did the Germans. but the first printed edition of the Bible in English. which was now begun. but formed a rallying point for his followers. about the year 1517. though. the Dutch--till. with the help of Hopkins. as Dr." and says. which the etymologist may exhibit. and in 1562. Sternhold versified fifty-one of the Psalms. Wickliffe's English style is elegant for the age in which he lived. "The ordinary instructions of the clergy." Contemporary with Gower. and this was somewhat earlier than we date the revival of learning. 16. but the same talent existed not in his followers. was "the first of our authors who can be properly said to have written English. The English of the thirteenth century is scarcely intelligible to the modern reader. for great learning does not necessarily imply great piety. who embraced many of the tenets of Wickliffe. when we consider what they did for letters as well as for the church. extensive. Duns Scotus the subtle. Yet individuals may have acted a conspicuous part in the latter. there was at length produced a language bearing a sufficient resemblance to the present English. who had little to do with the former. yet its dispersion was at length equally rapid. This first English translation of the Bible. The art of printing was invented about 1440. surely. both philosophical and religious. xx. and the profound disputations of his great rival. however. could not have been very extensively circulated. the Greek. to deserve to be called English at this day. or in acute speculations remote from practice. by gradual changes. A large specimen of it may be seen in Dr. in 1468. in a multitude of mere words. Eng. October 5th. This practice spread in all directions. Johnson calls it "a kind of intermediate diction. Dr. 18. The revival of the English Bible. And. These poetical effusions were chiefly sung to German melodies. being made about a hundred years before the introduction of printing into England. It was then that a free and voluntary amalgamation of its chief constituent materials took place. which not only kept alive the enthusiasm of the reformers. his disciple Chaucer. The school divinity of the middle ages passed away before the presence of that which these men learned from the Bible. a hundred and fifty years after. that at twenty years of age. Johnson's History of the English Language. Lang. else the seventeen folios of St. "the Christian religion always implies or produces a certain degree of civility and learning. before his 4to Dict. 75.CHAPTER VI. who says. as the Classics superseded the one. receive it in their tongue from the hands of Luther. From such learning the lucid reasoning of the reformers delivered the halls of instruction. "Martin Luther. was executed in Germany. and effectual. yet very different from what is elegant now. that Sir John Gower. Johnson observes.

"--Preface to the British Gram. 23. more immediately connected with the comforts of life. 377. They wrote in English. had no chimneys: the fire was kindled against the wall. p. and he complains bitterly that oak instead of willow was employed in the building of houses. but because none but those who were bred in colleges. Even after the accession of Henry VIII. 146. will not seem wonderful to those who consider what is affirmed of the progress of other arts. met with few friends to support him. returned under his especial patronage. and the exchange of treen platters into pewter. did not spring from a patriotic design to prefer and encourage English literature. the grammatical study of the English language is shamefully neglected in what are called the higher institutions of learning. Sir John Cheke. Gardiner's Music of Nature. "The schools and colleges of England in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were not governed by a system of education which would render their students very eminent either as scholars or as gentlemen: and the monasteries. on entering upon the practical business of life. the door. as Mr. and the beds were only straw pallets. called Greeks and Trojans. speaking of the progress of luxury. Erasmus."--Dr. This popular opposition to Greek. That the progress of English literature in early times was slow. that music should be so simplified as to suit all persons. were successful in reviving the Latin tongue in all its purity. 283. 21. or [the] translating [of] these Languages into English. mentions three things especially. 8vo. Every student. 22. that were 'marvellously altered for the worse in England. the latter being the strongest. in a subsequent age. Roger Ascham. The University was divided into parties. p. and. 20. "The priests preached against it. are very often deficient in their own Language. which were used as seminaries.' the multitude of chimneys lately erected. will find it of far more importance to him. they represented the New Testament itself as 'an impious and dangerous book. p. in Henry the Eighth's time.. "Will the greatest Mastership in Greek and Latin. with the object of their resentment. &c. and the smoke found its way out as well as it could. 147. I speak comparatively. with a log of wood for a pillow. to be skillful in the language of his own country than to be distinguished for any knowledge which the learned only can appreciate. the increase of lodgings. even until the reformation. avail for the Purpose of acquiring an elegant English Style? No--we know just the Reverse from woeful Experience! And. assigning as a reason. and the obstacles then to be surmounted in the cause of learning. plastered over with clay. Locke and the Spectator observe. the very foundation of their faith.' because it was written in that heretical language. "Down to the reign of Elizabeth. his progress was still impeded. taught only the corrupt Latin used by the ecclesiastics. the first who undertook the teaching of the Greek language at Oxford. xx. p. p. Vol. William Lily. even in the institutions dedicated to learning. 1784. by the roof. even to this very day. not because they preferred it. Linacre. It was not therefore until Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey gave it their positive and powerful protection. In this respect. and the Greeks were driven from the streets. The very learned Erasmus. and that all may join. and even in exciting a taste for Greek in a nation the clergy of which opposed its introduction with the same vehemence which characterized their enmity to a reformation in religion. who had quitted Oxford in disgust."--REV. when Erasmus."--Constable's Miscellany.. we find directions.. 95 of Luther supplied: but the Puritans. and wooden spoons into silver and tin. In alleging this neglect. from being favoured by the monks. and confounding in their misguided zeal. xxi. even the king fared no better than his subjects. with the support of several eminent scholars and powerful persons."--Ib. nearly destroyed these germs of melody. notwithstanding Oxford was the seat of nearly all the learning in England. could read any thing else. The houses were mostly built of wattling.CHAPTER VI. and the great promoters of it were all of them classical scholars. the greater part of the houses in considerable towns. for the improvement of this was still later. 'to examine every night the straw of the king's bed. Dean Colet. that this persecuted language was allowed to be quietly studied. or the windows. as a very recent invention of the arch-enemy. .' A writer in 1577. ROYAL ROBBINS: Outlines of History. when the united efforts of Stanbridge. The time however was approaching. and the language opposed. These curious extracts are adduced to show the spirit of the times. with hisses and other expressions of contempt. for. Men who have threshed hard at Greek and Latin for ten or eleven years together. that no daggers might be concealed therein.

567. nor has any very considerable part of his phraseology yet become obsolete. 1800: Waller's Poems. but there are other critics who object to the versification of Pope. being in general more highly finished than works in prose. in distributing the praise of this improvement. that the printers or editors of the editions which are now read. was Ben Jonson. 206. as it once very generally was. may be considered as owing its establishment to Dryden. abates this praise. p. he adds. he gives this praise: "His version may be said to have tuned the English tongue. Grammar is an unpoetical subject. being published in the several editions of his works. and wrote well in English. In the preface to the Poems of Edmund Waller. that all artists since him have admired the workmanship. with all his religious and military enthusiasm. but the concurrent usage of the learned must ever be respected. He admits that. every language must needs be particularly indebted. and was beheaded in 1648. which is embraced in it. and designed chiefly for the aid of foreigners. and there is. 26. was a lover and promoter of letters. the poet. Locke. How far such liberty is justifiable. Dryden. are supposed to present the language in its most agreeable form. Pope. Waller. and which even then were sheltered by the protection of Cowley. p. the Parent of English Verse. than any others of that age. belongs rather to a later period. It is very desirable that the orthography of our language should be made uniform. however. has wanted melody. that he may transfer the greater part of it to Dryden and Pope. in stability. His grammar. it is difficult to say. wholly insensible to literary merit. because the formal principles of his own have always been considered as embraced in it. published in 1690. "It may be doubted whether Waller and Denham could have over-born [overborne] the prejudices which had long prevailed. to speak particularly of their merits. and many other celebrated authors who flourished in the last century. To Pope. in his Lives of the Poets. as the translator of Homer. who died in the year 1637. The English language in his hands did not lack power or compass of expression. "He was. Great alterations cannot be suddenly introduced. some advances towards nature and harmony had been already made by Waller and Denham. Horne. written with great purity and propriety by Addison. Such was the opinion of Johnson. Modern readers doubtless find a convenience in it. and the reign of Charles II."--British Poets. Lowth. from whose time it is apparent that English poetry has had no tendency to relapse to its former savageness." But that honour. It is a small treatise. and others. This century was distinguished by the writings of Milton. Cowley. in this. p. Vol. 25. 4. without pretending to mend it. the editor ventures to say. Denham. an advantage which will counterbalance that of a slow approximation to regularity. in verse. "After about half a century of forced thoughts and rugged metre. Johnson. and a note upon it: "But ever since Pope spoil'd the ears of the town With his cuckoo-song verses half up and half down. and died in 1616 aged 52. To its poets.") is still extant. are so generally known and so highly esteemed. in general. has been considered by some "the Augustan age of English literature. The new versification. the following couplet. The best works produced in the eighteenth century. But it ought to be known. and the first that shewed us our Tongue had Beauty and Numbers in it. The unfortunate Charles I. and therefore not wisely treated. Shakspeare appeared in the reign of Elizabeth. Some grammatical errors may be found in almost all books. outlived her thirteen years. that the British . Among the earliest of the English grammarians.. It is written in prose. that it would be lavish of the narrow space allowed to this introduction. Our Language owes more to Him. ii. if it may well be bestowed on any. and remain permanent. His writings are now more extensively read. as well as his father James I. (which Horne Tooke mistakingly calls "the first as well as the best English grammar."--Life of Pope: Lives. Dr. Nor was Cromwell himself." 27. He was himself a good scholar. for his time: he ascended the throne in 1625. Swift. Nor was it much before this period. Johnson. at the age of sixty-three." but. Hume. than the French does to Cardinal Richelieu and the whole Academy. as it was called. but our language was. as in every other part of grammar. in Leigh Hunt's Feast of the Poets. indeed. Analogy may sometimes decide the form of variable words. for since its appearance no writer."--Johnson's Life of Dryden: Lives. 96 24. as well as that of other old authors still popular. Lond. because their compositions. But every poet should be familiar with the art. and to that degree. that it is "monotonous and cloying.CHAPTER VI. and worthy of attention only as a matter of curiosity. have taken extensive liberty in modernizing his orthography. * * * * The Tongue came into His hands a rough diamond: he polished it first." See. however deficient in other powers. too.

"--Pope. and of the most important discoveries. the streams of which are now pouring forth. by the exertions of genius adorned with learning. "Late. of all the languages in the world. refined. upon all the civilized nations of the earth. and. writers took any great pains to be accurate in the use of their own language.CHAPTER VI. and capable of no inconsiderable degree of harmony. English books began to be printed in the early part of the sixteenth century. in a copious. as soon as a taste for reading was formed. correctness grew our care. . the richest. 97 28. Nay. and has become a language copious. increasing. our native tongue has been made the polished vehicle of the most interesting truths. When the tir'd nation breath'd from civil war. to be the strongest. strong. the most elegant. the press threw open the flood-gates of general knowledge. And thus. and the most susceptible of sublime imagery. but too often turbid tide. it is esteemed by some who claim to be competent judges. This mighty engine afforded a means by which superior minds could act more efficiently and more extensively upon society in general. very late.

) The article an. in any sort of composition. was formerly much more variable and diverse. and for the same reason. AINSWORTH: Lat. Dr. an one. rude and unsettled as it still is in many respects. for the information of the young reader. or very apt to be read. (1. Hence it is. (2. &c.CHAPTER VII. which. and even upon the very same page. an help. or vv. or Gods. or s. "Quot enim verba. and he then prophesied that the time would come. the possessive case was written without the apostrophe. and that of the small letter to the other. like a syllabic sign. If the style of different writers of the same age is various. an use. He must think it worth his while to inform himself. Præf. VV. which. It does not indeed. partim aliqâ. its own capital. we often find the most common words spelled variously by the same writer. With respect to the forms of words. And in many dictionaries.. much greater is the variety which appears in the productions of different ages.) The letters I and J were formerly considered as one and the same. 3. mannis.) The letter Ess. being formed at different times. or any other important words. In books a hundred years old or more. in es. for w. Or rather. would write with a master's hand. by heading them with a great letter. but the latter is now laid aside. that he may be critical. the words beginning with J are still mixed with those which begin with I. mutata sunt?"--ROB. the Roman letters will be employed for the few examples to which the others would be more appropriate. and the long [tall-s]. In the use of language. for man's. from which the n was dropped before words beginning with a consonant sound. iudgement for judgement. in favour of the more distinctive form. (2. With respect to the letters. Godys. because it distinguishes to the eye. p. I have somewhere seen an attempt to disparage this useful sign. the latter being a consonant power given to the former. had till lately two forms. and satisfaction. there are several changes to be mentioned. of the nouns thus marked. And. an improper "departure from the original formation" of that case of English nouns. The short s was used at the end of words. whose English Grammar was in some repute in the latter part of the eighteenth century. sæculo. mannys or mans. But there are some peculiarities of ancient usage in English. quo vivimus. were sometimes printed separately: as. He who. 1. entertainment. hoc. is often found in old books where a would be more proper. and frequently verbs. and. xi. in other places. as an unsightly thing never well established. and at length distinguished from it by a different form. et nonnunquam in deterius. as we see in old books. but the number. The order of time will be followed inversely. 2. when correct writers would lay it aside again. not only the case. and the latter. I shall subjoin a few brief specimens in illustration of what has been said in the foregoing chapter. must first apply himself to books with a scholar's diligence. alleging that it was seldom used to distinguish the possessive case till about the beginning of that century. But in old books the forms of these two letters are continually confounded or transposed. 4to. Pronouns. or best adapted to the subject in hand. a few particulars may here be noticed: (1. but still it is useful. every one chooses his words from that common stock which he has learned.. of the lower case. as Saxon characters are not very easily obtained.) The pages of old books are often crowded with capitals: it was at one time the custom to distinguish all nouns. Godis. As to what is best in itself. as. and applies them in practice according to his own habits and notions. among the speculations of these latter days. Iohn for John. the long and the short. and apparently without rule or uniformity in respect to the doubling of the final consonant: as Goddes. Hence we find hallelujah for halleluiah. like the plural. an hill. Hence the date of a book may often be very plausibly conjectured from the peculiarities of its style. an heart. . ys. Ash. Desiring to give the student all the advantage. it is proper in the first place to explain. for God's. Godes. as [tall-s] and s. partim nullâ necessitate cogente. is. that can be expected from a work of this kind. (4. the figure of the capital seems to have been at last appropriated to the one. every writer must endeavour to become his own judge. that our Double-u is composed of two Vees. the former very nearly resembling the small f. argued against the use of the apostrophe. so mannes. (3.) The letters U and V were mixed in like manner. as a strange corruption. and explode it.) Till the seventeenth century. Dict. CHANGES AND SPECIMENS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. for W. The orthography of our language. 98 CHAPTER VII. inform the ear or affect the sound.

That degree of smoothness of which the tongue was anciently susceptible. ENGLISH OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. so that most of our grammatical inflections are. as they are now commonly used. it appears to have been dropped. they sayen for they say. "I thank you for your condolence upon the death of his late Majesty. walketh. to the Friends' Society. or st cannot be added to them. being different in their declension. as the Bible and other grave books used only the latter. all verbs and participles that were intended to be contracted in pronunciation. the majesty of the Latin. I. eth. or for the third person singular of verbs. do not need it.CHAPTER VII. we now pronounce in the same way." "tost. carried.. rides. its proper parent. our grammarians have shown far more affection for the obsolete or obsolescent terminations en. walks. has always inclined rather to brevity than to melody. for the other. a clear distinction obtained. as. are indeed added as whole syllables. tossed. est. by means of a few separate auxiliaries. and mostly without inflection. except sometimes when the sound of d. whenever we can. I join in your prayers for the prosperity of my reign. s or es began to dispute with th or eth the right of forming the third person singular of verbs. The common usage of those who have spoken English. and st or est for the second person singular of verbs.--Written in 1834. between the solemn and the familiar style." and others innumerable. or the polish of the French. rideth. or in the liberty of transposition. and even. fall into the sound or syllable with which the primitive word terminates. curst. when used in poetry. and which seem to chime so well with the sublimity of the Greek. as. chaste. for the one. and. Our formation of the moods and tenses. Queen Victoria's Answer to an Address. s. reacheth. cryd'st. and to the measures of his reign. as d or ed for preterits and perfect participles. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century. the dignity of the Spanish. run through their entire conjugation without acquiring a single syllable from inflection. as well as of the Saxon tongue. English verbs. all monosyllabic. In respect to euphony. or perhaps earlier. fliest. sacrificed. &c. nothing but consonants blended with the final syllables of the words to which they are added. 99 4. never had any place in English. after which. were contracted also. but the rest. criettst. but usually write differently. is attended with advantages that go far to compensate for all that is consequently lost in euphony. blessed. had certainly no alliance with these additional syllables. these terminations have certainly nothing to boast. ascribest. and should therefore always be written without it. Till the beginning of the sixteenth century. so characteristic of our modern English. than they really deserve. which distinction is well known at this day. the use of the second person singular began to be avoided in polite conversation. is not only simple and easy. the sweetness of the Italian. &c. He runs. or of the difference which perhaps always existed between the solemn and the familiar style. . so as to prevent any syllabic increase. to the ear. "call'd. nine times in ten. and for your warm congratulations upon my accession to the throne. In my opinion. the best security for which is to be found in reverence for our holy religion. nor does the earliest period of the language appear to be that in which they were the most generally used without contraction. Thus we have. and such as are like them. and in the observance of its duties. and. it was often contracted. this we are inclined to dispense with. This simplicity. 6. blest. s or es for the plural number of nouns. and. About the same time. He runneth. by the substitution of the plural verb and pronoun. 5. en was used to mark the plural number of verbs. constitute no small part of the change which has taken place. Ing for the first participle. and strong." "fly'st. In old books. and est for the superlative. 7. finisht. but beautiful. finished. for the justice which you render to his character. called. From President Adams's Eulogy on Lafayette. ascrib'st. and edst. cursed. Most of these topics will be further noticed in the Grammar. reaches. contraction and elision of the ancient terminations of words."--VICTORIA. in some way. The long sonorous endings which constitute the declensions and conjugations of the most admired languages.--Example written in 1837.. carry'd. sacrific'd. er for the comparative degree. by the writer: as. The inflections given to our words never embraced any other vowel power than that of the short e or i. All these. however.

thou. "That morning. From President Jackson's Proclamation against Nullification. and saw thy living change. are very gratifying to my feelings. It shall descend. Very different is that restless desire of distinction. Reign of George IV. that. beneath the light that fell From angel-chariots sentinelled on high. but from absolute necessity. King William's Answer to an Address. 8. and you have yet not done him justice. And savage Euxine on the Thracian beach Lay motionless: and every battle ship Stood still. thou. of every name. the source of our prosperity in peace. The assurances which you have conveyed to me. our defence in danger. turn back your eyes upon the records of time. so still. by the death of my lamented brother. felt by the purest minds. I may venture to alter it? for no man who considered the force of the English language. "No. we have not erred! The Constitution is still the object of our reverence. 11. No breath Thy deep composure stirred. and for penetrate put pierce. to the Friends. on account of the loss which I have sustained. no oar. You may rely upon my favour and protection." ROBERT POLLOK: Course of Time. "There is. lest . as the benefactor of his kind. 10. if you think well. stood still. Charybdis listened. as to take your pencil. and Scylla.--1832. And hushed thy mighty minstrelsy. summon from the creation of the world to this day the mighty dead of every age and every clime. of personal animosities. Reposed. to compare and seat themselves. a wish to possess the esteem of the wise and good. that were made to bring it into existence. 9. the bond of our Union.' 'You are doubtless at liberty to alter it. sir. to our posterity: and the sacrifices of local interest. a sober desire of reputation. Try him by that test to which he sought in vain to stimulate the vulgar and selfish spirit of Napoleon.--Example written in 1800. Nor slept. so calm. * * * The truly good man is jealous over himself. Reign of George III.--Written about 1831. for the safety of their performers. of State prejudices. "After he had written down the striking apostrophe which occurs at about page 76 of most of the editions--'Eternal God! on what are thine enemies intent! what are those enterprises of guilt and horror. and the only word to be used there. must take in the compass of all ages.CHAPTER VII. shall claim to take precedence of Lafayette?"--JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. great Ocean I laid thy waves to rest. a delicate sensibility to character. II. no fin. Book VII. 1820 back to 1760. 12."--ANDREW JACKSON.' 'Do you think. sir. uncorrupted by sophistical construction. From a Note on one of Robert Hall's Sermons. pierce is the word. sir."--WILLIAM IV. Thy dead arise. which inflames the heart and occupies the whole attention of vain men. ENGLISH OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.--Example written in 1830. in common with my people. sir. and where. Like beauty newly dead. require to be enveloped in a darkness which the eye of Heaven must not penetrate!'--he asked. 1830 back to 1820. shall one be found. and listened. "I thank you sincerely for your condolence with me. who. will again be patriotically offered for its support.'"--OLINTHUS GREGORY. it?' 'Yes. and every ship of merchandise. until it has secured the approbation of others. when I preached.--Example written in 1827. it will be confessed. as we have received it.' 'Then be so good. would use a word of three syllables there. among the race of merely mortal men. and upon my anxious endeavours to promote morality and true piety among all classes of my subjects. of loyalty and affectionate attachment to my person. class him among the men who. So lovely. And all that sailed. his late Majesty. that slumbered[48] not before. which is at the farthest remove from arrogance or vanity. that passion for theatrical display. line 634-647. The humility of a noble mind scarcely dares approve of itself. 100 "Pronounce him one of the first men of his age. 'Did I say penetrate.

In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism. Let it simply be asked. 408.--Example written in 1796. the idle. Yet we have this advantage to compensate the defect. Reign of George I. where is the security for property. the other to appear so. life has been gradually exalted. 101 the notoriety of his best actions. he shewed them likewise that they might easily be supplied.--Example written in 1751. by blending itself with their motive. that we learnt these from the French. The mere politician. That general knowledge which now circulates in common talk. that we were taught by the Flemings and Low Dutch. these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. in which last respect few Languages will be found superior to our own. 14. why it is so deficient in Regularity and Analogy. by gentle and unsuspected conveyance. our terms in Music and Painting. than any that are to be met with in our tongue. for life. 1760 back to 1727. and shuns ostentation. reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. An emulation of intellectual elegance was excited. "Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity.--Example written about 1780. was in his time rarely to be found. the vain man performs the same actions for the sake of that notoriety. and conversation purified and enlarged. and from this time to our own. and convey our thoughts in more ardent and intense phrases. and in the female world."--JAMES HARRIS: Hermes. . From Washington's Farewell Address. 15. Ch. who should labour to subvert these great pillars of human happiness. we gain in Copiousness. and comprehension expanded. that the Hebrew idioms ran into the English tongue. "We Britons in our time have been remarkable borrowers. p."--GEORGE WASHINGTON. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of a peculiar structure. our Phrases in Cookery and War. any acquaintance with books was distinguished only to be censured. that what we want in Elegance. he therefore presented knowledge in the most alluring form. that these came from Italy. into the gay. ought to respect and cherish them. when they are compared with the Oriental forms of speech: and it happens very luckily. that this came from Greece. 13. 16. Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. The good man quietly discharges his duty. but accessible and familiar. When he shewed them their defects. if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And let us with caution indulge the supposition. which are derived to it out of the poetical passages in holy writ.CHAPTER VII. inquiry was awakened."--JOSEPH ADDISON: Evidences. From Dr. His attempt succeeded. They give a force and energy to our expressions. Johnson's Life of Addison. for reputation. cannot be affirmed. His purpose was to infuse literary curiosity. "That he always wrote as he would think it necessary to write now. not lofty and austere. as our multiform Language may sufficiently shew. should diminish their value. p. Book iii. 192. A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and publick felicity. and our phrases in Navigation. "There is a certain coldness and indifference in the phrases of our European languages. Reign of George II. that morality can be maintained without religion. the other upon semblances: the one aims to be virtuous. Our Terms in polite Literature prove. were not ashamed of ignorance. his instructions were such as the character of his readers made proper. p. equally with the pious man.--Example written about 1718. 321. with a particular grace and beauty. 1727 back to 1714. and the wealthy. Men not professing learning."--SAMUEL JOHNSON: Lives."--ROBERT HALL: Sermon on Modern Infidelity. The one is intent upon realities. the vain man considers every good deed lost that is not publickly displayed. Our language has received innumerable elegancies and improvements from that infusion of Hebraisms. v. warm and animate our language. These many and very different Sources of our Language may be the cause.

" "In words. And take as little Notice of his Buffoonry. equal to her neighbours of forty years planting. the same rule will hold. wit. that by the help of God."--WILLIAM PENN. 179. and Help on the Cry against Hirelings! We find How Easie it is for Folly and Knavery to Meet. "Some by old words to Fame have made pretence. p. to show how large a proportion of our language is of Saxon origin." "And I will venture to say.--Example written in 1685. Alike fantastick. His knowledge in the noblest useful arts. Six are begun to be seated. There is built about eighty houses. dead authors could not give. which seem to have been derived from any other source. Therefor since Milton has put himself upon a Level with the Quakers in this. From an Address or Dedication to Charles II. 18. or of Sinai. "There is no [other] king in the world. 1702 to 1689. 324-336. p. The thirteen words in Italics are the only ones in this passage. 22. I will let them go together.--Example published in 1700. dated. Such labour'd nothings. the least as broad as the Thames at Woolwych. did greater lights receive: He drain'd from all."--MILTON: Paradise Lost. from three to eight fathom water.--Example written in 1708. so many true Christians: which thing renders thy government more honourable. p. His apprehension quick. whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. that on the secret top Of Oreb. Vol. p. "His conversation. Were such. and all our woe. But what ther is of Argument in it. and regain the blissful seat. than the accession of many nations filled with slavish and superstitious souls. vii. who first taught the chosen seed. till one greater Man Restore us. 17. who can so experimentally testify of God's providence and goodness."--CHARLES LESLIE: Divine Right of Tithes.--Example from a Letter to the Earl of Sunderland. July. Poems. With loss of Eden. III. l. neither is there any [other]. how the Heav'ns and Earth Rose out of Chaos. and make the learned smile. 20. 21. who rules so many free people. his reading only less.--Written in 1675. Nor yet the last to lay the old aside. "Of man's first disobedience. 1683. and all they knew. I will show a Province in seven years. in so strange a style. as fashions. 19. Reign of William III. Ther is nothing worth Quoting in his Lampoon against the Hirelings. Reign of Queen Anne. as of their Dulness against Tythes. and that they are Near of Kin. I have lay'd out the Province into Countys. Reign of Charles II. heav'nly Muse. his judgment true: That the most learn'd with shame confess His knowledge more.CHAPTER VII.--has a navigable river on each side. has been cited by several authors. 1689 back to 1685." JOHN DRYDEN: Ode to the Memory of Charles II. ENGLISH OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. is fully Consider'd in what follows. Amaze th' unlearn'd. and two deep. if too new or old: Be not the first by whom the new are try'd. Book I. 1685 to 1660. from the commencement of Paradise Lost. thyself more considerable. mere moderns in their sense."--ROBERT BARCLAY: Apology. they lye on the great river." ALEXANDER POPE: Essay on Criticism. didst inspire That shepherd. 28th 5th mo. . The Friend. The town platt is a mile long. "Philadelphia. tho they bear Different Aspects. 1714 to 1702. 84. and such noble Friends. Reign of James II. Who. Sing. viii. In the beginning. Ancients in phrase.. But habitudes of those who live. 102 "And when we see a Man of Milton's Wit Chime in with such a Herd. and the fruit Of that forbidden tree. lighting him. first published in 1667. Pref. The following example. xi. and parts. and I have settled at least three hundred farmes contiguous to it. and are planted about six miles back.

his painefull labours." SHAKSPEARE: Hamlet. 25. the seale beinge a Roman eagle. VVilliam Perkins. it is no accidentarie qualitie. Good porter. in the Church of God. 1648 to 1625. poore old heart."--STRICKLAND: Bucke's Classical Gram." SHAKSPEARE: Lear. nor Witch hath pow'r to charm. "I svppose it altogether needlesse (Christian Reader) by commending M. but our best grammarians have condemned it upon some occasions. Examples written about the end of Elizabeth's reign--1603. say they. complainen."--The Printer to the Reader. which last is sometimes shortened into s. and have the States of Holland ingaged in a more than ordnary maner. as it were. It seemeth to have been poetical licence which first introduced this abbreviation of the third person into use. Reign of Charles I. turne the key. 27. The Bird of Dawning singeth all night long.. written about 1634. No Fairy takes. 24. subsisting by it .CHAPTER VII. ENGLISH OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 1625 to 1603. "Some say. Thou shouldst haue said. sayen. I dare be bold to say of him as in times past Nazianzen spake of Athanasius. 149. xvi. loven. Yet. the effects must needes be good. In former times. no Spirit dares walk abroad: The nights are wholsom. or sithence his death. the Author of this booke. Bucke's Class. the vice-chauncellor came to me and stayed about four hours with me. and that other so generally prevailed. "I am yet heere. his feruent zeale." "The persons plural keep the termination of the first person singular. to wooe your holy affection. the neuer-dying memorie of his excellent knowledge. his sound religion. the right and left hand of a verb. to procure me audience of the States Generall."--WHITELOCKE. IV. his great humilitie. 23. havinge characters about it almost like the Greeke. This day. His life was a good definition of a true minister and preacher of the Gospell. But now (whatever is the cause) it hath quite grown out of use.--Example written in 1592. So hallow'd and so gracious is the time. by adding est and eth. but a lameness to the whole body?"--Book i. For seeing time and person be. but a spirituall and inuisible essence or nature. they were wont to be formed by adding en. 103 "The Queene was pleased to shew me the letter. 1603 back to 1558.. p. 26. then no Planets strike. 149. he holpe the heuens to raine. in which tyme we conversed upon the longe debates. in the afternoone. with such a storme as his bare head In hell-blacke night indur'd. 1660 to 1650. Gram.--From an Advertisement. "The second and third person singular of the present are made of the first. doe most iustly challenge at your hands: onely in one word. p. that I dare not presume to set this afoot again: albeit (to tell you my opinion) I am persuaded that the lack hereof well considered. Reign of Elizabeth. And then. Chap. what can the maiming bring else.--Example from Ben Jonson's Grammar. "As for the soule. thus. till about the reign of Henry the eighth. though perhaps not to be absolutely banished the common and familiar style. If wolues had at thy gate howl'd that sterne time. dated 1608. will be found a great blemish to our tongue. Whatever happen. Reign of James I. That euer 'gainst that season comes Wherein our Saviour's Birth is celebrated. Examples written during Cromwell's Protectorate. but the orthography is more modern. which either himselfe in his life time by his Christian conversation hath woon in you. would haue buoy'd up And quench'd the stelled fires. "The sea.

and all the whole bodye. of E. The supposed author died in 1541. we doe it onely by the power and vertue of the soule. L. countenaunce. L. Reign of Edward VI. E. and by blussyng confessed their shamefastnes."--SIR THOMAS ELLIOTT: Castel of Helthe. . and are as wel subiect to torments as the bodie is." ALEXANDER BARCLAY: Johnson's Hist."--DR. WILSON: Johnson's Hist. Hence ariseth the difference betweene the soules of men. and leaue your lewde intent. and shortly spede your pace. 1558 to 1553. 1553 to 1547. Example referred by Dr. 155. Reign of Mary the Bigot. p. 104 selfe. maners. taulke. To quaynt your self and company with grace. and beasts. Reign of Henry VIII. an Egyptian astronomer.. aged 38. "If a yong jentleman will venture him selfe into the companie of ruffians. so that I knew not what woman this was hauyng soo great aucthoritie) was amasyd or astonyed. vnderstanding. 29. motion.--1558. and common woe is named common weale?"--SIR JOHN CHEKE. and lokyng downeward. thoughts. "Let hym that is angry euen at the fyrste consyder one of these thinges. p. it is over great a jeopardie. L. lest their facions. when treason is aboue reason. folio. 45.--Example dated 1541. p. 32. 33. so is also the other. and commotioners are better than commissioners. shall finde auauncement: Wherefore ye fooles that in your sinne are bolde. 29. Example of the earliest English Blank Verse. than shall that anger be to hym displeasant.. and stere hym more to be angrye. towarde the ground. Wisdome is the way of men most excellent: Therefore haue done."--COLVILLE: Version from Boëthius: Johnson's Hist. whatsoever is lustfull. Ensue ye wisdome. "Pronunciation is an apte orderinge bothe of the voyce. And very sone the Macedonians wisht He would have lived. accordynge to the worthinea of such woordes and mater as by speache are declared. Which plainely appeares in that the soules of men haue beeing and continuance as well forth of the bodies of men as in the same. written about 1540. 28. that hauing a good tongue."--ROGER ASCHAM. 1547 to 1509. 31. and a comelye countenaunce. And whereas we can and doe put in practise sundrie actions of life. sense. p. slain in Alexander's first battle with the Persians.CHAPTER VII. "The Persians waild such sapience to foregoe. that like as he is a man. will verie sone be over like. Examples written about the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. and mighte ruleth righte.--Example written about 1550. I began pryvyle to look what thyng she would save ferther. with whom he is angry. as unto hym: and if he so be. he shal be thought to passe all other that haue not the like vtteraunce: thoughe they have muche better learning. E. But I (that had my syght dull and blynd wyth wepyng. because they haue no beeing out of the bodies in which they are."--WILLIAM PERKINS: Theol. and therefore it is as lefull for the other to be angry. caste downe their countenaunce to the grounde. "Who can perswade. The soules of men are substances: but the soules of other creatures seeme not to be substances. and went out of the dores. 44.--Example written about 1555. and dedes. The vse hereof is suche for anye one that liketh to haue prayse for tellynge his tale in open assemblie. "And after that Philosophy had spoken these wordes the said companye of the musys poeticall beynge rebukyd and sad. 30. Johnson to the year 1553.. Works. The piece from which these lines are taken describes the death of Zoroas. "Who that will followe the graces manyfolde Which are in vertue. and it is had for lawfull.

nor your good husbandes. whose works. as I truste he doth and better to by hys holy spirite: who blesse you and preserue you all. "Richarde the third sonne. were considered models of pure and elegant style. "Fortune is stately. and from afore his birth euer frowarde. and sett hym free. But for all that she kepeth euer in store. but he can get none health. ." SIR THOMAS MORE. nor our other frendes. hard fauoured of visage. Lang. lowlye of counteynaunce. arrogant of heart--dispitious and cruell. Some manne hath good. where his aduauntage grew. 42.CHAPTER VII. Example for the reign of Henry VII. but vp to honours trone. To some she sendeth chyldren. and reuerence all hys lyfe: But yet she pyncheth hym with a shrewde wife. and either for the suretie and encrease of his estate. concerning the worlde to come. The nedy begger catcheth an half peny: Some manne a thousaude pounde. we praie you. nor your babes. he was malicious. 36. all that they can. by no maner of stelth. with a coal. our Lorde be thanked I am in good helthe of bodye. by whose order he was beheaded in 1535. p. the xiii daie of Maye. That he may pray therefore and serve her styll."--SIR THOMAS MORE: Johnson's History of the English Language. Honour. ENGLISH OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. solemne. 34. E. of whom we nowe entreate."--Johnson's Hist. Lamented. being prisoner in the Tower.[49] those same Divine Camenes. I beseche hym make you all mery in the hope of heauen. his left shoulder much higher than his right. "Wherefor and forasmoche as we haue sent for our derrest wif. 1485. our Lorde put theim into your myndes. in other menne otherwise. croke backed. From dark oblivion of devouring death. ye come with thaym unto us. he spared no mans deathe. * * * Hee was close and secrete.--Probably written about 1520. at our Castell of Kenelworth. V. to haue seruyce therefore. Yeven undre our signett. But over all those same Camenes. nor your fathers shrewde wyfe neither. p. who was crowned on Bosworth field. That in his head so rare a jewel beares. welthe. had been Chancellor of England. and for thankes. 147. enuious. not for euill will alway. From his description of Fortune. wrathfull. From euery manne some parcell of his wyll. As for stoute men in field that day subdued. As tender parent doth his daughters weale. Written wyth a cole by your tender louing father. ryches. From More's Description of Richard III. and the familiar confidant of Henry VIII. some lesse some more. and hye: And rychesse geueth. and who died in 1509. THOMAS MORE. ill fetured of limmes. to come unto us. p.. 39." Probably written by SIR THOMAS WYAT. but chyldren hath he none. He slew with his owne handes king Henry the sixt. written about the year 1500. and that we wold have your advis and counsail also in soche matters as we haue to doo for the subduying of the rebelles. Some manne hath both. whose life withstoode his purpose. 105 king Alexander selfe Demde him a man unmete to dye at all. A Letter written from prison. 37. Frende and foo was muche what indifferent. and in good quiet of minde: and of worldly thynges I no more desyer then I haue. both in prose and verse. woorshyp. Do cherish hym deceast. little of stature. Who wonne like praise for conquest of his yre. whose honour he procurde. but after for ambicion. Some hath al thre. Who princes taught how to discerne a man. in bodye and prowesse farre vnder them bothe. knight. And thus fare ye hartely well for lacke of paper. who in hys pore prayers forgetteth none of you all. "Myne own good doughter. yeving your due attendaunce vppon our said derrest wif and lady moder. Can he not crepe. nor your nources. was in witte and courage egall with either of them."--HENRY VII: Letter to the Earl of Ormond: Bucke's Classical Gram. a deep dissimuler. And such thynges as I somewhat longed to talke with you all. Sir Thomas More. prowde. 35. that. The writer. nor your good husbandes shrewde wyues. and for our derrest moder.. and such as is in states called warlye. not failing herof as ye purpose to doo us plaisir.

"Forasmoche as we by divers meanes bene credebly enformed and undarstand for certyne. ENGLISH OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. naminge hym selfe kynge of England. 43. "Lytel Lowys my sonne. by which and for th' accomplishment thereof he made it. and wol and charge you that under oure greate seale. Example for the reign of Henry V. 38. that owr greate adversary Henry. right trusty and right wel-beloved. Example from Lydgate. I purpose to teche the a certame nombre of conclusions. Quia Rex dicitur a Regendo. though he had thus made a Realme. Example written about 1385--to be compared with that of 1555. .--Example written in 1391. p. but oppressyd the People by Myght. 40."--RICHARD III: Letter to his Chancellor. I perceve well by certaine evidences thyne abylyte to lerne scyences.e. Nimrod] by Might.--I recommaund me to you as lowly as I kan or may with all my pouer hert.--EDWARD IV: Letter of Privy Seal. "I wolle that the Duc of Orliance be kept stille withyn the Castil of Pontefret.--from 1485 to 1483. Examples for the reign of Henry VI. for his own Glorye. 45. Example for the short reign of Richard III. And with their subtil creping in most queint Hath made my spirit in makyng for to feint. on p. VI. ye do make in all haist our lettres of proclamation severally to be directed unto the shirrefs of everie countie within this oure royaume." JOHN LYDGATE: Fall of Princes. touching nombres and proporcions.CHAPTER VII. 41. "Right heigh and myghty Prynce. "When Nembroth [i. And therefor. a poetical Monk.--from 1483 to 1461. he would not have it governyd by any other Rule or Lawe. Prol. it is better he lak his disport then we were disceyved. Drede and vncunning haue made a strong batail With werines my spirite to assayle. we grete yow wele. and subduyd it to hymself by Tyrannye. Example for the reign of Henry IV. made and incorporate the first Realme. 42." &c.--from 1413 back to 1400. desiryng to hier goode and gracious tydynges of your worshipful astate and welfare. compowned after the latitude of Oxenforde: vpon the whiche by meditacion of this lytell tretise. 145. and also well consydre I thy besye prayer in especyal to lerne the tretyse of the astrolabye. 87.--from 1422 back to 1413."--GEOFFREY CHAUCER: Of the Astrolabe. Reign of Edward IV. have conspired. 44. "Our life here short of wit the great dulnes The heuy soule troubled with trauayle. Book III.--from 1461 back to 1422. he wrapeth hym in his frende. or to any other disport."--SIR JOHN FORTESCUE. 106 "Right reverend fader in God. holy Scripture denyd to cal hym a Kyng. Than for as moche as a philosopher saithe. pertainynge to this same instrument. And of memorye the glasyng brotelnes..--Example written in 1463. being in your warde. by the maliceous counseyle and exitacion of Margaret his wife. Whych thyng he did not. with owte goyng to Robertis place. namynge hir selfe queane of England. but by his own Will. 39. Of all the remanant dothe as ye thenketh."--Letter of HENRY V. who died in 1440."--LORD GREY: Letter to the Prince of Wales: Bucke's Classical Gram. Reign of Richard II. that condiscendeth to the ryghtfull prayers of his frende: therefore I have given the a sufficient astrolabye for oure orizont. my goode and gracious Lorde. 1400 back to 1377.

* * * Be the whiche I seye zou certeynly. For it was so gay begone. p. Where lawe failleth." 50. that men may envirowne alle the erthe of alle the world. who that ne troweth. Example from Mandeville. When hot was the Sun. "And this sterre that is toward the Northe. 143. He is not wise. I shope me into shroubs. of E. If any man it shall restreine.--Example written about 1360. The noble ship was without With clothes of gold spread about And her loft and her wyndlace All of gold depaynted was. For the partie of the firmament schewethe in o contree." ANON. p. From an Elegy on Edward I. so that I ne might not know what that woman was. Thou knewe wele the disceipt of her colour. Thou nevir dreddist her oppression. whiche with gret peine. ii. er men be ware. VII. I knowe her eke a false dissimulour. Johnson's Hist." 1350. Every nayle with gold ygrave. 47.CHAPTER VII. Vnholy of werkes. thei passeden sorowfully the thresholde. p. Ne in her chere foundin thou no favour. For finally Fortune I doe defie. Now is Edward of Carnavan Kyng of Engelond al aplyght. Ant understonde good counsail.. that hadde companye and schippynge and conduyt: and alle weyes he scholde fynde men. that wolde go to serchen the world. and cast my sight doune to the yerth. That ever wes ant ever ys. "O Socrates. that schewethe not in another contree. 107 "And thus this companie of muses iblamed casten wrothly the chere dounward to the yerth. who reigned till 1307 from 1272. As I a shepe were. as wel undre as aboven. "In the somer season. of so Imperial aucthoritie. Langland's "Vision of Pierce Ploughman. and began still for to abide what she would doen afterward. ne apperethe not to hem. 10.."--CHAUCER: Version from Boëthius: Johnson's Hist.: Percy's Reliques. Let in the streme. L. 46. 29." ANONYMOUS: Bucke's Gram. Vol. Description of a Ship--referred to the reign of Edward II: 1327-1307. "Such ne saw they never none. and yles. Reign of Edward III. the English traveller--written in 1356. Ant min herte yzote of bras. 1377 to 1327."--SIR JOHN GOWER. Of pure gold was his sklave.. The goodness myht y never telle. londes. Of gode knyhtes darh him nout fail. that zif a man fond passages be schippes. of E. men mighte go be schippe all aboute the world. and turnen azen to his contree. men may wel perceyve. ENGLISH OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. "Thah mi tonge were made of stel. . Al Engelond for to wysse and dyht. God bringe thi soule to the honour. ne lasse myht."--CHAUCER. Example from Rob."--SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE. Went wyde in this world Wonders to heare. She ne might nevir be thy turmentour. and aboven and benethen. Of samyte her sayle wytly. In habit as an harmet. That with kyng Edward was: Kyng. In uch battaille thou hadest prys. 49. that the lond and the see ben of rownde schapp and forme. thou stedfast champion. "And eke full ofte a littell skare Vpon a banke. As whyte as ever was ony mylke. And that her moste worship is for to lie. Her robes all of whyte sylk. God lete him never be worse man Then his fader. that wee clepen the lode sterre. Poetical Example--probably written before 1380. 51. and shewing by rednesse their shame. aftre that I have seyn. And I of whom the sight plounged in teres was darked. And men may well preven be experience and sotyle compassement of wytt. errour groweth. L. 26. als wel as in this contree. 48. I woxe all abashed and stonied. The whiche thing I prove thus. For whiche cause. To holden his pore men to ryht. Her mast was of ivory. p. as thou art cleped conquerour.

neither Saxon nor English. Tha the king Stephne to Engla-land com. tha diden hi alle wunder.." 53. L. til hi jafen up here castles. still and mete. tha macod he his gadering æt Oxene-ford. and herkneth to me.. Reign of Richard I. bi mi leaute." See Johnson's Hist. 1264. . Ys woundes waxen wete. 57. and na god ne dide me for his saule thar of. An he was kyng of Engelond. Trichten shalt thou never more. & dide ælle in prisun. 1216 back to 1199. OR ANGLO-SAXON.CHAPTER VII. He was more than ten ger old. "Sitteth alle stille. the Doctor gives us more than two hundred lines. That alere worste that hi wuste I hure and I hure of others songe Hi hold plaidung futhe stronge. by Robert of Gloucester. And alswa the wimmen Wunliche on heowen. that in this lond gut ys: And he led hym to be kyng. VIII. An suththe other after hym of the erchebyssopes echon. And the kynges croune of hys lond. That neuere er nere y mad to gouerny ys lond.--Example dated 1180. Sum wile softe I lud among. Tha the suikes undergæton that he milde man was & softe & god. ENGLISH. that the author "is placed by the criticks in the thirteenth century. ar he kyng were y wys.--Owl and Nightingale. Lang. p. and Alexander biscop of Lincoln. and loky on ys boke. 1199 back to 1189.: Bucke's Gram. Ac ys gode moder ofte smale gyftes hym tok. ii. soon after the battle of Lewes. we find the characters mixed." "Clere he was god ynou. Reign of Henry III. Ant so he dude more. Ant se Jhesu the suete ys hert blod for-lete For the love of me. Example from the Saxon Chronicle. 55."--Hist. The kyng of Almaigne. 142."--Percy's Reliques. Wes thisses landes folke Leodene hendest itald. An hule and one nightingale. p. of the Eng. & na justise ne dide. That vorst thus ylad was of the pope of Rome. ar he couthe ys abece.--Example from an old ballad entitled Richard of Almaigne. as me telleth me. That plait was stif I stare and strong. but he dates them no further than to say. tho he thuder com. May 14. and gut.--Subject of Christ's Crucifixion. An other again other sval I let that wole mod ut al. and. 56. of Eng. At this period. 25. of alle that ther come. "Ich was in one sumere dale. 1272 to 1216. p. OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. The style here is that which Johnson calls "a kind of intermediate diction." GODRIC: Bucke's Gram.. Language. In the following examples.. "I syke when y singe for sorewe that y se When y with wypinge bihold upon the tre. which was fought. p." Of these historical rhymes. thah thou be ever trichard. 24. as in the ger of grace he nom Eygte hondred and syxty and tuelue the kyndom.: Bucke's Gram. I substitute Roman letters for the Saxon. Thritti thousent pound askede he For te make the pees in the countre. p. Marie reweth me. 22." ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER: Johnson's Hist. thei wepen. Reign of Henry II. & te Canceler Roger hife neues. "And of alle than folke The wuneden ther on folde. The pope Leo hym blessede. In one snive digele pale. earl of Leicester. So that by por clergye ys rygt lawes he wonde. 108 52. vor ys grete wysdom.. which Percy says was "made by one of the adherents of Simon de Montfort. "Micel hadde Henri king gadered gold & syluer." ANON. of E. Vor to byleue other pie. I herde ich hold grete tale. Richard. I either seide of otheres custe. 54." ANON. p. Reign of John. 141. 1189 back to 1154. "Alfred thys noble man. Arst he adde at Rome ybe. written about 1160. Vol. & thar he nam the biscop Roger of Seres-beri. 142.

--Example written about this time. hete & chele. 13. 1154 to 1135. Ther nis met bot ænlic frute. And hig næfdon nan bearn." ANON. Reign of Henry I. p. Ne no tunge telle. gangende on eallum his bebodum and rihtwisnessum. Tha ætywde him Drihtnes engel standende on thæs weofodes swithran healfe. Wai hwat sel us to rede. And mid all ure mihte. Tha cwæth se engel him to. 10. And ure emcristene swo us self. And other uniselthe. Biuoren and ec bihind. 60. Reign of Stephen. Ecthe and all unhelthe. Saxon. ANGLO-SAXON OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. 8. I. butan wrohte. and hy on hyra dagum butu forth-eodun. 9. 1135 to 1100.: Johnson's Hist. and him ege onhreas. p. Eng. Ne mai non herte hit ithenche. "5. Of wel of godnis hit iliche. Thoy paradis be miri and briyt. On Herodes dagum Iudea cynincges. He one is eure on eche stede. fortham thin ben is gehyred. Bot watir manis thurst to quench. COMPARED WITH ENGLISH. And wot eche dede. tha he on Godes tempel eode. Eng. 23. He mai hine aihwar uinde. 7. On sea and ec on londe. 109 "Fur in see bi west Spaygne. Bieth inne helle. Wende wer thu wende. Hunger & thurst. Eall werod thæs folces wæs ute gebiddende on thære offrunge timan. Er deth & dom come to his dure. 12. and thin wif .CHAPTER VII. Se man that Godes wille deth. Ne ondræd thu the Zacharias.[50] LUCÆ. "Heuene & erthe & all that is. He is orde albuten orde. Swo us lereth drihte. He durh sighth eches ithanc.. 6. and hyre nama waas Elizabeth. What is ther in paradis. Hu muchele pinum and hu uele. he eode that he his offrunge sette. He deth al that his wille is. of Abian tune: and his wif wæs of Aarones dohtrum. CAP.: Johnson's Hist.--Part of an Anglo-Saxon Hymn. Tha weard Zacharias gedrefed that geseonde. fortham the Elizabeth wæs unberende. 58. Sothlice hig wæron butu rihtwise beforan Gode. Ther nis halle bure no bench. Cokaygne is of fairer siyt. Se man neure nele don god. Ne neure god lif leden. Sothlice wæs geworden tha Zacharias hys sacerdhades breac on his gewrixles endebyrdnesse beforan Gode. He is buuen us and binethen. Eche rune he iherth. 11. Durh deth com on this midelard. There nis lond under heuenriche. Thoy ther be ioi and gret dute. Bot grasse and flure and greneris. Lang. wæs sum sacred on naman Zacharias. Biloken is on his honde. Æfter gewunan thæs sacerdhades hlotes.. Louie God mid ure hierte." ANON. And ende albuten ende. Lang. He mai him sore adreden. Is a lond ihone Cokaygne. 59. IX. 21.--11th Century.

8. and his name schal be clepid Jon. LUKE. that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course. for Elizabeth was bareyn. and they both were now well stricken in years. a certain priest named Zacharias.--17th Century. blameless. for thy preier is herd. LUK. and stood on the right half of the auter of encense. 6. 9. And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord. withouten playnt. 11. According to the custom of the priest's office."--Saxon Gospels. 12. And when Zacharias saw him. And the aungel sayde to him. drede thou not. his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord. 12. and bothe weren of greet age in her dayes. walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. And it befel that whanne Zacarye schould do the office of presthod in the ordir of his course to fore God. I. And bothe weren juste bifore God. standing on the right side of the altar of incense. because that Elisabeth was barren. and hir name was Elizabeth. and entride into the temple to encensen. Aftir the custom of the presthood. Fear not. And it came to pass. And an aungel of the Lord apperide to him. and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear . English. And al the multitude of the puple was without forth and preyede in the our of encensying. I. 13.--14th Century. of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron. 10. Elizabeth the sunu centh. and Elizabeth thi wif schal bere to thee a sone. 110 "5.CHAPTER VII. goynge in alle the maundementis and justifyingis of the Lord. And thei hadden no child. and her name was Elisabeth. In the dayes of Eroude kyng of Judee ther was a prest Zacarye by name. 7. and fear fell upon him. And they had no child. of the sort of Abia: and his wyf was of the doughtris of Aaron. and drede fel upon him. Zacharias. CHAP. "5. 11. English. and thu nemst hys naman Johannes. 7. 13." Wickliffe's Bible. for thy prayer is heard. 10. Zacarye. 8. he wente forth by lot. he was troubled. 6. CHAP. And Zacarye seyinge was afrayed. But the angel said unto him. And they were both righteous before God. 9. 1380. And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense. There was in the days of Herod the king of Judea.

Romane burig abræcon." Common Bible.. even in the first elements of reading: so that he was in his twelfth year before he could name the letters of the alphabet. He had scarcely time to attend the funeral of his brother. and provided with able teachers from the continent. and tha ægter tham foresprecenan cyningum Theodric feng to tham ilcan rice se Theodric wæs Amulinga. 1610. form a striking contrast with the ignorance which prevailed before. in the year 871. theah he on tham Arrianiscan gedwolan durhwunode. X. rendered singularly glorious by great achievements under difficult circumstances. king of the West Saxons. on the 28th of October. When that renowned prince ascended the throne. The following is a brief specimen of the language in which that great man wrote. See Dr. he died universally lamented. Alfred the Great. How far the foregoing quotation is true. D. and became. I will not pretend to say. After a reign of more than twenty-eight years. the great restorer of arts in his dominions. but. succeeded to the crown on the death of his brother Ethelred. no man could be found who was scholar enough to instruct the young king Alfred. being then twenty-two years old. A. "In the ninth century. throughout the whole kingdom of the West Saxons. The language of eulogy must often be taken with some abatement: it does not usually present things in their due proportions. and mith heora cyningum. as much by his own example as by the encouragement he gave to learned men. His own great proficiency in learning. Rædgota and Eallerica wæron hatne. but what is called "the revival of learning. and thou shall call his name John. and eall Italia rice that is betwux tham muntum and Sicilia tham ealonde in anwald gerehton. 4to Dict." must not be supposed to have begun at so early a period as that of Alfred. He gehet Romanum his freondscype. 17. By this prince the university of Oxford was founded. "On thære tide the Gotan of Siththiu mægthe with Romana rice gewin upahofon. and his earnest efforts for its promotion.CHAPTER VII. in his Quarto Dictionary. who was the youngest son of Ethelwolf. 111 61. p. it would appear still less like English. 900. . thee a son. L. before he was called to the field to defend his country against the Danes. of E."--Life of Bacon. he made it his study to draw his people out of the sloth and stupidity in which they lay. Johnson's History of the English Language. 62. then a child.. ANGLO-SAXON IN THE TIME OF KING ALFRED. swa that hi mostan heora ealdrichta wyrthe beon."--KING ALFRED: Johnson's Hist. printed in Saxon characters. he wass Cristen.

"The faculty of speech is the medium of social bliss for superior intelligences in an eternal world. and still oftener injuriously decried. omnium Scientiarum fons uberrimus.CHAPTER VIII. who are at least as highly distinguished for virtue. that the study of this his native language is an object of great importance and interest: if he does not. void. 4. that it may not thereby be plausibly magnified into something great."--DESPAUTER. and enterprise. nor are there many things which cannot be ingeniously disparaged till they shall seem contemptible. to tell a man of any respectability. Here. feel it to be so. and with all parts of his works!"--Cardell's Gram. 18mo. at the commencement of his Essay. Nor shall I imitate the declamation of Cardell. I shall neither join with those who would lessen in the public esteem that general system of doctrines. "in their endless use. because I am convinced. from these most obvious considerations. either by magnifying its practical results. It is true. permanency. 49. scornfully rejects as nonsense every thing that others have taught under that name. the lasting stigma of folly and self-conceit. 2. from the consideration that. and viewed in its true light. It is even impertinent. quos ob id etiam Criticos vocabant. which from time immemorial has been taught as grammar. nor attempt. * * * Nostra ætas parum perita rerum veterum. "Grammatica quid est? ars rectè scribendi rectèque loquendi." says he.. instead of being the fit subject of blind cavil. 112 CHAPTER VIII. Præf. 1. imagines "that the persons to whom the civilized world have looked up to for instruction in language were all wrong alike in the main points. is the most sublime theme presented to the intellect on earth. or of little modesty." The study of grammar has been often overrated. ad Synt. but the vehicle of all they value. nimis brevi gyro grammaticum sepsit. indeed. "For apt the mind or fancy is to rove Uncheck'd. by one plain rule. Such is the peculiar power of language. 12mo. The literary reformer who. to invest it with any artificial or extraneous importance. and teaches what is practically useful." [52] intends no middle course of reformation.. as any other equal portion of the earth's population. p. All these are more or less interested in the purity. and many opinions are liable to be reversed by better knowledge: but what has been long established by the unanimous concurrence of the learned. It is the practical intercourse of the soul at once with its God. intelligence. none goes farther than his. in both his grammars. and be content with sober truth. 87. of all methods of teaching. . fol."--"There is nothing so incredible that it may not by the power of language be made probable. The English language may now be regarded as the common inheritance of about fifty millions of people. or by decking it out with my own imaginings. poetarum enarrationem continens. when he has exhausted censure in condemning the practical instruction of others. who."--MILTON. in the reversion of ancestral honour. and incomprehensible theory of his own: "This application of words. I shall not follow the footsteps of Neef. 3. recommends the general study of language on earth. and must needs be a man either of great merit. ut censores essent et judices scriptorum omnium soli grammatici. at apud antiques olim tantum auctoritatis hic ordo habuit. 1. it can hardly be the part of a wise instructor now to dispute. p. inasmuch as it is to be. and right use of that language. Restricted within its proper limits. the practical science of grammar has an intrinsic dignity and merit sufficient to throw back upon any man who dares openly assail it. that there is scarcely any subject so trifling. "Grammar and incongruity are identical things. the judgements of men are fallible." [51] and who. upon that formless. Cicero goes further: "Nihil est tam incredibile quod non dicendo fiat probabile. but he who traces science." and who. Gram. with the last named gentleman. who avers that. that. to prove the reproachful assertion true. and of her roving is no end. OF THE GRAMMATICAL STUDY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. a wide prospect opens before us. to all things which nouns can name. must check imagination. under pretence of reaching the same end by better means. not only the medium of mental intercourse with others for them and their children. thus lavishes praise. or in the transmission of their own.

the study of English grammar will not be neglected. With a language which we are daily in the practice of hearing. and in nothing does true genius more conspicuously appear. he must have afforded a certain and constant evidence. and so intimately does every man's reputation for sense depend upon his skill in the use of language. in public speaking. that it is scarcely possible to acquire the one without the other. without the formal study of its rules. because it is of indispensable use to society. reading. as this excellence. of which. but must see the absolute necessity of dividing words into classes. may have further aid from the analogies which he thus discovers. I have before said. whether in conversation. or the art of writing and speaking.[53] 6. the laws to which custom commonly subjects them. and. must continue to be learned by some persons. will doubtless bias many to the adoption or the rejection of this. than to give offence. whether in the thing itself. and the utter impossibility that they should ever be recognized individually for the purposes of instruction and criticism.CHAPTER VIII. must have a certain degree of influence upon the public mind. may speak the words or phrases which he has thus acquired. or be left to glean it solely from their own occasional observation of the manner in which other people speak and write. by general rules of formation and construction. and on different subjects. The English language ought to be . must make the principles of language his study. and writing. Every person who has any ambition to appear respectable among people of education. example. 9. is but to know better than others wherein grammatical excellence consists. how much of the favour or disregard with which he himself has been treated. however. of course. A consideration of the point seems to be appropriate here. or arguments. The opinions of teachers. and denominated grammar. 8. no word to amend. the suggestion will be less likely to convince him. whether children and youth shall acquire it by a regular process of study and method of instruction. speaking. and the method of its inculcation will become an object of particular inquiry and solicitude. The practical solution of this question belongs chiefly to parents and guardians. nor have they acquired any independent authority. by being recorded in a book. we may certainly acquire no inconsiderable acquaintance. that without a knowledge of them no elegant and able writer is produced. is merely comparative. and he who has the genius to discern intuitively what is regular and proper. 113 5. or in print. Such facility of course supposes an intimate knowledge of all words in common use. to whose discretion the decision will sometimes be left. leaving the critic no fault to expose. before they were written for the aid of learners. and I cannot forbear to commend the study to the favour of my readers. Many a ludicrous anecdote is told. 7. or in him that attains to it. may have depended upon that skill or deficiency in grammar. In speaking or writing to different persons. may require something more than a knowledge of grammar rules. and also of the principles on which they are to be combined. it is necessary to vary one's style with great nicety of address. as often as he has either spoken or written. must be aware of the absolute necessity of a competent knowledge of the language in which he attempts to express his thoughts. but he who would add to such acquisitions the satisfaction of knowing what is right. yet it is argument enough in favour of those rules. that to excel in grammar. in respect to the relative value of different studies. All the true principles of grammar were presumed to be known to the learned. and to enable us to ascertain with more clearness the true standard of grammatical purity. Who can tell how much of his own good or ill success. To produce an able and elegant writer. than in the facility with which it adopts the most appropriate expressions. or from which she allows them in particular instances to deviate? Grammar. to improve the style of our English writers. as conveying an implicit censure. And the only question is. many a ridiculous blunder has been published to the lasting disgrace of the writer. He who learns only by rote. leaving every one. in correspondence. has tended in no small degree to settle and establish the construction of the language. The teaching of them. and of showing. and the popular notions of the age. there seems to be no fixed point of perfection beyond which such learning may not be carried. to choose how much he will be influenced by my advice. If past experience and the history of education be taken for guides. Who that considers the infinite number of phrases which words in their various combinations may form. of persons venturing to use words of which they did not know the proper application.

he may well be suspected of having formed his conceptions of the science. 114 learned at school or in colleges. and whatsoever is well expressed. than of the fitness of a suit of clothes. The grand clew to the proper application of all syntactical rules. accompanied with stated exercises in composition and elocution. Fifty or sixty years ago. a fluent and agreeable delivery in public speaking. and even if they were. Such a course. accompanied with regular exercises of parsing. that a graceful and easy conversation in the private circle. To parse rightly and fully. in the way of grammatical analysis. and as any composition is faulty which does not rightly deliver the author's meaning. pointing.[54] Of this fact we have abundant evidence both from books. such an exercise was scarcely attempted in any of the schools. there might be found. and it will seldom be found in experience. How often have these presented this as an apology for their own deficiencies. or thrilling descant. This would never be denied or doubted. on some splendid argument. unless he belong to that class of knaves who vilify what they despair to reach. Would not the bright boy who heard this from the lips of his reverend minister. without injury. but from some of those miserable treatises which only caricature the subject. in a judicious prosecution of this study. and scanning. 73.CHAPTER VIII. as other languages usually are. The imagination. and habits of youth a strong and salutary control. a ready and natural utterance in reading. has an obvious tendency to dignify the whole character. The regular grammatical study of our language is a thing of recent origin. 11. not from what it really is in itself. to the strain and soul of which not a fibre in their nature would yield a vibration. will be found the most direct way of acquiring an English style at once pure. than what was practised on them for grammar in the school-room. but in the exercise of composition. indeed. and for this exercise the previous course of discipline will have furnished both language and taste. and elegant. when properly conducted and liberally pursued. if young people did not find. is the sense. or burst of eloquence. and from the testimony of our venerable fathers yet living. which are usually brought into exercise one by one. has nothing to do with the elements of grammar. 14. In books of criticism. who cannot speak and write his native language grammatically? And who will deny that every degree of improvement in literary taste tends to brighten and embellish the whole intellectual nature? The several powers of the mind are not so many distinct and separable agents. it is a shame either to misunderstand or to misinterpret. are accomplishments of a very high order? And yet of all these. by the study of its grammar. What would be the natural effect of the following sentence. opinions. without knowing for whom they were intended. ix. or poetic rapture. 13. correcting. p. and by the perusal of some of its most accurate writers. the proper study of English grammar is the true foundation. Some of the best of these the student should peruse. as soon as he can understand and relish them. correct. intelligent parents and judicious teachers may exercise over the studies. How can he be a man of refined literary taste. our language is already more abundant than any other. will change their opinion in after life. This study. young fancy may spread her wings as soon as they are fledged. a healthful employment for them all. in which that meaning is not carefully noticed and literally preserved. But the study of grammar is not so enticing that it may be disparaged in the hearing of the young. as well as sentiment. 12. Vol. By taking proper advantage of the ductility of childhood. If any intelligent man will represent English grammar otherwise than as one of the most useful branches of study. and endeavoured to excite us to . better models and more efficient instruction. But who is so destitute of good sense as to deny. that those who have been early taught to consider grammatical learning as worthy and manly. which I quote from a late well-written religious homily? "The pedagogue and his dunce may exercise their wits correctly enough. and of which it is rather an advantage to be ignorant. 10. is nothing else than to understand rightly and explain fully. be apt the next day to grow weary of the parsing lesson required by his schoolmaster? And yet what truth is there in the passage? One can no more judge of the fitness of language. pursued with regularity and diligence. so every solution of a word or sentence is necessarily erroneous. a pure and elegant style in composition. under some other name. without regard to the meaning conveyed by it."--New-York Observer. either in this country or in England. No disciple of an able grammarian can ever speak ill of grammar.

We learn the grammar in order that we may learn English. 18. the 'grammar books' at a boarding-school will not teach it. to build upon the foundations which their wisdom has laid. and is perhaps the only man that can. because. 195. he will learn English grammar. to the system of attempting to teach children formally that which they will learn practically without teaching. Whatever may be the advantages of those purer habits of speech. as well as in my earlier grammars. This opinion. Especially we shall acquire a competent knowledge of our own language. one merit: he pleases his patrons. To the following opinion from a writer of great merit. I think it would be expedient to dispense with the formal study of English grammar. The discipline of our schools can never approach perfection. The reader of this treatise will find their faults not only admitted." 17. in a profession which he honours with his services merely to escape starvation. knows nothing of the satisfaction either of doing his own duty. for the grammar of a language is itself formed from the prevalent habits of speech and writing. because it deserves refutation. is perhaps entitled to as much respect as any that has ever been urged against the study in question. or of exciting others to the performance of theirs. proceeding from a man who has written upon human affairs with so much ability and practical good sense. or such a neighbourhood. It is not enough to show that a given branch of education is useful: you must show that it is the most useful that can be selected. and not by rules: and this is just what we might expect. by contrasting our opportunities with theirs! Is there not truth. unless the love of learning preside over and prevail in them. 16.--a proposition which I doubt not many a teacher will hear with wonder and disapprobation. I shall not stop to ask. even of a school-book. He settles down in a regular routine of humdrum exercises. "Since human knowledge is so much more extensive than the opportunity of individuals for acquiring it. A compiler of grammar first observes these habits. which cost the least and last the longest. for they must needs be of that class to whom moral restraint is tyranny. to introduce a method which it is hoped will better reach the end proposed. And so far as the objection bears upon those defective methods of instruction which experience has shown to be inefficient. is there not power. Men learn their own language by habit. I am in no wise concerned to remove it. A dull teacher. till those who conduct. which generously aspires to all attainable excellence. as often right as wrong. if other departments of our education were improved. and. however. and is well content to do little good for little money. ought to be the leading objects with those to whom is committed the important business of instruction. than in poring for an hour over Murray or Horne Tooke. without . The objection is. in the appeal? And are we not bound to avail ourselves of the privileges which they have provided. 115 greater diligence. What such a man. which the young naturally acquire from conversation with educated people. Remembering this. wasting time in a school-room with a parcel of stupid or indolent boys. it were idle to expect that school-boys should understand it."--JONATHAN DYMOND: Essays on Morality. and to satisfy its demands whenever it appears. and who. and we learn English whether we study grammars or not. and those who frequent them. disobedience to teachers. while an attempt is here made. I am persuaded. although the philosophy of language be a valuable branch of human knowledge. 15. p. why study the rules? I say nothing of grammar as a general science. always judge those things to be cheapest. that.CHAPTER VIII. "A boy learns more English grammar by joining in an hour's conversation with educated people. He has. and if he is not accustomed to such society and such reading. But it may easily be perceived that this author's proposition to dispense with the formal study of English grammar is founded upon an untenable assumption. it becomes of the greatest importance so to economize the opportunity as to make it subservient to the acquisition of as large and as valuable a portion as we can. If he is accustomed to such society and to the perusal of well-written books. dreading as an inconvenience even such change as proficiency in his pupils must bring on. dreading the expense. but to a great extent purposely exposed. it is not true. are strongly actuated by that disposition of mind. may think of English grammar. and to carry forward the work of improvement? Institutions can do nothing for us. To rouse this laudable spirit in the minds of our youth. is not so well founded as the generality of the doctrines with which it is presented to the public. or of little use. though he never sees a word about syntax. I am inclined to afford room here. and then makes his rules: but if a person is himself familiar with the habits.

which. the art of speaking agreeably is so far from being taught. or "the philosophy of language. The difficulty of instructing youth in any thing that pertains to language. must be taken by the young upon the credit of him who states them. in one respect or other. or acquire it by the slight perusal of some of our good authors. superficial taste and puerile elegance in the other. by proper definitions and examples. and much reading of ancient authors: The greatest critic and most able grammarian of the last age. 19. but. Vol. Much practice in the polite world. because it is learned of those who have paid some attention to the study.--in the great multiplicity of verbal signs. has been but recently and partially obviated. but a fortiori to this science. the inveteracy of ill habits. The grammatical study of our language was early and strongly recommended by Locke."--DR. defective in these three capital points of education. I imagine there can be no mistake in the opinion. are good helps. without any sound foundation laid in severe reasoning and philosophy. they cannot otherwise be guarded from improprieties of diction. which we pass through in our childhood. "The attainment of a correct and elegant style. which are committed by writers who are far from being contemptible. and in some sort to commend. While in Cambridge the general application is turned altogether on speculative knowledge." says Dr. the many offences against purity of language. Yet the want of it will not be effectually supplied by any other advantages whatsoever. and other facts in literary history. in all who aim at writing it properly."--Blair's Rhetoric. what is commonly called learning. they will find themselves much disappointed. The Universities will excuse me. In Cambridge and in Oxford." the author seems to exempt. may not be made as intelligible to a boy. 116 instruction directed to this end. "To think justly. as in our own ignorance of certain parts of so vast an inquiry. 20. "A grammatical study of our own language makes no part of the ordinary method of instruction. . as they cannot always be preserved from hearing vulgar and improper phraseology. was frequently at a loss in matters of ordinary use and common construction in his own vernacular idiom. to write well. "is an object which demands application and labour. One might easily back this position by the citation of some scores of faulty sentences from the pen of this very able writer himself. 91. when he came to apply his learning and criticism to an English author. These defects naturally produce dry unaffecting compositions in the one. the inadequacy of memory. that in exact proportion as the rules of grammar are unknown or neglected in any country. The many errors. But why should any principle of grammar be the less intelligible on account of the extent of its application? Will a boy pretend that he cannot understand a rule of English grammar. the frequent contrariety of practice. Much less then will. or style. If any imagine they can catch it merely by the ear. 44. because he is told that it holds good in all languages? Ancient etymologies. who have enjoyed these advantages in their full extent. and yet cannot be recommended as models of an accurate style. and a general acquaintance with the best authors. 21. lies not so much in the fact that its philosophy is above their comprehension. that it is hardly talked or thought of. demonstrate. p."--DR. are the three great ends of academic instruction. and it is very seldom we apply ourselves to it afterward. under the notion that it is unintelligible to school-boys. Lect. But either for want of a good grammar. that a careful study of the language is previously requisite. ix. but the doctrines of general grammar are to the learner the easiest and the most important principles of the science. or for lack of teachers skilled in the subject and sensible of its importance. ungracious or affected speech in both. they will of themselves become so well educated as to speak and write grammatically.[55] and other writers on education. the general neglect so long complained of as a grievous imperfection in our methods of education. with little regard to polite letters. and the little interest that is felt when we speak merely of words. to speak agreeably. taste. and at the same time his proposition of exclusion is applied not merely to the school-grammars. Their language may indeed be comparatively accurate and genteel. ii. 1757: Estimate. than by a knowledge of the rules of grammar. or from seeing it in books. will corruptions and improprieties of language be there multiplied. p. The "general science" of grammar. whose character gave additional weight to an opinion which they enforced by the clearest arguments. BROWN. And I know of nothing in the true philosophy of language. a critical knowledge of ancient languages. in Oxford the whole attention is directed towards classical correctness. if I observe. that is. that both are. 22.CHAPTER VIII. even in point of grammar. Blair. as are the principles of most other sciences. but alone [they] will hardly be sufficient: We have writers. serve the purpose.

. p."--Chazotte's Essay on the Teaching of Languages. that have appeared in the world. may take place in the mother tongue as well as in Latin or Greek. vi. which is therefore. 1763: Pref. it is not easy to say. is an easy task. elegance. "Indeed. Grammar was made a rudiment leading to the principles of all thoughts. on the other hand. or some other cause. or the sense each one expresses and conveys to the mind. of whom I need only mention Cæsar and Cicero. however. And this. together with their several definitions. 24. but to give the reader the satisfaction of some other authority than my own. in learning words. the general classification of words and their subdivisions in expressing the various conceptions of the mind. without which we are left to wander all our lives in an intricate labyrinth. 50. but merely to use my feeble influence to carry forward a work of improvement. I allow this to be the case. he might have spent a life as long as Methuselah's. when he should communicate his acquisitions to the world. before they can speak or write their own with correctness. Again: "Had it not been for his dictionary and his grammar. London. and functions. 26. A classical scholar too often has his English style to form. that they learned ideas and expressed them in their mother tongue?"--DR. These words were analyzed and classed according to their essence. and bring ridicule upon the author. p. "It is also said that those who know Latin and Greek generally express themselves with more clearness than those who do not receive a liberal education. faithful to their dictionaries. to Gram. the study of grammar. In some instances it is never formed with success. but I do not find that the English style is improved by learning Greek. p. For he who is acquainted with several grammars already. write with more clearness than the uncultivated individual. to what degree. and the most accomplished men of business. Its supposed facility. or. Grammar is then the key to the perfect understanding of languages. Surely these evils might easily be prevented or diminished. though they proposed double the salary to the latter? Who can assure us that the Greek orators acquired their superiority by their acquaintance with foreign languages. attributes. Greek and Latin. not to show my reading. no doubt.. and in how many different ways. 107. or to save the labour of composition. or at least counteract in a great degree the influence of his work. In consequence of this improvement. is one of the reasons why English engages so small a proportion of their time and attention. and the natural subdivision of their component parts. word for word. Here. as in many other parts of my work. and teaching by simple examples. The greatest orators. seems to have drawn upon it such a degree of neglect as certainly cannot be praised. The students in those schools are often distinguished by their compositions in the learned languages.CHAPTER VIII. 45. which was once prosecuted chiefly through the medium of the dead languages. In commending the study of English grammar. 1804. and was regarded as the proper business of those only who were to be . BEATTIE: Moral Science. BARROW: Essays on Education. which comprised all the words. Yet the spirit of the ancient languages. SPURZHEIM: Treatise on Education."--Ib. but most learned grammarians. Vol. I do not mean to discountenance that degree of attention which in this country is paid to other languages. what I have been told by the managers of one of the first institutions of Ireland. 25. Philad. 1832. or fluency. 107. It is not frequently read. further is declared to be superior to that of the modern. in my opinion. finds no difficulty in adding one more to the number. Is it not a pity to hear. however. p. p. LOWTH. I have chosen to be liberal of quotations. i. than one for the English language. has been wisely begun. 117 23. but not sufficiently sustained. is it not obvious. in this manner. will not improve in it by learning. "Dictionaries were compiled. The mental cultivation. that it was easier to find ten teachers for Latin and Greek. which. with good reason. both memory and judgement may be improved by an intimate acquaintance with grammar. which taught him the essence of all languages."--DR. 87. and yet young scholars are taught to translate. 1825. It is known that literal translations are miserably bad. Hence those who do not make a peculiar study of their own language. made the first and fundamental part of literary education. without being able to attain to a degree of perfection in any of the languages. and the defects of his expression either deter him from appearing before the public at all. "To the pupils of our public schools the acquisition of their own language. whenever it is undertaken. p. It is indeed natural that those who cultivate their mental powers. the most elegant scholars. were not only studious of grammar."--DR. and is still less frequently written. without being able to trace back again any part of our way..

"--DR. the English exhibits both excellences and defects. But. * * * Whatever knowledge may be acquired by the study of other languages. it is reasonable to suppose that the language most intelligible to the learner. in the character of critics or lexicographers. have laboured purposely to improve it. and as the only successful method of learning them. be confessed. it does not yet appear to be sufficiently attended to in the course of what is called a liberal education. 28. that an acquaintance with ancient and foreign literature is absolutely necessary for him who would become a thorough philologist or an accomplished scholar. The course of nature cannot be controlled. other languages. 91. than to be distinguished for proficiency in the learned languages and yet ignorant of his own. if at all. and the best foundation for the study of grammar in general. the source of several of the modern tongues of Europe. as well as of moral culture. And the sentiment is now generally admitted. unless by such as can write and speak their own language well. has in a great measure redeemed it from that contempt in which it was formerly held in the halls of learning. but its flexibility. it can never be either patriotic or wise. and to read and write for the most common purposes of life. may best acquire a knowledge of the common principles of speech from the grammar of their vernacular tongue. that even those who are afterwards to learn other languages. p. as I have before suggested. or power of accommodation to the tastes of different writers. are found miserably deficient in this respect. it must be acknowledged there are few. And it is manifest. But. and. To speak the language which they have learned without study. being remarkably regular in its inflections and systematic in its construction. for the learned men of the United States or of England to pride themselves chiefly upon them. 27. It is certain that many from whom better things might be expected. which is within the easy reach of many young persons whose situation in life debars them from the pursuit of general literature. and that the Latin language. to commit to memory the definitions and rules which embrace them. is the most suitable for the commencement of his grammatical studies. The attention which has lately been given to the culture of the English language. It must. that in proportion as the precepts of the divine Redeemer are obeyed by the nations that profess his name. and who have the means and the opportunity to become critically acquainted with it. Compared with. BLAIR: Rhetoric. extended as far as possible among the people. 30. is. and fortune does not permit us to prescribe the same course of discipline for all. is great. and the only proper test of what is useful. it deserves a high degree of our study and attention. whatever we may know or think of other tongues. in various branches of knowledge. I am not of opinion that it is expedient to press this study to much extent. Lect. "Whatever the advantages or defects of the English language be. is now thought to be an appropriate exercise for children in elementary schools. and when it is used with that mastership which belongs to learning and genius. And their neglect of so desirable an accomplishment is the more remarkable and the more censurable on account of the facility with which those who are acquainted with the ancient languages may attain to excellence in their English style. A competent knowledge of English grammar is also in itself a valuable attainment. may be education enough for those who can be raised no higher. . ix. and by many others who. it is our own. if any. as the general principles of grammar are common to all languages. But it must be the desire of every benevolent and intelligent man. 118 instructed in Latin and Greek. have tastefully adorned it with the works of their genius. 29. however. is in itself the most complete exemplar of the structure of speech.CHAPTER VIII. This opinion appears to be confirmed by that experience which is at once the most satisfactory proof of what is feasible. on those whom poverty or incapacity may have destined to situations in which they will never hear or think of it afterwards. by some who. But above all. to which it ought on the whole to be considered inferior. it can never be communicated with advantage. as it is our own language. to see the advantages of literary. To every such student it is vastly more important to be able to speak and write well in English. and better opportunities be offered for the children of indigence to adorn themselves with the treasures of knowledge. Our language is worthy to be assiduously studied by all who reside where it is spoken. will all distinctions arising merely from the inequality of fortune be lessened or done away.

--that a grammar freed from errors and defects. favoured as our country is. with great facilities for carrying forward the work of improvement. the reputation of our national literature greatly depends.--that a fixed and settled orthography is of great importance. as a means of preserving the etymology.--that on the purity and propriety with which American authors write this language.CHAPTER VIII. and identity of words. history. . We may not be able to effect all that is desirable. rules and exercises. and to avoid as much as possible every thing that is reprehensible either in thought or expression. we ought to unite as having one common interest. submit--that a critical knowledge of our common language is a subject worthy of the particular attention of all who have the genius and the opportunity to attain it. is of primary importance to every student and a great aid to teachers. but. in conclusion of this topic.--that as the vices of speech as well as of manners are contagious. it becomes those who have the care of youth. in every thing which can contribute to national glory and prosperity. and embracing a complete code of definitions and illustrations. 119 31.--that in the preservation of it from all changes which ignorance may admit or affectation invent. to be masters of the language in its purity and elegance. I would.

even in some well-written books. than he would have of the art of painting." says Dr. For the same admission must be made with respect to the definitions and rules of every practical science in the world. It is one strong proof of this."--DESPAUTER. cui abusus pro usu est. by learned men. will never enable any one to speak and write correctly. have been believed by men of sense. The simple definition in which the general idea of the art is embraced. Grammatista est qui barbaris literis obstrepit. and know but very little about the art. or invent other schemes by which they hoped to be more successful. either from men who had had no practical experience in the labours of a school-room. than that of almost any other art. and of the best method of learning or teaching it. the art of writing and speaking well. compelled to learn what they did not understand. the ancient positive method. with accumulated prejudices. or to teach it technically by formal lessons. Surely not. which after all will be found in experience to be at once the easiest. 1. that it is "the art of representing to the eye. and urged. and the truths impressed upon the mind in the years of childhood. sciences. I mean. nor are there any precise limits to possible improvement. essentially. scienterque possit aut dicere aut scribere. if they choose to direct their attention to so humble an employment. or from miserable modifiers and abridgers. as I have . 1. "To proceed upon principles at first. and sometimes emotions of the mind. and the technology of grammar is even more essential to a true knowledge of the subject. have been bewailed in prefaces and reviews. It is hardly to be supposed that any person can have a very clear conviction of the best method of doing a thing. definitions. 120 CHAPTER IX. the learner may commit them all to memory. have been excited against that method of teaching grammar. are ever afterwards the most firmly remembered. It has been already admitted. 2. to take his master's likeness.CHAPTER IX. and either to discountenance the whole matter. is of no real utility. destitute alike of learning and of industry. too frequently illustrated in practice. with all the plausibility of a fair and legitimate deduction. has been made the basis of the strongest argument ever raised against the study of grammar. to have a correct and adequate notion of English grammar. acutè. p. Synt. Reading. the shortest. This fact. that we have heretofore been content to receive our digests of English grammar."--Essays. The force of this remark extends to all the technical divisions. any object of sight. 4.. OF THE BEST METHOD OF TEACHING GRAMMAR. The critical knowledge of this subject lies in no narrow circle of observation. and the highest acquirements of scholarship. Græcis Latinam dat etymologiam. that to study grammar by learning its principles. than the second." however useful in order to fix the learner's conception. by means of figures and colors. Arts must be taught by artists. But it does not follow. and the sympathies of nature. Webster. can scarcely give him a better knowledge of the thing itself. without disparagement of the many worthy men whom choice or necessity has made schoolmasters. incredible things boasted by literary jugglers. does mostly exclude from it the first order of talents. "is the most compendious method of attaining every branch of knowledge. "Quomodo differunt grammaticus et grammatista? Grammaticus est qui diligenter. et poetas enarrare: idem literatus dicitur. But. which aims directly at the inculcation of principles. It has led some men. and. The hardships of children. that definitions and rules committed to memory and not reduced to practice. is no light attainment. 3. and the most readily applied. of judgement and of skill. Barrow. as if the whole of that laborious process were useless. For. even of the highest talents. if Grammar is the science of words. 84. The utter futility of the old accidence has been inferred from it. to doubt the expediency of that method. and arrangements of grammar. and the best. fol. when he had learned from Dr. it may be admitted that the low estimation in which school-keeping is commonly held. and has been particularly urged against the ordinary technical method of teaching it." The first would no more enable him to write a sonnet. who shall not at first have acquired a pretty correct and adequate notion of the thing to be done. the best speakers and writers will be the best teachers of it. et totus in nugis est: Latinè dicitur literator. under any circumstances. rules. "Grammar is the art of writing and speaking correctly.

lies solely against the practice of those teachers who disjoin the principles and the exercises of the art. and is probably most known. an octavo reprinted at Boston in 1784. to throw the labour of its acquisition almost entirely upon the students. and partly between the boy and his book. and especially those which are designed for the senior class of students. is. There is nothing in it. Nay. The business lies partly between the master and his scholar. In etymology and syntax. He must know that they have a book. or the attainment of the purpose be proportionably imperfect. "The principles of grammar are the first abstract truths which a young mind can comprehend. To a good reader. and the very sensible preface to the old British Grammar. Better scholarship would naturally produce this improvement. The only successful method of teaching grammar. and the exercise is well calculated to improve the memory and strengthen all the faculties of the mind. and we have it on the authority of Dr.CHAPTER IX. which any person of common abilities will find it difficult to understand or adopt. till the whole is rendered familiar. and facilitate the labour of the learner. The deficiencies of any one of the three must either be supplied by the extraordinary readiness of an other. constitutes the whole business of grammar. is a part of grammar. It is manifest. But then the teacher must see that he does not set them to grope their way through a wilderness of absurdities. that the most proper mode of treating this science in schools. 6. for no general rule can precisely determine for all occasions what may be expected from each. that the committing to memory of definitions and rules. the very best method cannot be essentially different from that which has been longest in use. What one fails to do. 7. with respect to this branch of knowledge. there is little room for novelty. 121 said. is disproved by universal experience. impose only such tasks as leave the pupil to suppose. and in general for the solution of all their doubts. But there is everywhere ample room for improvement.. The epistle prefixed to King Henry's Grammar almost three centuries ago. and to refer them to their books for the information which they need. or left undone. but to improve the old and free it from abuses. and it is easy to suppose a race of teachers more erudite and more zealous. The mode of instruction here recommended is the result of long and successful experience. but arranges it so that every item of it may be readily found. It is the plain didactic method of .[56] Such a method is no less absurd in itself. either through ignorance or negligence. than either we or they. and then applying them in parsing. That knowledge may reasonably be required at their recitations. is. Nor will it avail any thing for the student to rehearse definitions and rules of which he makes no practical application. in my opinion. according to the age and attainments of his pupils. that. which not only contains the requisite information. it seems to me. to cause the principal definitions and rules to be committed thoroughly to memory. the duties of the teacher will vary considerably. contain a large proportion of matter which is merely to be read by the learner. 5. or ever has been. must either be done by an other. Adam. It is expected that the latter will receive a greater degree of attention. and of course unwisely. the achievement will be neither great nor difficult. to require from them very accurate rehearsals as the only condition on which they shall be listened to. give evidence enough that a better method of teaching has long been known. After much observation. 4. p. nor is it found in any of our schemes. or according to each student's ability or inclination to profit by his printed guide. that. Any person who can read. 8. which culpable negligence alone could have prevented them from obtaining. can learn from a book such simple facts as are within his comprehension. Gram. and it is a part which must of course precede what is commonly called in the schools the study of grammar. I have not laboured to introduce a system of grammar essentially new. than contrary to the practice of the best teachers from the very origin of the study. English grammar can be better taught than it is now. that they may ever afterwards be readily applied. Perfection was never attained by the most learned of our ancestors. This is commonly distinguished in type from those more important doctrines which constitute the frame of the edifice. to whom a well-written book is a sufficient instructor. Most grammars. and who."--Pref. The objection drawn from the alleged inefficiency of this method. Oral instruction may smoothe the way. to Lat. Among these it may be partitioned variously. he should be alternately exercised in learning small portions of his book. Where invention and discovery are precluded. but the notion of communicating a competent knowledge of grammar without imposing this task.

rule and praxis. however. till all learn to recite with clearness. but written rules. Whoever is acquainted with the grammar of our language. which constitute the common parsing tables. in an exercise of this kind. are perhaps quite as necessary. He who speaks before a school. carefully superintend their rehearsals. A hope is also indulged. and the teacher very little.CHAPTER IX. because it demands of him. and order the exercise in such a manner that either his own voice. is to speak badly about the art of speaking well. 122 definition and example. and a culpable waste of time. but also to make a prompt and practical application of what he has just learned. that in parsing any particular word. than that of dancing or swimming. and that these are to be said in the best manner: so that whoever tells fewer. It should be strongly impressed upon him. 10. and have learned the art of attention. however learned. or for those who hear him. or abstract directions. that the grand object of the whole business. and whoever proceeds otherwise. not only to answer questions on grammar. 11. And perhaps there are few. it will not be necessary for the teacher to say much. Because the questions. on a perusal of the volume. misquoting. for no one can speak well. and making it intelligible to others. so as to be easy of reference. stuttering. that this work will be particularly useful to many who have passed the ordinary period allotted to education. will here find almost every thing that is true in his own instructions. clearly embraced under its proper head. there are just so many things to be said of it. that to commit blunders in rehearsing grammar. would not be furnished with some important rules and facts which had not before occurred to their own observation. I rely not upon what are called "Parsing Tables" but upon the precise forms of expression which are given in the book for the parsing of the several sorts of words. in order to accomplish two objects at once. is his own practical improvement. the written doctrines. who feels afraid. that his recitations must be limited to such things as he perfectly . And each should ever be careful to perform his part handsomely--without drawling. inserts something irrelevant. slurring. understanding well what they say. to proceed with his explanation or rehearsal. or correcting a sentence. that to be slow and awkward in parsing. and more time must needs be consumed on them. which no man who means to teach grammar well. It should be shown. is carelessness. that a habit of speaking clearly and agreeably. All these should therefore be combined in our course of English grammar. But a far more common impediment to the true use of speech. 9. Perfect forms of parsing and correcting should be given him as models. If the class be tolerable readers. with the hope of finding an other more rational or more easy. whoever says more. or part of speech. hurrying. omitting. But both should constantly remember that grammar is the art of speaking and writing well. may impressively realize. And. and exercises in writing. give the word to the next when any one errs. Without oral instruction and oral exercises. The greatest peculiarity of the method is. or the example of his best scholars. or impairs the beauty of the expression. and even if some instructors should not adopt the readiest means of making their pupils familiar with its contents. and no more. either blunders in point of fact. mispronouncing. He should. in order to impress upon his memory the number and the sequence of the facts to be stated. so as to have some tolerable skill in teaching it. who will take the trouble to observe and practise what it teaches. or the definitions and rules of grammar. should be made to feel that he is bound by every consideration of respect for himself. and intelligible manner. and the system will be found well calculated to effect that object. for the formation of a good style. they will not fail to instruct by it as effectually as they can by any other. If a pupil happen to be naturally timid. who. with the understanding that the text before him is his only guide to their right application. It is the learner's diction that is to be improved. that he is then and there exhibiting his own skill or deficiency in oral discourse. in the hearing of others. so that the boy who is parsing a word. an art which can no more be acquired without practice. or any of the thousand faults which render utterance disagreeable and inelegant. there should certainly be no austerity of manner to embarrass his diffidence. that it requires the pupil to speak or write a great deal. This book itself will make any one a grammarian. omits something requisite. reiterating. are less intelligible to the learner than a practical example. will ever desert. should statedly be made the subject of a critical exercise in utterance. mouthing. clear. stopping. may gradually correct the ill habits of the awkward. faltering. and in general he ought not to take up the time by so doing. is unpardonable negligence. hesitating. in a ready. miscalling. a correct habit of speaking our language can never be acquired. is itself one half of the great art of grammar.

to define. might be better effected than they had been in any work within his knowledge. If it be performed according to the order prescribed in the following work. He has not laboured to subvert the general system of grammar. The exercise of parsing should be commenced immediately after the first lesson of etymology--the lesson in which are contained the definitions of the ten parts of speech. and is therefore an exercise well calculated to induce a habit of uniting correctness with fluency in ordinary speech--a species of elocution as valuable as any other.[57] 12. with a scrupulous regard to the best usage. and no contrivance afford greater facilities to the student. and very little from the teacher. without giving countenance to any innovation not sanctioned by reputable use. in which there are the fewest things that could be mimicked. Having devoted many years to studies of this nature. will be found to have been steadily adhered to throughout the following work. and has contented himself with attempting little more than to supply the deficiencies of the system. remodelling every ancient definition and rule which it is possible to amend. It requires just enough of thought to keep the mind attentive to what the lips are uttering. He does not mean to conceal in any degree his obligations to others. Thus would I unite the practice with the theory of grammar. finally. He has studiously endeavoured to avail himself of all the light they have thrown upon the subject. if the forms in the grammar have received any tolerable share of attention. the improvements here offered are neither few nor inconsiderable. and. the author conceived that the objects above referred to. without forgetting the proper limits of the science. are chargeable. till he can proceed without mistake. It asks no aid from a dictionary.[58] 13. to him. or declamation. and exemplify those doctrines anew. This indeed was task enough. 15. that. and should be carried on progressively. or to detract from the merits. may not be perfect. as necessary parts of the subject. and to free it from the reproach of being itself ungrammatical. or to indulge in censure without discrimination. and amendment may be desirable. for. but to form a practical digest of established rules. and propriety of diction. And he persuades himself. dispose. Being neither wholly extemporaneous nor wholly rehearsed by rote. or debasing its style by puerilities. all the performances of his predecessors seemed meagre and greatly deficient. while it advances by such easy gradations and constant repetitions as leave the pupil utterly without excuse. rejecting the multitudinous errors and inconsistencies with which unskillful hands have disgraced the science and perplexed the schools. some further contributions to the stock of grammatical knowledge. where subversion would be ruinous. in respect to style. He has no disposition to depreciate the labours. ever taking that for the best manner. With a view to further improvements in the science. or grammatical correctness.CHAPTER IX. These general views. Believing that no theory can better explain the principles of our language. it is hoped. and being conversant with most of the grammatical treatises already published. nor has he acted the part of a servile copyist. The author has not deviated much from the principles adopted in the most approved grammars already in use. received from time immemorial. if the performer knows the meaning of the words he is parsing. it has more dignity than a school-boy's conversation. labouring at once to extend and to facilitate the study. that he must watch and imitate the utterance of those who speak well. he has also resorted to the . it will soon make the student perfectly familiar with all the primary definitions and rules of grammar. those technicalities which the pupil must needs learn in order to understand the disquisitions of grammarians in general. It was not his design to introduce novelties. 14. purity. and more ease than a formal recitation. compared with what he thought needful to be done. adopting every important feature of that system of doctrines which appears to have been longest and most generally taught. of those who have written ably upon this topic. that he must apply himself to his book. The scope of his labours has been. 123 knows. the writer has in general adopted those doctrines which are already best known. but to improve upon it. retaining. in its present application to our tongue. endeavouring to express its principles with all possible perspicuity. if he does not know what to say. to offer. however this work may yet fall short of possible completeness. adapting the code of instruction to the present state of English literature. supplying the numerous and great deficiencies with which the most comprehensive treatises published by earlier writers. on that authority. That which is excellent. till it embraces all the doctrines which are applicable to it.

whether fully comprehended or not. But truth. but none . pictures. in his academy. would be found very difficult and irksome. He who by study has once stored his memory with the sound and appropriate language of any important doctrine. The vain pretensions of several modern simplifiers. dialogues. or the things spoken of are fully understood. professed to teach things rather than words. can never. discovers itself early. according to certain grand differences which make the several parts of speech. as a useless and intolerable drudgery. indeed. as exhibiting the best method of teaching grammar. p. contrivers of machines. charts. It has unfortunately become fashionable to inveigh against the necessary labour of learning by heart the essential principles of grammar. The disposition of the human mind to generalize the objects of thought. has doubtless been the most successful. and seems to be an inherent principle of our nature. so that he can see at a glance what is the construction of each word. but has sought with some diligence the analogies of speech in the structure of several other languages. the memory is so improved. But it does not appear. and has not only critically considered what he has seen or heard of our vernacular tongue. 18. many words are regularly inflected even in opposition to the most common usage. And this notion. familiar lectures. and whether it is right or not. which has signally augmented and improved that faculty on which the pupil's future progress in knowledge depends. repent of the acquisition. intellectual methods. it will probably be found on examination to be the most analogous to nature. has no perplexing inconsistencies. and an acquisition cannot be lightly esteemed. Milton. tabular compendiums. are they different. by an early habit of study. of the words in any intelligible sentence. Barrow's Essays. is a good grammarian. and perhaps upon every other. productive systems. synthetic in respect to the practice. should never be cultivated at the expense of the understanding. and various new theories. vincula. by fair criticism upon others. To learn. ocular analyses. and whatever objections may have been raised against it. with the vain hope of effecting the same purpose in an easier way. And it is manifest that that which does not in some respect surpass the understanding. begins with the classification of all its words. are. With respect to difficult or unintelligible phraseology alone. It assumes the language as an object which the learner is capable of conceiving to be one whole. that which has come nearest to what is recommended above. Hence. Upon this plan. the work now furnished be thought worthy of preference. without some folly or conceit akin to madness. which. when the former is tasked with ill-devised lessons by which the latter is misled and bewildered. and to follow broad analogies in the use of words. and that. to amuse the visionary. till all the classes. and relations. at a later period. 85. then proceeds to divide further. that even in the hands of Milton. is giving countenance to modes of teaching well calculated to make superficial scholars. See Dr. that the task may be achieved during the years of childhood. become obvious and determinate: and he to whom these things are known. he trusts it will be because it deviates least from sound doctrine. The memory. can never enlighten it--can never awaken the spirit of inquiry or satisfy research. and many others have made plausible profession of the same thing since. and logical in respect to both. disposed. to understand. Of all methods of teaching grammar. some words will be learned before the ideas represented by them are fully comprehended. as is the case. 17. If. for the purpose of teaching grammar. it best supplies the means of choosing judiciously. the labour of learning them is far less than has been represented. 16. inductive exercises. therefore. the attempt was crowned with any remarkable success. 19. and the habits of application induced by such a method of studying grammar. according to specific differences and qualities. properties. When those principles are properly defined. they did not "perfectly understand!" We never study any thing of which we imagine our knowledge to be perfect. tables. It is analytic in respect to the doctrines of grammar. at the time they heard them. as to render those exercises easy and familiar. in the language of children and illiterate people. with respect to any science or art. How often have men of observation profited by the remembrance of words which. may serve to deceive the ignorant. 124 original sources of grammatical knowledge.CHAPTER IX. and exemplified. one and the same thing. diagrams. But this seems necessarily to arise from the order of nature in the development of the mental faculties. and to excite the admiration of the credulous. are of the utmost importance to the learner. while. and. Experience shows.

under the inappropriate title. as being at once a libel and a lie. and an understanding of words may be acquired without either. In a word." by means of a misnamed "RECAPITULATION. and the difference between this knowledge. that boys may imagine themselves to ascend it. into the ordinary business and language of men. to regard the title of this book. it makes nothing for this puerile method of induction. that bears any resemblance to this misnamed system of English Grammar. children could never be instructed by words at all. 125 of these things has any favourable relation to that improvement which may justly be boasted as having taken place within the memory of the present generation. or other thing. What there is in Germany or Switzerland. as well as more effectual. and in the expression.[60] and a practical lie. "English Grammar on the Productive System: a method of instruction recently adopted in Germany and Switzerland. in teaching grammar. remains to be shown. else no man could ever have made a dictionary. as older persons use them. but induction is not definition. there may be room for some amendment. Of a similar character is a certain work. to lead philosophy into the common walks of life. and that which we call an understanding of the word or thing. to expose the fallacy of what is pretended in regard to the origin of this new method. than by any other process. and pretend to lead children by philosophic induction into a knowledge of words. illustration. but no contrivance can ever relieve the pupil from the necessity of committing them thoroughly to memory. the real nature of which they do not comprehend. arrangement. Hence most people make use of many terms which they cannot very accurately explain. may be variously expressed. Definitions and explanations are doubtless highly useful. So. Some have been beguiled with the idea.[59] By the happy method of Bacon. For no child ever fully understands a word the first time he hears or sees it. as conveying a false notion of the origin of what the volume contains. "GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. is to throw down the ladder of learning. we soon attach some notion of what is meant. and it is rather by frequent repetition and use. It is a remarkable tissue of ill-laid premises and of forced illogical sequences. It commences with "the inductive process. in confirmation of this. arranged. The book is as destitute of taste. It would be prodigal of the reader's time. But. when presented to the ear or the eye. and inconsistent with the studied brevity of this work. for the most part. the former being generally as unfair as the latter are silly.) It is but just. becomes a "productive system. but. because the regular process by definitions and examples is both shorter and easier. and applied. of authority. will be cautious of renouncing the practical lessons of hoary experience. rule and praxis." which jumbles together the etymology and the syntax of the language. a libel upon the learning and good sense of Woodbridge. this whole scheme of inductive grammar is nothing else than a series of leading questions and manufactured answers. . granting the principle to be true. and the judicious teacher. that great proficiency in grammar was to be made by means of a certain fanciful method of induction. through seventy-six pages more. gives us some knowledge of it. though he will not shut his eyes to a real improvement. as of method. If this principle were strictly true. is. 41. entitled." To Prosody. it will be found of little use. that the meaning of words is commonly learned.CHAPTER IX. The chief argument of these inductive grammarians is founded on the principle. 21. It is then made still more "productive" by the appropriation of a like space to a reprint of Murray's Syntax and Exercises. just as they do of many things. in the middle of the volume! (See p." and after forty pages of such matter as is described above. The definitions and rules which constitute the doctrines of grammar. is to improve the condition of humanity." It is a work which certainly will be "productive" of no good to any body but the author and his publishers. and application of them. there are allotted six pages. four lines. 23. 20. while they are merely stilting over the low level upon which its fragments are cast. to desert the plain didactic method of definition and example. a better knowledge of grammar than the contrivers themselves seem to have possessed. But if the scheme does not communicate to those who are instructed by it. for the futile notions of a vain projector. as of originality. The first perception we have of any word. 22. The experience of all antiquity is added to our own. at the end. illustrated. that children cannot be instructed by means of any words which they do not perfectly understand. and to Orthography. to the signs of thought. including punctuation and the use of capitals. only in degree.

and. To call his work a "system" is a palpable misnomer. would throw further light upon the two fallacious schemes of teaching mentioned above. and grammar is best taught by that process which brings its doctrines most directly home to the habits as well as to the thoughts of the pupil--which the most effectually conquers inattention." a zealous coadjutor with Pestalozzi himself. and. prove at least that it is no system of writing grammatically. and is the first improved system of English grammar that has appeared before the public since the first introduction of Lindley Murray's English Grammar. The best instruction is that which ultimately gives the greatest facility and skill in practice. p. More than two hundred pretenders to such improvements. entitled. though no adept at composition. Parkhurst for many useful hints received several years since while under his instruction. and with its promulgator forgot. p. he does not inform us. with Familiar Explanations in the Lecture Style" &c. Smith. has honestly bought the rareties which he has served up. but. This is a fair-looking duodecimo volume of three hundred pages. was an accredited disciple of this boasted "productive school. bearing such a resemblance to Smith's or Kirkham's as one mass of confusion naturally bears to an other. In the language of some men. except their pretence to a common parentage." to save himself the trouble of writing a preface." produced in 1836 a rival work from the hands of a gentleman in New Hampshire." which the author has borrowed from a "valuable periodical. If every word of it be true. He is a better writer too than some who make grammars. And what similarity is there between his method of teaching and that of Roswell C. never fairly tested. so is it a method that needs only to be known. that he himself claims the copyright of all the improvements which he allows to English grammar since the appearance of Murray in 1795. He is also under obligations to Mr. as it is confessedly a method but "recently adopted.. p. The claimant of the combination says. as he says. who poached in the fields of Murray." and. 139. that the anonymous and questionable account of the "Productive System of Instruction. whether it originated with Parkhurst or with Pestalozzi. For the writer says. embraces the principles of a 'Systematic Introduction to English Grammar.--The copy right of Parkhurst's Grammar has been purchased by the writer of this. who alone is responsible for the present application of its definitions. iii. The success of Smith's Inductive and Productive Grammars. it will be seen. whose new method of education has been tried in our country. then. and a contempt for all the wisdom of books. Preface. What. that any thing analogous to his production ever had existence in either of those countries. 25. 5. to "assist [the reader] in forming an opinion of the comparative merits of the system" is not only destitute of all authority. And again: "The inductive and productive methods of instruction contain the essence of modern improvements. and a total stranger to method. iv."--Sanborn's Gram."--Gram. and the present author is indebted to Mr. This new purveyor for the public taste. (See Pref. Parkhurst for a knowledge of the manner of applying the principles involved in his peculiar method of teaching grammatical science. "This grammar professes to combine both the Inductive and Productive methods of imparting instruction.. from whose halls he emanated to "teach the offspring of a free people"--to teach them the nature of things sensible. 26.CHAPTER IX. an impossibility. "An Analytical Grammar of the English Language. but is totally irrelevant. so far as appears. and that both are worthless? 24. and. of which much has been said within a few years past"--Preface. Parkhurst's Systematic Introduction to English Grammar has passed through two editions. yet differing from both in almost every thing that looks like order in any of the three. 126 Suffice it to say. except to the whimsical name of his book. a power of . to tell what it is. and the fame perhaps of a certain "Grammar in Familiar Lectures. appear however within the time. It is a grammatical chaos. if they could be clearly stated. Parkhurst. it is insufficient to give us even the slightest reason to suppose. is "THE PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM?" and with whom did it originate? The thousands of gross blunders committed by its professors.' by John L. and yet it is set forth on purpose to convey the idea that such a system "now predominates" in the schools of both. dislikes the catering of his predecessor. an energy..) The infidel Neef. with a tacit censure upon his productions. to be immediately and forever exploded. and leaves the deepest impress of shame upon blundering ignorance. p. the character and pretensions of which. there is a vividness. nor is the grammarian of Holdgate the least positive of the claimants. In this he has the advantage. "this new system of English grammar now offered to the public. with Sanborn or with Smith. In what these modern improvements consist. embracing the Inductive and Productive Methods of Teaching.

little else than a crude and faltering jargon. the author cannot but sympathize. Yet something may be effected by means of better books. 127 expression. has probably given rise to the absurd practice of endeavouring to teach his grammar without them. 27. and leaves an impression both of words unknown and of sentiments unfelt before. 28. They are so verbose. and altogether inadequate to their purpose. and so little prospect that education will ever be generally raised to a just appreciation of that study which. Barrow. p. and a similar regret seems to have prompted the following exclamation of the Christian poet: "Sacred Interpreter of human thought. we cannot think it a light objection that these forms. to Minerva. that the pupil must be either a dull boy or utterly ignorant of grammar. When we consider how exceedingly important it is. by regular and logical forms of argument. shall never be greatly instrumental in removing it. "The colloquial barbarisms of boys. many things that frequently occur in the language. Scarcely less useful. with the sadness of the learned Sanctius."--Barrow's Essays on Education. that he had "always lamented. "should never be suffered to pass without notice and censure. there are difficulties: multiplicity perplexes choice. each pupil should go through his part promptly. or their respect for his authority. are of little use." says Dr. inconvenience attends change. 29. 88. It is certain. the end is often divorced from the means. In the whole range of school exercises. How few respect or use thee as they ought!"--COWPER. and all defects in articulation. awaken the spirit which attains to excellency of speech. because a wrong head defies both. but he who kindly or indolently accommodates himself to ignorance. that few learners. forms the mind to habits of correct thinking. if any. in general. teach thoughtlessness the true meaning of words. more defectively conducted. There is so much to be done. The publishing of them in a separate volume. and often with tears. to him who is guilty of them. from their familiarity. lay so much neglected. which penetrates even the soul of dullness. if he cannot express the facts extemporaneously in better English. Common errors are apt to conceal themselves from the common mind. conflicting theories demand examination. who tells us. grammar. raise vulgarity from its fondness for low examples. The grammatical use of language is in sweet alliance with the moral. has been published under the name. and adopted by others. in order to effect what is desirable in the management of these things. and deficient. Multa non sunt sicut multis videntur--Many things are not as they seem to many. And what withstands?--Whatever there is of ignorance or error in relation to the premises. is the practice of correcting false syntax orally. apart from this. That must indeed be an admirable book. nor does this appear to have been more ably directed towards the purposes of discipline. have ever gone through the series agreeably to his direction. and fully. and yet perhaps there is none which is. if better can be introduced. clearly. not being at all exemplified in them. so . as well as to many a weightier matter. there is none of greater importance than that of parsing. and cause grammatical exercises to be skillfully managed. which can attract levity to sober reflection. but he made the examples in the former so dull and prolix.CHAPTER IX. can ever enable the heedless and the unthinking to speak or write well. They are also very meagre as a whole. that the business of a school should proceed without loss of time."--Pref. the principles of the science are unprofitably disputed. and the appeal to reason and just authority is often frustrated. and much that belies the title. Murray evidently intended that his book of exercises should be constantly used with his grammar. irregular. in reflecting upon the state of the science at the present time. from the imitation of his manner. as to make grammar. where teachers themselves are so often lamentably deficient in them. and that for this neglect there seemed to be no adequate remedy. that the printed formularies most commonly furnished for the important exercises of parsing and correcting. The forms of parsing and correcting which this author furnishes. unknown. are either so awkwardly written or so negligently followed. and when found by the learner. correctly. But. And is it arrogant to say there is much? Alas! in regard to this. should be corrected whenever they are heard. in the oral exercises here spoken of. awkward. in the mouths of our juvenile orators. No directions. which is the foundation of all others. are also misplaced. Provincial tones and accents. one may too truly affirm. that. that while other branches of learning were excellently taught. lest they grow into established habits. in some degree. as a means of instruction. and upon the means of its improvement. more than all others. or even explained in the grammar itself. and that. either oral or written. Such men can teach. improvement requires effort.

he gives the person wrong. Exercises. are so badly written. Which should therefore be who. By the thirteenth rule of syntax. ought to be regularly and rapidly rehearsed by the pupil. It should have been--"Virtue is a common noun. "This sentence is incorrect. agreeing with its antecedent man. every thing which constitutes the difference. a necessary distinction.' Because the meaning is--vice degrades. and never who? But if which must needs be neuter. p. and nominative case. and till he can discern. And what then? Is the syntactical parsing of a noun to be precisely the same as the etymological? Never. because which is a pronoun of the neuter gender. of the second person. a relative pronoun. p. 32. according to the fifth rule of syntax. depends upon circumstances: I waive that question. the order of time should be observed. He gives the class of this noun wrong. when verbs are used that. to which it relates." And then the definitions of all these things should have followed in regular numerical order." says Murray. as may be seen by the pronoun thou. 9. p. These are the first two examples of Murray's verbal corrections. ii. Nor does the objection lie against this writer only: "Ab uno disce omnes. the definitions explaining the properties of the parts of speech. or pretending to make. for virtue addressed becomes an individual. in the singular number. not only as past. in a sentence of two lines. Vol. and. recopy-righted edition of Murray's Exercises. are content to parse many words by halves--making. to omit the gender--this being the only difference between the two forms. 18. First--from his etymological parsing: "O Virtue! how amiable thou art!" Here his form for the word Virtue is--"Virtue is a common substantive. Yet. with its construction. according to the rule which says. and all who admire and follow his work. The sentence corrected would stand thus: 'After I had visited Europe. and inserts two needless prepositions. the world is wrong in this. "is not correct.. and does not agree in gender with its antecedent man." Here his form for the word Vice is--"Vice is a common substantive. miserably deficient. in the singular number. But a pronoun should agree with its antecedent in gender. of the third person." (How far silence is prudence. feminine gender.[62] 31. 8vo. and yet often omitting. p. and yet used here to express an action.." But the reader may demand some illustrations. with the quickness of thought. 'A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a verb. to tell the properties of the noun Virtue!--But further: in etymological parsing. Secondly--from his syntactical parsing: "Vice degrades us. in point of time. and the nominative case. what alone will be true for the full description of any word in any intelligible sentence. xii. ii. p. which represents it."--Murray's Gram. and the sentence should stand thus: 'The man is prudent who speaks little. in the pluperfect tense.) The learner is here taught to say.[61] 30. The imperfect tense visited should therefore have been had visited. and to say less. Now. when the learner is told that this is the syntactical parsing of a noun. 12mo. making them different where the relation is precisely the same: and all this." This is the whole description of the word.--As for . 128 often to be repeated. But even this difference had no other origin than the compiler's carelessness in preparing his octavo book of exercises--the gender being inserted in the duodecimo. in speaking of brute animals. we commonly use which. xii. 2. Thirdly--from his "Mode of verbally correcting erroneous sentences:" Take his first example: "The man is prudent which speaks little. in both parts of the exercise. and in direct contradiction to what he says of the word in his section on gender. But Murray. he will of course conclude. and the other the etymological. Can any grammarian forget that. he repeats the definite article three times unnecessarily. on account of this omission."--Murray's Gram. and the only ones retained by Alger. but also as prior to the time of returning. in his improved. must be in the nominative case. p.'"--Gr. I returned to America. of the neuter gender. All these the author omits. of the third person.CHAPTER IX.' This sentence. and Ex. of the third person. personified proper. his whole method of etymological parsing is. male or female. not only past. 8vo. because the verb visited is in the imperfect tense. is the argumentation palpably false! In the former.'"--Murray's Octavo Gram. which is masculine. Vol. 12mo. 19. ii.. representing the action of visiting. that to advance from the etymology to the syntax of this part of speech. he gives the gender wrong. Vol. neuter gender. is now nearly obsolete. He should here have said--"Vice is a common noun. truly. and the nominative case. in each of them. ii.. is to leave the matter unfinished. &c. but prior to the time referred to by the verb returned. till all of them become perfectly familiar. relate to each other. but not because which is "of the neuter gender. singular number. Again: "'After I visited Europe. I returned to America. and nominative case: and is the subject of degrades." but because the application of that relative to persons. is merely. which should be who. singular number.

He has compressed into this volume the most essential parts of a mass of materials in comparison with which the book is still exceedingly small. the grammarian may select some gems of thought. after deliberate consideration. out of thousands that might be adduced in proof of the faultiness of the common manuals. and genius no embellishment. and the perplexities inseparable from so complicated a subject. Practice is a better pilot than theory. 36. what is. or relieve the dullness of minute instruction. tautological. It is hardly to be supposed that men unused to a teacher's duties. good English.CHAPTER IX. however. to guard against the admission or the inculcation of any principle which may have an improper tendency. the author has reluctantly introduced. Although the author has here allowed himself ampler room than before. with all the pretended improvements of revisers. And." The whole argument is therefore void. They consist of details to which taste can lend no charm. and has hoped to escape censure.[63] 33. both extensively and accurately. in some sort. 34. and be ultimately prejudicial to those whom they instruct. the time and patience of the student must have been saved. it is especially incumbent on all those who are endeavouring to confer the benefits of intellectual culture. 35. he has sufficiently explained in a preceding chapter. may approve themselves to many. The moral effect of early lessons being a point of the utmost importance. These few brief illustrations. can be qualified to compose such books as will most facilitate his labours. and the most compatible with his ultimate object--the production of a work which should show. and almost daily giving birth to new expedients as constantly to end in the same disappointment. The conjunctive adverb after makes one of the actions subsequent to the other. long and assiduously devoted to the study. he has taken them upon their own ground--showing their errors. though he has taken the liberty of a grammarian. And while. His progress in composing this work has been slow. The author has. he trusts that the greater part will be considered valuable on account of the sentiments they contain. the consciousness of failure is constantly inducing changes from one system to another. novelty is rigidly excluded. adopted those views and explanations which appeared to him the least liable to objection. but in proportion as this object has been reached. to think for himself and write in a style of his own. In criticising the critics and grammatists of the schools. not by sheltering himself under the name of a popular master. Such examples have been taken from various authors. and interspersed through the following pages. Amidst the contrarieties of opinion. From the doctrines of grammar. according to his view. and gives to the visiting all the priority that is signified by the pluperfect tense. as seasonably supplying the aid and guidance which they require. 129 the latter example. but by a diligence which should secure to his writings at least the humble merit of self-consistency. he has still been no less careful to store it with such information as he trusted would prevent the ingenious reader from wishing its compass less. Adequate compensation for this long toil. for the most part. or have followed more implicitly the dictates of that authority which gives law to language. perhaps the practical instructions of an experienced teacher. Yet. to show that even in the most popular books. the grammar of our language has never been treated with that care and ability which its importance demands. the author has been solicitous to avoid every thing that could be offensive to the most delicate and scrupulous reader. in his turn. it is right as it stands. What these are. he trusts it will be evident that few have excelled him in diligence of research. and the correction is. in drawing his illustrations from the stores of literature. In preparing this treatise for publication. which will fasten on the memory a worthy sentiment. and of the several thousands of quotations introduced for the illustration or application of the principles of the science. he has. The nature of the subject almost entirely precludes invention. and what is not." is equivalent to "When I had visited Europe. in contrast with the common principles which they themselves have taught. The effort to do this. that appear in the various treatises already before the public. has greatly multiplied his own labour and long delayed the promised publication. "After I visited Europe. and not unattended with labour and difficulty. A writer may express them with neatness and perspicuity--their importance alone can commend them to notice. The great art of meritorious authorship lies chiefly in the condensation of much valuable thought into few words. in respect to grammar. aimed at that kind and degree of originality which are to be commended in works of this sort. has never .

circumstances having since favoured this turn of his genius. A grammar should speak for itself. To most persons grammar seems a dry and difficult subject. In a work of this nature." says Cicero. 37. the more honourable. so far as it goes. with perfect accuracy. a work of this size. is for that very reason alluring. with an assiduity which no man will ever imitate for the sake of pecuniary recompense. There is no human vigilance which multiplicity may not sometimes baffle. is proportionate not merely to the utility of the achievement. in which so many little things should be observed. and made exactly to correspond. . and in which the eyes of the critical would find little to condemn. and minuteness sometimes elude. is a matter of little consequence. he has voluntarily pursued the study. is. The difficulties encountered in boyhood from the use of a miserable epitome and the deep impression of a few mortifying blunders made in public. a certificate against it. to indulge in any confident anticipations of extraordinary success: yet he will not deny that his hopes are large. by which the higher class of students might be thoroughly instructed. every word or tittle which does not recommend the performance to the understanding and taste of the skillful. remembered. being conscious of having cherished them with a liberality of feeling which cannot fear disappointment. first gave the author a fondness for grammar.CHAPTER IX. he has neither written for bread. Whether from this performance any profit shall accrue to the author or not. to make an acceptable book. He is too well versed in the history of his theme. In this temper he would invite the reader to a thorough perusal of these pages." The merit of casting up a high-way in a rugged land. Yet if some small errors shall have escaped detection. but there is a disposition of mind. "Quo difficilius. 130 been expected. hoc præclarius. too well aware of the precarious fortune of authors. nor on the credit of its proceeds built castles in the air. let it be recollected that it is almost impossible to compose and print. "The more difficult. to which what is arduous. His ambition was. but to the magnitude of the obstacles to be overcome.

" Had all the writers on English grammar been adepts in this philosophy. and therefore capable of being taught. and tempered to retain their edge and hold. is. 131 CHAPTER X. "are intended to make known the meaning of words standing for complex ideas. ideas."--Gram. to which allusion has been made. 59. and what must be left to the teaching of nature: these are the essential qualifications for him who would form good definitions. through the proper evidences of truth. undefinable notices of things--towards the very topmost height of human wisdom and knowledge. p. or things. from the simplest elements of science--which. Sense and memory must be keen. what is the best usage. so as to give to the former a just application." says Duncan. for "the first and highest philosophy" has many principles which even a child may understand. to know. of the objects of which we think. in fact. the reader. and he who knows most about it. 8vo. "Definitions. may bear in mind. there would have been much less complaint of the difficulty and uncertainty of the study. "to advance plausible objections against almost every definition. rule. I am persuaded. "Scientiam autem nusquam esse censebant. I say." says Puffendorf. it is time for some attempt at a reformation of the code. nisi in animi motionibus atque rationibus: quâ de causâ definitiones rerum probabant.. in his Elements of Logic. and arrangement of grammar. "It is easy. the reason. 4. Nor is this all. adhibebant."--CICERONIS Academica. in the first place. and which are characteristic of "the first and highest philosophy. OF GRAMMATICAL DEFINITIONS. if he please. properties. to the latter an adequate expression. whatsoever may be brought within the scope of human intellect:--to do these things. are definable. if this is true. i. And if the science of grammar has been so unskillfully treated that almost all its positions may be plausibly impugned. according to our capacity. much of the confusion and obscurity complained of in languages ." says Murray. what is requisite to the performance? To know certainly. or conceptions. and relations.[65] and were we always careful to form those ideas exactly in our minds. to ascend by sure steps. For. 9. and thus to comprehend gradually." 3. to see how that which is complex may be resolved into its elements. and proceed onward in such a manner that every new truth may help to enlighten and strengthen the understanding. as he peruses the following digest of the laws and usages of speech. The ancient saying. is far less inherent in the nature of the subject than many have supposed. are our own.CHAPTER X.[64] Objectionable definitions and rules are but evidences of the ignorance and incapacity of him who frames them. 1. 2. can best prescribe the rules which we ought to observe in the use of it. and copy our definitions from that appearance. "The first and highest philosophy. Lib. are rightly conformable to the nature. must not be taken without qualification. to observe how that which is consequent may be traced to its cause. or in the bottom of a well. "is that which delivers the most accurate and comprehensive definitions of things. and the resemblances by which they ought to be classified. to learn first principles first. Again. to discern the differences by which they may be distinguished. with reference to the cultivation of the mind. Nor let it be supposed a light matter to prescribe with certainty the principles of grammar. so far as we may. where learned doctors have so often faltered? Let the abettors of grammatical "induction" answer. to have that penetration which discerns what terms. These several suggestions. the first of which the Baron de Puffendorf thought not unworthy to introduce his great work on the Law of Nature and of Nations. and that which is regular be taught by rule. original. I would add: To observe accurately the appearances of things. and the significations of words. that truth lies hid. The language is before us. To understand things exactly as they are. as regards his. these are the elements of that accuracy and comprehensiveness of thought. in spite of any difficulties which the subject may present. de quibus disceptabatur. that our ideas. or any other work. But how can we expect children to deduce from a few particulars an accurate notion of general principles and their exceptions. and to things a just description. to learn from the custom of speech the proper connexion between words and ideas. and that which is simple may enter into combination. But. et has ad omnia.

in arithmetic?" what answer will he get? Were Goold Brown so asked. "that is it." Now. or only puzzled? Can he conceive how the number five can be a unit? or how the word five. are definable. we cannot avoid the use of many terms to which young learners may have attached no ideas. the figure 5. but is still as much at a loss for a proper answer to his question. many of which. Suppose the teacher should say. or such as stand in any known relations. Nor do our later teachers appear to have been more fortunate in this matter. has never been duly appreciated. The grand source of the disheartening difficulties encountered by boys in the study of grammar. 132 might be prevented. as far as possible. it ought to be removed. Webster is unrivalled in giving definitions. their science would never have been accounted inferior in this respect. are. that.[66] there are ten chances to one. Not so of our complex or general ideas. erroneous. and to the errors and defects of the systems in use. that in a study abounding with terms taken in a peculiar or technical sense. So is it with a vast number of the simplest things in grammar. in some respect or other. or even rehearse from memory. but complex ideas. Being little inclined or accustomed to reflection." replies the master. Simple ideas are derived. but from sensation or consciousness. but it is chiefly owing to the unskillfulness of instructors. that. p. is an expression that tells how many. which form the true meaning of generic names. has the boy been instructed. than what he will naturally get by moving towards a fire. Mathematical science has been supposed to be. not from teaching. Webster: "NUMBER--the designation of a unit in reference to other units. in arithmetic. and he who is properly qualified to teach. The nature of their multitudinous faults. when they shall have been compared with what this work will present as substitutes. A person can have no better definition of heat. The importance of giving correct definitions to philological terms. or the numeral letter V. 5. "What is a number. read. or indeed any other science. In teaching grammar. "Poor Scaliger (who well knew what a definition should be) from his own melancholy experience exclaimed--'Nihil infelicius grammatico definitore!' Nothing is more unhappy than the grammatical definer." The boy reads from Dr. that it is commonly regarded as the most dry and difficult. that which is best calculated to develop and strengthen the reasoning faculty."--Tooke's Diversions. except the passages be such as may be suitably selected for examples of false syntax. however. is first told. A majority of all the definitions and rules contained in the great multitude of English grammars which I have examined. "That is a question which I have not thought of."--P. are either left undefined. the readiest master you shall find. but should he ask his teacher. 72. or of motion. such as stand for ideas simple and . "Arithmetic is the art of computing by numbers. that had the grammarians been equally clear and logical in their instructions. is a number in arithmetic. lies in their ignorance of the meaning of words. is "the designation of a unit?" He knows that each of these is a number. 7. are seldom."--"Yes. he would simply say.CHAPTER X. and of stating with perfect accuracy whatsoever is to be learned as doctrine. and that the oral monosyllable five is the same number. in the course of this volume. and sometimes totally discouraged? 6. "A number. I must in general leave to the discernment of the reader. i. in its own nature. the plainest language that can be uttered. as if he had never seen either schoolmaster or dictionary. how much the advancement of human knowledge depends upon a right use of definitions. which constitute science. Enough. Grammar is perhaps the most comprehensive of all studies. or in reckoning. and nothing else is. in an other form. they often hear. Vol. counting."--P. 70. This cause of embarrassment is not to be shunned and left untouched. to make the foregoing allegation credible. will be exhibited. or are explained but loosely or erroneously. But are not many teachers too careless here? For instance: a boy commencing the process of calculation. Dr. they should often be greatly puzzled. and yet have no very distinct apprehension of what it means. or the notions which we have of such things as consist of various parts. in the common manuals. or common nouns. Again he says: "The writings of the mathematicians are a clear proof. but. and of the rest a more accurate judgement may perhaps be formed. if ever. will give an erroneous answer. Since what we denominate scientific terms. turn to your dictionary." for every expression that tells how many. can for the most part readily tell what should be understood by such words. But as no such definition is contained in the books." which sentence he partly understands. The proper objects of scientific instruction consist in those genuine perceptions of pure mind. I am persuaded. What marvel then. but. simple as the matter is. 238. enumerating. as speech is emphatically the discourse of reason.

and to name or describe them aright. as belonging to the former class. and these must be thoroughly impressed upon his mind. in either case. and since many of those which represent general ideas.) is work for those who are capable of great accuracy both of thought and expression. and if I define these two objects. of the common properties of all triangles or of all trees. and other geometrical figures. i. or by the study of those books in which they are rationally and clearly explained. in the proper sense of the term. the common distinction of the logicians. consists not in a mere change or explanation of the verbal sign. 11. for the increase and spread of science. which is not. "What is wisdom?" and a true answer might be. 4. And. Lib. 10. they are not copied immediately from the real essence of the things. between definitions of the name and definitions of the thing. as the only means by which he can know exactly how much and what he is to understand by our words. For a definition. "A mistaken idea never fails to occasion a mistake also in the definition. as Quintilian would have it. with . they are rather of nouns than of the other parts of speech. de quo disputetur." 9. To furnish such definitions. and. (as I have suggested. Nor will such study ever be irksome to him whose generous desire after knowledge. will be derived from any definition. But it must be understood. Literally thus: "For all instruction which from reason is undertaken concerning any thing. to those which define objects actually existing in external nature. thus the question. it is sufficiently manifest that the only process by which instruction can effectually reach the understanding of the pupil and remove the difficulties spoken of. may be made to stand for more or fewer things. as Duncan justly remarks."--"a clear and brief description of the thing. so as to admit of what may be considered a regular definition. and some other terms not called nouns. ut intelligatur quid sit id. and exclude every thing which does not come under the name: then will it perfectly serve the purpose for which it is intended. in the unity and permanence of a general nature. of making known all our complex or general ideas of things by means of definitions. Those who would qualify themselves for teaching any particular branch of knowledge. have been supposed to have some peculiar preëminence. or if equally of words and things. is it copied from any thing else than that notion which I have conceived. those things which never could be known or spoken of as the individuals of an infinite and fleeting multitude. too. Let it here be observed that scientific definitions are of things. in fact the idea of a triangle exists as substantively in the mind. is. or classes of objects. The power which we possess. These ideas are to be gained. 133 undefinable. my description will."--Off. it must with equal exactness include every thing which comes under the name. either by contemplation upon the things themselves as they are presented naturally. to tell in direct terms what they severally are. and not merely of words. a true definition.CHAPTER X. about which the speaker is arguing. be equally a definition both of the name and of the thing. but in a direct and true answer to the question." Hence. that it may be understood what the thing is. It is "the first and highest philosophy. is a faculty wisely contrived in the nature of language. debet à definitione proficisci. so noted for their certainty and completeness. Infinitives. in either case. The former term they applied to those definitions which describe the objects of pure intellection." Little advantage. however. But. the shortest and most successful way of teaching the young mind to distinguish things according to their proper differences. is that of delivering accurate definitions. "Lucida et succincta rei descriptio. should make it their first concern to acquire clear and accurate ideas of all things that ought to be embraced in their instructions. it is of vast avail to these ends. as that of a tree." instructing mankind. These are requisite for the information and direction of the learner. The mathematical definitions. if not indeed more so. but in neither. p. may be taken abstractly or substantively. that although scientific definitions are said to be of things. is thus deservedly gratified. "What is it to read?" is nearly the same as. in the hands of the skillful. according to the author's notion of classification. ought to proceed from a definition. What is such or such a thing? In respect to its extent. Hence. seems to have little or no foundation. Nor are those mere translations or explanations of words. Cicero intimates that all instruction appealing to reason ought to proceed in this manner: "Omnis enim quse à ratione suscipitur de re aliqua institutio. to think clearly and speak accurately. as well as to know definitely. 8. the latter. "What is reading?" "What is it to be wise?" is little different from. but are formed from the conceptions of the author's mind concerning that essence. without contradiction. such as triangles.

iii. &c. So wide from the mark is that notion of a letter. The two articles a and the are here inconsistent with each other. "I know well enough what the thing is. But whenever we encounter difficulties of this sort. $ for dollars. and also from the Arabic figures used for numbers. and not single elementary sounds: it would be great dullness. but "the first principle of a word" is. the understanding is no longer puzzled. or least parts. But is it true. without a blunder. or of a single element of articulation." But still the definition would not be true. and a hundred others of inferior name. in relation to many things among the very simplest elements of their science. "Why. we must sometimes content ourselves with such explications of its customary terms. and furnish him with a better choice of terms. Lowth and his copyists has made a hundred-fold more common than any other![67] . sir. the word man. and the difficulty of defining light. This was thought by the biographer to have been well and ingeniously said. and is n the first principle? "No. I think. (if in framing their definitions they have not been grossly wanting to themselves in the exercise of their own art. by this ready answer. to be dispensed with in teaching: they prepare the student to read various authors with facility. to be unable to tell accurately what a letter is? Yet to say. Johnson seemed to his biographer. or speech. or the marks peculiar to mathematicians. for it is the first letter. that we know nothing at all about it. "Letters are the first principles. p. or great indistinctness of apprehension. "A letter" is one letter. taken upon this common principle. Vol. not one or any principle taken indefinitely. "What is poetry?" he replied. that. But the reader will observe that this definition embraces no idea contained in the faulty one to which I am objecting." But n too is a letter. let him remember. Will any grammarian say. as cannot claim to be perfect definitions. None of these are alphabetic. because these are no part of any alphabet. that. of words. when he attempts to write. "Yes." is to utter what is neither good English nor true doctrine. Take. it is easier to tell what it is not. neither indeed could it. no one of which consists only of one letter. Murray. because the latter are not alphabetic. and. Churchill. it may be worth while to seek for their cause. Is m the first principle of this word? You may answer. to astronomers. it is the second.) may be charged. the reasons are as different as are the two things themselves. And in making such choice. rather than sound. 402. The former is something so various and complex that it is hard to distinguish its essence from its accidents. Johnson was asked. but what it is just as easy to tell as to think? We know it is that reflexible medium which enables us to see. too."--Boswell's Life of Johnson. as. & for and." Is a the first principle? "No. The same may be said of all the characters used for abbreviation. "We all know what light is?" Is it not rather true. which the popularity of Dr. the acuteness of his wit and discernment. the latter presents an idea so perfectly simple and unique that all men conceive of it exactly in the same way. by an illusory comparison? What analogy is there between the things which he compares? Of the difficulty of defining poetry. it is the last!" This grammatical error might have been avoided by saying. and that.CHAPTER X. poetry and light. with great ignorance. that it is "the first principle" of that word. "A letter is the first principle or least part of a word. nor would it answer the question. 134 which our dictionaries and vocabularies abound. to show. so the affectation of easy and common ones may make it unmanly. to whom no definition perhaps can ever convey an adequate notion of its use in respect to sight. With respect to grammar. while none can show wherein it essentially consists." 14. for instance. surely. and they represent significant words. to assume that a word and an elementary sound are one and the same thing. or some particular first principle. Dr. But did not the wit consist in adroitly excusing himself. What is a letter? The true answer to which is: "A letter is an alphabetic character. Equivocal as the phrase is. If a person cannot tell what a thing is. it is commonly considered to be a fair inference. that as affectation of hard words makes composition ridiculous. any letter. If we find it. that he does not know. which commonly represents some elementary sound of human articulation. 13. it must mean either some particular principle. 12. but I cannot tell?" Yet. the authors of our English grammars. For it is manifest. of a word. for the most common and familiar things are not always those which it is the most easy to define. and this is definition enough for all but the natively blind. with Lowth. that in no sense can we affirm of each of the letters of a word. This true definition sufficiently distinguishes letters from the marks used in punctuation. But not to digress. and they represent certain entire words. and they represent silence. We all know what light is: but it is not easy to tell what it is. When Dr. to druggists. taken either way. the assertion is false. For example: Is it not a disgrace to a man of letters.

we are no longer left to arbitrary explications. Alger's. by their own showing. Nor can this objection be neutralized by saying. we can. "It was this sort of definitions. which cannot be perfectly uttered without the help of a vowel. as well as of many other things equally essential to the study. overlook all written language. p. 7. 22. "A consonant is an articulate sound. Murray. Merchant's. whereas their true elements are letters. p. nothing is well written. and that a sort of echo. and nature. In utterance. whereas the latter only is the true reverse of simple. Kirkham's. But letters are no principles or parts of sounds at all. that. 11. that can be perfectly uttered by itself. or any significance to those who read in silence. and many others who have copied him. are palpably erroneous. as if none of these things had any existence on paper. a sound compounded is properly that which is made an ingredient with others. above. Bacon. 17. but does he well conceive how the three vowels in beau or view are "pronounced in like manner?" Again: "A syllable is a sound. according to these definitions. 9. either simple or compound. or imitate brute voices. if nine tenths of all the definitions in Murray's system are not faulty. "What is a triphthong?" He answers in the words of Murray. are both false. though we have ample choice of terms. Without alluding here to my own books. all into sounds. p. as being altogether true to nature. 12. Smith. Ingersoll. Weld. Russell's. they could not exist in books.CHAPTER X. by letters. 16. 7. Kirkham. "Words are articulate sounds. taken together. Fisk's. 15. and that carelessness to those various circumstances. consonants. they involve the absurdity of dividing things acknowledged to be indivisible. 8vo. p. every letter is either a vowel or a consonant. that words consist of "sounds" only. And. "A vowel is an articulate sound. For. 351. and if any definition be likely to suggest a wrong idea. that a more reasonable construction can be put upon it. In my opinion. it is a mere matter of opinion--a mere prejudice originating in rivalry. to say. or the sign to be a principle or part of the thing signified. and not letters. iew in view. and yet I am greatly mistaken. Their definitions absurdly resolve letters. They who cannot define a letter or a word. I doubt whether we have any school grammar that is much less objectionable in this respect. and has consequently no bearing upon any dialect which has not been written. whereas their very science itself took its origin. on paper. Com. These two primary definitions. It also mistakes the participle compounded for the adjective compound. that. By Murray and others. Ingersoll's. that can possibly be misunderstood. but the least parts of spoken words are syllables. vowels. this alone is enough to condemn it: nor does it justify the phraseology. and may frequently assign to particular words a meaning and an explanation which are in some degree arbitrary. I attribute this to the carelessness with which men have compiled or made up books of grammar. Adams. what is a "silent letter?" It is a silent articulate sound! Again: ask a boy. This definition resolves syllables into sounds. When a word is well understood to denote a particular object or class . and. yet whenever we attempt to define things under the name which custom has positively fixed upon them. 20." He accurately cites an entire paragraph from his grammar. or be in any wise known to the deaf and dumb. 22. hence. pronounced by a single impulse of the voice. Hence. which have left diligence in a grammarian no hope of praise or reward.. we cannot divide consonants from their vowels.. but are bound to think and to say that only which shall commend itself to the understanding of others. which made Scaliger say. Nor are they always principles or parts of words: we sometimes write what is not a word. 20. also Paragraph 5th. Pond.'"--See Johnson's Gram. that in their attempts to explain these prime elements of grammar.. then." as if a vowel were nothing but a sound. as signs of our ideas. 6. Merchant. and many others. used by common consent. Hence letters are the least parts of written language only.. syllables. no one being obliged to accuse himself. from which almost all authors have taken the notion. all the letters are articulate sounds. A compound sound is a sound composed of others which may be separated. See Lowth's Gram. which can utter itself. It is observable. than Murray's." Now. if so. as when. already described. and words."--Murray's Gram. we denote pronunciation alone. 135 According to an other erroneous definition given by these same gentlemen. their explanations of all these elements. the young learner is told. and next. Greenleaf's. may be expected to err in explaining other grammatical terms. but which may itself be simple. Every definition of a consonant implies this. unless you will either have visible marks to be sounds. Alger. Worcester. from the invention of writing. and others: "A triphthong is the union of three vowels. name. 'Nihil infelicius definitore grammatico. pronounced in like manner: as eau in beau. If words were formed of articulate sounds only."--Murray's Gram.

translation. offices. and never falter through negligence. if they are not. 20. that nine tenths of this author's definitions are bad. When we come to them. we will take a series. It is also very natural even for minds more independent and acute. be the absurdity of a particular expression what it may. I have admitted that definitions are not the only means by which a general knowledge of the import of language may be acquired. we suppose the ideas for which they stand to be already known. that not one of them is now. than by sensation or reflection. calling the participle a verb. we must fairly define it. I think it may be said. and nature reserves to herself the power of explaining the objects of our simple original perceptions. "And thus we see. can be acquired only by experience. or. in many cases. because it is easier to refer to some of the relations. beyond which we cannot trace the meaning and signification of words. it affords no proof that they were well written. many words which do not admit of a formal definition. every definition and rule which has been published on this subject. the definition of it ought to be in strict conformity to what is known of the real being and properties of the thing or things contemplated. If it did. Let us then consider in their order his definitions of the nine parts of speech. Instruction should tell things as they are. p. A definition of this kind is a proposition susceptible of proof and illustration. that. a mere change or apposition of terms may sufficiently explain our idea. than to discern wherein their essence consists. 19. If this can be shown to the satisfaction of the reader. but those by which we denote simple ideas. the definitions and rules in Murray's grammar must undoubtedly be thought the most correct that ever have been given: they have been more frequently copied than any others. to enforce attention to the proprieties of speech. nor are they the only means by which the acquisition of such knowledge may be aided. But I have ventured to suggest.CHAPTER X. will he hope to find an other English grammar in which the eye of criticism may not detect errors and deficiencies with the same ease? My object is."--Ibid. But when we would guard against the possibility of misapprehension. not to be accused of fixing only upon the worst. since their first publication in 1823. than all other English grammarians together. But those persons who take every thing upon trust. The import of all definitive and connecting particles must be learned from usage. "All words standing for complex ideas are definable. or attributes of things. when I first took up the pen as a grammarian. and this is the very purpose of all grammar. qualities. with criticisms upon them. It is often much easier to make some loose observation upon what is meant by a given word or term in science. p. often become so slavishly habituated to the peculiar phraseology of their text-books. 69. in every language. if I do not misjudge a service too humble for boasting. 63. or for the effectiveness of our English grammars. if it ever has . And not a few of them have. I have myself framed a greater number of new or improved ones. But this is no apology for the defectiveness of any definition which might be made correct. and therefore whatsoever is erroneously assumed to be the proper meaning of such a term. to regard with some reverence whatsoever was gravely impressed upon them in childhood. so the names of simple ideas may be considered as the elementary parts of language. or at least susceptible of some amendment. 136 of objects. We must therefore be content to take a part of them as a sample. or derivation. was one of the principal objects which I thought it needful to attempt. having no other entrance into the mind.. of course. Hence the necessity that all school-books should proceed from skillful hands. so as to be able to tell directly and clearly what they are. he reduces the sorts of words to that number. And. and. and the more frequent adoption of some indirect form of expression. To exhibit or point out things and tell their names. and show precisely what is meant by a word. would detain us too long. but I am constrained to say. 18. constitutes a large part of that instruction by which the meaning of words is conveyed to the young mind. been complimented to a place in other grammars than my own. however."--Duncan's Logic. The improvement of our grammatical code in this respect. may be refuted. This is in good keeping with the authorship which has been spoken of in an other chapter. For the perceptions of this latter class. in the frequent omission of all explanation. and choose both to learn and to teach mechanically. I cannot pretend to have seen.--for. are not. that as our simple ideas are the materials and foundation of knowledge. There are. than to frame a faultless definition of the thing. they can neither discover nor suspect any inaccuracy in it. and not definitions or explications. And though not one of his nine definitions now stands exactly as it did in his early editions. but. experience alone must be consulted. To exhibit here all Murray's definitions.

"--Murray's Gram. 31. expressed grammatically. Murray. in the very beginning. Felton's. Bullions. to point them out. Here we have the choice of two meanings. The article the is misemployed for a. but it is said soon after. 25.' The clause ought to have been. this is true. to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word. from. 8vo. 28 and 50. 'It is remarkable. 10. the same pronoun should be used in each. THIRD DEFINITION:--"An Adjective is a word added to a substantive. According to his own syntax. and others. And again: "It is of the nature of both the articles to determine or limit the thing spoken of. I saw. that Holland. to prevent too frequent a repetition of it. Bacon's." there is as frequent a repetition of the same word. 23. "Cæsar came. "A Substantive. I conquered. Of clauses connected like these. 11. the same relative ought. and which of these is the purpose for which articles are used. p. and. p."--Murray." What is this "vague sense?" and what is it. "the too frequent repetition. 13. that Holland. the phrase is false.. 'and which in the very beginning. this sentence of Murray's is wrong. Lowth's Gram. but to express some quality of the thing signified by the noun. FOURTH DEFINITION:--"A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. or in what respect.' 'Bring me an apple." . or of which we have any notion. Murray's. 1. in other respects indeterminate. relating to the same antecedent." because the latter commonly implies junction.CHAPTER X. nor do they always express quality. but neither of them is according to truth.. Now to point out nouns among the parts of speech. or of which we have any notion. for adjectives may be added to pronouns as well as to nouns. This is obscure. Alger's. 155. 24. does an article point out substantives? To point them out as such." should mean some particular too frequent repetition--an idea not intended here. however. when he has found out what it means. though good against a text like this. was reduced to the brink of destruction. p. their explanations imply the latter. p. according to Lowth and Murray? Their definition says the former. The term placed before would have been better than "prefixed.'"--Lowth. lost nothing. were borrowed from Priestley's Grammar. is the name of any thing which exists. 8vo. and not that which is merely instrumental. badly as they correspond. therefore. and also contains several errors. as well as location. In the following sentence. and to point out things as individuals of their class. Pond. "A or an is used in a vague sense. for an adjective is added to a noun. 102. But both the rule and the example. The word "indeterminate" is not a very easy one for a boy." His rule. that is "indeterminate?" 22. is utterly wrong in regard to many others. 3. been. for he himself suggests. "I came. the same ought to be used in them all. or Noun. 137 21.'" &c. for. to express its quality. as."--Dr. in one of a series of clauses relating to the same antecedent. 170. and others. The verb avoid is certainly very ill-chosen. the whole should be written thus: "A Pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun. He should therefore have said. to point out one single thing of the kind. "the same word" may apply to the pronoun itself as well as to the noun: in saying. and to show how far their[68] signification extends. p. are very different matters. as in saying. seems at first view to be the meaning intended. Ash's Gram. Cæsar conquered." If. p. 'Give me a book. that when two or more relative clauses refer to the same antecedent. but in either sense."--Murray. and others. or the substantive's. SECOND DEFINITION:--"A Substantive or Noun is the name of any thing that exists. It seems doubtful whether "its quality" is the adjective's quality. this rule is violated: 'It is remarkable. FIRST DEFINITION:--"An Article is a word prefixed to substantives. p.. because it implies intelligent agency. In what manner. the latter part of this definition must be retained. against which the war was undertaken. Murray. 2. But the definition is too much restricted. or to show which words are substantives. and that.'"--Murray's Gram. generally to be used in them all. in one of a series of clauses. and not very accurate in taking two for a "series" thus: "Whatever relative is used. and others. to point out one single thing of the kind. 10. and in itself not far from absurdity. The phrase. he may possibly not know to which of the four preceding nouns it ought to be referred:--"in a vague sense. and I am unable to determine which they really meant.. Cæsar saw. in other respects indeterminate."--Lowth. where the text stands thus: "Whatever relative be used. 18. not to express any quality either of the adjective or of the noun. The latter part of this sentence is needless.

9. it contains an actual solecism in the expression. how many parts of speech are there? 2." any and every adverb is a part of speech. "An. Murray. 26. then. ought to be them. 3. as such. "A Verb is a word that signifies to be. but always to the actions or qualities which the words signify. The word "quality" is wrong. p. because it is needless.. to make but one: it sometimes connects only words. and. This definition contains many errors. should be taken as a distinct part of speech. 8vo. an adjective. The "circumstances" which we express by adverbs never belong to the words. does not well express the nature or import of a passive verb. or to suffer"--Lowth. and to show the relation between them. SEVENTH DEFINITION:--"Prepositions serve to connect words with one another. with the exception of not in cannot. and "making sense" supposes it to be an active participle. to be separated from the word other. and others."--Murray.. The first word. for."--Lowth. 193. Murray. Here are more than thirty words. with Murray. by adverbs. and to show the relation between them. awkwardly and loosely strung together. 8. 5. and because it is inconsistent with the only conjunction which will make the definition true. the adverb is very rarely joined to the word to which it relates. and have its own definition.CHAPTER X. as this definition avers that they do." Were the eye not familiar with it. virtually condemns the phrase. for "its making" supposes making to be a noun. SIXTH DEFINITION:--"An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb. FIFTH DEFINITION:--"A Verb is a word which signifies to be. The word "sometimes" should be omitted. as it ought to have been.. and sometimes to another adverb. according to Murray's second rule of syntax. how every thing that is in any way acted upon. and thus practically contradict his scheme. The word "between" implies but two things. But Lowth says."--Murray." is erroneously put for The: an adverb is one adverb. and to show the relations among them. 28. not the whole class. for the phrase. This is only an observation. For the same reason. might be much better expressed in half the number. See Dr. 4. that the phrase to suffer. or an other adverb. For example: "A Conjunction is a word which connects other . there must be no small difficulty in forming one that shall be tolerable. to act." Nay. The word "joined" is not well chosen." is nonsense." Children cannot readily understand. p. and others. thus." But the latter mode of expression would not apply to prepositions considered severally. Ash's Gram. or to be acted upon. "to connect words with one an other." or suppressed before the term which follows. nor does it at all distinguish the preposition from the conjunction. 47. another would be thought as irregular as theother. partly nouns and partly verbs. "speech joined to a verb.) the article "an" ought. "An adverb is a word added to a verb. It is also objectionable in respect to construction. some of which are gross blunders. in any direct manner. because no adverb is ever added to three or four different terms at once. the pronoun it will be right. may be said to suffer. The pronoun it. qualities are expressed by adjectives. and the phrase "one another" is not applicable where there are but two. in cases like this. if. 138 25. to express some quality or circumstance respecting it. perverts the construction. by his caution to the learner against treating words in ing. "Let it be either the one or the other. The want of a comma before joined. uniformity of expression is desirable. (if custom may be thus far conformed to analogy. The phrase "by its making sense" is at least very questionable English. NOTE:--"A verb may generally be distinguished by its making sense with any of the personal pronouns. or the word to before it. for when several words occur in the same construction. It is confessedly difficult to give a perfect definition of a verb. out of two or more sentences. The participle. not a definition."--Murray's Gram. 10. The preposition "to" should either be inserted before "an adjective. we will have the participles to be verbs. and to suppose joined to relate to the noun part. 1."--or else. would prove the participle not to be included in this part of speech. Besides. "as if they were of an amphibious species."--Murray's Gram. to do. EIGHTH DEFINITION:--"A Conjunction is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences. so as. it may be objected. and others. the author himself. 7. It should be. I have said. and abide by its own construction. "to connect words with each other. and so it stands in his own early editions. though he therein contradicts an other note of his own. a participle. The note added by Murray to his definition of a verb. and if. being now understood in a more limited sense than formerly. as I have said it should be. for no adverb ever expresses any quality. I think. 6. 27. It does not reach the thing in question. and never. Against the foregoing old explanation. 28 and 114. pp. and others. an adjective. but only to the whole class. but if and be changed to or. and all that is said in them. "An adverb is a part of speech. The word "and" should be or. if not always. is not much better.

Rev. 26. and be itself a fit substitute for the principal treatises which it censures. Who. Putnam's. or the more overrated. "There is no necessary connexion between words and ideas. 17. p. whereas those which connect only sentences are four times as many."--Murray's Gram. which has been copied from grammar to grammar. 16. Maltby's. but. Interjections. Miller's. that. in written. would ever think of speaking to a noun? or. 4. so as to agree with I or we? Murray himself once taught. are not more than five. but a child taught by language like this.[69] or confirm the allegations which I have made against it. than of those "of the speaker. and it is reasonable that these should be taken from the most accredited sources. The last clause erroneously suggests. and so common has this blunder become. Vol. 2. 31. nor are they less indicative of the emotions of the writer. and ." Again: Interjections are used occasionally. for no one conjunction can connect more than two terms. all sorts of mistakes either in it or respecting it. as well as in oral discourse." Yet.CHAPTER X. 13. Of the tens of thousands who have learned for grammar a multitude of ungrammatical definitions and rules. though often enough thrown in between the parts of a discourse. i. that a noun cannot be put in the first person. in its literal sense." 30. as.. 139. H. they do not come under this narrow definition. 13. he doubtless had very good reason to distinguish. are very rarely "thrown in between the parts of a sentence. at the head of his chapter on interjections. He will understand that my design is. to compose a book which. which also contains an error in doctrine. Lyon's. T. probably it will be found. with all intentional fairness of criticism." because a conjunction is one conjunction. and. and commonly of two sentences makes but one." But verbosity and want of unity are not the worst faults of this definition. and the nouns for which they stand. as I before observed. comparatively few will ever know what I have to say of their acquisitions. 12. are the more esteemed."--"Alas! I fear for life. To the readers of the present volume it is due. and the reader may judge whether they sustain the praises which have been bestowed on the book. Two instances occur in the following sentence.. is obviously erroneous. 38. The author. p. and committed to memory millions of times. 'O Virtue! how amiable thou art!'"--Murray. I have thus exhibited. by a condensed exposition of such errors as are commonly found in other grammars. the entire series of these nine primary definitions." Errors of this kind are very common in all our English grammars. A similar error was noticed in Murray's definition of an adverb. will at once show the need we have of a better. Murray tells us. both of which contradict it in like manner: "Oh! I have alienated my friend."--Octavo Gram. Alger's Murray. and they are all of the third person when spoken of. Bacon's. every one of the ten has been commenced in this way. T. and is moreover obscure. Smith's. is not altogether true. 12. They must therefore be very closely grouped together. or rather." but the conjunctions which may connect only words. and many others. in his teaching. and of the second person when spoken to. number. of words. This definition. palpably absurd: "To substantives belong gender. as the works which furnish its proofs. number. My argument is only made so much the stronger. "A conjunction is" not "a part of speech. Grammatical errors are universally considered to be small game for critics. 7. as well as in the body of this work. 23. by some hand or other. "between the sign and the thing signified. that its averments should be clearly illustrated by particular examples. Three or more simple sentences may indeed form a compound sentence. 29. that a noun of the second person could not be spoken of? or. Ingersoll's. The words "or more" are erroneous. as they cannot be joined in a cluster. the more praised. that any or every conjunction "sometimes connects only words. NINTH DEFINITION:--"Interjections are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence. and ought to be omitted. or sort. and case. Guy's. to teach grammar practically. they must have two or more connectives. We have three others to point out. he frequently confounds these very things which he declares to be so widely different as not even to have a "necessary connexion. and a part of speech is a whole class. appends to this definition two other examples. to be worth their room in this work. whether they do honour to their framers or not. here. by rectifying. 3. in such cases. that. S. 139 terms. Though this. Merchant's. But this I cannot help. in his own definitions and explanations. 1. "Pronouns must always agree with their antecedents. that by a comparison of the definitions which different authors have given of the parts of speech. so far as I may." They more frequently occur at the beginning of a sentence than any where else. to express the passions or emotions of the speaker. and directly contradicted by the example. in gender. in that consecutive order which the sense requires.

if this sentence is obscure. On the comparison of adjectives. he is also satisfied with a very loose mode of teaching."--R. or other part of speech. has contrived to crowd into his definition of person more errors of conception and of language. goest." and he departed from a true and important principle of syntax. so that what is said is obviously and only what is intended. not only to each of these questions. by exhibiting a word in the three persons. if this is perfectly clear. "The first person is the person who speaks. being deficient in many things which are of so great importance that they should not be excluded from the very smallest epitome. We want to know the things themselves. men who have actually confounded these things. ink. For instance: "What is the meaning of the word number? Number means a sum that may be counted." Now.. called inductions. and what they are most appropriately called. but he feels the effects of it." that. For example: On the subject of the numbers. the novice is brought to the conclusion that the numbers are two--as if there were in nature but two sums that might be counted! There is no end to the sickening detail of such blunders. and of none at all when they are not needed." according to the author's intent. the other is not less so. like all its kindred and progeny. The student does not know this. What does the pronoun "they" represent? "Substantives. and still be left to confound the numbers in grammar with numbers in arithmetic. designed. in all scientific works. in grammar? What is the singular number? What is the plural number? What are persons. are as incomplete as they are inaccurate. who cannot directly and properly answer such questions as these?--"What are numbers. Smith's New Gram. or to sense. there are among the professed improvers of this system of grammar. were so many intelligent beings! As if. But Chandler. than such confusion. In grammar. in grammar? What is the nominative case? What is the possessive case? What is the objective case?"--And yet the most complete acquaintance with every sentence or word of Murray's tedious compilation. are as unlike as Socrates and moonshine! The one is a thinking being. in grammar? What is the first person? What is the second person? What is the third person? What are genders. and that the words cannot reasonably be construed into the sense which the writer. the sense of technical terms should be clearly and precisely defined. Ho speaks of the persons. of Philadelphia.) we put it first into the speaker. In treating of the genders. then it is equally clear. by a tissue of half a dozen similar absurdities. mood. We want a book which will tell us." according to the obvious construction of the words. a mere form peculiar to certain words. in proper order. and then into somebody else! Nothing can be more abhorrent to grammar. case. or the persons in grammar with persons in civil life! Nay. in grammar? What is the masculine gender? What is the feminine gender? What is the neuter gender? What are cases. is gross absurdity. the terms person. or its meaning absurd. 33. and they are all of primary importance when there is occasion to use them." and that. number. more benevolence of heart than distinctness of apprehension. then into the hearer. the other. "the third person is the person spoken of!" As if the three persons of a verb. From this. 140 person. but also to many others equally simple and elementary! A boy may learn by heart all that Murray ever published on the subject of grammar. ("the Grammar King. and case. but. How many grammars tell us. may leave the student at a loss for a proper answer. 7. C. All Murray's grammars. and many others. Nothing can be gained by substituting other names of modern invention. and paper. gender. and his copyists. But I have said that the sentence above is obscure." a work in which Murray is largely copied and strangely metamorphosed. he attempted but one definition." forsooth!) without mistaking the grammatical persons for rational souls. that what is said in the former. he gives but one formal definition. The work as a whole exhibits more industry than literary taste. 32. for these also would need definitions as much as the old. Let us try a parallel:" To scriveners belong pen. but gives neither definitions nor explanations. and. which are so totally different in their natures! In "Smith's New Grammar on the Productive System. but "gender. and that is a fourfold solecism. not excepting the two volumes octavo. p. there is an abundance of such confusion. and. are used in a technical and peculiar sense. What does he know of grammar. number. fails to give to the principles of grammar that degree of clearness of which they are easily susceptible. tense. and on the moods and tenses of verbs. The things which are identified in each of these three definitions. when he altered his rule to its present form. that. "The second person is the person spoken to. what all the elements of the science are. His section on the cases contains no regular definition. in the obscurity of his own views on the subject. (as go.CHAPTER X.--more insult to common . and in the plainest manner. and in the conscious uncertainty with which he applies those principles. goes.

but I say. 1847. which distinguish unity and plurality. Against the compilers of grammars. or a pyramid. the definition must be founded upon some property or properties common to all the particular things included under the term. that the terms person. equally faulty and equally common. configuration. though they admit of easy. mood. And this ridiculous old twaddle. what is still more surprising. namely. 35. Edition of 1821. by the prevalence of an absurd notion. even when they were aiming at the right thing. as I have before suggested. their proper force upon the mind. for. If the reader perceives in these strictures any improper bias. are all of them equally and absolutely undefinable in the singular. a wheel. can ever be framed for any one of them. and tense. p. as I have shown. my description must be taken. I urge no conclusions at which any man can hesitate. all professing to teach the art of speaking and writing with propriety: "Number is the consideration of an object. they frequently fell into gross errors of expression. moods. Ed. and. can scarcely be defined at all in the singular." [70] Yet this short sentence. cannot be jointly signified by it. But the reader will perhaps judge the foregoing to be sufficient. I have wished to be brief. persons. because number is not consideration. and these may be summed up in the following couplet of the poet Churchill: . and not by "consideration. 34. such errors have been entailed upon the very art of grammar. the word "consideration" is wrong. p. I do not say. 141 sense. the following definition from Murray's grammar. on which a definition of number may be founded? What common property have the three cases. the word "number" is wrong. or spoken of. he has deliberately re-written and lately republished as something "adapted to the schools of America. be quoted and criticised for the further proof and illustration of what I have alleged. all wheels. because it is impossible to define certain terms in the way in which the description has been commonly attempted. that no definition." 36. who accedes to my preliminary remarks upon them. to consider "an object as more" than one. and tenses. if I would define a globe. gender. after six and twenty years. just in sense and suitable for a child. or from any interest in the success of one book rather than of an other. "the consideration of an object as one. It is manifest that whenever a generic name in the singular number is to be defined. and obvious definitions in the plural. overlooked. Thus.--that an object is one object." is but idle waste of thought. and yet to give my arguments.--every child knows by intuition. or all pyramids. either as spoken to. because those modifications of language. in any sense which can be put upon the terms: condition. is impossible. which. For example. ia their technical application to grammar.--than one could have believed it possible to put together in such space. Against such prejudices as may possibly arise from the authorship of rival publications. Hence many a school-boy is daily rehearsing from his grammar-book what he might well be ashamed to have written. by which we can clearly define case? What have the three persons in common. or any other word beginning with con. Among the thousand varied attempts of grammarians to explain them so. Secondly. have. cases. Consequently."--Chandler's E. But this reason. would have done just as well. to the discredit of his ingenuity.CHAPTER X. and fail too. let both my judges and me be on our guard. but from those properties only which are common to all globes. our common grammarians. But what property has unity in common with plurality. and the neglected facts upon which they rest. I have intended to be fair. number. genders." Lastly. and the art of authorship itself. Grammarians have often failed in their definitions. case. First. so far as I know. there are a hundred gross solecisms for every tolerable definition. might. for captiousness is not criticism. is a fourfold solecism." It stands thus: "Person is a distinction which is made in a noun between its representation of its object. For this. Many other examples. not from what is peculiar to one or an other of these things. is found in perhaps a dozen other compends. in a definition of person. that modern writers on this subject can be meritorious authors without originality. as well as many other truths equally important and equally clear. Thirdly. constitution. as one or more. He who undertakes what is impossible must necessarily fail. numbers. he has a sort of discernment which it is my misfortune to lack. there is a very simple reason in the nature of the things. 21. that one thing is one. Grammar. accurate. every man of them. unless this admirable definition lead us into a misconception in so plain a case! So much for the art of "the grammatical definer. 16. could be made evident to a child? Thus all the great classes of grammatical modifications.

" 142 . forfeits all pretence To fame. "To copy beauties. is want of sense.--to copy faults.CHAPTER X.

has heretofore been made no part of the study. for I have seen a beautiful copy.. x.] . as Lily's or King Henry's Grammar. and illuminated. 14. p. Hence it is. And it may be doubted whether this was the first edition. and by the order of King Henry VIII. or become corrupted. till the whole was at length finished. and sometimes one through the medium of the other. except my Grammar at large. rather than accuracy in the use of their own. 'the first Grammar for English that ever waz.. They were translations of the Latin Accidence. professor of English literature. "has been differently related by writers. for the purpose of teaching sometimes both together. Ward's preface to Lily commences thus: "If we look back to the origin of our common Latin Grammar. De Inst. that which I have mentioned in an other chapter. has been by far the most celebrated and the most influential. Orat. minima incipiunt esse quæ prima sunt. by Thomas Dale. The attentive reader must have gathered from the foregoing chapters some idea of what the science owes to many individuals whose names are connected with it. anno 1542. 'The Grammar of King Henry the Eighth. Pref. The history of grammar. Without expressly controverting this opinion. there have been stated numerous facts properly historical. Dict. in the year 1586. in the proper sense of the term. I have imagined that many of its details might be profitable. and seeking the most appropriate terms for a free version of what is ably written. But neither of these accounts can be right. p. Lib. relating either to particular grammars. 143 CHAPTER XI. the young Shakspeare was probably indebted for some learning and much loyalty. by the promulgation of many grammatical treatises."--the reign of Henry VIII.[. in the preceding pages. In an Introductory Lecture.CHAPTER XI. 4to. 'with other works. "The time when this work was completed. 3.' But the honour of producing the first English grammar is claimed by William Bullokar. we may well assert. until eighteen or twenty years after Lily's death. Of the class of books here referrred [sic--KTH] to."--Preface to Joh. BRIEF NOTICES OF THE SCHEMES OF CERTAIN GRAMMARS. and perhaps at that time to improve. Johnson avers. p. in quarto. These various details it is hoped will be more entertaining.' being. indeed. were not properly English Grammars. Accordingly. this is the most mischievous and comprehensive innovation. The manuals by which grammar was first taught in English. A language. procedente jam opere." says the preface of 1793."--QUINTILIAN. 1. that the practice of comparing different languages. Thomas Hayne places it in the year 1543. that Dr. and Anthony Wood. nor the work of a single person. For not only must variety of knowledge have led to copiousness of expression. or literal translations. 560. without imparting something of its native idiom. The study of such works doubtless had a tendency to modify.' and to this. "The great pest of speech is frequency of translation. after its proper form is well fixed by letters. but the most cultivated minds would naturally be most apt to observe what was orderly in the use of speech. printed upon vellum. in order to give some further account of the origin and character of certain books. Cap. It was called. "Sed ut perveniri ad summa nisi ex principiis non potest: ita. one of which was esteemed of sufficient importance to be honoured with a royal name. 1. 2. or to the changes and progress of this branch of instruction. who published. or offering any justification of mere metaphrases. not only to teachers."--John Ward. that its parts were not put together in the present form. 'A Bref Grammar for English. The two languages were often combined in one book. we shall find it was no hasty performance.. the English style of those who used them. and were designed to aid British youth in acquiring a knowledge of the Latin language. But it seems proper to devote to this subject a few pages more. but composed at different times by several eminent and learned men. it is stated. read before the University of London in 1828. in 1545. I find the following statement: "In this reign. must resist all introduction of foreign idioms. is an exercise admirably calculated to familiarize and extend grammatical knowledge. to use his own words. No book was ever turned from one language into another. than those explanations which belong merely to the construction and resolution of sentences. Concerning this treatise.'" 4. but to that class of learners for whose use this work is designed. and perhaps for that reason not less useful. vii.--"the study of grammar was reduced to a system.

viz. With respect to our language. the plan of the Latin Accidence is manifestly inaccurate. suppressed the Participle. Some Greek grammarians. All this comports well enough with Dr. but it is not true. 6. the first high master of that school. by the author of the British Grammar. and Conjunction. and the nearest adherence to it. only in having no Article. by suppressing one and substituting an other. Pronoun. must be fixed upon. Adjective. with other improvements." 5. and in separating the Interjection from the class of Adverbs. undeclined." too. and the Interjection. and Interjections. it is wrong to deviate from the old groundwork. to the Greek. 10."--Anthon's Valpy. and. and sometimes the order. but. Conjunction. and an enlargement of double the quantity. The best Latin grammarians admit that the Adjective ought not to be called a Noun. Adverb. nor can it be applied." or made an other "as comprehensive and distinct as any." This is the old platform of the Latin grammarians." What was grammar fifty years ago. it was. Nouns. the Participle. that he either adopted. Paul's. it was particularly designed for the teaching of Latin.. in this case. however. which runs thus: Gulielmi Lilii Angli Rudimenta. Preposition. and a few call them adjectives. "I shall adopt the usual distribution of words into eight classes. to show the world "the order of [their] understanding. In grammar. the English grammarians are about equally divided: nearly one half include them with the verbs. an English grammar. "There are in Greek eight species of words. would not be true with respect to the English participle. Prepositions. or part of speech. not a few have thrown the whole into confusion. and substitute the Adjective. is in fact a greater innovation. by Buchanan. and because. by William Ward. separate the Adjective from the Noun. All the innovation I have made hath been to throw out the Participle.. that the Interjections ought not to be included among Adverbs. and by some others now little known. Preposition. and the best Greek grammarians. for the use of the school he had lately founded there. But our men of nine parts of speech innovated yet more: they added the Article. except for the sake of truth and improvement. because. as did the Greeks. In both. which has since been countenanced by many other writers. Pronoun. Dean of St. been literally followed in English. Verbs. Paul's Accidence is therefore probably the oldest grammar that can now be found in our language. if ever. and was dedicated by him to William Lily. without some variation. viz. regard to the method. in the year 1510. 7. Verb. Dr.CHAPTER XI. and include the Participle with the Verb: thus. is. divided the Noun into Substantive and Adjective. It is not. the Preposition. "the usual distribution of words. . without good reason. for which reason it has usually gone by the name of Paul's Accidence. as declined and undeclined. in a thing so arbitrary. Verb. as well as in all other languages that have Articles. Participle. if any number. though written in antique English. who chose to include both the article and the adjective with the noun. that. to make the Parts of Speech ten. And. Interjection. With the omission of this unimportant distinction. Priestley's haste and carelessness. they can complacently talk of "the censure so frequently and so justly awarded to unfortunate innovators. Priestley says. the Noun. p. because its distribution of the parts of speech. and. The English syntax was the work of Lily. both with. declined. The substance of it remains the same. the Adverb. 3. the Adjective. as at first."--KIRKHAM'S Gram. the Article. the Conjunction. to vary the series of parts. by adding one and dividing an other. Adjectives. Adverbs. though it has been much altered in the manner of expression. this seems to be as comprehensive and distinct as any. Adverb. however. scrupulously retained by Dilworth. rather than to increase the number of the parts of speech beyond eight. make them a distinct species. the Pronoun. a vast majority of grammarians in general. called Parts of Speech. and embracing many things which are as true of our language as of any other." His "innovation. than to make the terms ten. Pronouns."--Rudiments of English Gram. of latter time. however. With respect to Participles. The English introduction was written by the reverend and learned Dr. as more evidently a distinct part of speech.[71] I do this in compliance with the practice of most Grammarians. 18. p. I have already shown to be greater. as appears by the title in the most ancient editions. after all this. the Verb. p. the best amendment of it. by a promotion of the article and the adjective. John Colet. on this point. But it has been greatly improved since his time. Article. namely. Noun. than if. some of these have not thought it worth their while to inquire! And the reader has seen. Conjunctions. It begins thus: "In speech be these eight parts following: Noun. 144 brought into that form in which it has ever since continued. which differs from that of the Greek grammars. The old scheme of the Latin grammarians has seldom.

an adjective. among whom were Aristotle[73] and Theodectes. and nothing is gained by making the classes larger and less numerous. and verbs. when we have seen in what respects these are necessary. in such a case. Maunder. John Peirce. Emmons. a species of words which most grammarians have recognized as a distinct sort in their original classification. among whom are Bicknell. p. in our primary division. that by reducing the number of the parts of speech. 145 he had made the parts of speech ten. Quintilian. Merchant. Of the parts of speech. and a much better scholar. then the pronoun. R. and Woodworth. whether there shall be nine parts of speech or ten. Harrison's. treated only of verbs. Fuller. Churchill. was added the appellation. gives the following account: "For the ancients. Many things which we now teach and defend as grammar. But a third part of these. 1. and perhaps enough has already been stated. nouns. Beck. but. and.. This distribution is precisely that which the best French grammarians have usually adopted. It is hardly worth while to dispute. Greenleaf.' I and he are pronouns. Cobbett. and treats only of articles. "of the common grammarians.[72] 9. Hamlin. Lindley Murray. Ferd. He also has been followed by many. e. or according to his own Dictionary. D. A. a preposition. like Priestley. To overlook. the latter abstract. who lived in the first century of our era. Picket. 30. and of the rules for their construction. and perhaps. Mack. Matt. the order. has since been very extensively followed. but. Adams. what differences among words shall be at first regarded. which was adopted by Dr. Alger. Brace. C. as may be seen in Dr. to verbs in common. Guy. Dr. Bingham. coming is a participle. is merely to reserve for a subdivision. p. man and difficulty are nouns. to nouns. Sanders. David Blair. Bullions. Folker. see and walks are verbs. and especially the Stoics. Dr. as belonging to each verb. That no other sorts of words are necessary in language. and the matter in nouns. Comly. distinctions are to be made according to the differences in things. are confessedly mere modifiers of Murray's compilation. nouns. Smith. by Caleb Alexander in 1795. Adam in 1793. or subsequent explanation. except that he placed the adjective after the pronoun. Nutting. the is an article. Johnson professes to adopt the division. Chandler. the study of grammar would be rendered more easy and more profitable to the learner. in the Etymology of his Grammar. Dr. and as many more in the preceding list. Lennie. in the Rev. It should be observed that the early period of grammatical science was far remote from the days in which English grammar originated. will appear. Mennye. Hazen. adverbs. and in the grammars of Harrison. good. a conjunction. as would appear from the history of the science. Barnard. Flint. adjectives. Pond. Lowth's distribution is the same. Miller. who was Priestley's coeval. Davenport. But this. Tob. Miller. pronouns. Little by little. Our language [i. H. and the terms. to the conjunctions were added articles. the former substantive. the participle. Webber. Jaudon. according to the common grammarians. Adams. But. and many others. without inquiring whether a fitter distribution might not be found.CHAPTER XI."--Beattie's Moral Science. the Latin] does not require articles. those have done best who have deviated least from the track of him whom they professed to follow. and the simple question here is. 8. afterwards. Davis. by the philosophers of Greece and Rome. and conjunctions: as the verb is what we say. and called every one of them by what is still its right name: "In English there are ten sorts of words. the philosophers. but the connexion in conjunctions. Burn. Mandeville's reading-books. Smith. before 4to Dict. in Dr. were taught and defended two thousand years ago. adopted this number without hesitation. Russell. Cooper. Putnam. which are all found in the following short sentence. he makes no enumeration of the parts of speech. T. Bucke. wherefore they are scattered among the other ."--Gram. and the noun. Goldsbury. Devis. In all the artificial arrangements of science. that of which we say it. afterwards. Ash about 1765. S. i. E. Crombie's treatise. Beattie. the difference between a verb and a participle. Hull. Vol. Ingersoll. Coar. prepositions. to which if we add the others. alas! he walks with difficulty. and approved by Dr. increased the number: first. with.. Alden. to establish the expediency of assuming the latter number. the conjunction after the preposition. Wilson. the number will be ten. 'I now see the good man coming. thus making the parts of speech nine. Barrett. Frost. H. Allen. Some seem to have supposed. is a mere retrogression towards the rudeness of its earlier stages. they judged the power of discourse to be in verbs. by Murray the schoolmaster about 1790. Hart. And this distribution. alas! an interjection. Staniford. 10. called the participle a verb. C. Bacon. Kirkham. and. now is an adverb. Mendenhall. W. Wilcox. Every word in the language must be included in some class. Lyon.

without understanding these things. But who does not see that it is impossible to lay down rules for the construction of words. nor can it be made the basis of any regular scheme of grammatical instruction. we may add the name of Priestley. is singular. reckon nine. in person and number." yet often himself erroneous." must he not first show the learner what words are verbs? and ought he not to see in this rule a reason for not calling the participle a verb? Let the careless followers of Lowth and Priestley answer. "A verb must agree with its subject. But there are also some who divide the vocable from the appellation. unless he will follow somebody that knows them. a grammarian cannot but fall into errors." To whom he replies. But some. and see what will be his last: they cannot otherwise know to what his instructions will finally lead: Experience has already taught him the folly of many of his pretended . Either two. "I do not allow that any words change their nature in this manner. from the different ways of using them. because he meant to teach the derivation of words. has been chiefly owing to the writings of Horne Tooke. They consist of four or five different treatises. Green. and outfaces "all other Grammarians" in the passage just cited. how many parts of speech there are. §24. virtue. for his zeal "to correct popular errors. or more. from the different ways in which they are used. Vol. as a species of it.CHAPTER XI. "And so say all other Grammarians. But many have mistaken the nature of his instructions. as it is a matter of little consequence. and the latter. à diverses parties d'oraison selon que la grammaire les emploie diversement. a division which necessarily refers. His work is not a system of grammar. but there is added to the foregoing the interjection. Whether the vocable or appellation should be included with the noun or not. which are its two principal parts--is based upon a division of words into the parts of speech. Cardell. 150. of his works. or wherein lies the difference of the parts of speech. the common classification. i. make the parts only eight. Lib. yet always positive. From his own positive language. His grammars are the least judicious. on the authority of good authors. and at present the least popular. Several writers on English grammar. I imagine this ingenious author never well considered what constitutes the sameness of words.." Such looseness comported well enough with his particular purpose. without first dividing them into the classes to which such rules apply? For example: if a man means to teach."--See QUINTIL. for his inconsistency. for his boldness of innovation. and. and perhaps. who explains the minor parts of speech as mere abbreviations. sometimes to another. 68. which I do not approve."--Buffier. 13. who have included the vocable. so as to belong sometimes to one part of speech. He is remarkable for his changeableness. p. or ought to be. for his fertility in resources. with the noun. "Certains mots répondent. i. yet fond of appealing to antiquity. as wind. with needless acrimony. Dalton. He who will not grant that the same words may possibly be used as different parts of speech. yet sometimes meagre. This author. will do well to wait. Palæmon. 146 parts of speech. and sometimes to another. Orat. Tooke did not care to preserve any parts of speech at all. But Tooke confessedly contradicts. for his success as an author. p. or twenty. heaven. seem not to have determined in their own minds. The history of Dr. I leave to the decision of others. indulging a strange unsettlement of plan. But they who make the noun one and the vocable an other. The present disputation about the sorts of words. They have also added the asseveration and the attrectation. as a grammarian. god. from what he says above. that. Yet it is plain. in many instances. 37. ainsi au même temps. or appellation. Webster. and rejects. no less than that of the common grammarians. that the whole science of grammar--or at least the whole of etymology and syntax.. the same words to different sections according to the manner in which they are used."--Tooke. Cap. in our day. and not to meddle at all with their construction. bed. Those who imagine that the last opinions of so learned a man must needs be right."--M'Culloch's Gram. "That shall be as you please. yet very learned. making the former to signify any thing manifest to sight or touch. "Some words. any thing to which either or both are wanting. 12. belong sometimes to one part of speech. Webster. or nominative. in his third chapter. supposes his auditor to say. as Aristarchus. must make his parts of speech either very few or very many. and."--Diversions of Purley. This author says. 11. which for their mutual credit should never be compared: it is impossible to place any firm reliance upon the authority of a man who contradicts himself so much. Art. and Cobb. 4. I never could perceive any such fluctuation in any word whatever. yet never satisfied. "But you have not all this while informed me how many parts of speech you mean to lay down. as house. as above. Among these are Horne Tooke. de Inst.

In the essays. and less intelligible. and much censure incurred. or that he is always wrong when he contradicts a majority of the English grammarians. a considerable change of spelling iz introduced by way of experiment. I cite from the preface to this volume a specimen of the author's practice and reasoning. leaving all my readers and his to guess for themselves why he spelled "writers" with a w and "riting" without. iz an improovment. munth. There iz no alternativ. has renewed it but lately. which he then took occasion to record."--Noah Webster's Essays. we must count them ten. "During the course of ten or twelv yeers. in my apprehension. But let us return. mind. correct the defects of the old schemes. ygone. with some slight alterations adapted to the particular construction of the English language. and am convinced that the distribution of words. multiplied as it had been within two or three centuries. month. ritten within the last yeer. 16. after all his vacillation in consequence of reading Horne Tooke. is the best that can be formed. xi. much time haz been spent. in all the lights which my opportunities have afforded. and literary. in the common orthography. and probably no classification that shall be simple and at the same time philosophically correct. Webster should come at last to the same conclusion. serve only to obscure and embarrass the subject. he foolishly imagined it was still as susceptible of change and improvement as in the days of its infancy. and it would hav been a laborious task to copy the whole. p. by substituting new arrangements and new terms which are as incorrect as the old ones. and preserve their ancient order as well as their ancient names. nor simplify the subject." . moral. I hav been laboring to correct popular errors. I have shown that if we do not mean to adopt some less convenient scheme. because in one of the southern states the experiment has recently been tried again. with our author. gone. do not. but I may venture to say. rong. which my hart tells me I do not dezerv. he was wrong when he undertook to disturb the common scheme of the parts of speech. The reezon iz. breth. This liberty waz taken by the writers before the age of queen Elizabeth. can be invented. But there is the more need to record the example. which might have done him credit. my publications for theze purposes hav been numerous. Every possible reezon that could ever be offered for altering the spelling of wurds.[74] And. The man who admits that the change of hoasbonde. had he not spoiled his book by a grammatical whim about the reformation of orthography. if for the sake of any future schemer who may chance to adopt a similar conceit." * * * "The reeder wil observ that the orthography of the volum iz not uniform. I do not say that he has not exhibited ingenuity as well as learning. all that I have seen. must acknowlege also the riting of helth. On the other hand. he published an octavo volume of more than four hundred pages. for the sake of changing the spelling. and to assist my yung brethren in the road to truth and virtue. 147 improvements. He was not very far from it in 1828. political. historical. I have attentively viewed these subjects. I copy literally. but such schemes as I have seen. tung. that many of the essays hav been published before. The ingenious attorney had the good sense quickly to abandon this project. Let the reader pardon the length of this digression. mynde. which was seven years after the appearance of his first grammar. moneth into husband. 14. to be an improovment. it wil proov that we are less under the influence of reezon than our ancestors. had acquired a stability in some degree corresponding to its growth. as may be shown by his own testimony.CHAPTER XI. most generally received. as well as when he resolved to spell all words exactly as they are pronounced. else he had never stood as he now does. it would not be strange if Dr. I will give his own words on the point: "There is great difficulty in devising a correct classification of the several sorts of words. Preface. to the question of the parts of speech. and if a gradual reform should not be made in our language. and it is said there are yet remaining some converts to this notion of improvement. There are some words that do not strictly fall under any description of any class yet devised. and it is probable his last opinions of English grammar will be most conformable to that just authority with which he has ever been tampering. stil exists in full force. In 1790. and content himself with less glaring innovations. 15. in the estimation of the public. which I do not regret. consisting of Essays. It is not commonly known with how rash a hand this celebrated author has sometimes touched the most settled usages of our language. and to this we are indeted for the preference of modern spelling over that of Gower and Chaucer. Many attempts have been made and are still making to remedy this evil. A still abler member of the same profession. Not perceiving that English literature.

or preface. the other five to the latter. too. 6. judging from this sixth edition. nouns. Modifiers. Connectives or conjunctions. 6. made them six. but not faultless. after a profitable experiment of four and twenty years. Nor is the last exempted. first. 4. The adverb. with their participles. The exclamation or interjection. for such things are of no uncommon occurrence. Connectives." so that he here condemns them all collectively. 7. pronouns. I cannot but concur with him in the opinion. p. 19. and on the same principles as [those on which] Murray has constructed his. which he says "was extensively used in the schools of this country. 5. conjunctions. This writer. 21. 20. thus: "1. Attributes or adjectives. The name or noun. Verbs. at length assigns them to the same class. which a skillful teacher will notice in a work of this kind. 4. 2. and established usages." This work. 5. thus: "1." In his "Improved Grammar of the English Language." and continued to be in demand. 1st Ed. who has been thereby prompted to meddle with the common scheme of grammar. in a small grammar which he dedicated to Horne Tooke." the first two belonging to the former class. In the sixth edition of his "Plain and Comprehensive Grammar. throwing them out of his classification. 1.. "to unfold the true principles of the language. He would have them to be. John Dalton of Manchester.. because. an etymologist perhaps equally learned. verbs. Prepositions. for a lucid order is what he has a right to expect from him who pretends to improve upon all the English grammarians. 2. therefore." the parts of speech are reckoned "six. adverbs. 18."--Advertisement in Webster's Quarto Dict." a work which his last grammatical preface affirms to have been originally fashioned "on the model of Lowth's.CHAPTER XI. or attributive. pronouns. for. Modifiers or adverbs. 148 17. but the usual names are preferred. The pronoun or substitute. articles. 4. then into "seven species or parts of speech. and prepositions. The verb. grounded on the true principles and idioms of the language. Substitutes or pronouns. what it is. a twofold division of words is adopted. Now. in one of his notes. 3. he found it so far from being grounded on "true principles. none of his last three grammars ever came to a second edition. and there is a great want of method in what was meant for the body of the work. Verbs. and leaving the learner to go almost through his book in ignorance of their rank. a book which professes to teach "the only legitimate principles. 6." and in contriving these alterations he is inconsistent with his own professions. Names or nouns. than for teachers to reject the common classification of words. printed in 1800. The adjective." of the language. he will be sure it is bad. what can be more idle. were doubtless all of them among those which he had that he had "seen. Priestley. Now the several schemes which bear his own name. primary and secondary. and abbreviations or particles. in 1801. nouns. Dr. a bad scheme is necessarily attended with inconveniences for which no merit in the execution can possibly compensate." that the whole scheme then appeared to him incorrigibly bad. and puzzle the . verbs. and some others. in his "Introduction to an Analytical Dictionary of the English Language. he voluntarily suppressed. 8." published in 1831. For although he here plainly gives his vote for that common scheme which he first condemned. to the Grammar which accompanies the author's edition of his great quarto Dictionary. insists on it that the articles are adjectives. and I cannot otherwise account for the assertion that this book was compiled "on the model of Lowth's. The first thing. The connective or conjunction. If he find any difficulty in discovering. published in 1807. How many different schemes of classification this author invented. published in 1811. 7. 2. And. In a treatise on grammar. He makes the parts of speech eight. 7. he does not adopt it without "some slight alterations. dictionaries. 5. so far as appears. Substitutes. is the arrangement." In his Rudiments of English Grammar. And so has Dr. from which he thinks it strange that they were ever separated! See Booth's Introd. This passage is taken from the advertisement. More than one half of the volume is a loose Appendix composed chiefly of notes taken from Lowth and Priestley. the only one which I have seen. but he might well have saved himself the trouble of inventing any. 3. like Brightland. adjectives. I know not." In his Philosophical and Practical Grammar. nor is he the only one who has attempted to simplify the subject by reducing the parts of speech to six. Attributes. but not the same six. Tooke." his parts of speech were seven. 3. attribute. as he had previously condemned some of them at each reformation." declares them to be of the same species as the pronouns. Names or nouns. But David Booth. Webster fixed them in his late valuable. Webster is not the only reader of the EPEA PTEROENTA. Prepositions. The preposition. I imagine his several editions must have been different grammars with the same title. the same scheme is retained. "viz. at sight. Fisher. into two general classes.

It must either denote an exertion. Quentin. made them two. To them. Particles. in his Hartford Grammar. Cap. Dict. 2. adnouns. the connective. or it must express an assemblage of qualities. and. a word is simply a word. till he had destroyed seven of them. He says this. and the reader may judge whether the author does not ultimately arrive at the conclusion to which the foregoing series is conducted. more recently. "The unerring plan of nature has established three classes of perceptions. viz. definitives." with Harris. qualities. and these three. on this supposition. tres." with Brightland. Plato. "1. with three others subordinate. Nouns." I am unable to say: he does not appear to have derived it from the ancients. and connectives. 3. nouns and verbs. according to Harris. Nor is this number. Verbs. found an advocate also in the author of the popular little story of Jack Halyard."--P." with Fisher. each of these contrives to differ from all the rest! With Aristotle. in his Essay on Language. three principal. the discovery is only to be proved. Lib. nouns appellative.. and conjunctions. as if he meant to abide by it. whose classes. And if we depart from the common scheme. or a noun. is no concern of theirs. adjectives. But authority may be found for reducing the number of the parts of speech yet lower. and the author of a work on Universal Grammar. "names. an adjective. and particles." with Milnes. he refers the number of classes to nature. 22. made them three. i. nouns proper. in his New-York Grammar. the word. and the schemes of all other grammarians. in naming the four. entitled Enclytica. according to Priscian and Harris. and Arabians. 5. Fisher. to Analyt. and verbs. p. Others have made them four. and conjunctions. and particles. M'Culloch. "substantives. three only--nouns. 21." But why make the classes so numerous as four? Many of the ancients. 1. modes. verbs. as did the latter stoics. affirmations. which Crombie. and is capable of raising an idea in the mind. reckons seven parts of speech. Nomen. are the only parts essentially necessary for the communication of our thoughts. divides words into the "three general classes" last mentioned. Verbum. six. Now. or a quality. each [word] has a meaning. and is. as did Aristotle and the elder stoics. or Nouns. "nouns.. classes faciebant. 149 heads of school-boys with speculations like these? It is easy to admit all that etymology can show to be true. Particula seu Dictio. in his Philadelphia Grammar. D. in that case. Qualities. and particles. published in 1812. verbs. thus: "If. and the first inquirers into language. Those who know nothing about grammar."--Voss. Greeks. qualities. verbs. and still justify the old arrangement of the elements of grammar. and consequently three parts of speech. ancient or modern. Yet. in his Rudiments of General Grammar. Booth. they are. were these: articles.. and finding what he supposed to be the true origin of all the words in some of the classes. This notion of the parts of speech. three. who published the second edition of his etymological work in 1814. attributives. and some others. Brightland. must give place to it. and particles. Ware. resolving that each word ought to be classed according to the meaning which its etymology fixes upon it." with Ware. verbs. and is. and is therefore a verb. according to Horne Tooke. "Veteres Arabes. This writer. examining severally the ten parts of speech. as the reader will presently see. "the name. Cardell. 171. "names.CHAPTER XI. though most of these come at it in an other way. verbs. "names. and connectives. Whether the writer borrowed it from Booth. regard all words as of one class. that idea must have its prototype in nature. Adjectives. according to Vossius. and we have an admirable illustration of it in the several grammatical works of William S. For the reader will observe that this triad of parts is not that which is mentioned by Vossius and Quintilian. the name of such object. 2. 3. tends every attempt to simplify grammar by suppressing any of the ten parts of speech."--Introd. and Actions. Harris. were nouns. and Verbs. according to Quintilian. articles." with the author of Enclytica. such as is observed to belong to some individual object. where shall we stop? Some have taught that the parts of speech are only five. verbs. quite destitute of modern supporters. and have found that the whole may be classed under the three heads of Names."--P. was led to throw one into an other. then. Dalton. Hebrews. or was led into it by the light of "nature. Then. 22. Milnes. the assistant. and under what other name it may come. I shall mention them in the order in which they appeared. We see by what steps this kind of reasoning may descend. It appears in his Philosophic Grammar published in Philadelphia in 1827. . non amplius. * * * We have thus given an account of the different divisions of words. if either he or the lexicographer has discovered in "nature" a prototype for this scheme of grammar. Nothing is gained by it. "nouns. l. St. say. 23. Towards this point. Here he alleges. and it is a departure from the best authority. Hebræi. de Anal. et Græci.

and so did Brightland. are nouns. for Dr."--The Friend. The certificates given in commendation of this "set of opinions. 105 and 116. 7. Sanctius. He make the pronouns. in Latin. for here is proof that the former "had highly respectable authority for almost every thing he has advanced!"--See The Friend. and Wallis. (in his Hermes. He makes the imperative mood always future. p. Vol. no pronouns. He calls case. no prepositions. Webster says. He reduces the whole of our syntax to about thirty lines. He says our language has no cases. and parried in vain. in making up his books. p. "All other terms are but derivative forms and new applications of nouns. no conjunctions. showed full well that the signers knew little of the history of grammar. 3. in a marginal note to the preface of his Philosophical Grammar. therefore. but said there are no moods in English. are taken. He calls the participles. He reduces the moods to three. in the very same words. And. he affirms. When Cardell's system appeared. in 1751. and called them all active. for. "ever overthrew a literary idol. and so did Harris. 4.) though he admitted the expediency of the common division. and others. more wisely. 2. on the twenty-first page of the book. "He had adopted a set of opinions. Fisher also made the tenses three. and so did Tooke. in his zeal for reformation. which. And this reduces his three parts of speech to two. Dalton. in each of his schemes. and left to our author the absurdity of contending about it.CHAPTER XI. would be speedily "perfected and generally embraced. He classes the articles with adjectives. no participles. 25. 59. for the information of those who are so liable to be deceived by exploded errors republished as novelties. Tooke. either nouns or adjectives. was afterwards. 489. in spite of "the unerring plan of nature!" But even this number is more than he well believed in. "No one.] is right--and the man is no less stupid than abusive. we are told. 11. several respectable men. Vol. He rejects the interjections." A reviewer proved. and many may have supposed there is more novelty in them than there really is. adjectives. both privately and publicly. not even one single supine. 24." admitted that he had made "many things in the established doctrines of the expounders of language appear sufficiently ridiculous. convinced by "his powerful demonstrations. p. position. [about 1706. trusting that his admirable scheme of English grammar. and so did Harris. and it is the continual repetition of such things. thus: "Our author pretends to have drawn principally from his own resources. For instance: 1. and so did Valla. The reader may now be curious to know what these doctrines were. who published a Grammar of the English Language. "In the grammar which shall be the work of my pupils. in the reign of Charles II. those doctrines which time and custom have sanctioned. and so did Brightland and Tooke. 13. 26." Now. 10. without provoking the anger of its worshipers. He distributes the conjunctions among the other parts of speech. omitted it altogether. a hundred years ago. 9. no interjections. It follows. ix."--Philological Museum. ii. 12. Fisher. that candid opposition which Cardell himself had treated with respect. who finds fault. He makes the possessive case an adjective." [75] and willingly lent him the influence of their names. by some of his converts. that. no adverbs. that all his adjectives. including what others call participles." though they had no extensive effect on the public. and so did Brightland. I opposed them in his presence. Vol. there are no participles: he makes them all adjectives. Chap.] from which . "Since the days of Wallis. pp. that all his pretended novelties are to be found in certain grammars now forgotten. in which their ignorance saw nothing but new truth. i. for Brightland. and Webster. defending against him. and Tooke. 6. 8. But their explanations are both good for nothing. 5. Unmercifully shall they be banished from it. carries the anticlimax fairly off the brink. and even accused of wanting common sense. Dr. and so did Dalton. to most of his readers. Johnson expressed it quite as fully in ten. appeared entirely new. except one. and so did Adam." So simple a thing is this method of grammar! But Neef. He reduces the adjectives to two classes. on his twenty-third page. "Every adjective is either a noun or a participle. He declares all verbs to be active. what is remarkable. and declares. The former replies.[. or seldom read. that induces me now to dwell upon its history.] ascribed it to some of his predecessors. no gerunds. from which all the quotations in this paragraph. impeached of all unfairness. They were summed up by the reviewer. ii. there shall be found no nouns. Then he [Cardell. A eulogist says of Cardell. 60. defining and describing. Book i."--Neef's Method of Education. and so did James Brown. no verbs. and so did Dalton. and the tenses to three. and so did Harris. no articles. not unsuccessfully. Nor did the doctrine originate with him. and two thirds of these are useless." says Niebuhr. Dalton." [76] Being invited by the author to a discussion of his principles. Fisher also rejected the class of neuter verbs. by his own showing. 150 But.

the preceptor of Sir Isaac Newton. not having mounted to the original sources of information. labour. are mentioned other works of his. in other words. we have yet urgent need."--a work of great labour and merit. "the Grounding of a Young Scholar in the Latin Tongue. Murray. obscurities. Little and much are but relative terms."--which is also an able treatise. This work is spoken of and quoted by some of the early English grammarians. King Henry's edict in support of Lily. seeing the need there was of greater attention to their vernacular language. but whoever considers what remains to be done. who died in 1684." In an advertisement to the grammar prefixed to his quarto American Dictionary. Near the beginning of the last century. because it explains the English in Latin. and professing only to select and arrange the rules and criticisms of preceding writers. is sufficiently evident." [77] Some further notice will now be taken of that progress. if he has a good knowledge of Latin--and without such knowledge he must be ill prepared for his task. extends the censure as follows: "It is not the English language only whose history and principles are yet to be illustrated. on "Rhetorick. before their elements and true construction can be fully understood. being an Apparatus to a New National Grammar: by way of animadversion upon the falsities. as well as of his Improved Grammar. but the grammars and dictionaries of all other languages. His book was not calculated to supply the place of the common one. an other. and praised. Lowth supplied some valuable criticisms. the language would have been spoken and written with more purity than it has been and now is. I am convinced the dictionaries and grammars which have been used in our seminaries of learning for the last forty or fifty years. a teacher and grammarian of extraordinary learning." In the latter. in my opinion. "with the single remark. was yet in force.CHAPTER XI. yet when we look back to the period in which English grammar was taught only in Latin. In 1706. "That the grammar of our language has made considerable progress since the days of Swift. for the author thought it impracticable to make a new grammar. and Logick" which I have not seen. who wrote a petty treatise on the subject. Richard Johnson published an octavo volume of more than four hundred pages. backed by all the partiality which long habit creates. with which I have any acquaintance. and learning. Priestley furnished a number of new and useful observations on the peculiar phrases of the English language. and soon forgot. and they have had an ill effect. entitled. and the reading of good authors. and Johnson's learning." 27. "Grammatical Commentaries. To which may be added some good remarks of Blair and Campbell. has furnished little or nothing new. interspersed with many errors. had the people of England and of these States been left to learn the pronunciation and construction of their vernacular language solely by tradition. are so incorrect and imperfect that they have introduced or sanctioned more errors than they have amended." says he. and of a grammar more properly English than . little improvement has been made in English grammar. redundancies and defects of Lily's System now in use. suitable for boys. it seems extravagant to say. but especially of such as have not been previously mentioned in a like connexion." And the concluding sentence of this work. and at the same time to embrace in it proofs sufficient to remove the prejudices of teachers in favour of the old. were admired. Of the numerous compilations of inferior character. most of which however respect obsolete phrases. but the hopes of the writer do not appear to have been realized. that from all the observations I have been able to make. The English grammarian may also peruse it with advantage. 28. Among these may be noticed William Walker. that "little improvement has been made" in it since. by those who have learned to adjust their language by the rules which dictionaries prescribe. some of the generous wits of the reign of Queen Anne." This is a work of great acuteness. He has left us sundry monuments of his taste and critical skill: one is his "Treatise of English Particles. 151 Johnson and Lowth borrowed most of their rules. cannot but perceive how ridiculous are many of the boasts and felicitations which we have heard on that topic. the Doctor is yet more severe upon books of this sort. and labour. it may be affirmed. "I close. I have elsewhere expressed a more qualified sentiment. in perverting the true idioms of our language. that they have added nothing to the stock of grammatical knowledge. 29. but useless to most people now-a-days. published in 1831. his "Art of Teaching Improv'd. and apparently well adapted to its object. and zeal. and of the writers who have been commonly considered the chief promoters of it. must be revised and corrected. but many of his criticisms are extremely erroneous. and might be of signal use to any one who should undertake to prepare a new or improved Latin grammar: of which.

My copy is of the seventh edition. But these two authors. To lexicography. he referred to Harris. "but. It is evidently the work of very skillful hands. grammar is necessary. His object was. to compile a dictionary. 32. that "in many instances it offended against every part of grammar. Dr. produced a book with which the later writers on the same subjects. Dr." which. to whom much praise has been justly ascribed for the encouragement which he gave to this neglected study. Priestley speaks of Johnson thus: . supply no sufficient course of English grammar. Lowth says. "that the English language.. and energetick without rules: wherever I turned my view. Dr. p. I applied myself to the perusal of our writers. and who was very nearly coetaneous with both Harris and Lowth. but "A Philosophical Inquiry concerning Universal Grammar. in all its apparent breadth. Ash. giving the Grounds and Reasons of Grammar in General." Lowth's Grammar was first published in 1758. or the Tattler. At the commencement of his preface. London. as the latter intended they should be. it is merely incidental. 30. Preface." says the latter. It is a duodecimo volume of three hundred pages. Johnson had done it. he says. But it is not given to any one man to do every thing. accumulated in time the materials of a dictionary. Johnson. Again: "Having therefore no assistance but from general grammar. Published by JOHN BRIGHTLAND. The treatises of the learned doctors Harris. and refinement. and perhaps the writers of the Tattler were the men. speaks of the state of English grammar in the following terms: "I found our speech copious without order. if their works be taken together. 1746. ventures to add. does not appear. "Does he mean. and Webster. with the Arts of Logick. whose work is not an English grammar. would have done well to have made themselves better acquainted."--Preface to Gram. x. of our language. the reverend author."--Preface to Dict. and written with great elegance both of style and method. it is "the most beautiful and perfect example of analysis. a work of no inconsiderable merit and originality. under the fictitious name of Isaac Bickerstaff. Yet the learned Doctor. Illustrated with useful Notes. and pressed it home upon the polite and the learned. Hence it does not appear to have been very extensively adopted. polish. 152 any then in use. whatever other improvements it may have received. that has been exhibited since the days of Aristotle. by Nahum Tate." I do not quote this assertion to affirm it literally true."--Ibid. Lowth. which the language had received during the preceding two hundred years. full of interesting speculations. rather than to compose a grammar. since Dr. Priestley. It is entitled "A Grammar of the English Tongue. It unwisely reduces the parts of speech to four. as to the literary reputation of the writers. but there is less reason to boast of the correctness even now attained." [79] Fifty years afterward. often offends against every part of grammar? Thus far. Lowth seconded this complaint. and rejects more of the old system than the schools could be made willing to give up. It is now about a hundred and thirty years. Rhetorick. and confusion to be regulated. gives them new names. 31. but. as a purpose. in a public remonstrance addressed to the Earl of Oxford. &c.) Dr. and written in a style which. though not faultless. and alleged in particular. and in a poem of forty-three lines. as a preparation. else. 1. The instructions of the one are too limited. Crombie. and as it stands in the writings of the most approved authors. iv. after acknowledging the enlargement. The Whole making a Compleat System of an English Education. as it is spoken by the politest part of the nation. for the Use of the Schools of Great Britain and Ireland. complained of the imperfect state of our language. Nor have the ablest authors always produced the best compends for the literary instruction of youth.CHAPTER XI. is indeed a work of much ingenuity and learning. poet laureate to her Majesty. in comparison with our common grammars. owe their celebrity not so much to their intrinsic fitness for school instruction. and those of the other are not specially directed to the subject. Coote."--Lowth's Grammar. attempted nothing more than "A Short Introduction to English Grammar. (which. it hath made no advances in grammatical accuracy. has scarcely been surpassed by any English grammarian since. Of Harris's Hermes. Esq.. "was calculated for the learner even of the lowest class:" and those who would enter more deeply into the subject. Poetry.. and noting whatever might be of use to ascertain or illustrate any word or phrase. p. than to believe that the writers on grammar are not the authors who have in general come nearest to it in practice. yet is it not in all respects well planned or well executed. I am afraid the charge is true. there was perplexity to be disentangled. It seems to be the work of more than one. who was practically one of the greatest grammarians that ever lived." It is ingeniously recommended in a certificate by Sir Richard Steele. Horne Tooke. printed for Henry Lintot. Swift. Johnson. p. I quote it as Brightland's:[78] who were the real authors.

makes it by so much the more hurtful. are in all respects (except the bulk of the latter[81]) most truly contemptible performances. to do something for its improvement. or the Diversions of Purley. "EPEA PTEROENTA. entitled. Vol. we may hope to see a complete grammar of it. and when. who has not reached perfection in a science like this. 35. and that a man may well deserve comparative praise. Johnson's English Grammar is all comprised in fourteen pages. and yet is in truth one of the most idle performances ever offered to the public. the ease of which consists in nothing but its brevity. would he able to comprehend one sentence of it. however. and it would be no difficult matter so to translate any one of the plainest and most popular numbers of the Spectator into the language of this dictionary. and contented himself with publishing a few brief "Rudiments. and that share of merit which it possesses. and as extensive an idea of English grammar. though well read in his own language." is a meagre performance." This work explains. The great work of the learned etymologist John Horne Tooke. that though the least valuable. In such a case. But as it contains nothing respecting the construction of the language."--Tooke's Diversions of Purley. that no mere Englishman. and (being a publication of a set of booksellers) owing its success to that very circumstance which alone must make it impossible that it should deserve success. both Ash and Priestley expressly claim priority to Lowth. the origin and primitive import of many of the most common yet most obscure English words. 153 "I must not conclude this preface. will give a little attention to the subject. and Ben Jonson had better done. and the varieties with which it is used. is."--Priestley's Grammar. and the best thing we can do for this purpose at present. I rejoice. for the use of those who have made some proficiency in the language. yet I cannot conceive that the following judgement of his works was penned without some bias of prejudice: "Johnson's merit ought not to be denied to him. i. but. they have both been regarded as later authors. and come into general use. he found it the most profitable: for I could never read his preface without shedding a tear." He says. but his dictionary is the most imperfect and faulty. 34. the language shall be written with sufficient uniformity. Perhaps this very useful work may still be reserved for his distinguished abilities in this way. and those which are most agreeable to the analogy of the language. Nearly one third of this dictionary is as much the language of the Hottentots as of the English. Ash's "Grammatical Institutes. for that reason. And yet it must be confessed. It is pity he had not formed as just. 182. and the least valuable of any[80] of his productions. Priestley. that his grammar and history and dictionary of what he calls the English language. or Easy Introduction to Dr. as (he says) Wallis did. and of course it is very deficient. "With respect to our own language.CHAPTER XI. In point of time. than . without making my acknowledgements to Mr. Johnson himself committed many errors. for their first editions. At present. whose admirable dictionary has been of the greatest use to me in the study of our language. When these are once distinctly pointed out. if all persons who are qualified to make remarks upon it. the best forms of speech. The common grammarians were less confuted by him. Preface. 33." with a loose appendix consisting of "Notes and Observations. but the former having allowed his work to be afterwards entitled an Introduction to Lowth's. and a reproach to the learning and industry of a nation which could receive them with the slightest approbation. p. and is. will soon recommend themselves. and generally attended to. he condescends to bestow upon it ten short lines. Dr. by this means. to exhibit its actual structure. and also to Lowth. a few years might be sufficient to complete it. The syntax he seems inclined entirely to omit. Lowth's English Grammar. who in the preface to his third edition acknowledges his obligations to Johnson. it is by no means ripe for such a work. p. and the latter having acknowledged some improvements in his from the same source. that the best grammarians have left much to be done by him who may choose to labour for the further improvement of English grammar."--Priestley's Grammar. xv. Johnson.[82] but we may approximate to it very fast. It appears to be a work of labour. compiled by an author who possessed not one single requisite for the undertaking. consists of two octavo volumes. My point here is. it is a great error to suppose that the common principles of practical grammar ought to give place to such instructions. Dr. xxiii. and embraces no proper system of grammatical doctrines. there seems to be a kind of claim upon all who make use of it. a valuable performance. or even be modelled according to what the author proves to be true in respect to the origin of particular words. some of which I shall hereafter expose. Preface. thought it premature to attempt an English grammar. Dr. with admirable sagacity. for form's sake. p.

Lennie. 83. are the writer of the British Grammar. but he treated the subject only in critical disquisitions. Bicknell. There are also many works not called grammars. but they descend less to verbal criticism. there will be found a remedy for this complaint. and thus to qualify himself to judge the better of any new grammar. and published in two octavo volumes in 1810. which are perhaps better entitled to notice. This work was left unfinished by its lamented author. Dr. Whoever is curious to examine at large what has been published on this subject. Blair is fluent and easy. Mennye. let the candid and discerning. but he furnishes not a little false syntax. it is however of little use to the mere English scholar. 154 many of his readers have imagined. Priestley. who acquired great celebrity as a teacher."--Barrow's Essays. that all the grammars used in our different schools. and some obscurities have been cleared. The works of Crombie and Coote are more properly essays or dissertations. how much. Murray derived sundry principles from the writings of each. in what I have been enabled to do. from which our copyists have taken large portions of their compilations. Guy. Alexander Murray. was written. though he may not conclude. the "History of European Languages. than do most other works of a similar title. and with what merit. 37. judge. with Dr. in the opinion that among all the treatises heretofore produced no such grammar is found. Grant. that not even a general idea of the comparative merits or defects of each can here be given. confined themselves chiefly to orthography and pronunciation. must be referred to the decision of others. poet. and not in any distinct elementary work adapted to general use. To attempt any thing like a review or comparative estimate of these. and logician. Like Tooke's volumes. and still others would be excluded. Lindley Murray. the latter is by far the more accurate writer. 36. Of mere modifiers and abridgers. 38. are such as do credit even to that great man. It is certain that we have hitherto had. as are their schemes of Grammar from the plan of his critical "Diversions." In this connexion may be mentioned an other work of similar size and purpose. acquired in spite of wants and difficulties as great as diligence ever surmounted. no complete grammar. some mistakes have been rectified. delivered at Harvard University by John Quincy Adams. Some of the most respectable authors or compilers of more general systems of English grammar for the use of schools. and it ought not to be forgotten that his purpose was as different from theirs. It can be read to advantage only by those who are acquainted with several other languages. public as well as private. p. I have been willing to stake some labour. Alexander Murray the schoolmaster. I have examined with some diligence all that I have had opportunity to obtain." by that astonishing linguist the late Dr. The need of such a work I suppose to be at this time in no small degree felt. Whoever takes an accurate and comprehensive view of the history and present state of this branch of learning. Whether. The number of English grammars has now become so very great. William Ward. Penning. five of whom are Beattie. when they shall have examined for themselves. however. W. of our language. than elementary systems of grammar. but have heard of several which I have never yet seen. several years later than Murray's. and the merit or fame so little. I think. Barrow. may easily make a collection of one or two hundred bearing different names. The Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory. Beattie. Walker. being lexicographers. Blair. especially by those who conduct our higher institutions of learning. Allen. was Lindley Murray "principally indebted for his materials. was well skilled in grammar. "Some superfluities have been expunged. Fisher. can scarcely forbear to coincide with Dr." Thus far of the famous contributors to English grammar. Of the two. but the English Grammar prepared by the latter. that I will not trespass upon the reader's patience by any further mention of them or their works. The learned doctors Blair and Campbell wrote on rhetoric. is a complaint as just as it is frequent and loud. Churchill. that it is premature to attempt a complete grammar of the language. Thus Murray confessedly copied from ten authors. Sheridan and Walker. and not on the elementary parts of grammar. and enter less into the peculiar province of the grammarian. Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric is a very valuable treatise. the number is so great. and five or six other authors whom I have noticed. and Campbell. philosopher. but it will remain a monument of erudition never surpassed.CHAPTER XI. To these. but more comprehensive in design. and my ambition has been to produce one which might deservedly stand along side of . are disgraced by errors or defects. Sheridan. Buchanan. David Blair. would protract this introduction beyond all reasonable bounds. still. Upon the probability of effecting this.

We surely have no other book which might. A rule of grammar is some law. It implies. have been called "the Grammar of English Grammars. serving to prove or illustrate some given proposition or truth. can fail of its end. 155 the Port-Royal Latin and Greek Grammars. or characters." GOOLD BROWN. As a study. If in any thing they are erroneous. as an art. in itself. To speak is to utter words orally. and what is not. as distinguishes that entire thing or class from every thing else. and these parts or principles must be made known chiefly by means of definitions and examples. of its component parts or principles. in order that they may be heard and understood. and if. in an especial manner. without self-seeking. let the patrons of English literature remember that the achievement of my design is still a desideratum. there are those who can detect their faults. without pride. writing. good English. upon the conduct of her own household.CHAPTER XI. whatsoever is rightly written. by briefly telling what it is. I have turned the eyes of Grammar. and that no achievement merits aught with Him who graciously supplies all ability. to correct any errors that may occur in literary compositions. I present it to the public. quantumcunque diligentes. either by excellence. As an acquisition. . Such as the book is. in the adept. which. and be able to utter them with their proper sounds. A perfect definition of any thing or class of things is such a description of it. can be properly taught only by a regular analysis. made with a pen or other instrument. the reader acquire a more just idea of the grammar which is displayed in English grammars. writing. I invite the correction of the candid: "Nos quoque. and speaking the English language correctly. and to show. and to parse. To read is to perceive what is written or printed. Grammar. or explain grammatically." none. cùm a candidis tùm a lividis carpemur: a candidis interdum justè. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. from this volume. An English Grammar is a book which professes to explain the nature and structure of the English language. like every other liberal art. and without anxiety: knowing that most of my readers will be interested in estimating it justly. The opinions expressed in it have been formed with candour. and are offered with submission. Grammar. in any sense. ut de erratis omnibus amicè me admoneant--erro nonnunquam quia homo sum. or of the Grammaire des Grammaires of Girault Du Vivier. In the language of an ancient master. freely rendered to learning. 1836. on just authority. by which custom regulates and prescribes the right use of language. and speaking correctly. so as to understand the words. might take such a name. New York. An example is a particular instance or model. To write is to express words and thoughts by letters. what is. or systematic elucidation. rules and exercises. more or less general. is the art of reading. that no true service. If this work is unworthy to aspire to such rank. he will discover at least one reason for the title which has been bestowed upon the work. quos oro. or on account of the particular direction of its criticism. THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS. the earnest and assiduous Despauter. it is the essential skill of scholarship. it is the practical science which teaches the right use of language. is the power of reading. such knowledge as enables him to avoid improprieties of speech.

less than the entire work. and thus language has often been presented to the reader's consideration. either as a whole. of words. stanzas. of books. cantoes. less than a chapter. of language combining thought. government. into words. naming each as we find it. In extended compositions. of phrases. now signifies. but the former being free from any such restraint. and the whole be uttered as the sense requires. LANGUAGE. Orthography treats of letters. The least parts of written language are letters. into letters. clauses. of syllables. nor will he expose their errors further than is necessary for the credit of the science and the information of the learner. and a volume. into syllables. less than a volume. and spelling. Etymology treats of the different parts of speech. and also subdivide into articles. OBSERVATIONS. into sentences. is.CHAPTER XI. a paragraph. into volumes. then. figures. any series of sounds or letters formed into words and employed for the expression of thought. with sundry criticisms upon its writers or critics. or with broader scope than belongs to the teaching of its particular forms. the latter requiring a certain number and variety of syllables in each line. Etymology. Grammar is divided into four parts. of clauses. phrases. of volumes. which. but after letters were invented to represent articulate sounds. 1. spoken and written. prose and verse. and Prosody. or narration. namely. so that the term. and of laying down those special rules and principles which should guide us in the use of it. syllables. syllables. of a large work. into chapters. into phrases. words. Orthography. of language subjoining sense. of language completing sense. Prosody treats of punctuation. with their classes and modifications. is but a series of sentences.--In the Introduction to this work. and we often assume some natural distinction and order of parts. or general science. of language coördinating sense. of paragraphs. into clauses. whether in speech or in writing. Of the composition of language we have also two kinds. less than a section. of sections. when written. separate words. Syntax treats of the relation. The author intends to dissent from other grammarians no more than they are found to dissent from truth and reason. and versification. into paragraphs. A discourse. into books. of any length. But it rarely happens that any one work requires the use of all these divisions. sentences. or human speech uttered by the mouth. into sections. of members. many notices of its history. We come now to the work of analyzing our own tongue. must be separated by the proper points. and other portions. a book. language became twofold. of grammar. Syntax. members. verses. of spoken language. in the primitive sense of the term. as the nature of the subject suggests. utterance. of sentences. into members. that the meaning and relation of all the words may be quickly and clearly perceived by the reader. have been taken many views of the study. language. and arrangement of words in sentences. a section. of language significant in each part. agreement. embraced only vocal expression. OBS. less than a book. 156 An exercise is some technical performance required of the learner in order to bring his knowledge and skill into practice. A candid critic can have no satisfaction merely in finding fault with other men's . a chapter. The common order of literary division. a sentence is usually less than a paragraph. of chapters.

" and that the language which is peculiar to man..--Language is the expression of thought and feeling. Clark's Practical Gram. p. The following is the explanation of an other slack thinker: "One may. To me it seems a shameful abuse of speech. the celebrated actor and orthoëpist. that language is composed of words. 3. "LANGUAGE. as taken in a literal sense. agreeably to this notion. and affirms that the former "is common both to man and brute. For language.."--S. 16."--Kirkham's Gram. p.. sounds.) communicate his thoughts to others. is called LANGUAGE. 18. by speaking or by writing. Hence it assumes any and every form which those who make use of it. is the instrument or means of communicating ideas and affections of the mind and body. on the next leaf. and that without appearing to know it. but. Kirkham. that many pretenders to grammar have shown themselves exceedingly superficial in their knowledge. 135."--Sheridan's Lectures on Elocution. 7. In this sense. gives it such an extension as to make words no necessary part of its essence. and not only invented. and that many vain composers of books have proved themselves despisers of this study." has adopted in his chapter on Grammar. is. in its full extent. in its most extensive sense. in its progressive advancement. Improved Gram. 11. 7. for by various inarticulate sounds. and a vile descent from the dignity of grammar. or noises. For the propriety of this limitation. it leaves no ground at all for any grammatical science of a positive character. in their own nature. p.--But. may be manifested to another. any way or method whatsoever. affections and desires. by which all that passes in the mind of one man. though he seems to confine language to the human species. is altogether an artificial invention:[83] thereby contradicting at once a host of the most celebrated grammarians and philosophers."-.--Nor is this gentleman more fortunate in his explanation of what may really be called language. Dr. who ascribes to the starry heavens. in its most extensive sense." he says. Kirkham's notion. choose to give it. brutes possess the power of language. 157 performances. that the point in which most men think its very essence to consist. from one animal to another. commencing his instructions with the foregoing definition of language. And yet." See Psalm xix. This latter definition the author of that vain book. p. the language which consists of words. "that would occur to every one. since he immediately forgets his own definition and division of the subject." daily "uttered" and everywhere "heard." In short. But the facts are not to be concealed. because it resolves all forms of language into the irresponsible will of those who utter any words. they make known their wants. Sheridan. and sufferings. "LANGUAGE. (and sometimes by motions. and says. no essential part of language. I appeal to the common sense of mankind. Again: "I have already shown. p. strange as it may seem. who had not properly considered the point. and as plainly contradicts himself." says he."--Ib. is not even a necessary property of language. OBS. to make the voices of "brutes" any part of language."--Ib. by the abundance of their inaccuracies. than that which is given to it in the definition above. means.--Some grammarians have taught that the word language is of much broader signification. though scarcely more rational than his "natural language of men and brutes. OBS.--According to S. and construe literally the metaphors of David. proceeds to divide it."--Kirkham's English Gram." plainly annihilates that questionable section of grammatical science. natural and artificial. "The first thought. 5. implies those signs by which men and brutes."--Sanders's Spelling-Book. We might with far more propriety raise our conceptions of it to the spheres above. Webster goes much further. 4. this is so far from being an adequate idea of language. OBS. and the obviousness of their solecisms. 5. as well as slovenly in their practice. 129. by making all language a thing "conventional" and "invented. p. both "speech" and "language. Again: "The language of brutes consists in the use of those inarticulate sounds by which they express their thoughts and affections. and are only considered so through custom." "voice" and "words. p. desires.CHAPTER XI. This. W. into two sorts. One late writer defines it thus: "LANGUAGE is any means by which one person communicates his ideas to another. Without limiting the term at all. On . and against those authors who describe the thing otherwise. whether brutal or human. varied for purposes of practical convenience.Philosophical Gram. I confine it to speech and writing.. "the District School. that words are. "Language is conventional. 2. p. OBS.. communicate to each other their thoughts. The process by which this is done. without excluding his fanciful "language of brutes. But this is the less strange.

ORTHOGRAPHY treats of letters. in the same short paragraph." (Ib. or a flock of geese by their gabbling? I should not have noticed these things. he says. p. to convey our thoughts to others."--Ib. does it not follow. p.. 158 one page. p. whom[84] God on their creation-day Created mute to all articulate sound. 19. seems to "defy the ingenuity of man to give his words any other meaning than that which he himself intends them to express. . or actually conceives man to be the inventor of one of his own faculties.) either writes so badly as to make any ordinary false syntax appear trivial. 17. And if this notion again be true. "all the different animals perfectly understand?"--See his Gram. ORTHOGRAPHY. had not the book which teaches them. and spelling. is. been made popular by a thousand imposing attestations to its excellence and accuracy.. that a horse knows perfectly well what horned cattle mean by their bellowing. p. Thus the grammarian who. For grammar has nothing at all to do with inarticulate voices.[85] PART I. Nay.CHAPTER XI. dialects. docs he not make man the contriver of that "natural language" which he possesses "in common with the brutes?" a language "The meaning of which. It is scope enough for one science to explain all the languages. or the imaginary languages of brutes. is made up of articulate sounds uttered by the human voice.. On the next. We need not enlarge the field. 18. and speeches."--Kirkham's Gram. by descending "To beasts.. that lay claim to reason."--Milton. syllables. "The most important use of that faculty called speech. separate words." he says. 16. "Spoken language or speech.

F f. G g. as an ambassador consists not in the man only. e. according to the extent of his commission. are mostly permanent. J j. in the view of people in general. G g. By elementary or articulate sounds. L l. so that. consonants. N n. but in the figure and power united. H h. F f. K k. N n. and their forms. J j. S s. G g. I i. M m. B b. M m. Y y. N n. K k. N n. E e. V v. C c. F f. in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes. or painted. o. R r. W w. or tell what it is. 2. and powers. The class of a letter is determined by the nature of its power. by a particular compression of the organs of utterance. and are conceived to be nothing else. or sound. Hence any given sound. as the ambassador is plenipotentiary or otherwise. J j. W w. C c. but in the man commissioned. P p. with which every reader should be early acquainted:-1. The Old English: [Old English: A a. or in the commission only. or conventional character. F f. The letters are written. but the modifying stops and turns which are given them in speech. are about thirty-six or thirty-seven. which commonly represents some elementary sound of the human voice. 159 CHAPTER I. to call it by. T t. Thus we may produce the sounds of a. H h. OBS. o. W w. it is said to be silent or mute.[86] then. The Italic: A a. Z z. . or an element of speech. M m. are necessary to constitute the letter. R r. The following are some of the different sorts of types. Y y. D d. therefore. and their modifications. the powers of the letters are habitually identified with their sounds. or styles of letters. o. are twenty-six. classes. and marked by letters: the real voices constituting vowels. P p. Z z. o. W w. bo. The figure and the power. V v.] 4. Y y. which all men can produce at pleasure. V v. V v. 3. I i. X x. X x. D d. into ba. C c. I i. An elementary sound of the human voice. S s. the simple or primary sounds which they represent. The Script: [Script: A a. H h. --OF LETTERS. I i. be. Z z. U u. X x. E e. B b. B b. is one of the simple sounds which compose a spoken language. and yet are always the same. their powers. T t. their classes. their names. D d.CHAPTER I. R r. A knowledge of the letters consists in an acquaintance with these four sorts of things. Y y. J j. C c. or embossed. U u. P p. M m. P p. or modification of sound. T t. modify them all. A Letter is an alphabetic character. fo. because their essential properties do not change. S s. Q q. K k. X x. when arbitrarily associated with a written sign. Z z. U u. e. and their names. we mean not only the simple tones of the voice itself. and o. are letters of one sort. H h. D d. or fa. and b and f of an other. Q q. L l. U u. and we shall see that a. The letters in the English alphabet. fe. G g.--A letter consists not in the figure only. written language is the representative of that which is spoken. Q q. and a name is as necessary. E e. or printed. To all but the deaf and dumb. or engraved. L l. teach it. 1. E e. The Roman: A a. R r. L l. constitutes what is called a letter. or in the power only. B b.] OBSERVATIONS. some element of speech. The sound of a letter is commonly called its power: when any letter of a word is not sounded. T t. Q q. o. K k. S s. then.

They even learn in some way to distinguish the accented from the unaccented syllables. derived most of their capitals from the Greeks. or of something else equivalent to it. it is said. or he neglects the minute study of these elements. Nor are the Arabic figures. from the sign of a simple elementary sound: i. 5. are said to have been adopted after the invention of printing. if they had any. Not more than one quarter of the letters have other forms.--"A Consonant is an articulate sound. to the learned who hear and speak. 4. which. were made afterwards among themselves. (as the astronomic marks for the sun. or Romans. it may be perfectly intelligible to the illiterate.. and to have some notion of quantity. The Italic letters were invented by Aldus Manutius at Rome. 147. though the terms are commonly taken as synonymous. but their small letters. differs widely in its power. yet are they not. The most common and the most useful things are not those about which we are in general most inquisitive. before it became that beautiful series of characters which we now use. do in fact know but very little about them. either form immediately suggests the other. 160 OBS. towards the close of the fifteenth century. e. is what they properly represent. because he sees what . and their forms. The Germans still use a type similar to the Old English. Cadmus carried the Phoenician alphabet into Greece. he is apt to suppose he has no more to learn respecting the letters. The Saxon alphabet was mostly Roman.--I have suggested that a true knowledge of the letters implies an acquaintance with their names. identified with their sounds. p. from any constituent part of a written word. can compose verses according to the rules of prosody. which is said to have been made by Ezra the scribe. is of itself significant. In practice. But the changes. printed by Richard Pinson. "The Roman letters were first used by Sweynheim and Pannartz. The earliest work printed wholly in this character in England. is said to have been Lily's or Paul's Accidence. who think themselves sufficiently acquainted with the letters. 2. and is still a letter. Under these four heads. doubtless. and not as being the representative of the whole. But this confounding of the visible signs with the things which they signify. in 1467." &c. when he wrote out a new copy of the law. which represent entire words."--Constables Miscellany. in its turn. The fact is. though few. 7. 3. Vol. "A Vowel is an articulate sound. deserve a name and a place in grammar. is very far from being a true account of either. Under William the Conqueror. Moses is supposed to have written in characters which were nearly the same as those called Samaritan. nor again any symbols standing for things. If a person is able to read some easy book. Besides. in these cases. Indeed these particular forms. 1518.. with the meaning common to both. Murray's Gram. though speech. for some of them. letters combined are capable of a certain mysterious power which is independent of all sound. this alphabet was superseded by the modern Gothic. where it was subsequently altered and enlarged. cannot be a letter. called the Chaldee or Chaldaic. because the representative of any word or number." &c. therefore. the things being in some respect distinguishable. like the marks used for punctuation. Hence it would appear. in 1501. but it is so. xx. their classes. The deaf and dumb also. The small letters were not invented till about the seventh century of our era. and are therefore not letters. but his writings have come to us in an alphabet more beautiful and regular. The Latins. represent silence. which are now justly preferred by many nations. under the name of Roman letters. This alphabet underwent various changes. in the one form.) to be confounded with letters. though it may. almost all the letters may occasionally happen to be silent. and the like. OBS. semicolons. Old English. and shall reserve for the appendix a more particular account of these important elements. but not so heavy.--In their definitions of vowels and consonants. of necessity. whether spoken or written. OBS. as.--Our knowledge of letters rises no higher than to the forms used by the ancient Hebrews and Phoenicians.CHAPTER I. the moon.--A mere mark to which no sound or power is ever given. rather than sounds. whether its corresponding form be known or not. that the powers of the letters are not. happily gave place to the present Roman. necessarily useless. p. give to a printed page a very different appearance. or Black letter. to the educated deaf and dumb. while. Hence. after the rebuilding of the temple. I shall briefly present what seems most worthy of the learner's attention at first. and received very great improvements. and were first used in an edition of Virgil. Hence many. Commas. may be taught to read and write understandingly. OBS.--L. that a word. the planets. printers who settled at Rome. their powers. many grammarians have resolved letters into sounds only. of any name or thing. to whom none of the letters express or represent sounds. as being the first element of the word. and in the other. The first letter of a word or name does indeed sometimes stand for the whole.

Double-u. and it is to this combination. Cee. Kays. Ars. Zees. Tee. But in this respect the terms Aitch and Double-u are irregular. or by ceasing to mention the things thus named. and all these have other sounds than those which their names express. remembering that grammar. Obed. Pee. En. For. it is a comprehensive sort. Here. or sounds. cu. Kue. Vees. Kues. Kay. Aitches. E. yet. Thus: (if we adopt the names now most generally used in English schools:) A. and can be nothing else than that same letter b. U. and design. that Murray himself has many times fallen into it. Bee. Ex. I. E. with a continual rehearsal of them in spelling. that these names. Wy.--Jay. have names in which their powers are combined with other sounds more vocal.--The names of the letters. and if we neglect the elements of grammar. is a very small qualification for him who aspires to scholarship. Aitch. Bees. Dee. are mostly framed with reference to their powers."--L. implies. without getting half of them wrong. like all other things. The confounding of names with the things for which they stand. Zee. Ues. and by this means the student is led into error and perplexity. ci. co. Em. as ordinary appellatives. Dee. Ar. that letters owe their wonderful power of transmitting thought. we see individuality combined at once with great diversity. though you make it in a thousand different fashions. No one can ever teach an art more perfectly than he has learned it. should always be written with capitals. Oes. Yet is there in English no letter of which the name is always identical with its power: for A.--Letters. Their names. Double-ues. and multiply it after each pattern innumerably. nor can we ever dispense with them. O. character. and great indistinctness of apprehension in respect to things. as expressed in the modern languages. E. in respect to rank. U. 161 words they make. A. our literary education begins. Gee. For one may do this. Tee. O. Em. Ar. Gees.--With the learning and application of these names. and so palpable is the difference between the nature and the name of each. or to pronounce such syllables as ca. Isaac. Zee. Jays. and infinite multiplicity. I. Gee. OBS. 1. without ever being able to name the letters properly. Vee. pilot. Observations and reasonings on the name. make it as you will. Jay. each letter is a thing strictly individual and identical--that is. 2. 8vo. must be learned and spoken of by their names. OBS. Wies. because they have no obvious reference to the powers of the letters thus named. Kay. and can amuse himself with stories of things more interesting. O. Bee. Pees. being nouns that are at once both proper and common. What is obviously indispensable. Wy. Ess. paper.. Dees. "They are frequently confounded by writers on grammar. 3. or in the first syllables of the common words. penal. Murray's Gram. Tees. En. ce. both in its study and in its practice. But I know not whether it has ever been noticed. Ens. cy.[87] Let the learner therefore be on his guard. potent. needs no proof of its importance. like those of the days of the week. Ex. as proper nouns. Pee. Ees. U. that did we not know how education has been trifled with. as now commonly spoken and written in English. and even be a great reader. are worthy of particular distinction. Esses. Eff. But merely to understand common English. Ems. Kue. Jay. The other letters. I. They are words of a very peculiar kind. Cees. and should form the plural regularly. The simple powers of the other letters are so manifestly insufficient to form any name. Ell. En. Abel. as. it is for a long time carried on. Urim. OBS. OBSERVATIONS. Aitch. in an other respect. Effs. Ess. Bee. for their own nature. Aes. Ells. but by substituting others. Eff. yet so common is this error. are uttered with the sounds given to the same letters in the first syllables of the other names. Double-u. take for their names those sounds which they usually represent at the end of an accented syllable. great carelessness in the use of speech. Kue. thus the names. it is ever one and the same. 8. E. I. nor can they be spoken . when he says. then. and especially for a teacher.--Ell. Exes. therefore. Those letters which name themselves. O. Cee. p. Dee. Kay. our attainments must needs be proportionately unsettled and superficial. The names of the letters. Ell. it would be hard to believe even Murray. at least in the singular number. and U. Ies. embracing individuals both various and numberless. pupil. Vee. Cee. Em. Enoch. I. are the only letters which can name themselves.CHAPTER I. requires the constant exercise of a rational discernment. are often applied to explain the nature of a consonant. NAMES OF THE LETTERS. are A. Thus every B is a b. unquestionably. most of which can never be perfectly sounded alone.

as the simple characters are better known and more easily exhibited than their written names. but."--Walker's Principles. No. Every parent. Ich. Our dictionaries. Iz. Nay. O. In. "Its common name is izzard. Ir. Kue. Izzet. but the greater care of earlier writers. yet. but where diversity has . Ec. we are indebted to Priscian. however. Ill. what were the names of the letters in "the Augustan age of English literature. for almost all we know about them. if. were they asked. by proper and determinate names. by a strange oversight or negligence. several authors of spelling-books make no mention at all of them. In this. here at the very threshold of instruction. and Iz. ignorance of it be thought a disgrace. in which the regular English orthography of these terms. OBS. there are none which better deserve to be everywhere known. who would have his children instructed to read and write the English language. some writers have attempted to make an entire change from the customary forms which I have recorded. Among all the particulars which constitute this subject. So that many persons who think themselves well educated. what is still more surprising. Zed. Wy. U. while others. Ik. has therefore been treated as a trifling question: and. that the grammar of our language has never yet been sufficiently taught. Iv. 483. This fact may help to convince us. Double-u. with respect to three or four of them. 162 of otherwise. and are read as the words for which they are assumed. and which are of course to be preferred to such as are local or unauthorized. I. or "Aw. that all teachers will in time abandon every such local usage. Of Zee. has been strangely overlooked by our common Latin grammarians. Id. not to be admitted. It is to be hoped. for the z is not the hard. Johnson explains into s hard. therefore. and possibly improve. custom must have established for the letters a certain set of names. I fear the learned of that day will be as much at a loss for an answer. because the names of the letters ought to have no diversity. as he first learned them in a school in his own country. Iss. But even the information which may be had. as in other things. it is a gross misnomer. respecting those which we now employ so constantly in English:[88] and yet the words themselves are as familiar to every school-boy's lips as are the characters to his eye. which are the only true ones.--Should it happen to be asked a hundred lustrums hence. but when its decisions are clear.[91] but as it has a less sharp. Ix. there can be found a hundred men who can readily write the alphabetic names which were in use two or three thousand years ago in Greece or Palestine. do not recognize them as words. for one who can do the same thing with propriety.--It is not in respect to their orthography alone. OBS. E. (which has also been called Zed. Ip." as it is in Ireland. 5. which Dr. and. "oo" or "uu" for Double-u. Iff. borrowed from the French. and this decision accords with the universal practice of the schools in America. except the first and the last. and that the day will come. that the names of the letters. Izzard. It is remarkable that this able critic. it is not impossible but it may mean s surd. A Scotch gentleman of good education informs me. would be greatly puzzled to name on paper these simple elements of all learning. is the more fashionable name of this letter. a grammarian of the sixth century. teach falsely--giving "he" for Aitch. Might not Quintilian or Varro have obliged many. What they are. than these prime elements of all written language. "Ah. on this point. Im. shall be steadily preferred. Whether the name of the first letter should be pronounced "Aye. in my opinion.[89] What. and clearly decided in favour of the first sound. is a question which Walker has largely discussed. and therefore not so audible a sound. no feeble reason should be allowed to disturb them. by what series of names the Roman youth were taught to spell. Ij. and writing almost all the rest improperly. this is the meaning. 4. and name the letters as they ought to be named. It. though he treated minutely of the letters. Zad. should see that in the first place they learn to name the letters as they are commonly named in English." but that in the same school the English names are now used. and writers have in general spelled them with very little regard to either authority or analogy. "ye" for Wy. "er" for Ar. the former are often substituted for the latter. by recording these? As it is." as it is in Scotland.CHAPTER I. were these: "A. that these first words in literature demand inquiry and reflection: the pronunciation of some of them has often been taught erroneously. and the makers of school-books feel no longer at liberty to alter names that are a thousand times better known than their own." as it is in England. or ought to be. It is true. naming them all in the outset of his "Principles" subsequently neglected the names of them all." or in the days of William the Fourth and Andrew Jackson. use may sometimes vary. Hence the orthography of these words has hitherto been left too much to mere fancy or caprice. as would most of our college tutors now. but the soft s. the name of a letter ought to be one. Ig. Ib. however. has made the Greek names better known or more important than the Latin? In every nation that is not totally illiterate.)[90] he says. and in no respect diverse. Uzzard.

[Hebrew: vav] Vau. awkward. [Hebrew: zajin] Zain. I give up all six. or declaring to each other the component letters of a word. Zed to the French. or even pretending authority? and if a knowledge of these names is the basis of a just pronunciation. armour. and wonders over. no individual authority can be a counterpoise to general custom. are now fairly superseded by the softer and better term Zee. she. and are consequently without that significance which is an essential property of words. Iz and Izzet. are.--The names of the twenty-two letters in Hebrew. and become firmly rooted in custom. and causes of things. The best usage can never be that which is little known. [Hebrew: Dalet] Daleth. nor ought even the modern names of our present letters. both Zed and Izzard."--Dict. because they are not those acknowledged signs to which a meaning has been attached. it seems highly incumbent on us to attempt a uniformity in this point. gizzard. [Hebrew: he] He. if not in every instance. do not constitute words at all.CHAPTER I. [Hebrew: Gimel] Gimel. [Hebrew: het] Cheth. or a nail. according to some of the Hebrew grammars. is it to be obviated by insisting upon what is old-fashioned. If diversity in this matter is so perplexing. each equally important in the language to which it properly belongs? Such names have always been in use wherever literature has been cultivated. Aitch. and that instruction is the most useful. though formed with special reference to their sounds. to be considered such. intended solely to express or make known the powers of the several characters then in use.--By way of apology for noticing the name of the first letter. OBS.--The names originally given to the letters were not mere notations of sound. but when we find ourselves unable to convey signs to each other on account of this diversity of names. This is my apology for dwelling so long upon the present topic.. and inconvenient? Shall the better usage give place to the worse? Uniformity cannot be so reached. In this country. what shall we say to those who are attempting innovations without assigning reasons. We derived our letters. 6. nor can it be well ascertained and taught by him who knows little. or behold. 8. A. Thus the mysterious ciphers which the English reader meets with. [Hebrew: Beth] Beth. For. insignificant as it may seem. house. The other two. 163 already obtained. Inquisitive minds are ever curious to learn the nature. and their names too. is undoubtedly the foundation of a just and regular pronunciation. in every language. and the rest to oblivion. a hedge. with each of these names. But. some other meaning in that language. to name these elements in a set of foreign terms. from the Romans. in grammar. . are not three real words. it would be entirely needless to enter into so trifling a question as the mere name of a letter. Who shall say that Daleth. It is a great error to judge otherwise. Zee. may be resolved. and have become different in different languages. Bee. if ever he silently prefer a suggested improvement. without dispute. mizzen. for they are not only significant of the letters thus named. Gee. a hook. Walker observes. which. "If a diversity of names to vowels did not confound us in our spelling. a camel. as follows:-[Hebrew: Aleph] Aleph. E. Delta. and which. origin. which is best calculated to gratify this rational curiosity. there has necessarily followed a change of the names. OBS. or a leader. must be entitled to a place among the words of the language. U. inconsistent with the genius of the language to be learned. such as the notations in a pronouncing dictionary. Expressions of mere sound. OBS. as they are the acknowledged names of these particular objects. an ox. Dee. what shall we think of him who will take no pains to ascertain how he ought to speak and write them? He who pretends to teach the proper fashion of speaking and writing. whether a given letter shall be called by one name or by an other. would surely be attended with a tenfold greater. proper words. under A. and that words themselves are endangered by an improper utterance of their component parts. or Heth. and as the forms and powers of the letters have been changed by the nations. being localisms. and whoever will spell aloud. but this is no good reason why the latter should be spelled and pronounced as we suppose they were spelled and pronounced in Rome. and Dee. and not authorized English. there must be a series of sounds by which the alphabetical characters are commonly known in speech. as he reads the 119th Psalm. cannot deal honestly. whatever inconvenience scholars may find in the diversity which has thence arisen. a few such words as dizzy. as well as the worse forms Zad and Uzzard. but have in general. having no reference to what is meant by the sound. a door. to any established and undisturbed usage of the language. 7. for. may easily perceive why none of the former can ever be brought again into use. and a greater to make it a "trifling question" in grammar.

The Greek letters are twenty-four. whose names for the letters were even more simple than our own. Ar. or Wy. and which Worcester. e. i. whether Greek or Hebrew. in their manner of reading this and other ancient tongues. [Greek: G g]. an ox-goad. I. thus:-[Greek: A a]. the Hebrew or the Greek. [Hebrew: mem] Mem. It is probable that in the ancient pronunciation of Latin. e like the English a. a head. or Sin. Pee. [Hebrew: kaf] Caph. which is commonly. or Ess. But. more properly. OBS. aiming at disputed sounds in the one case. p. [Hebrew: qof] Koph. may yet be ascertained from Priscian. and the Greek are not. are also found in the etymologies or definitions of Johnson and Webster. either in orthography or sound. e long. ps. and yet. which are formed. o short. tz. a basis. as ours mostly are. But. or mark. r. as the original. Theta. [Greek K k]. Gamma. where least was known. Zeta. l. [Hebrew: ayin] Ain. or a cup. a was commonly sounded as in father. O. [Greek: PS ps]. [Greek: Æ æ]. This is directly contrary to what one would have expected. expressive. it has all that belong to the English alphabet. This improvement appears to have been introduced by the Romans. Tee. a hand shut. Beta. m. but without reference to the meaning of the former in Greek. Sigma. its letters are twenty-five. 164 [Hebrew: tet] Teth. and if he has ever attempted to spell aloud in either of those languages. Alpha. Upsilon. both ancient and modern. or a snake. of its ordinary power. [Greek: L l]. Em. Pi. [Greek: O o]. [Hebrew: tav] Tau. a. a cross. e short. but they used it also for S. except the Double-u. [Hebrew: shin] Schin. Iota. s. or support. a fish. Kappa. or just pronunciation of a language is not necessary to an understanding of it when written. It then seems to have slid into K. native. generally pronounced C as K. z. o long. [Greek: R r] Rho. a tooth. or Tee-aitch. [Greek: Z z]. but sometimes as . These English names of the Hebrew letters are written with much less uniformity than those of the Greek. Chi. But so negligent in respect to them have been the Latin grammarians. (i. OBS. The original pronunciation of both languages is admitted to be lost. the Romans wrote C for G. that few even of the learned can tell what they really were in that language. [Greek: E e]. ph. a stain. [Hebrew: nun] Nun. till the first Punic war. concerning the accuracy of which there is not much room to dispute. and perhaps some others. Ell. both of whom spell the word Lambda and its derivative lambdoidal without the silent b. or Kay. an eye. accommodated themselves.CHAPTER I. [Hebrew: lamed] Lamed. and some others of note among the ancient philologists. [Greek: PH ph]. b]. Tee. Cee. Lambda. [Greek: P p]. [Hebrew: pe] Pe. or a scroll. [Greek: Y y]. we can still furnish an entire list. as we do now. he cannot but be sensible of the great advantage which was gained when to each letter there was given a short name. Psi. 9. [Greek: TH Th th]. and Zeta. or spot. Phi. retains. [Greek: O o]. since the Hebrew names are words originally significant of other things than the letters. [Greek: I i]. t. k. or involved in so much obscurity that little can be positively affirmed about it. named. Ess. The ancient Saxons. if not always. [Hebrew: jod] Jod. i mostly like e long. 10. Delta. or Yod. OBS. y like i short. Most of them. so that by taking from later authors the names of those letters which were not used in old times. or a well. x. a serpent. Delta. Tee-zee.--The word alphabet is derived from the first two names in the following series. [Greek: T t]. because there has been more dispute respecting their powers. [Greek: D d]. Tau. [Hebrew: resh] Resch. [Greek: M m]. Like the French. b. 11. Epsilon. or Oin. [Hebrew: samekh] Samech. Mu.--The reader will observe that the foregoing names. [Hebrew: tsadi] Tzaddi. or Thau. our English dictionaries explain the first and the last. g hard. Xi. Omicron. inserted by the authors of our Greek grammars. u. d. [Greek: X x]. a lip.) a hunter's pole. and sounded. the existing nations have severally. an ape. grammarians have produced the most diversity. Beta. or Tsadhe. [Greek: N n]. En. Omega. and doubtless gave it the power as well as the place of the Gamma or Gimel. n. Kue. Ess-aitch. [Greek: B. are in general much less simple than those which our letters now bear. [Greek: S s s]. [Greek: CH ch]. and Webster has defined Iota. or how they differed. Nu. c generally and g always hard. Eta. in a great measure. or Resh. as in come and go. Of these names. or mouth. Lambda. ch. a hollow hand.--As the Latin language is now printed. or ts. but generally preferring a correspondence of letters in the other. however. from those of the English or the French. th.

Prat's Latin Grammar.) that these names might remain the same forever. El. U. but if any one thinks the variableness of these to be peculiar. g. "Crist Ihesu that is to demynge the quyke and deed. and the rule would make the name of it Ke. according to his principle.--If the history of these names exhibits diversity.--If any change is desirable in our present names of the letters. "are named by placing e after them. ce. published in London. according to the different ways of uttering them in different languages.. then Ve. of two Effs as of two skiffs. when first distinguished from U. can think of naming w by double o? That it is possible for an ingenious man to misconceive this simple affair of naming the letters. destroys it also.) nine of the consonants are reckoned mutes. was called. was called Vau. be. Pe. then Va. Em. m. [Je. Ce. t. if not in all languages. and. Since this was written for English. than in the other." And this I suppose to be the most proper way of writing their names in Latin. when it was first distinguished from I. [Ve. 1722. To all names worthy to be known. as Priscian will have it. I judge the author to be wrong.) eds. when first invented. n. 1. x. beginning with e. The letter F. has no authority for it but his own. may appear not only from the foregoing instance. and if there could be in human works any thing unchangeable. Ha.] Ka. and is. most certainly. so does that of almost all other terms. was called by the Hebrew name Jod. z. and for changing Zeta into Ez. when he fairly sanctions newer customs. I should wish. long ago discarded the term Double-u.) xii. l. and afterwards Je. O. and is not yet tired of his experiment with "oo. This mostly accords with the names given in the preceding paragraph. and not Ka. 13. if there is nothing to hinder. ix. ge. In some of the early English grammars the name of the latter is written Ghee. E. that also may be affected in the same manner.] Ix. of two Exes as of two foxes. In Schneider's Latin Grammar. and not to take two Oes for its written name. Ge. except q. was called Ypsilon. would be Ez and not "Eds. He never named the English letters rightly. as other vowels do.--the name of Z.[92] If W is to be named as a vowel. J. and Z. as. Digamma. ef. b. I. Te. as these two letters were used only in words of Greek origin. en. but in English it is as easy to speak of two Dees as of two trees. s. but they name themselves differently to the ear. that establishes authority. De. Webster. OBS. and that. end in themselves. (with due deference to all schemers and fault-finders.CHAPTER I. el. Upsilon. Be. And as the name of a consonant necessarily requires one or more vowels. OBS. I know not whether they ever received from the Romans any shorter names. Y. was called Zeta. de. should be made conformable to the genius of the language. some aids to stability. em. of two Kays as of two days. semivowels. Ef. er." although the latter may better indicate the sound which was then given to this letter. unless we have sufficient authority for shortening Ypsilon into Y. E. it is that we may have a shorter and simpler term in stead of Double-u. Yet he writes his new name wrong. and v. But Time. and eight.. En. it is natural to wish a perpetual uniformity. with something of their history. and afterwards Ef. I have recorded above the true names of the letters. 8. and so far as it does not. observing the names. Zeta. and perhaps it would be as useful. or like our Y. reprehensible for the innovation. as they are now used. 6. O. es. nor does the name Ach accord with his rule or seem like a Latin word. Who that knows what it is. OBS.--H is not one of his eight semivowels. 9. I. For instance: "Forsothe whanne Eroude was to bringynge forth hym. q. Their G was either guttural. in that nigt Petir was slepynge bitwixe tweyno knytis. Let Dr. and read a few verses. as. But in every language there should be a known way both of writing and of speaking every name in the series. In Dr. U. (an elaborate octavo." says this author. d. Ypsilon. The reader will observe that the Doctor's explanation is neither very exact nor quite complete: K is a mute which is not enumerated.--In many. 14. Er. ex." See p." See p. e. try it. except Je and Ve. which are omitted by this author: "A. the letters are named in the following manner. p. (i. from the same source. and at the same time acquired. Es. 12. or any defender of his spelling. c. and there ought to be no more difficulty about the correct way of writing the word in the one case. it ought to name itself. but from the following quotation: "Among the . ach." but thinks still to make the vowel sound of this letter its name. or Omega. r. let him open the English Bible of the fourteenth century. from its shape. I do not say that the names above can be regularly declined in Latin. (or. name themselves."--2 Tim. Acts."--Dedis. But can we change this well known name? I imagine it would be about as easy to change Alpha. A. our language has changed much. "All the mutes. iv. and yet there is some way of writing every word with correctness. which ends in u. all Latin. by means of the press. 165 Ch. V. to name a letter. the five vowels. "The semivowels. Sam. sounded as short i. when the Romans first borrowed it from the Greeks. and correctness tends to permanence. j. f. Cu.

--are termed liquids. as in wine. whine. there is at the outset in the hornbook. e. az. y. as simple elements in the process of synthetic spelling. ap.[93] The vowels are a. k. t. and c and g hard: three of these. h.CHAPTER I. hwi. Suppose he should take it into his head to follow Dr. t.--b. and c hard. OBS. a. The consonants are divided.--are likewise more vocal than the aspirates. and r. If I bid a boy spell the word why. and which at the end of a syllable suddenly stops the breath. The mutes are eight. s. yttria. that such spelling was supported either by "the realities of nature. CLASSES OF CONSONANTS. d. and Wy. This is a strange allegation to come from such a source. "Oo. 166 thousand mismanagements of literary instruction. f. 52." and the usual names of the letters.--k. yet. These words are used in infancy. Double-u. w. b. q. x. CLASSES OF THE LETTERS. W or y is called a consonant when it precedes a vowel heard in the same syllable. d. twine. n. The semivowels are.--v. newly. as. p. and the sound of c. Zed. on the Philosophy of the Human Voice. would imagine. eyebrow. j. are the three simple sounds which he utters in pronouncing the word why. but these doctors. n. k. as. at. All the other letters are consonants. or strong breath. i. A mute is a consonant which cannot be sounded at all without a vowel. and four others. and z. y. The letters are divided into two general classes. z. If the definition of a consonant was made by the master from the practice of the child. z. can be protracted only as an aspirate. p. either with reference to the various . and g hard. "Double-u. youth: in all other cases. Four of the semivowels. it is not because the hornbook. hwi. and to say."--Dr. and Aitch. f. r. g. and through life. But if he conceives that the five syllables which form the three words. as in Yssel. m. but should not make us forget the realities of nature. or the teacher of the hornbook." or by the authority of custom? I shall retain both the old "definition of a consonant. Aitch. Double-u. and c and g soft: but w or y at the end of a syllable. j." and knows that he has spelled and pronounced the word correctly.--l. vowels and consonants.--sound exactly alike: b. with respect to their powers. c. m. o. Webster's books. and. as. u. A vowel is a letter which forms a perfect sound when uttered alone. Kay. 1. an. OBSERVATIONS. Wy. v. like some great philosophers. in respect to its principal features sanctioned by almost universal authority. he. l. p. A consonant is a letter which cannot be perfectly uttered till joined to a vowel. as. and sometimes w and y. yet if we examine it minutely. h. on account of the fluency of their sounds. it might suggest pity for the pedagogue. Ystadt.--The foregoing division of the letters is of very great antiquity. e. A semivowel is a consonant which can be imperfectly sounded without a vowel. Push. in ak. he says. these letters are vowels. stop the voice less suddenly than the rest. is a vowel. in al. as. II. ye. ever made any such blunder or "pretence. dewy. into semivowels and mutes. ye. notwithstanding the contemptuous pity it may excite in the minds of such critics. o. or x. so that at the end of a syllable its sound may be protracted. Be. the pretence to represent elementary sounds by syllables composed of two or more elements. s. l. w. he is capable of misconceiving very plain things. d. and Aitch. n." but because. q." who.

some aspirates.--Grammarians have generally agreed that every letter is either a vowel or a consonant. because pronunciation is the least permanent part of language. of the letters. 2. to say that "consonants alone may form syllables. as accurately as we can. and to make the best use we can of our present imperfect system of alphabetic characters. I cannot but think the ancient doctrine better. be soon lost. In the opinion of some neoterics. may do better. in many instances.CHAPTER I. and to attend carefully to the manner in which these sounds are enunciated. would be both unwise and impracticable. and which. so let him learn by his own ear. and judge for himself. or how many of them will fall under some particular name. some nasals. some liquids. and mutes. semivowels. which are the long letters. are better adapted to their new and peculiar division of these elements. and if the orthography of words were conformed entirely to this standard. in 1827. 3." The latter philosopher resolves the letters into "tonics. and the classification absurd. The most unconcerned observer cannot but perceive that there are certain differences in the sounds. It will however be of use. the process of learning to read would doubtless be greatly facilitated. consisting of one symbol. and only one. the consonants. the former a vowel. and atonics. which are the vowels. it will not perhaps be found in all respects indisputably certain. It would involve our laws and literature in utter confusion. the attempters of this reformation should never speak of vowels or consonants. and atonics. A knowledge of about three dozen different elementary sounds is implied in the faculty of speech. because they judge the terms inappropriate. With our lower-case alphabet before him. The student must consider what is proposed or asked. and we may be the better satisfied to do this. and precisely adjusted to the most correct pronunciation of words. as did Dr. Had we a perfect alphabet. because the deficiencies and redundancies of this alphabet are not yet so well ascertained. and perhaps yet other species. freed from silent letters." is as much as to say that consonants are not consonants. it has been reserved to our age. and a perfect method of spelling. But I would fain believe that the Stagirite knew as well what he was saying. for each elementary sound. but vowels! To be consistent. their origin and meaning would. and mutes. and yet under what heads they ought severally to be classed. divided the Greek letters into vowels. and which the short ones. Aristotle. The processes are alike simple. if he can. But let him with modesty determine what sort of discoveries may render our ancient authorities questionable. I have adopted what I conceive to be the best authorized. and also that there are among the latter some semivowels." which classes. semivowels or mutes. when. the elementary sounds of the language. as to make it certain what a perfect one would be. though apparently the same as vowels. he declared the doctrine of vowels and consonants to be "a misrepresentation. he will be able to class them for himself with as much accuracy as he will find in books. as well as to the characters by which they are represented. For. constitutes perfection of utterance. Thus he may know for a certainty. he can tell by his own eye.--In order to have a right understanding of the letters. They should therefore adhere strictly to their "tonics. and declared that no syllable could be formed without a vowel." Indeed. subtonics. as well as in the shapes. they disagree so much as to make it no easy matter to ascertain what particular classification is best supported by their authority. as a basis for some subsequent rules. so he may be puzzled to say whether w and y. are vowels or consonants: but neither of these difficulties should impair his confidence in any of his other decisions. he can do both about equally well. some dentals. three hundred and thirty years before Christ. The power of producing these sounds with distinctness. as heard in we and ye. and at the same time the most intelligible. 167 opinions of the learned. We must therefore content ourselves to learn languages as they are. that a is a short letter. and. Thus." and avers that "consonants alone may form syllables. use his own senses. any change short of the introduction of some entirely new mode of writing. if he be neither blind nor deaf. to detect the fallacy of this. and as a means of calling the attention of the learner to the manner in which he utters the sounds of the letters. some sharps. and of adapting them to the purposes for which language is used. some mutes. Yet as he may doubt whether t is a long letter or a short one. it is necessary to enumerate. they may make . OBS. and b a long one. the latter a consonant: and so of others. some palatals. semivowels. it may occasionally puzzle a philosopher to tell. some flats. by reforming both language and philosophy at once. If he attain by observation and practice a clear and perfect pronunciation of the letters. some labials. or with regard to the essential differences among the things of which it speaks. OBS. And yet any attempt toward such a reformation. He that dislikes the scheme. subtonics. but in enumerating the letters which belong to these several classes. James Rush.

Hart's. which was invented in 1821. than what is heard in the word eye. as. 5." which is found in Comly's book. "begins" it. if pronounced "very deliberately. betrothed. Hiley's. which sound rapidly slides into that of i. The flat or smooth consonants are d. or semivowel. nipped. or any other divider of the letters. It is proper to inform the learner that the sharp consonants are t. it is the easiest thing in the world. and others. as in dewy: for a letter that forms a syllable. or difficulty of utterance. and then advances to that of ee as heard in e-ve." But he is wrong here by his own showing: he should rather have called it a triphthong. earthed. and others. f. but a nasal subtonic. Bullions's. among which. "Boy. houghed. the letter y. Lowth says. 110. But I follow Wallis. Fisk's. Weld's. cracked. and in sundry other grammars. because their sounds take the article a. Dr. in assuming its name for its sound. Murray. croaked. as in the words faced. pained. and the latter to i or e. But these last-named classes are not of much importance. before them. or a mute. I have explained the principal classes of the letters. a simple sound. He delights in protracting its "guttural murmur.[94] At the end of a syllable we know they are vowels. Pond's. "W and y are consonants when they begin a word or syllable. Walker. b and m are nasals. hugged. But Kirkham has lately learned his letters anew. fixed. They are consonants at the beginning of words in English. Merchant's. or George Guess. as in the words. 6. marred. He says. but at the beginning. He now calls y a "diphthong. the nasals are those which are affected by the nose. Putnam's. this grammatist makes b. Brightland. reached. sealed. which the author uses as an example.CHAPTER I. p. The labials are those consonants which are articulated chiefly by the lips. as k and hard g. has philosophically taken their names for their sounds." perhaps. as whether h is a semivowel.--The Cherokee alphabet. as Walker. Dr. 75. 4. and nearly in the position to which the close g brings it. but not all that are spoken of in books. (which is a diphthong. an yard. The pupil may answer. Webster reckons b. "purely nasal. has no longer or more complex sound. originating in strange ignorance. an oozy bog. "O worthy youth! so young. as to follow a vowel without any hiatus. describes it otherwise. as. Kirkham's. and." [95] The dentals are those consonants which are referred to the teeth."--Kirkham's Elocution."--Kirkham's Elocution. "By pronouncing in a very deliberate and perfectly natural manner. aimed. crammed. or neither. buzzed. loved. y is called an articulation or consonant. requires an. dozed. Octavo. and. and with some propriety perhaps. I know not whether I can make you understand it. missed. Webster. S. soothed. is compound. thronged. or in the vowel i. that the sound produced. Webster supposes w to be always "a vowel. they are so squeezed in their pronunciation. but the book which I study.--In the large print above. "Y is always a vowel.. m.--Some teach that w and y are always vowels: conceiving the former to be equivalent to oo. as. but I will tr-oo-i-ee. "At the beginning of words.--Murray's rule. planned. supposing he had Dr. But oo or the sound of e.) the unpractised student will perceive. piqued. a yard. the latter. is favourable to my doctrine. Rush says. what they will of either! 168 OBS. sir. and v. OBS." but admits that. an eel. laughed. and not a. Johnson. of the obscure sound of oo as heard in oo-ze. p. Alger's. an . feared. Thus the "unpractised student" is taught that b-y spells bwy. wished. but too badly conceived to be quoted here as authority. have called it." there is no word that does: the sound is a mere fiction." If the word try. and all others after which our contracted preterits and participles require that d should be sounded like t. that "consonants are capable of forming syllables. by See-quo-yah. not a labial mute. OBS. 7. and on which it gradually passes off into silence. "describe the protracted sound of y. and the palatals are those which compress the palate." and "W is either a vowel or a diphthong. so wise!" OBS." finds no difficulty in mouthing this little monosyllable by into b-oo-i-ee! In this way. But Dr. and not an. but in every other situation they are vowels. daubed. as it brings the root of the tongue in close contact with the lower part of the palate. for he makes the sounds by which he judges. for such a man to outface Aristotle. nor have I thought it worth while to notice minutely the opinions of writers respecting the others. It undesignedly makes w a consonant in wine. in considering both of them sometimes vowels and sometimes consonants. Ingersoll's. a wall. reaped. filled. Rush on his side. and all others with which the proper sound of d may be united. and not. judged. and y a consonant when it forms a syllable. or. p. and a vowel in twine. Worcester. having proved."--American Dict. at its opening. an wall." says the teacher of Kirkham's Elocution. does not exhibit his "protracted sound of y. "That letter. being formed. stuffed. Cobb." Dr. boo-i-ee!" Nay. triumphed.

the art of writing was brought to its highest state of perfection. from the account." continues the writer. and by connecting different ones together. 6 and 8. and this number is said to be sufficient to denote them all. Aleph.--All certain knowledge of the sounds given to the letters by Moses and the prophets having been long ago lost."--Wilson's Heb. I suppose that more than one half of the Cherokees can read their own language. The five vowels by name are. by their combinations. the number of characters. it seems absolutely certain. But the different syllabic sounds in our language amount to some thousands. and must have continued to render both reading and writing very laborious arts. all that is required. 169 ingenious but wholly illiterate Indian. and not written.. except by points of comparatively late invention. that See-quo-yah writes his name. The discussion of such a question does not properly belong to English grammar. to their most simple elements. to learn to enunciate or to pronounce them. a strange dispute has arisen. to learn the letters. Coodey. would not require. Yod. and are thereby enabled to acquire much valuable information. not simple tones and articulations. 1831. but in Cherokee. and both read and write. like ours. five are vowels and seventeen are consonants. VII. to put in writing all the different words. . in this state. On this subject. among some of the ancient nations. the signs which we now call letters. or combinations of sound. in this new progress. or are not. 9. Charles Wilson says. "I have known some to acquire the art in a single evening. was reduced within a much smaller compass than the number of words in the language." Again: "I beg leave only to premise this observation. and been carried on for centuries. indeed. "can learn to read in a day. or character. we must not only first learn the letters. but to spell. as well as of its analogy to some of our present disputes. All who understand the language can do so. for the characters represent. OBS. so as to produce articulate sounds. Blair as a great improvement upon the Chinese method. after the most careful and minute inquiry. is."--W. which probably preceded the invention of an alphabet of letters. "Whether the Hebrew letters are. to be enabled to read at once. In the English language. so that the study of a whole life is scarcely sufficient to make a man thoroughly master of them. which appears at first sight very plain and simple. and Ain. Vau. states. for they have syllabic sounds. By being reduced to this simplicity. Till. I mention it. pp. so soon as they can learn to trace with their fingers the forms of the characters. and. p."--Blair's Rhetoric. in Ethiopia. which they employed in speech. reduced them to a very few vowels and consonants. 68. OBS. The characters used in China and Japan. in a letter to the American Lyceum. however more or less remote that time may be. "was the invention of an alphabet of syllables. From the earliest period of the invention of written characters to represent human language. One of the Cherokees. we now enjoy it in all the countries of Europe. and. that of the twenty-two letters of which the Hebrew alphabet consists. that I absolutely and unequivocally deny the position. Still. Lect. and. numberless contentions and varieties of opinion meet us at the threshold. and yet as being far inferior to that which is properly alphabetic.CHAPTER I. All the speculations of the Greek grammarians assume this as a first principle. "The first step. But the sounds of the language are much fewer than ours. some happy genius arose.--From the foregoing account." says he. concerning this question. By fixing upon a particular mark. stand severally for words. and their number is said to be not less than seventy thousand. however. the number of characters was great. with which they otherwise would never have been blessed. that the distinction of letters into vowels and consonants must have obtained. on account of its curiosity. give it as my opinion. by affixing to each of these. such a division as that of vowels and consonants. but syllabic sounds. that all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet are consonants. for every syllable in the language. it would appear that the Cherokee language is a very peculiar one: its words must either be very few. but. 8. a word is formed: in which there is no art. He. before reading. Syllabic writing is represented by Dr. necessary to be used in writing. taught men how. and some countries of India. S. the next step is. all consonants:" the vowels being supposed by some to be suppressed and understood. that a knowledge of this mode of writing is so easily acquired. "After we have sufficiently known the figures and names of the letters. in his own language. or the proportion of polysyllables very great. It is only necessary to learn the different sounds of the characters. and that characters so used. with three letters. and probably would not admit. or characters. and which is said to be retained to this day. Gram. that one who understands and speaks the language. I suppose. and. and tracing the sounds made by the human voice. at last. Dr. contains eighty-five letters.

giggle. Thus the eight long sounds. In the formation of syllables. jy. except the first. S before c preserves the former sound. et. go. pippin. witwal. l. and soft. and still utter the same vowel power. as in church. th flat. are those which are heard at the beginning of the words. G is always hard. i. xebec. vision. Again: most of them may be repeated in the same word. used alone even to form syllables. POWERS OF THE LETTERS. yew. has different sounds before different vowels. cy. ye. oh. shy. before e. To the initial X of foreign words. are produced by opening the mouth differently. ~o. mimic. as of s in pleasure. and the latter begins none. as in ocean. before a. ah. fond. as in Xerxes. old. gi. th sharp. eigh. nigh. but the six less vocal. as in the phrase. or time. n. it. or z in azure. ell. out. gy. fat. v. we always give the simple sound of Z. kie. vie. oo. peel. fall. tittle. Of such as may be easily uttered. The simple elementary sounds of any language are few. ill. like j. About half of them are sometimes words: the rest are seldom. words. union. eye. co. fate. my. III. thy.[96] but they may be variously combined. are useless. eh. fuss. Q has always the power of k. and which ought therefore to be perfectly familiar to every one who speaks it. as well as C. y. file. far. ooh. fifty. sh. mirror. hence the syllables. diddle. into as many more with a p. or guttural. ~e. pill. fie. put. se. sca. or vocal elements. as. ah. like s. full. are commonly heard only in connexion with consonants. high. sy. feel. ninny. pall. we. if ever. ji. The possible combinations and mutations of the twenty-six letters of our alphabet. ng. =eh. thigh. and placing the tongue in a peculiar manner for each. t. sko. 170 The powers of the letters are properly those elementary sounds which their figures are used to represent. fill. tie. before e. pole. But the reader may easily learn to utter them all. are sounded. sy. g hard. are pronounced. and X. are. ate. Thus the same essential sounds may be changed into a new series of words by an f. social. high-hung. commonly not more than thirty-six. û. r. All these sounds are heard distinctly in the following words: buy. awe. ot. o. ut. cackle. some of these fourteen primary sounds may be joined together.[97] dizzies. ~i. si. go. ga. Ce and ci have sometimes the sound of sh. thinketh. and all of them may be preceded or followed by certain motions and positions of the lips and tongue. fold. zebra. separately. are pronounced ga. o. ka. thither. w. si. pule. cu." The simple consonant sounds in English are twenty-two: they are marked by b. pile. m. ko. are capable of communicating thought independently of sound. which will severally convert them into other terms in speech. eel. oh. are many millions of millions. before a. sigh. eye. pell. Again. With us. ~a. par. die. which is perhaps the most frequent sound of the vowel A or a--a sound sometimes given to the word a. seizure. J is equivalent to dzh. ku. pool. if not in the same syllable. perhaps most generally. lie. yew. se. guy. sku. singing. But those clusters which are unpronounceable. as in ay. Ch commonly represents the compound sound of tsh. not simple. awe. like k. ~u. and that of u in bull. scy. scu. pie. The former ends no English word. The consonants C and Q have no sounds peculiar to themselves. fool. h. and y: thus the syllables. pitch. vivid. hissest. p. or may be. as in bibber. fuse. ca. But zh is written only to show the sound of other letters. but the voice may vary in loudness. f. i. there . ci. ooze. d. G. use. rye. and u. isle. gu. and generally soft. sce. C is hard. either to ks or to gz. all. but complex sounds: hence they are never doubled. Each of the vowel sounds may be variously expressed by letters. s. oil. ska.CHAPTER I. as. us. or y: thus the syllables. lily. ge. according to the foregoing series. but coalesces with the latter. Different vowel sounds. purl. pate. gu. ah. sco. je. the consonants J and X represent. pull. called the short vowel sounds. "twice ~a day. ce. as in at. k. sci. but letters formed into words. pond. at. eying. on. The vowel sounds which form the basis of the English language. z. fell. and zh. flesh-brush. Let us note them as plainly as possible: eigh. so as to form words innumerable. and u. owl. pat.

p. Rush. But borrowed. Wherever this analysis is known. Still the discrepancies are few. or that of the learner. Each of the letters represents some one or more of the elementary sounds. are more than enough for all the purposes of useful writing. as may suffice to explain or record all the sentiments and transactions of all men in all ages. by a patient inculcation of elementary principles. Such persons may profit by a written description of the powers of the letters. 350. must alike render useless? I have supposed some readers to have such an acquaintance with the powers of the letters. "was long ago analyzed into its alphabetic elements. there is certainly much apparent lack of correspondence between its oral and its written form. when compared with the instances of exact conformity. may derive some assistance from any notation of these principles. of "the pronunciation of the alphabetic elements.[98] But surely an accurate knowledge of the ordinary powers of the letters would be vastly more common. to pronounce with distinctness and facility all the elementary sounds of one's native language. in the first instance. These quotations plainly imply both the practicability . to be often at variance. and is so obvious in itself." * * * "The art of reading consists in having all the vocal elements under complete command. or of the differences which distinguish them. but not to a ready analysis or enumeration of them. been conducted upon the rudimental method. are certainly correlative: a true knowledge of either tends to the preservation of both. were he himself appointed sole arbiter of all variances between our spelling and our speech.. but a few positions. has been so frequently urged. being assumed and made known. and. in our language especially. from a great variety of sources."--Philosophy of the Voice. For pronunciation and orthography. to lay the foundation of an accurate pronunciation. the art of teaching language has. in respect to some characters. p. as it is to think of forcing a reconciliation. The connexion between letters and sounds is altogether arbitrary. it is as useless to complain of the trouble they occasion. were there not much hereditary negligence respecting the manner in which these important rudiments are learned. Why then attempt instruction by a method which both ignorance and knowledge on the part of the pupil. which will help their memory. we derive such a variety of oral and written signs.--A knowledge of sounds can be acquired. has some one or two letters to which it most properly or most frequently belongs. "The least deviation from the assumed standard converts the listener into the critic.--The importance of being instructed at an early age. 171 OBS. too. by the sense of hearing. and I am surely speaking within bounds when I say. extending perhaps to all the sounds of the language. can never agree among themselves. become easy standards for further instruction in respect to others of similar sound. can be at all intelligible to him who has not already." he says. acquired a knowledge of both. and. as I suppose they are. whether orthography shall conform to pronunciation. 346. 3. that they may be properly applied. to which it is desirable ever to retain the means of tracing it. Nor does any one of them well know how our language would either sound or look. The wranglers in this controversy. if they are. and each of the elementary sounds. The utterance of the illiterate may exhibit wit and native talent. that for every miscalled element in discourse. however they may seem. though several of them are occasionally transferred. OBS. as is but loose and imperfect. with the best success. ten succeeding words are lost to the greater part of an audience. unavoidable. What I here say of the sounds of the letters. because it is not aided by a knowledge of orthography. sufficient for the accurate pronunciation of some words or syllables. Thus it is. only by the ear. as our language has been. exclusive of the rest. OBS. No description of the manner of their production. for the vivid and elegant delineation of the sense and sentiment of discourse. though no such description can equal the clear impression of the living voice. that none but those who have been themselves neglected. 2. 1.CHAPTER I. must of course be addressed to those persons only who are able both to speak and to read English. or pronunciation to orthography. whose business it is to aid the articulation of the young. Again. represented by characters still fewer. or the recording of speech."--Ibid. that from principles so few and simple as about six or seven and thirty plain elementary sounds. Teachers. but it is always more or less barbarous." says Dr. will be likely to disregard the claims of their children in this respect. but leaving them liable to mistakes in others. OBSERVATIONS.--"Language.

look more like the work of what is called--wise and transcendent humanity: till the pardonable variety of pronunciation. who reads well but one hour! . wherein does the difficulty lie? and how shall he who knows not what and how many they are. as it would seem. 383. and all the sounds. If difficult. It is better for criticism to be modest on this point. 52. and of our orthography. "The first of these matters is under the rule of every body. are here used much more frequently than others. How can we hope to establish a system of elemental pronunciation in a language." is also vending under his own name an abstract of the new scheme of "tonicks. who does not show himself able to solve it. have been given to the world by Dr.CHAPTER I. The first of them affirms that it has been done. Lindley Murray stands forth in bold relief. And yet." according to some ancient method of dividing the letters and explaining their sounds." and. a noted stickler for needless Kays and Ues. "The deficiencies. and a faithful record of their operations. of Philadelphia--a name that will outlive the unquarried marble of our mountains. ground. and. that a great master of the "pen-craft" here ridiculed.. How often. and agreeably to the standard assumed by the grammarians. why are there so few that agree? A certain verse in the seventh chapter of Ezra. at the same time. or with itself. OBS. All these sounds may easily be written in a plain sentence of three or four lines upon almost any subject. think himself capable of reforming our system of their alphabetic signs? If easy. as one can divine. has been said to contain all the letters. does a man speak all the elements of his language. to monopolize all inconsistency. with its own friends. p. but. "Among those who have successfully laboured in the philological field. is teaching the old explanation of the alphabetic elements to "more than one hundred thousand children and youth. prevent the adoption of its subdivisions in this essay. 405. do make a decree to all the treasurers' who 'are beyond the river. and thus dissolves the spell of its merits. each sound five times. the scribe of the law of the God of heaven. 4. stands on very different. when great masters in criticism condemn at once every attempt. and thoughtless friends undertake to support it? The fraud must go on. as if a ploughman might teach us to spell better: and. 172 and the importance of teaching the pronunciation of our language analytically by means of its present orthography. as if sense or philosophy must utterly repudiate both. and therefore is very properly to be excluded from the discussions of that philosophy which desires to be effectual in its instruction. as often happens. and each letter eight. have satirized into reformation that pen-craft which keeps up the troubles of orthography for no other purpose. even I. Artaxerxes. the reader will judge."--Kirkham's Elocution. Of the specific sounds given to the letters. especially since a correct analysis of the vocal organs. and some sounds. and atonicks. why do so few pretend to know their number? and of those who do pretend to this knowledge. for any man to declaim about the imperfection of our alphabet and orthography. 5. shall require of you. bestowing superlative praise on both. and then both all the letters. of the system of alphabetic characters in this language. he speaks of softening his censure through modesty. Mr. till presumption quarrels. on the Voice."--Ib. then. in the pronunciation of the alphabetic elements. It however contains no j. p. in one breath. "The modern candidate for oratorical fame. and every one who can read. p. I will suggest a few additional words for these. and that of u in bull. than to boast of a very questionable merit as a criterion of education." Some letters. if not ridiculous. in this short passage.--How far these views are compatible. in order. we find this same author complaining of our alphabet and its subdivisions. till it has the sense or independence to make our alphabet and its uses. OBS. according to that which he shall enjoin. he says. and the true spelling by the vulgar. that whatsoever Ezra the priest. while he boasts that his grammar. and with all the letters. Now it is either easy to count them. that of th sharp. we have. 12. both before and afterwards. and most of them. Again: "I deprecate noticing the faults of speakers. in so simple and useful a labour as the correction of its orthography!"--P. from a consideration of the fact. 256. it be done speedily' and faithfully. on an average. presents a remarkable puzzle: and it is idle. is familiar with them all. as undeniably at the head of the list."--Ibid. And it is hoped he will excuse the length of the extracts."--Rush."--Ib.. and far more advantageous. will be found in the example. many times over: "'And I. James Rush. the king. than that occupied by the young and aspiring Athenian. "with the best success. now commonly rejected. p. "But what is to be said when presumption pushes itself into the front ranks of elocution. of the English language. with respect to the sounds. p.--The question respecting the number of simple or elementary sounds in our language.. subtonicks. or it is difficult. and confusion. redundancies. which he mostly copied from Murray's. it lacks that of f. 29.

and essentially different by others. I. are very liable to be corrupted in pronunciation. though some suppose it to be peculiar. able. in compliance with general custom. I am inclined to teach. that. which shall be true of his own pronunciation. It may be exemplified in the words oven.[101] 4. The short o. Thirdly. is rather a very quick union of the sounds ah and ee into ay. in his Course of Reading. as heard in ale and ell. as in the word diversity. There is also a feeble sound of i or y unaccented. have deviated more or less from their own decisions concerning either the simplicity or the identity of sounds. Such words as bear. have some peculiar way of utterance.[100] Walker recognized several more. in his new Grammar. Dr. and the same thirty-six that are given in the main text above. and adopted the same number. tone and tun. have been declared essentially the same by some. but which. parent. . but I know not whether he has anywhere told us how many there are. 9. the sound of j. as in the sentence. Lindley Murray enumerates thirty-six. in my opinion. The Italian a. 3. the sameness or the singleness. each for himself. however.[99] or in the unemphatic article the before a consonant. a principle of universal grammar. and others.--Of the number of elementary sounds in our language. but. Mandeville. careful. Jones followed him implicitly. it appears to have been thought expedient to admit some exceptions concerning both. of what are called the long and the short vowels. different orthoëpists report differently. The vulgar are apt to let it fall into the more obscure sound of short u. Murray. as in isle. and rejected as compound by others. wherein the identity or the simplicity. which Sheridan and Walker consider to be the same. in English. there is given to the vowel e a certain very obscure sound which approaches. by too broad a sound of the a. It is desirable not to multiply these sounds beyond the number which a correct and elegant pronunciation of the language obviously requires. we should not have more sounds than letters: and this is a proof that we have characters enough. The apparent difference may perhaps result from the following consonant r. and for convenience in teaching. and Wells. all and on.CHAPTER I. which is equivalent to ee uttered feebly. is reckoned as simple by some. which. One may. "A has eight sounds. because they cannot always agree among themselves. no sounds but such as are unquestionably simple in themselves. or because. between the vowel sounds heard in hate and bear. or soft g. for striking from the list seven or eight of those already mentioned. though the sounds are perhaps badly distributed among them. father. or distinguish some which other men confound. OBS. and others identify it with the short i in fit. as in French. 6. which we always regard in writing. 2. as in far. 173 OBS. but amounts not to an absolute suppression.--Sheridan made the elements of his oratory twenty-eight. "Take the nearest:" we do not hear it as "thee nearest. 8. so he may utter many sounds improperly and still be understood. isle or eel and ill. There may be found some reputable authority for adding four or five more. But let it be remembered. The diphthongal i. that all who have hitherto attempted the enumeration. Were we to recognize as elementary. arm and am. pule or pool and pull. And what that number is. even of well-known sounds. consists. which he thought but a quicker union of the sounds of the diphthong oi. that there can be no syllable without a vowel. Worcester. as in hot." but more obscurely. For the sake of the general principle. L.--I have enumerated thirty-six well known sounds." nor as "then carest. OBS. They may also. dare. if each is allowed to determine these points for himself. with Brightland. no one of them adheres strictly to his own decision. shovel. The eight sounds not counted by Sheridan are these: 1. in his new Dictionary. and other authority as reputable. and. For. I think we may fix it with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes. Thus the long or diphthongal sounds of I and U. which he reckoned but a lengthening of the a in hat. so a part. make out a scheme of the alphabetic elements. and indisputably different in quality from all others. which is apt to affect the sound of the vowel which precedes it. care. a distinction is made by some writers. though it is commonly so regarded by the writers of dictionaries. As elegance of utterance depends much upon the preservation of this sound from such obtuseness. says. perhaps Walker and others have done well to mark it as e in me. This is the most common sound of i and of y. I do not approve of adding an other sound to a vowel which has already quite too many. and excluded by others."--P. give to the vowel A six or seven sounds in lieu of four. I choose to regard as the oral elements of our language. which he supposed to be but a shortening of the a in hall. and yet have obvious faults when tried by the best usage of English speech. as the multiplication of needless distinctions should be avoided. at least. and Dr. Johnson. if not all. as a man may write a very bad hand which shall still be legible. 7. are admitted by some. it seems to me not very difficult to ascertain. which will confound some sounds which other men distinguish. most commonly. in this way.

and equivalent to oo. as to any of the more complex sounds in which consonants are joined with them. In protracting the e in met. though I am not sure of it. The distinction of long and short vowels which has generally obtained. old. The consonant y. In all other respects. and the i in ship. and to find among what they call the long vowels a parent sound for each of the short ones. which he conceived to be always a vowel. The prolation of a pure vowel places the organs of utterance in that particular position which the sound of the letter requires. OBS. an element that tends to silence. that in one or two instances. as they meet the shore. all.. to save time. but. or have not chosen to abide by its verdict. unless the preceding vowel be accented. All sounds imply time. and still be precisely the same one simple sound. because it belongs severally to all the distinct or numerable impulses of the voice. and then holds them unmoved till we have given to it all the length we choose. may be protracted to the entire extent of a full breath slowly expended. especially in emphatic words.[102] the sound given it by Walker. and the latter naturally short. the notion of quantity is of course as applicable to them. sounds that differ only in length. and the voice of the Ocean is raised. OBS. convert the former word into mate and the latter into sheep. Gram. must be so lengthened as to be uttered with perfect clearness: otherwise the performance will be judged defective. I suppose the vowels heard in pull and pool would be necessarily identified. 7. is a matter with which every reader ought to be experimentally acquainted. The u heard in pull. pronounce the long-drawn syllables of his majestic elocution. that the protraction of u in tun would identify it with the o in tone. In common parlance. if the former were protracted or the latter shortened. But one author at least denies it. to that short quantity in which they cannot be mistaken. as this would breed confusion in the language. 174 The long u. and that grammarians and orthoëpists. 5. But in oratory. as well as long. and which is now most commonly taught. and to adapt language to circumstances. and in comparatively short quantity. arm. But to suppose. therefore. whether long or short. p. and still be severally known without danger of mistake. ignorance or carelessness might perhaps. us. When mighty winds have swept over sea and land. with the help of our orthoëpists. and says.--The effect of Quantity in the prolation of the vowels. 8. his scheme of the alphabetic elements agrees with that which is adopted in this work. ooze. on the contrary. With one or two exceptions. and perhaps there would be a like coalescence of those heard in of and all. it appears to me that each of the pure vowel sounds is of such a nature. are commonly recognized as different elements. "The first distinction of sound that seems to obtrude itself upon us when we utter the vowels. It would appear. have attempted to carry out the analogy. "We must explode the pretended natural epithets short and long given to our vowels. independent on accent: and we must observe that our silent e final lengthens not its syllable. 10. that it may be readily recognized by its own peculiar quality or tone. is a long and a short sound. The consonant h. which is acknowledged to be equal to yu or yew. 232. and sometimes in ordinary reading. surpasses any notion I have of what stupidity may misconceive. but a mere breathing. which he made equal to a short ee. OBS. eel. It is commonly spoken of with reference to syllables. Quantity is simply the time of utterance. should be sensibly protracted. Walker says. and even the shortest syllable. because they are the transient effects of certain percussions which temporarily agitate the air. which he declared to be no letter. we usually utter words with great rapidity. But see him again in gentler mood. the avoiding of the similarity may perhaps be a sufficient reason for confining these two sounds of e and i. at. that they are. It is manifest that each of the vowel sounds heard in ate.[103] and. perceiving this. The consonant w. those sounds which are best fitted to fill and gratify the ear.CHAPTER I. that all but one may be shortened to the very minimum of vocality. stand upon the beach and listen to the rippling of his more frequent waves: he will teach you short quantity. may be doubted: the common opinion is. In doing this. have always been to me sources of much embarrassment. were they tried in the same way. though perhaps a little different from you or yoo. they have either neglected to consult the ear."--Mackintosh's Essay on E. 9. to avoid tediousness. he speaks to the towering cliffs in the deep tones of a long quantity. as vowels or diphthongs may be uttered alone.--Some of the vowels are usually uttered in longer time than others. as some do. 6. or time. and the correspondences which some writers have laboured to establish between them. according to the . 11. the rolling billows. but whether the former are naturally long. which he considered but a shortening of oo. and.--In treating of the quantity and quality of the vowels. though it be made as long or as short as it is possible for any sound of the human voice to be. and to these only.

44. k or q. tone. 480. professing to arrange the vowels. "the radical and the vanishing movement of the voice. That one mode. or o. nature has stamped duplicity." and "be found to possess an excellence which must grow into sure and irreversible favour. that there is no . Of that. in denominating vowels long or short. v. A--h=azy. thinks he reads well. 404. he supposes the short sound of each to be no other than the short sound of its latter element ee or oo. that it is a compound of what he calls. and z. 175 greater or less duration of time taken up in pronouncing them. pool. 6. U--as ee-oo. yet this has bred but little confusion. how she manages the simple elements of the voice. p. long and short. p. of the Voice. who professes to have been long "in the habit of listening to sounds of every description. nearly tun. Again: "But though the terms long and short. on all the vocal elements of language. "will beget a similarity of opinion and practice. 66. this is the most perplexed with contrarieties of opinion? In coming before the world as an author. h.--c or s. he presents a scheme which I abbreviate as follows. him. no man intends to place himself clearly in the wrong. m. which severally correspond to the eight mutes in their order. th flat and j." declares in a recent and expensive work. 2. Rush comes to the explanation of the powers of the letters as the confident first revealer of nature's management and wisdom. p. "to believe. W--vo=w and la~w. 7. if we choose to be directed by the ear. and that with more than ordinary attention. which. on the simple powers of the letters. Liquids."--Ibid. and differ only in the long or short emission of that tone. as heard in the word day. how comes it to pass that of all the disputable points in grammar." by William Gardiner. VOWELS: 1. besides having several chapters on subjects connected with it. in order to give to "the simple elements of English utterance" a better explanation than others have furnished. No. He then proceeds to state his opinion that the vowel sounds heard in the following words are thus correspondent: tame. them. See "Music of Nature. theme."--Ib. 2. A. by our works of analysis. "We have been willing. he devotes to a new analysis of our alphabet the ample space of twenty octavo pages. wall.. f.--If men's notions of the length and shortness of vowels are the clearest ideas they have in relation to the elements of speech. gone. some say. and the reader may judge. that. his philosophy alone teaches. Let us now show. others may judge. Mutes. as in orifice and n~ot. Y--(like the first e--) s=yntax and dut~y. and d. he first attempts to prove. and though the short sounds of some vowels have not in our language been classed with sufficient accuracy with their parent long ones. and I have shown why. As to the long sounds of i or y. OBS. dawn. ng. in the production of their unbounded combinations. with peculiar self-satisfaction. with reference to vowels and syllables in general. O--pr=ove and ad~o. I shall only notice here what seems to be his fundamental position. and after. as in =all and wh~at. these two being diphthongal. and of u. OBS. OU--as au-oo. an accurate ear will easily perceive that these terms do not always mean the long and short sounds of the respective vowels to which they are applied. E--=e=el and it.. U--=urn and h~ut. but. we have volumes of irreconcilable doctrines. This distinction is so obvious as to have been adopted in all languages. pull. and hopes to have laid the foundation of a system of instruction in reading and oratory. He does not tell us how many elementary sounds there are. DIPHTHONGS: 1. and yet all read differently: there is. CONSONANTS: 1. p. A--=ah and h~at." he says. To establish this extraordinary doctrine.--Dr. b. E--m=ercy and m~et. 8. 4. want. that "the letter a. 3. if adopted and perfected." as well as to show of the consonants that the mutes and liquids form correspondents in regular pairs. Now to me most of this is exceedingly unsatisfactory. O--v=ote and ech~o. 13. in which both the vowels are heard. for. 3. yet. but one mode of reading well. we must certainly give these appellations to those sounds only which have exactly the same radical tone. and is that to which we annex clearer ideas than to any other."--Ib. infers from the experiment. n. on faith alone. 12. so pronouncing it himself."--Principles. 5. and. 3. p. No. however. carry. no short sound. sh. are pretty generally understood." the sounds of a and e as in ale and eve. 2. "in the order in which they are naturally found. or l=ove and c~ome.CHAPTER I. 9. 403.--g hard. that "in every language we find the vowels incorrectly classed". 11. as vowels long and short are always sufficiently distinguishable."--Phil. A great connoisseur in things of this sort. Subliquids. 10."--a single and indivisible element in which "two sounds are heard continuously successive.--l. as applied to vowels. r. He does not know that some grammarians have contended that ay in day is a proper diphthong. And what do his twenty pages amount to? I will give the substance of them in ten lines. I--as ah-ee. which has no corresponding mute. OO--t=o=ol and f~o~ot. car.. t. th sharp. 63. that nature is wise in the contrivance of speech. Again: "Every one." combines two distinguishable yet inseparable sounds. but.

"--Acts. v-ile. In every kind of type or character. the forms of which are peculiarly adapted to the pen. in that of all. but "monothongs. they show what words were supplied by the translators. i-f.CHAPTER I. Some of these are so copied in books. include. r-oe. a triple line. a multitude of other words will acquire a new element not commonly heard in them. The titles of books. 54. the word shape is to be pronounced sha-epe. In manuscripts. Twelve are called "Tonics."--Ib. as being altogether as simple and elementary. a-le. g-ive. =o'-oo. and the complex vowel sound heard in voice and boy. and imagines a sufficient warrant from nature to divide them all "into two parts. which he calls. (that is. OBS. The philosopher examines. in some similar way. as well as the beauty of a book. THIS IS JESUS. to have no difference in quality. for full capitals. the Roman characters are generally employed. err.. and the heads of their principal divisions.--But the doctrine stops not here. Characters of different sorts or sizes should never be needlessly mixed. slants from the left to the right downwards. "The seven radical sounds with their vanishes. 53. th-en. are excluded from his list. 37. xxvii." and to convert most of them into diphthongs. slants from the left to the right upwards. a single line drawn under a word is meant for Italics. in that of an. 56. Showbills. . not diphthongs. and in. in the i of isle. the letters have severally two forms."--Matt."--Ib. all the elementary diphthongs of the English language. z-one. he knows not what. sometimes. they are heard in the words. and short inscriptions. a-n. in the oy of boy. y-e. and are heard in the usual sound of the separated Italics. [Font change: Script letters] are used. d-are. si-ng. the other simple vowel sounds. THE KING OF THE JEWS. 23. p. =i'-ee. o-ld. wh-eat. and. TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. in the o of old. by which they are distinguished as capitals and small letters. ah'~-e. as well as to include all diphthongs with them. a-z-ure. a double line. n-ot. the [Font change: Old English]: but in handwriting. he says. l-ove. in the following words: A-ll. except that which he makes for himself when he admits "the radical and the vanish.) in that of art. In the ordinary forms of the Roman letters. depends much upon the regularity of its letters. but if oi is not a triphthong. because facility of reading. and every thin stroke that slants. m-ay. FORMS OF THE LETTERS. xvii. as far as I can perceive. ou-r. Italics are chiefly used to distinguish emphatic or remarkable words: in the Bible. Thus he begins with confounding all distinction between diphthongs and simple vowels. a base and an apex. ye-s. for small capitals. i-sle. 176 simpler sound of the vowel a. whether diphthongal or simple." But in the a of ale. p. ee-l." the first half of a sound and the last. e-rr. in the following words: B-ow. ou-t. In printed books of the English language. ar-k. a radical and a vanishing movement. But all the sounds of the vowel u.. oo-ze. p. and capitals are used for the sake of eminence and distinction. h-e. the short a followed by something of the sound of e in err. painted signs. he hears =a'-ee. p. This admission is made with respect to the vowels heard in ooze. pu-sh. ou'-oo. and finds a beginning and an end. the Italic. in like manner. unless he means to represent one of them by the e in err. every thick stroke that slants. Nine are called "Atonics. they are to be thirty-six.. "I found an altar with this inscription. end. eel. as. th-in.. and are marked by the separated Italics. Small letters constitute the body of every work. to them all.. 14. in the proper diphthong ou. his accusation written. and occasionally."--Ib. IV. a-rt. ~a'-~e."--Ib. Fourteen are called "Subtonics. 60. except the middle stroke in Z. is confessedly omitted on account of a doubt whether it consists of two sounds or of three! The elements which he enumerates are thirty-five. After his explanation of these mysteries. awe'-~e. e-nd. U-p. which have been described. My opinion of this scheme of the alphabet the reader will have anticipated. w-o. are printed wholly in capitals. If this inference is not wrong. "And they set up over his head. i-n. commonly appear best in full capitals.

the Holy Spirit. Newfoundland. Blackrock. Titles of office or honour. 177 When particular books are mentioned by their names. should begin with a capital.--OF BOOKS." "The hope of my spirit turns trembling to Thee. Whiteplains. the Messiah. Whitehaven.--FIRST WORDS. as. Statenland. Mountpleasant." RULE V. of every description. and have but one capital: as. RULE I. Germantown. or of any clause separately numbered or paragraphed. For protecting them. "Eastport. should begin with capitals.--OF TITLES. Eastville. Kinderhook. Noah Webster. Chalmers.--OF THE DEITY. All names of the Deity.--TWO CAPITALS. Redhook. Westtown. as. Judas Iscariot. the Supreme Being. Simon Peter. Westfield. Westborough. For imposing taxes on us without our consent:" &c. the Strand. the Father.CHAPTER I. Johnson. Jehovah. The first word of every distinct sentence. the Comforter. "God. Fairhaven. "14. the Pyrenees. Whitechurch. St. and epithets of distinction. "His Majesty William the Fourth. "Saul of Tarsus. Quench not the Spirit. Prove all things: hold fast that which is good.--ONE CAPITAL. Despise not prophesyings. Dekalb. Sir Matthew Hale. Southbridge. Charles the Second. the Argo and the Argonauts. Declaration of American Independence. Dr."--Moore." [104] RULE II." RULE VI. Esq.. 16--21. and sometimes their emphatic substitutes. the Rev. the Son. Pray without ceasing. as. England. He has given his assent to their acts of pretended legislation: 15. as. Germanflats. Chief Justice Marshall. RULE IV. Jun. Newcastle. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 16. the chief words in their titles begin with capitals. RULE III. In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you. begin usually with capitals. Lewis the Bold. Lafayette. Proper names. Bartholomew. should be so written.. For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world: 18. The compounding of a name under one capital should be avoided when the general analogy of other similar . Pliny the Younger. the Vatican." RULE VII. applied to persons. RULES FOR THE USE OF CAPITALS. as. London. from punishment for murders: 17. the Lord of Sabaoth. Dr. Deruyter. Macpherson. Those compound proper names which by analogy incline to a union of their parts without a hyphen. the Greeks. the Thames. Mountmellick. by a mock trial. Whitehall. v. Northcastle. the Almighty. James the Less. "Rejoice evermore. and the other letters are small. "Pope's Essay on Man"--"the Book of Common Prayer"--"the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments."--1 Thess. Divine Providence.--PROPER NAMES. should always begin with capitals.

sects. Vol."--Psalm cxlvii. come. should begin with a capital. or Italian. the Ohio river. I allow not: for what I would. West Greenwich. and having direct reference to particular persons. or Germanic. we have generally separate words and two capitals.CHAPTER I. or Roman. German. Scotch. Latinize. Greek. 178 terms suggests a separation under two. "Praise the Lord. some editions of the Psalms in Metre are full of examples. Chinese. when the word East. except what is regarded as making but one verse with the line preceding. ii. Italicize. Jersey City. as. Every line in poetry. Warren county. Prayer. Flatbush village. Land's End. When any adjective or common noun is made a distinct part of a compound proper name. So. Ben Foskarg." RULE VIII. 311. it is in general sufficient. . the Argentine Republic. that do I not. the Blue Ridge. the Little Pedee. should begin with a capital. but what I hate. as. places. gentle Spring."--Addison.--DERIVATIVES. Welsh:" so. perhaps. Ps."--Pope..--OF POETRY.--COMPOUNDS. Lower Canada. Newtonian. 1819. or Frenchify. Gretna Green. as. shall Dryden be. as."--Rom. as. as.--APPOSITION. Ben Golich. the Lord shall give him rest. O Jerusalem.--PERSONIFICATIONS. RULE XIV. Benchasker. "Upon this. it ought to begin with a capital. as. RULE XIII. Genoese. the Gold Coast. Matthew the publican. or nations. When a common and a proper name are associated merely to explain each other."--Thomson. The name of an object personified. West. the river Euphrates. North. as. if the proper name begin with a capital. as part of a name. 24 and 15. vii. "The prophet Elisha. The words I and O should always be capitals. Dutch. N. Romanize." RULE XII. Long Island. with a small letter. "to Platonize. ethereal mildness." RULE X. Romish. French. "O wretched man that I am!"--"For that which I do." RULE IX. or when the word New distinguishes a place by contrast. RULE XI.. or Grecian. Turkish. the brook Cherith. xli. as. the Peak of Teneriffe. "Platonic. and the appellative. Swedish. New Hampshire. or South. "Our sons their fathers' failing language see. South Bridgewater. p. when it conveys an idea strictly individual. and Ben Wyvis.--OF EXAMPLES. Fancy began again to bestir herself. O Zion. "Come. "East Greenwich. "The United States. And such as Chaucer is. New Jersey. that do I. "Happy the man whose tender care relieves the poor distress'd! When troubles compass him around.. denotes relative position." Psalms with Com. "The chief mountains of Ross-shire are Ben Chat. Grecize."--Glasgow Geog. Of the exception. Green Bay. should begin with capitals. Ben Nore. North Bridgewater. Write Ben Chasker. Words derived from proper names.--OF I AND O. New York city. Y. praise thy God. Italic.

--CHIEF WORDS. Geometry. in Johnson's quarto Dict. The first agrees with the Latin Vulgate. 50. either in the capital F. every sort. as." See A. "In ascending from the note C to D. LORD God of Israel. and must be left to the judgement and taste of authors and printers. their use or disuse is arbitrary. b.[105] . Divine Right of Tythes." The last is wrong."--Beauties of Shakspeare. with reference to the Legislative branch of the Government. In this grammar. p. the same rule of action should make the President ever anxious to avoid the exercise of any discretionary authority which can be regulated by Congress. Greek characters. and the second. LORD God of Israel our Father. and names subscribed frequently have capitals throughout: as.. xviii.'"--"Virgil says.--A lavish use of capitals defeats the very purpose for which the letters were distinguished in rank."--CHARLES LESLIE. "Thou knowest the commandments.--NEEDLESS CAPITALS. for ever and ever. RULE XVI. the number of rules is increased. read by their names." And others. as. Ye are gods?"--John."--Ib. C. "Blessed be thou."--Music of Nature. p. As it was when the Church Enjoy'd her Possessions. "To say."--Young. which two famous versions here disagree. 10th. "In its application to the Executive. and such as denote the principal subjects treated of. Astronomy. Examples: "Then comes answer like an ABC book. the same. A is more or less quadrangular than B. differently. should begin with a capital. Music."--ANDREW JACKSON. the same. Do not steal. therefore. may be distinguished by capitals. B. being construed both substantively and adjectively. 97. OBS. "We have only to imagine the G clef placed below it.--The letters of the alphabet. OBS.CHAPTER I. 34. for ever and ever. 179 The first word of a full example." "For A. Which wou'd then be Much More Liberal. Do not kill. And turns the tide of Europe on the foe. that while A and B are both quadrangular. or for lack of a comma after Israel. Honour thy father and thy mother. book. may sometimes misrepresent the writer's meaning. Hence they are used in the sciences as symbols of an infinite variety of things or ideas. his magic pen evokes an O. 'Labour conquers all things. but the custom of each science determines our choice. 293. "Blessed be thou. for the most part. named or nameless. OBSERVATIONS."--Murray's Gram. c. and if doubts arise in their application. xxix. RULE XV. On many occasions. and carelessness in respect to the rules which govern them. the interval is equal to an inch. 2. LORD God of Israel our father. Thus Algebra employs small Italics.. with the Greek text of the Septuagint. is absurd.--Shakspeare. p. Preserv'd almost only among the Clergy. and from D to E. our Father. "Remember this maxim: 'Know thyself. p. "Many a Noble Genius is lost for want of Education. Is it not written in your law. of a distinct speech. and come under the fifteenth rule above. by which we may mark and particularize objects of any sort. or of a direct quotation. Which is right I know not. for the most part. Better:--"like an A-Bee-Cee book.'"--"Jesus answered them. 228. and Grammar. "Blessed be thou. The others differ in meaning. Do not commit adultery. the difficulties will be in particular examples only. some of our Bibles say. 1. are equivalent to words. as. 1700. however. 20." Others say. They will however tend to this desirable result. in the Dark Ages. I said. Any of their forms may be used for such purposes. as. And Learning was. and not in the general principles of the rules. concern chief words. Other words of particular importance. for ever and ever. Instances of this kind will. x. Roman capitals. because they construe the word father. For instance: In 1 Chron. in some part or other. without ambiguity in either. "Then comes question like an a. 1835. or Father. but the foregoing are still perhaps too few to establish an accurate uniformity."--Luke. Do not bear false witness. Capitals are improper wherever there is not some special rule or reason for their use: a century ago books were disfigured by their frequency. They are a sort of universal signs.

in four editions to which I have turned. but. should have commenced with capitals. Old Edition. it commonly begins with a small letter. but the Bible. it may be observed." in the preceding ones. and. The former.--On Rule 3d. "Milton's great poem. viii. xcv. as the writer pleases. 180 OBS. begins with a capital. throw them together in the following manner: "He is above disguise. the sun will rise to-morrow. but also in reprints and quotations. but. others. as a title of honour to men. to separate sentences that are totally distinct in sense.. and he. 4. not excepting even the sacred books. it may be observed. 88.--On Rule 4th. For example: "The Future Tense is the form of the verb which denotes future time. which. it may be observed. concerning Names of Deity. unquestionably. and sometimes without. they are distinct enough to be separated by the period and a dash. OBS. the small letter: the one is an eminent name. that the words Lord and God take the nature of proper names. These sentences. and a great King above all Gods. To say nothing of the punctuation here used. and lords many. begin with capitals. concerning Books. the principle of the rule does not apply. "the etymological investigations of Horne Tooke. In amending the rules for this purpose. and used only in this particular connexion. But the public shall have the best instructions I can give. it is certain that the initial words. the. begin with a capital. must have formed some idea.. rather. "Though there be that are called gods. 3. p. it has no capital at all. 17. you shall go. that when particular books or writings are mentioned by other terms than their real titles. it may be observed. usually takes a capital. "the Son of Man." or the Diversions of Purley.--The innumerable discrepancies in respect to capitals." "we serve under a good master. one may call Paradise Lost."--Luke. has produced great diversity concerning capitals. with the formality of apparent quotation. only when they are used in reference to the Eternal Divinity. to a greater or less extent. OBS. almost every child that can speak. whether in heaven or in earth--as there be gods many. is usually written with a capital. for "good" and "goodness. On Rule 1st. The word Heaven put for God. John will come. as is sometimes practised in quoting. was sufficiently master of this distinction. Example: "The Lord is a great God. I once noticed that a very little boy. I have not been able entirely to satisfy myself. that he may honour the one true God the more. Of themselves."--Murray's Gram. and all others so related. concerning First Words." "we should do nothing beneath our character. 38.--On Rule 2d. as a common appellative." "he rules over a willing people. 3." All these. an obvious reason for their use. but when taken literally."--1 Cor. being a foreign word. For "Judge. "And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias."--"The God of armies. 6." So it is written in the Bible. Sabaoth. OBS. p.. and many more like them. the others are mere attributes. Thus. not only in original writings. when used with reference to any fabulous deity. perhaps more properly. as. with a small letter. is no reason for the omission of capitals at the beginning of such sentences. and therefore must needs fail to satisfy the very critical reader. The latter."--"The Lord. But a diversity of design or conception in respect to this kind of distinction. they. 35. gives the word gods no capital. depends in all cases the propriety or impropriety of using initial capitals. but not on their insertion or omission. Alger writes. Several nouns occasionally connected with names of the Deity. the quotation points may be used or not. "the Son of man. See Psalms. you. or when made plural to speak of many. concerning Proper Names. 5. if ever." with one--wherever that phrase occurs in the New Testament. who knew no better than to call a pigeon a turkey because the creature had feathers. or Isaiah. should. With examples of one's own making. Our grammarians frequently manufacture a parcel of puerile examples. are a sufficient evidence of the want of better directions on this point. nor even on the quality of the separating point. Of the difference between these two classes of words. "The Lord of Sabaoth. that the application of this principle supposes the learner to be able to distinguish between proper names and common appellatives. they will learn. 118. disgrace the very best editions of our most popular books. I would use a capital. are written with a very puzzling diversity: as. but the equivalent English words do not seem to require it."--"The Giver of all good. for we do not write with a capital any common name which we do not mean to honour: as. in some editions." with two capitals. that the using of other points than the period. are found sometimes with a capital. should seldom." in the last example."--"The Father of goodness.CHAPTER I. Because the name of Esaias. seems to be the only proper title of his book. 5. to call many individuals by their several ."--"The Lord God of hosts. Perhaps the writer here exalts the inferior beings called gods."--Gurney's Essays. p. he will return next week. the righteous Judge. But."--Frazee's Improved Gram. iv.

Sun. or people. Earth. Sunday. "the united states. Shebat. that names of office or rank. oak. Tebeth. But what shall we say of--"the Red sea."--Kirkham's Gram. Abbas Carascan. to pretend that grammar is easy. White Sea. appear to me to partake of the nature of proper names. duke Omar. 8. capes. but what is the character of the term. Now.) that. or sects.. the equator. Sixthday. and those of the months. Wednesday. some very plain ground for this rule."--"The sons of Eliphaz. we find "Nehemiah the . Fifthday. (in language incorrigibly bad. Sivan. Saturday. 20. It is only an act of imposture. as it requires but one noun to denote either a genus or a species.CHAPTER I. Adam. the genus.--It would seem that most."--"Tidal king of nations. 32. A proper noun is the name of some particular individual. and such as are still perhaps. do not require capitals merely as such. in March. in many instances. Firstday. "Red Sea. but pagans. let thy servant."--"David the king. Marchesvan. lakes. as. which are neither proper names unless they are written with capitals. p. How many of the oceans. mountains. The Hebrew names for the months. the Cherokees. Innumerable instances occur. white oak. tree. So. with two capitals. were also proper nouns: to wit. or. are always common. in some editions. But not all is plain. are proper names. chestnut."--Gen. duke Gatam. Abib. however expressed. we make our country anonymous. Secondmonth. we came indeed down at the first time to buy food. counties. duke Zepho. Boston. and black to be nouns. p."--Ib. as ours once did. heathens. but. as the Friends denominate them. There is. for the word the may give a particular meaning to a common noun. without converting it into a proper name: but if we say Sol. and receiving the distinction of capitals. states. and many other particular objects.. as for the three varieties of oak. have no other proper names than such as are thus formed. &c. therefore. Yet we name the sun. black oak. for. The names of the days of the week. seldom uses capitals under this rule. we write it with a capital. the Jesuits."--Gen.. without intending any particular honour. and I will not veil the cause of embarrassment. if they will not use January. and to apply the common words. it may be observed. tribes." except as of other confusion and nonsense. they should write as proper names their Firstmonth. xliii. or simply place them in apposition with proper names. Thirdday. and red oak. the Andes. and to require capitals: as. varieties. This is as good a definition as I can give of a proper noun or name. Secondday. sometimes. Tisri. Tuesday. Fourthday. Thus we commonly distinguish the names of particular persons. white. February. speak a word in my lord's ears. there are surely no "nouns" here to denote them. So. for the sun. they should be written with capitals? See Churchill's Gram. "the emperor Augustus. the Hudson. The Bible. p 32. institutions. 181 names." and that. 15. Hell.. in stead of making it so. with the ancient Jews. "the United States?" If we contend that it is not then a proper name. Adar. which we constantly particularize. different species. the Jews. the Black sea. islands. without a capital. bishop of London. Chisleu. and other things.. places. as such. Elul. duke Teman. duke Kenaz. 380. I pray thee. which makes small account of worldly honours. seas. beginning. remove any part of the difficulty. duke Korah. &c. when written with two capitals. OBS. as."--"Bonner. for the moon. and duke Amalek.. the moon. Black Sea. we begin them with a small letter: as. Ab. man. boy."--Gen. we commonly write the word Gentiles with a capital. with capitals. the Romans. the first-born you of Esau. merely by being applied to particular persons. and. streets. and negroes. or objects. I know not how to conceive of those "nouns which denote the genus of things. nor written with capitals unless they are first judged to be proper names? The simple phrase. and Moon.. places. xxxvi." and a thousand other similar terms. buildings. "O my lord. proper names had originally some common signification. without: thus custom has marked these names with degradation. "O sir. poplar.--On Rule 5th. "Nouns which denote the genus. 18. ash. group. the year. concerning Titles of Honour. Seventhday." has nothing of the nature of a proper name. the Azores. woman. when we use them alone in their ordinary sense. nations. however high. in which the following assertion is by no means true: "The distinction between a common and a proper noun is very obvious. xliv. or Luna. or variety of beings or things.. and that very many of our ordinary words and phrases have been converted into proper names. or those of any other that I am acquainted with. With some apparent inconsistency. Monday. the White sea. that "Heaven. species. in addresses in which even the greatest respect is intended to be shown: as. Thursday. Friday. Thamuz. Zif. unless he will have red. OBS. if not all. 7. And what shall we say to those grammarians who contend. &c."--"our mighty sovereign. girl. Nor do the remarks of this author. with that generality which belongs to them. We are told by this gentleman." or. essentially appellative! The difficulties respecting these will be further noticed below.

But if Mars must needs be put in the possessive case. in Cumberland. Again: Whitehaven and Fairhaven are commonly written with single capitals. a lake of England. "The king of Great Britain's dominions." the Martial Hill. For example: What in Greek was "ho Areios Pagos." But this name is not only too long for popular use." . Northamptonshire. of six or seven towns called Newhaven or New Haven.) they are all wrong: for then it should be Mars's Hill. "the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.--Univ. and is commonly understood otherwise. If between them and their correctors there lie a mutual charge of misnomer. but it is doubtful in its construction and meaning. or republic. Thus a fancied resemblance between the island of Aquidneck. Gazetteer. and thousands more as simple and worthless. "On which side soever the king cast his eyes. as we write Bunker Hill. &c. in all this mawkish mentioning of royalty. Warwickshire. Haven means a harbour. and. differs from a distinct word. "tou Areiou Pagou. depends the propriety of most of the corrections which I shall offer under Rule 6th. of a town: or the latter might even be the name of a family. whether foreign or domestic. "ton Areion Pagan. "On a sudden appeared the king. 1. in the Ægean Sea. 212.. it would be understood of a bridge. to contract and consolidate such terms. OBS. 154. in different copies of the English Bible is made Mars' Hill. and Areios is an adjective: I would therefore write this name Mars Hill." &c. as well as of learning!" OBS. 2.--Worcester's Gaz. and to think it officious in other men to pretend to know better. 146. "They desired him to be their king.. 176. has at length given to a state. would naturally be understood of a harbour: the close compound is obviously more suitable for the name of a city or town. 181. lake. We often use nouns adjectively." and "Herod the Tetrarch. The official title of this little republic. in whose illustrations the word king occurs early one hundred times. 45." in Collier's Life of Marcus Antoninus. or termination. so that now. "He caused himself to be proclaimed king. "It is the king of Great Britain's.. Eng. compounds of this kind are more used than in America."--Ib. p.. what is more.CHAPTER I. a river. has just passed through the village. in the genitive. a harbour. "Ulleswater. The phrase. Nottinghamshire. p."--Murray's Gram." each with a needless capital. But the best books we have. nothing is said of it that is worth knowing. and once. Mars' hill.. "Ulswater."--Balbi. as.. lake. Examples: "The king and the queen had put on their robes. and the manifest inconvenience of any violation of so clear an analogy of the language. Upon this plain distinction. In England. written separately. 182. "Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 150. some have the name in one word and some in two. in the accusative case. they may do as they please.. Murray."--Ib." which. Thus."--Balbi's Geog. or a bridge. Staffordshire. Leicestershire. would not learn from this phrase. The handsomest is Derwentwater. and perhaps Mars hill.. should be written Ullswater and Derwentwater. as the name Campus Martins is rendered "Mars's Field. to distinguish Aquidneck itself.. Worcestershire. no reasonable design can have bestowed. seldom honours his Majesty with a capital. it is for the literary world to determine who is right. that perhaps there is nothing more puzzling in grammar. the true way in which the compound names of places should be written. in Narraganset Bay. are full of discrepancies and errors in respect to names. a lake in Cumberland. geographers resort to the strange phrase. These examples. "the Island of Rhode Island."--Ib. 9. and in both countries the tendency of common usage seems to be. Important names are sometimes acquired by mere accident. (which I doubt. than to find out. though it may consist of the same letters and have the same sound. 181." but would naturally infer the contrary." &c. I suppose. "The king. and that of Rhodes. with his life-guard. These words. "He desired to be their king. the absurd name of Rhode Island. Marshill. A stranger to the fact. and Belle Isle of several different islands in France and America. Eng. Mars'-hill. and wild guess-work in printing."--Ib. if I were to write Stow Bridge. Hence the British counties are almost all named by compounds ending with the word shire. concerning One Capital for Compounds. Mars Hill. New Haven." &c. Derbyshire." which is rendered Areopagus. But if the inhabitants of any place choose to call their town a creek. "Ulswater is somewhat smaller. which lies chiefly on the main land. So Belleisle is the proper name of a strait. are among the pretended quotations by which this excellent man."--Ib. I would observe."--Ib. 146. thought "to promote the cause of virtue. "Derwent-Water."--Ib.. 182 Tirshatha."--Ib. 156.--On Rule 6th. and the words. occurs twice in the New Testament: once.. but."--Ibid. It is capable of being understood in four different ways. "Long live the King!"--Ib. "Derwent Water. Those which are totally inappropriate. amidst all the diversity of random writing. that the "Providence Plantations" are included in the "State of Rhode Island. is. as. situated partly in Westmoreland. if Stowbridge. 10.--An affix.

concerning Two Capitals for Compounds. in fact. by observing the several different kinds of phrases thus used. With respect to the ancient Scripture names. West Troy. "the New London Bridge. Casco Bay." Which. Baffin's Bay. Mount Hope. are to be accounted parts of compound proper names and written with capitals. But they are not always so written. 5. 3. so much so. the Indian Ocean. Sanborn gives us for good English the following tautology: "Rhode Island derived its name from the island of Rhode Island. as Northampton. It may be taken for "Rhode Island" [i. Van Diemen's Land. either from custom or from analogy. Washington street. and Bay. We sometimes use two common nouns with of between them. North America. but to make it Rhodeland. In one of his parsing lessons. New Orleans. the Isle of Man. Lower Canada. connecting lake Pontchartrain with the Mississippi river. p. In phrases of this kind. when he gave the colony this name. and in general a small letter is more correct. the Yellow Sea. whether they ought not to be joined to the foregoing word. Now York. Moorestown. Again the question may be. can parse the phrase. with a general reference to those compound terms which designate particular places or things. Perhaps we may reach some principles of uniformity and consistency. now. Cape Cod. 12. Cape. Jersey City. and then there is a manifest propriety in inserting it. the Cape of Good Hope. We frequently put an appellative. paragraph. "the New-London Bridge. except in some few instances in which the common noun is regarded as a permanent part of the name. an abuse of language to apply it otherwise. Troy. and perhaps all of them should be written so. 11. Crooked Lake. East Cambridge."--Analytical Gram. but I doubt whether any man in the state. always with a single capital. 183 may be supposed to mean "Rhode Island [Plantations] and Providence Plantations. except in law. or to be regarded as appellatives. "The Carondelet canal extends from the city of New Orleans to the bayou St. p. according to Rule 6th. Thus the phrase. and if we intend by it a bridge in New London." So "the New York Directory" is not properly a directory for New York. Think of that sentence! OBS. The words Mount. before or after a proper name. In this class of names the adjective is the distinctive word. except perhaps some learned lawyer. the Mountains of the Moon. need it.e. of . As for Rhode Island. but it seldom absolutely requires it. Gravesend. New Bedford. with two capitals. but a new directory for York.e. Sacket's Harbour. as. Great Pedee. usage is divided. West Cambridge. It may be understood to mean "Rhode Island and Providence [i. or even sentence. Such nouns are usually written with more than one capital. I would observe. New York city. requiring small letters according to Rule 9th.. the Red river. as. Glenn's Falls. Plymouth county. They seldom. Lake. that we not unfrequently find it contradictory. that it is often no easy matter to determine. Let the numerous examples under these four rules be duly considered: for usage. as. and in the Bible we read of "mount Horeb. except such as coalesce. in 1663? It happened that he meant the last. we must say. mount Olivet.--In modern compound names. as in Washington City. Cook's Inlet. is diverse. John." as Dr. To write the popular name "Rhodeisland. Little Pedee.CHAPTER I. in the very same page. I have seen several books with titles which. as an island. the White hills. and it is. in respect to each of them. Greenwich village." 3. as.--On Rules 7th and 8th. with any certainty of its true construction and meaning. for this reason. the Indian ocean. 37. even in modern books. the White Hills. Upper Canada. the Red River. or. New England. unless they are employed as adjectives. This is apposition. Crooked lake.. mount Zion. though it is not commonly found so in the Bible. with his charter. two] Plantations. the Isles of Shoals. 1. Lake Erie. as."--Balbi's Geog. We often add an adjective to an old proper name to make a new one. Names of this class generally have more than one capital.. but seems rather to favour two capitals. the common noun often has a capital. or common noun. Webster has it in his American Spelling-Book. of all these did Charles the Second mean. OBS.] and the "Providence Plantations. respecting the other term. mount Sinai. This old title can never be used. which is sometimes more analogically written North Hampton. South America. Martha's Vineyard. as. 4." 4." and many others. the hyphen is now less frequently used than it was a few years ago. All names of this class require two capitals: except a few which are joined together. whether such common words as may happen to be embraced in them. were evidently erroneous. would be much more appropriate. the Yellow sea. Behring's Straits. and always has a capital. We often use the possessive case with some common noun after it. or simply Rhode. are now generally written with capitals when connected with their proper names. the Crowsnest. We often use an adjective and a common noun." can be understood only of a new bridge in London. it ought to mean nothing but the island. 121. 2. I would therefore write "the Mount of Olives" in this manner. if ever. or to serve the purpose of distinction: as. would be some improvement upon it. the Lake of the Woods.

. But special regard should be had to the ancient text."--Inst. They ought. and not names of sorts. in Griesbach's Greek Testament. except in the title of the story. And. it may be well to observe. I would observe. cumi. has Dr. "Damsel. 8vo. all without a capital: and perhaps judaize. But when any such word ceases to be understood as referring directly to the proper name. Thus. from Simon. in his octavo Dictionary! I see no more need of the hyphen in such names. there must be something else than these ascribed." but this form of it is no more correct than either of those quoted above. "PERSONIFICATION [. there may be some room to doubt. 13. than in those of modern times.--wrong in relation to what personification is. the verbs. with them.--On Rule 11th. Greekling. it is clear that they ought to have capitals: no one will contend that the words American and Americans should be written with a small a. according to their definitions of personification. the objects which Fancy thinks it right to personify. but would write Americanize and Americanized with a capital also. 346. v. must begin with a capital. Now. to conform to Romish opinions. Bäal'zebub. Uzzen-shérah. to which this rule more particularly refers. OBS. or persons. and so does Worcester's. Dr. Talithacúmi. we ascribe intelligence and personality to unintelligent beings or abstract qualities. Grecisms. in others. there is a manifest inconsistency. Duodecimo. He will there meet with an abundance of examples like these: "Uz'zen Shérah. The reader may see a very fair specimen of them. hermetical from Hermes. anglicisms. it may properly be written without a capital. Thus we write jalap from Jalapa. and. to christen. fool?' says the file to the viper. doubly wrong. but also nouns. Hámon Gog. and the adverbs hermetically and jesuitically. 184 this class. with double capitals. so long as they retain an obvious reference to their particular origin. and christianized. to galvanize. our grammarians and the teachers of rhetoric have hitherto formed no very accurate idea of what constitutes the figure.. not with any reference to personality. . Grecians. The phrase. Dr. and also to the nouns formed immediately from such adjectives. Blair's Lect. many discrepancies. Ham'ongog. 41st."--is found in some Bibles. and other similar words."--i. concerning Personifications. to philippize. Webster restereotyped from Walker. A'bel Mehólath. that we may have a uniform rule to go by. Báal Zébub. speaks of "Latinised English. judaized. Æsop's viper and file are both personified.CHAPTER I. Házel Elpóni. if not generally. by comparing together the last two vocabularies of Walker's Key." I have elsewhere defined the thing as follows: "Personification is a figure by which. hymeneal from Hymen. Shether-boz'näi. Webster also defines Romanize. Asnoth-tábor. and the words Latinisms. and. For "life and action" not being peculiar to persons. Abel-mehólah. demands no such distinction. Az'noth Tábor. of style strictly "English. Grecianize."--Mur. that. we find. to romance. derived from such adjectives. "Talitha. and many more. The examples in Dr. 93 and 94. philippic from Philip. we have Greek. 14.. to hector. "To Latinize. Lindley Murray says. gallicisms."--Octavo Gram. christianize. Báal Ham'on. Grecise.--On Rule 10th. But I prefer a capital for these. And proper names of persons are so marked." but the fable gives to these names no capitals. p. pp." All these glaring inconsistencies. Merodach-bal'adan. copying Blair. Baal-hámon. latinize. but only such as have a resemblance to proper nouns. or any other common noun denoting persons or a person. and their derivatives. "'What ails thee. without capitals. arise. concerning Derivatives. without Scotticisms or Gallicisms. surely." without a capital. to be joined together without it.. Greeks.. I would not stop here. and Frenchified. written with an initial capital. Thus. in imagination. but because they are proper nouns--or names of individuals. are not always "inanimate. simony. But it is questionable. Grecism. that not every noun which is the name of an object personified. where it is recorded. how far this principle respecting capitals ought to be carried. to japan. Gram." and. hebrician. in different editions of the Bible. to form the figure. It may here be added. that not only the proper adjectives. are frequently. is that figure by which we attribute life and action to inanimate objects. Hazelepóni. "Talitha-cumi. for it appears that custom is in favour of thus distinguishing nearly all verbs and participles of this kind. e. again. Greekish. So Murray. Náthan Mélech. Johnson's quarto Dictionary exhibit the words. Shéthar Boz'näi. to be written separately. p. and even verbs. p. Nathan'-melech. Now this is all wrong. See Mark. may join this class. in some instances. and wrong too in its specification of the objects which may be personified. With respect to Americanism." In the examples of Johnson. as well as in other books. Webster's octavo Dictionary mentions "the prussic acid" and "prussian blue. from Greece. 211. OBS. latinized. Gallicism. 295. with respect to adjectives from proper names. Meródach Bal'adan. Talitha Cúmi. Grecian. where a comma divides this expression. Hebraisms. p. for the word person itself. under like circumstances.] or PROSOPOPOEIA. 234.

. in their Bible. concerning Examples.] UNDER RULE I. notwithstanding the extraordinary care of the original writers."'"--Octavo Gram. is subjected neither to this rule. 17. The latter has no concern with this rule. A correct example will occasionally he admitted for the sake of contrast. will be afforded in the Key. "that pride goes before destruction. that. that the principle applies only to regular versification. p. but whatsoever is cited as being said with other relations of what is called person. earnestness. Speeches. seen. it may be observed. we may omit the guillemets. "Many a reader of the bible knows not who wrote the acts of the apostles. the insufficiency of these means is greatly felt. seeing. 284. in this. and an other to the English. [Fist][The improprieties in the following examples are to be corrected orally by the learner. depends in some measure upon their form. here begin with small letters.--On Rule 14th. and Quotations. and say." IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. properly. p. "The French. according to Rule 1st. "Solomon observes. Gram. bible. But. 'Solomon observes.. Cobbett says the whole of this. (as see. and the other letters are small. of poetical composition. not improperly beginning each with a capital. One may suggest certain words by way of example. or according to others framed from them with such slight changes as the several quotations may require.CHAPTER I. OBS. the few erroneous examples which will be exhibited for correction under it. Such poetry as that of Macpherson's Ossian. and further distinguishing them by Italics. but he here refers one short phrase to the French nation. a capital is unnecessary: as. are ignorant enough to violate this. Our common Bibles make no use of the quotation points. and apostles. Consequently. will not be undesigned mistakes. acts.'" Or. B. 21. "Bible" should begin with . that although many who occasionally write. if not the distinguishing mark. ERRORS RESPECTING CAPITALS. as the word 'that' belongs not to Solomon. or surprise. But a full explanation of what is intended. saw. 88. to show where any particular speech begins or ends. we do not find the printing of the words I and O in small characters. nor is it equivalent to the former. is not uncommon even among grammarians. the chief words in their titles begin with capitals.--On Rule 12th. but rely solely upon capitals and the common points. which is the common form. "When particular books are mentioned by their names. But. 'Pride goeth before destruction. 16. the practice of beginning every line with a capital is almost universal. or that the learner may see the quoted author's inconsistency. but the confounding of O with the other interjection oh. that. p. "When a quotation is brought in obliquely after a comma. according to the formules given. say Le Verbe.) and they will require no capital. pain."--E. It will also serve as a block over which stupidity may stumble and wake up.--On Rule 13th. because the words. concerning I and O. 185 OBS. therefore. nor to the common laws of verse. a line from Milton is perverted:-"Oh thou! that with surpassing glory crowned!" --Bucke's Gram."--G. requires something to distinguish it from the text into which it is woven. concerning Poetry.. and the next word begins his assertion. or he may sometimes write one half of a sentence in his own words. Thus Cobbett observes. 15. And. In the following example. In some instances. OBS.--OF BOOKS. a sign of sorrow. yet no printer ever commits blunders of this sort. Murray says. it may be observed. where we say The Word.--Not proper. "Solomon observes that pride goes before destruction. and vocative address. but I have seen some books in which it was whimsically disregarded. or such as the common translation of the Psalms. but oh is. that the propriety of beginning these with a capital or otherwise." Therefore. [FORMULE OF CORRECTION. as a sign: O is a note of wishing. Among the errors of books. as well as every other rule of grammar. I think we ought to write it. and quote the other with the guillemets and no capital. if we do not mean to quote him literally. it may be observed. in the use of introductory phrases.

"--Author."--Mur. "The title of a Book. 113. William."--Ib. et al. xxiv. and in the prophets. UNDER RULE II."--Ib. p. because the word dispenser begins with a small letter."--Ib."--Music of Nature.. p.--Not proper. died in 1570. they are blocks. "Are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon?"--SCOTT. and in the psalms. 126. I have a word to say.. seen Mr. according to Rule 2nd. p. xi." Therefore.CHAPTER I. of whom the universal biographical dictionary and the American encyclopedia affirm. 12th Ed.. should begin with capitals. Kirkham's 'Grammar in familiar Lectures.. 2. with holes in them. they should learn. the chief of the fathers. of the second person singular. alas! I fear for life. and "Forgive. of the first person plural. their models of English are generally spurious quotations."--Murray's Gram. and sometimes their emphatic substitutes. Life. Again: "It may rain. Dict."--Note to Josephus. 44.. 'the chronology of Justus of Tiberias. p. D. "Depart instantly: improve your time: forgive us our sins. from the name of their inventor. "The narrative of which may be seen in Josephus's History of the Jewish wars. 283.. "Are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?"--SCOTT: ib. to wit: 'English Grammar in familiar lectures. "On the foregoing examples." "they are supported by industry.--Kirkham's Gram. i. that he died in 1549. you may spread the compendium before you."--SCOTT: Luke. a capital B."--Author. "goose-eyes!" says a bright boy. were written in the book of the chronicles. "But God has so made the bible that it interprets itself. according to Rule 3d. the French call them guillemets." with a capital F. 45. "When you parse. "contentment is a noun common. and "Acts" and "Apostles. p. "it is a personal pronoun. UNDER RULE III. and their defects his who could write no better. "In 1562. 28. imperfect tense.--OF DEITY. he may go or stay. 75."--Ib.. 128. 138. with the help of Hopkins.--OF FIRST WORDS. "All names of the Deity. 170. p. "The first word of every distinct sentence should begin with a capital.. "Alley. p. written by James Harris. "were is a neuter verb. Jos."--Anti-Slavery Mag. but names scarce.' says Photius. 3. author of 'the poor man's library. p. 53. 61. ver. [FORMULE. Gram. p.'"--Ib. 25.--Not proper. ALGER: I Kings. "Whenever you parse. some of the Germans gave them this name."--Ib..] 186 "The sons of Levi. p.." "she is above disguise.. Again: "He went from London to York. of the third person singular. 126. "Gardiner says this of Sternhold. 34. "pray. xxii. But. "Which were written in the law of Moses. our grammars abound with worse illustrations."--Ib."--Univ."--Ib. et al. i. "'I have read.' and a translation of the Pentateuch. Author make new words when he pleases? dead-eyes are in a ship. 128. the sea is green.. "This history of the Jewish war was Josephus's first work. because the words improve and forgive begin with small letters. 41. of the indicative mood. p.. 23.. "thee is a personal pronoun.."--W. "A philosophical grammar. p.."--SCOTT'S BIBLE: Neh. they are better than a fair specimen of their kind. 129. "Adelung was the author of a grammatical and critical dictionary of the German language. Biog. and other works. [FORMULE."--Author. he would walk. 78. he completed the psalter. Allen's Gram.. at that time. few of their proof-texts have any just parentage. what are they? does this Mr. 64..." Therefore. "O thou dispenser of life! thy mercies are boundless. et al. But.] EXAMPLES: "Gold is corrupting. "The reader is referred to Stroud's sketch of the slave laws. et al. . p. who fathers the foundlings? nobody. 449.'" &c. "Are they not written in the book of the Chronicles of the kings of Israel?"--ALGER: 1 Kings. Again: "Oh! I have alienated my friend."--Scott's Preface. 39. "ourselves is a personal pronoun.. xii."--Comly's Gram. goose-eyes are abundant."--Ib. you may spread the Compendium before you. but what are goose-eyes in grammar?" ANSWER: "goose-eyes are quotation points. Esquire.. and published about A. making a jest of their form. of the third person singular."--Ib. ix."--Murray's Gram.'"--Ib."--Ib.. "Improve" should begin with a capital I. a lion is bold." each with a large A. p."--Ib. then let their merit be nobody's. "We had not.

"--Murray's Gram. "Proper names. the birth. and his redeemer the lord of hosts."--Ib. The word is also misspelled: it should rather be Ramadan. was probably nothing more than a meteoric stone. and tees. rhodes. but by my name jehovah was I not known to them. 57. and."--See Isa. xviii. and one which the Jews always held it a fearful profanation to pronounce. hermas. a wonder in those of all Christendom. "Of the writings of the apostolic fathers of the first century. for the greater dignity of his appearance. eratosthenes."--SCOTT: James. metaclides and chamæleon the peripatetics. took paul and barnabas to be gods. and other learned ancients. herodotus of halicarnassus."--Id. "Which the Lord."--Balbi's Geog. that theagenes of rhegium. vi. ignatius. the self-existent one. 8. stesimbrotus the thracian. "When the lycaonians. "Yet. very certain evidence of the authenticity of the New Testament. and the Father of mercies. by the help of lycurgus."--See[106] Exod."--Dryden. all wrote concerning the poetry. and the latter jupiter. and poet. which the mohammedans venerate as the gift of gabriel to abraham. or whatever place--has."--See Psalm lxxxix. "Islamism prescribes fasting during the month ramazan. of smyrna. and apollodorus. ephorus of cumæ. ALGER: Neh. ix. "Dispenser" should here begin with a capital D. but few have come down to us. the grammarians. athens.' to share with diana the homage of the ephesians. on the top of which the mussulmans erected a mosque. in arabia. dionysius the olynthian. argos. and esses?"--Swift. p.. "For the lord is our defence. "Why so sagacious in your guesses? Your effs. "Thus saith the lord the king of Israel. on account of his eloquence. they called the former mercury. and some have even suspected. who is the great author of good. 90.. p. and the New Testament is a voucher for the old.. there is a celebrated block of volcanic basalt. 29."--Anti." See Coleridge's Introd. xliv. [FORMULE. according to Rule 4th. But. that. colophon. mæonides. I am the lord: and I appeared unto Abraham."--SCOTT. i. at lystra."--Author. and said unto him. And nature's king through nature's optics view'd. "It is the gift of him. the deity revealed himself to Moses. as the eternal I am. so 'the image which fell down from jupiter. in the time of cambyses." Therefore. and the age of homer. themisto. salamis. because the word ramazan here begins with a small letter. or the mountain of light. pisistratus."--Author. or whatever dame--this melesigenes. clement of rome. but their ancestors once held it to be an image of remphan. 18. "His impious race their blasphemy renew'd. solon. p. 18. 25. by the awful name.] "Near mecca."--Author.] 187 "Shall not the judge of all the earth do right?"--SCOTT: Gen. UNDER RULE IV. and besides me there is no god.. erates. as to become a god in the eyes of all greece. FRIENDS: 2 Tim. has fathered the deeds of forty other herculeses.."--SCOTT. mohammed received from the angel gabriel the first chapter of the Koran. 17. 6. and set so far aloft and aloof on old parnassus. of every description. antimachus the colophonian.. "Ramazan" should begin with a capital R. "It is said by tatian. he renewed his promise to them.--OF PROPER NAMES. "And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. callimachus. 2."--Id. been made up of many poets or homers. shall give me at that day. "This is thy god that brought thee up out of Egypt. or saturn. 287.. is jebel nor. "In Horeb. "And god spake unto Moses. iv.. and the holy one of Israel is our king. jehovah--a name till then unknown. philochorus the athenian. and unto Jacob. "By making him the responsible steward of heaven's bounties. for aught that now appears. v. and I am the last.CHAPTER I. 330... after the first discouraging interview of his messengers with Pharaoh. I am the first. should always begin with capitals. as the son of jupiter and alcmena. "In the kaaba at mecca.Slavery Mag. and zenodotus. aristophanes. that they might perform their devotions where. the life of homer is as fabulous as that of hercules. so this unfathered son of critheis. 4.--Not proper. yet we have in those of barnabas."--Id. p. the righteous judge. and polycarp. unto Isaac. by the name of god almighty. and arrs. according to their belief. chios. aristarchus. . homer--the blind schoolmaster. "The cries of them * * * entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.

. "The king has conferred on him the title of duke. also a town in Westchester county. my old patron and benefactor.."--Ib.. 185. 126. p. 49. and have but one capital. p."--See the Greek: Matt. according to Rule 5th. "White Water. "Titles of office or honour. because the word duke begins with a small letter. "Sing-Sing. the name of seven different rivers in England. "New Fane."--Murray's Key."--Williams's Universal Gazetteer. and epithets of distinction.. "And forthwith he came to Jesus.."--Ib. p. the ornament of his country. p. applied to persons."--Ib. p. UNDER RULE V. also of two bays in the West Indies. and kissed him. xvi..CHAPTER I. and said. on the Hudson. a village of Hampshire. [FORMULE. 181."--Kirkham's Eloc. Ohio. UNDER RULE VI. Anderson died at West Ham. and the United States. 260. 177. "Lake Port. Delaware.. a town of Erie county. 223. "White Creek."--See Worcester's Gaz. Fallriver."--See Univ." "The bishop of Llandaff's excellent book.) transmit convictions. "Charles City. Delaware. "West Town. N. and a town in Ireland. Elizabeth City. "Who at that time made up the court of king Charles the second. 193. et al. "Moose Head Lake. p. a county of Illinois. in New York and Pennsylvania. and do not the things which I say?"--See GRIESBACH: Luke."--Ib." Therefore. 257. 46. a village in Massachusetts. 416. New York. "Mc Donough. a town of Chicot county. 157. New York. names of counties in Virginia. a hundred of New Castle county."--Ib. a town of Dutchess county. "We staid a month at lord Lyttleton's."--Ib.."--Kirkham's Gram. "Kinderhook. on the Hudson.--OF TITLES. if I mistake not."--See Univ.. what lord Bacon styles his aphorisms. "Yellow Creek. "King Charles the first was beheaded in 1649. a town of Niagara county. "Salt Lick. "Macdonough."--Ib. York. begin usually with capitals. "West Chester. with a courthouse. lord. father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead. in England. "And he said.] 188 "At the court of queen Elizabeth. whom also he named apostles. unites with the Miami. in 1808."--Ib."--W.. p." "That is the duke of Bridgewater's canal. in Maine. "I reside at lord Stormont's. vi. "In case of his majesty's dying without issue."--Ib. "Salt Creek.--OF ONE CAPITAL. 12mo."--Ib. p."--Murray's Gram. "Newcastle. town of Washington county. "Duke" should here begin with a capital D. p.--Not proper.959." "The Lord mayor of London's authority. p. Arkansas."--SCOTT: Luke."--Ib. But. and retain but one capital. Nay. p."--Murray's Key. the chief source of the Kennebeck. "Half-Moon. "Those compound proper names which by analogy incline to a union of their parts without a hyphen. according to Rule 6th. . Gaz."--Ib.. Allen's Gram. here called Stroud water. and flowing southeasterly. should be one word. New York. 13."--Ib. a village of Orange county.."--Ib. "Mad River. situated in the town of Mount Pleasant. 8vo. population 3431. as the name of a town."--Ib. Fisk's. a county of New York. James City. 176. p."--Balbi's Geog."--Ib. "And of them he chose twelve. Ireland. New York. "Whose prerogative is it? It is the king of Great Britain's."--Luke. laws of laws."--Ib."--Murray's Gram. a considerable stream that rises in Indiana.. p. should be so written. Ohio. because the name Fall River is here written in two parts. Dict. a town of Columbiana county. 176."--Ib."--Ib."--Biog. town and halfshire of Newcastle county. a village of West Chester county. in Ohio.] "Dr. population (in 1830) 2. Hail. in Essex. they will repent. Gaz. 115. a great collector of books. a town of Fayette county. "Le Boeuf. a town of Columbia county."--Ib. xxvi. "White Water River. a county of Illinois. p. "Red Hook."--Ib. "Fall River. Pennsylvania. "He can no more impart or (to use lord Bacon's word. p. vi. and with two capitals. "Sixtus the fourth was."--Ib.. 220. Pennsylvania. "Black Water. "The laws of nature are. nor towns. [FORMULE. master. 45. "White Clay. 8vo. not cities. 30. at Macomb."--Ib. But. 314. near a small lake of the same name. the name of two towns. [the name of] two towns in Clark and Champaign counties. "Black Water."--Murray's Gram. 408. New York.--Not proper. the name of four towns in different parts of Ohio. a town of Hamilton county. "Why call ye me lord. p. "The superior qualities of the waters of the Frome. truly."--Ib. Ohio." Therefore.

and smote Edom in the valley of salt. "The Forth rises on the north side of Benlomond."--Ib. Herod the Tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus.."--Scott's Lady of the Lake.756 feet high.."--Dict. 125. 1. 3. 3. "But he overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea. 408."--Glas. cxxxvi."--Ib. who weep and wring their hands. of Geog. "But they provoked him at the sea. son of the king of the Frisii. Ross-dhu.--Not proper."--Ib. 7. UNDER RULE VII. "Rhodes."--Author. the largest and most easterly of the Cyclades."--Ib. Strath-Gartney. p."--Ib. UNDER RULE VIII.--OF COMPOUNDS. Loch-Katrine. MOUNTAINS:--"Ben-an. Benvoirlich."--Ib. in Perthshire. 313. "In Sutherland and Caithness. population (in 1830) 18.915 feet above the level of the sea. xxi.[107] UNDER RULE IX. "When any adjective or common noun is made a distinct part of a compound proper name. xxiii. in the District of Columbia. p. 233.--Not proper. are Ben Ormod. Biog. Ben Hope. 189 [FORMULE."--Balbi's Geog. "Salamis. "The height of Benclough is 2. because the word Tetrarch begins with a capital letter. Glen Luss. if . call her Good Fortune."--Luke. Benledi. ii. ten miles further west.. falls into the sea three miles north of Montrose. "Valley" should here begin with a capital V. according to Rule 8th."--SCOTT: Ps. "At Queen's ferry. Geog. 314. "Ben Lomond" should be written with two capitals and no hyphen.. "The Chestnut ridge is about twenty-five miles west of the Alleghanies.. Benharrow. "Those who seem so merry and well pleased. "And at night he went out. "The North Esk. because the name "Benlomond" is compounded under one capital. Bad-fortune."--SCOTT: Ps. Strath-Endrick. "Ben-more."--Dict. and abode in the mount that is called the mount of Olives. was in the Holy land with Charlemagne."--Geog. p.. p. "When a common and a proper name are associated merely to explain each other. altered. 232. Ben Grin."--Ib. FRIENDS: 2 Kings."--Ib. is called mount Washington."--Murray's Sequel. but the others. in the west of England. in Africa. [FORMULE."--W.. "And Pharaoh-nechoh made Eliakim.420 feet. divides the Grain coast from the Ivory coast. and sometimes Benvenue.."--Ib.CHAPTER I. an island of the Egean Sea. and Laurel ridge."--ALGER: Matt. flowing from Loch-lee. "When Joab returned. "Cape Palmas.] "Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' hill and said. [FORMULE. an island of the Egean sea."--Ib. it is in general sufficient. and Ben Lugal. "Mount's bay. Ben-ledi. is 3. Gaz. "Fenelon died in 1715. 37. Dict.826. Loch-Con. the Tay diffuses itself into Lochdochart. and Benvoirlich. surnamed Prester John. Leven-glen. the son of Josiah. Loch-Voil. in new Hampshire. 311. off the southern coast of the ancient Attica. xvii. of Geog. p. the channel of the Forth is contracted by promontories on both coasts.. 322."--BRUCE'S BIBLE: Ps. Loch-Achray." Therefore.."--Univ.009. "Abgillus. xiv. 65."--Collier's Tablet of Cebes.--TWO CAPITALS. Ben-venue. GLENS:--"Glenfinlas."--Id. because the words valley and salt begin with small letters.300. deeply lamented by all the inhabitants of the Low-countries. 380..--SCOTT: Acts."--Ib. lies between the land's end and lizard point.--Not proper.'s Univ." Therefore. "Washington city. LAKES:--"Lochard. title. But. But.--OF APPOSITION. "The compounding of a name under one capital should be avoided when the general analogy of other similar terms suggests a separation under two. p. 34. even at the Red sea. "Benvracky is 2. and "Salt" with a capital S. the metropolis of the United States of America. and runs easterly. according to Rule 7th. 311."--Ib. Ben Clibeg. p. "Washington City. cvi. "The loftiest peak of the white mountains. "About ten miles from its source. 22."--SCOTT. king. 15. "The river Dochart gives the name of Glendochart to the vale through which it runs. Strath-Ire.] "The red granite of Ben-nevis is said to be the finest in the world." &c. Glen Fruin. it ought to begin with a capital. contrary to the general analogy of other similar terms... Loch-Doine. "At that time. Loch-Lomond. according to Rule 8th. lx. Ben-Lomond. 313. But.

9.] "Sallust was born in Italy.. 19. the proper name begin with a capital. "Staten Island. if religion had employed her in their favour. Why hast thou forgotten me?"--SCOTT: Ps. That monster. FRIENDS. and having direct reference to particular persons. "In colleges and halls in ancient days. 357."--Wayland's M."--Id. "Euripides. Luke."--Id. "The Poet Lydgate was a disciple and admirer of Chaucer: he died in 1440. 83. UNDER RULE XI. because the word gallicisms here begins with a small letter. I am the offspring of truth and love. xv. began his bold career by preaching against papal indulgences. p. the Greek Tragedian. "Poetry distinguishes herself from prose. the Evangelist.. nine miles below New York City. "In English. is called superstition: she is the child of discontent. But. xlii."--Id. "O death! where is thy sting? O grave! where is thy victory?"--1 Cor. by yielding to a musical law. B. 37. and joy. "But wisdom is justified of all her children. that even conscience. p. 348. "Luther. 212."--Murray's Gram." Therefore. p."--See Key. [FORMULE."--Id." Therefore."--MILTON: in Johnson's Dict. "Nero." --POPE: Odys. "The Grammarian Varro. places. when it conveys an idea strictly individual. 157: see also Murray's Gram. with a small letter.] 190 "Who has been more detested than Judas the Traitor?"--Author."--Id.CHAPTER I."--Ib. 35. 'the most learned of the Romans." Therefore. English Reader. I would have gallicisms avoided.--Not proper.'"--See Key. ALGER: Luke."--Id. vi. and his disciples. "Ye cannot serve God and Mammon. 'the Father of his Country.--OF DERIVATIVES."--Coleridge's Introd. "Hermes."--SCOTT. "Cicero the Orator. his Patron-God. Doddridge was not only a great man. "Albert of Stade. King of Men. B. because the word wisdom begins with a small letter.. those gifts bestow'd. and the appellative."--FELTON: Johnson's Dict.' was assassinated at the age of 64. and one of the converts of St. the Emperor and Tyrant of Rome. died in 1520. vii. "John Despauter. Whose shrine with weaning lambs he wont to load. lay before her Mahomet.. "St. should begin with capitals. 13. whose works are still valued.: Matt. was a physician of Antioch. p. "The name of an object personified. and christian ministers. p. was born in the Island of Salamis. "Dr. 85 years before the christian era. sects. and her followers are fear and sorrow. the great Grammarian of Flanders. "I will say unto God my Rock."--Univ. "Gallicisms" should begin with a capital G. an island of New York. "My beauteous deliverer thus uttered her divine instructions: 'My name is religion. i."--Id.. hope. slew himself to avoid a worse death. according to Rule 10th. 24. 476.' wrote three books when he was eighty years old.. and the noble Achilles first separated. author of a ."--Murray's Seq. 31. "Words derived from proper names. Murray's Gram."--SCOTT. But. Gaz. or nations.--OF PERSONIFICATIONS. xvi.. "Neither hope nor fear could enter the retreats. and the parent of benevolence. "When the son of Atreus.. would not have been able to force an entrance.. 347. ET AL.. from whose power I have freed you. but one of the most excellent and useful christians. There dwelt a sage called discipline. "This house was built as if suspicion herself had dictated the plan. "Go to your natural religion. UNDER RULE X."--Id. 319. 368. C."--See Key.--Not proper. [FORMULE. Sci. the Reformer. "tetrarch" should here begin with a small t. according to Rule 11th. p.] "Fortune and the church are generally put in the feminine gender. 55. should begin with a capital. "Wisdom" should here begin with a capital W. Merchant's Gram. i. Paul.. and habit had so absolute a power. "Ye cannot serve God and mammon. "They corrupt their style with untutored anglicisms."--Blair's Rhetoric."--IIDEM: Luke."--See Key.

B. "The first persecution against the christians. because the word I. Rapin. epicurism. ROSET."--Ib. but all these are to no purpose: the world will not live. "Here am i. author of two volumes on moral subjects. or love." &c. 74.--OF POETRY.--Cohen's Florida. 11. think. and A."--Webster's Dict. "When i was a child. i understood as a child. as i do. as often as it occurs."--Cobbett's E. i have not room:--o! methinks i see a couple whom i should know. "Church-ladders are not always mounted best By learned clerks."--Swift."--Lucian. p. "The word rather is very properly used to express a small degree or excess of a quality: as.--Not proper. a jesuit of Capua in the 16th century. "Fall back. The smoothest verse and the exactest sense displease us. 107.[108] But.'"--Murray's Gram.--OF EXAMPLES." Therefore. according to Rule 18th. "P. fall back. UNDER RULE XIV. o! whither shall i fly? o wretched prince! o cruel reverse of fortune! o father Micipsa! is this the consequence of thy generosity?"--Sallust. noise."--Gregory's Dict.CHAPTER I. or affectation love. according to Rule 12th. and value not yourself for writing fast. except what is regarded as making but one verse with the preceding line. and latinists profess'd. o master."--1 Cor. O Virtue! peace is all thy own. "I. p. peace. UNDER RULE XII. with twenty winters now grown old!"--See Pope's Odyssey. Bolles's Dict. 130-133. "Lie. "The words I and O should always be capitals. each should be changed to a capital. the jesuit.. anglicism."--Webster's El. behold Thy son. gallicism. anglicize. vandalism." at the commencement of these lines. [FORMULE. which occurs once. a benedictine of the 13th century. o father! rise. "They frenchify and italianize words whenever they can.--OF I AND O. gothicism. uniformly decides in favour of the Roman writers. 64. the words. varied."--Bicknell's Gram. i thought as a child. i think as i did. ROSSET.. Dict. "Whither. and competence. Vol. p. jesuitism. what you write can never yield us profit or delight.. a fine London Edition. varied. i live as i did. UNDER RULE XIII. nor bombast. Vocative. Take time for thinking."--Few Days in Athens. Plural. D. 'she is rather profuse in her expenses. varied. xii."--See Key. began A. without pure language. and peace. "And i heard. "Reason's whole pleasure. are here printed in letters of the lower case. but health consists with temperance alone. Gram. varied. never work in haste. i think i am very good. 77. "Graffio.. i am he. varied.] "Observe the language well in all you write. should severally begin with the capitals L. i put away childish things. . i love you as i did. o masters..] "Nay." Pope's Essay on Man. and the word O. 8. varied. "Every line in poetry. but i understood not: then said i." Therefore. ¶ 171. o my Lord.--Not proper. w. "Singular. 30. "The large ternate bat." and "And. In short. Vocative. "He who sells a christian."--Cowper. and swerve not from it in your loftiest flight. if ill English give offence: a barbarous phrase no reader can approve." See Dryden's Art of Poetry:--British Poets. Spelling-Book.. 191 chronicle from the creation to 1286."--Anti-Slavery Mag. should begin with a capital. all the joys of sense. lie in three words--health. socinianism. sabianism. "The Roman poet and epicurean philosopher Lucretius has said. xiii. romanize. Spell "calvinistic. [FORMULE. p. what shall be the end of these things?"--Dan. but when i became a man."--Universal Biog. iii. yet i never wrote a treatise in my life." "But.. atticism. i spake as a child. and i am quite sure i am very happy. sells the grace of God. But. under Nero. because the last three lines of this example begin with small letters. which occurs three times. p. w. anglican. 47.

56.. "Capitals are improper wherever there is not some special rule or reason for their use. 'it' should here begin with a small letter.." Therefore. "We more readily say. But. 'The house of lords. 240." Therefore. for which there appears to be neither rule nor reason.' 'they ran towards the river. "Be of good cheer: It is I..' and.."--Blair's Rhet. 27.' than 'a thousand of men. 25. 169. 188. "Intrusted to persons in whom the parliament could confide. of a distinct speech. 184. there is not a Finger's breadth.--Not proper. "For 'The Lords' house. p."--Murray's Gram. the word "She" should here begin with a capital S. p. p. according to Rule 16th. "Rhetoricians commonly divide them into two great classes. but. 'neither of my friends was there. "Hitherto we have considered sentences. p. "Let me repeat it. "The last edition was carefully compared .. 120."--Ib. Priestley's Gram.' 'they ran the river. lords. as Dr... [FORMULE. and figures of passion. But.' 'Lambeth is Westminster-abbey.'"--Ib. 'delightful was the interview. 242. 152. p.. Were those first councils disallow'd by me?"--Dryden. 95.' or. 118.."-.' 'this is a fair day. 'A million of men.] "Between passion and lying.' we make some reference to the ordinary size of men. "The adjective may frequently either precede or follow it [the verb]: as.. not the scripture you. p. p. according to Rule 15th. 202. UNDER RULE XV. 192 [FORMULE. UNDER RULE XVI. and when. p. 47."--Murray's Key. that is. according to Rule 14th. figures of words. p. "A popular orator in the House of Commons has a sort of patent for coining as many new terms as he pleases."--Murray's Gram. or of a direct quotation. xviii. The former.' to say."--ALGER: Matt.'"--Ib. "The first word of a full example. until seventy times seven. as one name. xiv. Scott has it.--Not proper. because the word divan begins with a small letter. 95. also Priestley's Gram. and commons.'"--Ib. p. You rule the scripture. "If we say. until seven times. are commonly called tropes. 133."--Balbi's Geog.' it were certainly better to say. of human events?"--Ib. p.'"--Ib. 'happy is the man:' 'The interview was delightful.Merchant's School Gram. said she. "The Panther smil'd at this."--See Matt. 132. 4th Amer."--Ib. it is evident. in stead of 'The commons' vote.--Not proper. and strength.'"--See ib... p.' 'the fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books. 364.. But. because the word It begins with a capital I. may be distinguished by capitals. or unravel the intricacy. be not afraid.'"--Murray's Gram. 8vo. 'He writes with a pen.. 'The votes of the commons. "Can our Solicitude alter the course. p.] "The British parliament is composed of kings. "The word is then depos'd. and figures of thought. should begin with a capital..--OF CHIEF WORDS.. 124. p. p. "The supreme council of the nation is called the divan. 168. "So in the instances. there is a vacancy which must be filled up by some connecting word: as thus."--Dryden..CHAPTER I. who has the habits of greatness. "I say not unto thee.] and.. 241.. and such as denote the principal subjects treated of.' 'the tower fell upon the Greeks.] "Neither imports not either. 69. "Divan" should here begin with a capital D. 'two and two are four. because the word she begins with a small letter.--he only is great. and in this view." Therefore.."--Murray's Key. unity. 177."--Ib. "Other words of particular importance. the house of commons."--See Campbell's Rhet. 360. figures of words. Murray's Gram. 169."--Murray's Key. p. "Perhaps figures of imagination. under the heads of perspicuity. p.' 'Lambeth is over against Westminster-abbey. 'he is a tall man. "When we say. 22. 8vo.' [we speak absurdly. p. p.. "The house of lords were so much influenced by these reasons.--OF NEEDLESS CAPITALS. as. 'he writes a pen. not one nor the other: as.. p. 'the man is happy. "They may all be taken together. [FORMULE. Ed. and to different weather. might be a more useful distribution.' or. 'the tower fell the Greeks. p.

ET AL. Aha!"--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Ps.. Fisk's. for the drawing of Bonds and Conveyances. xxvii. saying.. 42... is a book of some note. p. 3. "Arithmetic is excellent for the gauging of Liquors. p. in the following phrases. "They assert that. gentle spring. in the phrases. they have left this wicked World and retired to Heaven: And now what is it that can keep you here?"--Ib. "In the History of Henry the fourth. 342. it was the privilege of every citizen to rail in public. "Return.--why?" &c. [FORMULES. 15.--1. and visit this vine.. a Nation's Temper shows. Truth and Justice. and that word was with God. S. 288.] As. very improperly write "sunday.: Hosea. But. 293."--Blair's Rhet. p. Ethereal mildness. 85. p. 81."--Brightland's Gram. by Father Daniel.. "In the history of Henry the fourth."--Meditations of M. and other makers of spelling-books. Art thou the King of the Jews?"--ALGER: Matt. for the measuring of Estates. 239. p. "ethereal" should here begin with a small letter. "And the governor asked him. Astronomy."--Priestley's Gram. "And the coast bends again to the northwest. and live?"--SCOTT'S BIBLE: Heb. xxii. The Son of David. varied. 193 with the Original M. 151. Aha. 20."--Ib. p."--Balbi's Geog. "The wars of Flanders. 99. "The name of an object personified.--MIXED. and behold. "William is a noun. Not proper. 9. O God of Hosts.--See Webster's Elementary Spelling-Book p.. p. "Come. "He is the Cicero of his age.. Aurelius Antoninus. "What think ye of Christ? whose Son is he? They say unto him. come. 172. And which is that? 'T is that Being which Manages and Governs all the Rest. Geometry. 8vo. as far as Far Out head. macedonia.' &c. when it conveys an idea strictly individual. friday."--Murray's Gram. because the word spring begins with a small letter.. 'this book is instructive. In keen Iambics English Metre flows. 36.' 'some boys are ingenious. 'give me that.: Ps. p.[109] O grave. "Shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the father of spirits. according to Rule 16th. look down from heaven. 411.--why? was is a verb. 151. "Shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of . we are surprised at not finding him the great man. "In the beginning was the word. p. Ingersoll's. p. p. 58. xii. he is reading the lives of the Twelve Cæsars. written in Latin by Famianus Strada. LESSON I. xiii. But."--SCOTT."--Ib. and Grammar."--Glasgow Geog. Not proper again. "Capitals are improper whenever there is not some special rule or reason for their use.." without capitals. and albania. p. "Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame. "Let them be turned back for a reward of their shame.. "Silver and Gold have I none.. "He is styled by the Turks. p. 49. 308. for the making of Almanacks. p. "Do not those same poor peasants use the Lever and the Wedge. 14. "In the Attic Commonwealth. 43. should begin with a capital.' and 'such were some of you.. "If Pulse of Terse. I will be thy destruction. How then doth David in Spirit call him Lord?"--SCOTT: Matt.' the words in italics are pronouns: but that. and God was that word. 316. saturday. according to Rule 10th. "Among all Things in the Universe... 76.CHAPTER I. that say unto me.' 'this is John's. p."--Gwilt's Saxon Gram. I will redeem them from death: O death. give I unto thee. p."--Murray's Gram.. from Harris. for which there appears to be neither rule nor reason. Aha. "As for Modesty and Good Faith. xl. p. PROMISCUOUS ERRORS RESPECTING CAPITALS. p.." Therefore "Spring" should here begin with a capital S."--Ib. we beseech thee."--Balbi. and many other instruments?"--Murray."--Murray's Gram. we are surprized at not finding him the great man.. wednesday."--Gardiner's Music of Nature. ALGER. I will be thy plagues. 187. "I will ransom them from the power of the grave.' 'our hearts are deceitful. 321. 295. that say. 364. Webster. "The greeks are numerous in thessaly. ii."--Balbi's Geog. tuesday.. but such as I have. 2. thursday. perhaps. 11.."--Harris's Hermes. aha!"--IB.--why? very is an adverb. p. "The commander in chief of the Turkish navy is styled the capitan-pasha.--Merchant's School Gram. by father Daniel. direct your Worship to the Greatest. Sultan (Mighty) or Padishah (lord). 360. lxx. Vol. Dr. they are not pronouns. 360."--Ib. romelia.--why? a is an article." Therefore.' 'my health is declining.. monday. He saith unto them. because the word Ethereal begins with a capital E.

19. p. gained him a thousand pounds from the parliament. p. p."--Murray's Sequel.--SINGER'S SHAK. p."--John. "He rebuked the Red sea also. and I will not fear what man shall do unto me. p. ii. "You cannot deny. gentle sleep.. 111."--Ib. 152. Act iii. is introduced as speaking by the centurion's voice. IV. "Dr. Webster wrote both 'Newhaven' and 'Newyork' with single capitals. a mountain in Selkirkshire. lectures four or five times over."--Cohen's Florida. "His best known works. p."--Berkley's Minute Philosopher. 318. 9. O virtue! peace is all thy own. however. O LORD my Salvation. and killed his antagonist with vexation. Westhampton. the joy of the whole earth. xxxviii. 'know thyself. the Spirit of Truth.. ii.. 4.."--Williams's Univ. xlviii. Gaines ordered a detachment of near 300 men. "The coast bends from Dungsbyhead in a northwest direction to the promontory of Dunnet head. literary."--Murray's Sequel."--Priestley's Gram. Gram. he will guide you into all truth. about fourteen miles from fort Scott. "O sleep. and it was dried up. Ded."--See his American Spelling-Book."--Ib.. O. that the great mover and author of nature constantly explaineth himself to the eyes of men. a frequent recurrence of scripture-language is attended with peculiar force. cvi.--MIXED. v. by Salmasius. and live?"--FRIENDS' BIBLE: Heb. "He was more anxious to attain the character of a Christian hero. to surround and take an Indian Village.200 feet. Part of Hen. 3dly. sir John. Vol. note 4. p. Gaz. Ingersoll. Eggharbor. 172. p. p. Talitha Cumi. "Sleep.. p. "In 1752.' 3 vols. 113.. by the sensible intervention of arbitrary signs.' gave considerable offence to the guardians of orthodoxy."--SCOTT: Ps. Perthamboy. 8vo. Dict. famous for his travels. 110. "The Lord is my Helper. 171."--Glasgow Geog. "When he. 16. Fisk. 331. LESSON III.. "Gayhead.'"--Lempriere's Dict."--Ib. "Milton's book. p."--Murray's Sequel. who are to be heard and not imitated."--Fisk's E. lecture is a very important one."--Pope's Works."--SCOTT: Heb. p."--See Murray's Sequel. LESSON II."--Ib. "Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. His book entitled 'An explication of the Maxims of the Saints concerning the interior life. viii. Almon. 171. height 2. p."--ALGER: Mark. Queen of the Earth. known under the general name of mount Jura.. p. "And he took the damsel by the hand. 2. called Fowl Town. "He also wrote 'european' without a capital. 312. "And peace. p. never before printed. 186. 4to. that I may have eternal life?"--See Matt. p. under the command of Major Twiggs.. "Beautiful for situation. its form. xii.. "Make haste to help me. 41. in his spelling book.."--See p."--Blair's Rhet. under the title of lord Kames. 6. 9. 49.."--See p. "O gentle sleep." &c. O gentle sleep.. n. p.. .."--Wilson's Essay on Gram. Biog."--Univ. Sec. Nature's soft nurse. Dict. "Mandeville. no other deem Than great and glorious Rome. 194 Spirits. and 'biographical.. rule XV. xiii.. 1797."--Calvin's Institutes. "Now read the XI."--Murray's Gram.. is come. in reply to the Defence of the king. 289."--Psalms. 307. wrote 'Charles-Town' with a Hyphen and two Capitals. Write "Craborchard. 157. Longisland. "Contemplated with gratitude to their Author. 22. "Gen. p. 1."--Kirkham's Gram. that of a double V. Scotland. 8vo."--SCOTT: Ps. "One of his maxims was. "On religious subjects.." &c. 55. the Giver of all Good. who before was only a spectator. 129. Virtue! Peace is all thy own. "The name of this letter is double U. born about 1300. died in 1372. 321. "Ettrick pen. are 'anecdotes of the earl of Chatham. and political anecdotes of several of the most eminent persons of the present age. 117. is mount Zion.. "And Peace. how have I frighted thee?"--Merchant's School Gram. 101. 379. 343. "They profess themselves to be pharisees."--Ib. "That range of hills. the west point of Martha's Vineyard.--Dodd's Beauties of Shakspeare. p. which Thou seest. p. "Murray.. and XII. 98.CHAPTER I."--Murray's Gram. Chilo. which have no similitude.--MIXED. p. I informed you that Etymology treats. p. an Englishman. "Fenelon united the characters of a nobleman and a Christian pastor. n.' 2 vols. 308. or connexion. of derivation. "When natural religion. "This VIII. "The City. with the things signified. 3 vols. p. Nature's soft nurse. 86. Nature's soft nurse."--Biog. "See the lecture on verbs. he was advanced to the bench. and said unto her. xix. "Good master. 16. "At the commencement of lecture II." Harris's Hermes.. what good thing shall I do.. 169.

may. june. march. 195 Littlecompton. Portroyal. Fellspoint.--christ. thursday. 21-40. "Eight Letters in some Syllables we find. levitical. wednesday. Sandyhook. september.CHAPTER I. european. michaelmas. july. october. christendom.. bacchanals. Portobello. Crownpoint. sundry places."--Webster's American Spelling-Book.--Easthampton. and Portorico. deuteronomy. johannes. august. 61. aonian. omega. Newpaltz. . Write the following names and words properly: "tuesday. p." Brightland's Gram. april. 127-140. november. Write the names of the months: "january. christmas. saturday. february. indian. saturn. And no more Syllables in Words are joined. december."--Cobb's Standard Spelling-Book. christian. friday."--Cobb's Standard Spelling-Book. Portpenn.

a word of three syllables. embracing all but six of the thirty-five possible combinations of two vowels: aa. except w. ia. awe. An improper diphthong is a diphthong in which only one of the vowels is sounded. oo. io. io. ai. ewe. being variously sounded. eo in people.--ie. ew. A proper triphthong is a triphthong in which all the vowels are sounded. iw. and is either a word. buoyant.--eau. ew. oi. ay. ui. uy. The improper diphthongs are twenty-six. ea in beat. A triphthong is three vowels joined in one syllable.CHAPTER II. uy: of which combinations.--ua. as. ou. uea. or separate impulses of the voice. eo. as di in dial. oeu in manoeuvre. The only proper triphthong in English is uoy. a. A diphthong is two vowels joined in one syllable. uy. ei. eau in beauty. A Syllable is one or more letters pronounced in one sound. ow. as. oe. old or foreign. 196 CHAPTER II. iy. gram-ma-ri-an. as. (uu. ey. ai. oo. the characters often unite. ow in vow. A proper diphthong is a diphthong in which both the vowels are sounded.)--oa. uo. ou in sound. eye. as in buoy. SYLLABICATION. iew. ao. ue. ue.--ia. DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS. a dissyllable. oy.--ua. ee. In every word there are as many syllables as there are distinct sounds. to wit. unless uoi in quoit may be considered a parallel instance. as. uay. (iu. ow. aw. oi in voice. ant. ou. or a part of a word. ow. as. ie.--ea. au. uo.--ea. a word of two syllables.--ieu. ae. eo. owe. iew in view. a trissyllable. iou. uoy in buoy. uaw.--oi. The proper diphthongs appear to be thirteen. Every vowel. eau in beau. only three. as. oi. The improper triphthongs are sixteen. ey. as. ao. The diphthongs in English are twenty-nine.--oi. uo. may form a syllable of itself. aa. eu.) uy. eu. uo. ay. ui.--ua. aw.--ua. uw. aye. oy. ui. as. ay. A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable. ae.--ie. ou. An improper triphthong is a triphthong in which only one or two of the vowels are sounded.--ia. . but the consonants belong to the vowels or diphthongs.--uai. --OF SYLLABLES. In oe or æ. uee. ie.--oeu. and a word of four or more syllables. are invariably of this class. ee. ui. iou in anxious. ow. au. ou. an. ei.--oa. ay. a polysyllable. may be either proper or improper. oa in loaf. buoyancy. (ii. and without a vowel no syllable can be formed. eou. and oy. ue. ue.) io. Ten of these diphthongs. oe.

into the beginning of syllables. re-create. me-lon. in general. ap-os-tol'-i-cal. as to the manner of effecting it. To exhibit the exact pronunciation of words. we are to be directed chiefly by the ear. Compounds. as much as possible.[111] By aiming to divide on the vowels. entirely consistent with themselves. wi-dow. Derivative and grammatical terminations should generally be separated from the radical words to which they have been added.--The doctrine of English syllabication is attended with some difficulties. if they make not a diphthong. To show the derivation or composition of words.--CONSONANTS. This method of division is therefore particularly reprehensible in such books as are designed to teach the true pronunciation of words. re-so-lu-tion. in his Spelling-Book. RULE I.--The object of syllabication may be any one of the following four. 2. has "gra-vel. e-ve-ry. often contradictory. a word may be divided.--TERMINATIONS. but they disagree so much. up-lift: but if their own primitive meaning be disregarded. the following rules. .--PREFIXES. At the end of a line. if necessary. 1. pri-son. A-o'-ni-an.--LINES FULL. when it is necessary to break them at the ends of lines. e-ne-my. Two vowels. An-ax-ag'-o-ras. as. and to force the consonants. re-formation. borrowed chiefly from grammars of other languages. and ref-ormation. as far as practicable. Prefixes. it has been generally abandoned in our modern spelling-books and dictionaries: the authors of which have severally aimed at some sort of compromise between etymology and pronunciation. divided upon a principle by which the young learner can scarcely fail to be led into error respecting their sounds. 2. To enable a child to read unfamiliar words by spelling them. foot-hold. bro-ther. should be divided into the simple words which compose them. and very few. never-the-less. RULE IV. as. A-cka'-i-a. boat-swain. fi-nish. 4. as. bo-dy. for which reason. RULE VI. the case may be otherwise. mis-place. as. and rec'-reate. great-ly. that no two of them will be found alike. it may however be proper to observe. To divide words properly. because its purposes are various. Consonants should generally be joined to the vowels or diphthongs which they modify in utterance.[110] RULE II. 197 In dividing words into syllables. and still retained in some of our own. re-pre-sent. and its principles. but a syllable must never be broken. RULE III. 1. a-e'-ri-al. o-ran-ges. are words of different import. must be parted in dividing the syllables. thus. OBS. me-di-cine.CHAPTER II. harm-less. as. Thus Murray. The old rules. coming together. out-ride." and a multitude of other words.--VOWELS. if any.--COMPOUNDS. form separate syllables. OBS. 3. RULE V. a-va-rice. they often pervert or misrepresent our pronunciation. when divided. OBSERVATIONS. are liable to very strong objections. connect-ed: thus count-er and coun-ter are different words.

" to offer more than one or two. 539. which. 5. the authorities I have mentioned did extensively patronize the scheme. 4. than is the publication which I have just quoted." 3. that. and those of the very simplest character." which are thrown together promiscuously. Sixty-three rules for "the sounds of the vowels. Farther than this it would be absurd to go with a child. 1833. "An Abridgment of Walker's Rules on the Sounds of the Letters. Vocabularies. who made it his business to teach what he calls in his title-page. And is it possible."--See Mulkey's Circular. especially adapted to the wants and capacities of children. and divided according to their proper sounds. than to write an accurate volume of twice the size." 5. Unless the public has been imposed upon by a worse fraud than mere literary quackery. 3. It is to be observed that the author teaches nothing but the elements of reading. all the important rules that are established by Walker."--Preface. Walker observes. in "four or five days. When a single consonant is preceded by a vowel under the preantepenultimate accent. and have him remember them all: 1. into the notion that English pronunciation could be conveniently taught to children. and that two consonants coming together must be divided. as a caution be it recorded." All this is Walker simplified for children! OBS. Twenty-eight pages of notes extracted from Walker's Dictionary."--Walker's Principles. it is believed. because he could not class them. Yet.--Pronunciation is best taught to children by means of a good spelling-book. 6. that to point them out. OBS. with all his verbosity. and the Common Council of that learned city did order. William Mulkey to give a course of Lectures on Orthoëpy to the several instructors of the public schools. a book in which the words are arranged according to their analogies." 4. would be more toil. at the same time. according to their relative positions. for this purpose. whereas Walker himself. Fifteen distinctions respecting the "classification and organic formation of the letters. . Twenty-nine "rules for dividing words into syllables. and that the sum of five hundred dollars is hereby appropriated for that purpose. as a great improvement in the management of syllables. It censures "the principles laid down and illustrated by Walker. according to position. Thirty-three "additional principles. nothing but a few simple fractions of the great science of grammar: and. the professor of elocution at Harvard University. and to carry his principles farther than he himself has done"--befooled the Legislature of Massachusetts. p." forming particular exceptions to the foregoing rules."--an Abridgement.--A grosser specimen of literary quackery. November 14th. p." 7. and take your choice between the adoption of his plan. an itinerant lecturer from the South. similar to that which I have quoted above. it may not be improper to lay down the common general rule to him. in 1833. and.--Such is a brief sketch of Mulkey's system of orthoëpy. It professes to be an abridgement and simplification of those principles. The faults of the book are so exceedingly numerous.CHAPTER II. but is ignorant of the sound of many of the longer words. it belongs to the accented vowel. the true rules of pronunciation. he would conduct the learner through the following particulars. p. that a system like this could find patronage in the metropolis of New England." as "so elaborate and so verbose as to be wearisome to the scholar and useless to the child. nothing but the sounds of letters and syllables. 198 With respect to the first of these objects. in that proud centre of arts and sciences. 3. 8. embracing a hundred and fifty-six principles of accent." by means of some three or four hundred rules of which the following is a specimen: "RULE 282. "That the School Committee be and they are hereby authorized to employ Mr. and that the same amount be withdrawn from the reserved fund. and very prettily called "The Beauties of Walker. Fifty-two pages of "irregular Words. expressly declares it "absurd. Eighty-nine rules for "the sounds of the consonants. and the certain conclusion that great men may be greatly duped respecting them. "will be found to contain. can scarcely be found in the world of letters. the School Committee and Common Council of Boston. "When a child has made certain advances in reading. No. and in the proudest halls of learning and of legislation? Examine the gentleman's credentials. 34. and many other equally wise men of the east. Twenty-three heads." 2. according to the analogy of the language." and yet declares them to be. a work in which "he claims to have devised what has heretofore been a desideratum--a mode by which children in our common schools may be taught the rules for the pronunciation of their mother tongue. OBS."--Mulkey's Abridgement of Walker's Rules. 9. that a consonant between two vowels must go to the latter. 4. Sixty-four explanations of "the different sounds of the diphthongs. and is followed by a vowel that is succeeded by a consonant. imposes upon the memory of the young learner twenty-nine rules for syllabication."--Mulkey's Preface. he says in his preface. "for the most part.

and.CHAPTER II. "Dee I. and the latter is still more frequently allowed to hurry through the process. I have given six rules."--Wilson's Essay on Gram. This being the most common purpose of syllabication. because there is some reasonable objection to terminating the first syllables of these words with c. than is gained in respect to time. it is plain. be the same in written. g. we must. and that he should industriously avoid that random Method of dividing by the Ear. as. I am almost ready to dissent even from the modest opinion of Walker himself. as it must be continually fluctuating according to the various Dialects of different Countries. p. "The best and easiest rule. called "Lowth's. all but one of the five rules which the old grammarians gave for the purpose. 7. and. liquidate. 199 dictionaries. as. Dr. especially at the end of a line. and a proper exposition of the occasional errors of ignorance. in giving out the words to be spelled. The syllables should not only be distinctly formed and pronounced. p. when put together again. must here govern the division.--For the dividing of words into syllables.. . and each should be successively added to the preceding syllables. The scholar should say. as in spoken language. Through the influence of books in which the words are divided according to their sounds. With regard to the second purpose. perhaps it would be well to give it a general preference. without forming or distinguishing the syllables at all. and seduced by false representations into injurious errors. unquestionably. and. that etymology. In many of our schools. and perhaps not always expedient where it is practicable. dronish. The old principle of dividing by the eye. is. that the scholar who had learned their rules should "strictly conform to them. and it may be doubted whether even the simple rule or rules suggested by Walker would not about as often mislead the young reader as correct him. by giving distinctly every part. "The divisions of the letters into syllables."--Walker's Principles. with it. 6. viz. They are to be understood as general principles. or the settling of their conflicting claims to attention. and. For example: the words colonel. in such as acid. But this rule. But when we divide for the third purpose. and it may perhaps be reasonably hoped. propitious. the-ol-o-gy. magic. these may be left to the judgement of each writer. for dividing the syllables in spelling. I have rejected. if possible. Merely to pronounce a word and then name its letters. to divide them as they are naturally divided in a right pronunciation. but also in the dividing of words at the ends of lines. and. transition."--British Grammar. ortho-graphy. is an exceedingly imperfect mode of spelling. OBS. is not always careful to utter them with what he knows to be their true sounds. till positive instruction comes in to give assurance.--No. OBS. and intend to show what is the pronunciation of a word. without putting the syllables together as he proceeds. 47. and glossaries. otherwise the learner is misguided. 8. The rule for terminations may also interfere with this. will one day obviate entirely the objection arising from the instability of the principle. it may not be best to follow the rule. but frequently accommodates his pronunciation to the known or supposed ignorance of the scholar. pacify. and adopt it whenever we can.--Dr. Lowth says. for ignorance can only guess at the pronunciation of words. but pronounced as they are heard in the whole word. legible. which no one can apply till he has found out the pronunciation. and that it should go no further than to separate the constituent parts of each word. may also be serviceable to those who are sufficiently advanced to learn how to use them. 541. With regard to the first of the abovenamed purposes of syllabication. till the whole sound is formed by the reunion of all its parts. without regard to the derivation of words. "is the method adopted by those who would convey the whole sound. Vee I Ess.--The important exercise of oral spelling is often very absurdly conducted. OBS. rising. and not by the ear. which is subject to mere jumble. cannot be so divided as to exhibit their pronunciation. 5. a mode in which far more is lost in respect to accuracy of speech. Lowth's rule is certainly to be followed. not only in the composing of spelling-books and dictionaries. should. theo-logy. And Walker approves of the principle. that of showing the derivation or composition of words. it may be observed that the teacher. or-thog-ra-phy.."--Lowth's Gram. and not pronunciation. when this is the object of syllabication. sometimes. will not always be practicable where that is known." says that celebrated orthoëpist. venison. For the old grammarians urged. p. as to the exceptions to be made in their application. de. with respect to the third purpose mentioned above: "This. which are perhaps as many as will be useful. the pronunciation of the language is daily becoming more and more uniform. 37. and q. divide into such syllabic sounds as will exactly recompose the word." as in sizable. For example: divisibility. or the possible combination of consonants at the beginning of a syllable. that the general adoption of this method of syllabication.

Sa-mu-el. pa-ra-dise. E-li-za-beth. te. ma-le-fac-tor. de-viz-e-bil-e.--de-mon-stra-tion. mea-dow. Correct the division of the following words of two syllables: "ci-vil. Phi-lip. le-mon. she-ka. she-ka-nur. 3. re-fu-gee. con-si-der-ate. she-ka-nur-e. dis-tri-bute. ma-nu-fac-to-ry. plea-sant. po-ly-syl-la-ble. Bee I Ell. Tee Wy. Da-ni-el. se-ve-ral. 98-101. Pe-ne-lo-pe. e-mu-la-tion. li-be-ral."--Murray's Spelling-Book. The method of giving out words for practical spelling on slates or paper. ca-ta-logue. Si-me-on. ka-len-dar. N. cha-rac-ter. "Consonants should generally be joined to the vowels or diphthongs which they modify in utterance. to-le-ra-ble. re-sig-na-tion. Ti-mo-thy. "Cee Aitch I. 1819. ka.--a-ca-de-mi-cal.. li-nen. pu-nish.. con-sid-e-ra-tion. re-pri-mand. Correct the division of the following words of three syllables: "be-ne-fit. Cee A. sho-vel. a-po-the-ca-ry. Leo-nard. because the v in ci-vil. dis-co-ver. &c. co-lour.--Ca-ro-line. is its tendency to promote accuracy of pronunciation. 43-50. 1. Na-tha-ni-el. . le-ve-ret. &c. dis-ho-nest. Ly-di-a.] 2. pe-ni-ten-tial. ex-pe-ri-ment. me-mo-ran-dum. Jo-na-than. no-bi-li-ty. ma-nu-fac-ture. no-bo-dy."--Murray: ib. ra-ther. co-vet-ous. va-ga-bond. ri-ver. Wy. pre-sent-ly.. En E Ar. pros-pe-ri-ty. o-range. pre-pa-ra-to-ry. ga-ther-ing. what-e-ver. ti-mid. de-li-ver. pa-ra-ly-tic. da-mask. is much to be commended. 84-87. according to Rule 1st. p. cu-ri-o-si-ty. hea-vy. ga-ther. But oral spelling should not be relied on as the sole means of teaching orthography. cop-y. dictation. do-zen. It will not be found sufficient. go-vern-ess. me-mo-ry. cha-ri-ta-ble. e-vi-dent. Do-ro-thy. ge-ne-rous. Bar-tho-lo-mew. e-pi-gram-ma-tic. p. p.. Correct the division of the following proper names: "He-len. but spoken with that which precedes. fea-ther.--A-me-ri-ca. ho-nes-ty. sa-tis-fy. par-ti-cu-lar. ex-tra-va-gant. de-viz-e. Correct the division of the following words of five syllables: "a-bo-mi-na-ble. sto-mach. in the schools. these words should be divided thus: civ-il.--re-com-mend. con-ti-nue. IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. sin-ce-ri-ty.--be-ne-vo-lent. po-ver-ty. ri-di-cu-lous.--Not proper. Ro-bert. p. o-live. in proportion to the care and skill with which it is conducted. mi-nis-ter. nur. 87-89. ERRORS IN SYLLABICATION. ge-o-gra-phi-cal. sa-tis-fac-to-ry. I. 200 de-viz. di-li-gent-ly. ra-ven-ous. in-ha-bit. pro-vi-dence. di-mi-ty. the p in co-py. Fre-de-rick. se-pa-rate. me-cha-nic. the l in co-lour. This is called. sa-tis-fac-tion. cha-ri-ty. pro-per-ly. se-mi-co-lon. whe-ther. are written with the following vowel. e-ver. De-bo-rah. p.--cha-rac-te-ris-tic. 67-83. LESSON I.--MIXED. ex-pe-ri-ment-al." Again: chicanery. hea-ven. bil. Y. col-our." Therefore. Ni-cho-las. me-ri-to-ri-ous. tra-vel-ler.CHAPTER II. e-le-phant. I-sa-bel. ne-ver. So-lo-mon."--Murray: ib. rea-dy. as a means of exercising those scholars who are so far advanced as to write legibly. di-mi-nu-tive. e-ver-green. fri-vo-lous. 4. mi-se-ra-ble. and this end it will reach. go-vern-or. e-pi-de-mic."--Murray: ib. phea-sant. Tho-mas. [FORMULE. Va-len-tine. O-li-ver. no-vel-ty. co-py. dis-fi-gure. ca-nis-ter. e-du-ca-tion. mo-dest-ly.. la-ven-der. con-sid-e-ra-ble. di-li-gence. Correct the division of the following words of four syllables: "ca-ter-pil-lar. 5. Ho-race. o-ther. de-viz-e-bil. she.--CONSONANTS. The-o-phi-lus. But. pro-fit-a-ble. Ca-tha-rine. ro-bin. I. ca-bi-net. pri-son-er. de-viz-e-bil-e-te. or of reading something which is to be written again by the learner. LESSON II. ho-ney." --Murray: ib.--con-si-der. mo-de-ra-tor.. scho-lar. ex-pla-na-to-ry. mo-ney." One of the chief advantages of oral spelling. in-ha-bi-tant.

bask-et. rank-le. barb-er. cha-mel-ion."--Cobb's Standard Spelling-Book. craf-ty."--Webster's Spelling-Books. weal-thy.."--Webster's Old Book. bran-chy. pas-try. ne-go-tiate. 93.. bribe-ry. thor-ny. nice-ty. or-re-ry. lot-te-ry. "Be-thes-da. according to their derivation: "ben-der. 66. fol-io. he-ro-ism. chart-er. cank-er. eb-o-ny. 3. 5. stea-dy. phal-anx. trus-ty. quack-e-ry. Correct the division of the following words. mas-sy. musk-et. tink-le."--Webster: Old Spelling-Book. tarn-ish. pull-et. cuck-oo.. pas-sing. chan-ter. em-e-ry. qua-drant. fil-thy. mark-et."--Ib. "tow-ards. scur-ril-ous. New. squa-dron. Correct the division of the following words. so as to give no wrong notion of their derivation and meaning: "barb-er."--Ib. Correct the division of the following words by Rule 4th: "aw-ry. and give to n before k the sound of ng: "ank-le. gloo-my. stor-my. test-ate. scene-ry. hear-ken. mus-ky. trus-ty. clou-dy. "res-ist-i-bil-ity. im-age-ry.--sar-don-yx. thrif-ty. Correct the division of the following words by Rule 2d: "oy-er. ful-ler. 201 1."--Murray's Spelling-Book.--MIXED. Beth-a-ba-ra. con-ven-ient. graf-ter. swel-ling.. 159."--Ib. cack-le. p. rus-ty."--Ib. bras-sy. lust-y. ar-te-ry. vest-al.. trench-er. par-hel-ion. sei-zure. varn-ish. spee-dy. ma-chine-ry.. pat-ron. mil-ky. pe-cul-iar. wea-ver. monk-ey. nun-ne-ry.. "pros-pect-ive. pil-lo-ry. noc-turn-al. LESSON III. cur-dy.as-y-lum."--Ib. migh-ty. "mo-nos-tich. ex-pa-tiate. dros-sy. siave-ry. fop-pe-ry. so as to convey no wrong idea of their pronunciation: "ar-mo-ry. wes-tern. swar-thy. ob-lige. 76. ban-ded. wrink-le. 2. mark-et."--Cobb. in-i-tiate. pe-cun-ia-ry. Correct the division of the following words. in-tern-al. drow-sy. drea-ry. no-vi-ciate. e-tern-al. roc-ky. liv-e-ry. "pa-renth-e-sis. full-y. mat-ron. freck-le. trait-or. by Rule 1st: "cap-rice. burn-ish. vi-tiate. fick-le. li-cen-tiate. flip-pe-ry. Correct the division of the following words by Rule 3d: "dres-ser. dis-es-teem. ves-try. loung-er. sub-stan-tiate. gen-ial. bles-sing. gal-le-ry. pamph-let. tel-ler. twink-le. vam-per. fen-der. chaf-fy." [112]--Walker's Dict. fros-ty. 130. east-er. gus-ty.--an-nun-ciate. eve-ning. his-to-ry. mock-e-ry. port-al. rea-dy. ap-pre-ciate. punch-eon. 1. Cobb. hor-i-zon."--Emerson's Spelling-Book. ves-ture. "hem-is-pher-ic. has-ty. port-ress. treat-y. hear-ty. guil-ty. heal-thy. brisk-et. varn-ish. han-dy. Correct the division of the following words."--Webster. eve-ning. test-y. 52. blank-et. . ma-tern-al. pick-le. 8vo. par-tial-i-ty. 141. so-cia-ble. sor-ce-ry. in-fern-al. weigh-ty. garn-ish. glas-sy. pit-cher. post-e-ri-or. Cobb. garn-ish. 4. lea-ky. crank-le. pa-tern-al. sa-tiate. 121-128. es-teem. tarn-ish.-. 93. 2. knuck-le. 86-91. thirs-ty. rill-et. 33. furn-ish. with a proper regard to Rules 1st and 3d: "a-scribe. 93."--Cobb's Standard Spelling-Book. 4. butch-er-y. burn-ish. 71.-com-e-di-an. shack-le. naugh-ty."--Ib. qua-drate. witch-e-ry."--Webster's Elementary Spelling-Book. of-fi-ciate. dus-ty. noi-sy. jes-ter. 17-44. di-urn-al. 41-42. gen-ius. bland-ish. oo-zy. chi-cane-ry. poult-ice. scan-ty. cook-e-ry. 5.--fi-nan-cier."--Webster's New Book. pro-pi-tiate. mo-ver. glos-sy. mys-te-ry. hank-er. om-nis-cience. 100. "ath-wart. 48. sprink-le. 3.CHAPTER II. in-gen-ious. as-so-ciate. he-mis-tick. nee-dy. sir-en. "a-no-ther. Correct the division of the following words by Rule 5th: "E'n-gland. faul-ty. gau-dy. rol-ler. in-gra-tiate. mo-ving. hoa-ry. tes-ted. e-nun-ciate. ev-e-ry. fil-my. fel-o-ny."--Cobb's Standard Spelling-Book. trait-or. fus-ty.--az-ure. Again: "eas-tern. gras-sy. buck-le. clas-per.--am-bro-sia. mar-shy. Correct the division of the following words. crink-le."--Emerson. jun-ior. "a-noth-er. Correct the division of the following words. knave-ry.--brave-ry."--Webster.

and toward us is better than the old phrase. RULES FOR THE FIGURE OF WORDS. less. as. bookseller. in room of. greatly. A Word is one or more syllables spoken or written as the sign of some idea. watchman. 202 CHAPTER III. Words regularly or analogically united. . coffee. watch. new coined. "calf. in stead of. rail road. Words otherwise liable to be misunderstood. Permanent compounds are consolidated. as. as in the phrase.--ELLIPSES. man. unconnected. red hot. the. RULE II. however. are formed by the hyphen. but a glasshouse is a house in which glass is made. "six or seventeen" should not be said for "sixteen or seventeen.--COMPOUNDS. watchhouse. When the simple words would only form a regular phrase. harm. goat. house."--Liberator. are preferable to the phrases. watchtower. as. or of some manner of thought. in place of. tower. x. railroad. steam boat. the latter. the compounding of any of them ought to be avoided. is exactly like the other phrases. RULE III. Words are distinguished as primitive or derivative. goatskins. as. which may be called temporary compounds. good-natured. Thus. connect. 40.--SIMPLES. well being. and as simple or compound. because the simple phrase. as. disconnect. as.CHAPTER III. as the sense and construction may happen to require. Thus. to us ward. should never be needlessly broken apart. steamboat. new-coined. and sheepskins" for "calfskins. "soup. --OF WORDS. never. Thus. negro-merchant. well-being. schoolmaster: others. RULE I. harmless. must be joined together or written separately. in lieu of. connected.--THE HYPHEN. a glass house is a house made of glass." nor ought we to say. so a negro merchant is a coloured trader. A compound word is one that is composed of two or more simple words. and sheepskins" In the latter instance. and commonly known as forming a compound. of the same meaning. A primitive word is one that is not formed from any simpler word in the language. their figure. nevertheless. RULE V. A derivative word is one that is formed from some simpler word in the language. but a negro-merchant is a man who buys and sells negroes. in which we write no compound. it might be right to separate all the words. and tea houses. RULE IV. the compound instead is not to be commended. red-hot. When two or more compounds are connected in one sentence. A simple word is one that is not compounded. none of them should be split to make an ellipsis of half a word. The former division is called their species. great. not composed of other words.--THE SENSE. Thus.

203 When the parts of a compound do not fully coalesce. gentleman. do not properly belong to what we call our language. because they are beyond the limits of their art. when I come to treat of articles and definitives. but mainly of those general or universal ideas which belong rather to the intellect than to the senses. in Etymology. however important they may be in the eyes of men. as watchword. as first-born. vii. though they may not need it. Lexicographers do not collect and define proper names. hanger-on. and destroy a distinction which must ever be practically recognized. in the first place. But counting-house. no meaning belongs. having more stress on the last syllable than on the middle one. I say. taken merely as syllables. to a word. And as I cannot suppose words to represent external things. garlic-eater. and can be explained only from history. existing in any part of time. and book-keeping and school-book. contrives how to denote things infinite. so that the compound has more than one. yet without placing them on equal ground. writes thus: "The practical instruction of the countinghouse imparts a more thorough knowledge of bookkeeping. butterfly-shell. OBS. OBS. 2. would confound one language with an other. wave.--Our common words. no hyphen should be inserted between them. are oftener so formed than otherwise. is made to consist of signs of ideas both general and particular. the hyphen should be inserted between them. there can be no word without it. essentially. after much attention to this subject. OBSERVATIONS. and language. and the parts are such as admit of a complete coalescence. I do not say that proper names are to be excluded from grammar. For intellection differs from sensation." and to recognize as an English word every syllable. motion. I shall show hereafter. whether persons. or things. But. or by means of certain changeable limitations which are added to our general terms. because all our terms would be particular. to-night. is essential. our particular ideas. and because every individual thing in nature must necessarily be for ever itself only. RULE VI. or when each retains its original accent. resist--such ideas.. signification of some sort or other. however carefully constructed to suit particular purposes. to syllables. tree. When a compound has but one accented syllable in pronunciation. we could demonstrate nothing in science: we could not frame from them any general or affirmative proposition at all. or future--such. for a sign or symbol must needs represent or signify something. our ideas conceived as common to many individuals. that is. whose perceptions include both. places. which arc infinite in number and ever fleeting. or one that is movable. or combination of syllables. strength. and mediately. somewhat as the understanding of a man differs from the perceptive faculty of a brute. . 1. present. the names of particular persons. For this. statesman. then. and not an other. it would compel us to embrace among our words an infinitude of terms that are significant only of local ideas."--Hermes. such as men any where or at any time may have had concerning any of the individuals they have known.CHAPTER III. 345. and immediately. places. In the next place. "without wandering into infinitude. as to-day. The particular manner in which this is done.--Words are the least parts of significant language. being framed for the reciprocal commerce of human minds. But. constitute that most excellent significance which belongs to words primarily."--New Gram. accidentally.--NO HYPHEN. horse. constitute a significance which belongs to language only secondarily. and not general. as belong to the words man. for. nor merely of the sensible ideas which external particulars excite in our minds. "Of all ideas. because they convey only particular ideas. p. Our general ideas--that is. whereby language. we do it either by proper names. than all the fictitious transactions of a mere schoolbook. I have said "A Word is one or more syllables spoken or written as the sign of some idea. to-morrow. p. till all men shall again speak one language. Churchill. are the symbols neither of external particulars. of language significant in each part. to which we know a meaning is attached? No. but I would show wherein consists the superiority of general terms over these. or things. as Harris observes. For if our common words did not differ essentially from proper names. whereas. is usually written with the hyphen. past. cedar. such as are conceived only of individual objects. laughter-loving. If we express the latter at all. of which but very few ever become generally known. for example." But of what ideas are the words of our language significant? Are we to say.

therefore. 3d. without substituting in their place the form of proper names. is as necessary for Firstday. 3 d."--"The second month in the year." or "second month. is that of giving them proper names. But. in stead of "the first day of the week. Secondday. but proper names must needs be so written."--"The seventh day of the month. should so generally have overlooked the necessity there is. for 1835. Thirdday. all the names of the months. Sept. or any additional use of capitals. than Mr. or 1835-6-7. June. I have before observed. than one Goldsmith. &c. The writer of this did not mean."--or. "On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month.. though it is better to add d. to use the full form of proper names for the months and days.--1 mo. it is best to make it a general rule in our literary compositions. Aug. our ordinary expression of these things should be in neither extreme." and so forth? This phraseology may perhaps be well understood by those to whom it is familiar. Tuesday. as. we may put the simple Arabic figures for them.." and it is absurd for the Friends so to understand it. And sometimes even the Arabic number of the year is made yet shorter.." &c. Jan. Monday. some general signification. the numerical names. one Goldsmith. in very many instances. in constructing tables of time. in stead of "the second month in the year.. &c. would be improper. Dec. for common use." for February. OBS. p=at'ron or p=a'tron. "The first day of the week. the goldsmith.. and that these should be written with capitals. than Oliver Goldsmith. For. and not be mistaken for common terms.. &c. and often redundant. and should form the plural regularly.. and write "first day. 204 OBS. 2mo. concerning the principle of their identity. Mr. for month: as. 1837. Example: "The departure of a ship will take place every sixth day with punctuality. We must have a less cumbersome mode of specifying the months of the year and the days of the week. It is surprising that the Friends. take which mode of naming we will.. "every Friday. and. &c. the parts of which have. when that is what they mean.. Feb. 4. than the goldsmith. but legal phraseology is always full to the letter. except March. M. and mo. 3 mo. Goldsmith. who are in some respects particularly scrupulous about language. a goldsmith. in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. in every thing but the form. 2 mo.. 1837.:--or more compactly thus: 1d. we shall find that most of them are compounds.. Now a complete phrase commonly conveys some particular notion or conception of the mind."--"The second month of summer. of compounding their numerical names of the months and days. as. whenever they are used without the article. thus.. Nov. 3mo. S." Accordingly we find that. if I may not term it an important inquiry. as '37 for 1837. because it is inconsistent with the common acceptation of the terms. For proper names they certainly are...CHAPTER III. "11 mo. whether of the months or of the days. and 1837. May. and writing them uniformly with capitals. m=at'ron or . What then? Shall we merely throw away the terms of particularity. Thus we see that the simplest mode of designating particular persons or objects. 24th. 2 d. Thus smith is a more general term than goldsmith. or so to write. for day. 1 d. in which any compounding of the terms. 24.. if we please.. &c. for Monday.. perhaps. but still it is an abuse of language." for Sunday. are perhaps still more convenient." and of "different words.--If we examine the structure of proper names. &c." but wherein does the sameness or the difference of words consist? Not in their pronunciation.--In considering the nature of words. 5.. Apr.. for Sunday. are good English phrases. Goldsmith. in common daily use. that they may be known as proper names. as proper names.. OBS. &c." but a conveyancer will have it.--In the ordinary business of life.--1mo.. 1836. Oct. and July. for the same word may be differently pronounced. and without those other terms which render their general idea particular. for facility of abbreviation. but. and to denote the years by Arabic figures written in full. I was once a little puzzled with a curious speculation. 2d. we sometimes denote the days of the week by the simple initials of their names. in this case."--Philadelphia Weekly Messenger. one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. In like manner. Hence a merchant will write. it is generally desirable to express our meaning as briefly as possible. and. We often speak of "the same words. apply general terms to particular thoughts. that we have some names which are both proper and common. But. and insist on it that this is right? And is not this precisely what is done by those who reject as heathenish the ordinary names of the months and days. "On the twenty-fourth day of November.. these phrases are found too long and too artificial. the signification of the general terms is restricted by the other words which are added to them.. as for Sunday. and goldsmith is more general than a goldsmith. but should avoid alike too great brevity and too great prolixity. are abbreviated. but. "Nov." or. And the compound form with a capital. 3.

The propriety or impropriety of these additions to the language. and one meaning. so that a sign differing from an other only in one. to establish the principle above named.--In no part of grammar is usage more unsettled and variable than in that which relates to the figure of words. then. in conformity to old usage. which appears to me the only one on which any such question can be resolved. Not in their form of presentation. music or musick. and not the same: thus dear. although different words do generally differ in orthography. Lily. before a nation can learn from them the right way of spelling it. are two such words as no one would think to be the same. or a sign agreeing with an other only in one. for the same word may have different meanings. and many a fashionable thing may go entirely out of use. may appear from the fact. by which a dispute of this kind ought to be settled. But. But it is so." The compounding of words is one principal means of increasing their number. It is a point of which modern writers have taken but very little notice. as when one grammarian will have an and a to be two words. for the same word may be differently spelled. But the manner of compounding words in Latin. will readily be called different words. I have always treated them as one and the same article. favour or favor. in joining the words of those languages. meaning "under one. and when new things are formed. 6. and in meaning. connexion or connection. that the learned often disagree about it in practice. like numbers. are different words. OBS. Now. It follows thence.--Let us see. is sufficient of itself to make the number of our words a matter of great uncertainty. having the advantage of explaining themselves in a much greater degree than others. and yet not singly in any one. before a man can thus determine how to . to employ. but jointly in any two. Not in their meaning. use. is always by consolidation. to mistake one word for an other. and other ancient Latin grammarians. have little need of definition. and signs agreeing in any two. and not an other: and every word must necessarily have some property peculiar to itself. that we speak or write different words. are the same word. though perhaps not always the same. is not therefore the same word. steamboat. after all. if to any difference either of spelling or of sound we add a difference of signification everybody will immediately say. is not to be determined by dictionaries. &c. yet some diversity is allowed in each of these respects. and only one. advantage. against the double orthography or the double pronunciation of either. is universally thought to betray great ignorance or great negligence. is to confound their identity at once. not to maintain the second point of difference. by first absurdly making them so. Consequently. we must assume that every word has one right pronunciation. is not therefore a different word. OBS. in like manner. and use. Not in their orthography. beloved. then. and. in their Etymology. as things worthy to be thus made distinct topics. and also in Greek. and speech and writing present what we call the same words. genders. and deer. for the same word may be either spoken or written. are the discrepancies found in our best dictionaries. an and a are different words. therefore. For when two words of different meaning are spelled or pronounced alike. language would be unintelligible.CHAPTER III. which. and different words may signify precisely the same thing. for that must be settled by usage before any lexicographer will insert them. and an other will affirm them to be only different forms of one and the same word. in pronunciation. and some proper signification. 7. So that signs differing in any two of these characteristics of a word. and accordingly noticed them. 205 m=a'tron. that many a word may have its day and grow obsolete. Yet every word is itself. though such mistakes are by no means of uncommon occurrence. in two ways totally different. and to prove by the rule that two different words are one and the same. Upon this principle. cases. This sameness of words. by which it may be easily distinguished from every other. No use appears to have been made of the hyphen. as. tenses. Were it not so. And so numerous. Such terms. reckoned both species and figure among the grammatical accidents of nearly all the different parts of speech. moods. the principle which distinguishes every word from every other. must consist in something which is to be reconciled with great diversity. one pronunciation. if amidst all this diversity we can find that principle of sameness. railroad. so that an entire sameness implies one orthography. or the identity of words be fixed at all. But that the question about the identity of words is not a very easy one. and. and only one. and the arbitrariness with which that is done or neglected in English. though the name of the mark is a Greek compound. however. and because the latter is in fact but an abridgement of the former. is always a part of its essence. lies in neither extreme: it lies in a narrower compass than in all three. it is very natural and proper to give them new names of this sort: as. an animal. one just orthography. yet. that the principle of verbal identity. though I have nowhere expressly called them the same word.

good will. 9. three thousand. we have almsdeed. to have some principle to guide us in that labyrinth of words. I think the hyphen should be used. L. every word of more than one syllable is marked by an accent on some particular syllable. the two words have coalesced completely into one. There certainly can be no more reason for putting a hyphen after the common prefixes. p. as.--No regular phrase. twenty-five. however. which is. self-love. are in general sufficiently plain. Thus. and as five-and-twenty is equivalent to twenty-five. tea pot. too.. Some very long words indeed admit a secondary accent on another syllable. in keeping the words separate because Johnson did not compound them. mother in law: so that only his fourth has the sanction of the lexicographer. the hyphen is as improper as it would be between other words connected by the conjunction. than to find out whether we ought to write rocklo. as we compound words. "An inexpressibly apt bottle-of-small-beer comparison. a silver buckle. "Some settled rule for the use of the hyphen on these occasions. and virtually but one word. but. In this perplexity. is a common abuse. to-morrow. his second and fifth as two distinct words each. 374. as Chris'tian-name'. broad'-shoul'dered. in some form or other. without either hyphen or conjunction. as night'cap.CHAPTER III. alms-giver. OBS. our only acknowledged standard. convenient enough for those who do not like trouble. OBS. marked thus . &c. But is it not more important. tea-pot. pre-existence. or roquelaure. and no hyphen should be admitted. bed'stead. as. as. On the other hand. Thus. and a word is an other: and they ought to be kept as distinct as possible. it would unquestionably be advantageous. This. in which the hyphen appears to have been admitted or rejected arbitrarily. lapdog. for. Johnson. however. to morrow. though we find in Johnson. too hasty about the hyphen in compound numerals.is employed in connecting compounded words: as. without: and many similar examples of an unsettled practice might be adduced. sufficient to fill several pages. while half our printers are wrong. ly. in general. Accordingly. to sacrifice the established practice of all good authors to the ignorance of such readers [as could possibly mistake for a diphthong the two contiguous vowels in such words as preexistence. ness. p. it is usual to connect them by a hyphen. 8. when a whole phrase takes the relation of an adjective. and that one is wrong. 376. as I have taught in the second rule above. should be needlessly converted into a compound word. Good'-na'tured is a compound epithet with two accents. and his sixth as three words. or by uniting them without a hyphen. When two numerals are employed to express a number.. and leaves one leading accent prominent: as in expos'tulatory. For we write one hundred. who has only three lines on the subject. Lap-dog. and of course should remain distinct from the noun. broad'sword."--Ib. and we often meet with five-&-twenty. or at hap-hazard. Mr. Murray. six-&-thirty. when a compound has but one accented syllable in pronunciation. to know whether we ought to write railroad. the hyphen.. 206 name it. is not the pronunciation of the words the best guide? In the English language. there is no small difficulty in ascertaining when to use this mark. Thus far Churchill: who appears to me. and therefore requires the hyphen: in good nature. The occasions for the compounding of words. "Christian name" is as often written without the hyphen as with it. and similar expressions. and sometimes without. it should remain separate from the noun it modifies. alms-basket. gives the first and third without any separation between the syllables. which we cannot learn from any of our dictionaries. but still this is much inferior. preexistence. or roquelo. either by tacking its parts together with the hyphen. or roquelaur. is certainly not so very improper as he alleges. almsman. two hundred. a gold ring. which. His words are: 'A Hyphen. cooperate. a phrase is one thing. or rail-road. when each of the radical words has an accent. with the hyphen. eighty-four: but when the conjunction is inserted. and perhaps as accurately."--Peter Pindar. no doubt. without a conjunction between them. mother-in-law. sometimes with the hyphen. and the hyphen becomes necessary. or rail road. than before the common affixes. and the rest. when a noun is used adjectively. is much wanted. and the like. the words must be compounded."--Churchill's Gram. to any one who knows what is intended to be said.' Of his six examples. and when to omit it. seems inclined to countenance this practice. using it on almost every possible occasion. is found in them all? The duke of Roquelaure is now forgotten. .[113] But. and his cloak is out of fashion. almshouse. if not absolutely necessary to the sense.--Again: "While it would be absurd. in giving the word a hyphen. and reenter]. Modern printers have a strange predilection for it. good is used simply as an adjective. Railroads are of so recent invention that I find the word in only one dictionary.

p. "So we are assured from Scripture it self.--OF COMPOUNDS. stale declamation of its revilers would be silenced. p. 494. p. "These old fashioned people would level our psalmody."--Philological Museum. obsolete.."--Webster's New Spelling-Book."--Ib. 138.." &c. ye double minded. as men pleasers. p. "The mind."--Rush. 33. i."--Ash's Gram.--OF SIMPLES. OR FORM. p. "The elders also. 459."--Collier's Antoninus. xx."--Guy's Gram. 242. IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION. nor want a voucher. "A pear tree grows from the seed of a pear.."--Gurney's Portable Evidences. 161. Vol. that you need neither swear your self. "I go on horse back. "Words regularly or analogically united. 74.CHAPTER III. p."--ROBERTS VAUX: The Friend. p. indeed.."--Ib. 124. p. "May the Plough share shine. The Voice foregoing."--Bickersteth. on Prayer. and commonly known as forming a compound. p. "It qualifies any of the four parts of speech abovenamed.. UNDER RULE II. "A grange is a farm and farm house. "It is a mean spirited action to steal. to steal is a mean spirited action.. "Whose soever sins ye remit. and the bringers up of the children. 83.. p. p. the compounding of any of them ought to be avoided."--Fox's Journal. 230. Verb.. p." --Brightland's Gr. "To pre-engage means to engage before hand.. "The mail is opened at the post office. p."--Harris's Hermes. p. 54. p. "The blowing up of the Fulton at New York was a terrible disaster. according to Rule 1st.. "The common place. Johnson's Pref."--Beacon. 54. "When the simple words would only form a regular phrase. "He had many vigilant. on the Voice. "Which way ever we consider it. 15."--Ib. because the compound term manhater is here made two words. or new coined words. than money. the man hater."--Webster's New Spelling-Book. "Not with eye service. because abovenamed is here unnecessarily made a compound.--Not proper."--Sanborn's Gram. . in opposition to barbarous. 424. 64."--Ib. p."--Kirkham's Gram. to Gram. p. p. "Where e'er the silent (e) a Place obtains. p."--Ib. 234. But."--Walker's English Particles." Therefore.. 118."--Ib. i.. according to Rule 2d. p. ERRORS IN THE FIGURE. Com." Therefore. "It is a mean act to deface the figures on a mile stone. "This slow shifting scenery in the theatre of harmony. p. they are remitted unto them. "Whereas song never conveys any of the above named sentiments. p. i. above and named should here have been written as two words.."--R. p. p. "She formed a very singular and unheard of project. the schoolmaster. 23. p.] "After awhile they put us out among the rude multitude. 300. 160. 398. Vol. on Ed. [FORMULE. FRIENDS: John. one form of orthography which is a kin to the subjunctive mood of the Latin tongue."--White's Eng. e.. x."--Goldsmith's Rome. 40. 71. and harness makers. i."--Ib. UNDER RULE I. "A tooth brush is good to brush your teeth. ALGER."--Ib. 151.--Not proper."--Goldsmith's Rome.--Music of Nature. "Manage your credit so. p. 207 [FORMULE.. Gould's. p. "Twenty five cents are equal to one quarter of a dollar. "The awl is a tool used by shoemakers. "A good natured and equitable construction of cases."--Locke."--Ib. p. "To bring him into nearer connexion with real and everyday life. 107."--Adam's Gram. 5. vii. "Professing to imitate Timon.. being disheartened. 292."--Ib."--Booth's Introd. 85. 33. should never be needlessly broken apart. 161.] "Men load hay with a pitch fork. "There is. "This requires purity. manhater should be written as one word. 150. p. p. p.. 161. 169.. to Dict. Vol.. of the same meaning. and mean spirited enemies. 118. "The error seems to me two fold. "It would be ashame. OF WORDS. sent to Jehu. 115."--Grammar of Alex."--SCOTT: 2 Kings. But. "Tarry we our selves how we will."--Ib. p. 82. "And purify your hearts. 115: SCOTT. 83. though feeble talented. 88. "It is no more right to steal apples or water melons. p. Murray. p. then betakes its self to trifling. p. Length and softness gains.

"These are well pleasing to God. "Whosoever cometh any thing near unto the tabernacle. 532."-. four-footed. also El. p."--Collier's Meditations of Antoninus. and other out door sports. that he gave his only begotten Son to save it. i. "Male-servants."-. p. and was spared. i.] "He is in the right. See SCOTT'S BIBLE: John."--Murray's Gram. My muse e'er sought to blast another's fame. 5. 13. "The town has been for several days very well behaved. in Johnson's Dict."--The Friend. p."--Ib. as the tutoyant among the French. take it altogether."--Webster's New Spelling-Book.." "He is broken hearted. 65. "We commonly write two fold."--Murray's Gram. 329. on the Voice. 298. p."--Edward's First Lessons . 154. 291. p. I desired them to tarry awhile. p. 8. "Words otherwise liable to be misunderstood. p... 39."--STILLINGFLEET."--See Johnson. "St. "I judge not my ownself. emphatically. p.Felton's Gram.. Vol. 3. "Our discriminations of this matter have been but four footed instincts.. p. xvii. x."--See Murray's Gram. 31. "The measurable constructive-powers of a few associable constituents. the stepping stone to individual distinction. distributing new-year's-gifts. p. "The phraseology we call thee and thouing is not in so common use with us.Collier's Antoninus. "The words coalesce."--N. p. or written separately."--Ib. the progress may appear little."-." "James is self opinionated. (says Clytus. 147. 73."--OLD BIBLE: Ps.. i. "Though set within the same general-frame of intonation. "The world. are generally pursued. iii. p. Vol.Wayland's Moral Science. as it here means quadruped. 128. "John will have earned his wages the next new-year's day.. "Which do not carry any of the natural vocal-signs of expression. I can easily understand. p. according to Rule 3d. p.Goldsbury's C. UNDER RULE III. must be joined together. and. 208 if your mind should falter and give in.) not to bear free born men at his table."--Balbi's Geog. "A rounce is the handle of a printing press.. "She is a good natured woman. Walker.--THE SENSE. Vol. 162."--Tooke's Diversions. Male-relations.. 44.. or having four feet.. 355. "A tin peddler will sell tin vessels as he travels."--Barclay's Works. "Open to me the gates of righteousness: I will go in to them.CHAPTER III. See Matt."--Rush. p. p. "After passion has for awhile exercised its tyrannical sway. p. w. without a hyphen. "When the first mark is going off. Paul admonishes Timothy to refuse old-wives'fables. for I know nothing of my ownself."--SCOTT. ii. Webster. p. 377. Female-servants.Murray's Gram. "To the short seeing eye of man. p. Vol."--Webster's' Dict. "A new-year's-gift is a present made on the first day of the year. 28. p. B. in all ranks and relations. Y. "Hunting. four fold. because the term four footed is made two words. "He saw an angel of God coming into him. 128. 15. as the sense and construction may happen to require."--Wayland's Moral Science. p. 84. p."--Numb. how that Jesus Christ is in you. "It is a kind of familiar shaking hands with all the vices. when they have a long established association. "In writings of this stamp we must accept of sound instead of sense.. Vol. "When he sat on the throne."--Murray's Gram.. as if the instincts were four and footed. "Knowledge and virtue are. 450. Observer. p."--Walker's Dict."--Murray's Gram.. "Know ye not your ownselves. "Though they were in such a rage. Female-relations. But."--Spectator."-. p. "A instead of an is now used before words beginning with a long. i. 90. with no partial aim. 82."--Barclay's Works."--Barclay's Works. "What you mean by future tense adjective. cxviii. 339. T."--Wright's Gram. Vol. Thy."--Josephus. he cries turn! the glass holder answers done!"--Bowditch's Nav. vii. FRIENDS: Matt. "One should not think too favourably of oneself. 19. No. 9. "The consequences of any action are to be considered in a two fold light. S.. Vol. v. "Before each accented syllable or emphatic monosyllabic-word. 179. p. p... Gram. ALGER.--Not proper." Therefore. xiii. we use one."--Author. p. Male-descendants. 170. "Come unto me. "A male-child. 169."--Author. [FORMULE. Smith's Gram."--Ib. Spelling-Book. 108. p.. and so on up to ten fold. should be one word. 13. 227. p.."--Maturin's Sermons. Rev. Sec. 71. on the Voice. p."--Ib. 364. "God so loved the world.. ii. ix. 15. is but one. all ye that labour and are heavy laden. p. p. xi. "These three examples apply to the present tense construction only. ii."--Lloyd."--Rush. x. "They stared awhile in silence one upon another."--Ib. after that. 16."--See Acts. 118. "The beams of a wood-house are held up by the posts and joists. Vol. three fold. et al. A female-child. 94.. p. p."-. 343."--Goldsmith's Greece. p.. 73.. Female-descendants. "Reserved and cautious."--Rasselas. 135 and 267."--Town's Analysis. "So that it was like a game of hide and go seek. "Jehovah is a prayer hearing God: Nineveh repented.

is here compounded without the hyphen. 87. upon the market-place. spread their umbrage broad. at ten o'clock."--Ib. a main and mizzen-mast. 167. UNDER RULE V. "I remember him barefooted and headed."--Ib. p. 231. p. a noun. and so on. p. "Trenton Preparative Meeting is held on the third fifth day in each month. is covered with gold leaf.. and eleventh month. p. "Pot and pearl ashes are made from common ashes. 121. where highest woods."--Ib. singular number. But. compounded of the noun evil and the imperfect participle speaking. "The meeting is held at the first mentioned place in the first month. thus. p. s.: ib.CHAPTER III. in Grammar.. 121."--MORTIMER: in Johnson's Dict. Whereto the climber upward turns his face. have tried for the mastery in two or four horse chariots. even at noonday. none of them should be split to make an ellipsis of half a word. "Or those who have esteemed themselves skilful. Vol. whether nature has enlisted herself as a Cis or Trans-Atlantic partisan?"-. Vol. like those used for paper and fullingmills. 152. impenetrable To star or sun-light. "It became necessary to substitute simple indicative terms called pro-names or nouns. 404. black fellow. "He manylanguaged nations has surveyed. . Lang. because the word evilthinking. 90."--SANDYS: ib. "By large hammers. or when each retains its original accent." &c. p."--N.."--Ib.--Not proper.. the hyphen should be inserted between them. "When the parts of a compound do not fully coalesce." thus."--Dr.Jefferson's Notes. p. a vessel with two masts. The small protuberances of earth.. or Hillock. 97. "Ketch."--Ib. in which ants make their nests. "school" should be "schoolhouse. "Every part of it." [FORMULE. "When two or more compounds are connected in one sentence. "Ingratitude! thou marblehearted fiend."--The Friend. "This building serves yet for a schoolhouse and a meeting-house. "We never assumed to ourselves a faith or worship-making-power. 16. 231. or one that is movable."--SHAK.."--Barclay's Works. "The Eastern Quarterly Meeting is held on the last seventh day in second."] "Schoolmasters and mistresses of honest friends [are] to be encouraged. "Evilthinking. compounded of the noun evil and the imperfect participle thinking. "The horsecucumber is the large green cucumber. p."--Zenobia. of Europ. a noun. p. to his self."--Castle Rackrent.. n. Vol. evil-thinking..: ib." Therefore.--THE HYPHEN. inside and out."--Ib.--OF ELLIPSES. p. according to Rule 4th. E. "Obscur'd. because the compound word schoolhouse is here divided to avoid a repetition of the last half. Vol. fifth. 68. p."--Webster's Dict. p."--SPECTATOR: in Johnson's Dict. thou. But. UNDER RULE IV. p. 97. 230. impudent. "Meetings for worship are held at the same hour on first and fourth days. "I only mean to suggest a doubt. running through the streets. "This building serves yet for a school and a meeting-house. "The bird of night did sit. at the last in the second. 180. xv.--Churchill's Gram. ii p. &c. "These make a general gaoldelivery of souls. "Both the ten and eight syllable verses are iambics. i. [FORMULE--Not proper. "Friends have the entire control of the school and dwelling-houses."--POPE: ib. Discipline. they beat their hemp. p."--Enclytica. according to Rule 5th. broadshouldered. which has more than one accented syllable. vii."--Webster's New Spelling-Book.. p. p."--Bucke's Gram. he says to thy. so that the compound has more than one. 69. and the best for the table. "He from the manypeopled city flies."--SHAK. meetings for worship at the same hour on first and fifth days."--Milton. 209 "That lowliness is young ambition's ladder. i." Therefore. "Ant-hill."--MORTIMER: ib.] "Evilspeaking. the hyphen should be used in this word."--SIDNEY: ib. "I am a tall. eighth. p. "A popular licence is indeed the manyheaded tyranny."--Blair's Gram. 83.. Murray's Hist."--Ib. "I say to myself.

"--Jer. "When a compound has but one accented syllable in pronunciation. Truss. "Cartrage. "If a man profess Christianity in any manner or form soever."--Walker's Particles. 210 not for punishment.. Cruel. Musket. "The time when screech-owls cry. "For Cassius is a weary of the world. Patient of labours. "He that defraudeth the labourer of his hire. w. gold-finches.. "By the coming together of more. p."--DRYDEN: ib. thou other goldbound brow. "In the day-time she sitteth in a watchtower."--FARRIER: ib."--LOCKE: ib. inclined to blood-shed. still bound to go in one circle. thrushes. Silent. goldfinches. "And the goings forth of the . "Many of the fire-arms are named from animals.. 29. and ban-dogs howl. p. which has never any other than a full accent on the first syllable. poor jack-daw. a case of paper or parchment filled with gun-powder.. 5. w."--DONNE: Johnson's Dict. w. according to Rule 6th. "Deep night. brazenfac'd. Blackbird."--Snelling's Gift for Scribblers. is like the first."--DRYDEN: ib. p. flatnosed. "The moral is the first business of the poet. 4to. blackbirds. as being the ground-work of his instruction. p. 39."--SHAKSPEARE: in Kirkham's Elocution." Therefore. or nape of the neck just between the ears. Watchtower. no hyphen should be inserted between them. w. gold-finches. "You might have trussed him and all his apparel into an eel-skin. LESSON I. Airshaft. w... p." SHAKSPEARE: ib. w."--Old Adage. blackbirds. Mouse-trap.CHAPTER III. "A mill-horse. xxxiv. PROMISCUOUS ERRORS IN THE FIGURE OF WORDS. w. ruddocks. and flieth most by night. w. "By the sinking of the air-shaft the air hath liberty to circulate. "In the daytime Fame sitteth in a watch-tower. is a bloodshedder."--SHAK: ib. "Of singing birds.. Bandog. w."--Ib. w. p. and divers others.. The tune when screech-owls cry. Lattice."--ID. they have linnets. 22: ib." IDEM. "Thy air. ruddocks. and divers others. thrushes. should not throw stones.: ib.--NO HYPHEN. ignoble in demeanour."--WATTS: ib. 23.. Mill-horse.. Moral. Goldfinch. "Pollevil is a large swelling.. i. "Unto the carrying away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month. or imposthume in the horse's poll. thrushes. they have linnets. "Soup for the alms-house at a cent a quart.: ib. But. adj.. the silent of the night. and see all things despoiled of fallacies. or Cartridge. Canary-birds."--ID. w.."--SOUTH: ib. "For what else is a redhot iron than fire? and what else is a burning coal than redhot wood?"--NEWTON: ib. Lane. "They that live in glass-houses.--MIXED. Daytime. ib."--SPECTATOR: ib."--Ib.] "How great. 67. "Before milkwhite."--SIDNEY: ib. "A pack-horse is driven constantly in a narrow lane and dirty road. "They may serve as land-marks to shew what lies in the direct way of truth. Landmark. is here compounded with the hyphen. because the word tear-drop. "Madam's own hand the mouse-trap baited. UNDER RULE VI."--See Johnson's Dict."--Watts..: ib.. "Up into the watch-tower get. and divers other.."--CAREW: ib. "I have seen enough to confute all the boldfaced atheists of this age. with fluent tongues. 3. from bloody and mind."--Id. w."--ECCLUS."--PRIOR: ib."--ID... and dissembling wrongs."--SHAK.."--Johnson's Dict.. dark night. "From his fond parent's eye a tear-drop fell."--BACON: ib. the chains were fastened on. Multiform. would thy sufferings be!"--Ib. p. and flieth most by night. and blobberlipped. and bandogs howl. canary birds. [FORMULE--Not proper. "The multiform and amazing operations of the air-pump and the loadstone. "Of singing birds they have linnets. 43. now purple with love's wound."--Ib. w. w.. w.. inflammation. w."--SHAK.: ib.: ib."--L'ESTRANGE: ib.: ib. "A young fellow with a bobwig and a black silken bag tied to it. The time of night when Troy was set on fire.: ib. "Placed like a scare-crow in a field of corn. "Bloodyminded. 223."--RAY: ib. Canary bird. teardrop should be made a close compound. "His person was deformed to the highest degree. "Of singing birds.. w."--BRAMHALL: ib. and the parts are such as admit of a complete coalescence. black-birds. "Quick-witted. "Bluntwitted lord."--SHAK.

p. p.."--Ib.."--Ib. p. p. "It is very plain. 8. 102."--ADDISON: ib. "But to now model the paradoxes of ancient skepticism. p. Hover. 46. 28.."--Ib. p. "The park keeper killed one of the deer. 9. Ninnyhammer."--ID. 232. 26. "In an ancient English version of the New-Testament."--The Friend.. p. "Here comes Esther. 65. p. "The fox was killed near the brick kiln. 331. p. 74. p. 7. 163. p. did not immediately know him..."--Balbi's Geog. w. "The king of birds thick feather'd and with full-summed . 131." &c. Jostled by pedants out of elbow room. some where. 124. with down cast eyes. 211 border shall be to Zedad. 331."--Ib. Nightgown. shillings and eightpence.. 36. "Prince Rupert's Drop."--Dr. "Nor do I any where say.."--Blair's Lect.CHAPTER III. "The man. p. "Eggharbour monthly meeting is held the first second day.."--Dr. p. 11. as he falsely insinuates. "If their private interests should be ever so little affected."--Numbers. LESSON III."--Ib. p. on first day morning the 24th of eleventh month. 126."--Brown's Estimate."--Ib. w."--Webster's Essays. that is. "As all holdings forth were courteously supposed to be trains of reasoning. from everlasting. p. "He cannot so deceive himself as to fancy that he is able to do a rule of three sum. Murray's Hist... 104. p. J." --Murray's Gram.. "The lights and shades.. whose well accorded strife Gives all the strength and colour of our life."--Lloyd. "The world hurries off a pace. p. i. said."-. with her milk pail. p."--BACON: ib. 54. 73.. ver. West.--MIXED. "They have put me in a silk night-gown. "The greatest part of such tables would be of little use to English men.."--PRIOR: in Johnson's Dict."--Ib. and all his family?"--ARBUTHNOT: ib. "In less than one-fourth part of the time usually devoted."--Foreign Quarterly Review. "The best cod are those known under the name of Isle of Shoals dun fish. ii. "But he laid them by unopened."--Goldsmith's Greece. 44. numskull'd ninnyhammer of yours from ruin."--The Friend."--Ib.. being a little short sighted. "A fine thorn hedge extended along the edge of the hill. Owen. 124. Vol."--Ib.. Murray's Gram."--Jamieson's Rhetoric."--Alex. w. 15.. p. seemed to beg for mercy.. 142. "North west winds from the high lands produce cold clear weather. "Some times the adjective becomes a substantive."--Ib. "His head was covered with a coarse worn out piece of cloth.. p. "The captive hovers a-while upon the sad remains. 44. p. 2."--Barclay's Works. began Omri to reign over Israel. p.. "Unios are fresh water shells. "The pupil will not have occasion to use it one-tenth part as much. six. "The painter dips his paint brush in paint. "Chester monthly meeting is held at Moore's town. Lang."--Red Book. with a smile. 124. "The cabinet maker would not tell us.. the third day following the second second day. p. "Did not each poet mourn his luckless doom. and. no where. 64."--Priestley's Gram. "A falling off at the end is always injurious. vulgarly called fresh water clams. "In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah. p."--Ib. "At three o'clock.. p. xxxiv. LESSON II."--Ib. "The ground floor of the east wing of Mulberry street meeting house was filled."--Red Book. 40.. p. any where. and usually hath been paid.--Ib. "The letting go of which was the occasion of all that corruption. p. on Agency."-. 50. p."--Ib. "Little Egg Harbour Monthly Meeting is held at Tuckerton on the second fifth day in each month. p."--Ib. This singular production is made at the glass houses."--Kirkham's Gram. 1834. vii."--Ib. p. to paint the carriage. "Constantia saw that the hand writing agreed with the contents of the letter. 'Business to morrow. is. "For the taking place of effects. and time is like a rapid river. Noble. p. iii. "Though they had lately received a reinforcement of a thousand heavy armed Spartans. "The soldiers. 65. 38. w. 23.--MIXED."--Ib.. p.."--1 Kings. "In the twenty and seventh year of Asa king of Judah did Zimri reign seven days in Tirzah."--Ib. "Whose goings forth have been from of old. 4. 55. in a certain particular series. i. "Every where. 58. p. w.."--Ib. 60. p."--Collier's Antoninus. vii. 231. Fisk's."--Dr. p. that has saved that clod-pated. 333.. Vol. and a gaudy fool's cap. of Europ. "A noble...'"--Ib. 102. xvi.Micah. p. "The south east winds from the ocean invariably produce rain.Bradley's Gram. "And the goings out of it shall be at Hazar-enan. Vol. p. "Have you no more manners than to rail at Hocus. "Picture frames are gilt with gold. 39.. "A falling off at the end always hurts greatly. I consider man as visited a new.. Vol."--Ib. 155. 369. Hand. 127. p. xvi. v."--Ib... Vol. "The little boy was bare headed.: ib.

"A broad brimmed hat ensconced each careful head. w.L'ESTRANGE: ib. ib."--Ib. followed well. "To morrow. "I'll nail them fast to some oft opened door. 1800. "Heaven's golden winged herald late he saw."--DRYDEN: in Johnson's Dict. "They magnify a hundred fold an author's merit. "Not but there are. p. "To-day goes away and to-morrow comes. to a poor Galilean virgin sent. p.. "My penthouse eye-brows and my shaggy beard offend your sight. w."--Ib. Goer.."--HOWELL: ib."--SHAK.: ib. w.."--CRASHAW: ib. w. w."--PRIOR: ib.CHAPTER III.. 70. Go. Charge... 4to. p. Vol."--NEWTON: ib. supposing morrow to mean originally morning: as. "With harsh vibrations of his three stringed lute." British Poets. "Glossed over only with a saint-like show. Full-summed. who are try'd in Go carts. Penthouse. to keep their steps from sliding. would demonstrate them but goers backward. Lond. fastened his talons east and west..."--Id. "The hungry lion would fain have been dealing with good horse-flesh. 10. Hopkins and Stern hold glad the heart with Psalms. of quick-silver two drachms.. w."--BACON: ib. 63. "Young children. Rainbow. to day. 42. No. to night. p.. 14. Nag. 212 wings."-. w... Gloss. 405.. w. w."--Snelling's Gift.. Golden. ."--DRYDEN: ib. p. "Which. This is an idiom of the same kind.. who merit other palms."--Ib. vi. "This rainbow never appears but when it rains in the sun-shine."--Johnson's Dict. w.. Go-cart. "Take of aqua-fortis two ounces. still thou art bound to vice.

Monosyllables. squatter. Spelling is the art of expressing words by their proper letters. acquitting. The following rules may prevent some embarrassment. and as. If the singular cannot now be written gass. have but the single l. committing. The orthography of our language is attended with much uncertainty and perplexity: many words are variously spelled by the best scholars. RULES FOR SPELLING. egg. has. . and sal. --OF SPELLING. inn.CHAPTER IV. salifiable. acquit. fix. committees. in Latin. acquitteth. with single l. or s. EXCEPTIONS. in. contrary to Rule 3d. puss. mill. buzz. and by observation in reading. l. because what is proper or improper. nod. add. swim. double the final consonant. salification.--FINAL F. saliniform. and but. according to Rule 3d. and some proper names. OBS. err. in law. swimmer. sum. salis. fuzz. doubles not the l. 213 CHAPTER IV. squat. odd. pass--muff. for this is a word of their own inventing. for sou or sun. double their final consonant before an additional syllable that begins with a vowel: as.--OTHER FINALS. thinnest. burr. swimming. acquittance. knell. foppery.--DOUBLING. when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. than by the study of written rules. and the adjective should be gasseous. L. preceded by a single vowel. and thus be of service to those who wish to be accurate. This important art is to be acquired rather by means of the spelling-book or dictionary. OR S. foppish. robbed. EXCEPTIONS. whiz. are other words that conform to the rule. for salt. and many others are not usually written according to the analogy of similar words. ragg. salifying. purr. salinous. robber. for the flounder. us. Monosyllables ending in f. cup. So bul. or s. RULE III. yarr. mob. &c. as staff. cut. gloss--off. But to be ignorant of the orthography of such words as are spelled with uniformity. is. saline. sol. saliferous. or by a vowel after qu. acquitted. his. rag. is justly considered disgraceful. Neither have they any plea for allowing it to form gases and gaseous with the s still single. rob. cur. do not double the final letter. ebb. commit.--Because sal. Words ending in any other consonant than f. dog.. the chemists write salify. and frequently used. thinner. was. butt. But in gas they ought to double the s. But we have also ab (from) and ad (to) for prefixes.--The words clef. acquittal. with single s. are written with single f. pus. if. and words accented on the last syllable. sun. squatting. as. RULE II.--We double the consonant in abb. for so they make it violate two general rules at once. and thus. fop. jagg. for no. and jag. bur. thin. committed. committer. RULE I. nul. l. gas. yes. the plural should nevertheless be gasses. depends chiefly upon usage. in chemistry. this. and of. committeth. hiss.

better spelled zink. coolly. the final consonant is not always doubled: as.--The words arc. marshal. oddly. Words ending with any double letter. in general. smallness. are ended with c only. hot'spurred. infer'. spelt from spell. pref'erable. or transfer'rible. refer'. marvellous. 199. realist.--NO DOUBLING. conforms to the rule in forming its derivatives. violist. in old English law. cav'illous. EXCEPTIONS. peril. The final l of words ending in el. should remain single before an additional syllable: as. vitriolic. but take ck for double c. prefer'. and fullness. wilt from will. Certain irregular derivatives in d or t. 2. equality. kid'napper. broad'-brimmed.--1. a privilege. cavilla'tion. orc. marvel. drollness. equal. cruelly. visited. marc. equalling. pontific. chillness. a trans'fer. and sac. mixing. told from tell. vitriol. victual. pref'erence. Contrary to the preceding rule. 3. blest from bless. past from pass. not beginning with the same letter. pontificate. embarrassment. rival. revelling. woolly. or infer'rible. Zinc is. appel'lant. paralleled. carol. and talc.--1. shalt from shall. Italic. visit. argil'laus. equal. dialing. participles. sold from sell. have generally been allowed to drop the second l. in'ference. oil. mark. and derivative nouns. So. Britan'nic. compromitted and manumitted. blissful. Britannia. . ref'erence. cavilled. civil. real. EXCEPTIONS. half-witted. gravel. equally. stillness. a gum or resin. as. stiffness. X final. duck'-legged. public. See Observations 13 and 14. toiling. agreeably to the orthography of Webster. gambol. wreck. toil. carolled. and unparalleled.[114] grass'hopper. trans'ferable. civilly. il. dullness. without regard to accent. willfully. gravelly. freeness. When ly follows l. wool. dial. paralleling. when it is not preceded by a single vowel. talck. cavilling. ex'cellence. words derived from the learned languages need not the k. travel. RULE VI. of the few verbs ending in al. Monosyllables and English verbs end not with c. or to any other principle: as. dwelt from dwell. skillfully. ex'cellent. carelessness. enfeoffment. part of a circle. argilla'ceous. p. RULE IV. inflamma'tion. always retain the double letter: as. the name of a fish. carolling. maniac. oral. hilly. 214 EXCEPTIONS. 2. we have mixed. rivalling. agreement. caroller. lest the power of the e be mistaken. gruffly. fellness. having three Ells already. music. 3. we have two Ells of course. vitriolate.--FINAL CK. duel. are usually doubled in English. differ. and mixer. traveller. perhaps. though some dissent from the practice: as. argil. cruel. though all of them might well be made to conform to the general rule. disc. for they are severally spelled with one. duellist. When the derivative retains not the accent of the root. from mix. (as fled from flee. is never doubled: thus. but benefited is different. lac. as. oily. attack: but. though they often remove the principal accent from the point of duplication. grassless. appeal. spilt from spill. and a syllable be lost: as. If the word pontiff is properly spelled with two Effs. or ss. shrillness. ll. Compounds. 3. from verbs ending in ee. caviller.--namely. orally. realize.[115] as in the following derivatives: wooer. the preterits. spur'galled. unaccented. ref'erable. viol. illness. real. tallness. or refer'rible. in'ferable. differing. cool. 4. preserve it double before any additional termination.--are usually allowed to double the l. as. transfer'. wit'snapper. dialist.) are exceptions to the foregoing rule. really. pontifical. passless. but in fact no doubling: as. seeing. and pistol. cavil. Britain. perilous. rock. equalize. 2. being equivalent to ks. as. A final consonant. excel'. vial. must be doubled before an other vowel. pencil. The words skillful. But letters doubled in Latin. revel. cavil. hare'-lipped. rack.CHAPTER IV. EXCEPTIONS. and common use discards it. inflame'. rivalled. willful.--RETAINING.--1. its eight derivatives are also exceptions to this rule. inflam'mable. Yet the word parallel. shelly. or ol. RULE V. equalled. agreeable. &c. or when the accent is not on the last syllable. or soc. disk. recklessness.

disinthrall. foretell. The final y of a primitive word. force. singeing. dueful.--1. The final e of a primitive word. sue. it is sometimes omitted. inthrall. excel. merriment. until. centring. must be terminated with a single l: as. and some have been disposed to add the other two. Beattie. rebel. till. enfeoff. handsel. lodge. by Rule 6th. when preceded by a consonant.--The words enroll. repass.CHAPTER IV. paleness. to preserve the sound of the root. lodgement. gambol. changeful. pass. When the e is preceded by a vowel. RULE VII. spell. by apparent analogy. traceable. eye. edge. change. pitiless. suing. infringe. retain the e before able or ous. but much more frequently retained. changeable. from shoe. pitied. tranquil. all other words that end in l. from tinge. tell. edgeless. outrage. hoeing.--The words annul. miss. The word wholly is also an exception to the rule. remove. and instil. bluely. 3. refel. argument. swingeing. To compounds and prefixes. trace. and tinging. distil. tinsel. as firearms. blueness. rascal. for the monosyllables null. forcible. and final ee remains double. feoff. viceagent. judge. forestall. RULE VIII. swinging. the rule does not apply. see. ratable. trueness. or contractions of later growth. and. rave. from swinge. fulfill. Cobb. unroll. with the few derivatives formed from such roots by prefixes. centre. extill. RULE IX. overswell. Webster. add. bethrall. are also properly spelled with one l. recall. judgeship. to preserve the soft sounds of c and g: as. as in duly. stall. is generally changed into i before an additional termination: as. to be irreclaimable exceptions.--FINAL E. call. tingeing. merry. 2. damsel. Chalmers. for nobody writes it wholely. OBSERVATION. and made exceptions to this rule. always retains the e. befell. Ainsworth. infringement. foresee. 3. Some will have judgment. preserve it double in all derivatives formed from them by means of prefixes: as. outrageous. awful." judgement. thrall. reinstall. cabal. swell. removal. forearm. EXCEPTIONS. but rather derivatives. truism. So. pale. merrier. true. eying.--RETAINING. RULE XI--FINAL Y. depress. and twibill. we write shoeing. truly. idling. amiss. jackal. raving. rate.--FINAL LL. logical. are very commonly written with one l. pitiest. eyeless. anteact. misspell. extol. besnuff. dispel. as in disagreeable. 215 Words ending with any double letter. consequently. Final ll is peculiar to monosyllables and their compounds. snuff. EXCEPTIONS. when this letter is mute or obscure. The final e of a primitive word is generally retained before an additional termination beginning with a consonant: as. and instill with ll. befall. and others: the French "jugement. undersell. upon the authority of Lowth. as in dueness. from hoe. mogul. . appal. from singe. idle. merriest. 2. control. and acknowledgment. Words ending in ce or ge. rueful. Walker. sell. that they may not be confounded with singing. consul. prefers distill. shoeless.--FINAL E.--1. miscall. however. merrily. pities. change. RULE X. abridgment. extil. superadd. but those authors are in the right who retain the double letter. but I write them with the e. and still are not really their roots. OBSERVATION. press. pity. tendril. is generally omitted before an additional termination beginning with a vowel: as. disagreeing.

dying. mandrill. pity. dropping the e by Rule 9th. pilgrimize. said. Candlemas. but not to compounds: thus. boyish. &c. In permanent compounds. analyze.--1. 2. plumtree. withal. wherein. as. assize. RULE XIII. guy. Christmas. Chilblain. babyish. to inform. So the prefix mis. (if from miss. drop an e. compromise. fulfil. with s. chock-full. disguise. are sometimes used. The want of the foregoing rule has also made many words variable. or appraise. EXCEPTIONS. supervise. say. handful. 3. RULE XII--FINAL Y. 2. day. cloy. as in Johnson's "mispell" and "mispend. ill-looking.[119] all-wise. guys. contracted from arrayment. joy. but gayly. cloys. pitiful.[116] unlike handygripe and handystroke. From lay. 8. and all such as are essentially formed by means of prefixes: as. EXCEPTIONS. brutalize. change the i into y. but the regular words. and stay. wherever. in temporary compounds. Shepherd. Daily is more common than the regular form dayly. full-eyed.--1. circumcise. if three of the same kind come together: as. a thing taken.[117] rise. knee-deep. advise. for the same reason: as. babyship and babyhood. The final y of a primitive word. boyhood. unquestionably. paid.[118] exercise. scurviness. 7. joyful. lie. and mercy-seat. annoyance. disorganize. catechise. when preceded by a vowel.--COMPOUNDS. Words ending in ize or ise sounded alike. Compounds generally retain the orthography of the simple words which compose them: as. chaffinch. kitesfoot. anathematize. we write merciful. arise. it is difficult to say. and scurvy-grass. Before ing or ish. is too nice a point to have been always accurately observed. RULE XV. and gayness. chastise. comprise. uphill. Prise. or else a hyphen is used: as.--IZE AND ISE. lying. as in wise and size.) drops one s." for misspell and misspend. which some wish to establish. the distinction between derivatives and compounds. and pennyworth. although. they are not the roots. to esteem. unlike stateliness and likelihood. and prize. enterprise. apprise. without this distinction of meaning. criticise.CHAPTER IV. coy. contrariness. we see. still-life. they retain both. Raiment. stayed. the y is retained to prevent the doubling of i: as. 216 EXCEPTIONS. annoy. with z. 3. and recognize. contrary. Words ending in ie. Pastime drops an s. joyless. the word mass also drops one s. annoyer. pitying. philosophize. skylight. keys. and staid. the words full and all drop one l. careful. kneading-trough. RULE XIV. 2. pitiable. surmise. and welfare. Rosshire. contrarily. baby. drop one l. vying. devise. die. shellfish. But ladyship and goodyship. This rule applies to derivatives. valleys. are most commonly written with s and size. to err. vie. detonize. are often written either way. 4. presurmise. as in herdsman. capsize. 3. should not be changed into i before any additional termination: as. innkeeper. is never written with the y. Lammas. exorcise. are formed laid. which ought. handicraft and handiwork. and merchandise. and the s in monosyllables. cauterize. save-all. EXCEPTIONS.--1. to conform to the general principle. horseman. but it is wrong to drop them both. canonize. as. boy. key. and wherefore and therefore assume one. . valley. 2. 3. overprize. generally take the z in all such as are essentially formed by means of the termination. pay. penniless.--USAGE. In the names of days. 5. always. kneedgrass. gayety. surprise. Advertise. apologize. to value. payed. 6. and apprize. How many of them are real exceptions to the rule. cloyed. as. and whosever. Ross-shire. The possessive case often drops the apostrophe. despise. One letter is dropped. sympathize. with z. gormandise. are justly superseding gaily and gaiety. or in any derivatives of which. being unlike secretariship and suretiship. coyly. days.--1. welcome. layed.

Introd. Johnson was generally right. and these must be made as few and as general as the case will admit. windfall and downfal. and because both letters are necessary to preserve the sound. we have the authority. that the memory of the learner may not be overmatched by their number or complexity. needlessness. Neither of these modes of spelling was ever generally adopted. slyly. at the same time. Walker censures it as a "ridiculous irregularity. from which he borrowed his rules for spelling. contradictory. fearlesness. fearlessly. "The brewer grinds his malt before he brues his beer. and show the derivation of the compound. 1." and lays the blame of it on the "printers. like other men. they will do much to obviate its chief difficulties." This occasional excision of the letter l is reprehensible. on light grounds. Johnson's Dictionary" has been represented by some as having "nearly fixed the external form of our language. OBSERVATIONS. 25. i. and always has been. or Webster's. chastness. but it would seem that no one man's learning is sufficiently extensive. as when he spelled thus: "recall and miscal. In respect to the final ck and our. against the use of k at the end of words from the learned languages. contains some orthographical inconsistencies which ought to be rectified: such as. to be solely relied on to furnish a standard by which we may in all cases be governed. is far from being uniform. superiour. and against the u in many words in which Johnson used it.. That errors and inconsistencies abound. He also erred sometimes by accident. and with the analogy of the particular class of words to which it belongs. in any thing like the number of words to which he applied them. that no author will henceforth. or his memory sufficiently accurate. he also intentionally departs from THE STANDARD which he thus commends. as when he adopted the k in such words as rhetorick. And as all authors are liable to mistakes. but. p. "The right spelling of a word may be said to be that which agrees the best with its pronunciation. chastely. that. and sanctioned by the usage of careful writers."--Red Book. preferring. if carefully applied. inthrall and bethral. both for and against the adoption of Johnson's Dictionary. and uncertain. the authority of Walker's Rhyming Dictionary.--"Dr."--Gram. p. admits. not only of . windmill and twibil. is written wrong if not spelled according to the usage which is most common among the learned: as. however. OBS. "This Dictionary. Rules founded on the analogy of similar words."--Philological Museum. Johnson put his hand to the work.--I do not deny that great respect is due to the authority of our lexicographers. OBS. as A STANDARD. 38. his example cannot be paramount to his principles. under the word Dunghil. and demoniack. after commending this work of Johnson's. is a position which scarcely needs proof. uphill and downhil. moveable. because it is contrary to general analogy. as the true way of spelling. and he that is inconsistent with himself. or when he inserted the u in such words as governour. he was sometimes wrong. "it is earnestly to be hoped. be tempted to innovate. warriour. our spelling is now. even amongst writers of distinction. general rules should have more weight than particular examples to the contrary. Being made variable by the ignorance of some writers and the caprice of others. molehill and dunghil." he adds. For. of all the spelling-books and dictionaries that I have seen. or ever will be. Much has been idly said. because common practice is often found to be capricious. He erred sometimes in his principles. 2. as the criterion of what is right or wrong in spelling. Nares. xv. destroys his own: for. even in the books which are proposed to the world as standards of English orthography. needlesly. 647. "The orthography of a great number of English words. waterfall and overfal. its etymology. Vol. which others may copy. exceedingly irregular and unsettled. fertileness. though some indiscreet compilers are still zealously endeavouring to impose them upon the public. surely." But Murray.--The foregoing rules aim at no wild and impracticable reformation of our orthography. than by the steady application of rules and principles. quarto. 217 Any word for the spelling of which we have no rule but usage. sliness. must be taken as our guides. but.CHAPTER IV. And. or in their application. and probably of all that have ever been published. p." and yet does not venture to correct it! See Johnson's Dictionary. It is true. in that. 3.. Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary. who quotes this from Dr. Uniformity and consistency can be attained in no other way. p. and his Rhyming Dictionary."--Ib. immovable. from which. OBS. or that great improvement was made in the orthography of our language when Dr. to a greater or less extent. laystall and thumbstal. or oversight. fertily. But sometimes one man's authority may offset an other's. first American edition.

travelling. shall have become as unfashionable as authour. Samuel Johnson" was doctorated. endeavour. behaviour. For the latter author. and his commended standard dictionary. favored. of 1772: "Iambics. and endeavour. OBS. it abounds with examples of words ending in ic and or. who died in 1714. 1746. by any good fortune. as he wrote them. bailiwick. public. of 1799. and Lowth. as. in publick. favor. emperor's. surely they would not. 8. but from all others which shall bear an equally antiquated appearance. meagre.--I have suggested the above-mentioned imperfections in Dr. But in respect to definitions. electric. does not follow him in the spelling of which I am treating. as being a superfluous Letter. it is but ignorance that censures the general practice. author. in the year 1763. who are now so zealously stickling for the k and the u in these cases." In Priestley. which was written during the reign of Queen Anne. or (y). yet it is now very justly left off.. honour. and I am confident. under that name. therefore. and if this book should ever. author. But Brightland's Grammar. OBS. he has done good service to our literature.--The three grammars of Ash. when Dr. we have about three hundred and twenty. 218 general usage now. though it thus respectfully quotes that great scholar. monosyllabic. hillock. neighbours. Publick: And tho' the additional (k) in the foregoing Word be an old Way of Spelling. behaviour. nor have his critics been sufficiently just respecting what they call his "innovations. error.--I have before observed that some of the grammarians who were contemporary with Johnson. or the u from such as superiour. The advocates for Johnson and opponents of Webster. superiour. and ended about four hundred and fifty words with c in his Rhyming Dictionary. 5. but of many grammarians who were contemporary with Johnson. that he knows not at last which of them is right. from that time to this. merely to justify the liberty which I take of spelling otherwise. ancient or modern. OBS. Lond. laboured. quick. for (c) at the End is always hard. by being conformed to either of these authorities exclusively. of which not more than forty can now with any propriety be written with the latter termination. Aiming to write according to the best usage of the present day. humour. among whom is Walker himself. superior. errour. used the mode of spelling now in question.--Of words ending in or or our. labour. p. he has spelled many hundreds of words in such a variety of ways. in treating of the letter C. and of more than a dozen lexicographers. (k) is either added or put in its Place. and even before "the learned Mr. endeavored. &c. characteristic. superior. is certainly no innovation. favour." See Cobb's Critical Review of the Orthography of Webster. if I mistake not. of 1799: "Comic. all. public. after honour. let the proof-reader strike out the useless letter not only from these words. warrior. and which are wrong. "It has been a . we have such orthography as this: "Italics. bishoprick. control. he says. foretells. says. Johnson was born in 1709. it would seem. Webster. about one time. Priestley. For THE BEST USAGE is the ultimate rule of grammar. dactylic. though right in some things in which the former was wrong. Dr. critic. and if they are not all right. favour. OBS. who is now contending for the honour of having furnished a more correct standard. and emperour. Murray's practice is right. Skill. and he died in 1784. favour. "If in any Word the harder Sound precedes (e). still more erroneous and inconsistent. the former orthography has continued to be more common than his. on the whole. To omit the k from such words as publick. On the contrary. (i). In Ash. and none of these learned doctors. Skin. all appeared. did not adopt his practice respecting the k or the u. domestic. the orthoëpist. 37. 4. anapæstic."--Seventh Edition. Walker. or obsolescent. And indeed I am not sure there were any who did. In his various attempts at reformation in our orthography. labours. happen to be reprinted. and not in ick and our. but I have no partiality for any letters that can well be spared. music. authors. terrour. yielded the point respecting the k. on the whole. critic. In this. Johnson's orthography. wrong. critick. alledging. I insert the u in so many of these words as now seem most familiar to the eye when so written. dactyls. but he thought it more of an innovation than it really was. are now. our traffic. is.CHAPTER IV. be made more nearly right. Johnson was a boy. who died in 1807. in their first editions. errour. 7. and not with any view to give a preference to that of Dr." In Lowth." Now all these are words in the spelling of which Johnson and Webster contradict each other. written before the American Revolution. In his Pronouncing Dictionary. OBS.--The old British Grammar. vigour. ought to know that they are contending for what was obsolete. domestic. 6. that.

shamrock.. OBS. when the form for u was v. we might as well double the l. and are all of them either adjectives or nouns of regular derivation from the learned languages. even by the authority of Johnson. traffick. To these may be added a dozen or more which seem to be of doubtful formation. and as c before i is always sounded like s. . roebuck. 80. must either be spelled with the k. But the verbs on which this argument is founded are only six. but the k is retained in monosyllables. Lond. &c. not only at the end of those monosyllables which have but one vowel. as in block. picknick. of which he made frequent use. which was made by joining two Vees. which is that of ending a word with an unusual letter. and from them about fifty compounds or derivatives. genii. plaintiff. within these twenty years. tariff. as. in place of several irregularities and exceptions that must follow its partial omission. Mott. iidem. and others--are now contending for this "superfluous letter. it seems proper briefly to notice their argument. being words of more than one syllable. and some. &c. temporall. Burhans. with u. as staff. and the like. says. hammock. it must be pronounced mimising. But what has the doubling of c by k. No. 25. as music. to do with all these words of foreign origin? For the reason of the matter. Again: "It has heretofore joined with c at the end of words. or two Ues. "This omission of k is. &c. that its omission has never been attempted. 16.--The learner should observe that some letters incline much to a duplication. it would read mimicing. where it most frequently occurs. of whose English Syntax there had been five American editions in 1792. James Buchanan. such as huckaback. which of course keep the same termination. 1814. p. while gome others are doubled but seldom. ii.) such as Horatii. if the k were omitted. rustick."--Booth's Introd. or any of those words in which that letter would now be inconsistent with good taste. 10. hillock. however. back." in spite of all the authority against it. 400. Thus. logic. too general to be counteracted. 11. labour." &c.. &c. Now that useful class of words which are generally and properly written with final c. classic. to Dict. and physick. knapsack. added no k to such words as didactic. that we have in our language eighty-six monosyllables which end with ck. which have come to us from Greek or Latin roots. mimick. it is thought better to preserve it in all cases. and these. which is perhaps better written caliph. Horne Tooke's orthography was also agreeable to the rule which I have given on this subject. which is there always hard. dated 1810. as publick. "It has become customary to omit k after c at the end of dissyllables and trisyllables. among the vowels. clock. and that it tends to an erroneous pronunciation of derivatives. as they are perhaps most generally written now. to omit the k at the end of words. spirituall. where. of 1790. caitiff. author. mill. But it is proper to inform him. l. but also under some other circumstances. attack. but this is now in disuse.. 2. OBS. (wherein the vowels are separately uttered. &c. mastiff: yet not in calif. So. OBS. pickapack. According to general usage. p. Emerson. never--except in certain Latin words. These letters are double. ticktack. as. f."--Bolles's Spelling-Book. which are more elegantly written public. hammock. it is now left out"--Ib. by which we have one general rule. Sears. aa is used sometimes. frolick. ransack. arithmetic. in naturall."--Part ii. and s. among the consonants. in almost all cases. Arithmetick. never. sheriff. barrack. lest the student be misled by it. mimicking. 9. and though he wrote honour. 13. and can be in a part only of polysyllables. but it is to be hoped it will be confined to words from the learned languages. hollyhock.--Bicknell's Grammar."--P. says.. The tenth edition of Burn's Grammar. 219 custom. p. rick. it may be sufficient to say. Again. ee and oo occur frequently. Veii. politick. as our ancestors did. critic. gimcrack. than any others. as in mimick. incline more to duplication. but. &c. p. when preceded by c. unquestionably. logick.Walker's Principles of Pronunciation. or must assume it in their derivatives. final f is doubled after a single vowel."-. Now. Bolles. being there quite superfluous. as before observed. bullock. logick. since it is never omitted in monosyllables. pass. in our native monosyllables and their derivatives. It is summed up by one of them in the following words: "In regard to k after c at the end of words. I need not tell the reader that these two sentences evince great want of care or skill in the art of grammar. deck. midriff. Marshall. logic. as in bailiff.CHAPTER IV. are about four hundred and fifty in number. as in publick. except in a small portion of the cases where it occurs. "And for the same reason we have dropt it at the end of words after c. This has introduced a novelty into the language. the doubling of u is precluded by the fact that we have a distinct letter called Double-u. he inserted no u in error. So is the usage of David Booth: "Formerly a k was added. treating of the letter k.--As the authors of many recent spelling-books--Cobb.

tranquilize. But if fillipped. if spelled according to our rule for such derivatives. the letters h. coraloidal. and the Greek word in three. admits not now of a duplication like this. that two Aitches. if a knowledge of etymology may be shown by spelling metallic. to be guided by the latter. like galloped and galloper. coral. properly speaking. crystalite. whence we have. Walker. whose argil[121] is arcilla. metal--coralium. was very frequently doubled in Greek. as may be seen by Rule 8th. pupil.) coraline. happen to double an l. argil. metallography. cuirass. quarrel. in some words. as in carcass. metalico. papil--in which the classical scholar is apt to violate the analogy of English derivation. cristalino. grovelling. but. Here is a choice of difficulties. as in alas. crystaline. x. and pupillary. Ainsworth exhibits the Latin word for coral in four forms. coral--crystallus or crystallum. perilous. libellous.[122]--libel. Two of the Latin and two of the Greek have the l single. argilitic. crystalline. they disagree. papillate. and not in the latter words. and that. both. slowwoorm. as in the derivatives from fillip. metaloid. argillaceous. crystal. from the name of Philip of Macedon. gossipped. pupil--and tranquillus. and not directly from the Latin. papillous. metal. Etymology must govern orthography. and worshipped. is generally doubled at the end of primitive words of more than one syllable. corallium. wor'shipper. and worshipping.--Final s sometimes occurs single. cavil. as in travelling. metallurgic. metaloidal. vassalage. cavillation. as in withhold. He also spells "coraliticus" with one l. by doubling the letter l. from whose medalla. and especially in Latin words. the words Philippic and Philippize. metallurgist. metalliferous." [120] The Spaniards. why is it not as improper to write them with double l. ignorance of it must needs be implied in spelling metaline. I should incline to the opinion. called coraline. ought to be written with single l. have but one p. But let him also remember. axil. when or how shall the English scholar ever know why we spell as we do? For example. siruped and sirupy. or that which is foreign? If we say. traquilizar. crystal--pupillus. bias. and civilize. coraline. and write mostly with single l: as. quarrelous. medalist. verses: but this letter. tranquillity. OBS. or corallum. tranquilize. pupillus from pupus. In our language. 12. wor'ship. two Kays. metalist. and y. coralite. or how far. tranquil. however. v. or their foreign correspondents.--There are some words--as those which come from metal. in all their derivatives from these Latin roots. in the same manner? OBS. crystalize. that. cavillous. a teacher. and pupilage. in like manner. from the Latin argilla. axillar. 13. papillary.) so are these. to be needful exceptions also. harass. crystalizar. argillous. shall come together.--peril. trespass. gossip. and when it is added to form plurals. and Webster. with double l. which I copy from our best dictionaries: equip'. 14.--opal. too. tranquility. brickkiln. even when it forms a needless exception to Rule 4th. except when they come under Rule 3d. in the forming of compounds. But what etymology? our own. or even two Double-ues or Wies. metalic. must we forever cling to the reduplication. than pupillus to pupil? or. OBS.--If the practice of the learned would allow us to follow the English rule here. curalium. Yet. or tranquillus from trans and quietus. the others double it. On the contrary. metallum. w. metallurgy. pupilage. as to write perilous. the other consonants are seldom doubled. in spite of our own rules to the contrary? Why is it more objectionable to change pupillaris to pupilary. by the exceptions to Rule 4th. that all the words which I have mentioned above. corolina (fem. This letter. would. with the other derivatives from the same roots. than tranquillus to tranquil? And since papilous. and for a much stronger reason. tranquil--follow their own rules. impetus. And if we follow not ours. to change tranquillitas to tranquility. embarrass. eq'uipage. medallic. 220 Final l. gossipping. are just and necessary exceptions to Rule 4th. coralinite. (which I do not admit. medal. and defines it "A sort of white marble. and tranquilidad. i.) we will have fillipping. pupilero. cavillous. . is commonly doubled. we have medal. The letter p. what can he make of the orthography of the following words. it may possibly happen. and to whose cavilar. unless. are. it is frequently doubled when no other consonant would be. as papilla from papula or papa. which. or in words purely English. too.CHAPTER IV. as virus. Webster traces cavil. medallion. as the classical scholar will think. k. never doubled. (contrary to the opinion of Lowth. But we cannot well double the l in the former. If a Latin diminutive. axillary. opaline. because he remembers the ll of their foreign roots. as verse. j. compass. We find them so written in some late dictionaries. and perhaps also worship. bayyarn. cavil. atlas. and the mere English scholar cannot know when. coralaceous. q. argilite. and tranquilize are formed from the English words. crystallize. coraloid.

and papil. chapel. In respect to the proper form and signification of some of these. novelize. novel. novelism. pupil. credible. In cases of such difficulty. in his Rhyming Dictionary. Able is a common English word. Dr. rascalion. gravelly." nor any of his copiers. lamel. and pupillary with two. declare for an expulsion. morality. Vol. In considering this vexatious question about the duplication of l. Hence the difficulty of drawing a line by which we may abide without censure.--rascal. p. admissible. 17. and spinel. a large number of these words. reasoning. This would. lamellate. Accordingly we find. fit. Pu'pillage and pu'pillary. fardel. but writes it single in all those of crystal.[124] But it also treats in like manner many hundreds of words in which the l must certainly be doubled."--Diversions of Purley. medal. applicable. and spinellane. marvelous. while he has grossly corrupted many other similar words by forbearing the reduplication.--dial. are according to Walker's Rhyming Dictionary. give us medallist and metallist with ll. revelling. If any one is dissatisfied with the rules and exceptions which I have laid down. model. label. medallist. as noticed above. Horne Tooke supposes it to have come from the Gothic noun abal. has pupilage with one l. in his work of expulsion. tranquillize. as strong as that which has often induced these same authors to double that letter. grovel. medal. coralliform. he has written the l double.--civil.. Yet it is important to know to what words the rule is. OBS. it is a good and sufficient reason for doubling the l. groveller? OBS. chapellany. as affable. tolerable. as neither "the Compiler. civility. grovelling. parcel. I was at first inclined to admit that. and Walker. that the e may otherwise be supposed servile and silent. But what says Custom? She constantly doubles the l in most of them. Further: Webster doubles the l in all the derivatives of metal. in the style of Lucian. and yet offering."--Rhyming Dict. metallist. gives only a single l to each of the derivatives above named. But whatever may be its true derivation. or able. lamelliform. from which our etymologists erroneously derive it. 16. And. to spell with single l all derivatives from words ending in l not under the accent. let him study the subject till he can furnish the schools with better. 15. neither their doctrine nor their practice can be of much weight either way. that it "has nothing to do with the Latin adjective habilis. cabalist. whenever final l has become single in English by dropping the second l of a foreign root. quarrel. metallurgy. that. "No letter. infallible. in his Pronouncing Dictionary. civilize. moralist. I have therefore made this termination a general exception to the rule against doubling.--novel. Besides. coral. signifying strength." says Walker. gospeller. groveling. unless l can give a better plea than any other letter in the alphabet. unless we resort to principles. gabel. dialist. I must. we can never arrive at uniformity and consistency of practice. cavil. argil. p. to put in practice the hasty proposition of Walker. or is not. the meaning of which is much better understood than its origin. and tranquil--except tranquillity. with ll. ii. have a second reason for the duplication. crystal.--Dr. medal. traveler. gospel. OBS. being derived from foreign words in which the l was doubled. herbalist. tranquil. crystalform. I am totally at a loss to determine. or pretends. and conformed to usage. but wavers in respect to some. for being doubled in this situation. grovelled. novelist. metal. duel. has wrought great mischief in our orthography. gospellary. and are sustained by Webster and others. Why we should write libelling. and. . and consequently avers. of course.--We have in our language a very numerous class of adjectives ending in able or ible. tranquillity. the word shall resume the ll in all derivatives formed from it by adding a termination beginning with a vowel. Webster has not unfrequently contradicted himself. x. formalist. to the number of nine hundred or more. chapelling. gravel. With respect to words ending in el. being adopted by some men of still less caution. medal. double the l in nearly all the derivatives from metal. and in a few will have it single. 221 metalline. with single l. axil. beryl.--The second clause of Murray's or Walker's 5th Rule for spelling. 450. "seems to be more frequently doubled improperly than l.CHAPTER IV. in his trial of the letter T. suffering. with single l. as. as. and twenty other such words. Again: both Johnson's and the Pronouncing Dictionary. in the words bordeller. levelling. by doubling the l where he probably intended to write it single. lamellar. medallion. Webster also attempts. This rash conception. marvel. but Johnson spells them pu'pilage and pu'pilary.--moral. arable. and such principles as can be made intelligible to the English scholar. Thus. duelist. Such are bordel. like dialist. berylline. there occurs no small difficulty. This I suppose the etymologists will dispute with him.[123]--coral. but Walker. and the like. &c. libel. have paid any regard to their own principle. lamellarly. beryllus. writes them medalist and metalist.

--Though all words that terminate in able. customable. are a sufficient guide to the orthography of all such words as are traceable to them. suitable. discernible. And. exceptionable. we have sometimes . sol'uble. tenable. as forcible. for rational or just. sep'elible. changeable. sociable. from doc=ere. yet currently employed. cold-blooded. but capable of being dissolved. the termination is bilis. But the difficulty lies chiefly in those which are of English growth. Again. for social or affable. reversable or reversible. dis'soluble. suitable means fitting or suiting. for the fourth conjugation. OBS. manageable. would never be guessed from their formation. Perhaps it is from some general notion of their impropriety. reasonable. leisurable. of the third conjugation. semblable. In Latin. belongs most properly. and yet they correspond in form with such as come from Latin verbals in abilis. its propriety may well be doubted. pronounceable. OBS. advisable. pleasurable. and so forth. Thus dis'soluble or dissolv'able does not mean able to dissolve. good-natured. for gainful or lucrative. we have ubilis. It is true. from sepelire. or docilis. yet. which might better perhaps. solvible or solvable. to sell. docible or docile. of such as hard-hearted. rather than compounds. as. A few we have borrowed from the French: as. coercible. it is i. behoovable. 222 no one can well deny that able. fashionable. for most of the words formed by it. and not to make derivatives of the same fashion convey meanings so very different as do some of these. as whether we ought to write tenable or tenible. conusable. arabilis. it is i. the meaning which is commonly attached to the words amicable. for peaceful or unhostile. razorable. if care be taken to use them in a sense analogous to that of the real verbals. Thus. peaceable. sepelib~ilis. as. amicable. for friendly or kind. docibilis. 19. such. but the mere English scholar cannot avail himself of this aid. if not exclusively. for the same reason. chanceable. reducible. pleasurable. indis'soluble." a signification in which the English and the Latin derivatives exactly correspond. and not able to suit. have. shapable.--In respect to the orthography of words ending in able or ible. to verbs. as sainted. preferable. salable. as. give place to more regular terms: as. when we consider the signification of the words thus formed. of "potential passive adjectives. volubilis. personable. to plough. surely. merchantable. and some others. solubilis. are plainly a sort of verbal adjectives. however. like the Latin verbals in bilis. colourable.--As to the application of this suffix to nouns. pasturable. medicinable. the formation of such words as actionable. rev'oluble. gifted. vengeable. upon the same principle. res'oluble. tillable. to bury. and divisible or dividable does not mean able to divide.CHAPTER IV. so as to give rise to adjectives that are of a participial character. 21. as traceable. are properly reckoned derivatives. used as a suffix. And it is evident that this author is right in supposing that English words of this termination. 18. marketable. it is i. And perhaps. The last are purely English. and the preceding vowel is determined by the conjugation to which the verb belongs. treasonable. and these we write as they are written in French. rollable. we have an indefinite number. companionable. to teach. favourable. it is a. for pleasing or delightful.--From these different modes of formation. tufted. uble. as. for benevolent or liberal. but capable of being divided. teachable. and in the former class the separate meaning of the parts united is much less regarded than in the latter. irres'oluble. such a signification as may justify the name which he gives them. from vend=ere. arable. for instance. peaceable. charitable. as a suffix. that several words of this doubtful character have already become obsolete. Thus the Latin verbals in bilis. in the use of words of this formation. conceited. it is sometimes difficult to determine which of these endings ought to be preferred. for apparent or specious. or ought to have. from arare. vendible. for verbs of the first conjugation. profitable. vendibilis. there are several others. But from solvo and volvo. veritable. 20. and others are made by simply adding the suffix able. as. reasonable. it would be well to have some respect to the general analogy of their signification as stated above. that nouns do sometimes assume something of the nature of verbs. OBS.[125] buriable. But. seasonable. and of this sort of words we have a much greater number than were ever known in Latin. For some of them are formed according to the model of the Latin verbals in ibilis. may be justified. OBS. returnable. capable. bigoted. vol'uble. Still. For the second conjugation. with the choice of different roots. addable or addible. Hence the English words. or are gradually falling into disuse: as. and insol'uble. For the third conjugation. accustomable. convertible. concordable. or capable of being suited. Thus. powerable.

critique. r. and that some of them terminate words much more frequently than others. and mosque. it may be proper for the learner to know and remember. 2750. his "easy and simple rule" would work a revolution for which the world is not yet prepared. then. And not only so. and if ible was confined to that use. 5. differing in orthography and pronunciation. we have some words which seem to the mere English scholar to be spelled in a very contradictory manner. v. n. defendable and descendible. j. But v. delectable and collectible. has greatly exaggerated this difficulty in our orthography. Hence there is a harshness. m. opaque. g. is equivalent to k. but it is rendered useless by the great number of its exceptions. We have. z. 400. dis'soluble. taxable and flexible.--eq-ui-ty. obeys the law of its own derivation. which is commonly retained in pique. No tyro can spell in a worse manner than this. 23. lackey. chargeable and frangible. Hence. It would make audible audable. and v. the reason is plain from their history. 550. in the division of such words as solv-ing and serv-ing. Hence. b. 1900. 550. for the most part. 29. masque. advisable and fusible. 3300. or with l in some Dutch names. originated in the necessity of keeping the soft sound of c and g. traj-ect. 450. d. And those who do not know enough of Latin grammar to profit by what I have said in the preceding observation. w. show that the authors had no distinct ideas of what is right. ex-cheq-uer. amendable and extendible. 200. fencible and defensible. risk. to whom all these apparent inconsistencies seemed real blunders. bendable and vendible. though each. that. chequer. changible for changeable. and v. proj-ect. as. but conveying the same meaning. laquey. dividable and corrodible. indispensable and responsible. 100. x. "The use of ible rather than able. and v is what was called u consonant. that. These letters were formerly identified with i and u. manoeuvre. oblique. are. liq-ui-date. changeable and tangible. and not those which followed one. respectable and compatible. "without any apparent reason!" He boldly avers. as Watervleit. ref'erable and refer'rible. 5000. fallible fallable. "The perpetual contradictions of the same or like words. and so for all the rest that come from words ending in ce or ge. in spelling these difficult words entirely by guess. j. l. c. But. 14. Hence. none. in Walker's Rhyming Dictionary. three consonants. and charged Johnson and Walker with having written all these words and many more. terrible terrable. And Horne Tooke. 3100. or is ever doubled. peaceable and forcible. e. mask. except thou and you. who . 24. the letter j is what was formerly called i consonant." and ignorantly imagines. except that which is formed of its own capital I. And some authors write burlesk and grotesk. 3250. f. 223 two or three words. 160. conversable and reversible. they will not miss the way more than some have done who pretended to be critics. that. as livre. u.--The American editor of the Red Book. p. But it was the initial i and u. which never end a word. y. perhaps. and what is wrong. pref'erable and referrible. in that syllabication which some have recently adopted. that were converted into the consonants j and v. q. which are not terminational letters. antique. none. Of words ending in ive. neither of these letters ever ends any English word. in any case. wherein they accommodate to the ear the division of such words as maj-es-ty. marriageable and corrigible. in the derivatives. k. Thus. managible for manageable. impierceable and coercible. none. 170. hence we write packet. s. as in ev-er-y. risque. and mosk. q. OBS. The rule given by John Burn. the letter a ends about 220 words. has now become familiar. too. OBS. in a similar situation. 280. whatever advantage there might be in this. damageable and eligible. Nor do they unite with other consonants before or after a vowel: except that v is joined with r in a few words of French origin. &c. q. p. The vowel i ends no pure English word. h. t. even if he have no rule at all. horrible horrable.CHAPTER IV. is less objectionable. Walker exhibits four hundred and fifty--exactly the same number that he spells with ic. des'picable and despi'sable. 450. burlesque. rather than paquet. And why not? With respect to j and v. 1550. dissol'vible. as. 22. 200. returnable and discernible. if not an impropriety. initial consonants only. divis'ible and divi'dable."--Red Book. and the few words which end with u are all foreign. because it is always followed by u. in this contradictory manner. he proposes to write peacible for peaceable. in all the books. i. mis'cible and mix'able. ev-i-dence: and it may also stand with l or r.--Thus we see that j. it would be an easy and simple rule. feasible feasable. and dissol'vable. or the i and u which preceded an other vowel. tracible for traceable. o. for able and ible. may console themselves with the reflection. checker. The French termination que. that not all the letters of the alphabet can assume that situation. Q ends no English word. 140. preferring k to que. 7000. and grotesque. OBS.--As most of the rules for spelling refer to the final letters of our primitive words.

445. a change of givest. all silent letters seem superfluous. absurd. and so forth. emetic."--Diversions of Purley. the reformation must be wrought by those who have no disposition either to exaggerate its present defects. OBS. fellness. dunghil. as purgative. and retain some which are often omitted. into givvest. which are retained by some writers and omitted by others. that Tooke spelled all this latter class of words without the final k. manajable. &c.--Red Book. "primitiv. there will follow also. write havving. For he that will write hav. (q. Hence. Webster to suggest the reformation of striking the final e from the former. chooses rather to restore the silent e to the ten derivatives from move and prove. in one of which. cathartic. from whom Murray borrowed his rules for spelling. Regard must be had to the origin. does the author of the Red Book propose at once two different ways of reforming the orthography of such words as pierceable. givving. xvii. deserv. shrillness. derivativ. and drollness. &c. "Or they might assume i. twelv. giveth. as the learner may perceive.) and ic from the Greek [Greek: ikos]. and liveth. seems more willing to drop an l from illness. gambolled. or rather of all words ending in ve. had it been adopted by other learned men. And not only so. chillness. and subjected sometimes to reduplication." and. and g into j. handful. "It would be a useful improvement to change this c into s. positiv. as they are called. Walker. he argues against the principle of his own aphorism. would not only have made v a very frequent final consonant. p. of words. "It is certainly to be feared that. and all indirect modes of spelling. and irreparably maim our language. the letter j would be brought into a new position. than to retain both in smallness. by a general rule of grammar. are such as almost every reader will know to be generally true. OBS. piersable. are such as refer to the silent letters. as. givveth. &c. and livving. 26. hav. 27. from which Johnson dropped it. d. if this pruning of our words of all the superfluous letters. and agreeable to present usage. "Words taken into composition often drop those letters which were superfluous in their simples. or to undertake too much." This mode of spelling. if it should. and all similar words. piercibe. 25. livest. equalling. or to be free from objection. &c."--Walker's Rhyming Dict. in the solemn style of the Bible. we shall quickly antiquate our most respectable authors. and says. If the orthography of the English language is ever reduced to greater regularity than it now exhibits. I have before observed. From all this it may appear. cavilling. declares for an expulsion of the second l from traveller. p. than to drop it from the ten similar words in which that author retained it! And not only so. as well as to the sounds. livvest.--If any thing could arrest the folly of innovators and dabbling reformers. and livveth. but. luv. should be much farther indulged. among other equally ingenious improvements of our orthography." as. must also. it would be the history of former attempts to effect improvements similar to theirs.. but would have placed it in an other new and strange predicament. we find. operative. seems likely to meet with general favour. that. grovelling. Their application will strike out some letters which are often written. makes it one of his orthographical aphorisms.--No attempt to subject our orthography to a system of phonetics. Vol. and such as are useful and regular always retained. [Greek: ischus]) both implying power. and liv. and in their orthography . energetic. Webster's "Collection of Essays and Fugitiv Peeces. at the same time. a very large proportion of the variations and disputed points in spelling. liv. With a levity no less remarkable. Now would not this "useful improvement" give us such a word as allejjable? and would not one such monster be more offensive than all our present exceptions to Rule 9th? Out upon all such tampering with orthography! OBS. d. as. With this sort of history every one would do well to acquaint himself. extensiv. For words are not mere sounds.. It is desirable that such as are useless and irregular should be always omitted.CHAPTER IV. (q. as being subject to reduplication. To many people. that a silent final e is not always quite so useless a thing as some may imagine. vomitive. has well observed that there is a general correspondence of meaning between these two classes of adjectives--both being of "a potential active signification. ii. The rules which I have laid down as principles of discrimination. but he left it to Dr. dullness. giv. manageable." as. 224 derives ive from the Latin ivus. a general omission of the final e in all words ending in ive. giv. p. proov. tallness. Christmas. managible. and fullness. before he proceeds to disfigure words by placing their written elements in any new predicament. if they err on either hand. vis." published in 1790. preceded by a short vowel. stillness. 170.--In Dr. though several of them have never before been printed in any grammar. I am confident they err less than any other set of rules ever yet formed for the same purpose.

The system of the former has been made known in America chiefly by the lectures and other efforts of Andrews and Boyle. a man who did not want an understanding which might have qualified him for better employment. Others. than from books that exhibit words . 4. phonography. 29. by the publications of Isaac Pitman. Such a reformation was again attempted." who died in 1635. I incline to believe. OBS. or according to the fancy of the earliest writers in rude ages. "Bishop Wilkins. and every character a single sound. in every case. 225 more is implied than in phonetics. and these are important matters in respect to which phonetic writing is very liable to be deficient.' which some have lately been zealously advocating among us. OBS. England. is. first. Such would be the orthography of a new language to be formed by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science. so far as I know.. history. But who can hope to prevail on nations to change their practice. to cut the vital nerve which connects its present with the past. C. and to some extent spread. or phonetic writing. have endeavoured to proportion the number of letters to that of sounds. till about the year 1790. from phonetic print. OBS. and make all their old books useless? or what advantage would a new orthography procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an alteration?"--Johnson's Grammar before Quarto Dict.--then. but with no more success. the late lamented Thomas S. which.--and." who died in 1597. but with equal unlikelihood of success. as it is shown above on page 134 of my Introduction. that every sound may have its own character. that all words should be spelt according as they are sounded. about forty years after. but. as it has been called. Andrew Comstock." he died in 1672. Grimke. the Doctor mentions. or phonotypy. a recent writer delivers his opinion thus: "Let me here observe. a learned and ingenious critic. and of Dr. of all the hoarded wit. subordinated to the speaking."--R. and [is] as yet sufficiently irregular. lastly.. the advantage of preserving the identity. or arguments. of whose schemes he gives examples. directly bearing upon it. and of E. was at first very various and uncertain. and lineage of words. p. if it has not been fully proved.--next. Webster. on the contrary. a citizen of Boston. of Dr. Stone. practically at least and for us. secretary of state to Queen Elizabeth. OBS. attorney at law. the principle of which is. no noticeable renewal of such efforts. like that of other nations. as is their orthography. and with better articulation. 177. wisdom. Paul's School in London. or phonography. sermons. Johnson. to take that for a model or standard which is changing while they apply it. "There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of our orthography. no [other] scheme that would go so far to empty it. of South Carolina. as the introduction of the scheme of 'phonetic spelling. observed. without revising the alphabet--a scheme which his subsequent experience before many years led him to abandon. cannot be conveniently made the measure of their written expression. being formed by chance. without considering that this is to measure by a shadow. has been revived. of Bath. It is perhaps the most reliable mode of taking down speeches. on the Study of Words. and much practised in grammatical disquisitions. More recently." who died in 1647. Gill. "Charles Butler. Jun. of Chester. "Sir Thomas Smith. if not more so. 28. by an other young lawyer. The tacit assumption that it ought so to be. during their delivery.") attempted to spell all words as they are spoken. about a century ago.--The phonographic system of stenography.CHAPTER IV. and in stability. Ideographic forms have. though I cannot pronounce upon this from any experience of my own in the practice of the art. that the writing should be. and history which it contains. "Dr. and reporting them for the press.--Among these reformers of our alphabet and orthography. that children may at first be taught to read more readily. is the pervading error running through the whole system. of Philadelphia. Of these reformers some have endeavoured to accommodate orthography better to the pronunciation. in general.--The pronunciation of words being evidently as deficient in regularity. when. Webster. Trench. as something not remote from our subject. in uniformity. 30. the celebrated master of St. imagination.--From this time. tachygraphy. p. a man of real learning. that I can conceive no [other] method of so effectually defacing and barbarizing our English tongue. Concerning the principle of writing and printing by sounds alone. Dr. (who was then only "Noah Webster. 31. without expecting to be followed. Dr. or short-hand writing. there was. a publisher in Philadelphia. less absurdly indeed. who is said to have proposed his scheme. a very great improvement upon the earlier methods. And it seems highly probable.

p."--Ib. to beat soundly with a cudgel or bludgeon."--Noah Webster's Essays."--Walker's Dict. this b should be single: thus. "Then it may please the Lord. this z should be s. a kind of sweet bread. 298. p. this l should be doubled. a mixed liquor. resign my other papers to oblivion. the food wil be badly cooked. are written with single s. "Knel."--Ib. because the word "wil" is here spelled with one l."--Churchill's Grammar."--Ib. a small cake. Not proper. 320. or s. [FORMULE.. "Perdition is repentance put of til a future day. p. UNDER RULE II. do not double the final letter. ERRORS IN SPELLING. "The proposition waz suspended til the next session of the legislature."--Ib. the sound of a bell rung at a funeral. if he could make money az fast by lying stil."--Ib."--Johnson's Dict. p. 400. IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.--OF OTHER FINALS. 716. his."--Ib.. p. "Flipp. p. 717. "And the law had sacrifices offered every day for the sins of al the people. p. p. his.--OF FINAL F. remission of sins. 404." Therefore. 320. or s. But. double the final consonant. "The words as."--Ib. 362. x. according to the exceptions to Rule 1st. "Words ending in any other consonant than f. a hollow between two mountains. in hiz conduct. to pronounce the letter r with too much force."--Perkins's Theology. "The heirs of the original proprietors stil hold the soil.. "A man may az wel feed himself with a bodkin.. prayers. to clog with any glutinous or viscous matter.." Therefore.. thus. "Glynn. and you wil be ashamed of your wife. "Secondly. 318."--Ib. "The mobb hath many heads. a . because the word "hiz" is here spelled with z. a simnel. "A needy man's budget is ful of schemes. p. "He wil submit to the laws of the state. if she iz not ashamed of herself. thus. "Lamm. l. "Some stil retain a sovereign power in their territories. But..."--Ib. preceded by a single vowel. But. Not proper again. 420."--Ib. az with a knife of the present fashion. "Bunn. p. p. "Say my annual profit on money loaned shal be six per cent.."--Ib.."--See Rhyming Dict. p. a glen. have nevertheless perfect liberty of wil. this doctrine cuts off the excuse of al sin. or a precipitous rock. "Tenants for life wil make the most of lands for themselves."--Ib. "They sel images.] "A clif is a steep bank."--Old Adage. "If gold with dros or grain with chaf you find.."--See ib."--Webster's Essays. &c. UNDER RULE I."--Ib. l. "While every thing iz left to lazy negroes. p.--Not proper."--Old Maxim. p. but no brains. 2. 406. yes. and which indeed constitutes its only orthography. L. was. p.. consisting of beer and spirits sweetened. while he iz a member of it."--Perkins's Theology.. the sound of bels."--Ib. p. according to Rule 2d. "But wil our sage writers on law forever think by tradition?"--Ib. 310. with cheerfulness. "He wil observe the moral law. a state wil never be wel cultivated. "No man would submit to the drudgery of business."--Old Maxim. 308. "The clothes wil be ill washed."--Ib. "Few large publications in this country wil pay a printer. 401.] "Clamm. "Monosyllables ending in f."--Ib. 22. because the word "mobb" is here spelled with double b. p. 349. [FORMULES--1. according to Rule 1st. "Brunett. they shal find it to be a restorative.. mob. which wil good and cannot wil evil. "I shal. But still it is questionable whether it is not best for them to learn each word at first by its peculiar or ideographic form--the form in which they must ultimately learn to read it.CHAPTER IV.. will. gas. 367. OR S. p." Therefore. p. 366."--Author. "Whurr. &c. p. Select--and leave the chaf and dros behind. x.. has. "The angels of God."--Johnson and Walker. 226 in their current or established orthography.

B.--NO DOUBLING."--Day's Gram. Gases."--Old Precept. "As. "One eye-witness is worth tenn hearsays. and explode the gases."--See ib. 36. frizzing."--Webster's Dict."--S. Chemistry."--G."--See ib. compromited.. "In aliquem arietare. "The verb ending in eth is of the solemn or antiquated style. 45. [FORMULE--Not proper. a species of food."--Walker's Rhyming Dict. "Their extreme indolence shuned every species of labour. and Johnson's Dict."--Id."--Id.. Davis's Gram."--Gregory's Dict. curling. "I began." &c. made of meat and vegetables boiled to softness in water."--Ib.."--Author "Begg. 15. 352. "Inferible. p. 8vo. UNDER RULE IV. 12. Degrading nobles and controling kings. the bishop bite the town. p. "Creatures that buz. Ed. "Potage. "Acids are either solid. And mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown. or a fan for winnowing. 38. thus.. p... 292."--Locke. "These are contractions from sheded. We began. Brown. 92. manumitted.. p. Vol. "Neither your policy nor your temper would permitt you to kill me. Webster noded. Pack."--Ib. "And admitt none but his own offspring to fulfill them.."--Webster's Dict."--Payne's Geog. the hiss of serpents. that some make them Participles."--See El. "In poverty and stripedness they attend their little meetings. Gram. "In guiding and controling[126] the power you have thus obtained. bursted. the whistling of winds. frizing."--Walker's Rhyming Dict. I began. p."--Hints on Toleration. But.."--Philological Museum. Com. Spelling-Book. Plural."--P. "Truth and conscience cannot be controled by any methods of coercion. p. curled. "Compromit. or borrow. W. according to Rule 3d. Vol. "It is better to have a house to lett. p."--Id. frized. as. and dimish and ramish with one Em. a small vessel for children's food."--Blair's Rhet. 93. after the manner of a jilt. to curl."--Old Adage. i. 228. 129."--Murray's Sequel.CHAPTER IV. 341. Dict. "Singular. 437. p. 61. 95. p. vii."--Red Book. of their primitive friz."--Robertson's Amer.. Adam's Lat. 238."--Webster."--Walker's Particles.. "Gas forms the plural regularly. "Thro' freedom's sons no more remonstrance rings. and p. compromiting. and Worcester's. "A little witt will save a fortunate man. p. p. he loveth. i. "Do we sound gases and gaseous like cases and caseous? No: they are more like glasses and osseous. "Coquetish. xvi. double their final consonant before an additional syllable that begins with a vowel. Brown."--Ib. merry. Gould's. of 1829. "The Present Tense denotes what is occuring at the present time. this z should be doubled. They began. p. handsome. or gaseous. "There is many a slipp 'twixt the cup and the lipp. "Dr. i. Gas. ."--POPE: in Joh. 227 woman with a brown complexion. To run full but at one. that may be inferred or deduced from premises. the buz and hum of insects.. kniter. p. gases."--Ib. He began. each?"--See Johnson and Webster."--Abbott's Teacher. p."--The Friend.. "Wad'sett. "A wag should have wit enough to know when other wags are quizing him. Peirce's Gram. when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. 247. an ancient tenure or lease of land in the Highlands of Scotland."--Alex. "To dodd sheep."--Id. 256. You began. to winnow. UNDER RULE III. the crash of falling timber. p. ii. 1st Ed. "Why do lexicographers spell thinnish and mannish with two Ens. "The summ of all this Dispute is. "Bon'y.--Johnson's Gram. butt beware how you find. p. because the words "frized" and "frizing" are here spelled with the single z. beautiful." Therefore. "The spark will pass through the interrupted space between the two wires. are very commonly such as will sting."--Webster's Dict."--G.. and words accented on the last syllable. CIC. "I shall not need here to mention Swiming. a porringer. "Mothers' darlings make but milksopp heroes."--Hiley's Grammar. is to cut the wool away about their tails. 136. "Friz. "The judge shall jobb. 34. p..] "The commercial interests served to foster the principles of Whigism. frizzed. "Monosyllables. manumit. "Vann. "Let not your tongue cutt your throat. liquid. as. buy.--OF DOUBLING. p. when he is of an age able to learn. Vol. on Ed. p.. 511. when he wrote 'knit. p... art. Thou beganest. w. manumitting. p. and knitingneedle' without doubling the t."--O."--Id. 47. Thou beganest?"--Ib. from potage. 427. Murray's Gram. he runeth. practicing coquetry. Clark's Gram. Vol. "Why does began change its ending. he walketh. than a house to gett. "Potager.

to quiet. metallist... 78."--Ib. to be pardoned by the critick. church. gossipping. 146. "Monosyllables and English verbs end not with c."--Ib. worshipper. churches. 72. Cobb. boxes. "The most criticcal period of life iz usually between thirteen and seventeen."--Key in Merchant's Gram. rack. &c. "Tranquillize. gossipped."--See El. 10."--Ib. come libeled."--Ib.. p. containing oil. with singular industry."--Ib.. because the final t of bigot is here doubled in "bigotted. p. 154. gossip. "They traveled for pleasure."--Ib. "The substance of the Criticisms on the Diversions of Purley was. 93. ii."--Ib."--Brown's Estimate. this t should be single. 674. or when the accent is not on the last syllable. p. In darkness. ii. p." Therefore. "From libel. p. "Medallist. [FORMULE. rebusses.--Not proper. 15. lashes. "For it is all marvelously destitute of interest.. medallist. kisses. Spelling-Book. But. critic. p. he has spelled cancelation and snively with single l.. p. p. p. wretchedness. gossipper. fillipper. bigoted. 315. "Yet he has spelled chappelling. 238. 437. UNDER RULE V. 5. 12mo. 133. "What can prevent this republick from soon raising a literary standard?"--Ib. what were man? A groveling herd." --Beattie's Minstrel. "He hopes. and Atoniek elements. 152. from gravel. gossipped by the present precious secretary of war. with ll. box."--Kirkham's Elocution. but take ck for double c."--Ib. attack: but. words derived from the learned languages need not the k. "The subtonick elements are inferiour to the tonicks in all the emphatick and elegant purposes of speech."--Ib. having pommels. because the word "critick" is here spelled with a final k. "Of the Tonick.. according to Rule 5th. p. contrary to his rule. p. and cupellation. et al. the chief commander of an army or military force. "From what a height does the jeweler look down upon his shoemaker!"--Red Book. xl. and want enchain'd.. you may think me garrulous upon topicks quite foreign to the subject before me. or in musick. libeler. 11. groveled. p. groveler. to make calm and peaceful. p."--S. "Courteous reader. "As. "Pommeled. from grovel. 42. as a sword or dagger. 318."--Murray's Gram.. greasy. p. 155." But. beaten. or in mathematicks. or."--Ib. W. Vol."--Ib. worshipping. "Gossipping and lying go hand in hand. 173. Clark's Gram. p. this k should be omitted. Worcester. one skilled in metals. should remain single before an additional syllable. "Again.. groveling. and especially all scholastick stiffness. "Wooliness. "May not four feet be as poetick as five. rock. clavellated. libelous. p. "I observe that you have written the word counseled with one l only... p. graveled and graveling. 32. in general. "He is benefitted. p. therefore. when it is not preceded by a single vowel. p.] "Jacob worshipped his Creator."--Old Maxim. as. fatty. p.--Not proper. p. 388."--Ib. an epidemick. thus. "I became as fidgetty as a fly in a milk-jug. "Avoid all theatrical trick and mimickry. "That enormous error seems to be rivetted in popular opinion. or fifteen feet."--Merchant's Criticisms. p. lash. Subtonick. fillipped."--Webster and Chalmers. the state of being woolly. rebus. p. bordeller."--Ib. p."--Johnson. "A final consonant. 185."--Webster's Essays. "Oilly. Vol. 10. "The nine atonicks. "Generallissimo. metalline. and susceptibility of metallick and magnetick excitement were also very extraordinary.. 153. wreck."--Cobb's Review of Webster. "Whose mind iz not biassed by personal attachments to a sovereign.. Vol. "Laws against usury originated in a bigotted prejudice against the Jews. p. p. fillipping. 101."--Robertson's America. perhaps I should say."--Ib. fillip. p. "A bigotted and tyrannical clergy will be feared. libeling. as poetick as fifty?"--Ib."--Rhyming Dict."--Ib. 6." Therefore. with ll. according to Rule 4th....--OF FINAL CK. "Authorship has become a mania. wittolly. 40. or logick."--Town's Spelling-Book."--See Webster's Dict. Webster. "Caspar's sense of feeling. 228 [FORMULE. "No one thinks of becoming skilled in dancing. p. glib. 364. and common use discards it. 11."--Blackwood's Mag. pannellation. in Payne the bookseller's shop. "They were offended at such as combatted these notions. kiss.."--See Key. one curious in medals. bruised. metallize."--Kirkham's Gram."--Nixon's Parser. "You will have a verbal account from my friend and fellow traveler.. Metallist.] "The leading object of every publick speaker should be to persuade. p.CHAPTER IV. p. thus. 108. without long and close application to the subject. and the three abrupt subtonicks .. "Worship makes worshipped. leaning on the top of his staff. "Without you.

p. height of stature. 138."--See Johnson's Dict. Pitilesness. to come to pass. fearlessness.] "Dreadlesness."--Ash's Gram. who at some times spend.. according to Rule 6th."--See id. simply foretels."--Johnson's Dict. Divided between carelesness and care."--See Littleton's Dict. perverse."--Johnson's Dict. intrepidity. UNDER RULE VI. weakness."--Psal. intrepidity. &c."--Tooke's Diversions. "Good fortunes began to breed a proud recklesness in them.. "Wilful."--See id. without heed. [FORMULE. inattention."--Webster's Dict. to be paid at a particular time."--Kirkham's Elocution. "Blamelesly. Blamlesness. without mercy. preserve it double before any additional termination not beginning with the same letter.--Not proper."--Murray's Gram. undauntedness."--Johnson. to open what is rolled or convolved. "Counterrol. 72. "Miscal. to enslave. "Befal."--Walker's Rhym."--Walker's Dict. in your age."--See Johnson et al. servitude. "That we might frequently recal it to our memory. Regardlesness. preserve it double in all derivatives formed from them by means of prefixes. "Inthralment. "Forestal. Dict. 32. p. to anticipate. "He guided them by the skilfulness of his hands. exemption from fear. unmercifulness. generally precedes a fever. p. accordable."--Id. Dict. to name improperly. "To enrol my humble name upon the list of authors on Elocution. innocence. "What say you to such as these? abominable."--Perkins's Theology.--Not proper. [FORMULE. foretells. Dict. 2. or shivering of the body."--Johnson. Vol. "What is now. littleness. to keep copies of accounts to prevent frauds. Jaudon's. perplexity. "It may be. 120. 112. the other l should be inserted. Dict. fearlesness. conjunctions and prepositions are but one part of speech. But.. Flint's. the other s should be inserted. "The angels exercise a constant solicitude that no evil befal us. you grow fantastick."--Ib. And wore a vest ecelesiastick. 8vo. slavery. inflexible. "Smalness. UNDER RULE VII. p. 229 cause an interruption to the continuity of the syllabick impulse. 59. because the word "foretels" does not here retain the double l of tell. p. "Regardlesly. at others spare. lxxviii."--Murray's Gram. "I. to shackle.--OF RETAINING. i. 88. "Words ending with any double letter. the palate of the soul is indisposed by listlesness or sorrow. "On scientifick principles.] "There are a few compound irregular verbs. "Bethral. "Shall."--TAYLOR: Joh. "Inthral. 172. 167." Therefore."--LOCKE: ib."--TAYLOR: ib. "Fearlesness. without craft. Bullions's. "See whether he lazily and listlesly dreams away his time. part of a large sum of money.. a. entanglement. "Instalment. to take up beforehand. upright length with comparative slenderness.CHAPTER IV. "When young. is but an amasment of imaginary conceptions. "Gall-less. . "Embarrasment. you led a life monastick. p. Now. will not seem wonderful. Wright's. "Talness." Therefore. Ingersoll's."--Johnson. to enslave."--GLANVILLE: Joh."--Kirkham's Gram. 432."--Rhym. p. as befal."--Murray's Key. innocently. "Unrol. p. ii. bespeak. free from gall or bitterness. p.."--Murray's Key. &c. naturally. Fisk's."--Ib. 107. to reduce to servitude.--OF RETAINING. "Words ending with any double letter. 136.. in the first person. induction into office. minuteness."--Calvin's Institutes."--Ib. 12."--Ib. 729. p. to happen to. contumacious. sincerely. "That is better than to be flattered into pride and carelesness."--Rhyming Dict. stubborn. heedlessness. But. because the word "fearlesness" is here allowed to drop one s of fearless. 42. p. "Artlesly. "The second is slothfulness. 37. "That some inferior animals should be able to mimic human articulation. "Pitilesly."--Johnson's Dict. "The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof. and fulfils them by new ones. to call wrong. to reduce to bondage."--Ib. whereby they are performed slackly and carelesly. "He makes resolutions. 46. 90. p. thus."--Red Book. Vol. "A chilness. agreable."--Johnson. p. on the contrary. according to Rule 7th. thus."--SIDNEY: ib. 78."--Pope. A.

"Final ll is peculiar to monosyllables and their compounds. p. "Inwal. 336. 414. as judgeing it proceeded from a low opinion of the genius of their sex."--See Red Book."--Webster's Amer. to some time. tenable. "What you miscal their folly. with the few derivatives formed from such roots by prefixes. 33. "Changable. to enclose or fortify with a wall. "It much excells all other studies and arts. p. p."--Ib. improvable. must be terminated with a single l. UNDER RULE IX. "The final e of a primitive word is generally omitted before an additional termination beginning with a vowel. p. to march about and observe what passes. which constantly overpowers him at the summit. 330. 8vo."--Shakspeare. Unimproveableness and Improvably.--OF FINAL E.. "Mothers would certainly resent it. a halberd. xxv."--Johnson's Dict. p."--Pope. to sell cheaper than an other."--Ib. comfortable. 336. Irreconcilably. "Untill. this e should be omitted. 404. "Marshall. "By nature I was thy vassall. is their care. "Proveable. an instrument with two bills. evil. "Let modest Foster. "Twibil.."--Ib."--See Red Book. p. a battle-axe. and since 'tis done.. 11.. Chemistry. all other words that end in l. according to Rule 8th. But."--See Bailey's Dict.."--Ib. Irreconcilableness. p. 415. Unreconcileable. by setting his heart on them.CHAPTER IV. 403. p. because the word "evill" is here written with final ll. Untameable. 417."--Perkins's Works. p. the chief officer of arms."--Author.. pray for temporall blessings."--Blair's Rhet. p. p. "Giving to severall men several gifts. "It is essentiall to all magnitudes.. "Unwel. to abolish.. subject to change." Therefore.--Not proper. "Moreover."--See id. p. 295. 416."--Ib. "And this the Lord doth. if he will. according to his good pleasure. Moveableness and Improvableness. but Christ hath redeemed me. one who regulates rank and order. p.. must be forgotten. being in want. Pref. consequently. Reconcileableness. a destructive grub that gets among corn.. improvable."--Collier's Antoninus. thus. "The righteous is taken away from the evill to come. [FORMULE. forms the nitrate of argill. "Moveable and Immovable." Therefore. "'Tis done.. indisposed. Unremoveably and Removable. because the word "improveable" here retains the final e of improve."--Perkins's Works. 'tis past recal.. thus. UNDER RULE VIII. Irreconcilable. or degree. 726. art."--See Rhym. 731.. p. Unremoveable and Unimprovable. "We have thought it most adviseable to pay him some little attention. Unchangeable. "This triall by desertion serveth for two purposes."--See Dict. not well. "Undersel. excell Ten Metropolitans in preaching well. not in good health. 332. this destruction is both perpetuall and terrible. to defeat by selling for less. 217..--OF FINAL LL.] "Patroll. "Some."--Walker's Rhym."--Johnson's Dict. mentioned.--Not proper."--Dryden. But. "Reconcileable. Unreproveable and Improvable.Merchants Criticisms. "Annull. Gram. as. one l should be here omitted.. immutable. p. p. Proveable and Approvable. to go the rounds in a camp or garrison. 420."--Webster's Essays. a mattock. 94. or with a point and a blade. p. to abrogate. blameable."--Walker's Particles." "Nitric acid combined with argill."--Ib."--British Gram. 130. "Adjectives ending in able signify capacity. "Retrench as much as possible without obscureing the sense. "My heart will sigh when I miscal it so. a pickaxe.. Moveables and Removal. "Tameable. p."--Walker's Dict. according to Rule 9th."--Ib. Irreproveable and Reprovable."--Gregory's Dict. p. [FORMULE. to make void."--See id."--Dryden. not to be tamed."--Priestley's Gram. to nullify. p."--Ib. place. Dict. "And with this cruelty you are chargable in some measure yourself. Dict. "But if the arrangement recal one set of ideas more readily than another."--James Brown's Amer. 230 "As Sisyphus uprols a rock. that may be proved. p."-. 1821. Reprovable. worthy of reprehension. And since 'tis past recal. Moveably and Immovably. "Weevill. either in temporall or spirituall benefits.] "Their mildness and hospitality are ascribeable to a general administration of religious ordinances. susceptive of taming. "He makes an idoll of them. . to be in one place. Dict. 412.

[FORMULE. dryly. Vossius. is not meant the Present Time. "Alger's Grammar is only a trifling enlargment of Murray's little Abridgment. in regard to its definitness. Spy. "In earnest. drier. sliness."--Berkley's Minute Philos. Com. Sizeable. and moveables."--B."--Dryden."--Johnson and Webster.. Saleable. shyness. Whereof our uncle Gaunt did stand possess'd.. 231 "Titheable."--Shak. "You ask whether you are to retain or omit the mute e in the word judgment.. "This tense. 172. "The final y of a primitive word. "When he began this custom. at this rate of managment. falshood and legerdemain sink the character of a prince. p. subject to the payment of tithes. purity. Sly. differently. 332. and Webster's. may take place. Fly. crying. "Diversly. is generally changed into i before an additional termination.. "To give them an arrangment and diversity. vi. "Rhymster. spying. slyly."--Author. with respect to something accidental. Dict. shyest. of reasonable bulk or size. chastity. a versifier."--Webster's Philosophical Gram.--Not proper. decrial."--Ib."--Ib. wou'd reclaim. p. But. Ply. "Yet as to the commutableness of these two Tenses. "Chastly. slyer. "That may be apply'd to a Subject."--Ib."--Bacon's Wisdom of the Ancients. flier. adjudgment. But. purely. 311."--Walker's Rhyming Dict. slyness. from Persius. thus.. 8. driest. plyer. drier. cries. according to Rule 10th. p. depends upon the name to which it is prefixed. flier."--Collier's Antoninus. "The final e of a primitive word is generally retained before an additional termination beginning with a consonant. in different ways. "Both these Tenses may represent a Futurity implyed by the dependence of the Clause. pliers.. 8vo. "The plate. UNDER RULE XI."--Ib. "Whereby. UNDER RULE X. on Ed. 19. and Walker's. by wholsome Lessons.] "The event thereof contains a wholsome instruction. p."--Cobb's Dict.. 187. they are all one. p. fit for sale. "This Rule is defective. slyness. . 276. as agreeable as the nature of the subject would admit"--Murray's Pref. "Indeed.--Not proper. revenues..--OF FINAL E."--Johnson's Gram."--Johnson's Dict. shyer." Therefore. slyest. a mean poet. p. "It is therefore an heroical achievment to dispossess this imaginary monarch. cried. 133. cried. crier.. this y should be changed to i. "Solon's the veryest fool in all the play. [FORMULE. 171. Dry."--Merchant's Criticisms. because the word "veryest" here retains the final y of its primitive very. when preceded by a consonant. lodgment. shyness. because the word "Diversly" here omits the final e of its primitive word. 475. he was puleing and very tender. dryness."--Locke. p. "Fertileness. Shy. flying. abundantly. to Ex. slyly. crying. 17. high-flier.] "Our author prides himself upon his great slyness and shrewdness. n. compiler. as he imagins. Fly. according to Rule 13th. p. p. p. crier. "Cry. cryer. p. And heal their Vices to secure their Fame. Dry. Chastness."--Red Book."--Rhym. complied.. decrial. Scioppius. "Cry. slily." --Brightland's Gr. 196. fruitfulness. spied. espial. vendible. p.. plying.. "This latter accompanys his Note with a distinction."--Ib. but the Time Past.. p. 344 "So far is this word from affecting the noun. Johnson's Gram. high-flyer. "Though the fancy'd Supplement of Sanctius. that its own character of definitness or indefinitness.CHAPTER IV. decrier. 20.."--Ib. possible to be lost. decried. implys also the signification of Debeo. p."--Brightland's Gram. coin."--Ib. acknowledgment. flyer. this e should be retained. p. 5. flies. p. "Satire.--OF FINAL Y. shyly. veriest. then. p. Com. variously."--Ib." Therefore. abridgment. thus. and none of the Annotators have sufficiently supply'd it. spies. shiness.. p. "The child that we have just seen is wholesomly fed. diverse. 300. Fertily. p. 151. Sly.. Shy. "Whence Scaliger falsly concluded that articles were useless. Loseable. shyly. p.."--Murray's Key. which is deny'd likewise. and prejudgment. and Mariangelus. thou usest thyself very coarsly. fruitfully. 94. One who makes rhymes. shily. 204. Diversely. without contamination.

. p. dryness. "Governed by the success or the failure of an enterprize. "Who have patronised the cause of justice against powerful oppressors. dryly. shiness.. crier." Therefore. in monosyllables. Not proper. 726. 112. p. 175. "The gaiety of youth should be tempered by the precepts of age. p. drier. high-flier. 140. "Words ending in ize or ise sounded alike. 199. when preceded by a vowel. slyness. because the word "revize" is here written with z in the last syllable. dryer."--Ib. "With these measures fell in all monied men. "He would fly to the mines and the gallies for his recreation. 101. Sly. But."--Ib.. "Vallies are the intervals betwixt mountains. "IVYED. p. Shy. in stead of z. this y should be retained. shyness. "By which all purchasers or mortgagees may be secured of all monies they lay out."--Todd's Dict. a.. Vol. 295.. p."--See Key.. ii. and all such as are essentially formed by means of prefixes."--See Gregory's Dict."--Perkins's Works. p."--Goldsmith's Greece. Write dull receipts how poems may be made."--Webster's Dict. "Cry. thus. as in wise and size. according to Rule 12th. authorize. p. Vol. flyer.. Vol."--Kirkham's Elocution. dryness. thus."--WOODWARD: ib. UNDER RULE XIII. "The final y of a primitive word.--OF IZE AND ISE. in and about London. Fly. "God hates the workers of iniquity. 8vo. slyly. sliness. and you say. p. because the word "gaiety" does not here retain the final y of the primitive word gay. should not be changed into i before an additional termination." Therefore."--Murray's Gram. slily. p. because the word "authorise" is here written with s in the last syllable. 725.. "Some dryly plain. generally take the s. and Webster's. [FORMULE. for she cryeth after us.. we would have monies. 128 and 259. Not proper again. shyly."--See Red Book. in lieu of s. pliers. "Here pullies make the pond'rous oak ascend."--Chalmers's Abridgement of Todd's Johnson. But. dryly. "For. Shylock. 'He that buieth."--POPE: ib. [FORMULES. xxi. according to Rule 13th. Dry. and destroies them that speak lies. complier."--Ib. "The fourth sin of our daies is lukewarmness. 2.] "In the storm of 1703. 94 and 228. especially in abbies. revise."--Ib. 232 dryer. flier. 737."--SOUTH: Ib. choose it rather. decrial. p. gayety. plying."--TEMPLE: Johnson's Dict. 106."--Constable's Miscellany. 142. p. plyers. 736.--1. "I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkies.--OF FINAL Y. when he laies his hand upon us. must sell: I will not suffer buyers and sellers of offices. two thousand stacks of chimnies were blown down. Overgrown with ivy. 723. "But rattling nonsense in full vollies breaks."--SHAKSPEARE: ib. "Send her away. "Will any able writer authorise other men to revise his works?"--Author. "And the vexation was not abated by the hacknied plea of haste.. UNDER RULE XII."--Mur. thus. decrier." Therefore. as in wise and size. we may not fret. p.. "It was not possible to manage or steer the gallies thus fastened together. p."--Ib. "I would sooner listen to the thrumming of a dandyzette at her piano. "Yet custom authorises this use . ------------"You need my help.. "Words ending in ize or ise sounded alike. this z should be s. pp. without invention's aid. p."--Felton's Gram. Key."--GAY: ib."--Pope. Ply. But.] "It can be made as strong and expressive as this Latinised English."--SWIFT: Johnson's Dict. pp. 24. "Men worked at embroidery. "Alexander Severus saith. "Turkies were not known to naturalists till after the discovery of America. Volley."--Wood's Dict.CHAPTER IV. Merchant.'"--Ib. this s should be z. w. generally take the z in all such as are essentially formed by means of the termination.--Not proper. shily. ii. but if thou maiest be free. "The Hebrews had fifty-two journies or marches."--Ib. "Care not for it. according to Rule 13th.

"--Murray's Gram. 80. Gram. disauthorise. a Dutch vessel."--Red Book."--Web. Temporize. colonise. 14.CHAPTER IV."--Acts. 355. patronise."--Walkers Dict. ii. Dict."--British Gram."--Ib.Alex."--Chalmers's Dict. "A little reflection. detonize. "And they continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine."--Ib. 233 of it. iii."--Kirkham's Elocution. p. epitomise. (1818."--Professors' Reasons. will show the reader the propriety and the reason for emphasising the words marked. synonymise. 17. to assert positively. 49. v. p. "If. a hyphen is proper."--ID. iii."--Ibid."--Ib. p. 344.. "The glory of the Lord shall be thy rereward. in a letter."--Ib. overflown.--OF COMPOUNDS. 310. p. "And. and extemporize. p. 3."--Philological Museum. p. they immediately bid farewel to argument. to overflow. "Infinitive. "Writers of dull books."--Tooke's Diversions. "To direct the popular councils and check a rizing opposition.. p. p. "Dogmatise. 9. cantonize. methodise.. "They however knew that the lands were claimed by Pensylvania. ibid."--Murray's Key.. 404. 164. p.. "Which mistatement the committee attributed to a failure of memory. p. p. characterize. ... 245."--Ib. 61. phlebotomise. are rewarded beyond their deserts. "Authorize."--Ib. iii. 340."--Cobbett's E. sluggardize. 357. "No man ever offers himself [as] a candidate by advertizing. "That the shoe must fit him. "They are honest and economical. and destitute of enterprize. recognise. equalise."--Kirkham's Elocution. because the compound word "rereward" has not here the orthography of the two simple words rear and ward.."--Ib. i. p. carrying a main-mast and a mizen-mast. [FORMULE--Not proper. p. 732. p. that you have received a defective education. two handfull.. "He that sleeps. 175. is sufficient to show.. Vol. UNDER RULE XIV."--Ib. p. to say we end the heartach. p. some.. 113. Participle. Preterit."--SCOTT: 1 Peter."-Smollett's England. anatomize. "This BEAUTY Sweetness always must comprize.) p. Which from the Subject. according to Rule 14th. "Then he went through the Banquetting-House to the scaffold."--SHAK."--Webster's Octavo Dict. "He will find all.. v. p. on Education. Therefore. Pref. a magisterial teacher. by a sleep. "To determin what interest shall arize on the use of money. two handfulls. or most of them."--Priestley's Gram. 61. feels not the toothach. p. p."-. mispelt.] "A mere vaunt-courier to announce the coming of his master. "Five were appointed to the immediate exercize of the office. p.. an asserter. Dict."--Worcester's Gaz. p. 233."--Ib. overflowed. xi."--COMMON BIBLES: Isa. "We are accountable for whatever we patronise in others. 347.. 163. "For the purpose of maintaining a clergyman and skoolmaster. 8vo. comprized in the Exercises. p.. the accent being here unfixed. but indolent.: in Joh. "But if you ask a reason. 45. "I would however advize you to be cautious. 106. because it fitted his father and granfather. p. "Lapfull.. contemporise. "Compounds generally retain the orthography of the simple words which compose them. "Beware lest ye also fall from your own stedfastness. Pref. "Some say.. But. "A quick and ready habit of methodising and regulating their thoughts. two handsfull. "Whom resist stedfast in the faith. 345. "Legalize. and others. upon a plumbtree."--Webster's Essays. 148."--Bucke's Gram.. p.. * * * and I even think the writers themselves will be surprized. sanctuarise."--British Gram."--2 Peter." --Brightland's Gr. Dogmatizer."--Berkley's Minute Philos. which compose it.. Vol. p. however." [127]--Locke. p. 42. peaches and apricots are ingrafted. or galliott. no body will say they are the natural growth of the plumbtree.. this word should be spelled thus. p. 335. p. Vol. "And their inflections might now have been easily analysed."--Webster's Essays.. "After he was baptised."--Ib. "After they have mispent so much precious Time. humanize. xviii. Murray's Gram. if patronised at all. p. "The parti-coloured shutter appeared to come close up before him. "The channel between Newfoundland and Labrador is called the Straits of Bellisle. gluttonise. p. i. p. "They surprize myself. 6. lviii."--Red Book. 431. rear-ward.. p. "A single word. Vol.."--Perkins's Works.. and was solemnly admitted into the office."--Ib. well express'd will rise. as much as the lap can contain. xv. "To tyrannise over the time and patience of his reader. "Let the interest rize to any sum which can be obtained. "There being nothing that more exposes to Headach. p. 8. i. "Galiot. "When the day broke upon this handfull of forlorn but dauntless spirits."--Ib." And. womanise. 313. and unauthorized. v. "The English Chronicle contains an account of a surprizing cure.

a tree that produces plums."--Webster's Essays. whose name was Danæ. p. p. "An aker of land is the quantity of one hundred and sixty perches."--Dryden..CHAPTER IV. Pref. geniuses. "No landholder would have been at that expence. because the word "modes" is here written for moods."--Ib. Geniuses.."--Johnson's Dict. 340. "Aerisius. "The Kristian religion. 54. p. p. 125. "Lisias.. iz the best institution on erth."--Ib. LESSON I. 83. the wimen would be improper judges. to avoid this errour."--Webster's Dict. "Plum-tree. which is more common among the learned. pp."--Ib. p. "Genii. 363. p."--Mur. twice."--Ib. p. 238. a tree. thus."--Ib. 148. o'er the flow'ry plain. had a beautiful daughter."--Murray's Gram. 300. and Jehosaphat the king of Judah. p."--Frost's Gram. 161. full of defiance. p. 118.."--See ib. accent the first syllable. "This stile is ostentatious."-.] "If we analize a conjunctive preterite. . men of wit. Dict. p. "But.--Not proper. run into it's opposite. p. p.."--Buchanan's Syntax. king of Argos.. and usually preferred by Murray himself. Harrison's. p."--Churchill's Gram. 8vo. 90."--Mur."--Perkins's Works. p. 116.. 138. 54 and 67. That to the greenwood shade he took his way. "Mis-spel is mis-spell in every Dictionary which I have seen."--Ib. is written wrong if not spelled according to the usage which is most common among the learned.."--Ib.. pp. Plu. never to abandon them. "The king of Israel. Churchill's. p. 18.'s Gram. Hog-plumbtree. Churchill's. 340. "Neether clergymen nor human laws hav the leest authority over the conscience."--Merchants Key. p. 364. 99."--Ib. p. promised to his father. Extends thy uncontroul'd and boundless reign."--Ib.."--Ib."--Ib. but genii. when denoting ærial spirits: Geniuses."--Murray's Key."--Ib. "Phillis was not able to unty the knot." Therefore. ii. 42... "I went to see the child whilst they were putting on its cloaths. [FORMULE. 89. "Some. p. the balm of life. 362.. p. i. after all.Walker's Rhym. p."--Nutting's Gram. 165. ærial beings. Merchant's.. "Cathmor's warriours sleep in death."--Webster's Essays. and Jehosophat the king of Judah. p. "For parsing will enable you to detect and correct errours in composition. sat each on his throne. 93. "A gild is a society."--Lowth's Gram. fall from rank or state. 109.' Better: 'A large sum was offered to Pitticus."--Barnes's Red Book. is as open to the peasant as to the king. 167. 50. 112.'"--Kirkham's Gram. and doth not suit grave writing."--Priestley's Gram. moods. "Nor are the modes of the Greek tongue more uniform. p.. 731. 152. 204. when denoting æriel spirits. "'Pitticus was offered a large sum. the latter form should be preferred. Gram. "It were better a milstone were hanged about his neck. "Oker is a fossil earth combined with the oxid of some metal. "Any judgement or decree might be heerd and reversed by the legislature.. p. "It happen'd on a summer's holiday.. p. "King Missipsi charged his sons to respect the senate and people of Rome. 341. 96. when signifying persons of genius."--Ibid... p. "Every person iz indulged in worshiping az he pleezes."--Classic Tales. sooths us under every misfortune. p. "Trisyllables ending in re or le."--Ib. "The whole legislature likewize acts az a court. according to Rule 15th. p. 46. 135. p. p. and not modes. "For example: Gallileo invented the telescope. "O'er barren mountains. Wright's. when signifying persons of genius. 187. "A pathetic harang wil skreen from punishment any knave. p. p. But. xxvii... calamity. "Downfal. I may not have reached the intended Gaol. "The road to the blissfull regions. 82. or corporation. 303. 345. p. 234 "Darefull. p. sat each on his throne."--Ib." --Churchill's Gr.--OF USAGE. p. in its purity."--Murray's Gram. fraternity. p. UNDER RULE XV.. ruin."--Murray's Gram. "Phæton was the son of Apollo and Clymene.. "Hope.. Vol. PROMISCUOUS ERRORS IN SPELLING.."--Ib.--MIXED. 199. "The king of Israel. "Genius. 9. "For the same reezon... the rule will not appear to hold. and so she cut it.."--Red Book.. "Any word for the spelling of which we have no rule but usage. 121 and 253. "Most or all teechers are excluded from genteel company. speaking of his friends. "Genii.

p. "Hence the confession has become a hacknied proverb. p. 679... p."--Ib. 340.. p. "Who boast that they know what is past. 31.. Pref. iv. "The leaves of maiz are also called blades. Former. full of briers. 'a man looks slyly. the thousand years during which Satan shall be bound. a regard to sound hath controuled the public choice. and exercized all powers legislativ and judicial."--Webster's Dict.CHAPTER IV.' we signify.."--Shak. no falsehoods. Whilst principals. 72. 110. Briery. p."--Ib."--Webster's El.."--Ib. no new sophistry."--Webster's Essays.. 367. or reddish. "All Motion is in Time. ii.. "This phillipic gave rise to my satirical reply in self-defence."--Ib. p. a state of servitude."--Ib. 43. "To epithets allots emphatic state. 349. iv. Chalmers. "Arithmetic is excellent for the guaging of liquors. I pr'ythee: it curvetts unseasonably. "Produce a single passage superiour to the speech of Logan.. "They wil always be ignorant. a counter account.--MIXED. "Will. p. inclining to a chesnut color. Vol. delivered to Lord Dunmore. p."--Ib. "That I have not mispent my time in the service of the community. "Prejudice might have prevented the cordial approbation of a bigotted Jew."--See Johnson. "Most of the inflections may be analysed in a way somewhat similar. varnish. p. 48. p. or slyly."--Tooke's Diversions.. "Millenial. a mimic."--Ib. &c. to imitate or ape for sport."--Churchill's Gram.. like metals. p. 205. p. and of ruf uncivil manners. "We here saw no inuendoes."--Ib. 46. 'Your health. in my slyest manner."--Ib. p. w.. xiv.. 352."--Ib. 140. p. 140. "After this system of self-interest had been rivetted."--Ib.. to look through a crevice. "And attornies also travel the circuit in pursute of business. "Nay. p. "Millenium.. 5. "Not to mention the more ornamental parts of guilding. as. "Counterroil. "When we say. p. p."--Jamieson's Rhetoric."--Philological Museum. and others."--Ib. p. like lacquies wait. Sweetbriar. "It is by carefully filing off all roughness and inequaleties."--Ib.'"--Blackwood's Mag.Abbott's Teacher. "Because they are abstracted or seperated from material Substances. Webster. p. v. i. p. p. 18. p. p. xl. p.. 247." --C."-. implies Time as its Concommitant.."--Wayland's Moral Science."--SCOTT: on Luke. p. p. Vol. fatherless. a fragrant shrub."--Ib."--See Johnson's Dict. "Sentences constructed with the Johnsonian fullness and swell. 48. to look narrowly. "The character of this opening fulness and feebler vanish."--Red Book. 8vo. "Some whole counties in Virginia would hardly sel for the valu of the dets du from the inhabitants. a prickly bush. 346. and can foretel what is to come.. "Its tasteless dullness is interrupted by nothing but its perplexities."--Ib. 360."--Rush."--Ib. 130."--Ib. must be polished. 132. sir.. that languages.Merchant's Criticisms. "And illiterate grown persons are guilty of blameable spelling. p. "Let a deaf worshipper of antiquity and an English prosodist settle this. 136. red."--Murray's Key. p. p. p. where-ever it exists. i. "Bay. in the second and third Persons. Vol.. 288. 48. a Mingo chief. xxviii. 173. ungrac'd. Vol."--Webster's Essays.. bondage. "Cry holla! to thy tongue.. Vol. "Though learnt from the uninterrupted use of gutterel sounds."-. p. in the fullness of unequalled power."--Ib. Churchill's Ros. "They marr one another."--Buchanan's Syntax. "The leading characteristick consists in an increase of the force and fullness. pennyless. "A witty and humourous vein has often produced enemies.. denoting destitution."--Ib. p. p. "They were called the court of assistants. LESSON II. "Brier."--Brown's Estimate. p. "The province however waz harrassed with disputes. and distract him. w. barely foretels. 181. p. "The privilege of escaping from his prefatory dullness and prolixity. p. 83. "I said. "Who. pertaining to the millenium. ix. Counterrolment. Pref. "What should be repeted is left to their Discretion. slavery. "But in poetry this characteristick of dulness attains its full growth. i."--Robertson's Amer.."--Webster's Dict."--British Gram."--Ib.. "Such absurd qui-pro-quoes cannot be too strenuously avoided.."--Ib."--Same. would not believe himself the favourite of heaven?"--Ib. p. when governour of Virginia.. "We have none synonimous to supply its place. but what is distinguished by Italics. 362. Spelling-Book... "So little concern haz the legislature for the interest of lerning.. p. 112. . Pref."--Kirkham's Elocution. 339. rough."--Kirkham's Elocution.."--Ib."--Jamieson's Rhet."--Ib."--Ib. 235 "A bad author deserves better usage than a bad critick. "To mimick. faithless. "And therefor there is no Word false. closely. on the Voice. p. or to a thousand years. p."--Murray's Gram. x. a counterpart or copy of the rolls. Less.. "Hence it [less] is a privative word. 433. p. "Peep. one who imitates or mimics. Walker. 301. "The gentlemen wil not admit that a skoolmaster can be a gentleman. p. 8. that he assumes a sly look. prickly."--POPE: Johnson's Dict. and therefor. 71. "This fact wil hardly be beleeved in the northern states. "There is a probability that the effect will be accellerated. 20. "Thraldom.

. "Many verbs form both the preterite tense and the preterite participle irregularly. p. p. "The verb. "The cubic foot of matter which occupies the center of the globe. p. coach-full. 90. B. p. p. Gram. "A dipthong is the union of two vowels... a symbol. spoonfuls. 73..'"--Peirce."--Ib. for the most part... 142. is referred to the preceding terms taken seperately. or the acidifying principle. or pronoun. p. 88. p. and Chalmers's. to symbolize. 146. added to a noun. "Fullness consists in expressing every idea.'"--Wright's Gram. 153. "Verses of different lengths intermixed form a Pindarick poem. "All twinkling with the dew-drop sheen. Ash. 18mo."--Ib. "They went their ways. LESSON III. p."--Priestley's Gram."--Ib. Peirce's Gram. 47. italicised. "The wine imbibes oxigen. 7. "Thus.. p. sounded by a single impulse of the voice. "Q. "The professors of the Mahommedan religion are called Mussulmans. p. seem to be the most eligible.. a Station claims. p. 62. 7."--Hart's Gram."--Ib. handfuls. plural. but a real verb. "HAMLETTED. 291. 5."--Harrison's Gram."--Ib. 11. "An Abridgment of Murray's Grammar. "The sound will recal the idea of the object... from the verb to singe. 27. "Charcoal.. p.. "Between Superlatives and following Names. p. 337. handful. p. Gram."--Nutting's Gram."--BYRON: ib. "He'll surprize you."--Bullions's Analyt. and niter. 130. countrified. 25. "So contended the accusers of Gallileo. a. "Formed for great enterprizes."--Hiley's Gram. 44."--Ib. 175. "So gaily curl the waves before each dashing prow. one to his farm. 3. cup-full. and dyssyllables by more and most. to modernise."--Ib. 'They were traveling past when we met them. 28. from the air. Tooke. p. . 1839.. 47. p. of Gram. "On the fulfillment of the event."--Ib. p. p. p. "When is a dipthong called a proper dipthong?"--Infant School Gram."--Maltby's title-page. 99. 16. cup-fulls."--Lady of the Lake. "For the sake of occupying the room more advantagously.--MIXED. p. "Singular. p. 24."--Ib.. sulphur... p. p. p.. 361."--Ib. "The most important rules and definitions are printed in large type. by Grammatick Right."--Ib. by way of distinction from singing.."--Ib... A tripthong is the union of three vowels. 102. 47."--Ib."--O. OF. 202."--Churchill's Gram. p. 19. coach-fulls. or adjective.. "This shews that let is not a sign of the imperative mood. as. "Monosyllables. p."-. "Those preterites and participles. "The word verriest is a gross corruption. 359... "It would be readily understood. p. and Pract.. noun."--Ib. 33." --Brightland's Gram... of E. are compared by er and est. was a bottle of Madeira wine. 236 "The infinitive mode has commonly the sign to before it. the subject of Orthography is merely glanced at. changes it into a verb: as modern. ib. "Murray says. 'He is the verriest fool on earth."--Bullions's Prin."--Ib. p. an other to his merchandize. p. 51.. p. "They fulfil the only purposes for which they are designed... 67.. p.CHAPTER IV. pronounced in like manner. Accustomed to a hamlet."--Russell's Gram. What is a tripthong? A."--Frost's El..Bolles's Dict. "Unequalled archer! why was this concealed?"--KNOWLES: ib. make gun powder.. "Consistently with fulness and perspicuity. "Much must be left to every one's taste and judgment. p. The briar-rose fell in streamers green. it is adviseable to write singeing. the participle of the verb to sing. "This termination. that the thing so labeled. p. spoonful. with additions from Webster.. 104.. "How many ss would goodness then end with? Three. and others. 27."--Bacon's Gram."--Maltby's Gram. p. p."--Cardell's Gram. 12mo. p.."--Ib... which are first mentioned in the list. 380. p.

What different sorts of types. How are the consonants divided? 17. What is an elementary sound of human voice. What is the name. 1. What name is given to the sound of a letter? and what epithet. What was language at first. for what they do not remember. What is English Grammar. vowels? 16. as used in teaching? 11. In what does a knowledge of the letters consist? 7. consonants? 15. ORDER OF REHEARSAL. What are their names in both numbers. What is it. Of what does Orthography treat? 22. and by what means are its principles to be made known? 9. to speak? 8. Of what does Etymology treat? 23. to read? 6. What is a letter? 3. What variety is there in the letters? and how are they always the same? 8. Of what does Syntax treat? 24. What is an exercise? 13. by consulting the book at the time. At any rate. How is Grammar divided? 21. What are the least parts of language? 16.--GRAMMAR. Into what general classes are the letters divided? 12. and. What has discourse to do with sentences? or sentences. define these actions. But those who are very quick at reading. writing. [Fist][The student ought to be able to answer with readiness. What is a semivowel? 18. singular and plural? 11. What is a mute? 19. Of what does Orthography treat? 2. he should be master of so many of the definitions and rules as precede the part which he attempts to correct. What is a vowel? 13. And if he has but lately commenced the study. may perform it tolerably. then. throughout? 19. all the following questions on grammar. or speech? 4.] LESSON I. when we speak of the powers of the letters? 2. What are the names of the letters in English? 10. are used in English? 9. When are w and y consonants? and when. What is a rule of grammar? 12. Are the sounds of a language fewer than its words? 3. of this book? 2. and what is it now? 14. If grammar is the art of reading. Of what two kinds does the composition of language consist? and how do they differ? 15. Of what does Prosody treat? PART FIRST. --QUESTIONS. Can you form a word upon each by means of an f? . What is an example. extemporaneous questions may be framed for the purpose. In extended compositions. What is a perfect definition? 10. before he proceeds to the correction of any part of the false grammar quoted in the foregoing chapters. What is Grammar? 3.CHAPTER V. if any further examination be thought necessary. LESSON II. What letters are vowels? and what. What letters are reckoned mutes? and which of them are imperfect mutes? LESSON III. How are different vowel sounds produced? 4. AND METHOD OF EXAMINATION. What is meant. what is the order of the parts. What is an English Grammar? 4.--LETTERS. What is it. How is grammar to be taught. How may these sounds be modified in the formation of syllables? 6. and in the words of the book. or styles of letters. 1. downwards. because this knowledge is necessary to a creditable performance of the exercise. The answers to these questions will embrace all the main text of the work. with points? 17. What is a consonant? 14. 1. and speaking. How many letters are there in English? and how many sounds do they represent? 6. What are the vowel sounds in English? 5. What letters are reckoned semivowels? and how many of these are aspirates? 20. is the common order of literary division. upwards from a sentence? 18. What. Are all literary works divided exactly in this way? 20. to write? 7.--SOUNDS. 237 CHAPTER V. or title. What is it. it may be well to require of him a general rehearsal of this kind. What letters are called liquids? and why? 21. to a letter not sounded? 5. ORTHOGRAPHY. in itself? and what knowledge does it imply? 5.

What says Rule 10th of personifications? 20. What says Rule 1st of compounds? 10. 238 7. What says Rule 4th of ellipses? 13. How do permanent compounds differ from others? 8. What is a compound word? 7. What is a diphthong? 6. What says Rule 15th of chief words? 25.--CAPITALS. How many and what are the improper triphthongs? 17. What says Rule 2d of vowels? 21. and correct the improprieties there quoted for the practical application of these rules. What says Rule 13th of poetry? 23. Under what names are words classed according to the number of their syllables? 4. In how many different ways can the letters of the alphabet be combined? 19. What says Rule 3d of terminations? 22. ci. Why should the different sorts of letters be kept distinct? 3. and ch? 17. How many and what are the proper diphthongs? 14. What says Rule 2d of first words? 12.--SYLLABLES. What is an improper diphthong? 8. How may the vowel sounds be written? and how uttered when they are not words? 9. What says Rule 4th of proper names? 14. What distinction of form belongs to each of the letters? 7. What is a derivative word? 5. What says Rule 5th of compounds? 24. What is a proper triphthong? 10. What do we derive from these combinations of sounds and characters? LESSON IV.CHAPTER V. What says Rule 3d of the sense? 12. What is said of the sounds of c and g? 15. How are words distinguished in regard to species and figure? 3. 1. of ce. Can the syllables of a word be perceived by the ear? 3. What says Rule 9th of apposition? 19. What is a triphthong? 9. What. What is said of the slanting strokes in Roman letters? 4. 1. How many special rules of syllabication are given in this book? and what are their titles. Which of the letters can form syllables of themselves? and which cannot? 5.] LESSON V. What sounds has the consonant g? 18. For what purpose are Italics chiefly used? 5. What says Rule 8th of compounds? 18. What is said of the sounds of j and x? 14. How many rules for the figure of words are given in this book? and what are their titles. What says Rule 14th of examples? 24. and correct the improprieties there quoted for the practical application of these rules. 1. What says Rule 5th of titles? 15. What characters are employed in English? 2. What says Rule 12th of I and O? 22. What is said of small letters? and why are capitals used? 8. Which of the vowel sounds form words? and what of the rest? 10. What things are commonly exhibited wholly in capitals? 9.] LESSON VI. What says Rule 1st of books? 11. What is an improper triphthong? 11. and correct the improprieties there quoted for the practical . What says Rule 6th of one capital? 16. In what series of words may each of them be heard two or three times? 13. How many and what are the improper diphthongs? 15. What says Rule 6th of no hyphen? [Now turn to the third chapter of Orthography. or s before c? 16. What is a word? 2. What says Rule 5th of the hyphen? 14. What is a syllable? 2. how do we mark these things for the printer? 6. What says Rule 3d of names of Deity? 13. What guide have we for dividing words into syllables? 18. How many and what are the consonant sounds in English? 11. What says Rule 6th of lines full? [Now turn to the second chapter of Orthography. What says Rule 7th of two capitals? 17. How many and which of these are so variable in sound that they may be either proper or improper diphthongs? 13. In what series of words may all these sounds be heard? 12. Are proper triphthongs numerous in our language? 16. What is a simple word? 6.--WORDS. What says Rule 2d of simples? 11. How many rules for capitals are given in this book? and what are their titles? 10. What is said of sc. Will you try the series again with a p? 8. or subjects? 9. How many and what are the diphthongs in English? 12. What says Rule 4th of prefixes? 23. What says Rule 1st of consonants? 20. In preparing a manuscript. What says Rule 11th of derivatives? 21. What is a primitive word? 4. or subjects? 19. What is a proper diphthong? 7. What says Rule 16th of needless capitals? [Now turn to the first chapter of Orthography.

Under what seven heads are the exceptions to this rule noticed? 35. Are there any exceptions to this rule? 11. Under what three heads are the apparent exceptions to this rule noticed? 33. Why is it difficult to learn to spell accurately? 4. What benefit may be expected from the rules for spelling? 6. What says Rule 3d of the doubling of consonants? 12. What says Rule 1st of final f. or s? 8. What is spelling? 2. How is this art to be acquired? and why so? 3. What says Rule 11th of final y changed? 28. contrary to this rule. as a law of spelling? [Now turn to the fourth chapter of Orthography. 239 1.] LESSON VII. What says Rule 2d of other finals? 10. Is it then any disgrace to spell words erroneously? 5. Can you mention the principal exceptions to this rule? 9. What says Rule 9th of final e omitted? 24. What says Rule 10th of final e retained? 26. here noticed? 25. which might seem to come under Rule 7th? and why? 23. Under what four heads are the apparent exceptions to this Rule noticed? 15. real or apparent. What says Rule 13th of the terminations ize and ise? 32. What says Rule 15th of usage. and correct the improprieties there quoted for the practical application of these rules and their exceptions. Under what three heads are the exceptions to this rule noticed? 19.--SPELLING. application of these rules. or subjects? 7. How many rules for spelling are given in this book? and what are their titles. end with c only? 17. Under what three heads are the exceptions to this rule noticed? 27. Under what three heads are the exceptions to this rule noticed? 13. What says Rule 7th of the retaining of double letters after prefixes? 20. 21. What says Rule 5th of final ck? 16. Under what three heads are the exceptions.--SPELLING. What words does this rule claim. l. and of final l single? 22. What observation is made respecting exceptions to this rule? LESSON VIII. What monosyllables. What says Rule 4th against the doubling of consonants? 14. Under what three heads are the limits and exceptions to this rule noticed? 29. What says Rule 6th of the retaining of double letters before affixes? 18.CHAPTER V. Under what three heads are the exceptions to this rule noticed? 31. What says Rule 8th of final ll. What says Rule 14th of compounds? 34. What says Rule 12th of final y unchanged? 30.] .

"--Critical . gen-er-all-y. in some respect or other. p.] EXERCISE I. rai-ny. 3. i-dent-ic-al.' is a common Scotticism. fru-iti-on.. p. pe-cul-i-ar. log-i-call-y. Lyd-ia. mar-chi-o-ness.--SYLLABLES. Vol."--Anti-Slavery Mag." --Brightland's Gram.. p. "The translators of the bible. 1815. Correct Sears. iii."--Ib. ad-diti-on. Correct Burhans. Some of the examples here quoted are less inaccurate than others. "There is now extant a poetical composition. 215."--Maltby's Gram.Lempriere's Dict. re-pressi-on. "The words in italics are parsed in the same manner. spic-e-ry.'"--Ib. equally improper: it should be."--KNOX: Churchill's Gram. "It may be read by those who do not understand latin."-. unitarians. baptists. than the holy land would have been. trounc-ed." 1826. p. cri-ed. ob-nox-i-ous.. "To use learn for teach. fer-riage. are. 40.. drea-ry. --FOR WRITING. line-age. tri-ed. "A few observations on the subjunctive mood as it appears in our English bible. anabaptists. p."--See ib. lea-kage. chi-can-e-ry. phil-os-o-phy. "The Gallicism. p."--Wilcox's Gram. groc-e-ry. p. strip-ed."--Churchill's Gram. heigh-ten. out-ra-ge-ous. ar-ti-fici-al. p. flumm-er-y. 316. in the glorious name of christians. forc-ed. "More like heaven on earth."--Standard Spelling-Book: "New Haven. is a common Scotticism. "The Latin Writers Decency neglect. and not explained in the general Key. am-biti-on. p. i.. "Alexander the great killed his friend Clitus. pro-di-gi-ous. 'that ability and necessity dwell near each other. 'it is me. in the division of the following words: "Jes-ter.' is perpetually striking the ear in London. all the distinctions of methodists. 1. under the warm influence of brotherly love. au-spici-ous. Correct Bradley. p."--Harris's Hermes. "This is not simply a gallicism. po-liti-call-y."--Revised Spelling-Book: New London. hear-ty. sav-ed. hai-ry. p. 240 CHAPTER VI. 'scarcely any thing. thor-ny.."-. forg-e-ry. p. that they may he corrected by the pupil in writing. 333. "Exercise of the Mind upon Theorems of Science. suc-ker. fath-er. 69. sui-ta-ble. lit-er-all-y. sloth-full-y."--Ib. ad-roit. 4. shep-her-dess. suc-cessi-on. and be able to make the necessary corrections. worth-y. independents. which in the original are uniformly kept distinct. 72. 261. in the division of the following words: "Boar-der. Vol. 2. trav-ell-er. in the division of the following words: "A-quil-a."--Improved Spelling-Book: Windsor. "A roman s being added to a word in italics or small capitals. 295.--CAPITALS. re-pea-ter. dup-ed. have confounded two tenses. glea-ner. frigh-ten. arians. re-all-y. itself a corruption. 40. "O that I could prevail on Christians to melt down. ab-o-liti-on. crit-i-call-y. p. "Pythagoras long ago remarked. wor-my. called the golden verses of Pythagoras.Ib. [Fist] [The following examples of false orthography are inserted here. 68. brigh-ten. fac-titi-ous. trinitarians. mos-sy. but all of them. 262. Jul-ia. 1831.. un-lear-ned. pat-ron. 285. p. re-cov-e-ry. fla-giti-ous.. like generous and manly Exercise of the Body. cei-ling.'"--Student's Manual. twop-ence. "'Almost nothing. fin-e-ry. dis-cov-e-ry. tends to call forth and strengthen Nature's original Vigour. except a few shown in contrast. But modern Readers challenge more Respect. slic-ed. fath-er-ly.CHAPTER VI."--Harrison's Gram. tre-mend-ous. erroneous. that every student who can answer the questions contained in the preceding chapter. spite-full-y. nesc-i-ence. ta-mea-ble. will readily discern wherein the errors lie. EXERCISE II."--Barclay's Works.. brib-e-ry. but a corruption of the French on. Correct Bolles. ob-liv-i-on. that ought to be carefully avoided. trag-i-call-y.. p. EXERCISES IN ORTHOGRAPHY. 173. in the division of the following words: "Del-ia.. sù-ed. touch-ed. 228. sol-stiti-al. pledg-ed. 172. pu-pill-ar-y. fros-ty. It is supposed..

"There is something of self denial in the very idea of it. "Nobody will deem the quicksighted amongst them to have very enlarged views of ethicks. not far fetched. p. p."--Ib. Blunderhead. that he cannot but approve of virtue. in the division of the following words: "Trench-er.. p. 76."--ADDISON: Johnson's Dict. 5.: Ib. "Severity and hard hearted opinions accord with the temper of the times. A steam boat. 60. qua-drate. join-ture. 1823. p..: . Pronouncing Spelling-Book:[128] Philadelphia."--Ib. Quicksighted. A paper mill. 241 5."--Ib."--Ib.--SPELLING. 22." --SHAK. p. every plow-jobber shall take upon him to read upon divinity. Antechamber. "This is the tune of our catch plaid by the picture of nobody. "The pupil may now write a description of the following objects. cal-ling."--Ib. w. Correct Emerson. Plumipes. EXERCISE IV. p. w. "Age therefore requires a well spent youth to render it happy.. eve-ning. Bowsprit. "That poor man was put into the mad house. "The honeybags steal from the bumblebees. 36. instead of the verb and conjunction. 24.. "The honey-bags steal from the humble bees."--Ib."--Ib. "I have seen the breast works and other defences of earth. 25. w. Humblebee.."--National Spelling-Book: Boston. Correct Marshall."--Ib. "Two Vowels meeting... 10.. bland-ish. footed. "A school master decoyed the children of the principal citizens into the Roman camp. p.. 39. "The all wise and benevolent Author of nature has so framed the soul of man."--SHAK."--LOCKE: Ib."--Ib."--Ib. "I was reclining in an arbour overhung with honey suckle and jessamine of the most exquisite fragrance."--Ib. gras-sy."--Ainsworth's Dict."--L'ESTRANGE: Ib. "On the topmast. or leather."--Parker's Exercises in English Composition. wes-tern. "Such singular and unheard of clemency cannot be passed over by me in silence. 1828. 17. glas-sy. 74. p. m. 64. dros-sy."--Brightland's Gram. "Not a moment should elapse without bringing some thing to pass. "Self conceit blasts the prospects of many a youth. p.. 18. it is sometimes necessary to employ the case absolute.. w. pru-dish. 22.. in the division of the following words: "Dus-ty mis-ty.."--Ib."--Ib. are little square chambers wainscoted." --Dodd's Beauties of Shak.. p. 26. p. dis-es-teem.. p. Nobody. nor difficult to be discovered."--Ib. 11... And for night-tapers crop their waxen thighs. footed. roc-ky. Loripes. "Cloven footed animals are enabled to walk more easily on uneven ground. a-noth-er. 91.. A dwelling house."--New Spelling-Book: New York. p. A grist mill. each with its full Sound. EXERCISE III. the yards. p. bran-chy. w. pres-ses. A school room.. And. p. stor-my.. "This fellow must be put into the poor house."--Ib. chan-ging.--FIGURE OF WORDS.CHAPTER VI. and room of audience. for night tapers crop their waxen thighs.'s Dict. spee-dy."--ID.. "At the rate of this thick-skulled blunderhead. Rough. "Pearl-ash requires much labour in its extraction from ashes. p. fros-ty. "Thy fall hath left a kind of blot to mark the fulfraught man. mil-ky. con-ver-sing. p. "His antichamber. w.. nee-dy. "The author of the following extract is speaking of the slave trade.. A writing desk. 75. 51. 49. pas-sing. "I was surprised by the return of my long lost brother. dres-ses."--Ib. "To preserve the unity of a sentence. p. A wind mill. 1836."--Ib. drea-ry."--ID. and boltsprit would I flame distinctly. A meeting house. 51. p. p. p. Glowworm. that were thrown up.: Joh."--Ib. 6.: Ib.'s Dict.: Joh."--Ib. p. 45. And for night tapers crop their waxen thighs. "Every metaphor should be founded on a resemblance which is clear and striking. or crump. "The honey bags steal from the humble-bees. glos-sy. qua-drant. "Club. mar-shy. "I perceive my whole system excited by the potent stimulus of sun-shine. trans-gres-sor.." --SHAK.. en-chan-ging. mois-ture.. trunch-eon.. Always to make Two Syllables are bound.

"One would not make a hotheaded crackbrained coxcomb forward for a scheme of moderation... p. because of the littleness of his eyes. 428.. "The editor of the two editions above mentioned was pleased to give this little manuel to the public. i. "Peel'd. "To retain the full apprehension of them undiminisht. "Lillied.. the Semi-Colon."--Anti-Slavery Mag. p. tyranise. "The terms of these emotions are by no means synonimous. p. 31 and 42. "Till blinded by some Jack o'Lanthorn sprite. and piebald. 6. Vol. "Peel'd. 1818.. "Pied." --ID. 17. i. Viscous.. w."--Webster's Dict. 143."--Ib. EXERCISE VI. p. 336. "The ayes and noes were taken in the House of Commons. 200. Glueyness. "An expence beyond what my circumstances admit. 62.] Viscous."--Ib. 270."--Phil. 182. 433. p. p. "Thus forced to kneel. p. n."--O."--Rush. p. "The first cry that rouses them from their torpour. "These Sentiments are not unusual even with the Philosopher now a days. "Now fair befal thee and thy noble house!"--SHAK. 4. on Infidelity. Piebald. 16."--Davenport's Gram. "It would be an amusing investigation to analyse their language." --POPE: Joh. i."--Ib. to undervalue Experiment. p. who have been at Latin-Schools for years. 83. 7."--Harris's Hermes.--MIXED ERRORS. a party-coloured bird."--Philological Museum. Actions co-alesce with their Agents. Y. "As for you."--Ib. p. p. p. "The minister never was thus harrassed himself. seeing a crow-scrat[129] . "It always has some respect to the power of the agent.. Vol. "They seize the compendious blessing without exertion and without reflexion. EXERCISE V.. Museum.--MIXED ERRORS.--Ib. and pyebald. adj. "They rail at me--I gaily laugh at them.. Peirce's Gram. adj."--DODDRIDGE: ib."--Ib.. 77. 5. "Gluy."--Ib. p.] Variegated. 29. the branches are diffused and crooked.. "Oh Hocus! where art thou? It used to go in another guess manner in thy time. "I would not be understood. the Comma. p. 7. w."--Josephus." &c. figures of rhetorick are edge tools."--Ib. "Gluey. "It is my father's will that I should take on me the hostess-ship of the day. p.."--Webster's Dict. "In like manner."--Ib.. 11.. 350. "A Note of Admiration denotes a modelation of the voice suited to the expression. [from glue.--Ash's Gram. "The quince tree is of a low stature. Gram. "Whereever if is to be used."--Ib."--ARBUTHNOT: ib.. p. "The beauties you would have me eulogise... Huff. and Passions with their Patients. Vol. 138. glutinous. v. in what I have said. "Gluttonise."--DRYDEN: ib. partycoloured. "How therefore is it that they approach nearly to Non-Entity's?"--Ib.CHAPTER VI. The scourge and ruin of my realm and race. and not the Chizzle the Marble. epitomise. 14.."--Ib. "Derivative words are formed by adding letters or syllables to primatives."--Ib. p. [from pie. n. "Mistress-ship. Female rule or dominion. p. we shall try before a civil magistrate who's the greatest plotter. "The greater slow worm. p.. 263. p. patch'd. at last.. "But. 353. glutinous.: ib. barbarise."--Ib.."--Ib. p. Lat. cannot write six sentences in English correctly.: ib. "Which the king and his sister had intrusted to him withall."--Cobbett's E. tenacious.. "The horse-chesnut grows into a goodly standard. a. "It meets the wants of elementary schools and deserves to be patronised.. p. or Period. 458. w. is commonly thought to be blind. The quality of being gluey. adj. the Colon. Fulfraught. p. "As if the Marble were to fashion the Chizzle.] A magpie. 105."--Ib. "Pie.. "Whose attempts were paralysed by the hallowed sound."--SHAK. p. 352."--MILLER: Johnson's Dict."--ID. Vol."--Snelling's Gift. "There are many men. p." &c. linsey-woolsey brothers. 241. p.: in Johnson's Dict. p. 13."--Music of Nature."--MORTIMER: Johnson's Dict."--Churchill's Gram.: ib. on the Voice. pp."--Johnson's Dict."--Ib."--Chalmers's Dict. Dict. N. "Old Euclio. called also the blindworm. p. "There are four of them: the Full-Point."--Nelson. p. and who. thus groveling to embrace. w.. 242 Ib. p." --POPE: Ash's Gram. modernise. colonel huff-cap. p.. 39.. B. "Both these are supposed to be synonomous expressions. and two edge tools too. p. "Nor do I think the error above-mentioned would have been so long indulged. patch'd. "The most vehement politician thinks himself unbiassed in his judgment."--GREW: ib. 175.... Embellished with lilies. [pica."--Kirkham's Gram... Mummer. and is therefore properly stiled the potential mode. linsey-woolsey brothers. is the cry that demands their blood. 431.

B. "An engine of sixty horse power.. 24. 243 upon the muck-hill."--Ib."--Locke."--Ib. has no Singular. p.. 329. "Falshood is folly. "Black berries and raspberries grow on briars."--Ib."--Ib."--Treasury of Knowledge. p. that it is a Part of Speech. a pedler. p. namely.. 62. Odys. 161. p.. 60."--Webster's Essays. Pref. p. "'Tis by this therefore that I Define the Verb. "Indicate it."--Ib. p. 74. "You can broil a beef steak over the coals of fire. is to discover errors. p.--MIXED ERRORS. "Boys like a warm fire in a wintry day.. p. p. 8vo. Cherrys. p. p. this was mine alone. 258. 38. "Huckster.. as. 168.. 23."--Ib. 68. p. p. p. 209. is deemed of equal force with a team of sixty horses. and other sorts of Plumbs."--Webster's Dict. p. vi."--Abbott's Teacher. "An anglicism is a peculiar mode of speech among the English. "Several authorities seem at leest to favor this opinion."--Kirkham's Elocution.. 60. p. 125."--Cardell's El."--Ib." --GAY: ib. "It [the Monastick Life] looks very like what we call Childrens-Play. "Judgeship and judgment.. are emphatick."--Red Book. p. 332. p. p." --Pope. "And first I Name Milton."--Priestley's Grammar. Mortgage. returned in all haste. EXERCISE VII. p. p. p. "To criticize. "Wars are begun by hairbrained[130] dissolute captains. one shining and four pence a year.. "Slyly hinting something to the disadvantage of great and honest men.. 21. "Beef'-steak."--ID."--Webster's Essays.CHAPTER VI."--Johnson's Gram. enlargement and acknowledgment. "The lords are peers of the relm. s. az I hav explained the tru primitiv meening of the word. Sheep Penns."--Johnson's Dict. and being Plurals. l. and Expence of Time."--[LESLIE'S] Right of Tythes. p. "Natural philosophy."--Red Book. A steak or slice of beef for broiling. lodgable and alledgeable. on Ed. "I think it every man's indispensible duty. he is entitled to the corresponding gain if merchandize rises. and 'tis just to own The fault committed. p. but the worldling for life. or in small quantities. to do all the service he can to his country. s. "It seems rather lik Playing of Booty. metaphysicks. he has came. lodgment and infringement. 4. or the like.. "He seeks bye-streets."--Ib. Spelling-Book. I know not what it is good for. is peculiarly aukward. only for his Name. "These busibodies are like to such as reade bookes with intent onely to spie out the faults thereof"--Perkins's Works. and politicks. 122. "The tru meening of parliament iz a meeting of barons or peers."--Ib. lest the Party should say. p. by some mark opposite [to] the word misspelt. "Caulce. "As he must suffer in case of the fall of merchandize. by which something is apply'd to another. "And nobody would have a child cramed at breakfast.. "It may sometimes throw a passing cloud over the bright hour of gaiety. "A carot is a well known garden root. "The affectation of using the preterite instead of the participle.. EXERCISE VIII--MIXED ERRORS."--Wayland's Moral Science. as to its Subject. w. 236. "This. p. "That iz."--Ib. 150. a slice of beef for broiling. history."--BURTON: Johnson's Dict."--Churchill's Gram. is two shillings and fourpence a week.. p. being sold by Weight. By-street. "A second verb so nearly synonimous with the first."--Webster's Dict. at fourpence per ounce. .. Com. xxii. theology. "They are moraly responsible for their individual conduct. "He is the worshipper of an hour. One who sells goods by retail. p.. to Please those Fools and Knaves. 277."--Ib. p. alledgement and abridgment.. 136. 135. 424. 23. 194. n. p. "Beef'steak. that iz.."--Ib.. is at best superfluous. "He seeks by-streets. 276. p. p. "If the End of Grammar be not to save that Trouble. and to crystalize implies to freeze or congele."--Ib. p.. "Either fretting it self into a troublesome Excess. according to Charisius. Candles."--Kirkham's Elocution... were familiar to him."--Webster's El. 276. "And succesfully controling the tendencies of mind. p."--Johnson's Gram. ethicks.: ib. 741. or six pounds. 274. "It is still more exceptionable."--Ib.. n. p. 178. or flaging into a downright want of Appetite."--Red Book. and saves th' expensive coach. and saves th' expensive coach. "The potatoe is a native plant of America. 113. "The words in Italicks and capitals. 255."--Ib. Figs."--Maturin's Sermons. Gram. the ancient prescriptiv judges or barons... w. "The lilly is a very pretty flower. 210. Com." --GAY: ib. 62. taking it for an ill sign."--Ib.

20. and so of all the rest. and call for one Simon. "WHEREEVER. 31. 17. p. Lang. it barely foretells. "The high fed astrology which it nurtured. intimates resolution and promising. 109. "And therefor I would rather see the cruelest usurper than the mildest despot. (7. "It is found tolerably easy to apply them. whichever. poss. p. Alger's. p. by practising a little guess work. 32. 41. "A word of three syllables is termed a trissyllable. p. 5."--Dr. See Littleton's Lat.. (5. "The wonderful activity of the rope dancer who stands on his head."--British Gram. "He has thrown away some of his Railery against Tythes.) "Will. (See Acts. 27.. 43. and Plur.. "The brilliancy which the sun displays on its own disk. i. p. Comly's. 88."--Ib. Maltby's.. 33. John's. "Religion is the most chearful thing in the world."--Maltby's Gram... 78."--Jaudon's Gram. expresses resolution and promising. 24. (2. p. e. Comprehensive Gram."--Comly's Gram. p."--Ib."--Buchanan's Gram. whose sirname is Peter. Bullions's.. is sun shine. "Epamanondas was far the most accomplished of the Thebans.) "Will. who refused to submit to the foreign yoke. Sing. Bolles's Spelling-Book. adv. 91. (8."--Ib. 477. as.. Picket's. 8. "A word of three syllables is termed a trisyllable. "They at length took possession of all the country south of the Welch mountains.. 23. 41. "Who had lived almost four-and-twenty years under so politick a king as his father. 41. "His Fancy was too Predominant for his Judgment. in the first person singular and plural.) "Will. 132. nom. See Johnson's Dict. x... 23.) "Will. "He himself. 103. "Sufficiently distinct to prevent our marveling. promises or threatens: But in the second and third Persons. In the second and third persons it only foretells. it simply foretels. 91. "Names of the letters: ai bee see dee ee ef jee aitch eye jay kay el em en o pee cue ar ess tee you voe double u eks wi zed. E. EXERCISE IX."--Cardell's Gram.. 222. p.. obj. a speech of uncertain or doubtful meaning. p. p. 22.. 42. In the second and third persons. Bradley's. Vol.) "Will. "Amphiology. only foretells.--MIXED ERRORS. and Plu. Cooper's Murray. but in the second and third Persons. or threatens."--Ib. Fisk's. p. whereas second means only the last of two. or whose ever it may be. p. Bolles's Spelling-Book."--Ib. 16. 96. p. 13. 6."--Ib. "Those Britains. Dict. 63. in the first person singular and plural. p."--Ib. 8. adding. of Europ.. 5. Davenport's. "Then. Kirkham's. (1. Lennie's."--Murray's Gram. p. p. Allen's. p. Vol. whoseever. are thus declined.."--Lowth's Gram."--Ib.... Lowness. 10. (4. whomever."--Ib. promises. p.."--Rev. Bucke's. is reduced to a skeleton on the leaf of an almanac. 222. "Being very lucky in a pair of long lanthorn-jaws.. "Whoever and Whichever. 2. nom."--Ib. obj. 12. p. p. 44. "The Hindus have changed ai into e. 3. as. whichever." (6.Philological Museum. enterprize. "And is written for eacend. 17.. in the first person. p. ii.CHAPTER VI. in the second and third persons. in the second and third person. "The children will answer. 220. p. iii. 32. Sing. or William's. "I. p. O."--Ib." --Brightland's Gram. whoseever. p."--Infant School Gram."-. whoever. Ingersoll's.. 8."--Ib. 50. p. 51. 15. only foretels.) "Will.. The silent (e). 56. p. Blair's."--Ib. it barely foretells. "Surprize. "Now send men to Joppa."--Ib. Gram. 7.. in comes the benign latitude of the doctrine of goodwill. poss."--BACON: ib.. Devis's. retired into Wales. 7. 121. In the second and third persons. in the first Persons. entertain."--Dobson's Comp. "Two means the number two compleatly. 7. i. 59. Cooper's. A. (3. hah! hey day! what! strange!"--Ib."--Smollett's England."--SOUTH: in Johnson's Dict. Vol. Flint's. [where and ever. Bicknell's. 161."--Murray's Gram. we use enter instead of inter. i. Vol."--Cardell's Gram. and U.. Jaudon's. engages. having communicated. 38.. promises. and the Church then underfoot.. W. Ingersoll's. v. iv. ekeing. Coar's. in the first person implies . Allen's Gram. 244 that I had not Cousider'd his Performance against Tythes. in the first person singular and plural. 149. His Talent lay so much in Satyr that he hated Reasoning."--Ib. 38. New Gr.) "Will. "Fulton was an eminent engineer: he invented steam boats.. Hamlin's. p. w.. sounded like e in where. p."--SPECTATOR: ib. he wrung his face into a hideous grimace.) "In French words. promises or threatens. "They Vey'd with one another in these things. 30."--Cooper's New Gram. Murray's Hist. at th' End of Words require. in the first person. 222.... p. 50. Guy's. p. administered the sacrament to some of the bye-standers. the same do's (va) desire. 430.. p. iv.) "Will."--Ib.. 101. p. 1."--Ib.. p. p.. p. John Peirce's."--Webster's Dict. "For between which two links could speech makers draw the division line?"--Ib. p. 6. it merely foretels. [Fist] Murray's Second Edition has it "foretells. "Possessed of this preheminence he disregarded the clamours of the people. i. Lennie's.] At whatever place. in the first Persons."--British Gram. promises or threatens. p. 66. enterlace.. 136.

398. 148. 374. Reader. "If Mævius scribble in Apollo's spight. 51. "From the difficulty of analysing the multiplied combinations of words. "What. p. a prosperous passage. 374."--Pope."--Kirkham's Elocution. after it has been neglected. The phrase signifies. and is equivalent to farewell. to Dict. 421.] were founded those romances of night-errantry."--Music of Nature."--Murray's E.."--Wilcox's Gram."--Barnard's Gram. in various degrees. promises or threatens. "Time as an abstract being is a non-entity. in the second and third persons. "All the barons were entitled to a seet in the national council. viii. in the second and third persons. 260. or to the meaning of terms. p. bye signifies passing. this slice to be sure outweighs the other."--Adam's Lat. 230. Head."--SPENSER: ib. 60."--Cooper's New Gram. 173. "I am liable to be charged that I latinize too much. p. "O! learn from him to station quick eyed Prudence at the helm. 5.. p."--Blair's Reader. in the first person singular and plural. adv. cotemporary.. they are both hard. "Until the Statesman and Divine shall unite their efforts in forming the human mind. p."--Webster's Dict. going. but in the second and third persons will foretels. the atchievements of Charlemagne and his Peers. p."--Ib. with the act. EXERCISE X. commands. "Vein healing verven. "Upon this. "He says he was glad that he had Baptized so few. to forgive. 31. "Good-nature and good-sense must ever join.) "Will. 83. p.."--Blair's Reader. foretel. 16. 26. "On the fourth day before the first second day in each month. 29. simply foretels.. in right of their baronys. Gram. "Where conviction could be followed only by a bigotted persistence in error. as. 19."--Right of Tythes.'"--Webster's Dict. and as wise as Zobeide. p. and Eng. "Much suff'ring heroes next their honours claim.--MIXED ERRORS."--POPE: Johnson's Dict. or. "We are not bound to adhere for ever to the terms.CHAPTER VI... p. 77. viii. p. divine. p.--a contraction of good be with you--a familiar way of bidding farewell.. aye. p. 29."--Ib. w.. "To mould him platonically to his own idea. "An. and will promises or threatens. then. or Paladins. 134. "Therefor he Charg'd the Clergy with the Name of Hirelings.. Gram. 33.. which were established by our ancestors. p. &c."--Ib. EXERCISE XI."--Frosts El. only foretels: shall. 65. p."--The Friend... 51... and head purging dill."--Murray's Gram. (9. p. "Wherever two gg's come together. promises. 19. "Shall. are emphatick.. 320. "Off he sprung. "That can be Guest at by us. rather than in loping its excressences. p. sawing. p. on Crit. at least... "Aye. "The words in italics are all in the imperative mood."--Ib.. only from the Consequences. 118. and shall promises or threatens."--Pope.--MIXED ERRORS. "The practices in the art of carpentry are called planeing."--Blair's Rhet.. "In several of the chorusses of Euripides and Sophocles. 65."--See Chalmers's Dict. p."--Ib. p. Were ye Baptised in the Name of Paul?"--Ib. Vol. 69."--Webster's Essays."--Blair's Gram."--Blair's Reader. w. 245 resolution and promising.. a good going. 78. scribing. 104. 140. "The man has been traveling for five years. "I will marry a wife.. p. p.) "In the first person shall foretels."--Ib. p. in the second and third."--DRYDEN: in Johnson's Dict. 10. "Some knowledge of arithmetic is necessary for every lady. "And the latter must evidently be so too.. p.. "I shall not take up time in combatting their scruples.."--Ib. it foretells. "It pourtrays the serene landscape of a retired village. p. [the system of chivalry. p. Much. or rather round a spole which goes on the spindle. as: handful.. p. is human. vii. And asks them. on the contrary."--Ib. in the first person. "With her left hand. in a circumlocutary manner."--Brightland's Gram. "Drop those letters that are superfluous. "Words Italicised. "I will marry a wife as beautiful as the houries. p. Ess."--Ib. simply foretells. p. p. "But these are rather silent (o)'s than obscure (u)'s. p. was the moral worth of these renouned . p. "By stating the fact. of Gram. "In the common phrase."--Maltby's Gram... (10. she guides the thread round the spindle. "It no longer recals the notion of the action."--Ib."--Cooper's Plain & Pract. in old English. beautiful as the Houries. p. p. p. good-bye. and did not so much as stop to say good bye to you."--WOTTON: ib. "The subject is. "Good-by. moulding. To err. 71."--Booth's Introd.. we have the same kind of lyric poetry as in Pindar."--Ib. mortising."--Buchanan's Gram. ix."--Blair's Rhet. p. in the first person. There are who judge still worse than he can write."--Ib. or threatens. signifies if. p. 'an it please your honor.

123.. viii. p. p. p. p. EXERCISE XII.. w. 91."--Campbell's Rhet. 196. "Pontius Pilate being Governour of Judea. "Fear God."--PEACHAM: ib. the line.CHAPTER VI."--Ib. On or in days. "His gallies attending him. ii. was the institutor and first grand master of the knights hospitalers: he died in 1120.."--Webster's Octavo Dict. And drive him from you with so stern an air."--Sanborn's Gram. 201. with the elbows projecting outward.."--Ib. 189."--Ib. s. 'I gallopped from Islington to Holloway. "Roger Bacon invented gun powder. p. thy-self. "The first of these lines is marvelously nonsensical. 160.. 195. 240. "I had a purpose now to lead our many to the holy land. Dict. hyenas. "Musselman. p.' it is transitive."--Ib..: in Johnson's Dict. p."--Kames. . as. is musselmans in the plural. Vol.. p. p. 9.. flourished the prophet Elisha. Tom.."--Webster's Essays. king of Israel.. "AUCTIONEER. p. their-own. The person that manages an auction. Vol."--The Friend. "If I say. "The earth put forth her primroses and days-eyes."--Perley's Gram. the person to whom a transfer is made.. and earls. "There are five compound personal pronouns."--Johnson's Quarto Dict. to behold him. "We have the nicely chiseled forms of an Apollo and a Venus. p. 75. its-own. "Reptiles."--Nixon's Parser."--Lennie's Gram. p. Dict. p. his-own. "The Hospitallers were an order of knights who built a hospital at Jerusalem for pilgrims. not being a compound of man. a."--Maunder's Gram.. 238. ii. "The reasonableness of setting a part one day in seven. p. p. your-own."--Adams's Rhetoric. "Thy man servant and thy maid servant may rest. but it is the same cold marble still. of Crit. i."--Nixon's Parser."--Ib."--Ib. p. 12mo. 48."--Ib. 25. now adays."--Churchill's Gram. 35. Vol. "How could you chide the young good natur'd prince. and Herod being Tetrarch of Galilee. faln. p. 411. Declensions. "This cannot fail to make us shyer of yielding our assent. to keep them asunder. "Those usurping hectors who pretend to honour without religion. p. 275. thy-own. our-own.: in Joh. "ADAYS. Dict. "On which ever word we lay the emphasis.."--Ib."--SHAK. think the charge of a lie a blot not to be washed out but by blood. 1280. "And then to end life.. w. or Tung. "Humility opens a high way to dignity. p. her-self."--HOWEL: ib.' the verb is intransitive: if. "Possessives. p."--Ib. "In reading. vii. TRANSFERREE. D. 246 leaders?"--M'Ilvaine's Lect. "Each of the leaders was apprized of the Roman invasion... 176. Honor the patriot."--Ib. "What is intricate must be unraveled. fellows! Is it not?"--SHAK. and lions--inhabit the holes. "Death waves his mighty wand and paralyses all. to deal subtilly with his servants. "We almost uniformly confine the inflexion to the last or the latter noun. El."--Ib. p."--Webster's Dict. "The preterite of read is pronounced red. 8vo."--Burgh's Dignity."--Bucke's Gram. 1. which are derived from the five simple personal pronouns by adding to some of their cases the syllable self. "Behold how every form of human misery is met by the self denying diligence of the benevolent. "In the days of Jorum. "The english physicians make use of troy-weight. Dict. the prophet flourished.."--Sanborn's Gram. faln."--Ib. "The absurdity of fatigueing them with a needless heap of grammar rules. "In Dryden's ode of Alexander's Feast. and caverns. See Luke."--Johnson's Dict. 460. 15. p. Marquis. marquisses. iii. n. 16.. he should give it such a definition as its connection with the sentence may require."--Ib." --ADDISON: ib. A. p. 117.. 220. p. 71.."--Johnson's Dict. iv. "This is all souls day. is to set the hands on the hips. 31. "Lodgable."--Christian Spect. king of Israel.. it-self. p. "There is a certain number of ranks allowed to dukes. "John was forced to sit with his arms a kimbo. 277."--SOUTH: Joh. "To set the arms a kimbo. and marshes of the desolate city. he pursues the unfortunate."--Claggett's Expositor.' represents a gradual sinking of the mind. as. him-self."--Biog. "REFEREE. her-own. Vol. 243. "How many right angles has an acute angled triangle?"--Ib. 216..."--Kirkham's Gram.. 133."--Ib. p."--Milnes's Greek Gram. as well as thou. bats. 2. p. p. 'I gallopped my horse from Islington to Holloway.. Respect virtue. p. 300. every appearance of sing-song should be avoided. i. in the phrase. Good. adv.. "Learn to distil from your lips all the honies of persuasion. one to whom a thing is referred. "The promoters of paper money making reprobated this act. 147. p.--"Win me into the easy hearted man. 'Faln.--MIXED ERRORS. "When he comes to the Italicised word. and doleful creatures--jackalls. 148. my-own.. 117."--Murray's Gram. my-self. faln. 53. Elisha. 25.. "He turned their heart to hate his people."--Psalms.. "GERARD. "In the days of Jorum. p. p. p."--Jamieson's Rhet.. "To instill ideas of disgust and abhorrence against the Americans. is the same as to dye. Capable of affording a temporary abode. "If you are thoroughly acquainted with the inflexions of the verb. 270. Vol."--ARBUTHNOT: Joh. p."--Webster's Dict. cv.

i. i.. "The oratorical partitions are a short elementary compendium. "With seed of woes my heart brimful is charged. or changes. or senses. under the parts of speech."--Ib. "Whose due it is to drink the brimfull cup of God's eternal vengeance. p. 358. that he was traveling out of the record. you have the outline of all that the whole course will comprize.. ii.. are the particular sorts into which the several kinds of words are subdivided.. 31. 308."--Law and Grace.CHAPTER VI. 289. "To tell them that which should befal them in the last days. of some kinds of words.."--SIDNEY: Joh."--Ib. "Our legions are brimful. i."--Ib. "In this lecture. from the dead. for one that can marshall them to the best advantage."--Ib. in the terminations. ETYMOLOGY treats of the different parts of speech.. centurions see him rise. forms. 130. ii. See.. i. or principal classes. The Parts of Speech are the several kinds. 120. our cause is ripe. 100."--Ib. . "You shall find hundreds of persons able to produce a crowd of good ideas upon any subject. "He would have been stopped by a hint from the bench."--Ib."--Ib. with their classes and modifications. "The uncontrolable propensity of his mind was undoubtedly to oratory. i. 36.. ETYMOLOGY. "The Brutus is a practical commentary upon the dialogues and the orator."--Ib. "Where all is present.. 169. PART II. Dict. into which words are divided by grammarians. "There. i."--Ib. but struck down with horrible surprize!"--Savage. there is nothing past to recal. Classes. i. 182. 247 "Where prejudice has not acquired an uncontroled ascendency. Modifications are inflections."--SHAKSPEARE: ib.

the stars. apple. THE PREPOSITION. 6. THE NOUN. A wise man. thou lovest. participating the properties of a verb. a ship. or ed. The air. The paper