Building Skills for the TOEFL iBT
Listening Section / Speaking Section / Writing Section
Note: Highlighting indicates a repeated listening sample.
01 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: I’m worried about my girlfriend. Why is that? She thinks she’s too fat. Is she? No, but she keeps skipping meals. Then, she only eats chips and drinks cola. I used to do that. It’s called binging. It was no fun! Why did you stop doing it? Well, my doctor told me to eat when I’m hungry. She said, “Eat till you’re full or you’ll eat too much later.” She said a lot of girls ruin their health this way. Did she say what to eat? She said, “Eat fruit, vegetables, meats, and grains. Have regular meals and snacks. Get exercise, too.”
W: Thanks! OK... it’s 9.1 centimeters tall and 5 centimeters wide. Just what I need!
W: Track and Field events happened long before they became a sport. The San people in Africa are one example. They still hold what’s called a “Persistence” hunt. The men find the tracks of an antelope herd. They find the antelope and follow them for several days and nights. During this time, they study the animals and choose one. Then, the hunt begins. Only the fastest runner will go after the chosen animal. He and the animal may run for as long as eight hours. If the hunter “persists,” the deer will finally get tired and fall. Then, he’ll slaughter it.
06 Business Writing
W: When you’re writing a business letter, it’s important to be specific. That is, tell the reader exactly what he or she needs to know. If something is wrong, list what the problem is and what should be done to fix it. If you need information, state clearly what you want to know. Next, um, be positive. Say “no” in a good way. M: How can we do that? W: Use polite language. For example, “we regret to inform you that...” or “we’re sorry, but...” Always keep in mind this golden rule: write the kind of business letter that YOU would like to receive.
02 Music History
M: We know that Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770 in Bonn, Germany, but we are uncertain of the month. Beethoven wrote hundreds of songs. One of his most famous is his Fifth Symphony. The first four notes go like this: dah dah dah da! Almost everyone recognizes them. He was the first to use trombones in a symphony. At age 28, he began to go deaf. Yet, he kept on writing and conducting. He never got married. But after he died, friends found some love letters. We don’t know who he wrote them to. Beethoven died in 1827.
07 Campus Life
M: Come on Holly, we’re going to be late. W: For what? M: Today’s the day of the parking-space lottery. I want to see if I get a parking space for next year. W: What?! You mean if they choose your number, you get a place to park your car? M: Yes. Parking is very limited. Only a few students can bring their cars. And freshmen are never allowed to park on campus. W: If your number is chosen, do you get to park for free? M: No. It costs $120 a year. W: So, you’re hoping to win the privilege of paying money? M: Yes. Now, come on!
W: OK...let’s talk about animals we don’t see in the winter. Many animals hibernate during the cold months of the year. Basically, they go to sleep. Some animals hibernate in holes in the ground. Others sleep in caves, under bushes, or at the base of trees. Bears hibernate. So do cold-blooded animals, like frogs and snakes. When animals are hibernating, it seems like they’re dead. They have slow heartbeats, and they almost stop breathing. They have stored extra energy and fat to keep them alive. By the end of winter, they are very weak. They must eat soon after waking up.
W: Professor Smith, I forget many English words. What’s a good technique to remember them? M: Try using index cards. Uh, small pieces of heavy paper. W: What do I do? M: On the front of the card, write the new word. On the back, write a definition of the word at the top...in English. W: In English? M: Yes. No native language! Then, divide the bottom part of the back into two halves. On the left, write a correct English sentence using the word. On the right, draw some kind of picture...anything that helps you remember the word. W: Then what? M: Review the cards every day.
04 Campus Life
M: Hey Julie, what’s up? W: Hi, Brian. Taking a break from studying. I’m surfing the Internet for an MP3 player. M: Do you like the iPod? W: Yes, but I need a really small one. M: Oh, it’s small! W: Really? Someone told me it holds 5,000 songs! M: It’s 3.6 inches tall and two inches wide. I have one. W: What’s that in centimeters? M: The math textbook says one inch is 2.54 centimeters. W: OK, so first I need to multiply 3.6 by 2.54. M: Here! Use my calculator.
W: Another name for the South Pole is Antarctica. This is a continent, but no people live there. There’s a good reason for this. It’s the coldest, windiest place on Earth. The lowest temperature ever measured was in Antarctica. Minus 88 degrees celsius! Ninety-eight percent of the ground is permanently frozen, and the continent contains 87 percent of the world’s ice. Antarctica’s only human occupants are scientists. They go there to learn how Antarctica used to be millions of years ago, when it was located at the equator. Antarctica used to be connected to Australia, before all the continents on the planet shifted.
M: There’s free Internet information --- The Hermit Crab Association. They help crabs in captivity. And we will take them back to a beach someday.
06 University 101
M: As we study in university, we find we have a lot of reading. It’s very productive to learn how to read faster. To do this, you need to know how fast you read now. I’ll show you a quick test to find out. But before I do, let me say this. In this test, it’s important to understand what you have read. Rushing to beat the clock is pointless. You won’t enjoy the reading or understand it well. You’ll also get a false measure of your reading speed. When you finish, you should try to see what you remember.
02 Campus Life
W: Hey Joe, where are you going? Are you on your way to class? M: No. I’m on my way to the recreation center to play basketball. Want to come? W: I can’t. I’m not a member. M: If you’re a full-time student, membership is included in your tuition. Do you have your student ID card? W: Yeah. Does that mean I can use any part of the rec center? M: Yes. You can use the swimming pool, the gym, the weight room...anything you want. All you need to do is show your ID card at the door. W: Hey, cool. I’ll come with you.
W: We all know that we can get Vitamin D from sunshine. Long winters make it hard to get enough. People who don’t get outside often don’t get enough either. Without Vitamin D, we may develop weak bones and teeth. We can get certain kinds of cancer more easily, too. Few foods other than fish naturally have much Vitamin D, so it’s important to get some sunshine every day. But be careful. Too much can cause skin cancer. Notice what most animals that live outside all the time do. They are most active during the hours before sunrise and after sunset.
08 Campus Life 03 Literature
M: If a play makes you laugh, it’s a comedy. Comedies have humorous characters and happy endings. A good example of a comedy is Shakespeare’s classic Much Ado About Nothing. Another popular style is called tragedy. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins his life, falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a “tragic flaw” in character. One example is the play Ghosts, by Henrik Ibsen. Um, modern years have produced a third style, called tragicomedy. In tragicomedies, the play seems as though it will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclear ending. An example is Saint Joan, by George Bernard Shaw. W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Ha ha! Hey Trevor, check this out! I’m trying to study here! Oh, sorry. But this is really funny. What is? This article about strange inventions. Like what? Well, one guy invented a ladder for spiders. It’s a rubber strip you can put on the side of your bathtub. Ha! Yeah? What else? A portable seat. You carry it around your waist like a big cushion. Ha! That’s really stupid. Here’s the best one: A car license plate that tells if the driver’s a man or a woman. I like that one. Then I could stay away from women drivers. Yeah... Hey!
W: It’s a beautiful blue sky today. Ever wonder why it’s blue? It’s because the sun’s rays scatter, or spread out, as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Blue rays are scattered most; they seem to be all over the sky. Yellow rays are scattered less. This is why the sun looks yellow most of the time. But, after sunrise and just before sunset, the sun looks red. Why? Because then the rays must travel a longer path into the atmosphere. More of the blue and yellow rays are scattered. The red rays are scattered the least. So, they come through in the largest numbers.
01 Campus Life
M: I’m interested in your course on Indian culture. Can you tell me about it, please? W: Certainly. The course is eight weeks long. There will be a mid-term examination, a final exam, and two essays. M: How do you determine the grades? W: The final will account for 30 percent of your mark. The mid-term is 15 percent, the first essay is 10 percent, and the second essay is 30 percent. M: Let’s see. 30, 15, 10, 30...that’s only 85 percent. W: The other 15 percent is based on your attendance and participation in the class. M: It sounds interesting. I think I’ll take it.
05 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: Hi, Ms. Jansen. Can we keep Romeo and Juliet in our dorm room? What on Earth...! They’re our pet hermit crabs! Oh, poor crabs! Don’t you think they’d be happier on the beach? Well, at the store they were squished into a little box. We thought they’d be happier with us. We let them out when we’re home. We give them baths too! W: I see. Do you know what to feed them?
W: One of the most effective ways to increase your vocabulary is through newspapers. They are cheap, and they have a wide variety of words. When you read an English newspaper, make a list of eight to ten words you don’t know. Look them up in a dictionary. Then add them to your vocabulary notebook. If you learn eight new words each day, you will be learning new words faster than the average American. M: Professor? W: Yes? M: How can we remember the words after we write them? W: Spend 15 minutes each day reviewing words from the previous day. You’ll be surprised how fast you learn.
M: Thank you! Let me tell you about my “white noise” machine. Does noise ever annoy you or keep you awake? Well, we can lessen noise by using “white noise.” Think of water. Think of sending one big wave toward another coming in. My machine does that with sound. It can tell how much noise is coming in, then send back “white noise.” You don’t hear it, but it shuts out the noise! I hope that my machine will help those who need quiet. Thank you!
M: Acupuncture is a way of treating sick people. The Chinese developed it over 2,500 years ago, and it is still used today. In acupuncture, small metal needles are inserted into spots on the human body. There are 787 of these spots. Each one is connected to a special body part or system. If, um, your ear hurts, for example, the doctor will put needles into all the spots connected with your ear. The needles don’t hurt because they don’t go in very far. Sometimes the doctor runs an electric current through the needles. We don’t understand exactly why this helps people.
03 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: I really like art! Especially paintings. Really? Do you have a favorite one? Yes, Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. What do you like about it? Her smile. If you look closely, it seems she’s not smiling at all. Look again, she’s smiling! So many artists try to copy that smile. It must be hard to paint something so beautiful. Did you ever notice that she doesn’t have any eyebrows? Really? No! I never noticed. I wonder why? Girls in that time shaved their eyebrows. I just read it in our art history textbook. Hey! That’s cool. Nowadays, she’d have an eyebrow ring!
W: Geometry is the study of points. Now, a point is a small dot, like a period at the end of a sentence. If we have two points, we know that there can be other points between them. There can also be a line. The line is continuous. It has no space between each point. Part of a line, with points at each end, is called a line segment. Two line segments can be the same length. We call these line segments congruent. That just means the line segments are equal in length.
M: In North America, the best weavers are a group of people called the Pueblo --- that’s P-U-E-B-L-O. The Pueblo have been weaving clothes, baskets, and blankets since at least 1000 BC. At first, they used their fingers to weave together vegetable fibers and animal hair. In the first century AD, they began growing cotton. About this time, they also started using a loom --- a kind of, um, machine that helped them weave the cotton into cloth more quickly and easily. By the year 1600, the Pueblos had sheep, so they began weaving wool, using the same methods they had used for weaving cotton.
01 Campus Life
W: What should I do to prepare for my exams? I have some old exams from last year. Do you think it’s a good way to study? M: Yes, it can help. Being familiar with the way the test is made up is beneficial. You may be less anxious at exam time. First, quickly look over all the material you’ve studied. Then decide which things you need the most work on. Then use questions from the exams to practice. W: Great! I should just memorize all the answers! M: No, I don’t think that’s a good idea. Questions on the new exam will probably be different. You need a strong understanding of the material. Memorizing won’t replace a thorough knowledge of the subject. W: I guess that’s probably true. So, what else can I do? M: Make sure you go to all the review sessions. Go to your professor’s office hours too. W: I always do that. I really like my professor. M: Good! In the exam, be sure to read the directions carefully. They may be different from the practice exams. Also, make sure you get to the exam in plenty of time. Get comfortable before it begins. W: OK! Thanks for your help.
05 Campus Life
M: Have you heard about Mexican turtles disappearing? W1: Yes. It’s because they lay their eggs on the beach, right? M: Yeah, and people eat the eggs. But my professor said there’s a plan to save them. W1: What is it? M: I don’t know, but he gave us a phone number. W1: Let’s call! M: OK, here goes... W2: Hello, Environmental Protection Hotline. How may I help you? M: I’d like to find out about the program to save Mexican turtles. W2: Yes, of course. I can send you something to read or you can look at our website, www.enviro.com. M: Thanks! I’ll look at the website. W2: Thanks for calling!
W: And now, the winner of this year’s science fair, Choi Min-Soo! Min-Soo, tell everyone about your work.
You’re probably not breathing as deeply as you should. In 1921.can give them lots of attention.mom or dad --. white powder left after a fire. When Hitler came to power in Germany. Matches. This is only about 300 kilometers north of Antarctica. Then. I need to get three or four good shots of nature on campus. Chad. Of course. We call this fuel. and buildings.. go outside and try doing something interesting. The largest country in South America is Brazil. but it has only 12 countries. If you’re bored. It’s an activity. Sorry. water. But if we’re not careful. homeschoolers might get lonely. what are you looking at? W: I’m looking at a Nova Scotia College of Art catalog. At home. professors. and smell it. This is the soft. I really want to learn to do lithos!
M: W: M: W: M:
M: South America is a large continent.
two students. Yeah. “We’ve reached a consensus of opinion. children can help choose which subjects to study. we need a spark or heat source to start it. It takes the secretary three or four days to do it for you. even magnifying glasses can be used. water.
05 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: W: Yaaaahh Quit yawning! I’m trying to read. I think I’ll go for a bike ride.my blood must be filthy. W: Great! I can do this soon. And parents are sometimes not the best teachers. Earth. we learn other people’s mistakes. In fact. W: I guess so. For example.500 kilometers wide. A saying that’s used too often is called a cliche .” already means that all of the people have the same idea. when we build a fire. There are three other categories: students. M: Oh. and was interested in science from an early age. Then. Good idea. something in the wood changes.. “I like it a lot.”
07 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Hello. I need a break from this boring textbook.” “Consensus. Hmm. we carefully place pieces of wood over it. Wow. enlarge them. I’m going to transfer there. They do this for several reasons. he failed on his first try to enter university. Usually. Where’s that going to be? In the student center. We can make sun shine through it to form a very hot spot of light.” What we really mean is. then. South America lies between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. leaving room for air. Some think public schools are too dangerous. the teacher --. A third part of the wood becomes carbon. we first put down easily flammable material like newspaper or dry leaves. Here’s an example. 641
M: More and more US parents are choosing to homeschool their children. too. Fire also has to have air so that it can burn. This is not allowed in public schools. It may seem the same in that you can see it. Some think the education level is too low. And since there are only one or
. and frame them. The parts of the wood that don’t burn change to ash. “I love chocolate. develop them. And students are taking all the pictures? Yes. I’m just tired today. Why don’t you go outside and take a few deep breaths? That’ll give you lots of oxygen. The smallest country is Surinam.
W: Albert Einstein is considered the greatest scientist of the twentieth century. They have a great lithography program. He told the US president that Hitler was making an atomic bomb. You’re going to be busy. Well. Einstein moved to the United States. yeah? So you’ll have to send them your transcript. it’s easy to say something ’ like. Our biology professor said when you yawn. This new bomb helped end World War II. Rita. lighters. and air are all forms of matter. W: How do I get it? M: At the transcript office. and fire. He was born in Germany in 1879.02 Physical Science
W: Some people once thought that only four things made up the Earth: earth. Maybe a break and some fresh air will give you some energy. What’s happening? Not much. What exactly is on my transcript? M: Well. burns slowly and hotly without smoke. it’s because your lungs need more oxygen. It’s a good way to learn. He had trouble in school.
01 Campus Life
M: Hey. This gives us enough time to cook food. but fire is really different. Will all the photos be of nature? No. Since fire doesn’t start by itself. The US made one first. At this point. And some want to teach their children about their religion. basically all your courses and grades. or charcoal. This is smaller than many US states. Of course. feel it. South America is about 1. It is matter changing form. he did enter a university in Switzerland. You can even move it from place to place. We have to be ’ careful in using cliche s. The southern-most point in South America is a narrow tip called Tierra del Fuego. Yep. I’m gonna go photograph the cherry tree blossoms. fire has to have something to burn. We have to take them.
W: Do you say what you really mean? We learn from listening to others. Wood has to reach about 150 degrees Celsius. air. We see this gas as smoke. but I’ll still be tired. You often hear. he won the Nobel Prize for physics. Part of the wood turns into gas. In 1896. What are you doing with that camera? I’m taking pictures for our class photo exhibit next week. The equator crosses the northern part of the continent. Adding “of opinion” is not needed. or char. but it really isn’t matter at all. It’s $8. however. It is almost as big as the United States! A lot of people don’t realize that from just looking at a map. See ya. Brazil takes up almost half the land in South America. That’s a glass piece. This char. This means the parents teach them at home. specially made for seeing small things. It cleans your blood.
and movement. you’re not likely to forget it again. mmm. or football. It turns completely around once each day. Just type the words you’re looking for and then click the “search” button. whatever you decide. So is social status. “I’m so proud to have you on this train. Now. Make the key special in your mind. the sun shines on the front side. He or she will not be allowed to play anymore. It’s the next closest. This is similar to the situation on the moon. Imagine it is alive. give it color. Did you know it has two moons? No! Amazing! How many moons does Venus have? None! Do you think people will ever visit Mars? Maybe someday. Thanks. at least we can see them with your new telescope!
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M: Soccer. Finally. it shines on the back side.
07 Campus Life
W: I finished writing my paper on the American Revolution. color. Imagine it has very sharp teeth. I could do that.we all know that the Earth spins as it rotates around the sun. If you’re quiet and thoughtful. But on the train. W: You can still find information on the Internet. take a rest every hour and go for a short walk. every place on the planet would have either daylight or darkness all year long. Each player must follow the rules carefully. You know. Want to go play basketball? I can’t. it could jump up and lock you out.
W: There’s a famous story about Mark Twain. The two oldest known censuses were taken in China. Is it true that Mars once had rivers and oceans? A lot of scientists think so.”
be an accountant or scientist. is one of the best liked sports around the world. Now. give it movement. too. And when you’re studying.and Venus. we can look at the moon! Can we see any planets with this telescope? Yes. Like.. But it gave me so many websites! W: Maybe you can ask Professor Cohen if there’s a good video you could watch. for two weeks. run well. Does anyone know how fast it spins? M: Two thousand kilometers an hour? W: Close. Taking a census means getting information about every member of a population. He made especially sure that Twain was comfortable. especially democracies. Then he said. A player who gets a red card is forced out of the game.
M: It’s important to choose a job that’s right for your personality. Choose carefully!
05 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: Hey. sir!” Mark Twain asked.it’s closest to Earth --. Then. walk up the stairs.. but it has many rules. How do you think a slower rotation would affect your lives?
02 Phys. Censuses were taken by the Roman Empire. It’s too hot. Walk backwards sometimes. We can most easily see Mars --. or image. Hmm. A player cannot do anything that could hurt another player.. Think about what your job requires. “General McClellan. Are you a friendly person who enjoys meeting people and talking with them? Perhaps you should become a salesperson or a teacher.08 Social Studies
M: A population is all the people. Give it detail.” You can imagine his surprise. M: I tried. just squeezing a tennis ball makes your hands stronger and helps you relax. You’ve gotta exercise! How? I don’t have the time! You can do simple things. One was taken in 2 AD and the other in 140 AD. instead of taking the elevator to class. Anything else? Yeah. you have to do that job every day.
01 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: Hey. It is one that everyone knows. but the train was full. In a democratic government. Money is certainly one of them.200 kilometers an hour. A ticket-office worker said there was no room on the sleeping coach. A player who breaks the rules many times may get a red card. You can remember a common object by giving it three qualities: detail. A player who doesn’t can be given a yellow card.
M: It’s easier to remember something if we make a picture. animals. maybe you should
. The Bible also tells of three different censuses. Once he got on a train in New York. for instance. M: I wish I’d seen that show. This is a warning. Tony. For two weeks. Will you be interacting with others or spending most of your time alone? There are many factors to consider in choosing a career. About 2. Make it shiny gold. Census information helps governments. The person counting Romans and getting the taxes was called the “Censor. you can’t study all the time. Democracies need to know everyone who is old enough to vote. neat! You got a telescope for your birthday! Yes. Take something you often lose.yeah. If you don’t watch it. the conductor saw him and came right over.. If you think of it this way. It’s an easy game to understand. or plants living somewhere. It strengthens the back of your lower legs. what would happen if the Earth stopped spinning so fast? If it slowed down to one rotation every 365 days. He showed him to a sleeping coach in first class. I saw a TV show about it last week. “Oh! Who am I?” and heard. I wrote down all the important people and then looked them up on the Internet. I’ve got to study for my mid-term exams. Then. That’s easy. of it in our minds. Man. Ed. but not Venus. people vote for the leader. Well. like a key. But remember. M: Wow! I’m still looking for information on George Washington. Have fun at basketball. That would help you know what to look for.. I don’t know where he was going. W: Well. There is one very basic soccer rule.
Batman and Robin were joined by their butler. evaporation. He kept detailed notebooks of observations about the natural world. begin counting seconds. It established colonies in other parts of the world. we can judge the distance of a storm. Here. its power began to decline. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Here you go. Thanks.weren’t built until after he died. There’s another way to know how close a storm is. Joe. the oil forms long. In one cave.Uh-oh. Shin. it cools the air.
M: Batman has changed several times since he first appeared in a comic book in May 1939. In April 1940. Barb! How was your vacation? Great! We went to New Mexico. the “new look” Batman appeared. Sandra. What are those? Caves --. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. Ooh! That doesn’t sound very good! You’d better take your temperature. In May 1964. But I did discover that I love teaching. Robin first appeared as Batman’s partner.” So when I entered university. The license plates there say USA. When you hear the thunder. called windrows. let me read the thermometer for you.
. Knowing this. the waves mix water into the oil. That cooler air may flow about 3 miles ahead of the storm. He was famous for using his mind.” The wind pushes the oil into long rows across the water. the lighter parts of the oil disappear. W: Well. NEW Mexico. That’s pretty fast! Sound travels much more slowly at 1 kilometer per 3 seconds. Batman teamed with Superman for the first time. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci. At an early age. and I ache all over. But his two most famous inventions --. in Arizona. Alfred. These are malaria symptoms. The air becoming suddenly cooler tells you about how close it is. W: Could you please tell our campus radio listeners what made you want to become an educator? M: I guess it was my mother. They brought back lots of gold and silver. How many seconds have passed? The lightning is one kilometer away for every 3 of those seconds. I think I’ll skip class today. You went to Mexico? No. Thank you for being on the show today. I started to study writing. it was the most powerful nation in the world. In 1952. Then we visited Carlsbad Caverns. Do you have a thermometer? Yes. I just came back from a trip to Africa with my parents. What did you do there? Well. When you see a lightning flash. The first Batman is now called the “Golden Age” Batman. I actually never wrote any books.. In spreading. His costume had a black bat in a yellow oval. Spain sent many people there. After America was discovered in 1492. Sometimes it leaks naturally. your temperature is really high! You’d better go see the school nurse! You know.sixty miles of them. Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the SpanishAmerican War. Only the heavier parts remain. The first Batman did not have the oval. You can remember this word as “wind” plus “rows. He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous just a few years later. narrow strips. I wasn’t very good about taking my medicine. E-M-U-L-S-I-F-I-C-A-T-I-O-N. Finally.
05 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: M: W: M: W: I don’t feel well. we had to wear hats with lights so we could see in the dark. we’re certainly glad you became one. such as Cuba and the Philippines.
W: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. to catch criminals. The oil also mixes with other things floating in the water. stop counting. Shin. Dr. It’s a state in the southwestern US. But in 1588. After that. This forms a heavy and sticky substance. Spain lost a famous war against England. It was awesome! Then. In 1898. What’s wrong? I feel hot then cold. In emulsification. she taught me that “the pen is mightier than the sword.
W: The kind of oil that usually spills into the sea is called crude oil.
07 Campus Life
M: W: M: W: M: W: Hi. In evaporation. I could have malaria. So I’ve been a writing teacher ever since.
02 Campus Life
W: Dr. on our way there we stopped at the Grand Canyon.. When oil spills. She was a writer. so people don’t get confused.Skill F
W: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe. W: And you became a writer like your mother? M: No. As rain falls. south of France and west of Italy. which is sometimes called chocolate mousse. I really enjoyed your class. three things happen: spreading. In the 16th Century. That’s funny. humans accidentally spill it when digging for oil or carrying it on boats.
M: Light travels at 297. we went to Albuquerque --the biggest city in New Mexico. not his strength. I do. Trade with the new American colonies made Spain rich. He was the only one who knew Batman and Robin’s real names. Personally. how long have you been a university professor? M: Eighteen years. He was also a scientist and inventor. In April 1943. Other times.600 kilometers per second. and emulsification. Italy. And he cut open dead people to learn how the human body works.the parachute and the war tank --. he was an inventor.
W: Some people can remember things in a way that seems almost impossible. It’s as if their minds just take photos. They might be able to repeat a lecture word for word. They can even accomplish this feat many years later. Some very good chess players can play with their eyes covered. This is called “Blindfold Chess.” They can play against several other players at once --- and win! Someone tells them the other players’ moves. They can easily remember where the pieces are on all the boards. Scientists call this “eidetic memory,” though many people call it photographic memory. However, this may be misleading. Scientists believe the memories are not stored photographically, but in another way. A scientist named Dr. DeGroot did a test to show this. A chessboard was set up a certain way, and some chess players were given fifteen seconds to look at it. Then, they were asked to set the pieces up again in the same way. The more seasoned chess players easily set up the pieces again. The beginners had a more difficult time doing it. In the next test, Dr. DeGroot began in the same way. However, this time he set them up in a way that would never happen in a real game. Now, the really good players had difficulty remembering, too, remembering only as well as the beginning players. It seemed they needed to apply their knowledge of what was really possible in a game. That is, they needed to apply what they knew about chess to remember well.
4. Try reading the ending first, so you know where the passage is going. 5. The next day, look over the passage again. Only read what you’ve underlined. Do it again a week later. Now, each night for several nights before a test, look at your list. Take an hour or two. You’ll remember some things from class. When you find something you can’t remember, look it up. You’ll learn what you don’t remember this way. You’ll have no problem getting a high score on the exam. Learning this does take time, though. So don’t get discouraged. Keep practicing. You’ll get it.
M: Let’s talk about sneezing. When someone sneezes --- Ah choo! --- the customary response is, “Bless you” or “God bless you.” Why do we say this? There are several theories. Some of these are superstitions --that is, things that many people believe but that aren’t really true. One superstition is that saying “bless you” keeps the devil from flying down your throat. Another is that “bless you” keeps your soul from flying out of your body. Actually, there is a historical reason for this custom. There was a pope in Rome named Gregory the Great. When he was elected pope, the great plague was beginning all over Europe. Thousands of people were dying. In fact, the pope before Gregory had died of the plague. To get rid of the plague, Pope Gregory ordered people to march through the streets, asking for God’s help. If someone sneezed, others would immediately say “God bless you!” They hoped this would keep the person who sneezed from getting the plague. Today, of course, we know that when you sneeze, the devil isn’t trying to rush down your throat. Your soul won’t leave your body. And saying “bless you” to sneezers in the street is not going to cure disease. We do know, though, that each sneeze forces thousands of germs into the air. People keep germs out of public places by covering their mouths when they sneeze. And hearing an old-fashioned “bless you” from a stranger can make us feel better when the sneezes begin.
02 General Studies
M: Some people really go overboard using their yellow markers to underline everything. I’m going to suggest that this isn’t the best strategy for studying. The first time you read a passage, don’t highlight. You can end up with an all-yellow text. Just read the passage first. Then ponder it for a while. Then read it again, this time looking for the most important ideas. In the next reading, you can start highlighting. Only underline one or two key words or phrases per page. Even better --- compile a list of the words and phrases. Write the page number beside each one so you can look them up again. Now, when you review, you won’t have pages and pages to read. This makes it much easier to review for an exam. W: Excuse me, Professor Hill. M: Yes, Jacqueline? W: Can you give us some suggestions on how to choose the words and phrases? M: Yes, of course! Here are some steps to help you decide what to choose: 1. Look for the main idea. Follow the way it’s being told through the passage. 2. Look at the beginning and ending paragraphs. They often give the information in a simple form. 3. Pick out transitional words that give you important information. i.e., “the point is,” “in sum,” “most importantly,” and so on.
02 Campus Life
W: M: W: M: W: M: W: Hey Alex. How’s it going? OK. I just finished math class. Man, I hate math! Why? It’s easy! Yeah, right. I’ve got a secret that helps me in math class. Wanna know what it is? OK. But it probably won’t help me. Listen and try it. Math is too abstract, right? Well, try to make it real for yourself. My secret is I think about numbers in math as if they were money. Huh? Yeah. I have a hard time picturing numbers. But if I see the numbers as dollars and cents, then I can see them clearly in my head.
M: Really?! W: Yeah. For example, if the teacher says, “What is 853 minus 727,” I think of eight dollars and fifty-three cents minus seven dollars and twenty-seven cents. The answer is one dollar and 26 cents---one twenty-six. It’s easy! M: Hey, that’s awesome! I’ll try it tomorrow. Thanks. W: No problem. See you at the basketball game tonight. M: See you.
03 Computer Science
W: More people are buying home computers and using them for home networks. They need faster ways to get information over the Internet. Right now, there are mainly two avenues for information to be sent. These are cable modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines or ADSL. These faster ways of sending information are called broadband connections. Cable modems and ADSL are both types of broadband connections. They are much faster than a 56K modem. There is another new kind of DSL connection. It is known as very high bit rate DSL or VDSL. Some companies already have this for certain places. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet, but it may be very soon. Many people like it and are beginning to use it. VDSL accommodates a very, very large amount of bandwidth. It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. In other words, it provides 52Mbps. In comparison, ADSL or cable modems can only give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. It’s easy to see that VDSL is a lot faster. VDSL will soon be more common, making home networks cost much less. In the United States, a telephone line has two copper wires. These wires have a very broad bandwidth. A telephone call only uses a very small part of the bandwidth. The telephone wires can carry much more information than telephone calls. DSL can use this extra bandwidth at the same time a call is being made. It can do this without changing the sound of the telephone call.
the surroundings in which they live, which makes them hard to see. Deer and other forest animals, for example, have light brown colors that help them blend in with the brown trees and dirt on the forest ground. Many fish have a gray-blue color. This helps them blend in with the soft light under water. Other animals use color patterns to help them blend in. A tiger’s pattern of black stripes and orange fur blends into the long grass where it hunts. This makes the tiger difficult for its victims to spot---until it’s too late! Another form of camouflage is called copying. For instance, a king snake is red, yellow, and black. It copies the colors of the coral snake. The coral snake is very dangerous; its bite can kill you. The king snake is not dangerous, but other animals are afraid to attack the king snake because it looks like a coral snake. A third form of camouflage is disguise: D-I-S-G-U-I-S-E. This means that an animal looks like something else. For instance, a crocodile in the water can look just like a floating log. This disguise helps it catch deer when they come near the water to drink.
W: Do you ever wonder why we dream? Many people do. For centuries, in fact, people have been trying to understand what our dreams mean...or if they mean anything at all. In ancient Egypt, about 2000 BC, people thought dreams were very important. They believed that dreams foretold what would happen in the future. The Egyptians wrote books that listed what dreams meant. If a man saw himself looking out a window in his dream, it was considered a good omen. It meant that his cry would be heard by a god. If a man saw himself in his dream looking at people who were far away, it was considered a bad sign. It meant that he was soon going to die. In modern times, Sigmund Freud is famous for his research on dreams. Freud believed that dreams represent our suppressed desires --- things we want to do, but can’t. Dreams allow our minds to act out desires that we can’t express in our everyday lives. Usually, these suppressed desires involve sex. For example: A train going into a tunnel represents a man and woman having sex. According to Freud, this dream would mean you want to have sex, but for some reason you can’t. Another famous dream researcher was Carl Jung --- um, J-U-N-G. Jung believed dreams allow us to think more about ourselves than when we are awake and to solve problems that we have during the day. In 1973, researchers named Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley said dreams don’t mean anything. Dreams are just the result of natural activity in our brains.
04 Campus Life
M: Hey Lucy, are you going to watch any of the movies at the film festival? W: No, I wasn’t thinking of it. I have too much homework to do. M: Aw, that’s no fun! Can’t you even take one night off? Your dormitory is so close to the Annenberg Center! It’ll take you five minutes to get there. W: Well, maybe I will go to one. M: How about tomorrow night? I can go then. W: What movie is playing? M: School of Rock. Have you seen it? W: No. What’s it about? M: Well, it’s a comedy and it’s really funny. It’s about this guy who’s really trying to make it as a rock star. He gets kicked out of his band and he really needs money. So he acts like he’s somebody else to get a teaching job. Then, he tries to turn his class into a rock band. W: Sounds pretty crazy! OK, I’ll come see it.
W: I’m still confused about the lecture today on blood types. M: OK. What questions do you have? W: Well, first, the way we classify blood types. We use the letters A, B, and O, right? M: That’s right. There are four different types of blood: A, B, AB, and O. Each person on Earth has one of these types. W: And...where do we get our blood types? M: They come from both our father and mother. Your blood type could be the same as one of your parents, or completely
W: Most animals in the world have some kind of way to hide themselves so that they can hunt for food and protect themselves from other animals. This method of hiding is called camouflage: C-A-M-O-U-F-L-A-G-E. The simplest form of camouflage is for animals to “blend in” with their surroundings. Their colors match
different. W: But everyone’s blood is red! M: Yes, it all looks the same, but it’s dangerous to mix two different blood types together. If you get hurt and need blood, you have to make sure the new blood is the same type as yours. If it’s not, you might die. W: But didn’t the professor say there was one type that could mix with any of them? M: Yes. That’s type O.
W: Folktales are stories that grow out of the lives or imaginations of people, or folk. Folktales began as an attempt to explain and understand the world around us. Many folktales all over the world are nearly the same. Travelers passed them on from one country to another. Each person telling the folktale changes it slightly. The stories that traveled mostly over land changed a great deal. The ones that traveled by water changed less. There are many different kinds of folktales. Some have simple plots with lots of repeated phrases and words. These are called cumulative folktales. One example is called “There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly.” This sentence is repeated on almost every page of the story. In some stories, animals talk just like humans. These are talking beast folktales. A famous example is “The Three Little Pigs.” Humorous tales are meant for fun and nonsense. They are usually about someone who makes unbelievably funny mistakes, such as the Norwegian husband who has to take care of his house and nearly destroys it. Romances are stories in which lovers seem hopelessly separated until magic brings them back together. A good example is “Beauty and the Beast.” Tales of magic are types of stories we commonly call fairy tales. These include things like talking mirrors, enchanted forests, and magic kisses. “Snow White” is a popular example.
Spiders use silk in many different ways. They often use it the same way a mountain climber uses rope. They’ll drop down on a silk strand. If they get into trouble, they can quickly run back up again. Another way they use silk is to make homes for their babies. Most kinds of spiders spin a thick silk covering around their eggs. Some spin it around the new little spiders. Spiders can make different kinds of silk strands. One way is to coat a silk strand with different materials. They might make it sticky to catch a fly. I think we’ve all seen a fly getting stuck on a spider’s web. You sometimes notice because the fly buzzes loudly. Or a spider might water-proof the silk with something. Then, they can stay dry in a rainstorm. A trapdoor spider’s home is a good example. The door over the trapdoor spider’s hole is a water-proof roof made of spider silk.
M: A good way to understand why balloons float in the air is to understand why things float in water. Let’s say that you have a plastic one-liter bottle of Coca-Cola. If you pour out the Coke and put the cap back on, you have a one-liter bottle full of air. Now, tie a string around it and take it to the bottom of a swimming pool. What will happen when you let go of the bottle? W: It will rise to the top? M: Yes. If you sit on the bottom of the pool holding the string, the bottle will act just like a balloon does in the air. Does anyone know why the bottle rises? W: Uh, because the air is, um, lighter than the water? M: Exactly! The bottle and the air inside it weigh just a few grams, But a liter of water weighs about 1,000 grams. The air is lighter than the water the air displaces, so the bottle floats. We call this the law of buoyancy. Balloons work by the same law of buoyancy --- except balloons are filled with helium, not air. Helium is a gas that is much lighter than air. You can think of the helium balloon you are holding as floating in a huge “pool” of air. The helium balloon displaces an amount of air, just like the empty bottle displaces an amount of water. As long as the helium and the balloon are lighter than the air they displace, the balloon will float in the air.
03 Campus Life
W: Hello, Lance! What can I help you with today? M: I heard there’s a tutoring center for each department. Can you tell me where it is for the English Department? W: Yes! Ours is just next door. M: Can I go there right now? W: You can, but they might still be at lunch. You know, you’ll have to sign up for an interview first, anyway. You can do that over the Internet, too. M: OK. Can you give me the address? W: Go to www.pentutoring.info. They’ll get in touch with you within three working days. M: What will they send me? W: They’ll send you the tutor’s name, phone number, email address... Oh, yes, and how much you have to pay per hour. M: Uh-oh! I don’t have any money. W: That’s OK. You can get free tutoring. You’ll just need to agree to do a three-week feedback survey. M: That’s all? W: That’s all! M: Great! Thanks! W: No problem!
W: Mmm. I love coffee. It wakes me up! You know why? Because it has caffeine. Caffeine is a kind of drug. Ah! Caffeine is found naturally in many plants, such as coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa nuts. It’s also added artificially to many other kinds of food and drinks. So, it’s safe to say that the typical American gets plenty of caffeine. As a matter of fact, most of us get too much. More than half of all adults in the United States consume more than 300 milligrams of caffeine each day. Including me! Seriously, though...too much caffeine is not good for your body. Caffeine interferes with a chemical in your brain called adenosine. That’s A-D-E-N-O-S-I-N-E. Now normally, adenosine helps prepare your body for rest. This chemical slows down nerve cells, which causes you to become sleepy. To the nerve cells in your brain, caffeine looks just like adenosine, but caffeine acts differently. Instead of slowing down your nerve cells, caffeine speeds them up. As a result, your heart starts to beat faster. Your breathing tubes open wider. Your blood pressure rises. Blood vessels tighten near the surface of your skin. The
M: Spiders can spin silk better than any other insect. Only a few others, like silkworms, can make silk.
blood flowing into your stomach slows down. Your muscles tighten up, ready for action. This is why, after consuming a big cup of coffee, you feel excited. You can feel your heartbeat increasing. You’re ready to do something, go somewhere, run, play, fight, conquer the world....or else start STUDYING to get ready for the next test!
W: We use microscopes to help us study cells. Because cells are so small, we can’t see them without magnification --- um, the ability to make them look bigger. The first microscopes were called light microscopes. They were pretty simple devices. They were also simple to use. Scientists first cut the cells, or specimens, into thin sections. Then they stained the specimens with different colored materials, called dyes. The dyes helped them see the specimens more clearly. Unfortunately, dyes often killed the cells, too. That limited what scientists could find out about the specimen. In recent years, we have developed more powerful microscopes. These help us view living specimens. One of these new microscopes is called the phase-contrast microscope. It’s made in such a way that part of the light passing through it moves more slowly than the rest of the light. We say this part of the light is “out of phase” with the rest of the light. This enables scientists to see differences in living specimens as light and shade. Another type of new microscope is the electron microscope. This uses electrons to form images, instead of light. Electrons travel in waves, similar to light, but their wavelengths are over 100,000 times shorter than those of light. Therefore, they can give much clearer magnification. Electron microscopes even allow scientists to take pictures of the cells they are studying!
The worst battle of the American Civil War was fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Northern Army fought back the Southern Army. The battle lasted three days. Afterward, the field was left covered with bodies of dead soldiers. In November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln came to Gettysburg. He was to speak at the opening of the cemetery there. Music played and soldiers saluted. Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, talked first for almost two hours. Then Lincoln stood up. He looked out over the valley. Then, he began to speak. He said they couldn’t do anything to make this place special. He said that the soldiers who had fought so hard had already done that. He said that everyone would soon forget what was spoken that day, but he said that what the soldiers did would never be forgotten. He said everyone should keep doing what these soldiers began. They should keep fighting for freedom for all the people. Then, they could make sure the soldiers didn’t die needlessly. The president’s speech only lasted two minutes! Everyone cheered and then left. Lincoln turned to Edward Everett. He said he thought he should have planned his speech better. Edward Everett didn’t agree. He said, “It was perfect. You said more in two minutes than I did in two hours.” Afterward, the newspapers said it was a great speech. And, as you know, Americans still remember it today.
04 Phys. Ed.
W: Some people are surprised to know that walking is very good exercise. It seems very easy, but it does us a lot of good. It cleans the blood, tones up muscles, and strengthens bones. It even helps people lose weight. One study showed that fast walking keeps your heart healthy. Men who walked fast were 50 percent less likely to have heart disease. You don’t need much equipment to do it, and almost anyone, anywhere, at any time, can do it. It’s not difficult to plan walks into your day. You can walk to work, to catch a train, or to a park. You can walk to shops or enjoy walks in the country. It’s a great way to spend time with family and friends. People have some of their best conversations while walking. It’s best to do some stretches before and after you walk. Take short quick steps, stand straight, and take deep breaths. For basic health, it’s good to walk most days of the week. Walk for 20 to 30 minutes or more at a “talking pace.” To lose weight, walk for 30 to 45 minutes or more. Walk as many days as you can. Walk fast enough so that you finish slightly out of breath. To make your heart stronger, walk quickly for 20 minutes or more. If you can, walk where there are some small hills. Walk two or three times a week. Go as fast as you can, but enjoy yourself. Exercise should never be painful.
02 Campus Life
W: Hey Frank. If you could be any person in the world, who would you be? M: That’s easy. Bill Gates! W: Why? M: I’ll give you 30 billion reasons. Ha, ha. W: Ah, so it’s the money. M: Not totally. But the money is nice. I was reading that if you made all of Gates’ money one-dollar bills, and then laid them end-toend, the line would stretch for almost six million kilometers. W: Wow! But what would you do with all that money? M: Gates gives a lot to the poor. He’s donated almost seven-anda-half billion since the year 2000. I’d give away even more. W: Really? M: Sure! It costs about $240 a year to feed a starving child. So, Bill could save almost 121 million children. W: Hmm...why else do you like Gates? M: I admire his confidence. Did you know he earned a scholarship to Harvard, but left after two years to start Microsoft? That took courage!
05 Campus Life
W: Josh, what are you doing tonight? M: I have a biology class. What are you doing? W: Well, my friend’s sorority is having a party, but I don’t want to walk by myself in the dark. M: Why don’t you use Campus Escort? W: What’s that? M: Campus Escort is a free service that gives students rides. Other students drive you to the place you’re going.
M: So, you’ve heard of the Gettysburg Address. But do you know the story behind it?
you can look up words online. Saturday’s the big day. You cannot bring compasses. This was mailed to you last week. W: Um. And read carefully. Coastal deserts are on the western edges. W: My what? M: Declining balance points. If you read quickly. Let’s learn about some of them. But not all. You cannot bring a watch with a loud alarm. Trade wind deserts are located between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. The first is the annual amount of rainfall. At the dining halls. You cannot bring any books. too. The spell check can’t catch every mistake. Then the points are withdrawn from your declining balance account.that is. All of our meal plans offer these points. It’s natural to be a little nervous before a test.your student ID card. they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side. to 1 a. The important thing is: don’t panic. So. meals do not carry over into the next week. We call this loss of water “evaporation. Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius. goes back into the atmosphere or is used up by plants. Um.. there can be measurable rainfall only once every 50 years. you should have a calculator. The Sahara Desert. It depends on your schedule and eating habits. You’ll need to show this at every meal. sandy places. Just call 874-SAFE and tell them what time you would like to be picked up. in North Africa. What happens when I run out of declining balance points? M: You can buy more points at any time. The winds that blow over these areas are very strong. or headphones. In the Atacama. You cannot bring colored pens. or meals. a desert is a place where evaporation is greater than rainfall or snowfall. You should have two number-two pencils and a good eraser. You should have your admission ticket.
M: Sorry. or highlighters. W: I see.m. M: Yes.” it won’t catch it. or coasts. Don’t use words you don’t know.
. So. We also classify deserts by their location and main weather pattern. or a passport. but then read every word carefully. of continents. no. I imagine it is. You can choose to buy 9. is Earth’s driest desert. You cannot bring extra paper to write on. You’ll be able to go then. are cold deserts. no. You can buy food. W: What if I want to stay later? M: Call campus police for a free escort: 874-2121. You should have identification --. And there’s a small van that picks students up each hour at the student center and the mall. There’s a car that will take you from your dorm room to the party. Deserts get less than 250 millimeters of rain or snow each year. You cannot bring any portable tape recorders. That’s different than my old school. Seems like a lot of trouble to get up. Are you ready? Yes. Questions? W: Um. Because so much water evaporates. Most of the major deserts in the world lie in the areas crossed by the trade winds. Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains. for instance. there will be breaks after each section of the test.. If you’re taking the math portion of the test. W: What if I want to treat my friend? Can I use two meals at one time? 648
03 Business Writing
M: Today. Be confident! Relax! Now. But if you’re on the computer. The second factor is how much of that rain or snow evaporates --. That’s why it’s important that you choose your meal plan carefully. And many deserts are. OK. You’ve studied hard for this test. Susan? W: Tests make me nervous. Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert. or 18 meals each week.W: Really? It’s free? M: Yep. The North and South poles.
W: We usually think of deserts as hot. to midnight. Do you know about our meal plans? W: Meal plans? Uh. you use the points like cash. Here are some tips. or dictionaries. and the ground is permanently frozen.what if I uh. but read everything yourself. I’d like to give you some basic rules for writing a resumé. what if I buy the 15-meal plan and only eat 13 meals that week? Will I get 17 the next week? M: No. We have a unique system here. It runs 5 p. the Atacama Desert of South America. pencils. rulers. have to go to the bathroom during the test? M: You can’t. then back to your dorm. find a dictionary. If you use “form” instead of “from. First. Have a friend read your resumé. In defining a desert. As clouds rise over the mountains. 12. What can I do? M: Good question. walkmans. So go before! Don’t worry. a driver’s license. you can use your declining balance points. Let’s begin with spelling. deserts come in several forms. too. You cannot bring any food or drink. most deserts are hot. They work like an ATM card. It runs from 6 p. 15. W: Really? Hmm.except for the calculator. But actually. we have to consider two factors. know what you can’t bring to the test. so more sun reaches the ground. One coastal desert. protractors. If you want to treat a friend.will they escort me back home? M: Sure. Only one meal each meal period. We will bill your home through the Student Accounts office. Use a dictionary..
06 General Studies
M: All right. W: But. M: There are several different plans. before you leave home. or each time you buy something at a campus dining hall. these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains. use a spell check. They blow away clouds. Just go to the One Card office on the North Campus.
01 Campus Life
M: All right. Second. You can pass it. snacks.m. You cannot bring cell phones or pagers. So is a large part of the western United States called the Great Basin. One example is trade wind deserts. check to make sure you have everything you need. Still another kind of desert is the coastal desert. They get less than 250 millimeters of snow each year. dry.” Simply stated. notes. is a trade wind desert. The Judean Desert in Israel is a rain shadow desert. you’re more likely to be relaxed if you are well prepared.m. or other aids --. Here’s your student ID card.. it’s easy to miss words that are misspelled. and look up the word. Do a spell check.
Another thing. Anyway.00 a day. meaning they can quickly turn to rust. But in other countries. A professional-looking resumé tells an employer that you do things well. I’ve got to study for my chemistry mid-term. into the rocks and the dirt around the rocks. many iron minerals found in rocks are rapidly oxidized. chemical weathering is more common than mechanical weathering. race. Your resumé speaks for you. It’s making rich-country money into poor-country growth. hair-like roots grow into small cracks in rocks. let’s say you started your job several years ago in September.
02 Physical Science
W: Rocks wear down and break apart due to a process called weathering. but try to make it just one page. Limestone is a rock that does this. M: Start slowly and do a little more each day. For example. too. Because of this.000 people work in World Bank offices. Helping the poorer countries is a very big task --. And use active tense like “directed staff” rather than passive tense like “was staff director. address. there’s an aerobics class at 5 o’clock. Now. personnel means staff members. It’s really a part of the United Nations. DC. Mechanical weathering involves the disintegration. It sounds funny. Being poor keeps more than 100 million children out of school. M: A review session? W: Yeah. You might write on your resumé “September 2003 to present. Well. although they usually act together. Put your name. If they do. W: You should go to a review session.
01 Campus Life
W: Hi Tony! Where are you headed? M: Hey. low-interest loans. keep the same tense. 33. many people make less than $700 a year.” The active tense gives a stronger feeling. where there is little water and few plants. An employer may decide to see you or not because of it. A review session is a discussion that’s led by a student who has already taken the class. carbonation. Animals are also responsible for mechanical weathering. have fun.000 a year. Then. They can have ten extra years if they need it. If they don’t receive help. Make your resumé look nice.
W: Our world is so rich! All the people together make more than $31 trillion a year. But there are World Bank offices in 109 countries. many more people will get the illness. This includes the processes of oxidation. Then. Maybe next time. When I study. When the countries get loans. In fifty years. I lift to get stronger. or dig. They review the professor’s lecture and the homework assignments for each week. They are from nearly every country in the world. How often do you go? M: I try to go three times a week. there is carbonation. Some of this World Bank money is to help them fight this disease. they answer questions. In some countries. There are two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. Mary. Then. Maybe I’ll go next week. and get water and electricity.” That means. But if you’re listing a job you don’t have anymore “taught at Canyon High School” instead of “teach at Canyon High School. It’s also common in deserts. Use a font like Times Roman that’s easy to read. or destruction. One hundred and eighty-four countries belong to it. These countries all put money into it and help maintain it. Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock by chemical changes or solution. choose your words carefully. The duties you do now should be in the present tense. We’ll go into more detail about that reaction later. In the year 2002. or marital status. too. but I don’t understand them. holes and cracks --of rocks. no thanks. which contains carbonic acid. About 10. I’m going to the campus gym to lift weights.000 children die every day in these poorer countries. like these: personal means private.especially because more people are born every year. M: Bye! Good luck on your mid-term. but rocks can rust or oxidize. For example. where it’s so cold that freezing and thawing happen every day. about grammar. The World Bank is not like other banks. Leave plenty of space. they have to pay very high interest rates. 1. the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries. They burrow. Of these. The World Bank is a bridge between the rich and poor people. the roots of plants can cause rocks to break apart. wet conditions. I run on the treadmill to help my heart and lungs. W: Wow! I wish I had that much discipline. The World Bank gives them some money. Each minute. These include the freezing and thawing of water in the crevices --. Limestone is a type of rock that is dissolved by water. Things you did in the past should be in the past tense. It’s helping them build schools and health centers. Most of them are girls. Then. I sit too much.
. M: It sounds like an extra class.uh. W: Do you usually just lift weights? M: No. and interest-free credit. manage office and staff. Its headquarters is in Washington. age. I don’t feel good unless my body gets some exercise. AIDS is a very big problem. more than one woman dies in childbirth. Use a good printer and print on only one side of white paper. Also.2 billion earn less than $1. and telephone number on it and any letters.
03 Campus Life
M: I just don’t get it! W: Get what? M: Professor Johnson’s biology lecture. “I manage” or “I teach” now. of rocks by mechanical processes. In general. It is one of the world’s biggest banks for poor countries. chemical weathering takes place in warm. The tiny. Want to come? Um.” or “teach at Canyon High School. Make it as simple as you can. the roots crack the rocks. The low-income countries can’t usually borrow money in world markets. It helps them take care of the money. many people make more than $40. as the roots get bigger. Mechanical weathering is especially common in high altitudes. For some of the poorest countries. Some words sound alike but don’t mean the same thing.” Don’t give your sex. not just my mind. Then. In each part of your resumé. How much money you made before is also personal information. they have 35---40 years to pay them back. W: Thanks for the advice. It’s helping protect the people’s surroundings. there will be about 3 billion more people. I took notes. and hydration. W: Uh. I jump rope or do aerobics to improve my balance and coordination.
They want their products to be visible within a scene. and easy to read. Last but not least.short for Federal Express --. they blow from the northeast and are called the Northeast Trade Winds. your driver’s license will be fine. These are regions between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. W: All right. Do you remember what the equator is? W: The imaginary circle around the middle of the Earth that divides the planet into the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. In the movie’s first week. ads! Aren’t you getting tired of them? W: Yes! Especially on my computer and on TV. we see it on TV shows.. the story in a ballad is one that began with oral tradition. The words are usually simple. And the motives of characters --. W: Sure. Usually.” Um. they could drink the water meant for the horses. they repeat simple words and use dialog.got more publicity from that movie than it could have with hundreds of traditional ads. here it is.
M: Advertisements. They depended on the wind to get them there quickly. I wish there weren’t so many of them. trading ships would become stalled in the Horse Latitudes. would you believe you’ve actually seen more ads than you think? You’ve also been watching secret ads. She lived near the Missouri River. It also made their boats lighter. oh yeah. It’s an advertisement in disguise. OK. Because of the light winds. In another movie. though. Three. I guess I could go Monday. There is not much emotion. with Tom Hanks? Mmmm.
M: Today we’re going to learn about a kind of song called a ballad. they tell a story. Using your computer? There they are. you rolling river With notions his canoe was laden Away. Ah. Turn on the TV. why they do something --.. I love your daughter Away..for her I’ve crossed the rolling river. It tells the story of a white man who was in love with an American Indian woman. Then
. The white man tells his lover’s father: “Oh Shenandoah. Parents passed it down to their children from generation to generation. I went to one last year when I had Professor Johnson’s class. This way.. I have my driver’s license. The trade winds blow from the Horse Latitudes toward the equator. we have three characteristics of ballads so far. Ballads are often sung in rhyme. so they threw their horses into the sea. S-H-E-N-A-N-D-O-A-H.. today we are seeing lots more of something called product placement. so they could go faster.W: You don’t have to go. One. sales of Red Stripe increased 50 percent. ads. Turn on the radio. Waiting for an elevator? There they are. how many of you have seen the movie Cast Away.all right. M: Bingo! That’s a product placement. M: Very good! Now. but not the focus of attention. M: Well. For example. There they are. in the old days. or Tuesday from 3 to 4.that is.. M: My serial number? Just a minute. A7-10023. product placement can add a sense of realism to a movie or television show that something like a bottle simply marked “beer” cannot. W: That will be four dollars. M: How long is the permit valid for? W: It’s valid for the next four years. Product placement used to be limited to movies. Looking out your car window? Ahhhhhh! Ads. one of the two largest rivers in the United States. M: I’ve got economics on Tuesday. trade winds. M: Yeah? How did you do? W: I got an A-minus. Listen to part of the song: The white man loved an Indian maiden Away. In the Northern Hemisphere.
06 Earth Science
M: Trade winds are a pattern of wind found in regions near the Earth’s equator. even in books. W: It’s up to you. most of you. Which company does Toms Hanks work for at the start of the movie? W: Fed Ex.m. and the weather there is hot and dry. They’re everywhere. In the Southern Hemisphere. I’m bound away Cross the wide Missouri Notice the dialog in the second verse.is not usually told. M: I’ll think about it. But companies have to be careful. The trade winds between about 30 degrees latitude and the equator are steady and blow about 22 to 24 kilometers per hour. Product placement is like an ad that’s not an ad. When is the review session? W: Let’s see. they come from oral tradition.” Such dialog is typical of ballads. I’d like to buy a bicycle permit please. they blow from the southeast and are called the Southeast Trade Winds. There they are. They can quickly propel ships across the ocean. sailors used to sail their boats back and forth across the equator on their way to trade things with other nations.. The winds in the Horse Latitudes are light. So. I need some identification with your address on it. I’m bound away
01 Campus Life
M: Excuse me. M: Here you are. like a poem. clear. And the permit will let me park my bike anywhere on campus? W: Yes. but if you’re having trouble. you rolling river For her I’ve crossed the rolling water Away. The Firm.
Cross the wide Missouri O Shenandoah. video games. When done correctly. Instead of regular ads. now I need your bicycle serial number. It’s an effective technique. You have your choice. Next. I love your daughter. Sailors were worried about running out of water. Hence the name. Unlike a poem. M: Hmm. One famous ballad from the 1800s is called “Shenandoah. Now. You can go Monday from 5 to 6 p. A ballad is a song that tells a story. ballads do not use a lot of explanation. There’s no escape. You can’t hide from them. Two. Fed Ex --. M: My address? Um. The trade winds begin in regions called the Horse Latitudes. a review session will help you a lot. you need to fill out this bicycle registration card. the main character drank a beer from Jamaica called Red Stripe.
Sharks don’t have a swim bladder. should be the same. These children didn’t get enough Vitamin D. Thanks. It begins with seven electronic pathways. and bowls. This helps us feel calm and sleep well. that is exactly opposite.
at all. In the clay-making process. Good luck!
M: Let’s begin. when the fish breathes oxygen. In less than a second. M: All right. When people get married in America. it showed me more than 32 million websites related to horses. Do you ever wonder how computers can think so fast? Well. the output. That’s why their heads are too big. I typed in “horses” and hit the search button. The bones are too soft to stand on. W: I’m not allowed to check out any books for you without it. Porcelain is a material used to make plates. so they use their forward movement to control their vertical position. Q will be one. M: Oh. Yes. W: Thank you. will be zero. Let’s open our textbooks to page 63. W: May I please see your student ID card? M: I’m sorry. Now. cups. The bones in their heads haven’t come together as they should. It was amazing. glaze forms a protective shell around each piece of china. Thanks ma’am. In summer.
03 Campus Life
M: I’d like to check out this book. especially. But there’s another china-the kind you eat off of. This changes the path of the water around them and
M: Let’s begin our study of Vitamin D. Among other things. You might just want to do it. Its basic idea is.kind of like a hot-air balloon. The NOT gate takes one bit of input. The simplest gate is called a NOT gate. M: No problem. Vitamin D is not in most of the foods we eat. In both cases. M2: And chopsticks! W1: No. called Q. Calcium makes our bones strong. comes the glazing process. is one. The shark swings it back and forth to move forward. I’d like you to take a look at these pictures. next comes. that’s great! What should I do now? W: You can download the form for a new student ID card from the computer. which we’ll label A. A shark is more like an airplane. Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies. Ultraviolet rays from the sun transform something in our skin. So. The idea behind an AND gate is this: if there are two bits of input. five ingredients are mixed together with water and shaped into tubes.we’ll give you your permit. These production molds are then used to shape the pugs into plates. which we’ll label Q. please. this forward movement pushes air around the wings. Active vitamin D helps us have enough calcium for our nerves too. say. these children don’t look well
. “If A or B is one. These two gates are simply combinations of an AND or an OR gate with a NOT gate. Boolean logic maps information into bits and bytes. it sinks toward the bottom. though. Q. Attach it to the main frame. W2: And rice. As you can see. It was in my wallet. W: You’ll be glad to have it. M: All right. W: Yes. and decorating. Remember. and produces an output. A and B.B-O-O-L-E. This is a type of thinking developed in the mid-1800s by George Boole --. it changes again. it can move vertically --. we close windows for air conditioning. the forward movement creates lift --. These fins are in about the same position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane. then Q is also one. on the center post below the seat. China is a country. I suppose they’ll want a passport photo too. But we really need time in the sunshine almost every day. These are clay making. A. I’ll go over there. and bowls. Now.00? W: It does. Computer chips are based on something called Boolean logic. M: Here you are. If we can’t see it.. Inside our bodies. So. In an airplane. one of the oldest customs is for the bride and groom to choose which type of china they want for their new home. many people need to have stronger bones. break far too easily. Here.
05 Computer Science
W: I did a search on Google yesterday. You won’t be allowed to sit for exams without it. When it squeezes some of the gas out of its bladder. One main reason why is that people don’t get nearly enough sunlight. we learned how most fish use their swim bladder to move around in the water. Fill it out and take it over to the Student Center. you will have to pay a fine. Last week. We close windows to stay warm in the winter.the airplane and shark both rise. Happily. M: Thanks. These tubes are called pugs: P-U-G-S. ma’am. I guess I’ll have to. Simple.. it helps our bodies use the important mineral. calcium. For a shark. In the mold-making process. this forward movement pushes water around the fins. A store in Canada once showed how strong china is by using four teacups to support a race car! Can you picture that---a heavy car with only one small cup under each wheel? After glazing. It becomes what’s called active vitamin D. Doesn’t it cost $10. I don’t think I’ll bother. If A is zero. It also helps our nerves and muscles work the way they should.driver’s license or passport. Glaze is incredibly strong. It becomes what’s called previtamin D3. Many older people’s bones. called gates. it’s ready to be sold. It’s something we must have. Today. we’re going to see how much you know about china. which was stolen. Then. plaster is poured into metal molds to make production molds. artists use 85 patterns and 400 different shapes to make the china look beautiful. glazing. then the output. This causes the fish to rise in the water. Actually. it’s been stolen. The tail is like the shark’s propeller. you need to make sure this permit is in plain sight on your bicycle. we don’t see this too often any more. Glaze is like liquid glass.go up and down --. We get it mostly from the sun. our bones can make enough calcium to stay hard. The shark can position these fins at different angles. Next. With active vitamin D.. Their legs curve out. the china is ready for decorating. After the NOT gate and the AND gate comes the OR gate. There are four main processes in creating china. This china is a fancy type of porcelain. and I found out. I did another Google search.” The next two gates are called NAND and NOR.
W1: Today. Next is the AND gate. cups. if input. or if both A and B are one. mold making. some of that oxygen goes into its bladder. and if A and B are both the same. not that China. and a copy of your identification --. they can also give you the form there. M1: It’s got the Great Wall. When it’s heated.
then. robots need a power source for their actuators. Ms. Sunburn is dangerous because it increases the chance that you will get skin cancer.
. then answer questions.you would like to apply for a position as a campus tour guide? W: Yes. or a hydraulic system. It’s at 10th and Market Street.in other words. We let go of old things and ideas for new ones. tell them the names of buildings.
01 Computer Science
M: Robots are very popular these days. it’s the same. the main door to the mall is right on the northwest corner of 10th and Market Street. or compressed gas. W: I know where that is. Or if a bear avoided a certain plant. I’m free. Since long. So First Nations people would watch bears forage for food. is a robot? That’s a surprisingly difficult question. M: It’s in the Gallery Shopping Mall. First of all.m.. These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane. Sunscreen can also absorb UV rays. you remembered.that moves a body. It can block UV rays. The shark also has two vertical fins on its back.that’s AC-CHEW-ATE-OR --and this actuator spins their wheels or moves their parts.
05 Campus Life
M: Good afternoon. long ago. and I’ve been a student here for two years. Sunscreen is a lotion you put on your body about 30 minutes before you go outside. robots that clean your house. The cells in your skin are not protected from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation --. In real life. Monday through Saturday. especially if they migrated to a new area. Take University Drive to Market Street. The blood begins moving toward the damaged areas four hours after you’ve first been in the sun and will keep moving there as much as 24 hours afterwards.enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward. There are many ways that animals can help or teach us. These parts are usually metal or plastic. we can still learn from them. This means the lotion “eats” the UV rays. M: I see. it stops them before they reach your skin. An actuator could be an electric motor.
04 Social Studies
W: Today I’d like to talk about animal helpers. Do you know what your duties would be as a tour guide? W: Sure. I haven’t. I mean how people long ago learned from animals. This is why your skin is red when you get sunburned --. or they could plug into a wall. speak. a computer --.. I have to work on my paper this morning. we have evolved little in our lifetime. The vast majority of robots have several features in common. I’d walk people around the campus. Have you ever been a tour guide? W: No. W: What time do they begin? M: At 10 a. And even today. Do you want to go? Isn’t that what your paper is about? W: Yea.
M: If you have white skin. But I love people. The best way to do this is to use sunscreen. Knowing about these plants helped people. A snake grows new skin and sheds its old skin many times. They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and help it turn quickly left and right. What happens is this: UV rays damage the cells in your skin. talk about student life. We take Market Street eastbound to 15th Street. We see movies and television shows in which robots move. and some have many movable parts that are joined together. Some move only by wheels. If a bear ate berries or roots of some plant. follow the circle around City Hall to continue on Market Street.
03 Campus Life
M: What’s your plan for the day. it’s very important to protect your skin when you’re in the sun. And third. First Nations people would stay away from it too. Why? M: I was thinking about going to see an art show. We keep going on Market Street until 10th Street. Alex! Maybe I should go see the show before I work on my paper.” The easiest definition is that a robot is something most people say is a robot. sir. But could you just quickly go over the directions with me first? W: Sure. your skin can become red and sore. They last for 90 minutes. Secondly. Natalie? W: Well. hydraulics. Some First Nations people would go to live with and study bears. for example. Monday through Friday only. we think certain things. “I can’t define a robot. Sunscreen helps in two ways. They say a robot must have a reprogrammable brain --. So. but I know one when I see one. and Data from the Star Trek TV series. M: Now. W: Good afternoon. After that. We call this sunburn.because of this extra blood. the guide will give a 30-minute talk after the tour for students who want to study here but have not yet applied. Different people have different ideas. On Sunday. it’s easy. Then. M: I’ll drive. Like R2D2 and C3PO in Star Wars. tours start at 1 p. At age seven. so I know all about the campus. People and bears eat many of the same foods. you’re in danger of getting sunburn. people have learned from animals they admired. One famous scientist said. Think of a snake. Then. they knew it was OK for people to eat. M: OK. By that. Tours are held once each day. People who have been sunburned a lot get skin cancer much more often than those who don’t get sunburned very much. Some robots use all these actuator types: motors. which we call a pneumatic system. I bet we’ve all experienced this at some point in our lives.or UV rays. If you don’t protect your skin when you go outside. You won’t know you’re sunburned until it’s too late. However. Do we think the same things at age thirty-seven? If so. What. and have personalities that are almost human. The snake’s old skin can be discarded because it has a new one. Smith. and pneumatic systems. The body responds by sending more blood to these cells to repair the damage. M: That’s correct. robots have some sort of actuator --. One of them might stay with a bear for a whole year. They would learn all of the vegetation that bears know about. Alex. there are robot dogs.m. The rays stay in the lotion instead of your skin. Like a shield. people who build robots have a more precise definition. It can remind us that we too need to change. robots that walk on two legs like a person. exactly. It’s about First Nations tribal totems. They could have a battery. and robots that work in factories to help build cars. almost all robots have a movable body. For us.
This means you can choose which classes you want to take. They learn them without going to school. makes their minds and spirits stronger. in turn. W: Uh-oh. pay close attention. that changes. let’s see here. She shows some very intriguing DVDs. For karatekas. This. W: Yeah. they must be alert and be ready to react to a punch or kick from their opponent. And you’ll have some writing assignments. Their bodies know right away how to deal with new problems and challenges in everyday life. called coordinate bilingualism. but you’ll find the lectures won’t be exactly the same. happens to people here. We are native speakers of that language. People who know two languages are bilingual. knowing your mother tongue is very important to getting an education. people who practice martial arts use their physical skills to make their minds and spirits stronger. W: Great! That’s what I’m most interested in. There are two basic ideas. The first principle karatekas must learn is to concentrate on their own movements and not think about other things. W: Yes. They think that as we grow up. Tony. yes. you will need six hours of composition. Can you tell me what the course covers? M: Sure. This teaches them to concentrate better on their studies or jobs.. They say we learn languages the same way we learn other things. Take careful notes. Fourth. yes. Yes. This is especially true with a type of martial art called karate. It’s one of my favorite subjects. Here are two different groups who don’t always get along. is very important. M: Do these people ever feel like they have two different personalities? W: Well. You can see how this would happen. That’s why it gets harder to learn languages. they are ready to defend themselves and throw punches without thinking. They think about things in a special way. You’ll learn about what our society thinks makes good citizens. so your curriculum must include the following: First. did you have a question? M: Are there a lot of French-English bilinguals in Quebec? W: Yes.” When saying that word. and fantastic flips we see in Jackie Chan movies. M: Yes. Mr. Others disagree with this idea. I had to study. Let me give you an example of what I mean. you’ll get a good basic idea how our society became the way it is. Those people who know three or more are trilingual and multilingual. And then there are many people who learn a second language through study. M: Yes. Like me! I only heard English at home. they think of a different kind of dog. Each undergraduate can make his or her own curriculum. In French. This helps them work and focus harder on important things. I’d need History 101 --History of Western Civilization. People who practice karate are called karatekas: K-A-R-A-T-E-K-A-S. People who are bilingual will learn a third language even more quickly. the word for dog is “chien. Many people have more than one native language.
M: From the class. This helps them be alert and react to difficult problems in life. We know this happens in Quebec. Canada to French-English bilinguals. She said they had great class discussions. there are quite a few. There are places where two language groups may not talk to each other much. she covers all the same basic material. I’d be happy to. Something interesting. please.
W: Our mother tongue is the language we learn first from our families. how closely does she follow the textbook? M: Well.
06 Phys. Educators have different ideas about how we learn languages. Yes? W: How do you spell that? M: K-A-R-A-T-E. our mother tongue.we want to make sure you get a good general education. Are you my student advisor? M: Yes. You will also need six credit hours in 300 and 400-level courses
. you talk differently to each group. in fact they do. W: So. How can I help you? W: I’m thinking about majoring in history. like the flying kicks. Actually. And you’ll learn how technology has changed us. hard! Now. Some academics believe that it teaches us how to think.
03 General Studies
M: OK. So. It’s mostly lectures. BUT. W: Lucky for me! M: OK. Third. It is the best way to strengthen their minds and spirits. You’ll be asked what you think about it too. or first language. It starts with the beginning of Western civilization in the Near East.
01 Campus Life
W: Hello. karate is much more than a style of self-defense. Knowing it well makes learning another language easier. I think you’ll find that’s true. You’ll find out how different governments were formed. but I do know that Professor Jantzen makes her class interesting.. of course. You need to understand both groups and have them understand you. Amanda. Ed. my friend Kelly studied with her last year. In order to learn Spanish. Karatekas say that the fighting principles they learn in karate help them in all areas of life. karatekas learn to make their bodies physically strong. Second. and it covers everything up through the 16th Century Reformations.W: How much money do the tours cost? M: They’re free. they need to focus their strongest points on their opponents’ weakest points. Thompson. I’m going to tell you what courses you need to take to graduate. You’ll learn how historians decide what happened. Those can be basic writing classes in the English department. So. They might think of one kind of dog when they say “dog” in English. most of us picture spectacular fights. W: And how about historians? M: Oh.
M: When we think of the martial arts. Some say babies’ brains are specially ready for learning languages. You end up learning two different ways of thinking. and she really gets students to ask questions. spinning punches. We don’t know for sure just how it happens. that can be a little boring.
” or common sense. you’ll need twelve hours in history or social science courses. we know that there can be other points between them. This tends to create a society with a high level of economic independence among its members. Two line segments can be the same length. Learning a computer language can count as a foreign language. and some cultures are higher than others. you will only have to take one semester. If we have two points. The shark also has two vertical fins on its back. Let’s look at political ideologies for a few moments. Do I have to take two semesters of Spanish here? M: No. This ideology is usually invisible to most people within the society. The shark can position these fins at different angles. People in a flat society might support alternative lifestyles. There are different kinds of ideologies. And then there are many people who learn a second language through study. gay marriage. like chemistry or biology. Next. social. ethical. is called a line segment. Every society has an ideology. And that math requirement could be business math or other courses like that. it sinks toward the bottom.go up and down --. it can move vertically --. A shark is more like an airplane. We are native speakers of that language. There’s political. Some societies reward individuals over the group. a point is a small dot. A structured social order is thought to promote uniform thinking and behavior. I haven’t said anything yet about math or science.the rules needed to make it work that way. Many people have more than one native language. Sharks don’t have a swim bladder. I’ll go over the general humanities requirements. It encourages people to be individuals and not conform to any one standard. They will have a “W” next to them in your student catalogs. there is a foreign language requirement. For a shark.
M: Last week. There can also be a line. This causes the fish to rise in the water. like a period at the end of a sentence. Ed. These fins are in about the same position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane. so that they must depend on the rest of society. All graduates are required to take six hours in the natural sciences. Other political ideologies believe in a structured social order. That just means the line segments are equal in length. it is seen as strange. so they use their forward movement to control their vertical position. All cultures are equally valuable. there are many different levels. almost everyone is equal. So those were the English requirements. The tail is like the shark’s propeller. And on top of those twelve hours. we learned how most fish use their swim bladder to move around in the water. You’re all required to have some of those credits too. or maybe even dangerous or radical. Now. you’ll see that you still have quite a few credit hours needed for graduation. Now. when the fish breathes oxygen. A political ideology is concerned with two things. In both cases. Those extra credit hours can be electives. Some political ideologies believe in a flat social order. questions? W: I took three years of Spanish in high school. you’ll need twelve hours of literature or fine arts. So you’ll need six hours of a foreign language or six hours of computer courses. Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies. They learn them without going to school. The shark swings it back and forth to move forward.
Focus A 01
W: Geometry is the study of points. In order to learn Spanish. This changes the path of the water around them and enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward.
the rest of society. For example. and the foreign language advisors will assign you to a class based on your score. Everybody thinks this way. In an airplane. These societies encourage individuals to achieve self-sufficiency. When it squeezes some of the gas out of its bladder. All lifestyles are acceptable. In a structured society. Men are equal to women. We call these line segments congruent. These societies encourage individuals to increase the strength of their social ties. First. It encourages individuals to respect the established social order. so they don’t depend on
W: Our mother tongue is the language we learn first from our families. If you’re placed into the Spanish 103 class or the Spanish 201 class. So you can choose just about anything from Phys. I had to study hard!
. the forward movement creates lift---the airplane and shark both rise. with points at each end. When somebody says or does something different from this normal thought. People who know two languages are bilingual. this forward movement pushes water around the fins. In a flat society. God is a higher level than people.kind of like a hot-air balloon. Like me! I only heard English at home. These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane. It is just “normal” thinking.
04 Political Science
W: The simplest way to define ideology is as a collection of ideas. Does this sound like society here? I think it fits us pretty well. plus three hours in math. for example. The line is continuous.that require some kind of written project.how a society should work. It has no space between each point. This tends to create a society with a high level of economic interdependence among its members. some of that oxygen goes into its bladder. to music to fill in the remaining credits. Both the foreign language and computer courses require a grade of “C” or higher for credit toward graduation. These courses will usually require you to write at least two lengthy papers. A flat social order is thought to promote diversity. and so on. men are higher than women. Those people who know three or more are trilingual and multilingual. So. It forms the basis of the society’s “public opinion. Also in the humanities. They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and help it turn quickly left and right. Remember. If you add up all those credits. Let’s look at rules that make a society work. Part of a line. One --. People in a structured society might support the nuclear family unit and military programs. You can take a test. and two --. Other societies reward the group over the individual. this forward movement pushes air around the wings.
as the roots get bigger. is a trade wind desert. These include the freezing and thawing of water in the crevices --. VDSL accommodates a very. For example. Cable modems and ADSL are both types of broadband connections. Let’s learn about some of them. a desert is a place where evaporation is greater than rainfall or snowfall. there is carbonation. its power began to decline.uh. The winds that blow over these areas are very strong.
02 Computer Science
W: More people are buying home computers and using them for home networks. into the rocks and the dirt around the rocks. sandy places. After America was discovered in 1492. And many deserts are. but rocks can rust or oxidize. As clouds rise over the mountains. Comedies have humorous characters and happy endings. Animals are also responsible for mechanical weathering. is Earth’s driest desert. Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock by chemical changes or solution. A good example of a comedy is Shakespeare’s classic Much Ado about Nothing. We’ll go into more detail about that reaction later. chemical weathering takes place in warm. these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains.
are located between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. the roots of plants can cause rocks to break apart. One example is the play Ghosts. They are much faster than a 56K modem. So is a large part of the western United States called the Great Basin. Limestone is a rock that does this. the play seems as though it will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclear ending. although they usually act together. Every society has an ideology.
02 Physical Science
W: Rocks wear down and break apart due to a process called weathering. falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a “tragic flaw” in character. it was the most powerful nation in the world. These faster ways of sending information are called broadband connections. Because so much water evaporates. The tiny. After that. In general. An example is Saint Joan. there can be measurable rainfall only once every 50 years. which contains carbonic acid. hair-like roots grow into small cracks in rocks.
Focus B 01
W: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe. in North Africa. But not all. In defining a desert. It’s easy to see that VDSL is a lot faster. In comparison. Many people like it and are beginning to use it. chemical weathering is more common than mechanical weathering. Still another kind of desert is coastal deserts. Most of the major deserts in the world lie in the areas crossed by the trade winds. called tragicomedy. Mechanical weathering is especially common in high altitudes. It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. where there is little water and few plants. very large amount of bandwidth. In 1898.
W: We usually think of deserts as hot. Spain lost a famous war against England. They blow away clouds. Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War. One example is trade wind deserts. Trade with the new American colonies made Spain rich. Another popular style is called tragedy. There is another new kind of DSL connection. but it may be very soon. many iron minerals found in rocks are rapidly oxidized. are cold deserts. by Henrik Ibsen. the roots crack the rocks. It’s also common in deserts. we have to consider two factors. of continents. It sounds funny. carbonation. holes and cracks --of rocks.” Simply stated. This includes the processes of oxidation. making home networks cost much less. there are mainly two avenues for information to be sent. Limestone is a type of rock that is dissolved by water. cable modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line or ADSL. The North and South poles. VDSL will soon be more common. or dig. goes back into the atmosphere or is used up by plants. One coastal desert. modern years have produced a third style. such as Cuba and the Philippines. It is known as very high bit rate DSL or VDSL. They need faster ways to get information over the Internet. Some companies already have this for certain places. or destruction. Anyway. Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet. Deserts get less than 250 millimeters of rain or snow each year. These are. Then. The Judean Desert in Israel is a rain shadow desert. by George Bernard Shaw. It is just “normal”
.Focus A 02
M: If a play makes you laugh. where it’s so cold that freezing and thawing happen every day. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins his life. In the 16th Century. and the ground is permanently frozen. south of France and west of Italy. In the Atacama. it’s a comedy. they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side. meaning they can quickly turn to rust. Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius. So. most deserts are hot. dry. Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert. Mechanical weathering involves the disintegration. We call this loss of water “evaporation. deserts come in several forms. It forms the basis of the society’s “public opinion.that is. They get less than 250 millimeters of snow each year. There are two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. The second factor is how much of that rain or snow evaporates --. Trade wind deserts
03 Political Science
W: The simplest way to define ideology is as a collection of ideas. But actually. In other words. The first is the annual amount of rainfall. It established colonies in other parts of the world. In tragicomedies. This ideology is usually invisible to most people within the society. ADSL or cable modems can only give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. so more sun reaches the ground. These are on the western edges. or coasts.” or common sense. of rocks by mechanical processes. the Atacama Desert of South America. Um. They burrow. But in 1588. Spain sent many people there. wet conditions. Also. The Sahara Desert. for instance. They brought back lots of gold and silver. We also classify deserts by their location and main weather pattern. and hydration. Then. Right now. it provides 52 Mbps.
The cells in your skin are not protected from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. If they do. and two --. For some of the poorest countries.weren’t built until after he died. The low-income countries can’t usually borrow money in world markets.
M: If you have white skin. you’re in danger of getting sunburn.
Focus B 02
W: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. it is seen as strange or maybe even dangerous or radical.how a society should work. and so on. It’s making rich-country money into poor-country growth.
sunburn. and get water and electricity. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. He was also a scientist and inventor. Italy. But his two most famous inventions --. Everybody thinks this way. Finally. And he cut open dead people to learn how the human body works. the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries.
W: The World Bank is a bridge between the rich and poor people. If you don’t protect your skin when you go outside. There’s political. It’s helping them build schools and health centers. Sunburn is dangerous because it increases the chance that you will get skin cancer. There are different kinds of ideologies. A political ideology is concerned with two things. They can have ten extra years if they need it. Let’s look at political ideologies for a few moments. and interest---free credit. So. or UV rays. If they don’t receive help.the parachute and the war tank --.the rules needed to make it work that way. In the year 2002. People who have been sunburned a lot get skin cancer much more often than those who don’t get sunburned very much. When somebody says or does something different from this normal thought. many more people will get the illness. The blood begins moving toward the damaged areas four hours after you’ve first been in the sun and will keep moving there as much as 24 hours afterwards. He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous just a few years later. It helps them take care of the money. they have 35--40 years to pay them back. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci. AIDS is a very big problem. You won’t know you’re sunburned until it’s too late. What happens is this: UV rays damage the cells in your skin. it’s very important to protect your skin when you’re in the sun. He kept detailed notebooks of observations about the natural world. they have to pay very high interest rates. too. One --. your skin can become red and sore. ethical. low-interest loans. Some of this World Bank money is to help them fight this disease. he was an inventor. The body responds by sending more blood to these cells to repair the damage. The World Bank gives them some money. We call this
. social. It is one of the world’s biggest banks for poor countries. It’s helping protect the people’s surroundings. This is why your skin is red when you get sunburned --.thinking.because of this extra blood. When the countries get loans.
they’re beefing up security on campus now. Brown is sick? He’ll be absent all of next week. you have to be brave enough to jump out of the plane. It was difficult because I didn’t have any friends or relatives there.practice 3
Sample response: One difficult experience that I went through was living alone in another city. and that they have an extra week until the professor is back to finish their assignment.practice 3
Opinion 1: I prefer movies made to entertain audiences.
Q1 --. I saw this movie because several of my friends told me it was good. This movie made me contemplate how some businesses hurt the environment. I admire her because she works very hard. In order to do this sport.practice 1
Sample response: One person I admire is my mother. One reason I don’t want to try them is because I could get injured. I think the added guards are a good idea. My mother is a homemaker. and that if anyone knows anything they should report it right away. I am not rich. This movie made me forget about real life for a few hours. Even though she does not earn a wage or hold a high job in a company. I don’t live on campus.
Q2 --. I want to see if I can be that brave.practice 2
Opinion 1 : One dangerous sport that I would like to try is skydiving. At first. I think this was a good way to spend my free time.practice 2
M: Wow. I know that I can take care of myself. I experienced this when I moved in order to go to school.
Q3 --. I’m so happy because we have an extra week to finish the assignment!! W: What do you mean about having an extra week to finish the assignment? M: Both of next week’s classes are canceled. Today. I did this because I enjoyed working with other members of the club. This meant I had to do everything myself and solve lots of problems by myself. From this experience. I haven’t even read the article yet. one thing I did was practice for shows. This movie made people think about the issue of justice because it told the story of how a woman fought for the rights and safety of others. Now. Lisa had her MP3 player stolen from her dormitory room last weekend and Chrissie had some money taken the very next night.
. Spending my free time with the theater club in high school was a great experience for me. For example. I spent my free time acting with the theater club. I saw this movie because my friend wanted to see it. she has shown me how important it is to do your life’s work the best that you can. I also think that I would enjoy the feeling of free-falling. W: Right. so I don’t want to waste my money. Opinion 2: I prefer movies made to make audiences contemplate certain issues. Now. Hey. but I surely understand how worried you are. Check the notice in the student lounge. One movie that fits this category is Spiderman 2. It’s terrible. he’s not seriously ill. From this. That is why I want to try skydiving. One movie that fits this category is Erin Brockovich. I learned self-reliance.practice 1
Sample response: A useful skill my father taught me is managing my money. W: Well. I think whoever the culprit is should really be caught. and other expenses.practice 1
M: Hi Tara! Did you hear that Prof.
Q3 --. I’m always worried about something being ripped off from my room. She has worked hard to raise me and my brothers and sisters. it is serious. Opinion 2 : I don’t want to try any dangerous or extreme sports. This sport looks like it would be a lot of fun. and I enjoyed the fantastic life of a superhero for a little while. The man.
Q1 --. It says next week’s assignments are now due on the 29th once he’s back. I’ve also seen the heavy damage done to the campus square gates and all the yellow paint splashed onto the main building. the woman feels glad because she was behind in her work. After that. I did this because I thought acting was fun. W: What? That’s awful! He’s so sick he can’t come to class? M: Don’t worry. she worries about the professor and the canceled classes.
Q2 --. clothing. I learned how to plan what I should spend my money on.Speaking
Q1 --. This movie was entertaining because it had lots of great special effects and an interesting story.
Q2 --. I guess what’s been happening is being taken seriously. and I discussed this issue and the story of this movie with my friend after the movie was over. explains that the professor is not seriously ill. Another reason I don’t want to try any extreme sports is because they cost a lot of money. I always try to take care of myself and be healthy. how about a movie on Saturday? Sample response: The woman learns that the professor is sick and that classes are being canceled. and doing that report would have taken all weekend. since we have both got an extra week. Anyways. I know how much money I should spend on food.practice 2
Sample response: In high school. W: Well. M: Well. however. I use this skill all the time when I get my monthly paycheck. He taught me this skill by giving me an allowance when I was in school. so I don’t want to hurt my body by doing an extreme sport. all this is good news after all! I’m behind in my work. the one on Monday and the one on Wednesday. Another thing I did was build and paint things we used on stage.
you ask.Sample response: The university is adding more security guards to campus night patrols. Sample response: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea has a lot of mineral salt. it wiped out the city of Pompeii --. classmates who are smart in those subjects. First. it says that African-American musicians made jazz music.
Q4 --. What is it? Coach says I need to practice more to make the football team. The woman’s friends had things stolen from their dormitory rooms and the woman herself is now worried about being robbed. the English department finally made the class a requirement. however. why? M: Well. too. mineral salt. some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. Hmmm. When water evaporates.practice 3
M: Have you ever taken a creative writing class? W: No. The man explains that the creative writing he has been doing on his own has helped him analyze the literary works he has had to study. I don’t know how I can find time to do both. The eruption began about noon on. that might work. Tutors? Yeah. at that time. However. So what happened? Why couldn’t the people escape? Scientists have now discovered that the citizens of Pompeii did not die as a result of lava. Instead. Later. Later. when white musicians such as Elvis Presley began incorporating elements of jazz into their music. the music became wildly popular. we’re all going to have to now. Sample response: This reading passage talks about the eruption of Mt. Well. if I can find someone willing to tutor me. you know. Some people thought it was even more advanced than Rome. He thinks the required creative writing class will make him a better writer and a better student. making the sea even saltier.
Q4 --.practice 2
M: We call it the Dead Sea for one simple reason. Make extra time?
W: M: W:
M: W: M:
. Vesuvius. but. Most people thought it was too wild and unstructured. became really popular. August 24th. It will be easy to fit into my schedule.. that it killed the people instantly. The man thinks people doing all these things should be caught.practice 1
W: M: W: M: Hey. became popular with younger people. W: That’s a good idea. this salt is trapped here because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. They just made creative writing a requirement for us. It erupted in 79 AD and destroyed Pompeii. Students are informed this decision follows recent damage and thefts occurring on campus. But I’ve also got to raise my grades. It was especially popular with the younger generations.practice 1
M: When Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79.I’ve got a problem. This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music. Water evaporation also makes the sea even saltier. how’re you doing? OK. so the English department made creative writing a required class for graduation. so jazz. people couldn’t escape. It should help us better understand what the authors we study are doing if we have experience in writing literature ourselves. people in Pompeii died due to superheated air from the volcano and not lava..
Q3 --. Rivers carry mineral salts into the Dead Sea. In fact. They both agree that adding security guards on campus is a good idea. He has seen damage done to school property and buildings. Or. The class will make us better writers and better students of literature. along with rock and other forms. So. Sample response: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. The woman agrees and adds that any information should be reported. Vesuvius let out a great stream of superheated air. so there are no living things in the sea. or molten rock. and hip-hop. Since then. Water evaporation and mineral salts carried into the sea from the rivers account for the Dead Sea’s unusual saltiness. rock and roll music has gone on to dominate the pop music scene. Today. The woman states that things are serious.. one thing you could do is find tutors to help you with your class work. or else I’ll flunk math and science.nothing lives in it! Why not.. although the final eruption wasn’t until midnight that day. He also doesn’t mind because the class is easy to fit into his schedule. and the man has the same opinion. you could try to make extra time to practice football. Tony.yeah. Later. their bodies were covered with ash and volcanic rock. it has evolved into many modern forms such as punk. and you could help them with something else in return.. This salt is deadly to plants and fish. Maybe they could help you. M: Yeah. The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. Last year. Because the Dead Sea is full of salt. Salt is trapped there because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. I also don’t mind because they are making the class available all the time. it leaves behind all the dissolved minerals.
Q4 --. jazz was not widely accepted as “real” music by mainstream “white” America. Sample response: The dean recommended that all literature majors should have practice in creative writing. This mineral salt is carried into the Dead Sea from rivers. Then. one of these musicians. The air from the volcano was so hot. Elvis Presley. was a large city with a rich culture. their bodies were covered in ash. and I can tell you it helps me analyze the works we have to read..
Q5 --. The Dead Sea has ten times as much salt as the ocean. uh. The woman thinks this is a good idea. I think you’re right. I’ve already been doing some writing on my own.practice 3
M: At the time of its origin. um. rhythm and blues. Eventually. The speaker says that it was strange because even though the volcano erupted for 12 hours. the dean proposed all those studying literature should also have experience at doing creative writing. They thought jazz was too wild and that it wasn’t real music. The man understands.POOF just like that! Pompeii.
Also. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science.W: Yeah. she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science.. he will get to study with his friend. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. that might work. If the man gets up early. First. so we can study together!
W: M: W:
M: W: M: W:
Q5 --. Opinion 1: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. I see.
Q5 --. Like. Both classes are pretty hard. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. If she waits. M: What about my sleep? W: You’re going to have to sacrifice something. I took 201 last semester. W: I know. If he doesn’t have to get up early. too. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. I’m wondering. Second. he will have enough time to improve at football. If the man has tutors. Take one class this term and the other next term. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. but I kind of wanted to get them both out of the way this semester. I’ve only got two terms left to go. and next semester will be my last one before graduation. he can get more sleep. But. he can take history with his friend and complete both classes in one term. she won’t be behind. is Peabody all that bad? Couldn’t you just grin and bear it for one term? I mean. but I just hate that guy! When he taught me in Chemistry 101. If she takes the class this semester. That’s the same time as my Math 101. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. I guess so. here’s another idea. Wendy.practice 1
W: Okay everybody.and I’ve also got to take that! Maybe math is also offered on a Tuesday-Thursday schedule. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. I didn’t think of it. which will help him concentrate better in class. even if she might feel like she’s behind. and I just can’t stand him! M: I see. Also. Hmm. OK. People used to think they were sea monsters. Tyler. she can catch up very quickly. though. he can improve his grades in a short time. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. he will have more time to concentrate on each class and can earn higher marks. we all get stuck with teachers we don’t like. have you got a moment? M: Sure.
Q6 --. we’ll be talking about a type of squid that probably none of you has tasted. he gave me a C! M: Wendy. What’s up? Is everything all right? W: I don’t know what to do. Me.
Opinion 2: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. with a different professor she might get a higher mark. but then I’ll be behind. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. First. if I have to choose between math and history. First. Well. she needs to learn to get along with teachers and bosses she doesn’t like.. I’m doing great.. um. you could wait and take the class next semester. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. If he is able to take math on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Mondays. show of hands please. If he takes one mandatory class each term. First. which one should I take this term? History. From 6 to 8 or something. Or. sure. no one really knew much about giant squid. she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. It might be better to spread them out.. Second. Wednesdays. good. Second. W: Sure. or not believe in them at all. I thought about that. Are you going to take world history this term? No.two
. so your studies each term will be less difficult. First. I have to take Chemistry 202 before I can graduate.practice 3
W: M: W: M: W: M: Hi. I think the first solution is better than the second one. so he’ll be rested for football. he suggests that she take the class next semester. and Fridays.
Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. Did you check and see? No. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. Part of education is learning to live with that. Yeah. Well. We’ll be examining the giant squid. W: What? M: Maybe you deserved it. Today. Jenny. of course. but Professor Peabody’s teaching it this semester. What if Peabody’s still teaching 202 then? M: Mmmm. Also. I want to take 202 before I forget what I learned. Well. you could get up early every day and practice before classes. First. The man suggests two solutions to the problem.practice 2
W: Hey Mark. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. That way you’ll still be able to take both of them this year. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. Second.. I know. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. For a long time. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. and the other next term. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. Second. See. and the other next term. Second. he suggests that she take the class next semester. How many of you like to eat squid? Some of you. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. The morning exercise will clear his mind. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science..m. How are you? Hey. I can’t! Why not? You know we’re supposed to take it freshman year. but the problem is that it’s only offered at 10 a. right? M: Um.
quite correctly. what he did. that natural processes formed the Causeway. They brought the two bodies back.
Q6 --. He explained how the parts of any machine worked. Since then. The truth was. innovative ways. Then. Well. Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer. In fact. it’s simply a fascinating geological discovery. in. Some people believed a legend that suggested the Giant’s Causeway was made by a giant. One reason I enjoy writing poetry is because it lets me create something beautiful. we know the truth. leaders were really looking for scientific ways to modernize. sailors were the ones who first captured giant squid and allowed them to be measured or given to scientific academies. The speaker concludes that all his life. I do this all the time without getting paid because I enjoy writing poetry. The 660
Q1 --. Because the whales eat the squid. no one back then really knew for sure. the Causeway’s real origin remained pretty much a mystery up until modern scientists gave us definite answers. this still remained a mystery for a long time. scientists can estimate the size of giant squid by measuring squid parts found inside whale stomachs. The speaker explains that nobody knew for sure how it was formed until modern geologists provided the real answer. In fact. Some said men with tools formed the Causeway.
. some French sailors caught one of the arms of a giant squid and gave it to the French Academy of Science. In 1861. was develop modern techniques to solve existing problems. The link between whales and squid has also been better understood thanks to Russian sailors. in effect. All the big debates about the Causeway’s origins started in the 1600s. He developed mirrors for Pope Leo X in Rome. some Russian sailors witnessed a struggle between a whale and a giant squid in which both died. Leonardo was the first to explain how machines could be improved or invented. Nowadays. Another reason I enjoy writing poetry is because I can think about things in a new way. huh? Since we hardly ever see squid. Its discovery by the Bishop of Derry in 1692 made the Causeway famous. Leonardo died in 1519 while serving as scientific counselor to King Francis I. Sample response: This lecture is about Leonardo da Vinci’s life as an engineer.practice 3
M: So. So. This gave him a really high profile and put him in great demand as an engineer for powerful leaders. it forms large crystal rocks that crack and result in the many joined columns we see in the Causeway.practice 1
Sample response: One kind of work I am willing to do even if I never get paid for it is writing poetry. The speaker’s next point is that whales are especially helpful in studying squid. He explains that many different theories on the Giant’s Causeway’s origin were being debated after it was discovered in the 1600s. Years later. ummm. Theories written about it by several natural scientists started the debates. All his life. During his time. When I think about things in new. 1965. Whales hunt squid and the sizes of squid can be estimated by measuring parts of squid found in whale stomachs. It’s still the largest one ever measured. Leonardo’s big engineering breakthrough was writing the first systematic explanation of how machines worked. while leaders were looking for scientific ways to modernize. Whales can also carry cameras.
speaker then explains how Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer for powerful leaders and on special projects. These two things are sailors and whales. even boring things around my house become inspiring. Sample response: This lecture is about the origins of the Giant’s Causeway. we know the truth about how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. allowing scientists to study squid underwater more closely. it gives them a good feeling in their heart. They compare the Causeway’s origin to what’s happening in Hawaii right now. The speaker says that for a long time nobody really knew how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. There were a lot of different opinions and stories.things helped scientists learn more about giant squid: the capture of squid by sailors and the study of whales. and how each part could be combined differently to improve the machine or build new inventions. and it helped us see the link between these animals. Sample response: This lecture is about giant squid. his engineering had been in bigger demand than his art. A year later. He worked for powerful leaders and on special projects. So. His work in engineering showed that he had the set of skills that powerful leaders wanted. Leonardo the engineer was in bigger demand than Leonardo the artist. some fishermen caught an 18-meter-long squid. we now know that squid can grow as long as 40 meters! Can you imagine that? Something to think about next time you’re at the beach. how was the Giant’s Causeway formed? Well.practice 2
W: Leonardo da Vinci spent most of his life working as an engineer. nowadays. The speaker explains that Leonardo made breakthroughs in engineering. When lava cools quickly by contact with water. Geologists explain that it was formed by volcanic activity in much the same way we see in Hawaii right now. he supervised the huge project to divert the River Arno. cameras have been tied to whales so we can study where squid live and check out how they behave.. All the theories that followed its discovery only started big debates about its origins. Others argued. Once word got around.. Now. basically. When people create something beautiful. Modern geologists know for sure the Causeway was formed by volcanic activity. The speaker says that two things have helped scientists learn more about giant squid. too. So. sperm whales have helped us learn a lot about giant squid. Leonardo’s engineering skills were in bigger demand than his art. even after its discovery in the 1600s. Leonardo was Military Engineer for Cesar Borgia. First. Leonardo thus had the set of skills that leaders wanted. So. What made Leonardo well-known were his breakthroughs in engineering. the Causeway isn’t a mystery anymore. Sailors helped scientists learn a lot about giant squid. Many people believed a legend that a giant named Finn McCool made the Causeway and named it. He came up with modern techniques to deal with existing problems.
reduces traffic.practice 3
Sample response: I think that watching too much television has produced several bad
. building a subway is better than increasing the number of buses. I spent most of the time lying in my sleeping bag trying to stay warm. So. First of all. Secondly. children just sit at home and watch them on TV. Sports cars. It’s too much like the food I used to eat in my high school cafeteria. watching too much television has resulted in lower levels of physical health among children. my brother’s car broke down.
Q3 --. so my brother and I have known my friend for many years.Q1 --. You think having those places on campus is better than having a cafeteria in the Student Center? Sure. Lastly. Which option are you going to vote for? I’m going to vote to close the cafeteria and open a deli and barbecue grill on campus.practice 2
Sample response: I’m glad the government is finally going to address the transportation issue. while the subway. This means that children are learning behavior from television. M: Shoot. The reason he doesn’t like the cafeteria is that it is too crowded and there is no place to put his bike. better food. In my opinion. I talked with my brother. Parents and children just watch silently rather than sharing their thoughts and experiences. The important topic I needed to talk about was an argument I’d had with my friend. not from their parents. Also. First of all. we all grew up together. when he was born. He prefers Option 2 because he wants more variety. they don’t get enough exercise. I think they look more impressive than SUVs. These bad. many jobs require oral presentations. See. I like variety. We couldn’t hike or swim.practice 1
Sample response: I think oral presentations are more beneficial for students than writing papers. I thought I could spend a lot of time with him and teach him things. Finally. you know. Though a subway requires a lot of money to build. They burn less fuel than SUVs. I don’t like the food in the cafeteria.practice 2
W: Did you hear that they’re raising the student gym fee next semester? M: Oh. You can go fast. I can never find a place to park my bike during lunch. or negative effects are damaging families and children. man! Really? W: Yeah. it is cheaper over time. In addition. and a less crowded place to eat. they are too large and cumbersome. I better understood my friend’s point of view during our argument.practice 4
Sample response: The worst vacation I ever had to endure was a camping trip with my brother and a friend. It is important for older family members to guide and teach younger family members. Another reason I don’t like the cafeteria is because it’s always so crowded. The fact that children grow up quickly is another reason why I regret spending too little time with my cousin when he was young. the better! Besides. Another reason is oral presentations are interesting and educational for the other students who listen to them.
Q1 --. buses run on fuel that pollutes the air. I don’t think the cafeteria food is so bad. In addition. the more food choices to select from. I often regret the many occasions I could have spent time with him but was preoccupied with something else instead. We had to walk five kilometers to get help.
Q2 --. The man likes this option because it adds several more places to get food. M: I’m already living on a tight budget. These days. First of all. are fun to drive. In my opinion. spending a lot of time with him may be more difficult. Second.
Q1 --. After talking with my brother. I was going to vote this afternoon after my history class. to compound the problem. He will not vote for Option 1 because he doesn’t like the cafeteria. it’s going up to $15 a term. W: It’s only $3. Too many students try to eat there all at the same time. the worst effect has resulted in families not communicating much anymore. which makes them difficult to park. Instead of playing sports. and they’re much easier to park. SUVs do not get good gas mileage. so it’s more efficient. To top it off.
effects on society. a subway train can carry many more people than a bus. Then.practice 2
Sample response: What I regret the most was not spending enough time with my cousin when he was young.
Sample response: The man’s opinion about the campus food service is that Option 2 is better. In fact.practice 4
Sample response: If I won some money. I don’t know if I can afford that. the wet weather made me sick. my friend and I had an argument. there are lots of reasons we should close the cafeteria and vote for Option 2. Finally. I was no longer angry with my friend.practice 1
W: M: W: M: W: M: Are you going to vote about whether or not to close the cafeteria? Yeah. Because of my brother’s aid. oral presentations are easier in that they take less time to prepare and put less emphasis on grammar than papers do. I think they’re ugly. it rained heavily the whole three days. Once my cousin is older. I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. when we finally left for home.practice 3
Sample response: The last time I needed to talk about an important topic. I don’t have a job. increasing the number of buses also increases traffic on the streets. so we stopped speaking to each other. I chose to talk to my brother at that time because my brother is very familiar with my friend. First.
Q3 --. so students can improve their communication skills and develop confidence by speaking publicly as a student.
Q2 --. on the other hand. while a subway is clean and efficient.
Q2 --. This is regrettable because. in contrast.
They thought the tower would destroy Paris’s beautiful landscape. you’ll have to stay awake or the professor will see you. Plants have natural chemicals in them to protect them from diseases and insects. And so we can go on and say that the reasons for opposing the Eiffel Tower back then are no longer valid today. I don’t know if that will work for me. Where do you sit in your history class? At the back of the room. Do you have any other ideas? Well. Why do you say that? M: It’s healthier for us and healthier for the plants. She says that using chemicals is okay if they are used correctly. As farming developed in the past. In fact. $15 is still a good deal. I just don’t like them jacking up fees all the time. the tower has come to represent. farmers used chemicals found in nature. farmers used other natural chemicals to help plants fight diseases and insects better. Perfectly true. but we can’t play there if it’s raining. Sample response: The speaker talks about organic gardening and using chemicals in gardens. but that’s more expensive. Sample response: The man decides that he will pay the higher fee to use the gymnasium.practice 1
M: W: M: W: M: W: M: How is your history class. and I lift weights there too. think about this. These man-made chemicals fight plant diseases and insects more effectively than natural chemicals.
Q5 --. W: Well. we see that all those reasons are no longer valid. W: M:
. we have man-made chemicals. Finally. These natural chemicals help the plant fight diseases and insects. What did you do? I got to know this smart girl who sat in front of me. That means I miss a lot of the notes. although organic farming has some benefits.and what about weights? W: Seems like you’ll have to pay the fee. I had a problem like that with my math class. I would agree with you that having built the Eiffel Tower was a good idea. the Eiffel Tower has become the ultimate symbol for the city of Paris. farmers discovered that they could grow more crops by using other chemicals to help plants fight diseases and insects better.
Sample response: Parisians were opposed to building the Eiffel Tower for several reasons. Most of the students sitting near me have the same problem I have. you should try to take as many notes as you can. like sulphur. personally. They usually fall asleep too. There are other things involved with organic gardening.. I think they were wrong. So. Long ago. M: Sure. putting it another way. and that building it was a good idea. So. In the past. far from destroying the landscape of Paris. First. Its “ugly” skeletal design is today considered the world’s finest example of 19th century industrial architecture. though. but proved very useful over the years and even right now is used for broadcasting French Radio and Television. Hm. How do you all feel about organic gardening? Or. OK. do you think building the Eiffel Tower was a good idea? Well. you can’t fall asleep. The gym is close. Try sitting at the front of the class. it now represents it. And why do you say that? Because now everyone seems to like the Eiffel Tower. but let’s start with this basic idea. so farmers can grow plants better today than in the past. Are they harmful for the plants and unhealthy for us? I would argue no. the gym is still the best bargain. W: OK. This eventually led to farmers using man-made chemicals today. So.W: So what are you going to do? You love to play basketball at the gym! M: Yep. how do we all feel about using chemicals to control plant diseases in gardens? M: I think it’s best not to use any chemicals. M: I’ll pay it because it’s still cheap and the gym’s convenient. then how about this. Do you think those who opposed building the Eiffel Tower were right? In other words. I’m not totally against using chemicals in gardens. It was thought useless. as long as they are used correctly. of course. I guess my beer fund will have to absorb the loss. Then. The first factor he considers is whether he can afford the new fee. Even if the information doesn’t seem that important.
Q4 --. Even though it’s only $3 more. What is the problem? My professor’s lectures are boring! I fall asleep every day in class. but I found a good way to solve that problem.. Tanya? Terrible! I have a big problem with that class. rather than destroy.practice 2
W: When people think of the Eiffel Tower they usually think of Paris. and they fight diseases and insects better than anything in nature. if I go to the gym at the YMCA they’re going to charge me a lot more. They considered the design to be like an ugly skeleton.. When you’re actively writing things. And while you’re sitting there.
M: W: M: W: M:
Q4 --. the skeletal design once considered ugly is now the world’s nicest example of 19th century industrial architecture. W: You could play for free on the high school playground. He considers using the YMCA.practice 1
W: When most people think about organic gardening. In the end. W: Well. let me think. he decides that even with the new fee.
M: W: M: W:
Let’s start with a basic question. I mean. What am I going to do? Well. A nearby high school has basketball courts. In the lecture. They also thought the tower would be useless. The professor points out that plants have natural chemicals in them. the landscape of Paris. he doesn’t have a job. instead of being useless. I guess. Today. Second. and he can play there even if it rains. the tower has been very useful for broadcasting. She let me borrow her notes.. I guess I would make more of an effort not to sleep if I were sitting in the front row. The second factor he considers is convenience. I don’t want the professor to see me sleeping. First. we’ve read that Parisians were opposed to building the tower and wanted it destroyed after it was done. All right. they usually think of gardening without chemicals. keep writing. Don’t you think? M: I suppose so. However. we got to be really good friends from that class. good. I appreciate your assistance. but they are outside and he can’t lift weights there.
Today we’re going to learn about telescopes. the city of Berlin was divided into four parts. logically enough. It helped him make several important discoveries. Since then. Today. here is another idea. One thing the woman suggests is joining her study group that meets for an hour or two every week to discuss the readings. which he used to study the stars. Now. and that the sun and other planets moved around it. It also gives you insights and ideas you’d probably miss in the book itself. No. and the fact that planets move around the sun. telescopes have gotten increasingly powerful. think about this. they weren’t drunk. and finally one that magnified objects 33 times. so they moved to the west side. the people of Berlin themselves basically destroyed the wall that had divided their city for decades. It will solve the man’s problem because in short amounts of time he will hear and discuss key points in the readings with others and remember them more easily.
Galileo used his large telescope to study the stars. it made them appear three times larger. Great Britain.. well. then only the book’s key passages. M: All right. I just don’t have time to read all the books we’re assigned. he discovered the four largest moons around the planet Jupiter. Then he saw strange spots on the sun. It helped him discover many important things. His first telescope magnified images three times. Doing this is a lot faster. formed a totalitarian government and communist economy in West Berlin. Great Britain. It stood in the city for many years.. travel restrictions between East and West Germany were lifted. One part was controlled by each of the countries that won the war. Now. and the US brought East Berlin a democratic government and capitalist economy. Read quick summaries or critical notes. W: No sweat. but the Berlin Wall was built to keep people in a place. the coach is pushing us to get ready for a tournament. but people finally tore it down at the end of the 1980s. I don’t know.Sample response: In this listening passage. Count me in. Talking about this stuff is also the best way to remember it. another war began in Europe: the Cold War. quiet please. he proved that all planets in our solar system move around the sun.
Q6 --. Scott! You didn’t look too happy in philosophy class. orbits the Earth in space and is used to study the furthest sections of the universe. About 1608. and. sun spots. As more and more people moved out. and we relate them to lecture topics that are going to be on the tests. the professor talks about telescopes. The man offers suggestions to solve the problem. M: I guess it would save me reading time if I could hear and discuss ideas in the books with others. W: Why. The main point the professor makes about the Berlin Wall is that it was built to keep people in West Berlin. It was built during the Cold War in the 1960s. M: Hmm. Sample response: In this lecture. It sounds like it’s still a lot of reading and a bit complicated too. Sample response: In this lecture. This will solve the woman’s problem because she will worry about the professor seeing her sleep and she will keep active by writing a lot. That’s G-A-L-I-L-E-O.practice 1
M: OK. I had that problem with basketball and literature last year. France. and the US. the Soviet Union realized they had to stop this. The problem the woman has is that she is bored and falls asleep in class. called the Hubble telescope. the Soviet Union. W: OK. It trapped people in West Berlin. even before I was born --. Meanwhile. The professor points out that the Berlin Wall was destroyed in one weekend. in ancient times --. The Berlin Wall stood and actually grew over the next two decades.practice 2
W: Hi. that is. These caught the attention of an Italian scientist named Galileo.people believed that the Earth stood still. All during the 1950s.practice 2
W: After World War II. First. His problem is that he has no time to read any of the books being assigned. the professor describes the Berlin Wall. M: Really? How did you handle it? W: Well. craftsmen in Holland invented glass lenses that made objects appear larger and nearer. he called sunspots. is in space orbiting the Earth. The Soviet Union. people living in the communist part of Berlin could see that life was better for people living in the capitalist part of the city.. They were losing all of their workers.
Q6 --. Finally. Over the next two years. Sample response: The man in the conversation tells the woman he has a problem in philosophy class. Since then.what’s the matter? M: I bombed the mid-term exam. the woman describes a problem she’s having in her class. Now. such as four of Jupiter’s moons. One thing that the man suggests is for the woman to sit in the front of the class and try to take lots of notes. What’s going on? M: I’m having a rough time in that class. France. which. telescopes have become more and more powerful. It helps us learn about the furthest parts of the universe. Today our largest telescope.yes. These spots helped him conclude that the sun spins on its axis. in 1989. called the Hubble telescope. a huge telescope.
. He soon made a more powerful telescope. the Berlin Wall went up.
Q5 --. We meet once or twice a week at my place and sit around talking about the readings for an hour or so. Most walls are built to keep people out of some place. They just didn’t have any telescopes. He made the first working telescope by fitting two lenses at either end of a long tube. but you all know that after World War II. During the Cold War. I think this is a good suggestion. over one weekend.. you don’t need to read entire books page by page to understand them. How about coming to my study group. in contrast. The first telescope was made about 1608 by the Italian scientist Galileo. This is a good idea. and I’ve got tennis practice every day. people in Berlin could travel around the city freely. In 1961. Key points of readings get covered. W: It’s fast and fun. Later. but I found a good way to handle it. he made telescopes that magnified eight times. right after the war.
2. as quick as a fox 2. a history of England 4. 6. /d/. 5. on top of the world 3. 2. 6. she immediately ran to her car. 8. The test will be two hours long. when we finally left for home my brother’s car wouldn’t start. 6. it was closed. 8. the happy couple walked slowly from the church. 6.Chapter 3
Step 1 --. 8. b. When I went to the store. 4. 5. 664 a. and /s/
1. 4. 5. We pray. 2. 8. land of the rising sun 5. It was raining so hard all day that they didn’t leave the house. Look at that big berry.Stress related to parts of words
1. 5. and will count for 25 percent. 4. 7. 5. 10. put down your books. both uploads and downloads 10. a. Sam is reading about the history of Canada. Homework is necessary in school. it can lead to lung and heart problems in later life. Professor Brown will be absent all of next week. the student fees will increase by 20%. 3. b. in the heat of the moment 9.Commonly mispronounced sounds: /l/ and /r/
1. 3. a. 5. Let’s eat some meat. 7. 4. 3. a.
Step 4 --. a. 4. 5. Although we hadn’t finished. 3. slip leave wheel fool bin peel seek pull sleep live will full bean pill sick pool
1. Did you hear the lion roar? If you dance. and slowly leave the building. you will enjoy it. we decided to go home. b. 2. not only an MP3 player but a camera Sentences 1.Final consonant sounds
1. 3. 6. b. b. the eye of the storm 7. a. 2. I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. He lent a car. I broke the dish set. He feels better than yesterday. 7. I ate the last of the pie. That hat is black. 9. They waited over two hours to see him.Stress related to content words
Phrases 1. Beginning next term. 4. b. a. better than the rest 8. 5.Long and short vowel sounds
1. not play. When she stepped off the boat. 4. taught thigh boss skate sank though thin torn thought sigh both scathe thank dough sin thorn
1. The professor gave us a deadline. The government’s attempt to raise taxes resulted in a loss of popularity. b. b. If the alarm rings. Much study and hard work can lead to a good education and a bright future. 2. If a person smokes. 6. 7.Commonly mispronounced sounds: /th/. Dan likes jazz and pop. b.
Step 2 --. biology environment advantage benefit responsible invite flexible admire prefer negotiate b. I like rivers. 2. 6. on Sundays.
Due to illness. 2. biological environmental advantageous beneficial responsibility invitation flexibility admiration preferable negotiation
Step 1 --. last of the candy 6. To top it off. 4. 3. a. a. 3.
Step 2 --. When the wedding was over.
Step 3 --. If I won some money. 3. The pretty flowers are growing.
A fez is the traditional red felt hat worn by Turkish men in the past.
M: We now know that the Vikings sailed to North America from Iceland about 500 years before Columbus reached the continent. Many facts in the diary were accurate.that is. They’re all tiny. He wrote of a voyage in 1477 to a place that might have been Iceland.for several reasons. people don’t actually die from skin cancer. there’s a lot more English content online than content in other languages. but we have to know how to use it. Women in head scarves give the people of Turkey an old-fashioned or uncivilized image. Let’s look at both sides of the nuclear power question. it might not have. Pluto has a tilted orbit. Hmmm. a mailbox. Business and Hollywood are probably the reasons that first come to mind. England. Without face-to-face contact. These are some good reasons for using it. As more and more people get connected online. Those are real problems. most of you probably think of problems or dangers related to the content of the Internet. It’s true that sunlight may cause skin cancer. but others were dead wrong. Or maybe you think of health problems like muscle strain or eye strain from staying up all night playing games online. As this writer once said. Clearly. And those two reasons were basically what drove the spread of English after World War II. widespread --. “To be civilized. did Columbus follow their directions? Some historians assert that Columbus visited Iceland 15 years before he sailed to America. it’s not uncommon to get millions of hits for any given search. though. In the early 20th century. called the Kuiper Belt. It can even do this after passing through glass. It’s like having a newspaper. People also recover faster in hospitals where there is more sunlight. Many people don’t think it should be used because of this. something none of the other planets have. they keep detecting objects very similar to Pluto---I mean similar in size. But. there are still lots of people who want to keep Pluto as a planet. we’re not sure if Columbus did reach Iceland. I see this as a real danger. All those tiny objects are out in the same area of space. But if you search in English. It is indeed an incredibly convenient thing to have in your home. One important reason why some countries were slow to develop nuclear energy is that it’s very dangerous. a television. And in fact. Sunlight can kill germs or bacteria that cause sickness. For this reason maybe Pluto should just be called a comet instead of a planet. so the mystery remains unsolved. Another key factor driving the spread of English today is the Internet. Maybe we should reconsider our new idea that sunlight is harmful.
W: Russia was the first country to make nuclear power for everyday use. So this strange. however. And speaking of that. a movie theater. Because there is a machine between them. In fact. it’s not just Pluto’s size and shape that make it look like a comet. a telephone.
W: The Net is the most amazing invention of our lifetime. But another reason is also important today. and it is possible that he even saw Viking maps of it. an encyclopedia. Now. Illness from germs found within hospitals is the fourth leading cause of death in America. Now when I say it comes at a price. they forget the human behind those messages in the chat window. Why are some scientists now changing their minds about Pluto’s classification as a planet. A more serious problem that I would like to discuss is the social problem of the Net. The question is.
W: Sunlight can be a medicine. There’s also only a very small amount of waste left after it’s made. Despite all of this new evidence. you have to look like a Western person.
M: American English has become so ubiquitous --. and a supermarket all rolled into one. So way out at the edge of our solar system are all these other objects in space about the same size and shape as Pluto. Nuclear power is very inexpensive to make and doesn’t create any air pollution. But sunlight can also keep people from getting many diseases. The only evidence is in Columbus’s diary. people can forget that at the other side of that computer screen is a real person with real emotions. scientists have been telling us that Pluto is a planet. you know that you’re lucky if you get a couple of thousand hits.
M: For over seven decades now. It is now possible for someone to sit at home in front of their computer and shop or chat or even play interactive card games without ever meeting another person face-to-face. The waste is a deadly poison. and many other countries followed. a lot of those things seem to fit our definition of comets. If true. One famous writer who studies Turkish politics says head scarves tarnish the modern image of Turkey. the majority of that English content available is in American English. this is not the first time Turkey has outlawed a fashion to change its image. but nobody is calling those things planets. the United States. Most of the time.” And in fact. tilted orbit makes Pluto seem even more like a comet than a planet.
you ask? Well. they disconnect with society. The Internet isolates users outside of or away from society. On the bright side. This might have given him the idea to explore that land.Writing
W: What is the big deal about Muslim women wearing head scarves in class? The big deal appears to be image. Then again. they say maybe it isn’t. It can harm us if we’re not careful. it seems they can’t make up their minds. Hospitals with less sunlight have more germs. hospitals with more sunlight have fewer germs. There is one main reason for not using it. the Turkish government made it illegal for men to wear a fez in public. it’s likely he heard the people there tell stories about this land to the west. Have you ever done an Internet search in a language other than English? If you have. But that convenience comes at a price.
In response.they think GM foods will increase the number of goods in richer countries --. however. Today. Doctors and health trainers now say you should focus on taking your time while exercising. So we’ve read about some of the merits of GM. more products from farms will only provide more food to already rich countries.
crops cause problems in farming and that they are unnecessary. They have also found clues that suggest some dinosaurs were killed suddenly. researchers looked at women who walked a certain distance quickly versus women who walked the same distance slowly. Now comes the fun part --. The cost of living was so high that many could not pay their rent. clean-water management. This means you can exercise longer. The faster you exercise. In this study. we will consider the opposite side. plants. These were big issues. Nuclear waste will break down and finally become harmless.. they also believe that taxpayers’ money would be better invested in trying to solve these issues. They don’t believe GM foods will feed the Third World --. poor Romans became angry and refused to defend the Empire. that is.. In some places.ummm. Similarly. So. Natural crops look fine and taste better. Such impacts could have changed the weather quite suddenly. History. More taxes were raised in cities to pay the new troops and conditions there kept getting worse and worse. The point the environmentalists are making. the rise in world population could be slowed by better handling global issues in agriculture. As things turned out. they believe that more could be invested on developing the Earth's natural resources as well as on programs to increase recycling and reusing. To begin with. there are huge holes. most Romans were poor and life in the cities was terrible. but now many of them are changing their tune. the government began hiring soldiers from foreign countries. These physical changes are actually healthy changes for the body! For example. conditions in cities never improved. and birth control. the doctors found that the slow walkers actually lost more weight than the fast walkers! The difference seemed to be that slow walkers spent more time walking because they found it stimulating. in comparison. though. opponents of space exploration contend that we should deal with world problems here on Earth before thinking about space. The waste has to be buried in very durable boxes. one study looked at women who walked. many people. This will also make you want to wait longer before you exercise the next time. They can see that many animals have disappeared. we’re going to look at the opposite side of the issue. the armies became harder to control and even more expensive to keep. Of course. where objects from space have hit the Earth.. environmental groups don’t think the higher quantities and better quality achieved by genetically modifying foods are necessary. As one can guess. Surprisingly. poor conditions in cities and over-spending on armies. but more natural ways of farming.
M: OK. This probably made the Earth a very dark place for a long time.Accidents can happen while handling this waste. called craters. in their opinion. If a huge rock from space hit the Earth here. and that helped them lose more weight.the side in favor of government spending on exploration.you’ve read how some believe decay in morals and values led to the fall of Rome. class --.
W: OK. Why. Also. we see Rome had two serious problems affecting daily life and the economy --. That means any dinosaurs that weren’t killed by floods or the explosion after when the Earth was hit were killed by cold weather and lack of food after all the plants died. is that it’s not more technology that we need. the poor get poorer. Naturally. Doctors have found that physical changes occur in the body even with very light exercise. The fast walkers were obviously exercising. Using photos of Earth taken from space. They were basically walking for enjoyment. especially when you’re not in good shape to start with.
M: Some people say dinosaurs died out gradually because Earth changed slowly.you know the old saying. Umm. Others say that a sudden change killed them all at once. It costs a great deal to make the buildings safe where nuclear power is created. They believe GM crops make farming too scientific for farmers’ regular abilities. The slow walkers were usually just walking with friends and talking. Who'd like to begin?
W: Experts used to say that people had to exercise vigorously for any health benefit. giant clouds of steam and dust probably flew up into the atmosphere. They argue that there are better and safer ways to make crops resistant to natural enemies and to reduce chemicals in the land. "The rich get richer. one problem environmental groups mention is that farming is already too technological. that is. should the threat of over-population make it necessary to try and colonize other planets? Instead. shows us that the living conditions in cities and too much military spending were bigger reasons for the fall. the sooner you’ll want to quit."
M: You should have read one side of the space exploration debate already --. no real affect on the fall of Rome. money was needed to improve life in cities. and animals have already been hurt by it. genetically modified. Environmental groups believe GM
. They worked hard and lived in small crowded apartments. such as bio-natural farming. Scientists study the very old bones of animals in rocks. Thus. Today.we’ll be discussing which side of the argument you agree with and why. scientists have found a huge crater in the ocean near Mexico. and to decrease consumption. but not until it has been in the ground for a very long time.. Ummm.to begin. Furthermore. they ask. foods. Decay in morals and values had. almost all public money went to the military. we'll discuss bio-natural farming in more detail next class. Let’s see. In fact.
too! Can you see yourself in the winter. That wouldn’t be very much money for another couple of years. if it’s not needed to keep us cool.well. We all know the salty taste of sweat. dark brown and off-white can be found in cloth traditionally woven in the region. that’s another story. sweating. So we can do some cool stuff with our drama club! Remember that idea we had to do Shakespeare plays in present day settings? W: Yes. isn’t it? The terms “mouse” and “rat” are not scientific classifications. too. it has a straight part. such as blankets or carpets. Most embroidery uses strands of thread or wool. Hand embroidery has become more of a hobby than a regular occupation. Rat! How about this one? Rat! Mouse! Ah! It’s hard to tell. they’ll sweat as much as two to three liters per hour. A lot more comes out onto our skin. when it’s hot or we are exercising --. When we have very strong feelings. of course! That’s why I was looking on the website! M: Good thinking. It starts this year. it could. The Bradford Carpet covers an entire wall.Practice Test --. Of course. but as a table covering. Then. they can’t take as much of it back in again. it means a lot more money for things like that. There are many different kinds of rats: kangaroo rats. and that’s a good thing. The glands bring in sweat in the coiled part. That seems to be the most that people can sweat. in honor of Queen Elizabeth. it moves from the coiled part up to the straight part. including leather. but embroidery could use different materials. every new student at our university pays $15 into the fund.
M1: W: M2: M1: W: M2: M1: Look closely at this picture. M: Wow! Let’s do it! What is the web site again? W: It’s the Ohio Union Activities Board. if it’s not already. they’re looking for student organizations right now. So. French soldiers from the region of Normandy defeated the English army under King Harold. We use “mouse” to describe tiny rodents with long. Unfortunately. It goes around in circles. Is it a mouse or a rat? It’s a mouse. so our university president is putting in a bunch more money. The Bayeux Tapestry used wool that had been colored with vegetable dyes. Then. One of the most famous embroidered artworks is called the Bayeux Tapestry --. In fact. Embroidery designs are usually stitched into a woven fabric. There. but it was originally made not as a carpet. pack rats. field mice.
W: We are always sweating. Sandy! How do we officially register our club? W: There’s a form we fill out on the web site. their bodies change. The carpet shows countryside life in a simple. Why can’t we have more plays and art fairs and dances? W: You’re right. It’s the major way that our bodies get rid of extra heat. Inside our bodies are small things called glands. It was stitched on a canvas --like a painting --.5 meters wide. We sweat different amounts at different times. Embroidery has traditionally been used to decorate clothing and household furnishings such as tablecloths. They’re giving $500 to each registered student organization. Embroidery has also been used as an art form and for decoration. They use it to make sweat. EM-BROY-DUH-REE.and uses silk thread. Now. such as wire or leather strands. machines embroider most of our clothing today.
Another famous embroidered artwork is the Bradford Carpet. The colors of mustard yellow. we should get our drama club registered. we can ask for $3. I was looking at the university web site.lifting weights maybe? How would you feel if you didn’t sweat at all? People who live in cold places only sweat about one liter per hour. we sweat more.B-A-Y-E-U-X. etc. not much sweat reaches our skin when it’s cool. It’s 70 meters long and 0. etc. As it dries. This tapestry is like a huge blanket. But you can embroider anything as long as it is made from an evenly woven fabric and can be held firmly in the hand or in a special embroidery hoop. this is very good for us. Some of these different rodent species that we call rats and mice are closely related. thin tails. We call this style Elizabethan embroidery. What is it? Embroidery is needlework in which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material onto a layer of another material. thin tails. In the Battle of Hastings. There are many different embroidery styles and stitching techniques. We use “rat” to describe medium. M: What do you mean? W: Well. Then. They’re words common people use to distinguish these two rodents. too.Listening
01 Campus Life
M: We don’t have nearly enough things to do for fun on campus. it helps us stay cool. you’ll recall. When the weather is hot or if we move a lot. even when we don’t notice it. So. but other rodent species are not related to each other at all! 667
. M: You don’t think our drama club will really get any of the money. I get it. we might sweat more. There are many different kinds of mice: house mice. The glands make a lot more sweat. In about six weeks. towels and bedding. it can be taken back in again. It has salt and some other materials in it. Can you see yourself at the gym working out --. But did you know about the new student activity fee? M: So what! What’s the good of it? W: Well. We know that sweat is mainly water because it feels wet. M: Really! How come they have so much money? W: Well. realistic way. So. Norway rats. M: Oh. These glands get water and other materials from our blood.
M: Embroidery is today’s topic. black rats. felt. olive-green. It’s coming from other programs at the university. It was made in England in the year 1077. The bottom part is coiled. do you? W: Well. but if they move to a hot place. It has 58 scenes that tell the story of the events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066. It would be very hard to get warm! Now. deer mice. It was made in England in the late 17th Century. cotton rats. putting on heavy clothing to keep warm? But there you are.or large-sized rodents with long. Body heat comes from moving or from taking in food. look at the picture of a sweat gland. and plastic.500 more after that! We just have to come up with a special program. but designs can be embroidered onto many materials.
but I play a lot of sports on the weekend and hang out with my friends. I know. I think these scholarships should be based on merit. Um. the advertising might have carried over to the historians who reported the gardens. to be honest. not on the grades earned by the student. one reason he had these gardens built was to keep his wife happy and help maintain Babylon’s strong relationship with her homeland. M: Why not? You’re an excellent student. W: Yeah. however. Humans and horses. class. The biggest one ever uncovered was actually over seventy meters long and was probably owned by a king. Paul. I’m a little worried about the exams we have soon. but my mom is a fairly successful dentist.
M: Today. That’s exactly right. about twenty or thirty oarsmen. A Norway rat weighs between 350 and 450 grams for females. belong to different species. I don’t like this kind of scholarship. travel the seas. My boss wants me to work in the restaurant four weeknights each week. that’s a great idea. What do your parents do? W: Well. and you still have your job. with pointed muzzles. from what we’ve studied about the marriages of nobles. Note. That way you can study each night during the week and keep your job at the restaurant. but what else do you know about them? Most people think these ships were only used to um. That way you have your weekend free. what’s this? Class (in unison): Mouse! M1: And this? Class (unison): Rat!
a small village by a river and one of those massive ships suddenly appearing in front of you with two hundred Viking warriors? Pretty scary. who can tell me why Nebuchadnezzar might marry a woman from far away? W: To help Babylon? Like to make powerful friends or trade partners with another area. Can you imagine living in
. M: Really? That’s a pity. though. Why don’t you ask your boss if you can work on the weekend instead.
W: Hey. today we will be talking about the Vikings and their drakkar. The heads of Norway rats are heavy and chunky.
Practice Test --. W: Didn’t you hear? They’re not awarding them based on academic performance. Mary. W: True. M: Really? Are you worried about your exams? W: Well. In fact. I’m sure most of you know these ships were used over a millennium ago so the Vikings could raid lands and steal riches. archaeologists excavated Babylon and found the base of the garden building to be only 100 by 150 feet. when people refer to rats and mice they mean pet rats and mice and pest rats and mice. A house mouse weighs about 30 grams. how can we tell Norway rats and house mice apart? First off. huh? Drakkar ships were usually owned by a nobleman because no one else could afford to build one. How about you? W: Oh. M: I see your point. I think you will get one. Now. W: Yeah. my dad is just an editor. these gardens were a show of power-. I don’t know what to do. that Norway rats have smaller ears relative to their heads than house mice. Early reports described the gardens as 400 feet by 400 feet and as tall as 320 feet. This means Norway rats and house mice.Speaking
M: Wow. I just don’t have the time. that’s a good idea. not financial need. I don’t stand a chance. M: I see. M: So? All university students are in financial need. the drakkar ships could travel along rivers that were only one meter deep.a show of wealth that advertised the Babylon way was the right. I doubt it was for tourism. Its body and tail are both about three to four inches long. Even though Norway rats and house rats are different species. for example. that’s great news. how are you? M: Pretty good. It’s when I like to relax. but I think it was to impress and attract others. the powerful way. They both come from a common ancestor that lived millions of years ago. M: Very good. or longships. Can anyone think of another reason he might build a great green garden in the middle of the hot dry Middle East? W: To impress and attract people from other cities? Like tourism? M: That’s a good thought. Like the giant cathedrals built by Christians in Europe. Miss Andrews. The regular ships were um. Now. usually about 28 meters in length and had uh. W: I don’t know. it’s because of my part-time job. but they award this kind of scholarship based on the income of the student’s parents. these gardens were built by King Nebuchadnezzar for his wife. So. W: Not only does this kind of scholarship discriminate against students with wealthy parents. Hmmm. Indeed. but someone has to reward lazy students like me. A species is a group of related individuals that can mate and have babies. who came from a land far from Mesopotamia. Their bodies are 9 to 11 inches long. M: I see. or at least. that sounds like a problem. They’re awarding them based on financial need. why don’t you explain to your boss that you have these exams coming up soon? Maybe you can just work two weeknights. I need that job to buy books and meals. M: Yeah. So. adult house mice are much smaller than adult Norway rats. we’re continuing our series of lectures on the seven wonders of the ancient world with an examination of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. In the late 19th century. especially with the exams coming up. I’m a bit stressed.
W: Good morning. The descendants of that ancestor evolved into different species. much larger ones have been found. I really don’t want to go further into debt with more student loans for next year. and 450 to 650 grams for males. but it rewards lazy students who don’t work as hard. This isn’t true. Thanks! I’ll say that to him tonight.Usually. they are related to each other. As described by Greek historians. Well. Norway rats and house mice belong to different species. The heads of house mice are triangular. However. and their tails are seven to nine inches long.
Today.. but it wasn’t well known in America until 1971. infections. eight cases of punctured lungs. If acupuncture is performed improperly. If you want to try it. People are trying it to cure everything from toothaches to cancer.maybe it is. it’s when they stick needles in your body. What if it’s not? In a Norwegian survey of 197 acupuncturists. Some studies have shown that acupuncture is safe --. China has used acupuncture for over 2. including nerve damage. there were 132 cases of fainting.Practice Test --. Acupuncturists are usually not medical doctors. we don’t know exactly how acupuncture works or why it’s effective. He swears it’s the greatest thing since sliced bread. Can we trust their diagnoses? The National Council Against Health Fraud doesn’t think so. acupuncture has become a popular trend. It warns us that acupuncture is a quote-unquote “unproven”treatment based on quote-unquote “primitive”ideas.
M: OK.000 years. Do you all know what that is? W: Yeah. and 26 cases where pain actually increased after treatment. today’s topic is acupuncture. My uncle used it last year for his arthritis. Hmm. it can cause many different problems. Doctors vibrate the needles. We also don’t know much about the risks involved in acupuncture treatment. and hepatitis B. but in truth. and this relieves pain and promotes healing. when a reporter for the New York Times wrote about how it helped him recover from surgery. the Council suggests you should talk with your family doctor first..If it’s performed by well-trained people. Well. M: Correct.
Building Skills for the TOEFL iBT
Reading Section / Listening Section / Speaking Section / Writing Section
(B) 2. (C) 4. (D) 4. 3. 05 Sunlight
01 Baseball 1. choice B would disrupt the coherence of the reading by introducing a new idea. (A) Why? B only states the topic of the second paragraph. will vary 03 Geology 1. (D) 4. (A)
01 Learning Vocabulary 1. (D) 4. 02 Polar Regions 1. 03 The United Nations 1. (A) 3. (A) 4. (D) 4. (D) 4. (B) 3. will vary 04 Wilderness First Aid 1. (C) 2. (A) 3. (C) 2. The passage says that 70% live in cities near the coast. (D) 3. while A combines the topics of both paragraphs. (C) 2. the Internet. 04 Milk 1.
1. Grind it into fine powder. (D) 3. (C) 3. (B) 2. (C) 2. (B) 3. (B) 2. Choice B does give information about one part of sunlight. (D) 3. (A) Why? Choice A could be removed because it does not give us information about the parts of sunlight. (B) 3. How baseball is different from most sports 02 Biographies 1. (B) 4. (B) 4. (A) Why? Sentence A expresses the main idea of the paragraph. Geology is a young branch of science. something for cuts. (B) 2. (C) 2. (A)
1. (B) 2. (A) 2. (C) 4. (B) How and when milk became an important food for people. this leaves 30% of the population.Reading
05 Exposure 1. (C) 4. (B) 3. It should come after mentioning the secretary. while sentence B only expresses one detail. (C) 2. (B) 4. (B) 4. (B) Why? The word “transportation” is used as an example of how to use word parts to increase vocabulary. The pronouns “him” and “her” give the clue. (A) 2. 03 Chemical Equations 1. 04 Television 1. (B) 2. A group of four musicians in the classical period would most likely play chamber music. medicine for bites/pain. increasing vocabulary is the main idea of the reading. which is the main topic of the reading. (C) 3. 02 Classical Music 1. (B) 3. (C) 3. (A) Why? Choice A is best because it deals with information already introduced in the reading. (C) 2. Let it dry 3.
. (B) 4. (C) 4. a first aid book 05 Pottery 1.
(B) 6. 6.
01 Literature 1. they = dogs. sentences 8 and 11
03 Territories 1. (A) 4. (C) 4. (D) 4. (C). they = people. 10. (B) (D) (D) (B) (A) centuries survive up 3. They = people. will vary 03 Scientific Method
3. 16. 19. They = people.(B). (C) 4. 24. (C) 2. 4. they = people living in territories 04 Ten-Speed Bikes 1. (B)
1. (B) 4. (B) 3. (C) 2. (C) 3. 17. intense. (C) 5. (A) 2. 5. one = a control. (C) 4. 8. (D) 3.(D). true or not. Vitamin D --. (C) 4. (A) 4. (C) 3. (E) 2. (D) 3. (C). 21. (D) 4. them = dogs. (C) 4. express. (D) 4. (A). (B) 2. 14. 7. (A) 2. 05 Flamenco 1. (B) 4. and 7 02 Vitamins 1. (D)
1. (B) 2. 4. (B) 2. (B) 3. their = the friends’ 02 Air Movement 1. (E) 2. it = the bike
. passionate. learned. (A) (C) (A) (B) (C) modern out in
05 Dogs 1. enjoy
01 Oral Reports 1. past experience 04 Humidity 1. sentences 1. (D) 3. They = people. (B) 3. it = the report. 3. 23. (D) (A) (A) (C) (D) real diary up out 2. (A) 3. 11. them = dogs
01 Rome 1. During the night because the air becomes cooler at night and can’t hold as much humidity. Vitamin A --. 13. you = riders/someone. (D) 4. (C) 2. (B) 2. know 02 Guitars
Skill Review 01 Pueblo Silver Works 1. 9. Air is heated when it touches the warm earth. they = people. 20. (D) 02 Oaks 1. major. others = (not important) points. deep emotions. (C) 3. (B) 3.Review A-C
Vocabulary Review 1. (A) 3. (C) 3. 18. myth. 25. educated guess. 12. legend. (A) 4. (A) 6. (D) 2. 22. (B) 2. them = a small group of friends. 15. (B) 5. (B) 2.
(B) 7. (O) 2. 6. 20. paragraph 1. (B) 2. (A) (C) (B) (C) (C) intense ancient (S) 3. express 22.(B). (E) 2. (C) fine
Skill Review 01 Fiction 1. 15. (B) (A) (A) (D) (B) emotion (S) (S)
. 9. (B) 9. 17. (G) 3.(B) Oceanography --. Physical --. (F).(E) Historical --. 11. (B) (D) (D) (A).(A). paragraph 2. (A) 3. (E) (C) 3. 5. (C) (D) 5.(C). (A) 6. (D) 6. 10. (D). (D)
04 Geology 1. 4.(D) Economic --. (C) 4. (D) 10.(A). (A) 5. Misdemeanor --. (C) 8. (D). 12. will vary
02 Machines 1. 14. 8. 21. sentences 3 and 5. (C)
Vocabulary Review 1. (C). (O) 25. (I). 7. (B) 4. Inclined planes --. (B) (D) 8.
Crime Felony --. (C) 16. (D). (B) Levers --. (D) 9. (C). 10. 18. (B). 23. 4. major 19.(F) 2. (F). (F) 2. (A) 3. (C) 4. sentences 3 and 4 05 Hide Preparation 1. 7. (C) 3. 4. 2.03 1. 24. (A) 13. (C).
Vocabulary Review 1. 39. 37. (C). 49. 44. 15. (B) 6. (F). (D). 46.(F). (C) 6. (C) 5. (C) 8. 11. 8. (E) 2. (C) 3. 34. (C) 4. 26.(B). 32. 19. (E). (B). (C) 6. (A) 4. 41. (B) 5. (D) 3. 20. (H) 03 Space Bodies 1. (C) 2. (B) 2. (C)
. 5. 42. 25. (C) 6. 10. (D) 6.(C). (D) 9. 29. (B) 3. (D). 30. (B) 4. (C) 6. 48. 16. 9. (E). (F). (B) 6. (F) 2. Method 2 --. (B) 5. Method 1 --. (B) 6. (A). (H) 03 Herbs and Spices 1. 21. (C) 5. 12. 45. 38. (D)
2. (C) 5. (D). 4. Floating Point Notation --. (A) 3. 24. (B). (D). (C) 4. (G) 03 Elizabethan Theater 1. 28. (D) 3. (D) 5. 18. (A) 5. 4. (D) 5. 14. (F) 02 Rain
02 Clouds 1. 36. (A) 4. 7. Cumulus --. (B) 4. (C) 3. (C) 3.(E). 13. (C) 3. (E) 2. 35.(B). (C). 50. (E) 2. (D) 4. (D) 4. 27. 33. 47. (A) 6. (C) 5.(C). 17. (D) 2. 23. 22. Cirrus --. (D) (C) (B) (B). 6.(A). (C) 2. (C) 6. (A) 2. (C)
01 Breathing 1. 10. (D) (B) (B) (A) (A) (B) (D) (C) (C) (A) base goal frozen absorb satellite (S) (O) 3. (C) 3. (C) 3. (D)
02 Scientific Notation 1. (A)
Skill Review 01 Map Legends 1. (C). (A). (E).Chapter
01 Soccer 1. Stratus --. Scientific Notation --. (A) 4. 31. (B) (C) (C) (C) (D) (C) (A) (B) (A) (B) among distance towers after a while opponent (O) (S) 2. (B). (B)
1. (B) (A) (A) (C) (A) (D) (B) (A) (B) (C) altitude breathe period shallow equation (O)
01 The Earth 1. 43. (A) 5. 40.
14. (C) 2. Lyric --. 13. 11. 24. (F) 2. (A) 2. (E) 03 Tides 1. (C)
03 The Renaissance 1. Work --.(A). (A)
1. (B). (B) 3. (D) Comets --. 32. 48. (F). (E). (D) 5. (D) 5. 7. (B). 4. (A) 4. (F)
01 Evaluating Sources 1. (C) 2. 21. (B) (A) (B) (C) (D) (C) (B) (C) (D) (D) planet talent rackets stringed reform (E) (C) 3. (C) 4. (D) 2. (A) 3. 44. Secondary --.(A). 37. (C) 4. (C) 5. (A) 3. 12. 10. (A) 3. (B). (D). (C) 6. 40. Narrative --. (C). 34. (C) 5. (C) 03 Vikings 1. (F) 02 Succession
01 History Makers 1. (F) 2. (B) 2. and Meteors 1.(B). 36. (C) 5. 30. (C)
3. 25. (C) 6.(D). (C) 2. 8. (C) 3. (G). (A) 6. (C). 29. 49. (A) 9. (C) 6. (G). (D) 6. 38. 19. 39. (A) 6. 17.(B). 15. 45. (E)
2. 27. (B) 02 Poetry 1. (B) 4. (A) 6. (A) 4. (H). 7. 42. 43.(B). (G). (C) 4. (D) 6. 23. Asteroids --. (A) 5. (A) 4. 18. Meteors --. (B) (C) (B) (D) (A) (B) (D) (A) (B) (B) event contests predominantly smash conjunction (D) (A) 2. 6. Celebration --. 50.(F). (E). (E) 02 Glaciers 1. 20. (B) 5. (I). (C) 5. 35. (A) 6. (B)
Vocabulary Review 1. 46. 47. (C) 3. (B) 3. (D) (C) 5. 28.(A). 26. 41. 22. (A) 4. Primary --. (B). 5. 4. (D) 5. (A) 3. (B) 6. Asteroids. (D) 2. (A) (D) 8. 9. 16. 31. Dramatic --. 10.(A).(E). (C) 4. (A) 3. 33. (B) (C) (A) (B) (D) (A) (D) (B) (A) (A) take part victory loft series course (B)
01 Tennis 1.02 Comets. (A)
Skill Review 01 Wild Pigs 1. 7. 4. 10. 4. 12. (B) 6. (A). (B) (A) (D) (B) (E). (C) 6. (D) 9. 10. 5. (D). (B) 9. (D)
02 Constellations 1. (F) 2. 8. 11. 5. (C) (C) (A) (B) 3. (C)
. 8. 12. (A) 2. (D) (D) (A) (D) 3. 11. 7. (A) (D) (B) (C) (C).
02 Evaluating Sources
01 Literature Sample response: 1. 4. 2. and their acorns may have been an early human food. which means the writer gives second-hand information.Chapter
2. 3. and economic geology.
Suggested answer: This passage explains how to evaluate different sources of information. oak is an important resource for fuel and carpentry. Second. or if the source is a secondary source. (D) 3. 2. First. (C)
3. philosophy. Through literature. physical oceanography looks at the oceans and the rocks beneath them. and education emphasized the achievements of people. 4. (E)
. (C) 2. we learn about history when we read stories written in the past. For a long time.
01 Hide Preparation 1. (A)
01 Geology Suggested answer: This passage describes the different branches of geology. the writing itself can teach us about the language we use. (B)
2. (E) 02 Succession
1. the passage describes historical geology. we can learn about the world in three main ways. we learn about people by reading the experiences of the author. which deals with the search for minerals and fuels. Next. First. 4. 3. which may involve the study of fossils. Oaks can grow very old and very large. People’s major concern shifted from God to humans. People stopped living for a future life and started living for their present one. we should look at when the source was written. Finally. The Renaissance was a period of remarkable change. we should consider if the source is a primary source. oaks have been important trees to people. 02 The Renaissance
Sample response: 1.
Sample response: 1. Even nowadays. The first of these branches of geology looks at the rocks and land inside the Earth. which means the writer gives first-hand information. Another point to consider is whether the source is presenting facts or opinions. Last. (B)
3. On the other hand. 3. Art. as older sources may have outdated information. Oaks were so important in the past for construction that people made myths about them and even worshipped them.
more accurate. Wheels and axles are used to turn large wheels. Levers are used to lift and push. They learned how to silver work from Mexicans and later added turquoise to their silver jewelry. It first tells about an older technique that calculated age based on the idea that lower layers of rock are older than higher layers. turquoise became more important than silver in Zuni pieces. By using this second method. it states that being careful about taking Vitamin D is a good idea because too much can cause health damage. They first learned this craft from the Zuni and later formed a silver works guild with soldiers from World War II. Finally. 03 Silver Work
Sample response: This passage discusses the silver works of three different First Nations. Eventually. pulleys. and wheels and axles. It first explains about the Navajo people. Finally. the passage warns against the belief that people should take a lot of Vitamin A. Pulleys are used to lift heavy objects. too much Vitamin A can also cause health problems. in fact. it describes how the Zuni people
. Another. scientists have concluded that the Earth is about 4. Next. 02 The Earth Sample response: This passage describes different ways that the age of the Earth has been calculated. Simple machines like these are useful because they can multiply the force applied to them and they can change the direction of that force.
01 Vitamins Sample response: This passage examines some facts and myths about vitamins and health.03 Machines
Suggested answers: This passage explains three examples of simple machines: levers. Next. It first mentions the belief that taking Vitamin C can cure a cold is not true. technique mentioned in the passage is measuring the radioactive particles from rocks.5 billion years old.
learned silver working from the Navajo. the passage describes Hopi silver works.
(C) 4. few FOODS have much of it How can we get more? --. (A). WEIGHT ROOM 03 1. Use POLITE language / Remember the GOLDEN rule 07 1. (B) 4. Storage: (over) 5.unexpected endings 04 1. Physical changes: stored energy in fat. (B) 4.happy endings TRAGEDY . SPORT / Ex. FROGS 04 1. (A) 2. (C) 4. getting more SUNSHINE 08 1. (A) 3.write SENTENCE (USING WORD) and (DRAW A) PICTURE
. (D) 2. (D) 2. (A) 4. (B) 2. (D) 2. Also called: SOUTH POLE Was attached to: AUSTRALIA Lowest temp. the PERSISTENCE Hunt / Who: the SAN people / What: hunted ANTELOPE / How: ran for as long EIGHT HOURS / too TIRED 06 1.Listening
01 1.6 inches) tall / 5 cm (2 inches) wide 05 1. important aspects of reading: SPEED. VEGETABLES.hero ruins his life TRAGICOMEDY . Known: year of BIRTH.1 cm (3. BLUE rays scatter most RED rays scatter least YELLOW rays scatter neither most nor least 05 1. (B) 3.provides a chair to sit on wherever you are
01 1. (D) 4. (B) 2. use INDEX cards / front of card: write (NEW) WORD / back of card: top . enjoyment. year of DEATH / Unknown: month of BIRTH. (C) 4. (D) 3. (D) 4. (C) 4. UNDERSTANDING. (B). (D) 2. (C) 4.eating FISH. (D) 3. name of LOVER 03 1. (A) 2. (B) 4. (D) 2. (C) 3. (B). (A) 3. (C). Be SPECIFIC. (A) 3. (C) 3. LICENSE PLATE --. COMEDY . (D) 2. (A) 3. (D) 4. (D) 3. REMEMBERING 07 1. State EXACTLY what is needed / Be POSITIVE. (D) 3. (A) 4.: -88˚C Only humans there: SCIENTISTS 02 1. Don’t SKIP meals / Eat when you are HUNGRY / Eat REGULAR meals / Eat fruit. (B) 2.write ENGLISH DEFINITION. Parking spaces are LIMITED / Freshmen CAN’T PARK / A LOTTERY determines who can park / Winners must pay MONEY to park 08 1. SLOW BREATHING. Why don’t we get enough? --. not going OUTSIDE often. (A) 3. (A) 4. bottom . LOW or SLOW HEART RATE / Animals that hibernate: BEARS. (C) 2.helps spiders get out of bathtubs (PORTABLE) SEAT --. (A) 2. (A) 3. (B) 2. meats. GYM. (A) 4.lets others know who’s driving LADDER --. (A) 2.LONG winters. and grains 02 1. (B) 3. need: STUDENT ID CARD / can use these facilities: SWIMMING pool. (C) 4. (C) 3. (C) 2. (C) 3. snakes.000 songs Size: 9. keep in DORM ROOM / let them OUT or WALK in the room / give them BATHS or FOOD / take them back to the BEACH 06 1.
disadvantages --. (A) 3. 21. (B) 2. vegetable fibers. (B) 4. (C) 3. 20. (B) 5. (C) 2. CLOTHES 05 1. 9.(A). (A). 03 1. 8. (B) 2. (B) (B) (A) (D) (D) determined specific (O) 3. (A) 3. 13. 23. (C) 4. 11.(A). 12.500 YEARS AGO. (A) (C) (A) (C) (C) multiply (O) (S)
Skill Review 01 1. (B) 4. What? saying USED TOO OFTEN / How learned? From OTHERS / Example? I LOVE CHOCOLATE. (A) 3. (B). 7. people EAT/TAKE THE EGGS How to help: call the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION hotline. BY LOOM products: BASKETS. (A) 2. 24. (D) 4. (A) 3. wants to TRANSFER / needs her TRANSCRIPT / can get it at TRANSCRIPT OFFICE / will get it in 3 OR 4 DAYS 02 1. When? this YEAR / Who? CHOI MIN-SOO / What? machine that LESSENS noise / Why? help people who need QUIET 07 1. 22. (D) 6. (A) 4. (D) 4. (A). (B) 3. look up www. 14.(B). Development: When? OVER 2. (C) 3. (C) 2. (B) (C) (B) (B) (B) fortune continuously (S) (O) 2. (A) 2. (C) 3. No --. 5. (A) 2. Transcript Office --. 17. (D)
. (A) (B) (LINE) SEGMENT
Vocabulary Review 1. (A) 02 1. blankets. (B) 3. 19. (B) 3. (B) 4. Determining GRADES / mid-term = 15 PERCENT. Yes --. 4. (C). final = 30 PERCENT / first essay = 10 PERCENT. 10. (C) 2. Turtles are DISAPPEARING in Mexico. (B) 2. 18. (C) 5. painted by: DA VINCI / is often: COPIED / has an interesting: SMILE / doesn’t have any: EYEBROWS 04 1.Skill C
01 1. 16. were good WEAVERS materials: ANIMAL HAIR/WOOL. (B) 4. (D) 3. (B)
01 1. (C) 4. (C) 4.(A). (C) 4. Nova Scotia College of Art --. (C). How many body spots? 787
08 1.(B). (B) 2. (A) 2. 6. (C) 2. Causes: they LAY EGGS on the beach. (B). 15. second essay = 30 PERCENT / attendance and PARTICIPATION = 15 percent 02 1.(B).com on the INTERNET 06 1. Where? CHINA / Method: Uses what? NEEDLES. advantages --. read a NEWSPAPER / make a list of EIGHT to ten new words / look them up in a DICTIONARY / write them in your vocabulary NOTEBOOK 03 1. (A) 3. (A) LINE
2. (A) 3. (B) 6. COTTON methods: by hand. (D) 4. (D).enviro. 25.
(C) 3.(A) 2.(B). Detail --. (D). (C).(C). ROMAN EMPIRE
4. Yes --. Yes --. basic rule: don’t HURT ANOTHER PLAYER 03 1. (C) 3. Where: lies between ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC. When? NEXT WEEK / Where? STUDENT CENTER / What? students photos of NATURE. PROFESSORS.(A). (D) 2.(C).(C). moon gets TWO WEEKS of night and TWO WEEKS of day 07 1. (A) 2.(C). (A) 4. Movement --.Helps you RELAX / Walk BACKWARDS --. (B) 3. TV SHOW (George Washington) / INTERNET (too many sites) / VIDEO (professor could recommend one) 08 1. (C). Simple ways to EXERCISE / WALK up stairs / Squeeze a TENNIS BALL --.(B).(B). has 12 countries 07 1. Yes --. (D) 4. (B) 3. BUILDINGS 08 1. (D) 4.(B) 4. has many RULES. THE BIBLE. No --. (C).(A). public schools are too DANGEROUS / education level is too LOW / freedom to teach RELIGION / can give students ATTENTION 04 1.Strengthens the BACK of your legs 06 1.200 km/h.(B).(A). Man --. Red Card --. (B) 4.(C). Train Conductor --. (C) Quiet and thoughtful --. (B) 3. (D) 4. Largest --. Most important: PERSONALITY / SOCIAL status / Have to do the JOB every day 05 1. Process --. (C). No --. information about NUMBERS OF PEOPLE / helps GOVERNMENTS / early examples from CHINA. 19th century --. (C). (B)
. (D) 2. born in GERMANY / attended university in SWITZERLAND / left GERMANY / moved to USA 05 1. Why? His body NEEDS MORE OXYGEN / Why? Oxygen CLEANS YOUR BLOOD / How to get more Oxygen? BREATH DEEPLY 06 1. has TWO moons 02 1. Category --. (D). too HOT to visit / once had RIVERS and oceans.(A). (A) 4. YELLOW card = warning / RED card = can’t play anymore / Soccer or FOOTBALL. (D) 2.(B).(A).(A).(B).(A).(B).(A). (D) 3. No --.(A) 4.4. (B) 3. How to REMEMBER things better Give objects THREE qualities DETAIL COLOR MOVEMENT
01 1. (C) 2. (B) 4. Enjoy meeting people --. once a day it TURNS AROUND / SLOWER than Earth’s. (A) 3. (D) 3. Mark Twain --. (A) 3. (D) 2. (B) 4. Boarded TRAIN in New York / couldn’t get room on SLEEPING coach / conductor thought Twain was GENERAL MCCLELLAN / conductor gave him room in FIRST class 04 1. how fast? 2. (C). (A) 2. Color --. slowly --. (A) 3.(B). (A) 3. The Bible --. (D) 4. (C) 3. 300 km north of ANTARCTICA / Facts: 1500 km wide at equator.(A). normally --.(A). (D) 2.(B). (D) 2. (B) / 20th century --. (D). Smallest --. (D) 2. Rome --. (B). China --. (D) 4. (C) 2.(A). STUDENTS. Woman --. Yellow Card --. (D) 2.
8. 25. 2 (C).(B). 3 (B). 23. painter scientist INVENTOR / kept notebooks of OBSERVATIONS (OF NATURAL WORLD) / cut open DEAD PEOPLE to learn HOW THE BODY WORKS
Vocabulary Review 1. 2 (C). 1 (C). 4 (A) 2. 3 (D). (B) 3. thunder travels at 1 KM PER SECOND. 2 (A). Arizona: GRAND CANYON / New Mexico:
ALBUQUERQUE / in A CAVE. 2 (D). 13. 3 (B). (B) (B) (A) (C) (C) realize empire crude
Skill Review 01 1. Rise: became rich from COLONIES. Wait. 2 (C). 4 (B) 02 1.(B) 5. 6. 3 (A) 2. 17. 4 (B) 2. humans spill it when CARRYING ON BOATS / Steps: SPREADING. 4 (A) 2. Chess --. Dr. distance of storm = seconds between LIGHTNING AND THUNDER x 1/3 km / temperature. 4. 4 (A)
. 4 (A) 2. (B) 2. has worked as a professor for 18 YEARS / studied WRITING / loves TEACHING 03 1. (D) 4. (B) 3. 1 (A). 1 (D). (C) 3. (B) 3. 14. 1 (D). 3 (D). 19. (B) 3. 15. 3 (B). 1 (C). Look for important points --. first appeared in comics 1939 / Robin appeared 1940 / Alfred appeared 1943 / first teamed with Superman 1952 / Batman’s new look 1964 04 1. 1 (C). COOL air from storms travels THREE miles ahead of storm 07 1.Skill F
01 1. (B) 4. EMULSIFICATION / Result: HEAVY AND STICKY substance called chocolate mousse 05 1. 11. 1 (C). 21. (C) 4. (A) 6.(A) 5. (D) 3. 3 (B). (A) 6. 20. (D) 4. (D) 3. DeGroot --. (A) 3. Eidetic --. 1 (D). 1 (B). 18. (B) 4. 4 (B) 2. 2 (D).(C). 9. 3 (A). (B) (B) (C) (B) (B) forced qualities bomb 3. (C) 4. 2 (A). Underline key words --. think about it --. 24. How: leaks NATURALLY. 7. 3 (B) 2. 10. EVAPORATION. (A). 4 (A) 2. (C). 1 (C). wore HATS WITH LIGHTS 08 1. made colonies in CUBA and PHILIPPINES / Decline: lost wars to ENGLAND and AMERICA. 2 (B). (D) 2. (C) 3. 2 (D). 12. 22.(C). Will SKIP CLASS today / Feels SICK / Might have MALARIA / Forgot to TAKE MEDICINE 06 1. (A) 4. (C) 4. (B) 3. 2 (D).(A). 16. 5. lost colonies to AMERICA 02 1. (A) 4. (D) 4. sound from THUNDER. (C) (D) (A) (A) (C) warning factor cavern campus 2. 3 (D).
(C) 4. (D) 1. 49. (D)
3. 25. 38. (A)
4. 20. (D) 05 1. 35. (A) 04 1. (C)
3. (B) 2. 27. (A) 4. (C). 12. (C) 2. 34. (B)
3. (C) 2. 4. 41. (D) 1. (A). (B). (B)
3. (A) 2. (B). 13. (A) 3. (B) 4. (A)
01 1. (C). (A)
3. (D) 3. 8. 19. 6. (B)
4. (B) (B) (B) (D) (D) (A) (D) (B) (D) (D) modern superstition represents blood stain (O) (O) 2. 15. 48. 33. (C) 02 1. (D) 3. (B) 4. (C) 4. (B)
2. (B) 03 1. 10. (B) 06 1. (D) 3. (D) 4. 9. (C) 04
2. 14. (D)
4. 28. (B)
1. 43. (C) 3. (C) 2. (D) (C) (D) (A) (C) (A) (B) (C) (A) (B) centuries reason big day instance panic (S)
. (A) 02 3. 31. 17. 26. (B) 2. (D) 05
2. 47. 50. (D) 3. 37. 7. (A). (D) 3. 21. (A) 2. 39. 5. (D) 2. (B) 2. (C) 02 1. 16. (B)
2. (B). 32. (B)
1. (D) 4. (D) 4. (D)
4. 36. (B)
01 1. 40. 45. (C) 06
2. (C) 03 2. (C) 05 1. (B)
01 3. (D) 3. (A). (C) 2. (C) (A) (A) (C) (A) (D) (B) (A) (B) (B) customs customary omens vessel escort (O) (O) 3. (B) 04 1. (D) 4. (B) 06 1. (D) 4. 29. 24. (D) 3. (A)
Vocabulary Review 1. (C) 2. 23. (D) 3. 22. (D)
4. 46. (B). (B)
3. (D) 4. (C) 4. 18. (A) 03 1. 30. (D) 2. 44. 42. 11.
(A) 6. (D) 5. (C) 3.(B). (D) 4. (B) 2.(B). (C) 4. (D) 4. balance. (D) 4.(A).(A).(A). (B) 4. (B)
4. Horse Latitudes --. (C). (D) 3. (C) 4. (B). (C) 3. Lecture --. (B). (C) 2. (C) 2. (D) 04 1. (D) 02 1. (D) 3. (A). (C) 2. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 06 2. (B) 03 1.(B). (C) 4. (A) 3. (C) 3. (D) 4. (C). (C) 3. (B) 2. (B). (B) 04 1. (B). (B) 4. (A). (B)
01 1. (C) 2. (D). (C). (A). strength --. (D) 3. (A) 3. (B) 5. (A) 3. (D). (C) 05 1. (A). (B) 04 1. (D) 3. Shenandoah --. (F) 4. (B) 05 1. (B). (D) 06 1. Example 1 --. (B). (B) 4. (A) 03 1. (A). lungs --. (D) 2. (B) 02 1. (A). (D). (C) 4.(A). (C) 2. mechanical --. (D) 3. (D) 2. (B) 4.(A). heart. (B). (D). (A) 6. (B) 02 1. (D)
01 1. (D) 3. (D). (C) 4. (B)
3. Example 2 --.(B). (C) 4. (B)
1. (A) 2.(A). (B). (C) 2. (D) 4. (C) 3. (C) 6. (D) 02 1. (C)
2. (C) 2. chemical --. (C) 3. (C) 3. (B) 2. (D) 2. (D).(B). (C)
. (D). (C) 4. (D) 2. (C). (B) 4. (B). Equator --. (A) 3. Review Session --. (C) 4. (B) 6. (A).(C). (C) 2. (A) 06 1. (A) 04 1. (A) 03 1. (D). (A). (C) 03 1. Missouri --. (D) 4.Skill Review 01 1. coordination --. (B) 05 1. (C) 3. (B). (C) 5. (C) 4. (A). (D) 2. (B) 2. (D)
01 1. (C) 2. (C) 3.(D). (B). (C) 3. (D) 5. (D).
28. (C) 4. (A). 44. 5. (B) 2. 19. 6. 48. 43. 49. 30. 13. (B). (A) (D) (B) (B) (D) (A) (C) (D) (C) (B) muscles co-ordination key personalities combination (D) (B) 2. (C) 6. (B) 5. 35. 14. 27. 11. 50. 42. (A). (C) 4. (B). 21. 29. (C) 6. (A) 03 1. (C). 31. (D) 3. 33. (A). (C) 3. (C) 6. 24. (A) 02 1. (A). 36. (D). (B)
. (A) 2. (C). (B) 2. 9. 7. 4. 45. 12. (B) 04 1. (D). 22. (C) (C) (D) (B) (A) (C) (A) (B) (D) (B) lift aerobics alert deal with stall (A) (C) 3. 17. (A) 4. (B). (C) 3. (B). 47. 16. (B) (A) (C) (B) (C) (A) (B) (A) (C) (A) treadmill calm discipline valid mineral (E)
Skill Review 01 1. 41. (A) 2. 10. (C) 5.Review A-F
Vocabulary Review 1. 8. 20. 40. 38. 25. 18. (A) 5. 26. 34. (D). (B). 37. 46. 32. 23. (B). (C) 6. (B) 5. (C) 3. (D) 4. 15. 39.
.War with ENGLAND Began to lose POWER --.TAIL Sharks use this to change direction.. 2.. evaporation 3..SEGMENT Two lines the same length are. near mountain Atacama Desert = DRIEST desert on Earth
Completing Note Diagrams 1 01 Spain --..location .Chapter
01 Geometry --..... or hydration REACTIONS with air or water
2.. COASTAL desert
CHEMICAL oxidation..MOST POWERFUL NATION in world --.POINTS A line with two points is a. 1.LOST COLONIES in Spanish-American War
.1588 . rain SHADOW desert..1898 . or animals RAINFALL TRADE wind desert. around equator JUDEAN Desert... desert = evap>RAINFALL SAHARA Desert....study of.CONGRUENT 02 Causes fish to rise. ROOTS.
Mechanical disintegration or DESTRUCTION freezing.S of FRANCE.16th century .1490s . W of ITALY --. Tables 2 01 Comedy Tragedy Tragicomedy HAPPY ending tragic FLAW in character seems tragic but funny or UNCLEAR ending SHAKESPEARE Ibsen SHAW Much Ado About Nothing GHOSTS Saint Joan Two languages = BILINGUAL From FAMILY ENGLISH Three languages = TRILINGUAL Through STUDY FRENCH
02 Types of weathering Process Caused by 03 Define desert by: Specific types of desert: 1. 3.SWIM BLADDER Sharks use this to propel themselves..Spanish people brought GOLD AND SILVER from America Spain became RICH Made new colonies: CUBA and PHILIPPINES --. People learn languages Two languages in Quebec.OXYGEN Sharks do not have. CARBONATION.FIN 03 People who speak.
INVENTOR.most famous inventions: PARACHUTE and WAR TANK 02 White skin Sunburn --------not protected from ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UV RAYS) danger of SUNBURN skin is red because of EXTRA BLOOD increases chance of SKIN CANCER II. LOW-INTEREST LOANS.kept notebook OBSERVATIONS OF NATURAL WORLD --.born in VINCI. World Bank gives MONEY. build SCHOOLS and HEALTH CENTERS B. Low-income countries A. get water and ELECTRICITY
. World Bank: helps A.02 people looking for faster ways to get INFORMATION a faster way is a BROADBAND connection a VDSL connection has a greater BANDWIDTH gives around 52 MEGABYTES per second 03 Ideology Concerned with --------COLLECTION of ideas forms basis of PUBLIC opinion how SOCIETY works RULES needed to make it work
Completing Note Diagrams 2 01 Leonardo da Vinci --. INTEREST-FREE CREDIT
03 I. can’t BORROW much money B. and SCIENTIST --. ITALY IN 1452 --.artist.
Now. Then. He has seen the damage
. After that. They are advised that Prof. The man says he saw the damage done to some places on campus. good news Sample restatement: The man tells the woman that the professor is sick. canceled. Students are urged to report any information about violations on campus to the administration. The man understands. administration. The man. The woman explains that two of her friends have been victims of theft. always worried. Reason 1: The woman is always worried. but then hears he’s not seriously ill. damage. both of next week’s lectures are canceled. The man tells her the professor is not seriously ill. At first. canceled. Detail: The man has seen damage to various areas of campus. explains the professor is not seriously ill. The decision to do this was made by the university administration. Detail: Two of her friends have been victims of theft. Step 2 Suggested keywords: serious. the woman feels glad because she was behind in her work. Students are informed this decision follows recent damage and thefts occurring on campus. vandalism. Brown is ill and that he will be absent all of next week. Step 3 Opinion:
Step 1 Suggested keywords: History 102. assignments Sample restatement: The cancellation notice concerns students enrolled in History 102. Step 3 Opinion: Reason 1: Detail: Reason 2: Detail:
The woman thinks the canceled classes and the extra week is a good thing. The professor is not very sick. however. she worries about the professor and the canceled classes. He thinks the people who did all this should be caught. The woman worries about their teacher canceling classes. The woman is happy to hear that.Speaking
Q3 --. She has more time to do the work. Prof. Reason 2: The campus is being damaged.
Step 4 Sample response: The woman learns the professor is sick and that classes are being canceled. lectures. should be caught Sample restatement: The man and the woman are talking about the added security guards and how matters on campus are now serious. extra week. report Sample restatement: Five extra security guards are being added to campus night patrols. on August 29th. They don’t have to turn in the assignment until the professor is back. added.practice 2
They think the added security guards are a good idea. the man tells her there’s an extra week to finish the assignment. Brown. Step 2 Suggested keywords: happy. For this reason. Q3 --. The woman’s friends had things stolen from their dormitory rooms and the woman herself is now worried about being robbed too. and that they have an extra week until the professor is back to finish their assignment. too. she’s always worried about thieves coming into her room. Assignments will be due in class one week later. Security is being increased on campus because of recent vandalism to school buildings and thefts reported in the dormitories. Step 4 Sample response: The university is adding more security guards to campus night patrols. She hasn’t read the article yet. stolen. assignment. The woman states things are serious.practice 1
Step 1 Suggested keywords: security guards. Both the man and the woman think the added guards are a good idea.
Scientists discovered that hot air from the volcano killed the people of Pompeii instantly. The man thinks people doing all these things should be caught. Step 2 Suggested keywords: writing. It wiped out the Roman city of Pompeii. good idea. Although the volcano erupted for over 12 hours. Later they were covered with ash. literature Sample restatement: The English department is advising all English Literature majors that creative writing is now a graduation requirement. NOT lava.done to school property and buildings. volcano. people couldn’t escape.
. superheated air. By writing literature themselves. They both agree that adding security guards on campus is a good idea. they will understand what other writers are doing. producing. experience. students Sample restatement: The man explains that creative writing is now a required class for them to take. The woman agrees and adds that any information should be reported. writers. The man explains that the creative writing he has been doing on his own has helped him analyze the literary works he has had to study. Few people escaped. The notice explains that the Dean wants all literature majors to gain experience producing creative writing. They will be better writers. The man agrees with this. and the man has the same opinion. requirement. Scientists can now reconstruct what happened the day the volcano erupted. He says he’s been doing some writing already and it’s helped him analyze literature. The woman thinks this is a good idea. He also doesn’t mind because the class is easy to fit into his schedule. ash covered the people. reconstruct Sample restatement: This passage tells about a volcano that erupted and buried the Roman city of Pompeii. Step 3 Suggested answers: Volcano: Erupted when: Destroyed where: Strange because: People died because:
They think that the creative writing requirement is a good idea. so the English department made creative writing a required class for graduation. Step 3 Opinion: Reason 1: Detail: Reason 2: Detail:
Step 4 Sample response: The dean recommended all literature majors should have practice in creative writing. Vesuvius AD 79 Pompeii people didn’t escape superheated air. By practicing writing. Pompeii. they will improve their own abilities at it. He thinks creative writing will help him become a better writer and become a better student. escape. Pompeii. a large city with an advanced culture. Later. He thinks the creative writing class will make him a better writer and a better student. She believes practice at creative writing will help her better understand the books she must read.
Mt. analyze.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested keywords: creative writing.
Q4 --. because literature is the study of this style of writing. It will help them understand literature better. The woman thinks this is a good idea. Step 2 Suggested keywords: Mount Vesuvius.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested keywords: eruption. wiped out. advanced Sample restatement: A volcano called Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79.
Later. wild.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested keywords: Dead Sea.
Step 4 Sample response: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea has a lot of mineral salt. salt. Rivers flow into the Dead Sea but not out. incorporating. It is saltier than the oceans. One of these musicians.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested keywords: jazz. African-American. Salt is carried into the Dead Sea from rivers. First. there are no living things in this sea. younger Sample restatement: The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. The speaker says that it was strange because even though the volcano erupted for 12 hours. They thought jazz was too wild and it wasn’t real music. Rivers carry mineral salts into the Dead Sea. Step 2 Suggested keywords: white. trapped. Salt is trapped there because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. Water evaporation also makes the sea even saltier. evaporate Sample restatement: The speaker said that nothing lives in the Dead Sea because it is full of salt. Vesuvius. Step 2 Suggested keywords: Dead Sea. reason Sample restatement: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea is a landlocked sea with no living plants and animals.
Q4 --. became really popular. which makes the sea saltier. Originally: played by African-Americans Different because: combined African rhythms and European melodies Who liked it: young people Who didn’t like it: mainstream white America How it became popular: used by popular white singers like Elvis Presley
. Mineral salts are deadly to fish and plants. There are two reasons for the Dead Sea’s saltiness. people couldn’t escape. deadly. When water evaporates. In fact. river. Elvis Presley. Step 3 Suggested answers: Jazz music went from being considered not real music to being very popular. The Dead Sea has ten times as much salt as the ocean. It’s more than ten times saltier than the ocean. When water evaporates. combining. This salt is deadly to plants and fish so there are no living things in the sea. It contains mineral salt which is deadly to plants and fish. their bodies were covered in ash.
Q4 --. mineral salt. Therefore. Jazz has changed into many of the popular music forms of today. The salt goes into the Dead Sea from rivers. The Dead Sea has lots of mineral salt. it says that African-American musicians made jazz music. popular. landlocked. the sea becomes even saltier.Step 4 Sample response: This reading passage talks about the eruption of Mt. No rivers go out so this salt is trapped in the sea. melodies Sample restatement: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. rhythms. people in Pompeii died due to superheated air from the volcano and not lava. it leaves behind minerals. Step 3 Suggested answers: The Dead Sea has no living plants or animals. but some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. It erupted in 79 AD and destroyed Pompeii. This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music.
Second. so jazz. Solution 1: The man suggests taking the class in another semester. she can catch up very quickly. he suggests that she take the class next semester. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. The morning exercise will clear his mind. First. became popular with younger people. one of these musicians. he will have enough time to improve at football. First. They thought jazz was too wild and it wasn’t real music.
Q5 --.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: The man wants to spend more time practicing football and needs to spend more time studying. Then. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. If the man gets up early. he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. Solution 1: Get tutors to help him study Solution 2: Make more time for practice by getting up earlier Step 3 Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. he can get more sleep. she won’t be behind.
Q5 --. First.
him with math and science. Second.Step 4 Sample response: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. he can improve his grades in a short time. with a different professor she might get a higher mark. it says that African-American musicians made jazz music. Solution 2: The man suggests taking the class now even though she doesn’t like the professor. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. which will help him concentrate better in class. she suggests that he find tutors to help
. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. became really popular. If she waits. First. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. If he doesn’t have to get up early. Also. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. even though she might feel like she’s behind. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: The woman has to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. he suggests that she take the class next semester. Eventually. Second. she needs to learn to get along with teachers and bosses she doesn’t like. Step 3 Opinion 1: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. along with rock and other forms. If the man has tutors. Second. some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science. If she takes the class this semester. I think the first solution is better than the second one. she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. First. Also. Elvis Presley. but she doesn’t like the professor teaching the class. Opinion 2: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate. so he’ll be rested for football. This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music. The man suggests two solutions to the problem.
measuring parts inside whale stomachs • whales carry cameras to observe squid underwater Sample response: This lecture is about giant squid. Whales can also carry cameras. allowing scientists to study squid underwater more closely. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. Second.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: The man has to take a math class and a history class. First. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. whales • whales useful --. Solution 2: She also suggests that the man take one of the classes in the next semester. First. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The link between whales and squid has also been better understood thanks to Russian sailors. Also. Step 3 Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Engineer in bigger demand than artist • leaders interested in modernization • had a set of skills that leaders wanted Leonardo breakthrough in engineering • explained how machines could be improved or invented • developed modern techniques to existing problems • gave him high profile and put him in great demand
A. The speaker says that two things have helped scientists learn more about giant squid. Solution 1: The woman suggests the math class might be offered at a different time. he can take history with his friend and complete both necessary classes in one term.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: How two things have helped scientists know more about squid
. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. and the other next term. she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term. and the other next term. Second. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. The speaker’s next point is that whales are especially helpful in studying squid. and the sizes of squid can be estimated by measuring parts of squid found in whale stomachs. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. Whales hunt squid. sailors • sailors among first to capture squid • captured squid given to academies or measured • Russians helped understand link between squid and whales B. These two things are sailors and whales. If he takes one mandatory class each term.Q5 --. but they are offered at the same time. First. sailors were the ones who first captured giant squid and allowed them to be measured or given to scientific academies.hunt squid for food • sizes of squid estimated --.
Q6 --. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. he will get to study with his friend. If he is able to take math on Tuesdays and Thursdays. she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. he will have more time to concentrate on each class and can earn higher marks.
24. 18. Nowadays. (A) (D) (D) (D) (A)
21. 8. (C) 14. The speaker then explains how Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer for powerful leaders and on special projects. (D) (B) (B) (C) (D) absent frustrated violence
Q6 --. Some people believed a legend that suggested the Giant’s Causeway was made by a giant. 25. 9. we know the truth about how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. 22. He explains that many different theories on the Giant’s Causeway’s origin were being debated after it was discovered in the 1600s. The speaker explains that nobody knew for sure how it was formed until modern geologists provided the real answer. 15. 6. 11. (B) 11.practice 3 Step 1 Suggested answers: Main Question: How was the Giant’s Causeway formed? • origin debated until modern geologists gave answer Early Debates: • big debates in 1600s after discovery • theories about its origin started the debates • a lot of different opinions --. engineer 17. 12. 17. 20. Leonardo was the first to explain how machines could be improved or invented. (C) 24. 12. 19. (D) (A) (B) (A) (C) (B) modernize combine (A) 3. (B)
. breakthroughs imagine 20. 21. 7. 22. 19. 14.
Sample response: This lecture is about the origins of the Giant’s Causeway. 16. 13. (D) 2. (A) (A) (B) (A) (D) kindly check kindly 3. (B) 5. The speaker concludes that all his life. Leonardo the engineer was in bigger demand than Leonardo the artist. The speaker explains that Leonardo made breakthroughs in engineering. 5. Geologists explain that it was formed by volcanic activity in much the same way we see in Hawaii right now. 23.Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer • worked for powerful leaders and on special projects • all his life. 25. 18. 4. (C) (C) (A) (A) (B) enrolled cancellation bury element 2. 6. 16. Leonardo thus had the set of skills that leaders wanted. 4. 10.
Review 1 1. 9. 10.but no one knew for sure Nowadays: • we know the truth • was formed by volcanic activity • lava cooled quickly by water --. 13. The speaker says that for a long time nobody really knew how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. while leaders were looking for scientific ways to modernize. (B) 8.just a fascinating geological place
Review 2 1. his engineering in bigger demand than his art Sample response: This lecture is about Leonardo da Vinci’s life as an engineer. (E) 23.crystal rocks cracking result in many joined columns • not a mystery anymore --. He came up with modern techniques to deal with existing problems. 7. 15.
Q1 --. I spent most of the time lying in my sleeping bag trying to stay warm. One reason I enjoy writing poetry is because it lets me create something beautiful.practice 3 Step 2 Sample response: The last time I needed to talk about an important topic. 2. When I think about things in new.practice 4 Step 2 Sample response: The worst vacation I ever had to endure was a camping trip with my brother and a friend. it rained heavily the whole three days. when we finally left for home. Another reason she enjoys doing this is that it lets her think about things in new ways. when he was born. A. I often regret the many occasions I could have spent time with him but was preoccupied with something else instead. E
Step 3 Sample response: What I regret the most was not spending enough time with my cousin when he was young. so my brother and I have known my friend for many years. Because of my brother’s aid. B. I was no longer angry with my friend.
Q1 --.practice 1 Step 1 C. the wet weather made me sick. After talking with my brother. Then. Step 3 Sample response: One kind of work I would be willing to do even if I never got paid for it is writing poetry. First. 2. The speaker most regrets not spending enough time with his cousin. One reason he regrets this is because he thought he could spend time with his cousin and teach him things.practice 2 Step 1 F. B Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. In addition. it gives them a good feeling in their heart. D. D. 3.
. so we stopped speaking to each other. to compound the problem. F. my brother’s car broke down. We had to walk five kilometers to get help. innovative ways. C.
Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. Another reason I enjoy writing poetry is because I can think about things in a new way. I thought I could spend a lot of time with him and teach him things. One kind of work the speaker does without getting paid is write poetry. Another reason he regrets this is that spending time with him when he is older may be more difficult. The fact that children grow up quickly is another reason why I regret spending too little time with my cousin when he was young.
Q1 --. A.Chapter
Q1 --. To top it off. In fact. It is important for older family members to guide and teach younger family members. Once my cousin is older. my friend and I had an argument. I chose to talk to my brother at that time because my brother is very familiar with my friend. even boring things around my house become inspiring. This is regrettable because. we all grew up together. I do this now without getting paid because I enjoy writing poetry. When people create something beautiful. I talked with my brother. The important topic I needed to talk about was an argument I’d had with my friend. E. I better understood my friend’s point of view during our argument. 3. spending a lot of time with him may be more difficult. We couldn’t hike or swim. One reason she enjoys doing this is that it lets her create something beautiful. In fact.
First of all. D. Lastly. and they’re much easier to park. children just sit at home and watch them on TV. In my opinion.practice 1 Step 1 B.practice 3 Step 2 Sample response: I think that watching too much television has produced several bad effects on society. F Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. Step 3 Sample response: I think oral presentations are more beneficial for students than writing papers. The first reason she uses is that the subway is cleaner and more efficient than buses. I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. are fun to drive. 3. Second. C. while the subway. not from their parents. they don’t get enough exercise. so students can improve their communication skills and develop confidence by speaking publicly as a student.
Q2 --. Also. I think they’re ugly. so it is more efficient. on the other hand. The speaker thinks building a subway is better. they are too large and cumbersome. Parents and children just watch silently rather than sharing their thoughts and experiences. This means that children are learning behavior from television. SUVs do not get good gas mileage. I think they look more impressive than SUVs. watching too much television has resulted in lower levels of physical health among children. B. You can go fast. oral presentations are easier in that they take less time to prepare and put less emphasis on grammar than papers do.practice 4 Step 2 Sample response: If I won some money. The speaker prefers oral presentations to writing papers. Though a subway requires a lot of money to build. 3. C. First of all. Finally. Secondly.
Q2 --. A third reason he prefers this kind of assignment is that oral presentations can help students improve their communications skills and confidence.
Step 3 Sample response: I’m glad the government is finally going to address the transportation issue. 2. many jobs require oral presentations. A Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. They burn less fuel than SUVs. The second reason she uses is that the subway reduces traffic on the streets whereas buses increase traffic. while a subway is clean and efficient. Q2 --.
. the worst effect has resulted in families not communicating much anymore. In my opinion. A second reason he prefers this kind of assignment is that oral presentations are interesting and education for other students 4. One reason he prefers this kind of assignment is that oral presentations are easier. 4. A. which makes them difficult to park. Finally. a subway train can carry many more people than a bus. These bad. or negative effects are damaging families and children. In addition. building a subway is better than increasing the number of buses. The final reason she uses is that the subway can carry more people on it than a bus. reduces traffic. These days. increasing the number of buses also increases traffic on the streets.Q2 --. it is cheaper over time.practice 2 Step 1 E. First of all. Sports cars. Another reason is oral presentations are interesting and educational for the other students who listen to them. Instead of playing sports. so it’s more efficient. in contrast. D. buses run on fuel that pollutes the air. 2.
practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Man’s choice: Option 2 Reason 1: more variety Reason 2: bad food in cafeteria Reason 3: cafeteria too crowded
Q4 --. She says that using chemicals is okay if they are used correctly. The professor points out that plants have natural chemicals in them. These man-made chemicals fight plant diseases and insects more effectively than natural chemicals. The reason he doesn’t like the cafeteria is that it is too crowded and there is no place to put his bike.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Man’s choice: Pay the new fee reason 1: likes to play basketball.to fight diseases and insects b. we use man-made chemicals . in past. he doesn’t have a job. As farming developed in the past.
Step 3 Sample response: The speaker talks about organic gardening and using chemicals in gardens. but that’s more expensive. but they are outside and he can’t lift weights there. and a less crowded place to eat. he decides that even with the new fee. farmers used other natural chemicals to help plants fight diseases and insects better.now very useful for broadcasting Teacher agrees having built Eiffel Tower a good idea. the gym is still the best bargain. In the end. The gym is close. These natural chemicals help the plant fight diseases and insects. farmers used natural chemicals .like sulphur c. and he can play there even if it rains. so farmers can grow plants better today than in the past.Skill B
Q3 --. He considers using the YMCA. He prefers Option 2 because he wants more variety. better food. This eventually led to farmers using man-made chemicals today.now finest example of 19th C industrial architecture • once thought useless --. The second factor he considers is convenience. A nearby high school has basketball courts. Even though it’s only $3 more.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Was building Eiffel Tower a good idea? • At first people opposed to building the Eiffel Tower Reasons for opposing it are now no longer valid • did not destroy Paris’s landscape --.
. plants have chemicals naturally .prof thinks OK to use in gardens if used correctly
Step 3 Sample response: The man’s opinion about the campus food service is that Option 2 is better. The first factor he considers is whether he can afford the new fee. lift weights reason 2: gym is cheaper than YMCA reason 3: gym is convenient Step 3 Sample response: The man decides that he will pay the higher fee to use the gymnasium. The man likes this option because it adds several more places to get food.
Q3 --.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Lecture topic: using chemicals in gardens a. today. He will not vote for Option 1 because he doesn’t like the cafeteria.it now represents it • ugly skeletal design --.
Finally. Step 3 Sample response: The man in the conversation tells the woman he has a problem in philosophy class. we see that all those reason are no longer valid. In the lecture. save time --.hear other people discuss the books --.Possible benefit --.Possible benefit --.Step 3 Sample response: Parisians were opposed to building the Eiffel Tower for several reasons.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: He has no time to read the books for class.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Problem: She falls asleep in class. 3. I think this is a good suggestion.hear ideas of how lectures relate to information in books Step 2 Suggested answers: 1. the landscape of Paris.
Q5 --. She should sit in the front row of the class. so have good notes from class Step 2 Suggested answers: 1.Possible benefit --. One thing the woman suggests is joining her study group that meets for an hour or two every week to discuss the readings. He can also remember them more easily. It will solve the man’s problem because in short amounts of time he will hear and discuss key points in the readings with others and remember them more easily. Step 3 Sample response: In this listening passage.make a friend in class Solution 2: sit in the front row of the class --. The man offers suggestions to
. he can hear and discuss key points. One thing that the man suggests is for the woman to sit in the front of the class and try to take lots of notes.Possible benefit --.know the information from lectures --. He has no time to read the books for class. 2. She falls asleep in class. the skeletal design once considered ugly is now the world’s nicest example of 19th century industrial architecture. Solution 1: read summaries and key passages in books --. The problem the woman has is that she is bored and falls asleep in class. the tower has been very useful for broadcasting. Solution 1: borrow notes from another student --.will get ideas from summaries that he might not get by reading the books himself Solution 2: join the woman’s study group --.
solve the problem.write everything in order to stay awake. He should join the woman’s study group. the tower has come to represent. This is a good idea.Possible benefit --. They thought the tower would destroy Paris’s beautiful landscape. She will try harder to stay awake and take more notes. In a short time. rather than destroy.faster.Possible benefit --. 2. First. so she will stay awake --. They also thought the tower would be useless. instead of being useless.Possible benefit --. Second.worry about the professor seeing her sleep.Possible benefit --. This will solve the woman’s problem because she will worry about the professor seeing her sleep and she will keep active by writing a lot. the woman describes a problem she’s having in her class. His problem is that he has no time to read any of the books being assigned. They considered the design to be like an ugly skeleton. 3.
33. such as four of Jupiter’s moons. 8. 11. 42. (D) (C) (A) (A) (C) (A) (B) (D) (A) (C) lenses appeared argued critical oppose (B) (D) 3. 39. telescopes have become more and more powerful. called the Hubble telescope. 25. 17. 35. 38. 8. 12. 6. learned planets orbit sun 1.Q6 --. 50. 23. 14. which he used to study the stars. Germany after WWII. 39. 46. 5. 31. saw sunspots. 49. 19. 27. The main point the professor makes about the Berlin Wall is that it was built to keep people in West Berlin. 16. 15. 36. 31. 17. 25. 1950s and 1960s keep people in West Berlin torn down in late 1980s in one weekend
Step 3 Sample response: In this lecture. 12. 44. early 1600s Galileo learned about things in space saw Jupiter’s moons. 41. 47.
. 46. (B) (D) (C) (D) (C) (B) (B) (A) (C) (A) craftsmen invented axis control decade (E) (C) 2. 43. (D) (D) (D) (A) (B) (B) (C) (C) (B) (B) jacked up transportation beneficial regrettable afford (S) (S) 2. 21. 20. but people finally tore it down at the end of the 1980s. (A) (A) (C) (A) (D) (A) (C) (C) (D) (A) magnified conclude controversy ancient philosophy (A)
Berlin Wall Berlin. 32. 19. 29. 24. He soon made a more powerful telescope. 20. 18. It helped him discover many important things. 26. 14. 5. 7. 45. It stood in the city for many years. Since then. 10. the professor talks about telescopes. 16. 6. 33. 4. 15. 40. Q6 --. sun spots. 50. 34. 29.practice 2 Step 1 Suggested answers: Main topic of lecture: Where: When: Why: Other key info:
Review 2 1. The professor points out that the Berlin Wall was destroyed in one weekend. 34. 28. 41. 48. 9. 28. 13. 38. 18. It was built during the Cold War in the 1960s. (A) (A) (C) (C) (A) (D) (B) (D) (D) (B) afford convenient fees familiar require (S) (S) 3. 37. 26.practice 1 Step 1 Suggested answers: Main topic of lecture: Where invented: When: Who made first telescope: Why important: Other key info:
Review 1 telescopes Italy 1608. 48. 47. 22. Today. 11. 24. 37. 40. 13. 49. 10. 45. 43. 9. 4. 27. 35. 44. the professor describes the Berlin Wall. and the fact that planets move around the sun. 22. 30. The first telescope was made about 1608 by the Italian scientist Galileo. 21. 23. is in space orbiting the Earth. 42. (B) (B) (B) (D) (A) (A) (A) (A) (A) (D) SUVs selected optional endure impressive (O)
Step 3 Sample response: In this lecture. 32. 30. 7. It helps us learn about the furthest parts of the universe. 36. a huge telescope.
/d/. ad b.geous 4.vi. peel pill 8.van. invi. It was raining so hard all day / that they didn’t leave the house. 1.bi.lo.sible 5. When she stepped off the boat / she immediately ran to her car. When the wedding was over. a.go. /s/ 1. Homework is necessary in school. / when we finally left for home / my brother’s car wouldn’t start.tage 3.tal . negoti. a. 6. wheel will 5. 5. 4.tion
. flex b. Much study and hard work / can lead to a good education / and a bright future.ogy b.
Step 1 Stress related to parts of words 1. advan. If I won some money. a. 6. thorn torn ✔ Step 2 Stress related to content words Sentences 1. I ate the last of the pie. If the alarm rings / put down your books / and slowly leave the building. Due to illness. / the happy couple walked slowly from the church. a. on Sundays.
1. thigh sigh 4.
Step 4 Long and short vowel sounds 1.lity 8.fi. bi. 3. re b. 7.lity 6. 3.mire b. 1. a. He feels better than yesterday. full fool 6.vite b. / Professor Brown will be absent / all of next week. 3. / the student fees will increase by 20%. The government’s attempt to raise taxes / resulted in a loss of popularity. Sam is reading about the history of Canada.ferable b. When I went to the store / it was closed. 5. thin sin ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
Step 3 Commonly mispronounced sounds: /l/ and /r/ sounds 1. 4. They waited over two hours to see him. 4. a. To top it off.gical 2. Look at that big berry. flexi. pre. a. 6. en. bio.cial . I like rivers. environ.ol. ne.a. leave live 4. Beginning next term.ronment b.tion . in. a.Chapter
9. a. pre. 5.ta.a. both boss 5. The pretty flowers are growing. 2. bean bin 7. Although we hadn’t finished / we decided to go home.fer 10. The final test will be two hours long / and will count for 25 percent. 2.nefit b. responsi. 3. / I would prefer to buy a sports car / rather than an SUV. admir. pull pool ✔
✔ ✔ ✔
2. bene.ible 7. / it can lead to lung and heart problems / in later life.spon. ad. If a person smokes. 4.
Step 2 Commonly mispronounced sounds: /th/. sleep slip 3. He lent a car. We pray. 5. 8. a.men. thought taught 3. seek sick ✔ ✔ 2. scathe skate 6.bi.tion 2.tiate b. not play. The professor gave us a deadline. 2. be. 2. thank sank 7. though dough 8.ta.
. Turkey banned another fashion that seemed old-fashioned.Supporting idea: Muslim women and some professors don’t support banning head scarves. some people in TURKEY WANT to ban head scarves IN CLASS. .Main idea: The problem with head scarves is that it gives Turkey a bad image. Most UNIVERSITIES .look like a WESTERN person Another example of OUTLAWED fashion: the fez .Supporting idea: In the past. uncivilized image.details about Iceland in his diary were WRONG . .he wrote in his DIARY about visiting a land similar to Iceland in 1477 .banned in EARLY 20th century Step 3 Reading: .Main idea: Did Columbus learn about North America in Iceland? .proposed law .TRADITIONAL hat for men . Columbus describes a 1477 voyage to a place like Iceland. Lecture: .
.image of head scarves --. Muslim women and some professors are AGAINST such rules and laws. Step 4 According to the reading.
Step 1 Issue: BANNING head scarves in class Pro: Some POLITICIANS in parliament.Main idea: Who discovered the Americas? . .Main idea: The article describes the issue of banning head scarves in class in Turkey.Supporting idea: In his diary.no other EVIDENCE that Columbus went to Iceland Step 3 Reading: . SOME politicians and MOST universities are in favor of RULES or laws BANNING head scarves in class.
Practice 2 Step 1 Issue: Vikings: Who DISCOVERED the Americas? . However. Women wearing head scarves give Turkey an OLD-FASHIONED or UNCIVILIZED image.women UNCOMFORTABLE without head scarves Step 2 Problem with head scarves: IMAGE .Supporting idea: Columbus’s voyage in 1492 was more important because it led to European settlement of North America. This issue is similar to one in the past when the GOVERNMENT in TURKEY outlawed MEN from wearing the FEZ in public. the fez.had VILLAGE in Newfoundland .modern image --. Some PROFESSORS . .Supporting idea: The image of head scarves gives an old-fashioned.Supporting idea: Some politicians in parliament and most universities support banning head scarves.he might have learned about North America from the VIKINGS in Iceland Con: . and it is the only evidence that Columbus visited Iceland.Supporting idea: Many of the diary details were wrong.Writing
Those who are against HEAD SCARVES argue that they give Turkey a bad IMAGE.HISTORIANS say his voyage in 1492 was more important .old-fashioned.opened the door for European SETTLEMENT Step 2 Question: Did Columbus learn about North America in ICELAND? Pro: . UNCIVILIZED .Supporting idea: The Vikings had the first village in North America.arrived five HUNDRED years before Columbus Columbus: . . Lecture: .existing RULES at universities Con: Muslim women.
The Vikings had only one VILLAGE in Newfoundland.forget EMOTIONS of others online Step 3 Reading: . Columbus opened the door to European SETTLEMENT. watching movies. and shop online. Lecture: . too. . and it has its own moon.some SCIENTISTS are changing their minds Pro: .RESEARCH information .Supporting idea: Bad points are that children can get inappropriate information. someone could steal personal information.SHOP from home Con: Children can access INAPPROPRIATE information Someone could steal PERSONAL INFORMATION Can be bad for your EYES and BACK Step 2 CONVENIENCE of Net comes at a PRICE . There are some websites that CHILDREN should not see. However.Main idea: There are both pros and cons to the Internet.fits definition of COMET .COMMUNICATE with people all over the world .is tiny . but you should be careful how you use it.Supporting idea: Pluto has a thin atmosphere. However.has a MOON . Step 4 The INTERNET is an amazing INVENTION.shaped like a SPHERE . CHATTING/COMMUNICATING with people all over the world.Supporting idea: Internet users can become isolated. .
Practice 4 Step 1 Issue: Is Pluto a PLANET? .Supporting idea: Yes. and using a computer too much is bad for health.Main idea: Although the Internet is an amazing invention. dishonest people may use the Internet to steal money or even steal your personal INFORMATION. She says people may become ISOLATED from society.ISOLATES people from SOCIETY . On top of all this. the professor says in her lecture that the Internet also causes SOCIAL problems.Supporting idea: Good points are that people can research. Some HISTORIANS believe that Columbus visited ICELAND before he went to America. many HISTORIANS say that Columbus’s VOYAGE to North America was more important. You can do lots of things on the Internet. They may also forget about other people’s EMOTIONS online because they don’t see those people FACE-TO-FACE. such as RESEARCHING information.SIMILAR to objects from KUIPER BELT .physical problems and SOCIAL problems Main problem of Net .don’t have FACE-TO-FACE contact . because Pluto had enough gravity to form a sphere like a planet. . The reading also says that using the internet too often can cause HEALTH problems. you may find bad things online.has a thin ATMOSPHERE . as the reading points out.
Practice 3 Step 1 Issue: The PROS and CONS of the Internet Pro: Can: . it has some bad effects.Step 4 Did Christopher COLUMBUS really DISCOVER the New World? We know that the VIKINGS reached NORTH AMERICA 500 years before Columbus arrived in 1492. Also. there is not enough EVIDENCE to prove that this happened.
. They think he learned about North America from the people there. . communicate.Supporting idea: People forget the emotions of people they communicate with online. and SHOPPING.
.Main idea: Is Pluto a planet? .has a TILTED orbit Step 3 Reading: . Even though the VIKINGS got there first.been called a planet since 1930 Step 2 Problem with Pluto’s CLASSIFICATION Evidence that it is “not a PLANET” .
It also has a TILTED orbit. Step 6 1. .Main idea: Scientists want to change the classification of Pluto. 2.
Practice 1 Step 1 Main idea: Americans have been the driving force behind the spread of English in the 20th century.Lecture: . Step 3 Factors driving spread of English: • Business • Hollywood • INTERNET . On the other hand. One reason that American English is so widespread today is because Americans were the driving force behind the spread of English in the 20th Century. maybe it is time to change Pluto’s CLASSIFICATION. B. Step 5 A. 1. 2. Should it be called a PLANET? On one hand.in other languages paraphrase: People get a lower number of hits for searches in other languages. information on the Web paraphrase: Most of the information on the Web is in English. B. America did more to increase the use of English as an international language than any other country. has an ATMOSPHERE.Supporting idea: Pluto has a tilted orbit. 1. which is different than all of the other planets. American English is what is used TO PRESENT INFORMATION ON MOST WEBSITES.MAJORITY of online content in English . the reading passage says Pluto has several characteristics SIMILAR to a planet.a lower number of not in English --. Sample answer: In the 1900s. and has a MOON.
. .most online content --. Typically. 2 B. majority of online content in English synonyms: majority --. Two IMPORTANT factors DRIVING the spread of English both THEN and NOW are business and Hollywood. 1 C. English on the Internet is also driving the spread of English today. music. Although Pluto has been called a planet since its DISCOVERY in 1930. 2
. and it looks like a comet. Step 2 A.Supporting idea: Pluto doesn’t seem like a planet because it is similar to other objects in the Kuiper Belt. American businesses and Hollywood are two key factors that ARE DRIVING THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH BOTH IN THE PAST AND TODAY. and books that can be found almost everywhere. THE LARGEST AMOUNT of the INFORMATION ON THE WEB in English is PRESENTED in American English.websites.MILLIONS of hits for SEARCHES in English most ENGLISH content available in American English Step 4 A. has enough GRAVITY to form a SPHERE. Step 2 A. Step 4 Some scientists are thinking about changing the CLASSIFICATION of Pluto. In addition to American movies. which is different than other planets. 2. the lecture explains that Pluto looks more like a COMET than a planet. It orbits a star.fewer HITS for searches not in English
Practice 2 Step 1 Main idea: It’s a fairly new idea that sunlight is actually harmful. fewer hits for searches not in English synonyms: fewer --. Pluto is similar in size to other objects in the KUIPER BELT.
It’s true that sunlight can cause CANCER. Step 6 1. Step 3 How sunlight helps us: A) Prevents illness B) Kills BACTERIA . A lot of illness that can be life threatening CAN ACTUALLY BE STOPPED WITH LIGHT FROM THE SUN. LIGHT FROM THE SUN can actually STOP or cure a lot of ILLNESSES that can be LIFE THREATENING. Perhaps animals are wiser about sunlight than we are because they are active only at special times.get well faster --. Making the ATOMIC ENERGY PLANTS safe IS COSTLY. recover faster synonyms: recover --.bacteria sickness --.HOSPITALS with more sunlight have FEWER germs . HARM has already been DONE to MANY people.
Practice 3 Step 1 Main idea: When atoms are split. many people. 1 B. Sample answer: The belief that sunlight is dangerous is a change in our way of thinking.occur/take place paraphrase: Mishaps sometimes take place. 1.illness/disease paraphrase:Sunlight kills bacteria that cause illness/disease.takes LONG time to break down Step 4 A. durable boxes needed to bury waste synonyms: durable --. B. BUT SKIN CANCER ISN’T USUALLY FATAL. it isn’t usually FATAL. Sunlight kills germs that cause sickness.dispose of underground/put in the earth paraphrase: To dispose of the waste underground. 2. accidents can happen synonyms: accident --. synonyms: germs --.
. B. Step 6 1. Step 5 A. Step 5 A. Scientists can use nuclear power to generate electricity. 2 C. 2. TREES. Sunlight kills germs and bacteria. 1. The main reason for not using nuclear power is that the waste is poisonous. 2. Sample answer: Splitting an atom produces a vast quantity of heat and energy. 1.B. so it can keep people from getting sick.more sunlight ➝ people recover FASTER Step 4 A. 2. and animals have been HARMED BY NUCLEAR POWER. 2. plants.required/necessary buy --. Already. Step 3 Reasons for not using NUCLEAR power: A) waste is deadly POISON B) ACCIDENTS can happen C) high cost for SAFETY . strong and reliable boxes are required. Even though RAYS from the sun can sometimes HARM people by GIVING THEM skin cancer.hospitals without much SUNLIGHT have MORE germs . B. The cost is very high TO MAKE NUCLEAR REACTORS SAFE.strong/reliable needed --. 2. large amounts of heat and energy are created. B.mistake/mishap happen --. Step 2 A.DURABLE boxes needed to bury waste . 1.more quickly paraphrase:People get well more quickly in hospitals where there is more sunlight. and animals. 1 C.
Sample answer: Gradual changes on Earth is one possible cause of the dinosaurs’ disappearance.all at once killed .
Practice 1 Step 2 We learn new things all the time. Some people learn by reading. When we are adults. Step 2 A. scientists can see that many animals from the past have disappeared. Suddenly killed when object from space hit the Earth synonyms: suddenly . I learn not to do it that way again. I pushed buttons and clicked with my mouse. I did not really understand the instructions. Some people disagree with my point of view. is one IDEA. 1. It seemed like they were written in a foreign language.wiped out. I also learn what happens when I make that mistake. Others argue that dinosaurs disappeared AT ONCE BECAUSE SOMETHING CHANGED SUDDENLY. Then I put the CD in my computer. Others learn by doing. This is a simple thing if you know how to do it. When we are children. tidal waves explosion . Step 3 1. These are both important things to know when you learn to do something new.Practice 4 Step 1 Main idea: One theory argues that gradual changes on Earth made the dinosaurs die out. The topic sentence of the body paragraph is “One
. They say they have to read the instructions to learn how to do things. or from teachers in school.comet. If you do not already know. The thesis statement of this essay is “Personally. Now. causing dinosaurs to die out OVER TIME. The first time I got a new program for my computer.some dinosaurs died because of COLD WEATHER or no food Step 4 A. From bones found in rocks. 1.” 2. One thing I learned by doing was how to install programs on my computer. I know how to install any program on my computer. Step 6 1.STEAM and dust flew into ATMOSPHERE . we learn things from older people. or even from younger people. One THEORY that SOME RESEARCHERS believe is that a change caused the dinosaurs to die SUDDENLY. Although we are all learning all the time.slammed into. I learn better by doing than by reading. people learn in different ways. 2. I read the instructions for how to install it. from our friends. extinguished object from space . Personally. Step 3 Dinosaur extinction: • suddenly killed when OBJECT from space HIT the Earth • Clue = CRATER in ocean near Mexico • After Earth was hit: . Very gradual changes on Earth cause dinosaurs TO DIE OUT LITTLE BY LITTLE. 1 C. smashed into paraphrase:extinguished all at once when a rock from outer space slammed into the Earth B.some dinosaurs killed by FLOODS or explosion . When I make a mistake. from colleagues. I think it is OK to make mistakes.rising water. 2. They do not want to make any mistakes. That the Earth CHANGED very slowly.
2. some dinosaurs killed by floods or explosion synonyms: floods . we learn information from our parents. extreme heat paraphrase:some dinosaurs wiped out by tidal waves or blast Step 5 A. 1 B. While one idea claims that gradual changes on Earth caused dinosaurs to die out. another idea is that something hit the Earth and killed them all.blast. B. I installed the program without the instructions at all. I learn better by doing than by reading. rock from outer space hit . it can be confusing.
4. Most people realize that having good neighbors is very
Thesis Statements Step 1 Question 1: Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. The writer states that some people read to learn so that they don’t make mistakes. you also need to be a good neighbor. Do you prefer to spend your free time outside or inside? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. The writer does present an idea from the other side in the conclusion. Indeed. But I also learned a valuable lesson from these neighbors. The main idea of the conclusion is that even though learning by doing leads to mistakes. 2. Before leaving for summer vacation. we were worried about leaving our house empty for two weeks. I am lucky to have very good neighbors where we live. so she introduced us to her family and told us to ask her if we ever needed anything.thing I learned by doing was how to install programs on my computer. This personal experience is about the qualities of good neighbors. whenever a neighborly thing should be done. Do you think automobiles have more benefits or disadvantages? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. People sometimes complain that their neighbors are difficult. Two qualities that make a good neighbor. Question 2: The automobile has done a lot to improve modern life. or help out. Two sentences in the conclusion restate ideas previously mentioned in the essay. the weather was hot and she invited our kids to swim with her children at the pool.
Practice 2 Step 2 It’s important to have good neighbors. The topic sentence of the body paragraph is “Our neighbors are good neighbors because they are friendly and helpful. then.” Step 4 1. whenever she and her family go away. I remember the first summer we moved in. making mistakes is useful for learning too. they always cooperate.” Step 4 1. The main idea of the conclusion is that to have good neighbors. 2. Now. I was lucky to have kind and helpful neighbors with whom we quickly became friends. 4. In the weeks that followed. The sample the writer gives to support the thesis statement is how the writer learned to install computer programs. our children and hers have become good friends. then. Our neighbors are good neighbors because they are friendly and helpful. are friendliness and helpfulness. 3.” 2. One of our neighbors saw that we were new.
important. This essay takes the side of learning by doing is better than learning by reading. It has also caused many problems for modern society. we help them in the same way and keep an eye on their house. The thesis statement of this essay is “Two qualities that make a good neighbor. On the contrary. Our neighbor offered to collect the letters from our mailbox every day and to make sure our house was OK. Also. Step 3 1. Since then. but we have never had any problems with our neighbors. are friendliness and helpfulness. Question 3: When was the last time you had to interact with someone much older or much younger than you? Was this a good or bad experience for you? Describe the situation and your interaction using specific details. The examples the writer gives to support the thesis statement are how her neighbor invited them to swim at the pool and how her neighbor took care of her house while her family was away. Other people prefer to spend their free time indoors. we like our neighbors a lot and we think that our neighbors like us. I learned the one thing as important as having a good neighbor is being a good neighbor yourself. I think our neighbors are good because they have been friendly since the first day we moved in.
13. 10. 16. 18. 17. I would study music because I love listening to the piano. ( 1 ) I have learned a lot about Japanese culture by watching Japanese movies. 20. 7. 9. (A) (A) (B) (A) (A) convenient couple sudden
. 10. 5. 23. 15. I can read my letter again and change things that are too emotional or are not clear. ( 2 ) When I complain about a product or service in writing. 6. 8. I can plan the things I want to say. 7. I prefer to complain in writing. 25. 17. 14. Question 4: experience Sample thesis statement: One time in my life when I went through a stressful change was the time that I started my first job.
Review 1 1. ( 2 ) The book of poems from my friend was special because she wrote the poems herself. ( 3 ) In The Funeral. ( 3 ) If the water is polluted or not taken care of well. 23. save it or spend it? Explain what you did and why. 21. 20. 25. I could see the various parts of a traditional Japanese funeral service. Question 4 ( 1 ) I think the company should use the money to protect the environment. ( 1 ) If I have to complain about a product or poor service. 22. 14. (D) (C) (C) (A) (C) inventions isolated nuclear remain 2. 8.
Question 3 ( 1 ) A special gift I received is a book of poems from my friend. 22.
Review 2 1. 12. 9. 13. Question 2: opinion Sample thesis statement: If I could study a subject that I have never studied before. 24. 4. Include specific details and reasons in your essay. 19. 6. (B) (B) (B) (A) (D) cultural readily (B) (C) 2. 15. 12. 11. Question 2 ( 3 ) After a day or two. ( 3 ) One of the poems was about the first time we met. ( 2) It is more important for the company to protect the environment because we need the environment to live. people can get sick from it. Step 2 Question 1: experience Sample thesis statement: I learned how to play tennis by playing with my friend rather than by reading about tennis. 4. Question 3: opinion Sample thesis statement: The best way to travel is by yourself rather than with a tour guide. 19. 11.Question 4: When was the last time you received a gift of money? What did you do with the money. (A) (D) (D) (A) (C) cuisine rewarding (A) 3. The Funeral. 21. (A) (D) (D) (B) (B) encyclopedia contact gradual 3. 18. 24. 16. 5. (D) (D) (B) (B) (A) campus (D) (E)
Topic Sentences Step 1 Question 1 ( 2 ) One film. showed me several interesting things about Japan.
GM crops grow bigger. You have to get your heart working significantly harder than when you are resting. women who walked slowly lost more weight than women who walked fast for exercise. This does not necessarily mean 30 minutes of hard exercise at the gym. (4) In other words. Step 2 • light exercise can lead to physical changes in the body . It could be 10 minutes of brisk walking during a lunch break or any other short break during your day that you can think of. for example. the speaker describes a study of women who walk. not how hard the exercise is. (3)
. and weeds without so much use of chemicals. You simply need enough of these short breaks to add up to 30 minutes over your day. In agriculture. (2) As an example. In the study. This allows safer use of the land and the chance to feed more people because farms can produce more than before.better way to make crops resistant is bio-natural farming • higher quantities and better quality of crops not necessary . it is better to exercise slowly for a longer period of time than to exercise quickly just to sweat more. (1) This contradicts the statement in the reading that people have to breathe hard and sweat when they exercise. Practice 2 Step 1 Genetically modified (GM) food has many advantages.make more for rich. diseases. always look perfect.Chapter
This indicates that the length of time exercising is important. Step 2 • environmentalists believe GM foods cause problems in farming . and have high nutritional value.slow walkers lost more weight why? they exercised longer because talked with friends • weight trainers say focus on taking your time when exercising Step 3 Lecture • Light exercise more effective • People walking slowly saw better results than those who exercised intensely Reading • Need vigorous exercise • A person needs to increase their heart rate significantly Step 4 The speaker says that even light exercise can lead to physical changes in the body. Whatever the activity is. All these advantages are so important that most industries agree GM foods are now necessary. it is vital that it make you breathe vigorously and produce sweat. Other advantages include easier shipping and longer shelf life in stores.make farming too technological . less for poor Step 3 Lecture • GM foods cause unnecessary problems in farming • Farming too technological with GM farming • GM farming will only provide more food for already rich countries Reading • Many advantages to GM foods • Resists insects and diseases better • Can help feed more people • Has higher nutritional value
Step 1 Research has shown that just 30 minutes of exercise a day is enough to keep most people healthy. GM crops can better resist various insects. Furthermore.study of women who walked .
Other planets can be colonized. too. for example. This will soon become a major problem. opponents of space exploration argue that we should solve our problems in the here and now and not in space. (4) In summary. moons. (1) On the other hand. The reading explains that we can colonize other planets and find resources on asteroids. The reading also says GM foods look better and that more can be grown. Populations are growing rapidly.most Romans were poor . though. as long as we use them wisely.
Practice 4 Step 1 The fall of Rome was due to a decline in morals and values.000 prostitutes.terrible living conditions .too much military spending . and weeds.resource problem ➝ spend money better way to develop Earth’s resources or on programs to increase recycling and reusing. In the lecture. or even asteroids. not on space
Reading • Space exploration necessary • Natural resources available on other planets. (1) in contrast. For example. Both citizens and soldiers lost their traditional beliefs. Roman cities were also dangerous due to a high rate of violent crime. the lecture shows that GM foods have no real advantages and that more natural foods should be grown instead. we can see it is foolish not to consider the possibilities that space can offer. Practice 3 Step 1 Space exploration is a necessary investment for our future. Environmental groups.lived in small crowded apartments . can be found elsewhere on other planets. the written passage lists advantages to using GM foods. They contend. that our problems do not make space travel necessary and insist that governments should focus on better managing our problems here instead. like minerals. (3) moreover. and decrease consumption Step 3 Lecture • Space exploration not necessary • Global problems should be tackled first • Money should be spent on problems here on Earth.population problem ➝ better way to deal with issues in agriculture. and birth control . it is clearly stated that opponents doubt these claims. diseases.government hired foreign soldiers
. Step 2 • Government should deal with problems on Earth before thinking about space . The reading. that natural foods look good enough and taste better. argue that more foods are not needed in rich countries and. then we will pay a high cost in the future. Our planet will soon run out of resources. Step 2 • Main reasons for fall of Roman Empire . If we don’t explore other planets we may run out of resources Step 4 The lecture presents arguments opposed to space travel. the lecture claims that bio-natural farming can do the same thing (2) and in ways that are better for the environment.Step 4 The lecture tells us that environmental groups do not think GM foods are needed. Natural resources. (2) in brief. clean-water management. If we look seriously at this problem. Roman leaders showed moral decay too. In Rome. The real danger is that if we fail to invest in these possibilities now. In contrast. (3) but opponents say we could find ways to develop resources here or even recycle more. They seem to believe that the Earth has enough resources to sustain us. (4) In short. there lived approximately 32. it says that GM plants resist well against insects. The discipline of Romans did not continue near the end of the Empire and the armies were difficult to control. presents reasons why space exploration is urgently needed and even necessary to ensure our future survival. emperors like Nero and Caligula were well known for holding parties at which everyone drank and ate so much they became sick.
C. 28. (C) 18. (D) 20. we can conclude that moral decay did not actually lead to the fall of Rome. (B) 21. (B) 14. C. (A) 15. A. F. (B) 8. C. (3) In addition. however. C. A. D
Practice 3 Step 3 Transitions: Transitions: Transitions: However. 22. For example. (A) 27. A. D. 16. 42. I think Therefore. B Body: D. (A) 12. In the past. The text (2) also suggests soldiers lost their values. 25. Finally.
Practice 2 Step 2 Transitions: Transitions: Transitions: In this way. This contradicts the text. so. B. In this. however. 7. while. B. A. (C) 17. (C) 29. because. (1) For example. E. Of course Furthermore.000 prostitutes lived in Rome. C. D. 4. D. D. 38. C Body: E. What's more. but the lecture makes it clear that no improvements to living conditions in cities made Romans refuse to fight. 34. D. 10. As well as
Introduction: E. (D) 11. the lecture shows that problems in cities and more spending on armies were bigger crises than moral decay. A. 13. In conclusion. (C) 23. However. (A) 24. whereas.Step 3 Lecture • Claims poor living conditions and military spending caused the fall of the empire • Romans had no money and so became angry and refused to defend the empire Reading • Moral decay caused the fall of the empire • The army became undisciplined • The cities became violent with high crime rates Step 4 The lecturer says moral decay did not cause the fall of Rome. and. 39. C. (D) intelligence consistently responded measured possibilities relieve
Practice 1 Step 2 Transitions: Transitions: Transitions: For example. In short. though In my opinion. Secondly. and. 35. and For the above reasons. C
. On the other hand. 31. (C) 2. D Conclusion: A. However
Introduction: C. In addition. B Body: B. A. (A) 9. 33. 3. and. B. A
Review 1 1. resulting in higher taxes and even more problems in cities. (A) 5. A Conclusion: B. E. though First of all. (4) Therefore. the lecture explains many Romans could not even pay rent. also. (B) 6. which states moral decay was the main reason. B. so
Introduction: E. and. 36. the lecture explains how hiring foreign soldiers made armies expensive to maintain. One place. (B) 30. 19. 37. and In fact. 41. 40. environmental performed damaged feelings encouraged resistant (D) (D) (C) (D) (B) (A) (B) (B) (C) (D) 32. the text says 32. D. B Conclusion: E. F. (C) 26.
40. 45. 13. 11. 29. (C) 24. pace 47.
restful nearby (O) (S)
44. 42. 43. 49. 19. 35. 34. (D) 12. 47. 44.43. 20. (B) crowded improve response foolish troops hire operation 48. (C) 15. (B) 27. (D) 21. 14. 36. 26. (S)
Review 2 1. (A) (D) (B) (B) (B) (C) (A) (A) (D) (A) economy rent refused hiring government guidance regular genetically (C) (B) 2. (C) 30. 33. 4. 39. (E) 50. (O) 50. 7. 23. (A)
. 41. 5. (C) 18. 28. 38. 31. 10. 46. 45. (A) 9. 25. 37. 17. 46. (S) 48. (B) 6. 8. (B) (C) (A) (D) (A) (A) (C) (D) (C) (D) 32. 49. (D) 3. 16. 22.
To prevent this. 4. (B) 8. but some also enjoy high-risk activities such as sky diving and paragliding. It was amazing to see so many different cultures in such a small area. Of course. it is important to have an activity or hobby to help reduce the stress in your life. (A) 6. (A) 9. They both work in the same hospital. (B) (B) (B) (A) 2. (B) 5. together. We had a great time. it was one of the best times of my life. Some people enjoy bringing some action and adventure into their lives. then he plans to return to England to teach in a university. Both of them work very hard.
Exercise 1 1.
1. Other people prefer physical exercise or sports. One of the best ways to reduce stress is to take up a hobby. there comes greater excitement. and Dublin’s tallest structure was finally completed. He moved here shortly after finishing university. which is also good for your health. he believes that one day he might return to Spain and start a family there. John will/is going to move back to England in May because he misses his family. like me. so we decided to travel together for the rest of the holiday. His plan is to live in Spain for a few years in order to improve his Spanish. While I was traveling through Germany. everyday sports. The pleasure is far greater than with normal. 7. 2. They have been married just over a year. The Dublin Spire is over 120 meters in height and was completed in January 2003. Dublin City is home to the world’s tallest sculpture. (B) 3.Chapter
2. When I traveled around Europe. However.
. At home. They have decided to move in next month. there were delays because of bad weather. the spire was eventually able to be finished. He likes Spanish culture. 10. Some people have a collection of certain objects or items. John speaks Spanish very well. Yesterday. Because his girlfriend is Spanish. Of course. If you want your life to have more entertainment. They have been looking for a house for over nine months now. too. Either way. Stephen and Sarah got married in May of last year. then these fun pastimes are a great idea. they hope everything will have been/will be organized and they are looking/look forward to living in their new home. 2. (B)
Exercise 2 1. When the structure was first being built in 2002. but they are usually worth the extra cost. Many people enjoy sports like baseball and soccer. As a result. This can improve your circulation. and have little time for organizing their new house. when the strong winds had passed. We made a promise that sometime in the future we would return and do it again.
Exercise 2 1. and he loves the food also. I had just finished university and I decided/had decided I wanted to see some more of the world. were from America. But with higher risk. Stephen is a doctor and Sarah is a doctor. sometimes work-related issues can remain in a person’s mind. John has lived in Spain for over six months. they hired a decorator to buy all the furniture and decorate the house. after all of the furniture has been bought. The risks involved are far greater than in regular sports. having studied it for many years. with sports like these it is important that you are educated properly about them. they finally found a house that they really liked. It was so much fun. In a few weeks. I met some people who. thinking about something different or doing something active can help your mind to focus on something else. you have to pay more with these activities.
Each nation have donated food and supplies to help with the problem. IC 9. ➠ I really like steak. The nurses waited over an hour for the doctor. Saw the soccer match on television. they was all very relaxed. We decided to leave the restaurant. Now that I in Spain. 4. 8. After the marathon. Underline the fragment and change it into a complete sentence. too. it is stormy as well. 16. Her name is Jessica.
Exercise 2 1. 6. 7. One thousand dollars are a lot of money to earn each week. Sometimes. look have rescue catch is think 2. 13. Brian and I am deciding where to go on vacation. But doesn’t work as hard as Cindy. they were all thirsty. 12. C 2. ➠ Simon jogged to the park. 3. who never arrived. IC 14. Nancy works quite hard. 11. too. Her name Jessica. IC 10.
Exercise 1 One of the two sentences below is a fragment. ➠ I saw Ann last week while I was walking to class. 10. ➠ The question was easy but I didn’t know the answer. C 5. Sometimes stormy as well. IC 4. and he stayed there for an hour. ➠ After the marathon. too. the couple take a walk along the beach. 9. 14. 5. I didn’t know the answer. 11. Simon jogged to the park. I really want to go back to America. ➠ I saw the soccer match on television. IC 3. It is usually warm in summer. 8. they were all thirsty. He have the answer to the question. I wasn’t impressed. appears is have disagree worry
. I wasn’t impressed. IC 12. ➠ You can’t enter the competition. 10. C 13. C 11. ➠ Tara has a young daughter. Hungry. Chicken. I saw Ann last week. Each evening. A number of students has failed the exam. The Philippines have a population of over eighty-six million people. IC 16. I like chicken. 6. The question easy. too. has need prays escape arrives 3. ➠ Nancy works quite hard. It is too late. C 15. 4. IC 7. 7. All of this food are healthy for you. as the menu was not impressive. While walking to class. The children was curious about many of the animals in the zoo. 1. It too late. The janitor had finished cleaning by the time we arrived. 9. 5. 15. IC 8. A lot of information are on the Internet. I really want to go back to America. but she doesn’t work as hard as Cindy. Some of the builders are going to return to work tomorrow. Watching certain television programs are a good way to educate children. 2. Tara has a young daughter. And stayed there for an hour. After the day in the park. ➠ It is usually warm in summer. ➠ Now that I am in Spain. IC 6. I really like steak. You can’t enter the competition. They were hungry.Focus C
Exercise 1 IC 1.
I saw him to selling tickets for the raffle. Though I waited over an hour for my friend. Ireland. When the opera was over. The woman also suggested applying for the loan. RO 8. So much suffering in the world. 15. IC 14. Often doesn’t sleep until three in the morning. The meal in the restaurant excellent.
CS 13. IC 15. It was a pity the service wasn’t. IC 11. F 12. C 16. ➠ John works so hard. They realized that waiting another day would put them behind schedule. F 7. the audience stood and clapped in approval. CS 5. ➠ There is so much suffering in the world. IC 5. IC 12. 13. Patrick had worked hard for years he deserved a raise. One theory is the universe exploded billions of years ago. too. IC 2. we didn’t want work hard. F 11. RO 15. the theater director started to relax. The horse that won the race was not necessarily the best. C 7. 14. His final solution was to sell the house. Walking to the subway station time consuming. F 2. When we went to London. ➠ Walking to the subway station is time consuming. Was very unhappy with the results. I asked my friend to help me with my resumé. They agreed that hiring a detective might solve the problem.
Exercise 1 IC 1. Didn’t help me. He sometimes quiet and moody. ➠ The meal in the restaurant was excellent. He is often depressed. The tour was not very successful we didn’t enjoy it. When the crowds started arriving. I usually take the bus. C 8. It was a pity the service wasn’t. C 10. To review the project again was suggested by the director of sales. As it was Saturday. Saturday the best. After the movie ended.12. 16. she never arrived. ➠ He is sometimes quiet and moody. everybody left. I usually take the bus. CS 16.
. too. My grandfather liked study new things. The town had never looked so clean. He decided working there was a bad idea. I decided to study harder. CS 9. So too. we took a lot of photographs. The easiest solution was that replace the broken part with a new one. There is also so much unhappiness. There is also so much unhappiness. CS 6. F 3. C 9. John works so hard. We asked the government develop the school facilities. I knew that finishing the job would be more difficult than to starting it.
Exercise 2 CS 1. he doesn’t sleep until three in the morning. The builder did a bad job on my house I didn’t pay him. They didn’t want spend more time there than was necessary. C 3. Often. the sun finally came out. Switzerland is a beautiful country. C 13. IC 6. CS 10. C 4. We decided to do some extra work over the weekend. Of all the days of the vacation. F 14. He is often depressed. It is impossible to finding an answer for that question. When the rain stopped. Many countries in South America have excellent soccer teams. Such as Brazil. RO 4. Worked so hard to tidy it.
It was raining heavily.
. They knew it was unacceptable completing the project three weeks late. In order that the repairs for the computer be done properly. 7. he is the best chef. 6. They could quit. 5. 12. ➠ (to) Everyone expected the company to change ownership. I encourage my students to read first. 3. however. I should take the photographs. 11. 10. they have never been to a game. so we sat watching TV all day. Dave and Casey agreed to share the prize money. 9. ➠ (to) In order to properly repair the computer. ➠ (that) In order that they meet the deadline. ➠ (that) We agreed that we would spend a week in Greece. 8. but I had no umbrella. they had to work on Saturday. I have the most experience with cameras. We agreed to spend a week in Greece. ➠ (that) They knew it was unacceptable that they complete the project three weeks late. therefore. 2. He expected that she would not flunk the course. Andrea realized to paint the wall would take too long. They decided that they would sell the house. He won the cooking competition. you should call Tim. you should call Tim. They had two choices. they can practice speaking. we traveled around the rest of Europe. 15. I had no money to buy food. He enjoys neither the theater nor the opera. however. I was very hungry. 14. 3. 8. In order to meet the deadline. I spend a lot of time studying French.
Exercise 1 1. 10. We lost that particular game. 7. he often arrives late for class. 13. We began our vacation in Paris. I take cooking lessons. ➠ (that) Dave and Casey agreed that they would share the prize money. they had to work on Saturday. therefore. Kim asked that the manager give her an extra day to finish the project. They are big soccer fans. 16. ➠ (that) Andrea realized that painting the wall would take too long. 9. 4. The heavy storm kept us from going out. They won an expensive meal for two. He is a fantastic lecturer. Then. Everyone expected that the company would change ownership. or they could work twice as hard. ➠ (to) He expected her not to flunk the course. 5. then. 4. 2. so they are going to a restaurant this weekend. We can go to the theater or go to the beach. however. 6. ➠ (to) They decided to sell the house. but I don’t seem to be improving. ➠ (to) Kim asked the manager to give her an extra day to finish the project. and I also started a yoga class. but we won the whole competition.Exercise 2 1. These days.
a music CD in Buenos Aires sells for around seven euros. Either way. the most expensive cities to live in are Tokyo.
. London. and Moscow. thousands of people pay money to do this. but it may cost only 600 euros in Buenos Aires. Additionally. each year. On the other hand. What is it that makes people want to do this? Is it the excitement or the fear and danger? Some people. the same cup of coffee in Buenos Aires might set you back only seventy cents. Some cities are a lot more expensive to live in than others. and then jumping out of the airplane. whereas the same CD may sell for up to 20 euros in Dublin and London. as much as we complain about prices. A two-bedroom apartment there can cost around 2000 euros per month. therefore. However. flying into the sky. We can see. that some cities have it worse than we do. there must be something special that makes people want to jump. Skydiving is a very exciting sport. Ireland can cost you around three euros. others may want to test how brave they are. for example. 2. Imagine climbing into an airplane with a bag on your back. enjoy the “rush” from roller coasters. Quite a difference! These days. Although it sounds dangerous. a cup of coffee in Dublin. Paris is also very expensive.Exercise 2 1. therefore. they put on a parachute and jump out of a plane. For example.
they learn discipline and how to work in a group. Norway rat --. there is a wide variety of seafood available. (A) 24. (B) 12. (A) Proprietorship --. men often make business contacts in the military that help them in the future. (B) 15. (A). 10. (B) 9. If men weren’t forced to serve. The first reason I enjoyed this trip was the beautiful weather. 4 (A)
Question 1 The best vacation I ever had was a trip to Hawaii. (F) 3. (C) 3. (C) 23. Second. 4. (C) 18. Second. 23. Hawaii has many lovely parks and beaches. (A) 18. 1 (A). Because Hawaii is an island. I believe in freedom of choice. By forcing someone to serve. (D). (D) 2. 2 (B). It is not fair to men. (B). I believe forcing only men to serve is discrimination. Every day it was sunny and clear. Finally. Bayeux --. when a man serves in the army. (A) 8. 7. 2 (D). Bradford --. (D) 16. (D). (A) 2. I really liked Hawaiian food. the army would be too small to protect the country from attack. (D)
Campus Life 1. (D) (D) 11. (C) 22. 17. he could be studying or working or preparing for his future. he loses time that he can never get back. 1 (D). (C) 21. 4 (B) Health 13. (B) 9. I enjoy eating seafood. (E) 14.(B).
.(B). (C) (D) 5. (B) 21. 3 (C).(A). (C) 16. (C) (B) 8. House mouse --. (A) 19. (C) 20. forcing men to serve in the military is the better policy. First of all. First of all. (A) 24. 20. so I could do many outdoor activities. (C) Biology 19. (D) (B) (B) (C) 15. (C) 5. allowing men to choose to serve in the military is the better policy. Crystals 13. For instance. (C) (E). They can also improve their health by exercising all the time. (C) 22. (B) 17. the government takes away that freedom. In addition. (A) 6. Another reason I enjoyed my trip was all the beautiful scenery. (D) 14. (D) Art 7. Finally.(A). (B) 11. (D) 10. (C) 4. Partnership --Corporation --. (C) 6. I think men can learn a lot from serving in the military.Practice Test
Businesses 1. it is very important for a country to have a strong military.(C).(C). Sample response 2: In my opinion. With this time. 12. 3 (C). (C). Question 2 Sample response 1: In my opinion. They should be treated equally with women.
One reason the king in ancient Babylon probably built the Hanging Gardens was to please his wife. Second. she mentions that the largest drakkar ever found was about 70 meters long and was probably owned by a king! Question 5 Sample response 1: In this conversation. The woman disagrees with this scholarship. By showing how powerful and prosperous Babylon was. his second suggestion. The speaker mentions that the drakkars were actually often used for travel on small rivers rather than just on the sea. In sum. They were used to transport up to 150 warriors on raids all across Europe. but she will still have time to relax and see her friends on the weekend. that she ask to only work two nights per week. she might get too stressed to perform well in class. called drakkars. She also explains that noblemen usually owned these ships. her mother earns a lot of money. The man suggests two ways for her to deal with the problem. she will get a better job and have a lot of time for her friends. In my opinion. it was showing that its way of life was the right one. is better. Question 6 The lecture provides information about the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The woman says that she likes to relax and hang out with her friends on the weekend. First. he suggests that she only work on weekends. This way. I think this is the best idea. so the woman will not be able to get the scholarship. She is worried about having enough time to study for exams while working at a restaurant four nights a week. they reward lazy students who don’t work as hard to earn high grades.
. This way. the woman describes a problem she has with work and school. The gardens were probably meant to improve relations with her homeland and thereby maintain the queen’s home country as an ally. In fact. The man suggests two ways for her to deal with the problem. she would like the scholarships to be awarded based on grades. the Vikings could raid smaller villages. she believes that because the scholarships are not given based on academic performance. Last. she will have more time to study and earn high grades. she believes that the scholarship discriminates against students whose parents are wealthy. First. In addition.Question 3 The Ministry of Education announced a new scholarship to help students who don’t have a lot of money. Sample response 2: In this conversation. A second reason may have been to impress people with Babylon’s power and to convey its wealth and might. She is worried about having enough time to study for exams while working at a restaurant four nights a week. so she would be able to get one. the professor talks about why the gardens were probably built. Question 4 The reading talks about Vikings and their ships. In particular. If she didn’t have time to relax. but I think her job and education are more important. These ships were very long and strong. the woman describes a problem she has with work and school. After she finishes university. she details how drakkars were usually about 30 meters long with about 25 oarsmen.
which will limit their chances of enjoying their time in a new place. got their lungs punctured. If they cannot communicate with others. Though adapting to new languages and customs can be difficult. the National Health Council does not recommend acupuncture. which helps the patient feel better. a new resident will not enjoy an active social life. though. New residents to a country have a choice. more serious negative health effects such as infections and hepatitis B have been documented. I believe that all the benefits of following the customs of a new country certainly outweigh the difficulties involved.
. In addition. it is important to be socially active and have good friends. in school or business. I also believe it is important to adapt to a new country. he states that some patients fainted. have found that acupuncture can help treat certain medical problems. such as high blood pressure. New residents to a country should take advantage of their chance to do this. it will be difficult to make friends. Finally. there are no side effects associated with acupuncture. Importantly. then. However. If they do not. I think that part of the joy of life is learning about new cultures. Task 2 Moving to another country can be a difficult process. and even had their pain get worse after treatment. Such new ideas can help people solve problems in new and different ways that they might not have thought of without trying to adapt to the new culture. too. For example. Without friends. First. and customs. If he or she is uncomfortable around other people. to lead an enjoyable life. In order to fully take advantage of this opportunity. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical procedure in which metal needles are put into important points on a patient’s body.Writing
Task 1 The topic of both the lecture and the reading is acupuncture. While I think it is important for everyone to be proud of his or her heritage. This helps the patient’s body. It states that we do not know exactly why acupuncture works. they will not be able to communicate. He states that it is safe if it is done by a well-trained doctor. he cites statistics that show it is not always safe. They can try to follow the customs of the new country or keep the customs of their former country. and knee problems. They can be exposed to new music and art. Finally. Some studies in England and the US. Their social life will be poor. In conclusion. A new resident must adapt to the customs of that country in order to feel comfortable around other residents. The reading suggests that acupuncture may change some chemicals in the brain. Learning new customs can teach a person new ways of thinking about life. The lecture. Similarly. Each country has its own food. in contrast. the new resident must follow the customs of the new country. it is also very rewarding. The acupuncturist then vibrates the needles by hand or with electricity. The speaker casts doubts on the effectiveness of acupuncture to treat medical problems. For example. pain. the new resident must speak the language of the new country. For these reasons. focuses on the dangers of acupuncture. language. they will not have the opportunity to succeed. it concludes that acupuncture can work well in conjunction with normal health care. people usually leave one country for another country because of the opportunity for a better life.