COMPLETE

FRENCH
THE BASICS

Written by CarolAnn D’Annunzio

Edited by Zvjezdana Vrzi´, Ph.D. c

Copyright © 2008 by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc. Living Language is a member of the Random House Information Group Living Language and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Living Language, an imprint of Random House, Inc. www.livinglanguage.com Editor: Zvjezdana Vrzic, Ph.D. ´ Production Editor: Lisbeth Dyer Production Manager: Thomas Marshall Interior Design: Sophie Ye Chin First Edition ISBN: 978-1-4000-2409-4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available upon request. This book is available at special discounts for bulk purchases for sales promotions or premiums. Special editions, including personalized covers, excerpts of existing books, and corporate imprints, can be created in large quantities for special needs. For more information, write to Special Markets/Premium Sales, 1745 Broadway, MD 6-2, New York, New York 10019 or e-mail specialmarkets@randomhouse.com. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this book to my husband and best friend, Paul Sonnenberg, who has been my biggest fan, supporting me in all of my endeavors, especially in the writing of this course.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to the Living Language team: Tom Russell, Nicole Benhabib, Christopher Warnasch, Zvjezdana Vrzi´ , Suzanne McQuade, Shaina Malkin, c Elham Shabahat, Sophie Chin, Denise DeGennaro, Linda Schmidt, Alison Skrabek, Lisbeth Dyer, and Tom Marshall. Special thanks to Brigitte Dewever for reviewing the book. The author would like to thank her former student Christopher Warnasch, his Living Language team, and her editor, Zvjezdana Vrzi´ . Special thanks to Frances c and Rick Gonzalez, Agnieszka Leesch, Dana Salmon, and Joseph Porretta.

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. . . . . . . . . . . .x Language learning tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Placement of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii French spelling and pronunciation . . .LivingLanguage. . . . . . .31 Lesson 5 (words) . . . . . . . . . 10 The verb être (to be) in the present tense . .32 Indefinite articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 UNIT 2: Talking about family . . . definite articles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Lesson 1 (words) . . . .10 Adjectives and agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Asking questions . . . . .COURSE OUTLINE How to use this course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 2 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Cognates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Lesson 4 (conversations) . . . . . .39 Course Outline iii www. . . . . . and gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nouns. . . . . . . . .com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiii UNIT 1: Greetings and introductions . . . . 31 Possessive adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Lesson 3 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .58 Group 1 verbs: Verbs ending in -er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 The verb avoir (to have) in the present tense—singular forms . . . . . .51 More fixed expressions with the verb avoir (to have) . . . . 57 Days of the week: When and when not to use an article . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Lesson 7 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LivingLanguage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 The placement and agreement of adjectives . .78 iv Complete French: The Basics www. . . . . . .Lesson 6 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 The verb avoir (to have) in the present tense—plural forms . . .76 Forming questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 C’est (it is) + adjective . . . . . . . . .47 Uses of être (to be) and avoir (to have) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Placement of color adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 UNIT 3: Everyday life . . .71 Lesson 11 (sentences) . . . . .57 Lesson 9 (words) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The interrogative adjectives . . . .62 Lesson 10 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . .48 Lesson 8 (conversations) . . . . .com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

you. . . . . . . . . . . 98 The verb prendre (to take) in the present tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 UNIT 4: At a restaurant . . . . . . . . . . 83 The verb aller (to go) in the present tense . . 104 The near future . . . . . . . .92 Lesson 14 (phrases) . . they) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 The subject pronoun on (one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Partitive articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Aller (to go) in idiomatic expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Group 3 verbs: Verbs ending in -re . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Course Outline v www.LivingLanguage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Lesson 17 (words) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 The verb boire (to drink) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lesson 12 (conversations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 The verb manger (to eat) . .102 Lesson 15 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Group 2 verbs: Verbs ending in -ir . . . . . . .114 UNIT 5: Using the telephone and making appointments . .com . . . . . .105 Contractions with the preposition à . . . 110 The polite form je voudrais (I would like) . . . .108 Lesson 16 (conversations) . . . .89 Lesson 13 (words) . . . . . .

. . . .139 The verb faire (to do. . . . . . . .170 Adverbs . . . . . .130 The past tense of irregular verbs . . . . . . . . 177 The conditional . . . . . . . . . . one must. . . . . . .142 Lesson 20 (conversations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Verbs of change of place and state of being . . . . . . . . . one has to) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 The future tense . . . . . .183 vi Complete French: The Basics www.174 Lesson 24 (conversations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to owe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . can) and vouloir (to wish. . . . .com . . . .158 Lesson 22 (phrases) . . . . . . . . .167 Lesson 23 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Il faut + infinitive (it is necessary to. . . . . . . . . . . . must. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lesson 18 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to want) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 The future tense of irregular verbs . . . . . . . . . . .135 Lesson 19 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The verb devoir (to have to. . . . . . 169 The verbs pouvoir (to be able.178 The verb venir (to come) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 The imperative .149 UNIT 6: Asking for directions . . . . . . .153 Lesson 21 (words) . . . . . . . . . 153 The verb conduire (to drive) in the present tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to make) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 The past tense (passé composé) . . . .LivingLanguage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lire (to read). . . . . . . 232 The imperfect and the compound past tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 UNIT 8: Work and school . . . . . . . . . . . . and dire (to say) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Course Outline vii www. . 223 The imperfect tense . . . .205 Demonstrative adjectives . . . . .191 Lesson 26 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Lesson 29 (words) . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNIT 7: Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Comparison of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Lesson 27 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Superlatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 The verb préférer (to prefer) . 187 Direct object pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 The imperfect tense of some verbs with spelling changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Lesson 25 (words) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Indirect object pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 The verb acheter (to buy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 Lesson 28 (conversations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Lesson 30 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LivingLanguage. 204 -yer verbs . . .233 The verbs écrire (to write). . . . . . . . . .com .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . whose) . . . . . . . . . and pendant (during. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lesson 31 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 Lesson 35 (sentences) . . . . . . . . 269 The pluperfect tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 The verb pouvoir (to be able. . . . . . . . . . . . .241 The SST verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com . . . . . . . . . . .244 Lesson 32 (conversations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 The relative pronouns lequel (which) and dont (of whom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 Lesson 36 (conversations) . . . . . . . to be acquainted with) 250 Position of certain adjectives . . . . . . . . . of which. . . .262 The past conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 Lesson 34 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for) . . . . can) . .257 Lesson 33 (words) . . . . . . . . . . .270 The verb voir (to see) . . . . . 240 Using depuis (since). .LivingLanguage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Relative pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . pour (for). . . . . . . . . . . .253 UNIT 9: Sports and leisure . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Compound tenses: Future perfect . . 249 The verbs savoir (to know) and connaître (to know. . . 257 Uses of the verb jouer (to play) . . . . . . . . . . .286 viii Complete French: The Basics www. . . . . . .

.303 Lesson 39 (sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306 The present subjunctive of irregular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The verbe suivre (to follow) . . . . . . . . . . . .313 Lesson 40 (conversations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to ache) and faire mal (to hurt) . . . . . . . . . . . .289 Lesson 37 (words) . . . . . . .327 Supplemental vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LivingLanguage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 The present subjunctive . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 Agreement of past participles . . . . . . . . . . . .332 Internet resources . . . . .324 French in action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com . . . . . . . . . .302 Reciprocal verbs . . . . . . .352 Summary of French grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 The expressions avoir mal à (to have pain in. .355 Course Outline ix www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Reflexive verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 Past tense of reflexive verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNIT 10: Doctors and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 Lesson 38 (phrases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You will learn how to say your name. (fml.LivingLanguage.com . (m. You will also learn greetings and various other expressions of courtesy that will help you communicate with other people more smoothly.. Everything is going well.) How are you? (fml. introduce yourself to others.) = feminine. 1 Good day!/Hello! Hello!/Hi!/Bye! How’s everything? Everything is well. (lit.)1 How are you? (infml. (infml. The following abbreviations will be used in this course: (m. polite.) = plural. Thank you.) = informal. Comment allez-vous? Comment vas-tu? Très bien. say where you are from./f. If a word has two grammatical genders.) Very well.) = formal. and ask other people for basic information about themselves. (f. familiar. French is fantastique! Enjoy your new adventure! Allons-y! Let’s go! Lesson 1 (words) WORD LIST 1 LES SALUTATIONS (Greetings) Bonjour! Salut! Ça va? Ça va.Unit 1 Greetings and introductions Bonjour et bienvenue! Hello and welcome! We’ll begin our first unit with some basic words and useful expressions so that you can start to speak French right away.) = masculine. (pl. (sg. 1 Lesson 1 www.) is used.) = singular. Merci.

which means evening. which means good.) we you they they Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. used conversationally to mean Nice to meet you. SINGULAR je tu (sg. NUTS & BOLTS 1 Personal pronouns The following table lists the French personal pronouns.com . Delighted.. the French give a firm handshake or a kiss on each cheek.) il elle 2 PLURAL I you he she nous vous (pl.) yes no Welcome! Good-bye! See you soon! See you later! Good evening! Good night! The expression Bonjour! combines two French words: bon.) elles (f. Similarly. Bonsoir! (Good evening!) contains bon. oui non Bienvenue! Au revoir! À bientôt! À tout à l’heure! Bonsoir! Bonne nuit! Notes Nice to meet you. A man uses the form enchanté.) ils (m. (lit. fml. and jour. which means day.Enchanté./Enchantée. and soir. When greeting each other. Enchanté is an adjective meaning delighted.. infml. with an additional -e at the end in writing. and the form enchantée.LivingLanguage. We’ll talk more about the reasons for this distinction later in the lesson. sg. which means good. should be used by a woman.

a boy and two girls—the masculine form ils is used.Notice that in the vocabulary list at the beginning of the lesson. .com . and elles. there are two ways of saying How are you? Comment allez-vous? How are you? (fml. your sister 4. . your new boss 7. your two best friends 6. while the other expression ends in tu (you). it is also used when talking to a person you do not know or to whom you need to show respect.LivingLanguage. your dog 2. and other people with whom you are more familiar.) Comment vas-tu? How are you? (infml..) The first expression uses the word vous (you). which refers to plural subjects of masculine gender. which refers to plural subjects of feminine gender. PRACTICE 1 Tu or vous? Which pronoun would you use when speaking to . When we have a mixed group of subjects—for instance. a group of your friends 8. your parents 5. a stranger on a bus 3. English y’all or you guys). Tu is used with family members. such as an older person or a superior. friends. your girlfriend or boyfriend Lesson 1 3 www. Vous is a pronoun used to address two or more people (cf. ? 1. even pets! Note that there are also two ways to say they in French—ils.

D’accord. PRACTICE 2 Decide which French pronoun—je. the teacher 4. Come in. All right. the parents 3. Sophia 5. Sylvia and Helen 8. voilà voici l’homme la femme la fille le garçon l’étudiant/l’étudiante ET DES MOTS UTILS (More greetings Pardon me. here are man woman girl boy student (male/female) 4 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. tu. Entrez. nous. the girls WORD LIST 2 E NCORE DES SALUTATIONS and useful words) Pardon. elle.LivingLanguage. Excuse me. or elles—replaces the following nouns.com . Excusez-moi. there are here is. Marc and Marie 2. Paul and I 7. ils.Check your answers at the end of this lesson. 1. vous. All right. there is./Okay. Entendu. il. Sophia and Robert 6.

moi toi aussi qui maintenant devant me you also who now in front (of) NUTS & BOLTS 2 Nouns. The definite articles are given in the following table. whether they refer to people. or abstract concepts. In French. When a singular noun begins with a vowel or an h. la fille the girl le garçon the boy The words le and la are definite articles and correspond to the English the.LivingLanguage. Take a look at the following examples. When a word is feminine. French nouns are always preceded by articles. and gender Like English nouns. When a word is masculine. we use le. The a or e from the article is dropped. and the article and the following noun are pronounced together as one Lesson 1 5 www. we use the article la.com . SINGULAR Masculine le. all nouns are either masculine or feminine. things. definite articles. animals. l’ Feminine la PLURAL Masculine/feminine les The articles tell us the “gender” of nouns. we use l’ before the word.

Look at the following examples.) the friend (male) l’amie (f.com . l’ami (m.LivingLanguage. les garçons the boys les filles the girls les amis (m.) the friends (female) les étudiants (m.) the friend (female) l’étudiant (m.) the student (male) l’étudiante (f.word.) the student (female) l’homme (m. which is also silent. This rule is referred to as élision (elision). is silent.) the friends (male) les amies (f. Note that the final -s in the article.) the man The article les is used with both masculine and feminine plural nouns. Plural nouns also carry this final plural -s marker.) the students (male) 6 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. which is pronounced leh.

For example.les étudiantes (f. which indicates the noun’s gender. we can generally say that if a noun ends with a consonant. it is masculine. otherwise often unpredictable. le ticket the ticket la blouse the blouse le train the train la lampe the lamp Lesson 1 7 www.LivingLanguage. when. and if it ends with a vowel. le crayon the pencil le papier the paper la porte the door la classe the class There are some general rules that will help you identify the gender of a noun.) the students (female) les hommes the men It is best to learn each new noun together with its definite article. as in most cases. it does not correspond to the sex of a person.com . it is feminine.

l’. there are many exceptions to this rule. _____ enfants 4.) the lawyer (male) l’avocate (f.) the student (male) l’étudiante (f. _____ fille 2. _____ étudiante 8 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. la. l’avocat (m. _____ amie 3. 1. _____ professeur 5.com .) the lawyer (female) l’étudiant (m.Unfortunately.) the student (female) PRACTICE 3 Fill in the blanks with the correct definite article—le.LivingLanguage. or les. le livre the book la maison the house le café the café la nation the nation Many nouns for professions derive their feminine form by adding the feminine ending -e to the masculine form.

vous. 4. l’ Lesson 1 9 www. 4. ils. les. Le monde francophone (the Francophone world) consists of approximately 125 million people. 8.com .Culture note French in the world French. is spoken as either a first or a second language in more than 30 countries around the world. il. nous. l’. vous. 3. following the Norman conquest in 1066. 8. 5. elles. la. 2. 6. tu PRACTICE 2: 1. tu. le. vous. vous. Many English speakers do not realize that a very large number of the English words are actually French in origin. 5. elle. Here are the names for some of the langues (languages) of the world besides le français (French). 4.LivingLanguage. ils. 3. elles PRACTICE 3: 1. elles. 2. 5. 7. 7. 6. vous. 3. They were borrowed into English in the course of centuries. tu. l’allemand l’anglais l’espagnol le grec l’italien le polonais le portugais le russe German English Spanish Greek Italian Polish Portuguese Russian ANSWERS PRACTICE 1: 1. a Romance language related to Spanish and Italian. 2.

So. It’s going badly. from the United States to the United States NUTS & BOLTS 1 The verb ÊTRE (to be) in the present tense Now let’s look at one of the most important verbs. .. You’re welcome. You’re welcome. we say that we conjugate the verb. (lit. .Lesson 2 (phrases) PHRASE LIST 1 E NCORE DES EXPRESSIONS sions) S’il vous plaît. De rien. I’m delighted to make your acquaintance. as in the English I speak but she speaks. être (to be). (lit. When we change the forms of a verb to match the different subjects. 10 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. I beg of you.) Here I am. Ça va bien. . en français en anglais de Paris en France C’est . Ça va comme-ci comme-ça. Ça va mal. Me voici. It’s not going well. . in French in English from Paris in France It is . Everything is really well. Je suis ravi/ravie de faire votre connaissance.com . Everything is well.. Je vous en prie. You’re welcome. Il n’y a pas de quoi.) Everything is so-so. let’s learn how to conjugate the verb être.LivingLanguage. Ça va très bien. des États-Unis aux États-Unis DE POLITESSE (More polite expres- Please. The subject pronouns that you have previously learned are paired with present tense forms of the verb être in the table below.

.) elles sont (f. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb être. Jean et Louis. Lesson 2 11 www. Je _____ professeur. PRACTICE 1 Look at the following sentences.com . Marie is from Paris. Tu _____ mon ami. Marie is American. Mes amis takes the place of ils.) ils sont (m.) il est elle est I am you are he is she is PLURAL nous sommes vous êtes (pl. you are French. therefore. I am a teacher. Use the English translation for help. Marc _____ anglais. My friends are French. Marie takes the place of elle. 3. Marc is English. 1. we have Mes amis sont (My friends are). 5. We are French. 4. sg.) we are you are they are they are Marie est américaine. therefore. vous _____ français.LivingLanguage. Jean and Louis. 6. Mes amis sont français. fml.SINGULAR je suis tu es (infml. You are my friend. Nous _____ français. 2. we have Marie est (Marie is). Marie _____ de Paris.

Elle est professeur. Mon ami Paul _____ de Nice. Elle est avocate. Hélène et Geneviève _____ de Paris. an article is always used before the noun. My friend Paul is from Nice. in French. Il est bibliothècaire.LivingLanguage. Hélène and Geneviève are from Paris.7. PHRASE LIST 2 LES PROFESSIONS (Professions) Il est professeur.com . I am a teacher. She is a teacher. however. 12 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. police officer stockbroker janitor lawyer (male/female) artist architect babysitter (male/female) conductor social worker auditor clown le bibliothècaire/la bibliothècaire librarian (male/female) Notes You have learned that. 8. When indicating a person’s profession. He’s a librarian. Je suis professeur. l’agent de police l’agent de change l’agent de service l’avocat/l’avocate l’artiste l’architecte le baby-sitter/la baby-sitter le chef d’orchestre l’assistante sociale le commissaire aux comptes le clown He is a teacher. She’s a lawyer. the article is omitted.

) intelligente (f.) Notice how the different forms are used in sentences. it has four different forms— masculine singular. masculine plural. This final -e is silent.) intelligents (f. Contrast that with the following. we Lesson 2 13 www.) intelligentes (m. Consider the four forms of the adjective intelligent in French. sg. intelligent (m. Typically.LivingLanguage. Luc est intelligent. the preceding consonant t is pronounced: ehn-teh-lee-zhent. feminine adjectives are marked by the feminine ending -e.NUTS & BOLTS 2 Adjectives and agreement An adjective is a word used to describe a noun. Martine est intelligente. pl. and intelligente is an adjective in the feminine singular form. feminine singular. so intelligent in French is pronounced without the final t. The French adjective intelligent looks very similar to the English word. pl. Martine is a feminine singular noun. Note that most final consonants in French are not pronounced. intelligent. but due to its presence. and intelligent is a masculine adjective. and feminine plural—depending on the gender and number specification of the noun. as ehn-teh-lee-zhen. but unlike the English equivalent.com . When an adjective modifies a plural subject. Luc is intelligent. Martine is intelligent. Luc is a masculine noun. sg.

the distinction is present and important to maintain in writing. which simply require adding an -e to form the feminine and -s to form the plural. so there is no audible distinction between the singular and plural forms of adjectives. Luc and Joseph are intelligent. Luc et Joseph sont intelligents. to either the masculine or the feminine form of the adjective. tall small blue gray black green brown 14 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www.com . However. MASCULINE FEMININE SINGULAR SINGULAR MASCULINE FEMININE PLURAL PLURAL important importante importants importantes important grand petit bleu gris noir vert brun grande petite bleue grise noire verte brune grands petits bleus gris noirs verts bruns grandes petites bleues grises noires vertes brunes big.LivingLanguage. Martine and Julie are intelligent. -s. Here’s an example involving a feminine plural subject. Martine et Julie sont intelligentes. Recall that this final plural -s is not pronounced.also add the plural marker. Here are more examples of regular adjectives.

the feminine is the same as the masculine form. which has only two different forms. Brigitte est sincère. MASCULINE/ FEMININE SINGULAR MASCULINE/ FEMININE PLURAL agréable aimable autre brave difficile drôle énorme étrange facile agréables aimables autres braves difficiles drôles énormes étranges faciles pleasant kind other brave. Roger et Brigitte sont sincères. One such adjective is sincère (sincere). Here are other adjectives like sincère. sg.LivingLanguage.com ./f. Roger and Brigitte are sincere. sincère (m. Brigitte is sincere.) sincères (m./f. pl.If the masculine form of an adjective already ends in a silent -e. Roger is sincere.) Roger est sincère. fine difficult funny enormous strange easy Lesson 2 15 www.

com . MASCULINE FEMININE SINGULAR SINGULAR MASCULINE FEMININE PLURAL PLURAL sérieux actif fier inquiet violet sérieuse active fière inquiète violette sérieux actifs fiers inquiets violets sérieuses actives fières inquiètes violettes serious active proud worried violet 16 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www.LivingLanguage. Look at the following examples.MASCULINE/ FEMININE SINGULAR MASCULINE/ FEMININE PLURAL large magnifique mince rapide sympathique rouge jaune rose larges magnifiques minces rapides sympathiques rouges jaunes roses wide magnificent thin quick friendly red yellow pink The feminine of irregular adjectives is formed by changing the masculine endings from -x to -se. there is no distinction in pronunciation. In the latter case. -er to -ère. -f to -ve. and -et to either -ète or -ette. the spelling of the feminine form needs to be memorized.

Le garçon et la fille sont (sincères. 4.If the masculine singular ends in -s or -x. 1. américaine).com . intelligent). They are French. La femme est (intelligente. Ils sont français. Most masculine adjectives ending in -al in the singular change that ending to -aux in the plural form. 3. 2. He is French. Il est paresseux.LivingLanguage. Le professeur est (intelligente. intelligent). He is lazy. They are lazy. Il est français. Ils sont paresseux. MASCULINE FEMININE SINGULAR SINGULAR MASCULINE FEMININE PLURAL PLURAL égal général principal national égale générale principale nationale égaux généraux égales générales equal general principal national principaux principales nationaux nationales PRACTICE 2 Choose the correct form of the adjective. the masculine plural is the same as the singular. Sophie est (américain. Lesson 2 17 www. sincère).

7. 6.5. paresseuses).LivingLanguage. Ils sont (paresseux. kind parisiennes Parisian violettes violet Some adjectives are completely irregular. 8. L’avocate est (américain. Françoise et Carol sont (fière. actives). fières).com . He has a new raincoat. They also have an additional form when placed in front of a masculine singular word starting with a vowel. MASCULINE FEMININE SINGULAR SINGULAR MASCULINE FEMININE PLURAL PLURAL ancien bon gentil parisien violet ancienne bonne gentille parisienne violette anciens bons gentils parisiens violets anciennes bonnes gentilles old good nice. MASCULINE FEMININE MASCULINE FEMININE SINGULAR SINGULAR PLURAL PLURAL BEFORE A VOWEL beau vieux nouveau belle vieille beaux vieux belles vieilles bel vieil beautiful old nouvelle nouveaux nouvelles nouvel new Il a un nouvel imperméable. Elles sont (actifs. américaine). and their forms need to be memorized. 18 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. Some adjectives double the final consonant before adding an -e to form the feminine.

actives. 6. intelligent. spend a few minutes reviewing vocabulary in the morning.com . Bonjour. paresseux Lesson 3 (sentences) SENTENCE GROUP 1 Here are some general terms you will find helpful when having a conversation with someone. 5. est. 8. Comment vous appelez-vous? (fml. sommes. taking the time to really focus on the spelling. américaine. sont PRACTICE 2: 1. What is your name? My name is Pierre Dupont. For example. 4. 5. Accents count. 6. when your mind is refreshed from sleep.) Je m’appelle Pierre Dupont. ANSWERS PRACTICE 1: 1. but there are some simple tricks that you may want to consider. too! A good way to approach the study of vocabulary is to read and concentrate on the new words several times a day instead of spending a large amount of time in one sitting. Pleased to meet you. 2. 7. intelligente. 3. My name is Michèle Soubrié. est. es. fières. write down all of your new words.) What is your name? Comment t’appelles-tu? (infml. First. êtes. Enchanté/Enchantée de faire votre connaissance. suis. 8. 2. Lesson 3 19 www. américaine. Monsieur Dupont.Tip! There is no magic to learning vocabulary. Mr. and then again before bedtime.LivingLanguage. Good day. Je m’appelle Michèle Soubrié. as does labeling things in French around the house using stick-on notes. sincères. Flash cards also work well. est. 3. Dupont. 7. 4.

Madame (Madam). Bonjour. La Salle. everyone! Nice to see you! It’s a joy to be here! See you later! Where do you live? Where do you live? I live in the United States. Je suis de Paris. J’habite à Montréal. Je m’appelle Jean. Comment vous appelez-vous? a. Où habites-tu? 3. I’m from the United States.LivingLanguage. Hi. Comment allez-vous? a. Je suis des États-Unis. tout le monde! Quel plaisir de te voir! Quelle joie d’être ici! À plus tard! Où habitez-vous? (fml. So ladies and gentlemen is Mesdames et Messieurs. and Mlle (Miss). Ms. PRACTICE 1 Select the best response to each question. 2. Use Messieurs for gentlemen and Mesdames for ladies. Their abbreviations are M. Je suis français. Mademoiselle La Salle.). Où habitez-vous? a. 20 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www.). Note the titles in French: Monsieur (Sir). Madame La Salle. and Mademoiselle (Miss). (Mr. Salut. Notes Good day. Ms. Mme (Mrs. Je m’appelle Pierre. b. c. c. Good day. 1. b. Je suis américain. Miss La Salle.) J’habite aux États-Unis..com .) Où habites-tu? (infml.Bonjour.

I am single. Il est charmant. Are you married? No. The man and the woman are French. L’homme est français. 4. Qui est-ce? Voici mon mari. c. J’habite à Paris. merci. Je m’appelle Philippe. Je suis de Paris. c. (m.) De quelle nationalité êtes-vous? (fml.b.) Je suis italien/ canadien/irlandais.com . b. Ça va. SENTENCE GROUP 2 Now look at some useful terms and sentences you can use to inquire about and describe people. je suis célibataire. b. Lesson 3 21 www. Très bien. What’s your nationality? De quelle nationalité es-tu? (infml. Je suis artiste. Here is my wife. Elle est charmante. He is charming. Who is this?/Who is it? Here is my husband.) What’s your nationality? I am Italian/Canadian/Irish./f. et vous? c. 5. Non. Où habites-tu? a. Tu es marié/mariée? Non. Tu es professeur? a. The woman is French. Je suis français. Voici ma femme. She is charming.LivingLanguage. L’homme et la femme sont français. The man is French. La femme est française. Oui. Non. J’habite à Nice.

Je suis d’origine américaine.com . The adjectives of nationality also follow the noun in these examples. Voici un homme français. français/française anglais/anglaise irlandais/irlandaise américain/américaine mexicain/mexicaine italien/italienne canadien/canadienne espagnol/espagnole French English Irish American Mexican Italian Canadian Spanish NUTS & BOLTS 1 Placement of adjectives Notice that nationality adjectives follow the noun l’origine (the origin) or la nationalité (the nationality). Jean-Luc is of Canadian origin.LivingLanguage.Notes Here are more adjectives of nationality. Voici une femme française. Here is a French man. Jean-Luc est d’origine canadienne. 22 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. Pierre est d’origine irlandaise. Voici un homme américain. I am of American origin. Here is an American man. Here is a French woman. Pierre is of Irish origin.

Language link If you would like to forge ahead on your own to explore and expand your French vocabulary. Non. appelle. merci. Ah! Vous _____ américaine! 5. Oui. a fun place to start could be www. 7. 8. 3. célibataire.languageguide. je suis _____. Ça va? 2. Voici un homme intelligent.com . Où habitez-vous? Je suis des _____. intelligente. Here is an American woman. je m’_____ Henri de la Salle. Tu _____ marié? 6. Here is a charming woman. êtes 1. Lesson 3 23 www. ça. Here is an intelligent man. In fact. Le garçon est intelligent et la fille est _____. PRACTICE 2 Choose the appropriate words from the list below to fill in the blanks. most adjectives in French follow the noun they modify.org/francais. 4. es.LivingLanguage. Etats-Unis. Voici une femme charmante.Voici une femme américaine. _____ va bien. L’étudiant et le professeur sont _____. The website’s mission is to provide resources for language learning and cultural enrichment. Bonjour. intelligents.

And you. États-Unis. Olivier: Et moi. Olivier. c.ANSWERS PRACTICE 1: 1. France is wonderful. vous êtes français? Olivier: Non! Je suis américain. I am an English teacher in high school. thank you. 5. How are you? Olivier: Very well. b. Je m’appelle Sophie. Et vous.LivingLanguage. Olivier: And I am a student at the university. Vous êtes de Paris? Sophie: Oui. You are from Paris? Sophie: Yes. 6. êtes. 4. b. are you French? Olivier: No! I am American. je suis étudiant à l’université. 4. Olivier! Olivier: Merci beaucoup! Olivier: Hello! My name is Olivier. 8. Sophie: That’s great. intelligente. Comment allez-vous? Olivier: Ça va bien.com . 7. a PRACTICE 2: 1. Olivier. 3. 5. merci. je suis de Paris. Olivier! Olivier: Thank you very much. Sophie: Je suis enchantée. My name is Sophie. appelle. es. Sophie: I am pleased to meet you. a. ça. Sophie: Welcome. Sophie: C’est super! Je suis professeur d’anglais au collège. intelligents Lesson 4 (conversations) CONVERSATION 1 Sophie and Olivier meet at a friend’s party. 3. Olivier: Bonjour! Je m’appelle Olivier. Sophie: Bienvenue. I am from Paris. 24 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. 2. La France est magnifique. célibataire. 2.

I am a professeur. as in Olivier’s and Sophie’s statements above. blond certain cruel différent élégant excellent horrible le boulevard le bureau le chef le client la blouse la boutique la nation la photo la phrase la question la table l’accident l’âge l’animal l’automobile Lesson 4 25 www. it means secondary school or high school. (male) Je suis professeur. Finally. (female) Also note that word le collège is not the equivalent of the English word college.LivingLanguage. NUTS & BOLTS 1 Cognates There are many words in French that look very similar to their English translations. but they are usually spelled similarly and have the same meanings. They are called cognates.com . They may be pronounced differently in the two languages. Je suis étudiant. the French word for college is l’université.Notes Remember that there is no article before nouns denoting professions. I am a student. You probably do not even realize how many French words you already know! Here are some examples. Other French words for high school are le lycée and l’école secondaire.

a person wishing to order a meal consults le _____. PRACTICE 1 Look at the following definitions in English and fill in the blanks in French using the cognates you have just learned. 4. Another example of a false cognate is the French word sale (dirty). Luc. Fabienne! Comment vas-tu. 5. but its actual meaning is wounded. 2. La fille blonde. The word blessé may look similar to the word blessed. 3.com . arrives just as Martine excuses herself from the table. This word can refer to a main office or a piece of furniture in a bedroom: le _____. A broad avenue often lined with trees is called le _____. c’est une amie? 26 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www.” which. 1. are words that may sound or be spelled the same or nearly the same as in English but have a different meaning. merci. Luc: Salut. chère amie? Fabienne: Ah! Bonjour. Ça va très bien. like le collège. et toi? Luc: Pas mal. Luc. Fabienne’s friend. While seated in a restaurant. which has nothing at all to do with shopping.le fruit le guide le menu le zoo orange l’avenue l’éléphant l’hôtel l’océan la télévision Keep in mind that there are also “false cognates.LivingLanguage. CONVERSATION 2 Fabienne and her cousin Martine are in a café. The colors often associated with Halloween are black and _____. A woman’s article of clothing often worn with a skirt is called la _____.

qui (who). she’s American. Martine est célibataire. Luc: Is she French? Fabienne: No. Eh bien! Pas de chance! Luc: Hi. The blonde-haired girl. is she a friend? Fabienne: It’s my cousin Martine. my friend. elle est des États-Unis. Does she live here? Fabienne: No. Everything’s fine.) How are you? Comment t’appelles-tu? (infml. Elle est française? Non. my dear friend? Fabienne: Ah! Hello. Fabienne! How are you. elle est américaine. quand (when). Luc.) How are you? Comment allez-vous? (fml. thanks.Fabienne: Luc: Fabienne: Luc: Fabinne: Luc: Fabienne: Luc: C’est ma cousine Martine. Martine is single. Luc: That’s good. and à quelle heure (at what time). Comment vas-tu? (infml. Luc: Oh well! No luck! NUTS & BOLTS 2 Asking questions Some of the most commonly used question words are comment (how).com . Elle est marieé? Non. and how about you? Luc: Not bad. où (where). pourquoi (why). Luc: Is she married? Fabienne: No. (de) quel/de quelle (what [+ noun]). C’est bien. she’s from the United States. Let’s look at the examples from the conversations in this lesson.) What is your name? Lesson 4 27 www. Elle habite ici? Non.LivingLanguage.

Je m’appelle Monsieur Le Brun. (Ask where she is. Quel homme est français? Which man is French? Quelle is used before a feminine noun.) What is your name? De quelle nationalité es-tu? What’s your nationality? De quelle origine es-tu? What’s your origin? Où est Paul? Where is Paul? Où habites-tu? Where do you live? Quel is used before a masculine noun.com . 4. Voici le médecin. (Ask where he is.LivingLanguage.Comment vous appelez-vous? (fml.) 2. 3.) 5. l. Marc est d’origine française. J’habite à Boston. Voici Martine. 28 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www. Quelle femme est canadienne? Which woman is Canadian? The question Comment? can also be used informally to mean What? or How’s that again? PRACTICE 2 Write a question that could lead to each of the following answers.

Franche-Comte. and Rhone-Alpes. Haute-Normandie. the mountains of the Alps are covered with snow all year and are a popular skiing location. Lorraine. Où est Martine? 2. orange.LivingLanguage. blouse. has a flat coastline with long sandy beaches. Auvergne. almost three times that of Texas. bureau PRACTICE 2: 1.com . Guadeloupe in the Caribbean. Here are their names in French: Alsace. In the east. weather. It is made up of twenty-two provinces (provinces). Corse. Brittany. Limousin. Picardie. Comment vous appelez-vous? 4. menu. Nord-Pas-de-Calais. 2. Basse-Normandie. France also has départements d’outre-mer (overseas departments): Guyane (French Guiana) in Northern South America. PoitouCharentes. Bretagne. 5. The scenery. Martinique in the Caribbean. De quelle origine est Marc? Lesson 4 29 www.Culture note France. 4. located in the northwest. Pays de la Loire. Ile-de-France. Champagne-Ardenne. Bourgogne. Où habites-tu?/Où habitezvous? 3. Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. it has the population of more than sixty million people. and Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Où est le médecin? 5. MidiPyrenees. Normandy. and way of life vary greatly from region to region. Centre. boulevard. in the north. Aquitaine. 3. Languedoc-Roussillon. ANSWERS PRACTICE 1: 1. the country Although metropolitan France is smaller than the state of Texas. has a rocky coastline with many inlets.

.UNIT 1 ESSENTIALS Here are some of the most important phrases and expressions you’ve learned in this unit. What’s your origin/nationality? Hello!/Hi!/Bye! Good-bye! See you soon! Where is . . ? Merci! Il n’y a pas de quoi! S’il vous plaît. De quelle origine/nationalité êtes-vous? (fml. À demain! Good day! Good evening! How are you? Is everything okay?/How’s it going? Everything is well.LivingLanguage. . . Bonjour! Bonsoir! Comment allez-vous? Ça va? Ça va bien.) Je m’appelle . . . See you tomorrow! 30 Unit 1: Greetings and Introductions www.com . Comment vous appelez-vous? (fml.) Salut! Au revoir! À bientôt! Où est . ? Thank you! You’re welcome! Please. . ./It’s going well. What is your name? My name is .

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