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Company History The Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. operates as the largest company in India in terms of turnover and is the only Indian company to rank in the Fortune "Global 500" listing. The oil concern is administratively controlled by India's Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, a government entity that owns just over 90 percent of the firm. Since 1959, this refining, marketing, and international trading company served the Indian state with the important task of reducing India's dependence on foreign oil and thus conserving valuable foreign exchange. That changed in April 2002, however, when the Indian government deregulated its petroleum industry and ended Indian Oil's monopoly on crude oil imports. The firm owns and operates seven of the 17 refineries in India, controlling nearly 40 percent of the country's refining capacity.
IndianOil Major Projects
IndianOil continues to lay emphasis on infrastructure development. Towards this end, a number of schemes have been initiated with increasing emphasis on project execution in compressed schedules as per world benchmarking standards. Schemes for improvement and increased profitability through debottlenecking / modifications / introduction of value added products are being taken up in addition to grassroots facilities. Project systems have been streamlined in line with ISO standards.
1) GRASSROOTS REFINERY PROJECT AT PARADIP (ORISSA) 2) RESIDUE UPGRADATION AND MS/HSD QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT AT GUJARAT REFINERY 3) NAPHTHA CRACKER AND POLYMER COMPLEX AT PANIPAT (HARYANA) 4) MS QUALITY UPGRADATION PROJECT BARAUNI REFINERY (BIHAR) 5) MS QUALITY UPGRADATION PROJECT AT GUWAHATI REFINERY (ASSAM) 6) MS QUALITY UPGRADATION PROJECT AT DIGBOI REFINERY (ASSAM) 7) DADRI-PANIPAT R-LNG SPUR PIPELINE 8) PANIPAT REFINERY EXPANSION FROM 12 MMTPA TO 15 MMTPA 9) BRANCH PIPELINE FROM KSPL, VIRAMGAM TO KANDLA 10) DIESEL HYDRO-TREATMENT (DHDT) PROJECT AT BONGAIGAON REFINERY (ASSAM) 11) MS QUALITY UPGRADATION PROJECT AT BONGAIGAON REFINERY (ASSAM) 12) PARADIP-NEW SAMBALPUR-RAIPUR-RANCHI PIPELINES 13) DE-BOTTLENECKING OF SALAYA-MATHURA CRUDE PIPLEINE 14) INTEGRATED CRUDE OIL HANDLING FACILITIES AT PARADIP
Down the memory lane
1958 1959 1960
Indian Refineries Ltd. formed in August with Mr. Feroze Gandhi as the Chairman. Indian Oil Company Ltd. established on 30th June 1959 with Mr. S. Nijalingappa as the Chairman. MV Uzhgorod carrying the first parcel of 11,390 tonnes of Diesel for IndianOil docked at Pir Pau Jetty in Mumbai on 17th August 1960. Agreement for supply of Kerosene and Diesel signed with the then USSR Construction of Barauni Refinery commenced Barauni Refinery commissioned Indian Refineries Ltd. merged with Indian Oil Company with effect from 1st September, 1964, and Indian Oil Company renamed as Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Haldia Barauni product pipeline commissioned. 1965 Barauni-Kanpur product pipeline and Koyali- Ahmedabad product pipeline commissioned Haldia-Barauni crude oil pipeline completed.
Barauni Refinery was built in collaboration with Russia and Romania. Situated 125 kilometres from Patna, it was built with an initial cost of Rs 49.40 crore. Barauni Refinery was commissioned in 1964 with a refining capacity of 1 Million Metric Tonnes per Annum (MMTPA) and it was dedicated to the Nation by the then Union Minister for Petroleum, Prof. Humayun Kabir in January 1965. After de-bottlenecking, revamping and expansion project, it's capacity today is 6 MMTPA. Matching secondary processing facilities such Resid Fluidised Catalytic Cracker (RFCC), Diesel Hydrotreating (DHDT), Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) have been added. Theses state of the art eco-friendly technologies have enabled the refinery to produce environment- friendly green fuels complying with international standards. IndianOil is the highest ranked Indian company in the prestigious Fortune 'Global 500' listing, having moved up 19 places to the 116th position in 2008. It is also the 18th largest petroleum company in the world.
Barauni Refinery achieved safety award in gold category of “Green Tech Foundation Safety Award” on 04.05.09. BR bagged 2nd prize in Golden Jubilee Indian Oil Album in Aug 09. Barauni Refinery accredited in Oct 09 with prestigious “Jawaharlal Nehru Centenary Awards” (3rd prize) for Energy Performance in Refinery for the year 2008-09 by MoPNG. o Suggestion Fortnight declared and inaugurated by ED, BR on 09.12.09. o Barauni Refinery has been accredited first prize in the refinery sector for “National Energy Conservation Awards-2009” by Ministry of Power. Award received by ED, BR on 14.12.09. Barauni Refinery was initially designed to process low sulphur crude oil (sweet crude) of Assam. After establishment of other refineries in the Northeast, Assam crude is unavailable for Barauni . Hence, sweet crude is being sourced from African, South East Asian and Middle East countries like Nigeria, Iraq & Malaysia. The refinery receives crude oil by pipeline from Paradip on the east coast via Haldia. With various revamps and expansion projects at Barauni Refinery, capability for processing high-sulphur crude
dienes. and hydrocracking. . The final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings. Oil can be used in a variety of ways because it contains hydrocarbons of varying molecular masses. Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. thermal cracking. Intermediate products such as gasoils can even be reprocessed to break a heavy. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units. vapor pressures. naphthenes (or cycloalkanes). forms and lengths such as paraffins. or less commonly. The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter. and other properties to meet product specifications. a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products. the fuel or lubricant can be sold without further processing. Octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic reforming. more useful products. While the molecules in crude oil include different atoms such as sulfur and nitrogen. aromatics. Smaller molecules such as isobutane and propylene or butylenes can be recombined to meet specific octane requirements by processes such as alkylation. the hydrocarbons are the most common form of molecules. The fractions at the top of the fractionating column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. Since the lighter liquid products are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines. which are molecules of varying lengths and complexity made of hydrogen and carbon atoms. which involves removing hydrogen from hydrocarbons producing compounds with higher octane ratings such as aromatics. alkenes. by various forms of cracking such as fluid catalytic cracking. longchained oil into a lighter short-chained one. and it is this variety that makes crude oil useful in a broad range of applications.has been added — high-sulphur crude oil (sour crude) is cheaper than lowsulphur crudes — thereby increasing not only the capacity but also the profitability of the refinery. and a small number of oxygen atoms. and alkynes. dimerization. The differences in the structure of these molecules account for their varying physical and chemical properties. Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities. Different boiling points allow the hydrocarbons to be separated by distillation.
Previous best was 277 TMT during the year 1999-00. Achieved highest ever Low Sulphur crude processing of 5. Achieved highest ever CRU throughput of 288.2 MMT (outlook) during the year.94 MMT during the year 2008-09.55 MMT (outlook) during the year surpassing the previous best of 5. .16 MMT during the year 2008-09.HIGHLIGHTS Barauni Refinery achieved highest ever crude processing of 6.3 TMT (outlook). Previous best was 5.
The above modification (HETO project job was designed by EIL (Engineer's India Limited) and fabrication/erection job was completed by M/s.9 - ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT (AVU-I / II) INTRODUCTION There are two Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Units in Barauni Refinery numbered as AVU-I and AVU-II.454 MMT during the year 2008-09. Crude Processing capacity of both units AVU-I & AVU-II was increased to 1.3 (2005-06) HSD (Total) 3119. Annual Production (Outlook for the year 2009-10) Product Qty (TMT) Previous best (TMT) LPG 291. Achieved highest ever RFCCU throughput of 1.7 3087. Mumbai. LTD.5 (2008-09) MS (Total) 763.1 MMT/year of each of the two units.8 284.3 703. presently the units have switched on to imported crude due to none availability of Assam crude. This unit was designed for 1 MMT/year of crude and known as AU-3.7 (2008-09) RPC 207.9 (2007-08) FO 26.6 MMT/year by HETO project (Heat Exchanger Train optimization) in 1990.2 (2008-09) SKO 954. Through these units were designed on the basis of evaluation data of Naharkatiya crude.497 MMT (outlook) during the year surpassing previous best of 1. PETHON ENGG. The units were again revamped in 1998 (M & I) when the capacity was expanded to 2.6 894. . each were designed for 1 MMT/year crude processing. Subsequently another distillation unit without vacuum distillation facility was added.8 176.
Crude oil (imported) is received from Haldia by pipeline and is pumped from tanks through Heat Exchangers after exchanging heat with various hot stream, the crude streams attain a temperature of approx. 120oC to 130oC. After attaining temperature about 120oC to 130oC the two crude flows combine together and enter in Desalter for separation and removal of water and salt. Bi electric desalter is having two energised electrodes. A distributor head splits crude between the upper and lower pair of electrodes. Crude oil separated from water between the centre and lower electrodes passes through the upper electrode in a converging countercurrent flow with the separating water from upper set of electrodes. This creates a second washing zone for half of the feed in a strong electrical field thereby causing maximum salt removal efficiency. The two desalter in AVU-I &II are PETRECO BIELECTRIC type which were commissioned in the year 2001. POST DESALTER:- At the outlet of Desalter there are two booster pumps which boost up the crude at discharge pressure around 15 kg/km2 . Pre-topping column has 20 Trays (All valve trays with a bed of packing between 9th & 10th tray) and operates operating conditions
Present Pressure Kg/cm² (g) Top temperature (Deg. C) Bottom temperature (Deg. C) 2.4 112 – 118 210 to 215 As per design 4.0 120 240
Pretopped crude stream passes through heat exchangers. After exchanging heat with various hot products the pretopped crude flows combine and it is segregated again near furnace in two pass flows before entering the atmospheric heater for further heating and finally fed to 6th tray of main column through two entry nozzles at 340oC.The Furnace is provided with Air Preheater. Main Fractionating Column has 43 double pass valve trays. Following are the operating parameters of the main column. Present
Pressure Kg/Cm²(g) Top temperature oC Bottom temperature oC 0.3-0.5 115 330
As per design
0.8 130 330
As per design two types of gas oil, one light and other heavy were supposed to be withdrawn light gas oil from 6th and 18th tray and heavy gas oil from 8th/10th trays at 140-300oC and 300-350oC respectively. At present gas oil is withdrawn as 250-370oC cut from 16th/18th tray. The existing 7th to 14th double pass channel trays were replaced with valve trays in HETO,1990. Since 1970 heavy gas oil withdrawal was stopped. Main Column bottom is feed to vacuum column . VACUUM DISTILLATION :- Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its vapor pressure (usually less than atmospheric pressure) causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s) (those with the lowest boiling points). This distillation method works on the principle that boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds the ambient pressure. Vacuum distillation is used with or without heating the solution.
Vacuum distillation increases the relative volatility of the key components in many applications. The higher the relative volatility, the more separable are the two components; this connotes fewer stages in a distillation column in order to effect the same separation between the overhead and bottoms products. Lower pressures increase relative volatilities in most systems. A second advantage of vacuum distillation is the reduced temperature requirement at lower pressures. For many systems, the products degrade or polymerize at elevated temperatures. Vacuum distillation can improve a separation by:
Prevention of product degradation or polymer formation because of reduced pressure leading to lower tower bottoms temperatures, Reduction of product degradation or polymer formation because of reduced mean residence time especially in columns using packing rather than trays. Increasing capacity, yield, and purity.
Another advantage of vacuum distillation is the reduced capital cost, at the expense of slightly more operating cost. Utilizing vacuum distillation can reduce the height and diameter, and thus the capital cost of a distillation column.
Reduced crude from main column bottom at a temperature of approx. 330oC is pumped through Furnace. The Furnace coil outlet (4 passes) combines in one header and enter into vacuum column at 4th plates through two entry nozzle. Coil outlet temperature is maintained at about 380oC. Operating condition of Vacuum Column are as follows :
Attributes Pressure, mm of Hg abs Top Temp.o C Bottom Temp o C Present 60 60 345 As per Design 60 100 385
Coil outlet temp o C
Operating conditions of Stabiliser are:Pressure Top temperature Bottom temperature 8.) >35 >35 Flash (deg. Top Pressure Heavy Naphtha withdrawal rate 90 Deg celsius 0. LPG CAUSTIC WASH:LPG caustic wash facilities were provided in AVUII and was first commissioned in Sept. STABILIZER COLUMN:-Unstabilised gasoline is pumped to 16th/20/24th tray of Stabiliser.3 kg/cm² (g) 8 – 9 M³/hr Product Streams Ex AVU-I/II Streams LPG E1 Gasoline E2 Gasoline Heavy Naptha MTO SK Mixed Gas Oil 1st CR Distln.36th tray. C) <=3 0-30 . Feed temperature is about 110oc. FBP = 110 – 130 FBP <= 165 FBP <= 210 FBP <= 205 FBP <= 280 95% = 370 (max. C) Pour (Deg.0 Kg/cm² 60°C 150oC . through stripper.1984 where LPG of AVU–I. The column has 35 valve trays. strength. Heavy Naphtha is drawn from main column . Operating parameters Top Temp. (Deg C) W= +2 max. AVU-II is washed with caustic solution of 10-12%.
cooler instead of Pressurised cooling water as is being used in conventional coolers. The inside walls of the furnace are protected against the temperature effects by a refractory insulation to reduce the outside heat losses. Tempered water facility is essentially a closed circulating system in which the loss of tempered water during circulation is very negligible. It is box type for the main distillation column. A part of the tube in convection zone is for super-heating steam( used in the process) and the rest is used for heating the oil in tubes. Tempered water is steam condensate. received from condensate recovery system of refinery.1990) During HETO. AHURALAN INJECTION:. of the cooler. Use of tempered water in cooler prevents the sealing and corrosion in cooler tubes thus ensuring the very efficient cooling of product (S.R.Wide Cut Short Residue >150 >150 TEMPERED WATER FACILITIES: (HETO . with neutral ph value after chemical treatment. used for preventing corrosion of condenser shell.R. Injection rate in both the units is 5 PPM of overhead contents. tempered water facility was provided in AVU-2 . Recent modification of this system is the installation of on line pH meters for measuring pH in both the units.Ahuralan is the trade name of an organic inhibitor compound. . This facility is common for both AVU-1 & AVU-2. CORROSION CONTROL:. MAJOR EQUIPMENT TUBULAR FURNACES Tubular furnace is cylindrical type for pretopping and vacuum sections. The flue gases go out of the furnace thorough the stack. The bottom bed show openings in which burners are placed.Ammonia is injected in the form of aquous solution for preventing HCL corrosion in pretopping and main column overheads. A 5% W/V and 2% W/V solutions are prepared in AVU-I and AVU-II respectively. It prevents corrosion by forming a thin protective layer on the equipment. The furnaces have sections called "Radiation Section" and convection section.) and minimising to a great extent the maint. Tempered water is used as cooling media in S.
and they issue together from the burner as a single stream. In these. This damper is built with steel suitable for the flues gases temperature. They give a longer and more luminous flame than those with premixing. the steam and oil are mixed in a chamber within the burners. A damper is located at its base to allow the regulation of the draft.The burners with spraying by steam have a flexibility much higher than those with mechanical spraying. The first pass consists of four nos. ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT III THE PROCESS Crude preheat Crude is pumped to desalter through two parallel passes in PreDesalter Heat Exchanger Train-1. AVUs gas burners are of this type. The burners without premixing give a diffusion flame. in its lower part where the flue gases are still very hot by a wall of refractory bricks. of heat exchangers: Both the passes combine in a single header and enter the desalter. AVUs burners are of inside-mix type. . the combustion air entering the furnace in a parallel direction with the gas jet and slowly diffusing in it. BURNERS The burner is conceived to burn either gas or oil. The stack is protected inside. of heat exchangers: The second pass of heat exchangers also has four nos. In the first type a part of the combustion air is mixed with the fuel gas before this has reached the injector nozzle of the burner. Gas burners are of two types: either with pre-mixing or without premixing. Foam formed in the mixing chamber is directed by the shape and direction of the burner tip so that the flame is of proper shape and size for the furnace box.
). The bottom stripping section and Over-flash section. The desalter pressure is controlled at around 9. In this network of heat exchangers.The bottom product at a temperature of around 250 °C is pumped to furnace through heat exchangers and then after combining is routed in parallel streams through pre-heat exchangers (3 Nos). Heat exchanger train iii:. Part of the bottom product coming out of the heat exchanger train is sent to Pretopping Column as heat input. The coil outlet temperature of the furnace is maintained at around 360 °C. crude is heated by outgoing products to a temperature of around 230 °C. . Stabiliser section:-Part of the condensed overhead gasoline is pumped through heat exchanger to stabiliser section. The coil outlet temperature is maintained at around 360°C. Structured packing in LGO / HGO section. Pre topping column bottom product is sent through the main furnace. Pretopping column:. Main fractionator:-The main column is provided with: Valve trays in the top section. The column bottoms (RCO) is flashed into the Vacuum Column.The desalted crude at 230ºC enters the columns for withdrawal of unstabilised gasoline and heavy naptha. KERO / LGO section.0 Kg/cm2 (g) The desalted crude is pumped to Pretopping Column . The preheat temperature at the exit is around 270 °C. Heat exchanger train ii:-The discharge is through a series of heat exchangers (6 Nos. Desalter circuit:-A static Mix valve and a control valve is provided for mixing water and demulsifier with crude prior to entry into the desalter.
Refractory material used in the radiant sanction of this heater is ceramic fiber blanket. The side streams of main vacuum column are as under : Stream First Second Third Bottom Product LVGO & CR HVGO & CR SLOP & OVERFLASH SHORT RESIDUE This Reboiler Furnace is a vertical cylindrical heater with convection and radiant section. of studded tubes with an extended surface area of 950 M2.8 M2. LVGO/HVGO fractionation section. These 88 tubes are arranged in four-pass arrangement giving total heat transfer area of 856. The radiant section of the heater houses 88 nos. K-301 top is provided with a demister to minimize the entertainment of liquid droplets in the vapour going to overhead-condenser. In the horizontal convection section there are 24 nos. These 48 tubes are arranged in double pass arrangement giving material total radiant heat transfer area of 248. Crude heater is a vertical cylindrical heater with convection and radiant sections. of extended surface tubes for steam superheat with an extended surface area of 70 M2. bare tubes 6" NB of A335 P9 material. The heater houses 12 nos. bare tubes of 6" NB of A335 P9 material. and Wash section and valve trays in the bottoms stripping section. there are also 12 nos. The firing of this heater is done by 8 nos. of horizontal tubes in convection section and 48 nos. The column is operated at a top pressure of 70 mm Hg. bare tubes of A335 P9 material and 64 nos. Vacuum section The Vacuum column is provided with structured packing in LVGO pumparound section. HVGO pumparound section. Lpg caustics wash:-LPG goes to LPG caustic wash-vessel after mixing with caustic. combination fuel fired forced draft burners provided with pilot burners having automatic electric ignition system. The firing of this heater is done by 4 nos. In the convection section.8 m2. combined fuel fired forced draft burners provided with pilot burners having automatic electric ignition system. Refraction material used in the radiant section of this heater is ceramic fiber blanket .
of bare tubes of A335 P9 material of total surface area of 34. Hot flue gas leaving the convection section of the furnaces at 323oC is mixed together before going to shell side of the APH (annular spaces between the finned modules). Air preheating is based on heat exchange between hot flue gas and combustion air. of studded tubes of A335 P9 material of total exposed surface area of 509 M2. . Vacuum heater F-301 is a vertical cylindrical heater with convection and radiant section.81 M2 & 44 nos. combustion air for all furnaces is supplied by forced draft fans. Air preheater :-During normal operation. Air is preheated at 236oC in a common air pre-heater. bare tube of 6" each NB A335 P9 material. Refractory material used in the radiant section is ceramic fiber blanket. there is arrangement for introducing turbulising steam at convection section inlet and convection section outlet. These tubes are arranged in two parallel passes giving total heat transfer area of 330 M2. In the convection section. The firing of this heater is done by 4 nos. there are 12 nos. In each pass of the furnace. Air preheater is provided with glass tubes in the lowest pass in order to avoid corrosion due to acid condensation in cold flue gases. The radiant section of the heater houses 54 nos. The cast iron HT/HTA tubes have integral fins on the inside (air) and outside (flue gas) surfaces. of combined fuel fired forced draft burners provided at the floor with pilot burners having automatic electric ignition system.
Gases from the knock-out pot are passed through an absorber column and flow counter to the naphtha and kerosene streams in two separate sections respectively.. Stripper bottom containing mainly LPG and Naphtha .0Kg/cm²g along with unstabilised naphtha are cooled to 40°C in air and water cooler successively and fed to a discharge knock-out pot where gas and condensate (mainly-LPG) are separated. if any). Kerosene further minimises the loss of naphtha entrained by the gases. INTRODUCTION Gases from Coker-A. .C4 fractions present in the gas. Compressed gases at a pressure of 14.. Fuel gas from the absorber top goes to a knock-out drum and fed to the refinery gas network. Naphtha absorbs any C3. Kerosene is taken from cikers and rich kerosene from this absorber is fed back to the fractionating column of cokers.LPG RECOVERY UNIT ( LRU ) CAPACITY / STREAM FACTOR i)Gas and unstabilised naphtha from ACU ii)Gas from existing Coker Unit iii)Stream factor iv)Unit Turndown v)Year of Commissioning 99000 Tonnes / Year 93696 320 days 25% 1986 .C4 . Rich naphtha from the lower zone of the absorber along with the condensate obtained from the compressor discharge knock-out drum is preheated by Debutaniser bottom stream and pumped to stripper column where light ends ( C1 and C2 ) are stripped off by reboiler vapour and fed back to the inlet of compressor discharge KO drum ( to recover C3 . Coker-B & Stabiliser off-gas from AVU-I / II / III are compressed in a two stage steam turbine driven compressor.
7 18.29 24.12 c) Gases from existing Coker COMPONENT Methane WT. % 26. A required part of this stabilised naphtha is recycled back to the absorber as absorbing medium and rest of stabilised naphtha goes as product.9 17.6 1.7 8. Both LPG and stabilised naphtha products are further washed in caustic soda wash section separately for removal of any H2S.17 9. LPG is withdrawn from the top reflux drum and stabilised naphtha from the bottom of the debutaniser column.28 15.00 7.0 Kg/cm²g PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS LPG Copper strip corrosion for 1 hr at 38°C Dryness enrained water 1b Max.710 22. Products are further passed through sand filters and then sent to the product storage tanks FEED .28 4.STOCK a) Gas from ACU WT. % 25. COMPONENT Methane Ethane Ethylene Propylene i-Butane n-Butane C is-Trans Butane C5 Ethane/Ethylene Propane Propylene i-Butane b) Unstabilised naphtha from ACU Sp.68 8.56 11.0. Gravity at 15°C Vap.are fed to the Debutaniser column for separation of LPG and Naphtha. Pressure . No free .
20 25. Level 2 0.23 7.50 7.0 20.7109 64.T (95% Vaporised at 760 mm Hg (Max) Vapour pressure at 65°C Kg/cm²g STABILISED NAPHTHA TBP 15°C HYDROCARBON % WT .5 12.) W.Saturates .02 + 2°C 15 Max.Aromatics Mercaptans % wt. Kg/cm²g 2.H2S Odor (Min) Total Volatile Solution (Max.5 23.60 11.0 50 40 40 Refinery FG system LPG Storage Naphtha/MS Tanks. at 50°C) RVP psig (max. C5 + 140°C 0.Olefins .70 2.77 Absent.3 5.016 2a 10. % 45.5 0°C 45 45 DESTINATION / SOURCE ACU/existing ACU .0 0.2 16.0 BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS FEED / PRODUCTS Gas Unstabilised Naphtha Fuel Gas LPG Stabilised Naphtha 2. Cu Strip corrosion But (3hrs.) FUEL GAS Methane Ethylene Ethane Propylene Propane C5 + WT.
DESTINATION UTILITIES CONSUMPTION UTILITY High Pressure Steam(SH) Medium pressure Steam Low pressure steam (SL) PRESSURE Kg/cm²g 34 19.5 6. COMPONENT FEED T/YR 1. 0°C 415 211 290 CONSUMPTION 25000 Kg/hr 9594 Kg/hr Intermittent Lost Station. Gas LPG Naphtha 192696 PRODUCT T/YR. 3.5 3. 0. Air Plant Air Fresh water 2. 2. . * 6 * * Intermittent.No. 92660 52016 57220 Existing FG System LPG Storage Naphtha/MS Tank.0 2.MATERIAL BALANCE S.75 tones/Year.5 7.0 40 40 Ambient 693 M³/hr 60 NM³/hr 340 NM³/hr.5 TEMP. ** Cooling water (WC) Inst. * If ACU is down consumption shall be 347M³/hr CHEMICALS Caustic soda Corrosion inhibitor 12.0 tones/Year.
typicall havin low o ery ly ng octane r ratings. sically. The f four maj cata jor alytic r reforming reac ctions a are:1: The dehyd e drogena ation of napht f thenes to conv vert the into aromat em tics as exemp plified in the convers c sion met thylcyc clohexan (a na ne aphthen to t ne) toluene: :- . er oducts are sma amou all unts of f metha ane. The r reaction chem n mistry All th react he tions oc ccur in t pre the esence o a cat of talyst and a high part a tial pressure of hydrogen. eth hane. I so do In oing. on condit tions ra ange fro tem om mperatures of a about 4 495 to 525 °C and fro 5 om pressures of about 5 to 45 atm. the naphth feed T ha dstock t a to cataly ytic ref former is alway pre-process in a hydrodesulfu ys sed urizatio unit on which removes both the su h h ulfur an the n nd nitrogen compo n ounds. the process re t e-arrang or r ges re-stru uctures the hy ydrocar rbon mo olecules in the naphth feed s e ha dstocks as well as bre eaking some of the molecu ules into smalle molec o er cules. T ove The erall eff fect is t that th he uct ormate contain hydrocarbons with more complex molec ns h c x cular produ refo shape havin highe octan value than the hy es ng er ne es ydrocarbons in the naphtha feeds stock. the proce sepa e ess arates h hydroge atom from the en ms m hydro ocarbon molecu n ules and produ d uces ver significant amounts of by ry a yproduct hydro ogen gas for us in a n s se number of the other process invo r e ses olved in a n moder petroleum refinery Othe bypro rn r y. Therefore. pr ropane and but tanes. into hi .C CRU(C ALYTI RE RMIN UN CATA IC EFOR NG NIT) ytic reforming is a ch g hemical proces used to con l ss d nvert pe etroleum m Cataly refine naphthas. h ery sceptible to po oisoning by g sulfur and nitrogen compou r unds. Dep pending upon the type or ver e rsion of catalytic f reforming us as well as t des sed w the sired re eaction severit the reactio ty. f 5 The c commonly used catalyt refo tic orming catalys contain nob met sts ble tals suc ch as pla atinum a and/or rhenium which are ve sus m. igh-octane liqu uid produ ucts called reformate which are co es h ompone ents of high-oc ctane ga asoline (also k known a petro Bas as ol).
and it cont d al g d tains pa araffin. as s shown below: n 3: The dehyd e drogena ation and arom matizat tion of paraff fins to a aromatics (comm monly ca alled de ehydroc cyclizat tion) as exemp plified in the co n onversion of norma hepta to toluene. It ha an initial boiling po as oint of a about 35 °C and a fina boiling point of about 200 °C. The na r g . a shown below as w: The h hydrocr racking of para affins is the on one of the above f s nly four ma ajor reforming re eactions that c s consume hydr es rogen. Typical naph htha fe eedstoc cks overhea liquid distilla from atmo ad d ate ospheric distill c lation c column i called is d The o napht and will bec tha come a major compon nent of the ref finery's gasoli s ine (petro prod ol) duct aft it is furthe proc ter s er cessed t through a cata h alytic hydro odesulfu urizer to remo sulf t ove fur-cont taining hydroc carbons and a c catalytic reformer to reform its hy m ydrocarb molecules into mo com bon ore mplex m molecule es with a higher octane rating value.5-D t Dimethy ylhexan (an is ne soparaf ffin). wever. . T isom The merizat tion of normal paraffins does not consum or pr c me roduce h hydroge How en.2: The isome e erizatio of no on ormal paraffin to is p ns soparaf ffins as exemp s plified in i the co onversion of normal o octane to 2. b both the dehyd drogena ation of naphth f henes and the dehydr a rocycliz zation o paraf of ffins produ hydr uce rogen. The ove T erall ne produ et uction o hydro of ogen in the catalytic reforming of petrol f leum na aphthas ranges from a s s about 50 to 20 cubi mete 5 00 ic ers of hyd drogen gas (at 0 °C and 1 atm per cubic m t m) meter of liquid naphth f ha feeds stock. as sho al ane t own belo ow: 4: The hydro e ocrackin of p ng paraffin into smaller molecules as exemplified by ns r b the cr racking of normal hep ptane in isop nto pentane and et e thane. aphtha is a mix xture o very many of differ rent hy ydrocarbon com mpounds.
(max) Vol % ppm Vol w % 500 3 88 No Spec. (max) Benzene. when reformed. 150 1 91 42 21 Premium 150 1 95 42 18 Euro-IV Regular 50 1 91 35 21 Premium 50 1 95 35 18 Olifins. Vol % (max) . It is the straight-run heavy naphtha that is usually processed in a catalytic reformer because the light naphtha has molecules with 6 or less carbon atoms which. Key specifications of Petrol : BS-II BS-III/ Euro-III equivalent Regular Sulphur. Also. The naphthas derived from the distillation of crude oils are referred to as "straight-run" naphthas.naphthene (cyclic paraffins) and aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from those containing 4 carbon atoms to those containing about 10 or 11 carbon atoms. the molecules with 6 carbon atoms tend to form aromatics which is undesirable because governmental environmental regulations in a number of countries limit the amount of aromatics (most particularly benzene) that gasoline may contain. "light" naphtha containing most (but not all) of the hydrocarbons with 6 or less carbon atoms and a "heavy" naphtha containing most (but not all) of the hydrocarbons with more than 6 carbon atoms. No Spec. The heavy naphtha has an initial boiling point of about 140 to 150 °C and a final boiling point of about 190 to 205 °C. tend to crack into butane and lower molecular weight hydrocarbons which are not useful as high-octane gasoline blending components. (max) RON (min) Aromatics.
10.5 5 (P PI-1302 2) (T TI-1312 2) ----- 8.0 (T TI-1112) )65.0 1 14.0 (TI-1316 6)225. 6.0 HYDRO H O-TREA ATER PURGE STRIPP S PER FEE ED AFTER EXCHA A ANGER186. 9. 3.0 127.4 14. 1.0 28 85.0 0 HYDRO H O-TREA ATER SEPARA S ATOR 4 45.0 33 30.0 ----0 -REFLUX R X 5 58. FEED B F BEFORE E 02-EE-0 0 001 FURNA F ACE I/L L REACTO I/L R OR L REACTO O/L R OR L TEM MPERAT TURE (0C) EO OR SOR S EOR PRESSURE SOR R 6 65.9 9 17.5 (PI-110 16.6 6 16. 5.3 (T TI-1114) )325. STRIPP S PER BOTTOM2 225.0 (T TI-1122) )370. 7.0 (TI-1311 1)186.2 (PI-1304 18. 2.0 33 30.0 37 70.0 0 14. 4.3 18.5 (T TI-1313) )57.5 5 02) 5 15.0 (T TI-1203)45.TEMP PERAT TURE & PRES SSURE COND DITIO N : SL EQUIPMENT E (KG/C 2G) CM NO.0 0 13.5 1 STRIPP S PER OV VER-HEA AD136.9 9 17.0 (PI-110 15.2 2 & PI-13 305) .0 20.6 20.0 0 03) 0 13.4 (PI I-1303) )14.
01-FF-001 is double pass vertical . One is fed to the hydro treater unit at a temp. The over head vapours are totally condensed in air condensers 01-EA-001. The pressure of splitter is controlled at reflux drum by passing a part of hot column overhead vapours around the condenser or releasing the reflux vapours to flare through a split range controller (01-PC-1101). The balance. Reflux drum boot water is drained in OWS manually.BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION: (I)NAPHTHA SPLITTER UNIT (NSU) : IBP-140 0C cut naphtha from storage (TK 250. The bottom product after exchanging heat with feed is split into two streams. of 65 0C and the other is sent to storage under column level control 01-LC-1102 after being colled in splitter bottom column 01-EE-003. 252) is fed to splitter column 01-CC-001 under flow control by off site pump 41-PA-1A/B at tray No. The splitter bottom product which constitutes 70-140 0C cut naphtha is pumped to spliter feed/bottom exchanger 01-EE-001 A/B by hydro treater feed pumps 01-PA-003 A/B. The feed is heated up to 95 0C in splitter feed/bottom exchanger 01-EE-001 A/B against splitter bottom stream before it enters the column. 251. The liquid collected is pumped by splitter reflux pump 01-PA-001 A/B and one part sent as top reflux back to the column under flow control 02-FC1102 to maintain the top temperature. The circulation through reboiler is provided by splitter reboiler pumps 01-PA-002 A/B. The heat necessary for splitter reboiling is supplied by splitter reboiler furnace 01-FF-001 and desired temperature maintained by controlling the fuel firing. which constitutes the IBP-70 0C cut naphtha is sent to storage under reflux drum level control 01-LC-1101 after cooling in a water cooler 01-EE-002. 14.
It has also provision of decoking. The feed then mixed with Rich Hydrogen Gas from HP separator of reformer. Sour water is . Both the liquid naphtha and rich hydrogen gas are pre-heated in a series of exchangers 02-EE001 A/B/C/D/E/F which are feed/reactor effluent heat exchangers. The feed flow is controlled by flow control valve 02-FC-1101. The Rich Hydrogen gas flow is controlled by 02-FC-1202. The reactor is provided with facility of steam and air for regeneration of catalyst. The furnace 02-FF-001 is four pass having three burners fired from bottom. After air cooler the effluent is cooled in a trim cooler 02-EE-002. The desulfurisation and hydro treating reaction takes place in 02-RB-001 at almost constant temperature since heat of reaction is quite negligible. The reactor effluent after having heat exchanged in 02-EE-001 series with feed goes to air cooler 02-EA-001. The reactor inlet temperature is maintained by 02-TC-1101 cascaded with either fuel oil or fuel gas PC's.cylinderical furnace having four burners fired from the bottom. It has soot blowing facility for convection section. (II)HYDROTREATER UNIT (HTU) : REACTION AND SEPARATION SECTION : The naphtha from NSU is fed to HTU by a pump 01-PA-003 A/B. The reactor catalyst bed has been provided with five number of thermo couple points at various location to get the bed temperature during regeneration of the catalyst. The product is collected in a separator vessel 02-VV-001. The furnace is having facility of soot blowing.e. The catalyst for reactor is HR-306. The furnace is provided with all safety shut down inter locks. The air cooler fans pitch is variable i. Then mixture is heated upto reaction temperature in a furnace 02-FF-001 and fed to the reactor 02-RB-001. cooling load can be adjusted as per situation requirement.
STRIPPER SECTION : The separator liquid is pumped by 02-PA-001A/B under flow control 02FC-1201 cascaded with 02-LC-1201 to stripper feed/bottom exchanger 02-EE-003 A/B/C when it gets heat exchanged by hot stripper bottom stream. The facility is there to inject corrosion inhibitor by pump 02-PA-005A. of valve trays one to eight number of trays are single pass and the rest double pass. The over head vapours are cooled down in 02-EA-002 air condenser and collected in 02VV-002 stripper refflux drum. A line has been provided to feed the naphtha to stripper. The necessary heat for stripper reboiling is supplied by 02-FF-002 reboiler heater. The water accumulated in the boot is sent for disposal as sour water. The excess or required hydro-treated naphtha is sent to storage after being cooled in 02-EE-004 A/B under level control 02-LC-1301. during start up. 02-CC-001 product is circulated through 02-FF-002 single pass cylinders vertical furnace by 02-PA-003 A/B. Feed coming from 02-EE-003 A/B/C enters at 9th tray from two sides. releasing the excess gas in FG system. Stripper bottom product exchanged heat with stripper feed in 02-EE003A/B/C and then sent to reformer as hot feed. Partial . The fan load can be adjusted. The condensed hydro-carbons are returned to column top by pump 02-PA002A/B under flow control 02-FC-1301 cascaded with 02-LC-1302 as reflux to maintain the top temp. bypassing the reaction/separation section. The separator drum pressure is maintained by 02-PC-1201. The stripper column consists of 28 Nos.drained from the separator drum boot manually. In event of emergency the separator excess pressure can be released to flare through an on-off c/v HV-1201. The reflux drum pressure is maintained by 02-PC-1301 releasing excess gas in the FG system.
As the re eaction is end n do-ther rmic. . In the sam way 03-RBme -002 ef ffluent is heat in the seco inte heater ted ond er 03-FF-003 prior to be f to the thir reac fed t rd ctor 03-RB-003. The mixed feed is pre heated in the feed-e d d effluent excha anger 0 03-EE-0 001 followed by fee ed/efflu uent ex xchange 03-E er EE-002 Then the m 2. th tem he mperature drops. . R Reboilin is controlled by 02 ng d 2-TC-13 301 at 3rd pla from the bottom of 02ate m -CC-001. The efflu uent fro the last re om eactor 03-RB-003 is split into two strea o ams and send for hea recovery pa d at arallely to feed/efflu uent ex xchange (03-E er EE002) and stablizer re d eboiler (03-EE-003) The outlet from the two ).vap pourizat tion occ curs in 02-FF-002. Hydro tre eated naphtha from hydro treate unit is pum n a er mped to requir o red pre essure b by 03-P PA-001 A/B un nder flo cont ow trol 03-FC-1101 A/B and a mix xed wit recy th ycle gas from the recycle gas co s m ompress sor (03 3-KA-00 01). Furnace is p provide with all ed saf fety int lock ter ks. n mixture is e bro ought u upto the react tion tem mperature (48 0C) by hea 80 ating in the pren hea ater 03 3-FF-00 and t 01 then fed to 1st reactor 03-R t RB-001. so the first rea actor ef ffluent is heat in the firs inter heater 03-FF t ted t st r F-002 p prior to be sen to th secon reac nt he nd ctor 03-RB-00 02. t exc changer is co rs ombined by a these wa valve 03-TI d ay e IC-1101 and th cooled 1 hen dow suc wn ccesivel in t ly the Ze eemann Secat then ex xchanger (03 3-EE-00 01).
The cooled reactor effluent is flashed in the reformer separator 03-VV001. The separator liquid is sent by reformer separator bottom pumps (03-PA002 A/B) under level control 03-LC-1401 for recontacting with the gas compressed by 03-KA-002 A/B. through 03-PC-1401 A and 03-PC-1402. DMDS/Ccl4 injection and caustic soda circulation. . water injection. Vapour and liquid phase are separated in separator 03-VV-001. Remaining amount. The hot flue gases from all the three reformer furnaces are combined and sent to stream generation system forwaste heat recovery to produce MP steam. The pressure control in separator is achieved by a kick back gas flow from HP Absorber (03-VV003) to separator. The unit has also been provided with facilities for continuous chloriding. Provision is there to dry the recycle gas into a dryer (03-RB004). The separator (03-VV-001) vapour after passing through KO drum (03VV-002) is compressed in the H2 Rich Gas Compressor (03-KA-002 A/B) and recontacted with separator liquid. The recontacted vapour and liquid is cooled in a cooler (03-EE-005) and then fed to HP absorber (03-VV003). Part of the gas phase constitutes the hydrogen recycle gas to the reactor circulated by recycle gas compressor 03-KA-001.reformer effluent cooler 03-EA-001 and effluent trim cooler 03-EE-004. degassing in split range to fuel gas is performed. The dryer can later be regenerated. The aim of this device is to allow for high recovery of the C5 contained in the gas phase of separator and improve the quality (H2 concentration) of the produced gas. is compressed by the hydrogen rich gas compressor 03-KA-002 A/B. corresponding to the amount of gas produced. Should the gas be produced in excess to 03-KA-002 A/B capacity.
. 13. The liquid from the 03-VV-003 is drawn off under level control 03-LC1601 and mixed with stabilizer vapour distillate. A part of condensed liquid is pumped as reflux to the column by stabilizer reflux pump 03-PA-004 A/B under the flow control and the balance is sent to LPG Recovery Unit under level control of reflux drum. The bottom product. The vapour phase is sent to LPG absorber for C3 and C4 recovery. After pre heating in stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger 03-EE-007 the mixture is fed to the stabilizer 03-CC-001 at tray No. stabilized reformate. The heat of reboiling to the stabilizer is provided by the hot reactor effluent in the stabilizer reboiler 03-EE-003 and the desired temperature maintained by controlling the flow of reactor effluent by the three way valve. Stabilizer over head vapours are partialy condensed in stablizer condenser 03-EE-008 and flashed in stabilizer reflux drum 03-VV-005. is cooled in the feed/bottom exchanger 03-EE-007followed by reformate cooler 03-EA-002 and reformate trim cooler 03-EE-009 before being routed to storage Tk 77 to 84. A part of hydrogen rich vapour goes to HTU as a make up hydrogen and balance goes to the fuel gas system under pressure control 03-PC-1601. The combined stream is cooled in LPG absorber feed cooler 03-EE-006 and flashed in LPG absorber. The liquid from 03-VV-004 is pumped by stabilizer feed pumps 03-PA-003 A/B. Off-gas is sent under pressure control to fuel gas system.
McAfee of the Gulf Refining Company developed a batch process using aluminum chloride (a Friedel Crafts catalyst known since 1877) to catalytically crack heavy petroleum oils. The feedstock to an FCC is usually that portion of the crude oil that has an initial boiling point of 340 °C or higher at atmospheric pressure and an average molecular weight ranging from about 200 to 600 or higher. Cracking of petroleum hydrocarbons was originally done by thermal cracking which has been almost completely replaced by catalytic cracking because it produces more gasoline with a higher octane rating. This portion of crude oil is often referred to as heavy gas oil. The first commercial use of catalytic cracking occurred in 1915 when Almer M. It is widely used to convert the high-boiling. the prohibitive cost of the catalyst prevented the widespread use of McAfee's process at that time. high boiling range products resulting from the distillation of crude oil. than those produced by thermal cracking. and hence more valuable. It also produces byproduct gases that are more olefinic. high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils to more valuable gasoline.FLUIDISED CATALYTIC CRACKING Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the most important conversion process used in petroleum refineries. However. The FCC process vaporizes and breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules by contacting the feedstock. refineries use fluid catalytic cracking to correct the imbalance between the market demand for gasoline and the excess of heavy. with a fluidized powdered catalyst. olefinic gases and other products. . In effect. at high temperature and moderate pressure.
The are the ma tor te ese e ajor FC CC des signers and lic censors: Sid de-by-s side con nfigurat tion: . There are a numb of differe prop e ber ent prietary designs that have b y t been dev veloped for mo d odern F FCC unit Each design is ava ts. The mode FCC units a all continuo processes which o ern are c ous operate 24 e hou a da for as much as 2 to 3 yea betw urs ay a h ars ween sh hutdown for r ns routine ma aintenan nce. Bas sically. h n ailable u under a license e tha must be pur at t rchased from the des d t sign dev veloper by any petrole eum ref fining company desiring to co y onstruc and o ct operate an FCC of a g e C given des sign. there are two differ a o rent con nfigurat tions fo an FC unit: the or CC "st tacked" type where th reac w he ctor and the ca d atalyst regene erator a are con ntained in a sin ngle ves ssel wit the r th reactor above the cat talyst reg generat and the "si tor ide-by-s side" ty whe the reacto and c ype ere e or catalyst t reg generat are in two separat vessels.
All of the cracking reactions take place in the catalyst riser. The hydrocarbon vapors "fluidize" the powdered catalyst and the mixture of hydrocarbon vapors and catalyst flows upward to enter the reactor at a temperature of about 535 °C and a pressure of about 1. The reactor is in fact merely a vessel in which the cracked product vapors are: (a) separated from the so-called spent catalyst by flowing through a set of two-stage cyclones within the reactor and (b) the spent catalyst flows downward through a steam stripping section to remove any hydrocarbon vapors before the spent catalyst returns to the catalyst regenerator. The flow of regenerated catalyst to the feedstock injection point below the catalyst riser is regulated by a slide valve in the regenerated catalyst . The combustion of the coke is exothermic and it produces a large amount of heat that is partially absorbed by the regenerated catalyst and provides the heat required for the vaporization of the feedstock and the endothermic cracking reactions that take place in the catalyst riser. For that reason.41 barg. Since the cracking reactions produce some carbonaceous material (referred to as coke) that deposits on the catalyst and very quickly reduces the catalyst reactivity. the catalyst is regenerated by burning off the deposited coke with air blown into the regenerator.CB&I Lummus ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) Shell Global Solutions International Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWECO) / Institut Francais Petrole (IFP) Universal Oil Products (UOP) .currently fully owned subsidiary of Honeywell Reactor and Regenerator The schematic flow diagram of a typical modern FCC unit in Figure 1 below is based upon the "side-by-side" configuration. The hot catalyst (at about 715 °C) leaving the regenerator flows into a catalyst withdrawal well where any entrained combustion flue gases are allowed to escape and flow back into the upper part to the regenerator.72 barg. The flow of spent catalyst to the regenerator is regulated by a slide valve in the spent catalyst line. The regenerator operates at a temperature of about 715 °C and a pressure of about 2. The preheated high-boiling petroleum feedstock (at about 315 to 430 °C) consisting of long-chain hydrocarbon molecules is combined with recycle slurry oil from the bottom of the distillation column and injected into the catalyst riser where it is vaporized and cracked into smaller molecules of vapor by contact and mixing with the very hot powdered catalyst from the regenerator. FCC units are often referred to as being heat balanced.
After further processing for removal of sulfur compounds. propane and propylene.000. The bottom oil from the slurry settler contains most of the slurry oil catalyst particles and is recycled back into the catalyst riser by combining it with the FCC feedstock oil.72 barg) flow from the top of the reactor to the bottom section of the distillation column (commonly referred to as the main fractionator) where they are distilled into the FCC end products of cracked naphtha. many FCC main fractionators produce a light cracked naphtha and a heavy cracked naphtha. Likewise. ethylene and ethane). The terminology light and heavy in this context refers to the product boiling ranges. Thus.900 metric tons per day of catalyst. methane. The amount of catalyst circulating between the regenerator and the reactor amounts to about 5 kg per kg of feedstock which is equivalent to about 4. The socalled clarified slurry oil or decant oil is withdrawn from the top of slurry settler for use elsewhere in the refinery or as a heavy fuel oil blending component. the bottom product oil is referred to as a slurry oil. many FCC main fractionators have two sidecut strippers and produce a light fuel oil and a heavy fuel oil. Part of that slurry oil is recycled back into the main fractionator above the entry point of the hot reaction product vapors so as to cool and partially condense the reaction product vapors as they enter the main fractionator. fuel oil and offgas. The main fractionator offgas is sent to what is called a gas recovery unit where it is separated into butanes and butylenes. The hot flue gas exits the regenerator after passing through multiple sets of two-stage cylones that remove entrained catalyst from the flue gas. .000 barrels/day (12. and lower molecular weight gases (hydrogen.line. with light products having a lower boiling range than heavy products. For that reason. The remainder of the slurry oil is pumped through a slurry settler. Some FCC gas recovery units may also separate out some of the ethane and ethylene. the cracked naphtha becomes a high-octane component of the refinery's blended gasolines.000 litres/day) will circulate about 55. an FCC unit processing 75. The bottom product oil from the main fractionator contains residual catalyst particles which were not completely removed by the cyclones in the top of the reactor. Distillation column The reaction product vapors (at 535 °C and a pressure of 1.66 kg per litre of feedstock. Although the schematic flow diagram above depicts the main fractionator as having only one sidecut stripper and one fuel oil product.
The electrical motor-generator can consume or produce electrical power. The steam turbine in the flue gas processing system (shown in the above diagram) is used to drive the regenerator's combustion air compressor during start-ups of the FCC unit until there is sufficient combustion flue gas to take over that task. The combustion flue gas (containing CO and CO2) at 715 °C and at a pressure of 2. the coke has only been partially combusted to CO2. . than the electric motor/generator converts the excess power into electric power and exports it to the refinery's electrical system.Regenerator flue gas Depending on the choice of FCC design. the electric motor/generator provides the needed additional power. The combustion air flow is controlled so as to provide the desired ratio of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide for each specific FCC design. If the expansion of the flue gas does not provide enough power to drive the air compressor. The flue gas is finally processed through an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to remove residual particulate matter to comply with any applicable environmental regulations regarding particulate emissions. The expansion of flue gas through a turbo-expander provides sufficient power to drive the regenerator's combustion air compressor.41 barg is routed through a secondary catalyst separator containing swirl tubes designed to remove 70 to 90 percent of the particulates in the flue gas leaving the regenerator. the combustion in the regenerator of the coke on the spent catalyst may or may not be complete combustion to carbon dioxide (CO2). This is required to prevent erosion damage to the blades in the turboexpander that the flue gas is next routed through. The expanded flue gas is then routed through a steam-generating boiler (referred to as a CO boiler) where the carbon monoxide in the flue gas is burned as fuel to provide steam for use in the refinery as well as to comply with any applicable environmental regulatory limits on carbon monoxide emissions. If the flue gas expansion provides more power than needed to drive the air compressor. In the design shown in Figure 1. The ESP removes particulates in the size range of 2 to 20 microns from the flue gas.
while processing 4. Capacity 2.0 MMTPA high sulphur crude 50:50 wt Arab mix) CASE-II Feed corresponding to future refinery configuration without Resid Desulphurisation. Original Technology 4. During this time.6 MMTPA 7200 Russian 1964 95 % The unit is designed for the following three cases:CASE-I Feed corresponding to future refinery configuration having Resid Desulphurisation unit. PROCESS DESCRIPTION Delayed coking’ process is an effective conversion process for upgradation of the heavy residuals from the refinery distillation unit into valuable distillates and premium quality petroleum coke. H/C molecules are decomposed into smaller lower boiling point molecules and at the same time some reactive molecules undergoes pyrolytic polymerization forming fuel oil . Year of Commissioning 5.2 MMTPA low sulphur crude (Bonny light). while processing 6. On-stream hours per year. In this process the heavy residual feed stocks are heated up to coking temperature and the mixture is allowed to stand for prolong period in large insulated vessels called coke drums.COKER A GENERAL DATA 1. Turn Down 0. while processing 6.0 MMTPA low sulphur crude (Bonny light).pt. the heavy stock undergoes thermal cracking at large high b. 3. CASE-III Feed corresponding to future refinery configuration without Resid Desulphurisation.
grouping a large number of these compounds to such a degree that eventually coke is formed. The unit has two blocks and each block has two coke . The feed material along with the recycle stock is pumped to the reaction coils of the coker furnace at a temperature of 340 – 360 °C and the material is heated to the temperature of 500°C which resulted in partial vapourization and mild cracking of the stock. The coke produced from these aeromatic compounds is the most suitable premium grade needle coke. one below and the other above the vapour inlet nozzle. The vapour liquid mixture then enters the coke chamber which is in coking service. In one the colloidal suspension of the asphltene and resin components is re-arranged resulting in the precipitation of the compounds to form highly-cross-linked structure of amorphous coke. Reduced crude is received in the Feed Surge Drum in Coker-A through offsite Pumps. Coke is formed by two different mechanism. The other reaction mechanism involves the polymerisation and condensation of aromatics. The compounds are also subjected to a cleavage of this sulphatic groups. This facility is provided to control fractionator bottom temperature. Coke formed from these resinasphatene compounds is undesirable for making premium grade coke. The other products of pyrolysis are separated into distillate fuels and recovered separately in a fractionator column. where the vapour experience further cracking as it passes through the coke chamber and the liquid experience successive cracking and polymerization until it is converted to vapour and coke. Light Diesel Oil (LDO) Product and LDO CR.and coke. The feed RCO is then preheated to 240°C by heat exchanger against Coker products like Coker Kero. The preheated RCO is fed to fractionator column at two levels.
A cold LDO stream is used as quench in the quench column. Coke along with water falls to the ground. Condensed naphtha from reflux drum is also routed to the LPG recovering unit for stablilization. LDO Product. In the fractionator column. A LDO circulating reflux stream is drawn and is utilised for HP steam generation. The coke chamber overhead vapours enter the fractionator via a quench column at a temperature of about 425°C. A part of condensed naphtha sent back to fractionator column as top reflux. LDO and CFO as side draw off products. The vapour from the fractionator overhead are cooled in air cooler and water condensers and then led to reflux drum where gas and liquid separate out. Each block has got individual heater. Kerosene. The coke from the drop-out area is sent to storage using Coke Sizer and conveyors. Coke from the cooled drained chamber is cut and cleared by hydraulic jets operating at a pressure of about 200 Kg/cm². cooled prior to their being routed to their destinations. CFO Product and FO IR are utilized for generating MP steam. one in coking service while the other is being decoked with high pressure water jets.chambers. The residue from the bottom of quench column is sent to storage after further cooling. Besides refinery slop and gas oil from offsites tank can be used as quench in the vapour line of the coke chambers. The gases from the fractionator reflux drum sent to LPG Recovery unit of the refinery. gas and naphtha are obtained as overhead products and kerosene. . LDO and CFO are steam stripped in the stripper columns.
grouping a large number of these compounds to such a degree that eventually coke is formed.pt. The other products of pyrolysis are separated into distillate fuels and recovered separately in a fractionator column. Coke formed from these resinasphatene compounds is undesirable for making premium grade coke. Reduced crude is received in Coker-B from offsite storage tanks by a 18” dia pipeline. Coke is formed by two different mechanism. The other reaction mechanism involves the polymerisation and condensation of aromatics. H/C molecules are decomposed into smaller lower boiling point molecules and at the same time some reactive molecules undergoes pyrolytic polymerization forming fuel oil and coke. During this time. the heavy stock undergoes thermal cracking at large high b. The coke produced from these aeromatic compounds is the most suitable premium grade needle coke.COKER B PROCESS DESCRIPTION Delayed coking’ process is an effective conversion process for upgradation of the heavy residuals from the refinery distillation unit into valuable distillates and premium quality petroleum coke. In this process the heavy residual feed stocks are heated up to coking temperature and the mixture is allowed to stand for prolong period in large insulated vessels called coke drums. The compounds are also subjected to a cleavage of this sulphatic groups. In one the colloidal suspension of the asphltene and resin components is re-arranged resulting in the precipitation of the compounds to form highly-crosslinked structure of amorphous coke. The feed stock RCO from storage is preheated to 200°C by .
The unit has two coke chambers. This feed goes to the fractionator is at two levels. HGO and CFO as side draw off products. . The feed material along with the recycle stock is pumped to the reaction coils of the coker furnace at a temperature of 380°C. This facility is provided to control fractionator bottom temperature. In the fractionator column. one in coking service while the other is being decoked with high pressure water jets. heavy gas oil (HGO). coker fuel oil (CFO) and residue. one below and the other above the vapour inlet nozzle. and HGO are steam stripped in the stripper columns. where the vapour experience further cracking as it passes through the coke chamber and the liquid experience successive cracking and polymerization until it is converted to vapour and coke. Kerosene. The preheated RCO is further heated to 240°C in the pre-heat section of the coker furnace and fed to fractionator column. gas and naphtha are obtained as overhead products and kerosene. The coke chamber overhead vapours enter the fractionator via a quench column at a temperature of about 425°C. The material is heated to a temperature of 500°C which resulted in partial vapourization and mild cracking of the stock. The vapour liquid mixture then enters the coke chamber which is in coking service.heat exchanger against Coker products like Coker Kero. cooled prior to their being routed to their destinations.
Naphtha is .000 hours per year 30 % Haldor Topsoe 24 TH Apri’2002 BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION To meet the make up requirement of Hydrogen for DHDT Unit. naphtha steam reforming type Hydrogen unit has been considered where Hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of Naphtha.HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT GENERAL DATA Design Capacity Stream Factor Turn down ratio Original Technology Date of Commissioning 34 TMT H2 production 8.
first desulphurised over a desulphurisation catalyst where. Activated carbon and alumina gel in PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) system. non-reactive sulphur compounds are hydrogenated to hydrogen sulphide which is then absorbed on Zince Oxide beds. Boiler Feed water and Demineralised water. Feed Stock DESIGN CASE 1: 30% (WT%) MIXTURE OF RFCCU OFF GAS AND 70% (WT%) SRN CASE 2: 100% CAPACITY ON SRN Type of Feed Feed composition GAS / LIQUID For Liq. Feed For gas feed .5% (vol) purity is fed to bullet / DHDT unit. The desulphurised feed is mixed with preheated steam and then heated to the desired temperature before entering steam reforming furnace tubes containing a nickel based catalyst. The reformed gases leave the tubes and after exchanging heat to generate steam. Feed (SRN –C5-90OC CUT) For gas feed (RFFCU OFF GASES) ATACHED AS ANNEXURE-1 Gas MW - Feed Characteristics For Liq. methane. The converted gases leave the reactor and preheat the incoming Naphtha. nitrogen and water vapour are removed by high pressure adsorption on molecular sieves. and Hydrogen with 99. pass through a CO shift convertor where most of the carbon monoxide is reacted with excess steam to produce additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide. All adsorbed gases are removed during deadsorption & regeneration of the beds and used as fuel in reformer furnace. The impurities like carbon monoxide. in presence of hydrogen. carbon dioxide.
C Total Sulfur / Nitrogen. Kcal/Kg C/H Ratio. NM /Hr 3 CASE-1 CASE-2 PSA –I OFF GAS : 25845 25250 . WT% PONA. Sp. OC IBP 10 VOL% 50 VOL% 70 VOL% FBP : 41 : 44 : 59 : 71 : 98 - Calorific Value. Gas (in case PSA shut down) 10.7 - Flow rate (Kg/hr) - Internal fuel to Furnace (off Gas from PSA).692 ATACHED AS ANNEXURE-1 ATACHED AS ANNEXURE-1 Cut range.025 / NIL ATACHED AS ANNEXURE-1 - Distillation ASTM D86. Vol% C5-90OC 0.492 5. deg. Gravity @ 150C Feed composition /TBP 0.(SRN –C5-90OC CUT) (RFFCU OFF GASES) Liq. wt / wt Any other additional feed to PSA unit Feed Type Flow rate (Kg/hr) Fuel Type Liquid Naphtha Purge gas from PSA Syn.
C Reformer exit temperature Deg. Kg/cm2 a / out let of reformer.0 Product temperature/pressure @ unit b/l (deg.4 –27.C (Inlet/ Outlet) Pre-reformer location (After/before feed preheat coil) No. of Stages of Reforming Feed temperature/pressure @ unit b/l (deg. deg.2 Product yield.C/ Kg/cm2 a) Product Quality (Percent purity of Hydrogen) 99. C - 640 930 Pressure around the reformer inlet of reformer. deg.C Product run down temperature cooler inlet.C/ Kg/cm2 a) 40 / 5.) SINGLE SRN (C5 –90) RICH GASES FROM RFCCU 51 / 13.) / 21 (MIN.C DM water heater heating (by syngas) if any Temperature of syn gas to the Exchanger. deg. % Whether pre-reformer is used (Yes/No) Operating condition for pre-reformer Pressure. (NM3/hr) Extent of Air cooling. deg.9 45 (MAX. Kg/cm2 a (Inlet/ Outlet) / Temperature.Steam/carbon ratio for the feed for Steam Reforming Blow down 2nd Demister vent quantities Kg/hr Inlet temperature to the tabular Reformer. Kg/cm2 a Efficiency of PSA.9 / 490 -419 24. deg.5 BEFORE FEED PREHEAT COIL YES 28.C 47252 20 131 270 / 331 / 224 .
30 Flue gas heat recovery Air pre-Heaters for the furnace Type of air PreHeater (MM Kcal/hr) Steam generation duty in furnace (MM Kcal/hr) 9. (T/hr) 159 Design Data Circulating Water 120 33 / 42 Generation Consumption in the unit Net import / export HP Steam MP Steam LP Steam Others.0 - 36.15 + 4.Heat recovered.5 / 180 2000 .12 Final flue gas temperature.85 Steam superheating duty in furnace (MM Kcal/hr) 7.6 + 2.04 9.22 / 3.0 - .0 / 400 11 / 275 4.32.29 / 4. if any Operating Pressure & Temperature (Kg/cm2a)/ oC) HP Steam MP Steam LP Steam Total Power Consumption in HGU (KW) 68.26 + 4. (MM Kcal/hr) 2.0 2. deg.6 - 36.84 Feed super heating duty in furnace (MMKcal/hr) 4.C Cooling Water Type (Once thru/circulating Sea/Water) Flow Rate (m3/hr) Supply / return temperature (oC) Flow rate.
(Table II-1) . T Date of Commissionin : 20TH Oct’2 D f ng 2002 EDSTO OCK DE EFINIT TION FEE e ntaining Strai g ight run Gasoil from low The design feed is a blend con sulphur im mported crude (SRGO-LS).000 hours per ye 0 s ear :40% of de Turndo wn T % esign ca apacity y Original Techn O nology : UOP USA P. Straig run Gasoil from h e ght high mported crude from middle east ( e e (SRGO-HS). ht er oil m r LCGO) with fro FCC (TCO Ligh Coke Gaso from Coker unit (L bel low mentioned prope d erties.2 MMTPA M Stream Factor : S m 8. T Total Cy ycle Oil sulphur im om CU O).DIESEL HYDRO EATI D H OTRE ING UNIT ( D T DHDT ) T GEN NERAL DATA L A Design Capacity : D 2.
66 6.7 0.2 (47460) Case II 2.1 Case I 50 3 0.2 22.26 0.86 0.0 12.18 1.0 48.8 SRGO-LS SRGO-HS TCO-FCC LCGO Case-2 31.0 15.2 (47855) Case III 2.6 17.726 664 46.0 SRGO-LS SRGO-HS TCO-FCC LCGO Case-3 30.0 31.2 (47433) SRGO-LS SRGO-HS Composition Wt % TCO-FCC LCGO Case-1 API Sulphur Wt % Nitrogen wppm Bromine Number g/100g Flash Point Pour Point Metal Ni+V wppm Iron wppm Cetane Number Silicon wppm Chloride wppm 30.3 43.53 5.8 Case II 58 3 1.37 758 26.2 Case III ASTM Distillate IBP 10 % 30 % 141 192 263 142 192 259 139 182 248 .0 4.3 42.7 39.6 31.92 610 6.3 39.Case I Capacity MTPA (BPSD) 2.1 17 16 21 50 3 0.0 0.4 0.91 0.45 4.07 0.62 1.
CO2 and N2.5 Vol % and 95 Vol % Water Content 0. Properties Flash Point Cetane Number Sulphur Wt ppm Pour Point Stability UOP 413. % min Hydrogen Purity Chloride 1 vppm max Balance will comprise mainly methane & trace of CO.50 % 70 % 90 % 95 % FBP 288 309 344 359 399 284 309 348 361 402 280 305 343 358 399 MAKE UP HYDROGEN The make-up hydrogen for the Hydrotreater will be supplied from the Hydrogen Unit having the following characteristics:99.6 ATTRIBUTES UNITS DESIGN CAPACITY MMTPA 2.05 Vol % max Not more than the Feed Diesel Not less than 40 48.5 Vol. PRODUCT SPECIFICATION The Hydrotreated products shall be routed to the storage and the properties of the Diesel will meet the following specification. mg/100ml Distillation Temperature for Recovery @ 85.20 .5 2000 Equal to or Not higher than the Feed < 1.
% Kg/Cm2 %H2 20.5 MT Years M3/Kg of Cat MT Years M3/Kg of Cat MT Years Years M3/Kg of Cat NM3/M3 OF fresh Feed 5 2 44.0 MT Years M3/Kg of Cat 5 44.3/191. 70 Min Kg/Cm2 102.94 59 Min.5 182.9/95 250-500 MMKCal/Hr.4 .9/102.08 91.ATTRIBUTES UNITS DESIGN T’PUT CATALYSTS TK-10 Quantity Life Feed Processed TK-711 Life Feed Processed RF200 Life Feed Processed HC-K Life Cycle Length Feed Processed H2 consumption (SOR/EOR) Quantity Quantity Quantity M3/Hr 314.8 2 17.8 SWEET DIESEL YIELD(SOR/EOR) GAS TO OIL RATIO OPERATING PARAMETERS FURNACE Efficiency H2 Partial Pressure Recycle Gas Purity REACTOR-1 Inlet Pressure(SOR/EOR) Heat Duty Wt% of Fresh Feed NM3/M3 OF FEED 96.2 2 17.
5 .ATTRIBUTES UNITS DESIGN Inlet Temprature(SOR/EOR) Outlet Temprature(SOR/EOR) Delta P.8 34 C C 0 Kg/Cm2 0 C C 0 Kg/Hr. Kg/Hr. Kg/Cm2 21600 21600 84.SEPARATOR Pr. 20000 Kg/Cm2 0 99.1 323/372 368/406 8. 0 C C 323/370 368/406 3.1 35 0 Kg/Cm2 0 C C C 0 0 Kg/Hr. Across reactor(EOR) Delta T Across Reactor(EOR) WABT Ist Bed WABT IInd bed Quench Flow REACTOR-2 Inlet Pressure(SOR/EOR) Inlet Temprature(SOR/EOR) Outlet Temprature(SOR/EOR) Delta P Across Reactor(EOR) Delta T Across Reactor(EOR) WABT Ist Bed WABT IInd bed Ist Quench Flow Iind Quench Flow H.6/99.P.
ATTRIBUTES UNITS DESIGN STRIPPER Pressure Top Temprature Stripping Steam Kg/Cm2 0 8. Utility Summary for DHDT A.5 / 180 : - 98. Cooling Water : Design Data Type (Once thru/circulating Sea/Water) Flow Rate (m3/hr) Supply / return temperature (oC) B.8 C MT/Hr.5 165 6.7 10.0 .7 10.0 98.6 .0 : : 36.0 / 400 : 11 / 275 : 4. (T/hr) : Generation Consumption in the unit Net import / export HP Steam MP Steam LP Steam Operating Pressure & Temperature (Kg/cm2a)/ oC) HP Steam MP Steam LP Steam Others. Steam : Circulating Water : 2480 : 33 / 42 : Flow rate. if any : : : 87.6 1.86.
7 D. The mixture is further heated to the desired reactor temperature in a fired heater and is fed to the Hydrotreater reactor. Fuel : : - i) Heater absorbed duty. Hydrotreating reactions are exothermic in nature and hence recycle gas is introduced as quench between the beds of the reactor to cool reaction fluid and redistribute vapour and liquid. The bottom product from stripper gas to storage as hydrotreated gas oil component after cooling. (MM Kcal/hr) ii) Heater efficiency : - iii) Heater fired duty (MM Kcal/hr) Or fuel consumed (T/hr) Total Power Consumption in HGU (KW) : 2.C. The feed is mixed with Hydrogen-rich recycle gas & make up Hydrogen after being compressed in respective compressor and reheated by exchanging heat with hot reactor effluent. Sour water is coalesced and removed from the bottom of the separator and sent to Sour Water Stripper Unit. recompressed and combined with make up hydrogen coming from the Hydrogen plant and then returned to the reactor. The uncondensed vapour ex stripper is sent to Amine Absorption Unit. The hydrogen rich separator gas is scrubbed with Lean Amine in Recycle Gas Amine scrubber to remove H2S. : 9183 PROCESS DESCRIPTION DHDT is installed for upgradation of Coker Gas Oil as well as quality improvement of few diesel components. . The liquid from the separator is sent to a stripper via heat exchangers part of the condensed stripper overhead is pumped to stripper as reflux and rest is taken out as naphtha product. The reactor effluent is cooled by heat exchange with feed and recycle gas before it is finally cooled in the air cooler and then flashed in the separator.
LPG Intank pump for bulk loading from Mounded bullets. LPG Bottling. LSHS. caustic transfer.Black Oil Loading Gantry It has two rail lines.OIL MOVEMENT & STORAGE Oil Movement & Storage (OM & S) is an important function of the Production Department. SKO. Besides there are booster pumps in the pipelines and transfer pumps to the marketing.Despatch LPG Utilities Coke Handling OM & S PUMPS A.Finished Product Pumps of centrifugal type are present to pump the finished products like SRN. slack and paraffin wax. TANK WAGON LOADING GANTRY A. LDO. LPG bulk loading. Phenol Extract / CBFS / FO. HSD. B. 24 numbers of BTPN T/Ws can be placed in one line. FO/LDO points are multiple and LSHS/Phenol Extract points are common. . MRN. OM & S section consists of the following sub sections: OM & S . Crude and Intermediate Product are pumped through centrifugal pumps. In Barauni Refinery. both lines have BG and MG tracks. B. MS.Receipt. In this gantry loading of LDO/Phenol Extract/LSHS can be done in BG/MG Tank wagons. White Oil Loading Gantry Maximum 38 number of BG T/Ws can be placed in one line for the products (SRN/MS/SKO/HSD). OM & S .
5 and 6.4 Supply temp.2 Supply Press. Kg/Cm2 5. Horton spheres(presently there are four) Horton spheres service.0 - - 2. 2. oC 45. oC 29.0 2.0 - - 2.5 Return temp. oC 33.1 No. Rubber Extender Oil.Lube Oil Loading Gantry It has two rail lines known as line no. UTIITIES PROCESS COOLING WATER SYSTEM 1. only B.0 - - .0 Cooling Water Type water) 2.3 Design wet bulb temp.. LPG Storage in Horizontal tanks(bullets). These are: Two of capacity 300 M3 & Two of capacity 1500 M3 each and 6 nos. T/Ws can be loaded in this gantry with CBFS-500. none of above products are loaded now in this gantry. Nor.0 - - 2. . Mounded bullets capacity 1500 M3 each..C.. Max.G. However. of cells 5 (Once through / Both Circulating fresh water or sea Min.
11. KW 720 kw (each) (Rated / Normal / CRU COOLING WATER SYSTEM 1.9 If any treatment done Yes If yes. M3 / Hr ( Rated / Normal) 3825 188.8.131.52 Cooling pumps water circulating 7 motors 2. (Working+ standby) 4 working +3 standby 2. 2.0 2. Detailes Non -oxidising biocides used.3 2.1 Type Centrifugal 2.11. Kg/Cm2 (a) At the top of cooling tower 0.3 Capacity.6 Return Press..5 Power Consumption.11.0 Cooling Water 2.2 No.4 Head.0 Type water) (Once through / Circulating fresh water Circulating fresh water or sea .2. Kg/Cm2 5.
1 Type Centrifugal 2.0 2.2 No. Kg/Cm2 (a) 5.0 2.0-6.1 No. Nor. (Working+ standby) 1 working +1 standby . Kg/Cm2 (a) At the top of cooling tower 3-5 2.. oC 45. oC 29. 2. Max.2 Supply Press.0 2.. Detailes Non -oxidising biocides used.6 Return Press. . oC 33..9 If any treatment done Yes If yes.11.2. of cells 2 Min.11. M3 / Hr 50 2.0 2.10 Cooling water Make up. 2. 2.4 Supply temp.11 Cooling water circulating pumps 2 nos..3 Design wet bulb temp.5 Return temp.
0 Type (Once through / Circulating fresh water Circulating fresh water or sea water) 2.0 2.1 No.4 Supply temp.2.11.6 Return Press.3 Capacity. 2. Max.. oC 32. Kg/Cm2 (a) 5..0 2. oC 29. of cells 5 Min.2 Supply Press. Kg/Cm2 (a) 3-5 .0 2.3 Design wet bulb temp. oC 45. .5 Return temp.0 Cooling Water 2..11.6 2.0-6. Nor.4 Head.. KW (Rated / Normal / 160 BXP COOLING WATER SYSTEM 1.5 Power Consumption.0 2. Kg/Cm2 5.11. M3 / Hr ( Rated / Normal) 1200 2.
1 2.11.9 If any treatment done Yes If yes. 2.2 No.5 Power Consumption. M3 / Hr - 2.0 Type (Once through / Circulating Circulating fresh water fresh water or sea water) . M3 / Hr ( Rated / Normal) 4450 2. (Working+ standby) 3 working +2 standby 2. KW 6.11.6 (each) (Rated / Normal / TPS COOLING WATER SYSTEM 1.4 Head. Detailes Non -oxidising biocides used.11 Cooling water circulating pumps 5 nos.0 Cooling Water 2.11.10 Cooling water Make up.3 Capacity.11. 2.At the top of cooling tower 2.11.1 Type Centrifugal 2. Kg/Cm2 5.
5 2.7 Blow Down Quantity. of cells 3 Min.4 Supply temp.11. M3 / Hr 75-100 (continuous) 2. M3 / Hr Total to TPS 2.0 2.11 Cooling water circulating pumps 3 nos.0 2.5 2. M3 / Hr 75 2..10 Cooling water Make up. Max...1 Type Centrifugal . 2.5 Return temp. Detailes Non -oxidising biocides used.8 Cooling water balance.1 No. Nor.2 Supply Press.2.6 Return Press.9 If any treatment done Yes If yes. oC 40 2. Kg/Cm2 (a) 3.. 2. Kg/Cm2 (a) At the top of cooling tower 2. oC 32. oC 29. 2. .3 Design wet bulb temp.
if the steam used is too wet it can freeze just below the tip. In more advanced flare tip designs. The continuous gas source also helps diluted mixtures achieve complete combustion. In order to keep the flare system functional. is an elevated vertical conveyance found accompanying the presence of oil and gas wells. it can be seen as a valid trade off. chemical plants. KW (Rated / 450 Normal / UTILITIES A gas flare. They also act as safety systems for non-waste gas and is released via pressure relief valve when needed to ease the strain on equipment. a small amount of gas is continuously burned. disrupting operations and causing the formation of large icicles. natural gas plants. so that the system is always ready for its primary purpose as an over-pressure safety system.5 Power Consumption. Steam can be injected into the flame to reduce the formation of black smoke. M3 / Hr ( Rated / Normal) 3600 2. Kg/Cm2 5.11. like a pilot light.11.11. They are used to eliminate waste gas which is otherwise not feasible to use or transport. They protect gas processing equipments from being overpressured.1 2.3 Capacity. . alternatively known as a flare stack. The injected steam does however make the burning of gas sound louder. Also in case of an emergency situation.2 No. rigs. refineries. the flare system helps burn out the total reserve gas.2.11. (Working+ standby) 2 working +1 standby 2. Compared to the emission of black smoke. which can cause complaints from nearby residents. and landfills.4 Head. The size and brightness of the resulting flame depends upon how much flammable material was released.
Regeneration of ion exchange columns with strong acids and alkalis produces a wastewater rich in hardness ions which are readily precipitated out. compressing the same and put it back to refinery fuel gas header for consumption in furnace/ boilers. . Ion exchange using natural or synthetic resins removes calcium. replacing them with hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. magnesium and carbonate ions from water. Water treatment Many industries have a need to treat water to obtain very high quality water for demanding purposes. Capacity of each compressor is 450 NM3/Hr. Water treatment produces organic and mineral sludges from filtration and sedimentation.Flare gas recovery system There are two compressors for recovery of waste flare gas. especially when in admixture with other wastewaters.
Ver fine solids and solids with ry a h densit ties clo to the dens ose sity of water p pose special pr roblems In such case s.Treat tment o indus of strial w wastewa ater The d differen types of con nt s ntamina ation of waste f ewater require a varie of r ety strate egies to remov the c o ve contamination. . e filtrat tion or ultrafiltration may be requi n b ired. Al lthough floccu h. Solids remov s val Most solids c be remove using simple sedime can ed g e entation techn niques w with the e solids recove s ered as slurry or slud dge. Oils a and gre ease re emoval: API oi il-wate separator er API avity se eparatio devic desig on ce gned by using Stokes y The A separator is a gra Law to define the rise velo o r ocity of oil dro f oplets b based on their density and y . ulation may be e used. using a alum salts or th addition of polyele he ectrolyt tes.
suspe ended so olids se ettles to the bottom o the s o b of separat as a sedime laye tor ent er. the parall plate The g s. T wat laye is sen to The ter er nt atment consist ting usu ually of a Elect tro-flot tation m module f for further trea ional re emoval of any r o residual oil and then t some type o biolo d to e of ogical additi treatm ment un for remova of und nit al desirab disso ble olved chemical compo ounds. Typica ally. A typical par rallel plate sep parator Parallel plate separa e ators are similar to A sep API parators but th incl s hey lude tilted paralle plate assemb d el blies (to enhan the degree of oilnce e e -water separation). The parallel plates pr rovide m more su urface for sus spended oil d drople to c ets coalesce into la e arger globules However. the oi rises to top of the separat and the cle il tor d eansed wastew water is the s  middle layer betwee the o layer and th solid e en oil he ds. and the botto sediment la sed e om ayer is r removed by a c chain an fligh nd ht scraper (or s similar device) and a sludge p ) s pump. T des The sign is based o the specific gravit diffe b on s c ty erence b between the oil and th wast he tewater because that differ r t rence is much smaller than t s s r the specif grav fic vity diff ference betwe the suspen e een e nded so olids and water The d r. e lel es.size. val radable organ e nics Remov of biodegr . the oil lay is skimmed off an subsequently re-pr yer d nd rocesse or ed dispos of. e result is that a para t t allel pla sepa ate arator r require signif es ficantly less sp y pace th han a conv ventiona API separat to achieve the sam degree of separat al s tor a me tion.
Trick kling filter pro ocess A schematic cross-s section of the contac face of the bed me n e ct edia in a trickling filter . The pre r T esence of clea aning ag gents. blems ca arise if the wastew an e water is s exces ssively d diluted with wa ashing water o is hig or ghly con ncentra ated suc as ch neat b blood or milk. pestic cides.Biodegradable organic mat terial of plant or anim origin is usu f mal ually po ossible to t extende conventiona waste ed al ewater treatm ment pro ocesses such as s a treat using e activa ated slu udge or tricklin filte Prob ng er. disinfectants. Activa vated sl ludge process p s Activa ated slu udge is a bioch hemical proces for t ss treating sewag and in g ge ndustri ial waste ewater t that us air ( oxyg ses (or gen) and micro oorganis sms to biologic cally oxidiz organ pollutants. o antibiotics c have detrim or can e mental impacts on tre eatmen nt proce esses. produc ze nic cing a w waste sludge (o floc) contain or ning the e oxidiz mat zed terial.
Treat tment m methods are of s ften spe ecific t the m to materia being treated. chemical imm . dis stillatio ads on. Neutr ralisatio freq on quently produces a pre ecipitat that will req te quire tr reatment as a solid res sidue th may also be toxic In som case gass may be hat y b c. ses y ed uiring tr reatmen for the gas stream Some other forms of nt t m. c coking products and so forth can be very difficult to tre p h e d t eat. gr ravel. usion of air int the slime la f to s ayer to provide e by the micro the ox xygen r required for th biochemical oxidat d he tion of the org ganic co ompound ds. pea moss. paints. sl lag. Ae erobic c conditio are ons maintained b force air f by ed flowing through the b or by natur conv h bed b ral vection of cess inv volves a adsorption of o organic compou unds in the wa astewater air. Treat tment o acids and a of s alkalis Acids and alk s kalis ca usually be ne an eutralis und cont sed der trolled conditions. The proc e obial slim laye diffu me er. vitrification. . mobilisa ation or landf disp fill posal. w e water an othe produ nd er ucts of the ox xidation As th slime layer thicken it be n. pharmaceutic cals. or at plastic media over which w a w wastewa ater flo dow ows wnward and con ntacts a layer (or fil of m lm) microbial slime coveri the bed me e ing edia. e evolve requ treatm ment ar usually requ re uired fo ollowing neutra g alisation n. a modifie form of was m ed m stewate treat er tment can c be use ed. Treat tment o othe organ of er nics Synth hetic or rganic materials includ m ding solvents. The e prod end ducts in nclude c carbon dioxide gas.A typical com mplete tricklin filter system t ng r m A tric ckling f filter co onsists of a be of ro ed ocks. he e ns. ials such as some det tergents may b capable of b s be biologic cal Some materi degra adation and in such ca s ases. me es. ecomes difficu for t air to ult the penet trate th layer and an inner anaerob laye is for he r n bic er rmed. incine eration. pestic cides. al Metho ods inc clude Advanced Oxid dation P Processing. sorption n.
thallium. This precipitation process can cause severe furring of pipes and can. Nitrogen. GC Oxygenates: This special type of Gas Chromatograph is used to check oxygenates content in gasoline. For smooth commissioning and operation of MSQ project and other test facilities. Metals can often be precipitated out by changing the pH or by treatment with other chemicals. cause the blockage of disposal pipes. a new laboratory is being set up. non-metallic elements (such as arsenic or selenium) are generally resistant to biological processes unless very dilute. This parameter is required to be tested to certify BSIII MS. etc. This is a microprocessor based automatic instrument. metals (such as zinc. in extreme cases.) acids. silver. Treatment of toxic materials Toxic materials including many organic materials.Waste streams rich in hardness ions as from de-ionisation processes can readily lose the hardness ions in a buildup of precipitated calcium and magnesium salts. A new laboratory building is under construction and the old laboratory building is being renovated phase wise. cadmium. Carbon. Sulphur & Chloride Analyser: This instrument is capable to check these elements in sub ppm level in different petroleum products. Potentiometric Titration System: It is used for evaluation of Diene content (MAV).Treatment is by concentration of de-ionisation waste waters and disposal to landfill or by careful pH management of the released wastewater. RON Engine: An advance model RON engine is under final stage of procurement/arrival. . in petroleum products. Many. Bromine index etc. are resistant to treatment or mitigation and may require concentration followed by landfilling or recycling. Bromine number. alkalis. Dissolved organics can be incinerated within the wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes. however. Quality Control Modernization and Infrastructure Development Modernization and Renovation of Quality Control Laboratory is under progress.
Quality of all rundown streams was evaluated during DHDT PGTR. Effectiveness. reaction time of antioxidant was determined and informed to production for implementation. high ash etc.O. Blend study was conducted to find out the possibility of using CLO as FO blending component. BS III HSD Certification: Till date HSD produced in BR is certified under BSII specification. Test facilities for these new parameters were developed. Study was conducted to reduce acid number by caustic wash followed by water wash. DHDT PGTR: For performance evaluation. Certification of F. CLO up-gradation: CLO is a low demand / low value stream ex-FCCU. IFO up-gradation & Certification of FO: To find the possibility of selling IFO as Fuel Oil. Antioxidant Dose Optimization Study: To optimize the dosing rate of anti oxidant in MS blending component ex-FCCU. a study was conducted. samples from all IFO tanks were collected and tested for all Fuel Oil parameters. April 2009. BSIII MS Production: Blend study for production of BSIII MS before MSQ commissioning with imported isomerate & MTBE.Further blend study and optimization of PPD doses were done to meet certification of winter grade F.Developmental Studies Viscosity grade Bitumen: BIS introduced new Specifications for Bitumen (IS 73:2006) implemented where some new specification parameters like viscosity at different temperature and vacuum were incorporated. optimum dosing quantity. Few batches of BSIII HSD have already been certified.f. rd . a new product is done w. ATF Production: ATF produced from different crude mix was found to be failing in Acid number and JEFTOT test.O. Test facilities have been developed to certify HSD under BSIII specification. It has certain disadvantages like high viscosity.. Trial runs conducted to assess FO/IFO quality . high density.e. BS III MS Certification: Test facility has been developed for carrying out additional test required for certification of BSIII MS. Commissioning of DHDT 3rd Reactor: Laboratory support was given by way of continuous product quality evaluation for commissioning of DHDT 3 reactor.
QGA value in terms of money was calculated for all certified tanks and circulated. . Environmental Management Effluent Quality Monitoring under new MINAS Monitoring of Raw water and drinking Quality Cost Reduction in Utility Consumption Use of hydrogen & nitrogen generator in place of cylinders Use of Orsat apparatus in place of dragger tube for checking H2S content Use of low cost Argon in place of Helium for operation of low level Sulphur and chloride analyser. Significant improvement has taken place in this field. (II)Portable Flue Gas Analyser: Two portable Flue Gas Analysers were procured and put in service for in-situ analysis of flue gas to improve furnace efficiency.Loss Control (I)Quality Give Away (QGA) Prevention: To generate awareness among all concerned. (III)LPG Loss Control: Fuel gas was checked on regular basis for LPG slippage.
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