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UNIT 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION

J.M. KRODKIEWSKI 2008

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski

The University of Melbourne Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS

0.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

7

1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 9 1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . 1.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.2.1 Free vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 1.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 12 16 28 28 34 44

Forced vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 66 2.1 MODELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . 93 2.2.1 General case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping . . . . . . . . . . 102 2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.1 Balancing of rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 162 3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.2 Modelling of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CONTENTS

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3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . 3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts 3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 3.3.1 Rigid Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Finite Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 3.5.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. . . . 3.5.2 Condensation of the damping matrix. . . 3.5.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix. . . 3.5.4 Condensation of the external forces. . . . 3.6 PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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168 168 174 182 214 214 217 225 226 227 228 228 228 229

II

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

237

4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 238 4.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION . . . . . 238 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 4.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters . . 243 4.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . 244 4.4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters . . . . 245 4.5 WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Each chapter is supplied with several engineering problems. Application of the modal analysis to the case of the small structural damping results in solution of the initial problem and the forced response. The Rigid Element Method and the Final Element Method are explained and utilized to produce the inertia and stiﬀness matrices of the free-free beam. Chapter two is devoted to modeling and analysis of these mechanical systems that can be approximated by means of the Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom models. Employment of these matrices to the solution of the engineering problems is demonstrated on a number of examples. as a part of the second year subject Mechanics 1.1 INTRODUCTION. This chapter forms a base for development of discretization methods presented in the next chapter In chapter four. Mechanical Vibration of One-Degree-Of-Freedom Linear System. The presented condensation techniques allow to keep size of the discrete mathematical model on a reasonably low level. for engineering applications. Approximation of the Continuous Systems by Discrete Models. The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the theory of vibrations of mechanical systems. is devoted to this solution of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the linear models. Information included in this chapter. Part one consists of four chapters. Part two gives the theoretical background and description of the laboratory experiments. The second part. It is divided into two parts. The considerations are limited to the linear system only. Modelling and Analysis. since this knowledge is essential for a proper understanding of the following material. Part one. rods. where already conveyed to the students and are not to be lectured during this course. 5 0. describes the laboratory work recommended for this course. two the most important. Lagrange’s equations and the inﬂuence coeﬃcients method are utilized for the purpose of creation of the mathematical model. is concerned with the problems of vibration associated with one-dimensional continuous systems such as string. Solution to the other problems should be produced by students during tutorials and in their own time. Experimental Investigation. illustrates modelling and analysis of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the one degree of freedom system. The ﬁrst chapter. Vibration of Continuous Systems. Solution to some of them are provided. However. and beams. students should study it in their own time. methods of approximation of the continuous systems by the discrete models are presented.INTRODUCTION. In the general case of damping the process of looking for the natural frequencies and the system forced response is provided. Chapter three. Dynamic balancing of the rotating elements and the passive control of vibrations by means of the dynamic absorber of vibrations illustrate application of the theory presented to the engineering problems. The Newton’s-Euler’s approach. One of them is devoted to the experimental determination of the natural modes and the corresponding natural frequencies of a Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom- . shafts. The natural frequencies and the natural modes are used for the exact solutions of the free and forced vibrations.

.INTRODUCTION. The other demonstrates the balancing techniques. 6 System.

Part I MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 7 .

. These laws can not be directly applied to the real system. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description that is called mathematical model. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the engineering problems to such extend that the physic laws may be applied. One of the most frequently encounter in engineering type of motion is the oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position. Process of solving of the mathematical model is called analysis and yields solution to the problem considered. Such a type of motion is called vibration.8 Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problems that aims towards producing its mathematical description. This part deals with study of linear vibrations of mechanical system. This mathematical description can be obtained by taking advantage of the known laws of physics. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model.

one has to introduce an inﬁnite number of independent coordinates xi to determine uniquely its motion. each point of the system performs an independent oscillatory motion. in general. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. 1. 1. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description which is called mathematical model. The mathematical description of the engineering problem one can obtain by taking advantage of the known lows of physics.Chapter 1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS DEFINITION: Any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position is called vibration. These lows can not be directly applied to the real system. Therefore. i 2 1 xi t Figure 1 .1 Physical model As an example of vibration let us consider the vertical motion of the body 1 suspended on the rod 2 shown in Fig. If the body is forced out from its equilibrium position and then it is released. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the problem to such an extend that the physic laws may by apply.1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM DEFINITION: Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problem that aims for producing its mathematical description. 1.

one has to produce its free body diagram. the restoring force R is a non-linear function of . 2. In the case considered the free body diagram is shown in Fig. only one coordinate is suﬃcient to determine uniquely the whole system. For example. To produce the equation of the vibration of the body 1. may results in reduction of this number of degrees of freedom. 2). The following analysis will be restricted to system with one degree of freedom only. Adaptation of certain assumptions.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 10 DEFINITION: The number of independent coordinates one has to use to determine the position of a mechanical system is called number of degrees of freedom According to this deﬁnition each real system has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. In a general case. if one assume that the rod 2 is massless and the body 1 is rigid. The displacement x of the rigid body 1 can be chosen as the independent coordinate (see Fig. 3. its instantaneous position as a function of x is shown in Fig. If the rod is uniform. i xi 2 1 x t x Figure 2 Position xi of all the other points of our system depends on x. R 1 x t G Figure 3 The gravity force is denoted by G whereas the force R represents so called restoring force. in many cases.

x)). 4a) and b) respectively. the non-linear relationship. R=R(x. shown in Fig. 5. The physical model that reﬂects all the above mention assumption is called one-degree-of-freedom linear system. Such cases usually are refer to as linear vibration and the system considered is call linear system. ˙ R R a) b) 0 x 0 . Result of this part of modelling is called physical model. The future analysis will be limited to cases for which such a linearization is acceptable form the engineering point of view. ˙ ˙ The relationship between the restoring force R and the elongation x as well as the velocity x is shown in Fig. 4 can be linearized. x) ≈ kx + cx ˙ ˙ (1. k is called stiﬀness and c is called coeﬃcient of damping. For presentation of the physical model we use symbols shown in the Fig. .1) The ﬁrst term represents the system elasticity and the second one reﬂects the system’s ability for dissipation of energy.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 11 the displacement x and the instantaneous velocity x of the body 1 (R = R(x. x Figure 4 If it is possible to limit the consideration to vibration within a small vicinity of the system equilibrium position.

This mathematical model can be obtained by application of the known physic lows to the adopted physical model.1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM x rigid block of mass m (linear motion) m m. The creation of the physical model. . massless damper of damping coefficient c (angular motion) Figure 5 1. Let us consider system shown in Fig. E massless spring of stifness k (linear motion) massless beam area A. has been explained in the previous section. This mathematical description is referred to as the mathematical model. In this section principle of producing of the mathematical model for the one-degree-of-freedom system is shown. 6. second moment of area J and Young modulus E k massless spring of stifness k (angular motion) ϕ massless damper of damping coefficient c (linear motion) c c ϕ .I rigid body of mass m and moment of inertia I (angular motion) 12 ϕ particle of of mass m m k A.2 Mathematical model To analyze motion of a system it is necessary to develop a mathematical description that approximates its dynamic behavior. J.

6. the restoring force is opposite to the positive direction of axis x. there is an increment in the interaction force between the spring and the block.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 13 k c x k xs m mg Figure 6 Let as assume that the system is in an equilibrium. Hence FR = +k |x| = −kx Therefore the restoring force always can be represented in the equation of motion by term FR = −kx (1. -k\x\=-kx k c x k xs m mg x>0 k\x\=-kx x<0 Figure 7 In our case the magnitude of the restoring force is |FR | = k |x| If x > 0. If the system is out of the equilibrium position (see Fig. To develop the mathematical model we take advantage of Newton’s generalized equations. In this chapter we are assuming that the origin of the absolute system of coordinates coincides with the centre of gravity of the body while the body stays at its equilibrium position as shown in Fig. the restoring force has the same direction as axis x. these forces do not have to be included in the Newton’s equations. Hence FR = −k |x| = −kx If x < 0. Therefore.2) . 7) by a distance x. This increment is called restoring force. This require introduction of the absolute system of coordinates. The resultant force of all static forces (in the example considered gravity force mg and interaction force due to the static elongation of spring kxs ) is equal to zero.

4) . 9). .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 14 k c x k xs . . -c\x\=-cx . +c\x\=-cx . x<0 m Figure 8 Creating the equation of motion one has to take into consideration the interaction force between the damper and the block considered (see Fig. the equation of motion of the block of mass m is m¨ = −kx − cx + Fex (t) x ˙ Transformation of the above equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ n where (1. A very similar to the above consideration leads to conclusion that the damping force can be represented in the equation of motion by the following term ˙ FD = −cx (1. This interaction ˙ force is called damping force and its absolute value is |FD | = c |x| .5) (1. 8).3) k c x m Fex (t) Figure 9 The assumption that the system is linear allows to apply the superposition rules and add these forces together with the external force Fex (t) (see Fig. Hence. x>0 mg .

2ςωn = . ωn = r .5 is known as the mathematical model of the linear vibration of the one-degree-of-freedom system.is called damping factor or damping ratio f (t) .is called unit external excitation The equation 1.is called natural frequency of the undamped system ς . f (t) = (1.6) m m m ωn .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 15 k Fex (t) c .

10)is restricted to move along the vertical axis. . The upper end of the spring k2 moves along the inertial axis y and its motion is governed by the following equation yA = a sin ωt were a is the amplitude of motion and ω is its angular frequency.3 Problems Problem 1 y A k2 m k1 c Figure 10 The block of mass m (see Fig.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 16 1.1. It is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k1 . Produce the equation of motion of the block. the spring of stiﬀness k2 and the damper of damping coeﬃcient c.

7) .9) (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 17 Solution y A k2 m k1 c x Figure 11 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the block 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.8) (1. 11. Application of the Newton’s low results in the following equation of motion ˙ m¨ = −k2 x − k1 x + k2 y − cx x Its standard form is ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ω2 = n k1 + k2 m 2ςωn = c m q= k2 a m (1.

. The cylindric container 2 has a radius R.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 18 Problem 2 r 1 2 R Figure 12 The cylinder 1 (see Fig. Produce the formula for the period of the vertical oscillation of the cylinder. 12) of mass m and radius r is plunged into a liquid of density d.

16) (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 19 Solution x r V2 G z V1 x R Figure 13 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the cylinder 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.10) (1.13) (1.10 one can get that ¶ µ 2 2 ¶ µ Rr r2 2 x x dgπr = πdg ∆H = x + 2 R − r2 R2 − r 2 According to the Newton’s law we have m¨ = −dgπ x µ R2 r 2 R2 − r 2 ¶ x (1. If the cylinder is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance x.12) r2 x z= 2 R − r2 Introducing the above relationship into the formula 1.14) The standard form of this equation of motion is x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n µ 2 2 ¶ dg Rr = π m R2 − r 2 The period of the free oscillation of the cylinder is s s mπ (R2 − r2 ) 2 2π 2π m (R2 − r2 ) Tn = = = ωn Rr πdg Rr dg ω2 n where (1.17) . the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder is reduced by ∆H = (x + z) dgπr2 Since the volume V1 must be equal to the volume V2 we have ¡ ¢ V1 = πr2 x = V2 = π R2 − r2 z Therefore (1.15) (1.11) (1. 13.

The elastic properties of the shaft are determined by the shear modulus G. The disk can oscillate about the vertical axis and the damping is modelled by the linear damper of a damping coeﬃcient c. Produce equation of motion of the disk . 14) is supported by an elastic shaft of diameter D and length L.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 20 Problem 3 R c G D L m 1 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m and radius R (see Fig.

the moment of inertia of the disk 2 4 ks = T = TTL = JG = πD G the stiﬀness of the rod ϕ L 32L JG Introduction of the above expressions into the equation 1.21) πD4 G ϕ=0 32L (1.18 yields ˙ I ϕ + cR2 ϕ + ¨ or ˙ ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ n where ω2 = n πD4 G 32LI 2ςωn = cR2 I (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 21 Solution R ϕ G D c L m Figure 15 Motion of the disk is governed by the generalized Newton’s equation ˙ I ϕ = −ks ϕ − cR2 ϕ ¨ where I = mR .19) 2 1 (1.18) .20) (1.

Produce the equation of motion of the plate. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position. . 16) can rotate about the horizontal axis O.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 22 Problem 4 O k l b 1 c a m Figure 16 The thin and uniform plate 1 of mass m (see Fig.

22) The moment of inertia of the plate 1 about its axis of rotation is I= mb2 6 (1.26) (1.23) The moment which act on the plate due to the interaction with the spring k and the damper c is M = −kl2 ϕ − cb2 ϕ ˙ (1. 17) is govern by the generalized Newton’s equation Iϕ = M ¨ (1.25) .24) Hence or ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ n where ω2 = n 6kl2 mb2 2ςω n = 6c m (1.27) mb2 ϕ + kl2 ϕ + cb2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ 6 (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 23 Solution O k l b 1 ϕ c a m Figure 17 Motion of the plate along the coordinate ϕ (see Fig.

Its unbalance (the distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ.I ωt c l µ Figure 18 The electric motor of mass M (see Fig.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 24 Problem 5 m M E. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and the Young modulus E. . Produce the equation of motion of the system. 18)is mounted on the massless beam of length l. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c. The shaft of the motor has a mass m and rotates with the angular velocity ω.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 25 Problem 6 k d D l L Figure 19 The wheel shown in the Fig. The right hand end of the damper moves along the horizontal axis y and its motion is given by the following equation y = a sin ωt Produce the equation of motion of the system 0 A c y . It can oscillate about the horizontal axis O. 19 is made of the material of a density . The wheel is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 26 Problem 7 2 L r 1 Figure 20 The cylinder 1 of mass m is attached to the rigid and massless rod 2 to form the pendulum shown in the Fig. Produce the formula for the period of oscillation of the pendulum. . 20.

The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position. 21) of mass m can rotate about the horizontal axis O. Produce the formula for the natural frequency of the system.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 27 Problem 8 O k l b 1 a m c Figure 21 The thin and uniform plate 1 (see Fig. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. .

2. according to the above deﬁnition.28 is classiﬁed as linear homogeneous ordinary diﬀerential equation of second order. let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the system was at the position x0 and was forced to move with the initial velocity v0 .28) The equation 1. the mathematical model that is analyzed in this section takes form x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ ˙ n (1. Hence.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 28 1. x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Free vibration of an undamped system The general solution of the homogeneous equation 1. the equation 1.32) (1.29 is a linear combination of its two particular linearly independent solutions. The particular solution can be predicted in the form 1. Introduction of these initial conditions . x = Cs sin ω n t + Cc cos ω n t (1. Hence. To get an unique solution it is necessary to specify the initial position and the initial velocity of the system considered. These solutions can be obtained by means of the following procedure.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.1 Free vibration DEFINITION: It is said that a system performs free vibration if there are no external forces (forces that are explicitly dependent on time) acting on this system. in this case. In this section.33) Their linear combination is the wanted general solution and approximates the free vibration of the undamped system.28 governs the free motion of the undamped system. If one assume that the damping ratio ς is equal to zero.30 into the equation 1.30.31) n This characteristic equation has two roots λ1 = +iω n and λ2 = −iω n (1.30) Introduction of the solution 1.29 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + ω 2 = 0 (1. the independent particular solution are x1 = sin ωn t and x2 = cos ωn t (1. x = eλt (1.29) Hence.34) The two constants Cs and Cc should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions which reﬂect the way the free vibrations were initiated. it is assumed that the resultant of all external forces f (t) is equal to zero.

5 C 0 α -0. Cc = x0 Cs ω n = v0 (1. 22 The free motion.38) .34 results in two algebraic equation that are linear with respect to the unknown constants Cs and Cc . α = arctan ! (1. in the case considered is periodic.36) where C= s µ v0 ωn ¶2 Ã x0 v0 ωn (x0 )2 + . since the sine function has a period equal to 2π.35) According to 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 29 into the equation 1. According to this deﬁnition. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 0 the free motion is shown in Fig. x[m] 1 vo xo 0.37) For ω n = 1[1/s]. we have sin(ω n (t + Tn ) + α) = sin(ωn t + α + 2π) (1.5 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -1 -1.5 Tn Figure 22 DEFINITION: The shortest time after which parameters of motion repeat themselves is called period and the motion is called periodic motion.34. the particular solution that represents the free vibration of the system is v0 sin ω n t + x0 cos ω n t = x = ωn = C sin(ω n t + α) (1.

the characteristic equation has two complex conjugated roots and this case is often referred to as the underdamped vibration.45) (1.47) (1.44) x1 = e−ςωn t sin ωd t and x2 = e−ςωn t cos ω d t and their linear combination is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are Cs = Cc v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.48) .40) 2π ωn (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 30 Hence. p (1.39) (1.2 = 2 (1.2 = −ςω n ± iω n 1 − ς 2 = −ςω n ± iω d where ωd = ωn The particular solutions are p 1 − ς2 (1.46) (1.41) (1.42) The particular solution depend on category of the above roots.underdamped vibration If ς < 1.30 into 1.40 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + 2ςωn λ + ω 2 = 0 n The characteristic equation has two roots p p −2ςω n ± (2ςωn )2 − 4ω 2 n = −ςωn ± ωn ς 2 − 1 λ1. Three cases are possible Case one . the period of the undamped free vibrations is Tn = Free vibration of a damped system If the damping ratio is not equal to zero.43) λ1. the equation of the free motion is ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Introduction of the equation 1.

α = arctan x0 ω d .48 into 1.1 the free motion is shown in Fig.51) DEFINITION: Natural logarithm of ratio of two displacements x(t) and x(t + Td ) that are one period apart is called logarithmic decrement of damping and will be denoted by δ.46 produces the free motion in the following form x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = .49) where sµ C= ¶2 v0 + ςω n x0 ωd + (x0 )2 . It is easy to see from the expression 1.50) For ω n = 1[1/s].5 Figure 23 second zero-point is constant and it is called period of the dumped vibration.49 that Td = 2π ωd (1. 23) between every p 1 − ς2 x[m] vo xo 1 t 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 31 Introduction of the expressions 1. 23In this case the motion is not periodic but the time Td (see Fig. v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = ωn (1.5 Td x(t+ Td ) x(t) 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0.5 -1 Td -1. .

56) (1.55) Introduction of the expressions 1.57 produces expression for the free motion in the following form (1.60) x = e−ςωn t (x0 + t(v0 + x0 ω n )) For ω n = 1[1/s].51 ωd 2π = √ (1.54) ωn = √ 1 − ς2 Td 1 − ς 2 Case two .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 32 It will be shown that the logaritmic decrement is constant. 24.59 into 1.57) and x2 = te−ςωn t (1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 1.44 and 1. The critical damping oﬀers for the system the possibly faster return to its equilibrium position. According to the formula 1. .59) x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. Indeed δ = ln Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) x (t) = ln −ςωn (t+T ) = d sin(ω (t + T ) + α) x (t + Td ) Ce d d Ce−ςωn t sin(ωd t + α) 2πςω n 2πςωn = ln −ςωn t −ςωn T = ςω n Td = = √ = d sin(ω t + 2π + α) Ce e ωd ωn 1 − ς 2 d 2πς = √ (1.52) 1 − ς2 This formula is frequently used for the experimental determination of the damping ratio ς. the characteristic equation has two real and equal one to each other roots and this case is often referred to as the critically damped vibration λ1.critically damped vibration If ς = 1.58) (1.2 = −ςωn The particular solutions are x1 = e−ςωn t and their linear combination is x = Cs e−ςωn t + Cc te−ςωn t For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs = x0 Cc = v0 + x0 ωn (1. the free motion is shown in Fig. δ ς=p (1.40 can be easily identiﬁed by measuring the period of the free motion Td .53) 4π 2 + δ 2 The other parameter ωn that exists in the mathematical model 1.

overdamped vibration If ς > 1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. 25 .65) For ω n = 1[1/s].2 = −ςω n ± ω n ς 2 − 1 = ωn (−ς ± ς 2 − 1) (1.64) the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs Cc √ v + ω0 + x0 (+ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 √ v − ω0 + x0 (−ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 (1. the characteristic equation has two real roots and this case is often referred to as the overdamped vibration.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 33 x[m] vo xo 1 0.62) For the following initial conditions ³ ´ √ √ 2 2 x = e−ωn t Cs eωn ς −1)t + Cc e−ωn ς −1)t x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 5. the free motion is shown in Fig.5 -1 -1.5 Figure 24 Case three . p p λ1.61) x1 = e−ωn (ς+ and their linear combination is √ ς 2 −1)t The particular solutions are and x2 = e−ωn (ς− √ ς 2 −1)t (1.63) (1.

f (t) = (1.2 Forced vibration In a general case motion of a vibrating system is due to both. according to the previous consideration.69) r (1.5 -1 -1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. The mathematical model.2. x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ ˙ n where k Fex (t) c . the initial conditions and the exciting force. 2ςωn = . is the linear non-homogeneous diﬀerential equation of second order.5 Figure 25 1. x = xg + xp (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 34 x[m] vo x o 1 0.67) m m m The general solution of this mathematical model is a superposition of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation xp .68) ωn = The general solution of the homogeneous equation has been produced in the previous section and for the underdamped vibration it is xg = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1. let as assume that the excitation can be approximated by a harmonic function.70) . f (t) = q sin ωt (1. Such a case is referred to as the harmonic excitation.66) To produce the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation.

implementing it in equation 1.73) n This relationship is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if (ω 2 − ω 2 )As − 2ςω n ωAc = q n 2ςωn ωAs + (ω2 − ω2 )Ac = 0 n (1.74) Solution of the above equations yields the expression for the constant As and Ac ¯ ¯ ¯ q −2ςω n ω ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ (ω 2 − ω 2 )q n n ¯= 2 As = ¯ 2 2 )2 + 4(ςω )2 ω 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω n ¯ ¯ 2 2 ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ωn − ω ) ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) q ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω 0 ¯ −2(ςωn )ωq ¯= 2 Ac = ¯ 2 (1. Therefore.72) (1.75) 2 ¯ (ω n − ω ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω2 )2 + 4(ςω n )2 ω2 ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ n Introduction of the expressions 1.78) ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 Introducing 1. The function 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 35 In the above equation q represents the amplitude of the unit excitation and ω is the excitation frequency.70 into equation 1.75 into the predicted solution 1.68 one can obtain the general solution of the equation of motion 1.69 and 1.71 in the following form x = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.79) . Introduction of the expression 1.71 one can get ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 (ωn − ω2 )As − 2ςωn ωAc sin ωt+ 2ςω n ωAs + (ω 2 − ω 2 )Ac cos ωt = q sin ωt (1.76) ϕ = arctan Ac 2(ςω n )ω = − arctan 2 As ωn − ω2 (1.66 yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n In this case it is easy to predict mode of the particular solution xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt (1.77) (1.72 is the particular solution if and only if it fulﬁls the equation 1.71) where As and Ac are constant.71 for any instant of time.76 into the 1.72 yields xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= or p q A2 + A2 = p s c (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4(ςωn )2 ω 2 n A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.

ϕ = 0. ω = 2[1/s]. Co = 1[m]. αo = 1[rd].77. αo ) to the general solution. 1.81) Introduction of the solution of the equations 1. . x = Co e−ςωn t sin(ω d t + αo ) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. 26 (curve c).6 c b a A t[s] 20 40 60 transient state of the forced vibration steady state of the forced vibration Figure 26 oscillations with frequency equal to the natural frequency of the damped system ωd .126835[rd] is shown in Fig.83 is usually referred to as the system forced vibration. For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.82) x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.8 0.81 (Co. ω n = 1[1/s]. Hence.83) This harmonic term has amplitude A determined by the formula 1.2 0 -0.165205[m]. after an usually short time. It does not depend on the initial conditions and is called amplitude of the forced vibration. Motion represented by this term. First term represents an x[m] 1 0.82 (curve b in Fig. 1.1.4 -0. Motion approximated by the equation 1.82) and determines time of the transient state of the forced vibrations. A = 0. yields particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation that represents the forced vibration of the system considered.80) one can get the following set of the algebraic equations for determination of the parameters C and α x0 = Co sin αo + A sin ϕ v0 = −Co ςω n sin αo + Co ω d cos αo + Aω cos ϕ (1.4 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 36 The constants C and α should be chosen to fullﬁl the required initial conditions. the transient state changes into the steady state represented by the second term in equation 1. for the following numerical data ς = 0.2 -0.82) This solution. due to the existing damping.The solution 1. decays to zero (curve a in Fig.6 0.82 is assembled out of two terms.

a) m µ ω 2 sin ω t x mµ ω 2 b) x m µ ω 2 sin ω t µ ωt m M k M c R Figure 28 One of many possible excitation of vibrations is excitation caused by inertia forces produced by moving elements.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 37 Both. Forced response due to rotating elements . in the following sections the steady state forced vibration will be considered only. Therefore ϕ is called phase of the forced vibration. The possibly simplest case of vibration cased by this type of excitation is shown in Fig. they can be represented by means of two vectors ’rotating’ with the same angular velocity ω (see Fig. Therefore.70) and the (steady state) forced vibration x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. 27). Because the transient state. If µ represents the static imbalance of the rotor . The rotor of an electrical motor rotates with the constant angular velocity ω.83) are harmonic.One x q A qsin(ω t ) Asin(ω t+ ϕ ) ϕ ωt Figure 27 can see from the above interpretation that the angular displacement ϕ is the phase between the exciting force and the displacement it causes. 28. the exciting force f (t) = q sin ωt (1.force transmitted to foundation. from engineering point of view play secondary role.

If the frequency of excitation changes from zero to the value equal to the natural frequency ωn . the steady state forced vibration are x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where according to 1.89) (1. The physical model of the problem described is shown in Fig. Its maximum depends on the damping ratio and appears for ω > ω n . 29. Taking advantage of the earlier described method of formulation the mathematical model we have M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ Transformation of this equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ωn = k c 2ςωn = M M Hence. the amplitude of the forced vibration is growing. is called the magniﬁcation factor. 28b). This phenomenon is called phase resonance. Its magnitude and the phase ϕ as M ω a function of the ratio ωn for diﬀerent damping factor ς is shown in Fig. The damping properties are approximated by the damping coeﬃcient c.84) The motor of mass M is supported by means of a beam of the stiﬀness k.88 A The ratio m µ . If the frequency of m excitation tends towards inﬁnity.90) or. The phenomenon at which amplitude of the forced vibration is maximum is called amplitude resonance. then the rotor produces the centrifugal force F = mµω 2 Its component along the vertical axis x is Fx = mµω2 sin ωt (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 38 and m is its mass.86) (1. phase of the forced vibration is equal to 90o .77 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 m ω µ( ωn )2 M q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1. If the frequency of excitation A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.91) .88) (1. Let us model vibration of the system. the amplitude of the forced vibration tends to M µ. regardless the damping involved.87) mµω 2 M r q= (1.85) (1. For ω = ωn . taking into consideration 1.

5 ζ=1.25 ζ=0.5 Figure 29 .1 ζ =0.0 ζ=1.1 ζ =0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 39 6 4 A m µ M 2 1 ζ=0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.25 ζ=0.0 ζ=1.5 0 1 ω ωn ζ=0 2 3 1 0 -45 2 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0.

Motion of the point B along the axis y causes vibration of the block M. 30.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 40 tends to inﬁnity. This physical .5 4 R mµ ω 2 2 1 0 0 1 1. according to the physical model shown in Fig.4 ω 2 n ω 3 Figure 30 is greater then the centrifugal force itself with its maximum close to frequency ωn .1 ζ =0.4ω n this reaction is smaller then the excitation force and tends to zero when the frequency of excitation approaches inﬁnity.0 ζ=1. Forced response due to the kinematic excitation .92) The amplitude of the reaction is p √ |R| = A k 2 + c2 ω2 = AM ω4 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 = n n q 2 ( ω )2 1 + 4ς ωn = mµω 2 q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 |R| ω The ampliﬁcation ratio mµω2 of the reaction as a function of the ratio ωn is shown in Fig.25 ζ=0. Hence the response of the system tends to be in the anti-phase with the excitation. the phase tends to 180o . 28b) is √ R(t) = kx + cx = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cAω cos(ωt + ϕ) = A k2 + c2 ω 2 sin(ωt + ϕ + δ) ˙ (1.vibration isolation The physical model of a system with the kinematic excitation is shown in Fig.5 ζ=1.For the frequency of excitation ω < 1. 31b).4ω n the force transmitted to foundation 6 ζ=0 ζ=0. The force transmitted to the foundation R. For ω > 1.

If the surface can be approximated by the sine-wave of the amplitude a and length L and the bus is travelling with the constant velocity v.97) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 41 a) b) x M y v G k L a R y B c Figure 31 model can be used to analyze vibration of a bus caused by the roughness of the surface of the road shown in Fig. according to 1. 31a).96) (1.95 yields M x + cx + kx = ka sin ωt + caω cos ωt ¨ ˙ or ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = ω2 a sin ωt + 2ςω n ωa cos ωt = q sin(ωt + α) ¨ n n where q= aω 2 n r ω 1 + 4ς 2 ( )2 ωn (1.98) (1.94) and the motion of the point B along the axis y can approximated as follows y = a sin ωt The equation of motion of the bus is M x = −kx − cx + ky + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ Introduction of 1. the frequency of excitation. The block of mass M stands for the body of the bus.93) Hence. the period of the harmonic excitation is T = L v (1.39 is ω= 2πv L (1.95) . The stiﬀness k of the spring and the damping coeﬃcient c represent the dynamic properties of the bus shock-absorbers.

1. 32.92) or the amplitude A (e.102) Problem of minimizing the reaction force R (e..101) ω The magnifying factor A and the phase ϕ as a function of ωn is shown in Fig.98 gives q ω a 1 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.101) is called vibration isolation.83 x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.4ωn it is possible to arrange for the bus to have vibration smaller than the amplitude of the kinematic excitation The expression for the reaction force transmitted to the foundation is R = kx + cx − ky − cy = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cωA cos(ωt + ϕ) − ka sin ωt − cωa cos ωt ˙ ˙ = |R| sin(ωt + γ) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 42 Without any harm to the generality of the considerations one can neglect the phase α and adopt the mathematical model in the following form ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n Motion of the block along axis x is governed by the equation 1. 1.100) Introduction of equation 1.g. .99) ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.g. a For ω < 1.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 43 6 4 A a 2 ζ=0 ζ=0.25 ζ=0.5 Figure 32 .0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.1 ζ=1.5 0 0 1 1 0 -45 ω ωn 2 2 3 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0 ζ=1.0 ζ=1.1 ζ =0.5 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.

Calculate the stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c of the shock-absorber which assure that the deceleration during the impact is smaller then 200m/s2 .3 Problems Free vibrations Problem 9 1 H 2 k c Figure 33 The carriage 1 of the lift shown in Fig. 33 operates between ﬂoors of a building. To attenuate the impact between the carriage and the basement in the case the rope 3 is broken.2. The distance between the highest and the lowest ﬂoor is H = 30m. The average mass of the carriage is m = 500kg.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 44 1. the shock absorber 2 is to be installed. .

106) .107) (1.104) (1. Equation of motion of the lift is m¨ = mg x (1.105) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 45 Solution In the worst case scenario. the time the lift reaches the shock-absorber is s 2H to = g Since v = x = gt ˙ (1.103) By double side by side integrating of the above equation one can get g x = A + Bt + t2 2 Introduction of the following initial conditions ˙ x |t=0 = 0 x |t=0 = 0 yields A = 0 and B = 0 and results in the following equation of motion g x = t2 2 Hence. x H mg x k c Figure 34 Due to the gravity force the lift is falling down with the initial velocity equal to zero. the lift is at the level H when the rope brakes.

109) c k .111) m m It is easy to see that in the case considered the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation is g yp = 2 (1. In this case. the equation of motion after the lift has reached the shock-absorber is m¨ + cy + ky = mg y ˙ or in the standardized form ˙ y + 2ςωn y + ω2 y = g ¨ n where ωn = r (1.Since at the instant of impact the spring k is the velocity of the lift at the time of the impact with the shock-absorber is p ˙ (1.108) vo = x |t=to = 2Hg H x y k y mg c Figure 35 uncompressed.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 46 To analyze the motion of the lift after impact let us introduce the inertial axis y in such a way that its origin coincides with the upper end of the shock-absorber at the instant of impact (see Fig. 35).113) .112) ωn The best performance of the shock-absorber is expected if the damping is critical (ς = 1).110) (1. there exists one double root and the general solution of the homogeneous equation is yg = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t (1. 2ςωn = (1.

2vo ωn − g < aa It follows q aa + g 200 + 10 ωn < √ = √ = 4.118.114) ωn This equation has to fullﬁl the following initial conditions y |t=0 = 0 y |t=0 = vo ˙ Introduction of these initial conditions into the equation 1.117 yields acceleration during the impact ¡ ¢ y = −Dω2 − 2Eωn e−ωn t + Eω 2 te−ωn t ¨ (1.116) (1.28s−1 2 2Hg 2 2 · 30 · 10 k .119) n n By inspection of the function 1.117) = 1 − e−ωn t + vo − ω2 ωn n where D= g ω2 n E = vo − g ωn (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 47 Therefore the general solution of the non-homogeneous equation as the sum of yp and yg is g y = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t + 2 (1.125) . Hence the maximum of deceleration is ¯ ¯ amax = y |t=0 = ¯−Dω2 − 2Eωn ¯ ¨ (1. Hence vo > If (1.120) n g ωn both constants E and D are positive.113 yields C1 = − g ω2 n C2 = vo − g ωn (1.282 · 500 = 9160N/m n (1.122) This deceleration has to be smaller then the allowed deceleration aa = 200ms−2 .123) (1.118) Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.124) Since ω n = the stiﬀness of the shock-absorber is k = ω 2 m = 4.115) and results in the following equation of motion µ ¶ ¶ µ g g g −ω n t y = − 2 e te−ωn t + 2 + vo − ωn ωn ωn ¶ µ ¡ ¢ ¢ g ¡ g te−ωn t = D 1 − e−ωn t + Ete−ωn t (1.121) amax = Dω 2 + 2Eω n = g + 2vo ω n − 2g = 2vo ω n − g n (1. m (1. one can see that the maximum of the deceleration occurs for time t = 0.

126) Our computation can be accepted only if the inequality 1.28 · 500 = 4280Ns/m p √ g 10 = 2.121 is fullﬁl.28 (1. its velocity and acceleration during the impact as a function of time is shown in Fig.127) The displacement of the lift. Indeed vo = (1.5 > = ωn 4. 36 .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 48 and the damping coeﬃcient c = 2ςω n m = 2 · 1 · 4.4m/s 2Hg = 2 · 30 · 10 = 24.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 49 2.5 0.5 displacement y [m] 1 0.75 1 time [s] 25 20 15 velocity v [m/s] 10 5 0 -5 0.5 0 0 0.5 0.5 2 1.25 0.75 1 time [s] 50 acceleration 0 0.75 1 time [s] -50 a [m/s 2] -100 -150 -200 Figure 36 .25 0.25 0.5 0.

. 37a) To a) T b) k c x W R m Figure 37 analyze the vibrations of the power winch the installation was modelled by the one degree of freedom physical model shown in Fig. and c. Record of those oscillations is presented in Fig. The winch was loaded with the weight equal to M1 = 1000kg as shown in Fig. Calculate the parameters m. Origin of the axis x coincides with the centre of gravity of the weight m when the system rests in its equilibrium position. k. 39. k. Then the load was released allowing the installation to perform the vertical T W R L Ml Figure 38 oscillations in x direction.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 50 Problem 10 The power winch W was mounted on the truss T as shown in Fig. k and c respectively. 38. 38b). and c. In this ﬁgure the equivalent mass. To identify the unknown parameters m. the following experiment was carried out. stiﬀness and damping coeﬃcient are denoted by m.

001 -0.001 x[m] 0 -0. k = 3000000Nm−1 .002 -0. c = 15000N sm−1 .003 1 2 time [s] 3 4 Figure 39 Answer m = 7000kg.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 51 0.002 0.003 0.

The winch is lifting the block of mass M with the constant velocity vo (see Fig. 40 is modelled as a system with one degree of freedom of mass m stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c.Assuming that the rope T W R M Figure 41 R is not extendible produce expression for the tension in the rope R before and after the block will lose contact with the ﬂoor.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 52 Problem 11 a) T b) k c x m W R Figure 40 The winch W shown in Fig. . 41).

the instantaneous length of the rope L is L = Lo − vo t (1. The tension T in the rope R varies between 0 and Mg.129) In the above equation x = 0 (the winch is moving with the constant velocity vo ).130) The equation 1. 0 < T 0 Mg (1. Hence ˙ −T = c(−vo ) + k(−vo t) (1.133) Tension in the rope R after the contact of the weight with the ﬂoor is lost Without any harm to the generality of the further consideration one may assume that the time corresponding to the instant of separation is equal to 0.130 allows the time of separation ts to be obtained. For t > 0. Therefore the equation 1.135) (1. 42) are as following m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M xb = T − Mg ¨ Since the rope R is not extendible. the equation of motion of the winch is m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ (1. ¨ x = −vo and x = −vo t.130 governs motion of the winch till the tension T will reach value Mg. it stays motionlessly at the ﬂoor whereas the lift itself is going down with respect to the inertial axis x with the constant velocity vo .134) . If Mg > cvo T = cvo + kvo t f or 0 < t < ts (1.128) If origin of the inertial axis x coincides with the gravity centre when the unloaded winch is at its equilibrium.131) At the instant of separation the winch will be at the position determined by the following formula Mg − cvo xs = −vo ts = − (1. ts = Mg − cvo kvo (1.132) k If Mg < cvo then xs = ts = 0. the equation of motion of the winch and the block (see Fig.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 53 Solution Tension in the rope R before the contact is lost In the ﬁrst stage of lifting the block M.

A= 2 (1.138) The standardized form is as following Elimination of the unknown tension force allows the equation of motion of the winch to be formulated (m + M)¨ + cx + kx = −Mg x ˙ (1.140) .134 yields xb = x − L = x − Lo + vo t (1. Hence q ω 2 A = q. 2ςωn = . q=− (1.141) m+M m+M m+M The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation can be predicted as a constant magnitude A.142) n ωn ωn = r (1.139) x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = q ¨ ˙ n where k Mg c .137) (1.137 into 1.136) m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M x = T − Mg ¨ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 54 k c x m x T xb L T Mg Figure 42 Where Lo stands for the initial length of the rope (the lenght the rope had at the instance t = 0). Taking into account that L = x − xb we have Introduction of the equation 1.

143 yields the following expressions for the constants Cs and Cc Cs = Hence.144) This solution has to fulﬁll the following initial conditions f or t = 0 x = xs x = −vo ˙ (1.145) Introduction of these initial conditions into the solution 1.146) µ ¶ −vo + ςω n (xs − A) sin ωd t + (xs − A) cos ωd t + A ωd (1. x=e −ςω n t −vo + ςωn (xs − A) ωd Cc = xs − A (1.138 T = M x + Mg ¨ (1.148) .147) The time history diagram of the above function is shown in Fig.43 The tension is x xs O t A xmax Td Figure 43 determined by the equation 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 55 The general solution of the mathematical model 1.140 is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ωd t + Cc cos ωd t) + A where ωd = ωn p 1 − ς2 (1.143) (1.

149) +Me−ςωn t Cc (ςω n )2 − 2Cs ςω n ωd + Cc ω 2 cos ω d t d .147 yields the wanted tension as a function of time ¡ ¢ T = Mg + Me−ςωn t Cs (ςωn )2 + 2Cc ςω n ω d − Cs ω 2 sin ω d t d ¡ ¢ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 56 Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 57 Forced vibration Problem 12 E. 44) is mounted on the massless beam of length l. rotates with the constant angular velocity ω and its unbalance (distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ. of mass m. Produce expression for the amplitude of the forced vibration of the motor as well as the interaction forces transmitted to the foundation at the points A and B. Shaft of the motor. . The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and Young modulus E.I m M ωt c B l Figure 44 A µ The electric motor of mass M (see Fig.

In the above formula A stands for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the motor.I m M x mµω 2 ωt c B µ l A Figure 45 Application of the Newton’s approach to the system shown in Fig. k= Its standardized form is x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c 2ςω n = M m+M The particular solution of the equation 1. The interaction force at the point A can be determined from equilibrium of forces acting on the beam at an arbitrarily chosen position x (see Fig 46). M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ where k stands for the stiﬀness of the beam EI.152 x = A sin (ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 58 Solution E.150) 48EI l3 (1.153) (1.154) (1.151) (1. 45 results in the following diﬀerential equations of motion.152) mµω2 M r q= (1. .155) represents the forced vibrations of the system.

47) with the velocity x the force cx is required.I kx D x A 0. ˙ ˙ Hence.156) x cx x D c B cx Figure 47 To move the point D (see Fig.5k x The force needed to displace the point D by x is equal to kx.5kx = −0. from the equilibrium of the damper one can see that the reaction at the point B is RB = −cx = −cωA sin (ωt + ϕ) ˙ .5k x l Figure 46 0. Hence.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 59 x E. the reaction at the point A is RA = −0.5kA sin (ωt + ϕ) (1.

This transducer records the displacement z =x−y (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 60 Problem 13 z 5 x 3 z=x-y 4 y 2 1 Figure 48 Figure 48 presents a seismic transducer.157) where y is the absolute displacement of the vibration object 1 and x is the absolute displacement of the seismic weight 3. The seismic weight 3 of mass m is supported by the spring 4 of stiﬀness k and the damper 5 of the damping coeﬃcient c. Its base 2 is attached to the vibrating object 1. . Upon assuming that the object 1 performs a harmonic motion y = a sin ωt (1.158) derive the formula for the ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ of the amplitude of vibration of amplitude of z the object 1 of this transducer ( κ = amplitude of y ) as a function of the non-dimensional ω frequency ωn .

49 shows this ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ as a function ω of the ratio ωn .162) According to equation 1.166) The amplitude of this record is q p ampz = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a)2 + (aA sin (α + ϕ))2 = a A2 + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1. 48 is m¨ + cx + kx = cy + ky x ˙ ˙ Its standardize form is x + 2ςω n x + ω2 x = aqc cos ωt + aqs sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c c k 2ςω n = qc = ω qs = m m m m Simpliﬁcation of the right side of the above equation yields x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = aq sin (ωt + α) ¨ ˙ n where p 2 2 q = qc + qs = ω 2 n s 4ς 2 µ ω ωn ¶2 +1 α = arctan qc ω = arctan 2ς qs ωn (1.76 (page 35) the particular solution of the equation 1. the record of the .168) κ= ampy The diagram presented in Fig.161) (1.162 is xp = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) where r 4ς 2 ³ ω ωn (1.If the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation κ is equal to one.165) z = x − y = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) − a sin ωt = = aA cos (α + ϕ) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt − a sin ωt = = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt (1.167) Therefore. the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation is ampz p 2 = A + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.163) r (1.159) (1.164) A = sµ ³ ´2 ¶2 ³ ´2 ω ω 1 − ωn + 4ς 2 ωn Hence the record of the transducer is ´2 +1 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ³ ´2 ω 1 − ωn (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 61 Solution The equation of motion of the system shown in Fig.160) (1.

if the frequency ω of the recorded vibrations is twice greater than the natural frequency ωn of the transducer and the damping ratio ς is 0. 6 5 ζ=0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 62 amplitude of vibration (ampz ) is equal to the amplitude of vibration of the object (ampy = a). It almost happends.1 ζ=0.25 ζ=0. as one can see from the diagram 49.25.5 4 κ 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 ω/ ω n 4 5 Figure 49 .

It is supported with by means of the spring of the stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. The motion of the lower end of the spring with respect to the absolute coordinate x can be approximated as follows x = X cos ωt where X stands for the amplitude of the oscillations of the point C and ω stands for the frequency of these oscillations. the expression for the interaction force at the point A 4. the expression for the driving force that has to be applied to the point C . Produce: 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 63 Problem 14 α O A a b d c G B k C x Figure 50 The physical model of a vibrating table is shown in Fig. It can be considered as a rigid body of the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG . the diﬀerential equation of motion of the vibrating table and present it in the standard form 2. 50. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the table caused by the motion of the point C 3.

Answer: 17 IA = 12 mL2 + 2maH2 − 3mLa 3. At the point B it is supported by a spring of stiﬀness k and a damper of damping coeﬃcient c. each of length L and mass m. The diﬀerential equation of motion of the pendulum Answer: α + 2ζω n α + ω2 α = q cos ωt ¨ ˙ n . The expression for the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis through the point A. 51. were joined together to form the pendulum whose physical model is depicted in Fig. The pendulum performs small oscillations α about the axis through the point A. The expression for the position xG of the center of gravity G of the pendulum Answer: xG = 3 L − a 4 2. The point C of the damper is driven along the axis Y and its motion is approximated by the following function Y = A sin ωt Produce: 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 64 Problem 15 C Y c B k a α 1 2 G A xG L L/2 L/2 Figure 51 Two uniform rods (1 and 2).

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 2 2 65 where: 2ζω n = ca . The expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the pendulum Answer: q ω2 n Aα = 2 2 ω ω 2 1−( ω ) +4ζ 2 ( ω ) n n 5. The driving force that must be applied to the point C to assure the assumed motion . ω 2 = 2mgxIG +ka q = Aωca n IA IA A 4. ω 2ζ ω n D = c(Aω cos ωt − aAα cos(ωt + ϕ)) ϕ = − arctan ω 2 1−( ω ) n .

1 shows part of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. the number of degrees of freedom of each real element is equal to inﬁnity. yi (t)) are motionless with respect to a global (inertial) system of coordinates .1 MODELLING 2. Usually. to describe motion of such a system a set of local generalized coordinates is introduced. These coordinates (xi .Chapter 2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS Since in the nature massless or rigid elements do not exist. 2. therefore each of the particle the real element is made of can moves independently. In this chapter it will be assumed that forces produced by these massless xj mj xi k ij mi y i(t) ki ci c ij Figure 1 elements (springs and dampers) are linear functions of displacements and velocities respectively. according to the previously introduce deﬁnition. It follows that to determine its position with respect to the inertial space one has to introduce inﬁnite number of coordinates. the real elements can be represented by a limited number of rigid elements connected to each other by means of massless elements representing the elastic and damping properties.1. with acceptable accuracy.1 Physical model Fig. xj . Hence. This process is called discretization and the ﬁnal result of this process is called multi-degree-of-freedom system. But in many vibration problems.

2 Mathematical model It will be shown in this section that the equation of motion of the multi-degree of freedom linear system has the following form m¨+cx+kx=F(t) x ˙ where m .MODELLING 67 (not shown in the Fig. and xj are independent and their number determines the number of degree of freedom of the system. 1). the force F must contains forces due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position only. one may utilize the Newton’s or Euler’s equations. ¨ mi xi = F (2.is the damping matrix k.1) If the system stays at its equilibrium position.is the displacement matrix There are many methods that allow the mathematical model to be formulated. Since in case considered the body of mass mi performs a plane motion hence the Newton’s equations may be used. Origin of each coordinate coincides with the centre of gravity of individual bodies when the whole system is at its equilibrium position. the resultant of all static forces is equal zero.is the external excitation matrix x. For this equilibrium position all the static forces acting on individual bodies produces the resultant force equal to zero. Newton-Euler method of formulation of the mathematical model To develop the equations of motion of the system described.is the inertia matrix c . . In the following sections a few of them are presented. The conﬁguration a) shown in the ﬁgure below is achieved. Therefore. as it was mention earlier.is the stiﬀness matrix F .1. To ﬁgure these forces out let us move the mass mi out of its equilibrium position by the displacement xi . 2. The coordinate yi (t) is not independent (is an explicit function of time) whereas the coordinates xi .

The forces caused by motion along the axis xj (conﬁguration e)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration f )) results in the term +cij xj .2) Due to this displacement there are two forces ki xi and kij xi acting on the considered mass mi .3) mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi ¨ +kij xj +ki yi (t) −ci xi − cij xi ˙ ˙ +cij xj ˙ After standardization we have the ﬁnal form of equation of motion of the mass mi . . As a result of these consideration we are getting set of diﬀerential equation containing as many equations as the number of degree of freedom. The last three conﬁgurations (d. and f ) allow to take these forces into account. Due to motion of the system along the coordinate xi with velocity xi two additional forces are created ˙ by the dampers ci and cij. Since the system is linear. they are −ci xi and −cij xi . e. Similar consideration carried out for the displacements along the axis xj (conﬁguration b)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration c)) results in the term +kij xj . one has to carry out similar consideration for each mass involved in the system. Both of them are caused by ˙ ˙ positive velocity and have sense opposite to the positive sense of axis xi . Up to now it has been assumed that the velocities of the system along all coordinates are equal to zero and because of this the dampers do not produce any force. ¨ ˙ ˙ mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) (2. Therefore they have to be taken with the sign ’-’. one can add all this forces together to obtain ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi + kij xj + ki yi (t) − ci xi − cij xi + cij xj (2. and +ki yi (t) respectively.MODELLING 68 a) xi 6= 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj -kijxi kij cij xi mi xi -ki xi yi (t) k ci i b) xi = 0 xj 6= 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj xj mj cij mi yi (t) k i ci c) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi 6= 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj xi +kiyi yi (t) ki yi kij mi ci cij d) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi 6= 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj m j -cijxi k ij xi -ci xi yi (t) k i m i ci cij xi e) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj 6= 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj +cijxj k ij xi mi yi (t) k i ci xj cij f) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi 6= 0 ˙ xj mj xi kij mi yi (t) k i yj ci cij +kijxj kij xi +0 (2.4) To accomplished the mathematical model. and 0 ˙ respectively. Both of them must be taken with sign ’-’ because the positive displacement xi causes forces opposite to the positive direction of axis xi .

M (2. .. Iiz .absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the body ωix. 2.7) i Gi Z O X rG i rGiZ Y Figure 2 Potential energy for the spring s of stiﬀness ks and uncompressed length ls (see Fig...MODELLING 69 Lagrange method of formulation of the mathematical model The same set of equation of motion one can get by utilization of the Lagrange’s equations d ∂ ∂ ∂V ( T) − T+ = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm where T . 2 is Vi = mi grGiZ (2. .5) where mi . ω iz.6) 2 2 i=1 0 0 Iiz ω iz m = 1. 3) is 1 (2. Iiy .components of the absolute angular velocity of the body Iix . Hence ⎡ ⎛ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎞ I ωix X 1 £ ¤ Iix 0 0 2 ⎝ mi vi + 1 ω ix ω iy ω iz ⎣ 0 Iiy 0 ⎦ ⎣ ω iy ⎦⎠ T = (2.8) Vs = ks (|rA − rB | − ls )2 2 .is the generalized force along the generalized coordinate qm The kinetic energy function of the system considered is equal to sum of the kinetic energy of the individual rigid bodies the system is made of.The principal moments of inertia of the body about axes through its centre of gravity Potential energy function V for the gravity force acting on the link i shown in Fig.is the system kinetic energy function V .mass of the rigid body vi . ω iy.stands for the potential energy function Qm .

..qM ) = f (q1 . a non-linear mathematical model. 1 the kinetic energy function is 1 1 T = mi x2 + mj x2 + · · ·· ˙i ˙j 2 2 (2.11) Dots in the above equation represents this part of the kinetic energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . 4. 0.MODELLING 70 A rA Z O X Figure 3 s B rB Y Potential energy function for all conservative forces acting on the system is V = I X i=1 Vi + S X s=1 Vs (2. . If the system takes an arbitral position that is shown in Fig.. elongation of the springs ki and kij are respectively ∆li = xi − yi ∆lij = xj − xi (2..qm . in general case. .. .0) ∆qm ˙ (2....0. before application of the developed in this chapter methods of analysis..qm .qM .. .12) .. . as such.0) ∆qm + m=1 ∂ q˙m (q1 .0.. ......qM ..... should be included in the generalized force Qm . .10) In the case of the system shown in Fig... . . 0. .qM .9) In a general case the damping forces should be classiﬁed as non-conservative ones and...0... . . 0.. It must be remembered that the Lagrange’s equations yield. Therefore. the linearization process must be carried out.... . . The following formula allows for any nonlinear multi-variable function to be linearized in vicinity of the system equilibrium o o o position q1 ...0)+ ˙ ˙ ˙ PM ∂f o PM ∂f o o o o o + m=1 ∂qm (q1 .qM o o o f (q1 . . q1 .qm . ..qm ..qm .. .qM . .qm .

very often.. The damping function is created by analogy to the creation of the potential energy function. Generally. Therefore the above function does not include the potential energy due to the static deﬂection of the springs. But. in the considered case. the damping function is 1 1 D = ci (xi )2 + cij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 The Lagrange’s equation with the damping function takes form ∂ ∂V ∂D d ∂ ( T) − T+ + = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm ∂ qm ˙ m = 1. 2. the potential energy function is 1 1 V = ki (xi − yi )2 + kij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· 2 2 (2. The function D does not represent the dissipation energy but has such a property that its partial derivative produces the damping forces. a damping function (dissipation function) D is introduced into the Lagrange’s equation to produce the damping forces. together with the gravity forces. produce resultant equal to zero. If the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is included in the function 2. Hence. The stiﬀness k is replaced by the damping coeﬃcient c and the generalized displacements are replaced by the generalized velocities.13 either. since the lower end of the damper is motionless. for convenience.. It follows that the conservative forces due to the static deﬂections can not be produced from this potential energy function.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must be included in the function 2.13 too. dots stands for this part of the potential energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . . It should be noted that the above potential energy function represents increment of the potential energy of the springs due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position.15) (2.MODELLING 71 xj mj x i k ij mi y i (t) k i ci c ij xj k ij xi mj c ij mi xj xi ci yi y i (t) ki Figure 4 Therefore.14) .13) Again. They. the force produced by the dampers is included in the generalized force Qm .M (2. if the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is not included in the function 2..13 the potential energy due to gravitation must not be included in the function 2. Hence.

13 and 2.19) These linear relationships can be written in the matrix form x = δF (2.15 yields the equation of the motion of the mass mi .. 5.17) If one apply forces along all I generalized coordinates xi along which the system is allowed to move.14 into equation 2. Let us assume that the masses mi and mj can move along the coordinate xi and xj respectively. 2.. 2. .MODELLING 72 Introduction of the equations 2. Let xij be the displacement of the system along the coordinate xi caused by the force Fj .11. according to the superposition principle.20) ..16) Fj mj xj xi x ij mi Figure 5 Let us consider the ﬂexible structure shown in Fig. DEFINITION: The ratio δ ij = is called the inﬂuence coeﬃcient It can be easily proved (see Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem) that for any structure δij = δ ji (2..I (2.18) xij Fj (2. the displacement along the i − th coordinate. Let us apply to this system a static force Fj along the coordinate xj . is. mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) ¨ ˙ ˙ The inﬂuence coeﬃcient method (2.. xi = I X j=1 δ ij Fj i = 1.

.22) kij xj (2..xJ ) the force that acts on the particle mi is fi = −Fi = − I X j=1 kij xj (2.23) If the system considered moves and its instantaneous position is determined by the vector x (x1 .. k = δ −1 Hence according to equation 2.xj . .25) ... application of the third Newton’s law to the particle i yields the equation of its motion in the following form mi xi + ¨ I X j=1 kij xj = 0 (2. F = δ −1 x The inverse matrix δ −1 is called stiﬀness matrix and will be denoted by k.21) (2.21 is Fi = I X j=1 (2.24) Hence.MODELLING 73 The inverse transformation permits to produce forces that have to act on the system along the individual coordinates if the system is at an arbitrarily chosen position x..

and mass m is attached to the massless beam 2 of radius r.MODELLING 74 2. 6 Develop equations of motion of this system. length l and the Young modulus E as shown in Fig.3 Problems Problem 16 2 1 R l Figure 6 The disk 1 of radius R.1. .

28) y= 2EJ EJ . 8). 7 is governed by Newton’s equations m¨ = Fd y I ϕy = Md ¨ (2. Md .forces acting on the disk due to its interaction with the beam The interaction forces Fd and Md can be expressed as a function of the displacements y and ϕy by means of the inﬂuence coeﬃcient method.27) y= 3EJ 2EJ If the beam is loaded with force Ms (see Fig. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l l2 Ms . 2 Fs Ms y z ϕy l y Figure 8 If the beam is loaded with force Fs (see Fig.MODELLING 75 Solution.moment of inertia of the disk about axis x 4 Fd . Ms ϕy = (2. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l2 l3 Fs Fs ϕy = (2.26) In the above mathematical model I = 1 mR2 . 8). 2 1 R Md F d y ϕy z l Figure 7 The motion of the disk shown in Fig.

x= (2.29) (2.36) . the ﬁnal mathematical model of the system considered is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸ ∙ y ϕy ¸ (2.32) Since.34) (2.30) π r4 (2.33) (2. according to the second Newton’s law ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Fd Fs =− Md Ms the equation of motion takes the following form ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ y ¨ k11 k12 y m 0 =− ϕy ¨ ϕy 0 I k21 k22 Hence.35) .MODELLING 76 Hence the total displacement along coordinates y and ϕy are y = ϕy or in matrix form ∙ y ϕy ¸ l3 Fs + 3EJ l2 = Fs + 2EJ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ l2 Ms 2EJ l Ms EJ ¸∙ Fs Ms ¸ (2.31) 4 The inverse transformation yields the wanted forces as function of the displacements J= ∙ Fs Ms ¸ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ where ¸−1 ∙ y ϕy ¸ = ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸∙ y ϕy ¸ (2. k= .

and as shown in Fig. Produce equations of motion of the system. 9. .MODELLING 77 Problem 17 G k1 l1 l2 k2 Figure 9 A rigid beam of mass m and the moments of inertia I about axis through its centre of gravity G is supported by massless springs k1 .

39) (2.38) . Let us then introduce the two coordinates y and ϕ as shown in Fig. The force F and the moment M that act on the beam due to its motion along coordinates y and ϕ are F = = M = = −y1 k1 − y2 k2 = −(y − ϕl1 )k1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 −[(k1 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] +y1 k1 l1 − y2 k2 l2 = +(y − ϕl1 )k1 l1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 l2 2 2 −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ l2 ϕ y2=y+ϕ l 2 k2 (2. M G O y1 =y.37) Hence.MODELLING 78 Solution. 10. the generalized Newton’s equations yield m¨ = F = −[(k11 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] y 2 2 I ϕ = M = −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ ¨ The matrix form of the system equations of motion is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ .ϕ l1 y k1 l1 F y Figure 10 The system has two degree of freedom.40) (2. x= ∙ y ϕ ¸ (2. k= ∙ k1 + k2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 2 2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 k1 l1 + k2 l2 ¸ .

11). I = 2 m2 r2 – moment of inertia of the ball about axis through its centre of gravity. Use Lagrange’s approach to derive equations of small vibrations of the system about its equilibrium position. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r and the massless rod 4 form a rigid body. This body is hinged to the link 1 at the point A. shown in Fig.MODELLING 79 Problem 18 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 11 The link 1 of a mass m1 . 5 . can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. All motion is in the vertical plane.

this position vector is rG = i(x + R sin ϕ) + j( − R cos ϕ) (2. 1 V = 2 kx2 − m2 gR cos ϕ (2.45) The potential energy function is due the energy stored in the springs and the energy due to gravitation.41) The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the ball vG can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of its absolute position vector.41 yields the kinetic energy function of the system as a function of the generalized coordinates x and ϕ.43) (2. 2. T = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 (x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 ) + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 = ˙ ˙˙ ˙ (m1 + m2 )x2 + m2 Rxϕ cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ2 2 2 (2.MODELLING 80 Solution y 1 x k o k 3 2 rG r R x ϕ Figure 12 G The system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates x and ϕ are shown in Fig.42) Hence vG = rG = i(x + Rϕ cos ϕ) + j(Rϕ sin ϕ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The required squared magnitude of this velocity is 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vG = (x + Rϕ cos ϕ)2 + (Rϕ sin ϕ)2 = x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 (2.46) 2 . 12. 2. 1 1 1 2 T = T1 + T2 = m1 x2 + m2 vG + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 (2. The kinetic energy of the system T is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the link 1 T1 and the link 2 T2 . According to Fig .12.44 into Eq.44) Introduction of Eq.

MODELLING 81 In the case considered. Taking this into ˙ = = = account the linearized equations of motion are x ϕ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ + m2 gRϕ = 0 Their matrix form is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I ¸ .54) For small magnitudes of x and ϕ. k= ∙ 2k 0 0 m2 gR ¸ .51) (2.56) (2.57) (2.49) (2. the Lagrange’s equations can be adopted in the following form µ ¶ d ∂T ∂V ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ x ˙ ∂x ∂x µ ¶ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 (2.55) .47) dt ∂ ϕ ˙ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ The individual terms that appeare in the above equation are µ ¶ d d ∂T ˙ ˙ = ((m1 + m2 )x + m2 Rϕ cos ϕ) = dt ∂ x ˙ dt x ϕ ˙ = (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ ∂T =0 ∂x ∂V = 2kx ∂x d dt µ ∂T ∂ϕ ˙ ¶ = ¢ d ¡ ˙ ˙ m2 Rx cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ = dt ϕ x ˙˙ = (m2 R2 + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ (2.48) (2.50) (2. 2.47.52) (2. cos ϕ ∼ 1. x= ∙ x ϕ ¸ (2. according to Eq. sinϕ ∼ ϕ.53) ∂T = −m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ ˙˙ ∂ϕ ∂V = m2 gR sin ϕ ∂ϕ Hence. ϕ2 ∼ 0. we have the following equations of motion x ϕ ˙ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ + m2 gR sin ϕ = 0 (2.

Produce equation of small vibrations of the pendulum about this equilibrium position. in such way that its vertical position (q1 = 0 and q2 = 0) is its stable equilibrium position. are joined together to form an inverse double pendulum.MODELLING 82 Problem 19 k q A2 k 2 l k A1 q 1 k l Figure 13 Two identical and uniform rods shown in Fig. each of mass m and length l. . The pendulum is supported by four springs. all of stiﬀness k. 13.

The left hand end of the massless and ﬂexible beam 4 is rigidly attached to the disk 1. 14. is fasten to the massless and ﬂexible shaft 3. Derive equations for analysis of small vibrations of the system. .MODELLING 83 Problem 20 1 3 4 2 l3 GJ o EI R l4 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m1 and radius R shown in Fig. At its right hand side the particle 2 of m2 is placed.

and G respectively. . Derive the diﬀerential equations for the torsional vibrations of the system.MODELLING 84 Problem 21 k R R k I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 15 A belt gear was modelled as shown in Fig. The belt is modelled as the spring of a stiﬀness k. The shafts are assumed to be massless and their length the second moment of inertia and the shear modulus is denoted by l. 15. The disks have moments of inertia I1 . and I3 . I2 . J.

Derive equations for the torsional vibrations of the gear box. The shafts the gears are mounted on are massless. . 16 the physical model of a gear box is presented.MODELLING 85 Problem 22 D1 D2 I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 16 In Fig.

MODELLING

86

Problem 23

X

B l l l O 2 4 6 7

C

l

l

A

α l

Y 1 5 3

Figure 17 Fig. 17 shows a mechanical system. Link 1 of the system is motionless with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY . The links 2 and 3 are hinged to the link 1 at the point O. The links 4 and 5 join the links 2 and 3 with the collar 6. The spring 7 has a stiﬀness k and its uncompressed length is equal to 2l. The system has one degree of freedom and its position may be determined by one generalized coordinate α. The links 4 5 and 6 are assumed to be massless. The links 2 and 3 can be treated as thin and uniform bars each of length 2l and mass m. Derive equations of the small vibration of the system about its equilibrium position.

MODELLING

87

Problem 24

l 4 m l 4 m l 4 m l 4

T

Figure 18 Three beads, each of mass m are attached to the massless string shown in Fig. 18. The string has length l and is loaded with the tensile force T. Derive equation of motion of the beads

MODELLING

88

Problem 25

m l q

1

R q

2

Figure 19 On the massless string of length l the ball of mass m and radius R is suspended (see Fig. 19). Derive equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING

89

Problem 26

I1 i

I2

I1

i

I2

c

R

k ks1 m ks2

Figure 20 Fig. 20 presents the physical model of a winch. The shafts of the torsional stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 as well as the gear of ratio i are massless. To the right hand end of the shaft ks2 the rotor of the moment of inertia I2 is attached. The left hand end of the shaft ks1 is connected to the drum of the moment of inertia I1 . The rope is modelled as a massless spring of the stiﬀness k. At its end the block of mass m is fastened. The damper of the damping coeﬃcient c represents the damping properties of the system. Produce the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system.

ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the independant coordinates.62 one can obtain (2.61) (2. 21 x.65) .MODELLING 90 Solution i F c R I2 I1 i I2 r2 r1 α2 F ϕ2 ϕ α1 1 k ks1 m ks2 x Figure 21 In Fig.61 and 2.58 into the equations 2. m¨ x ¨ I1 ϕ1 0¨ 1 α 0¨ 2 α ¨ I2 ϕ2 = = = = = −kx + Rkϕ1 +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 α1 ˙ −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + F r1 −ks2 α2 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 α2 0 = −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + iF r2 0 = −ks2 iα1 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 Solving the above equations for α1 we have α1 = ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.63) Introducing 2.62) (2.60) (2. They are a function of the independent coordinates. Let r1 α2 i= = (2.66) (2.58) r2 α1 Application of the Newton’s law to the individual bodies yields equations of motion in the following form.59) (2. Since the gear of the gear ratio as well as the shafts of stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 are massless the coordinates that specify the position of the of the gear α1 and α2 are not independent.64) (2.

0 0 I2 i2 0 0 ⎡ k −kR 0 ⎢ −kR kR2 + ks1 ks2 i2 − ks1 ks2 i2 k = ⎣ ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 0 − ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ⎦.67) Introducing 2.68) iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 ⎡ .60 and 2.67 into 2. (2.63 one can get the equations of motion in the following form m¨ = −kx + Rkϕ1 x I1 ϕ1 = +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 ¨ ˙ ϕ2 = −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 ¨ After standardization we have m¨ + c˙ + kz = 0 z z where ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m 0 0 c = ⎣ 0 cR2 m = ⎣ 0 I1 0 ⎦ .69) ⎤ x z = ⎣ ϕ1 ⎦ ϕ2 i ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.58 α2 = iα1 = iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2. according to 2.MODELLING 91 Hence. 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦.66 and 2.

the expression for period of these oscillations. The instantaneous angular position of this semi-cylinder is determined by the angular displacement α. Produce 1. the equation of small oscillations of the semi-cylinder (take advantage of the Lagrange’s equations) Answer: ¡ ¡ ¢¢ 16 8 4 IG + mR2 1 + 9π2 − 3π α + mgR(1 − 3π )α = 0 ¨ ¡ 4 R ¢2 where IG = 1 mR2 − m 3 π 2 2. Answer: 2π T = mgR(1− 4 ) 3π 16 8 (IG +mR2 (1+ 9π2 − 3π )) .MODELLING 92 Problem 27 Z 4R 3π z C G α R O X x Figure 22 The semi-cylinder of mass m and radius R shown in Fig. 50 is free to roll over the horizontal plane XY without slipping.

70) .vector of the external excitation x. its general solution is always equal to the sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation xp .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 93 Problem 28 I1 l 1 J1 G1 l 2 J2 G2 l 3 J3 G3 I2 l 4 J4 G4 Figure 23 The two disks of moments of inertia I1 and I2 are join together by means of the massless shafts as is shown in Fig.1 General case In the general case of the multi-degree-of-freedom system the matrices c and k do not necessary have to be symmetrical.2.vector of the generalized coordinates 2. The dynamic properties of the shafts are determined by their lenghts l. 2.71) (2.matrix of inertia c . Produce the diﬀerential equations of motion. ﬂatter of plane wings etc. Since the equation 2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM The analysis carried out in the previous section leads to conclusion that the mathematical model of the linear multi-degree-of -freedom system is as follows m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where m .72) (2. if the mechanical structure interacts with ﬂuid or air (oil bearings. 51. Such a situation takes place. the second moments of area J and the shear modulus G. for example.matrix of damping k .70 is linear.matrix of stiﬀness F(t). x = xg + xp The homogeneous equation m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2.).

natural frequencies.stability of the equilibrium position To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2.72 yields the following set of the diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order.74) .75 results in a set of the homogeneous algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the vector z0 . z = z0 ert (2. [A − 1r] z0 = 0 (2.80) The equations 2..76) Solution of the above equation can be predicted in the form 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 94 corresponds to the case when the excitation F(t) is not present.78) The process of searching for a solution of the equation 2.N (2.N (2. Free vibrations . Let y=x ˙ (2.. x = y ˙ y = −m−1 kx − m−1 cy ˙ The above equations can be rewritten as follows z = Az ˙ where z= ∙ x y ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ (2..77) Introduction of Eq.80 are zn1 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) cos ωn t − Im(z0n ) sin ω n t) zn2 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) sin ω n t + Im(z0n ) cos ω n t) n = 1. |[A − 1r]| = 0 (2.78 have non-zero solution if and only if the characteristic determinant is equal to 0.70 represents the vibrations caused by the excitation force F(t). 2.77 into Eq. The particular solutions corresponding to the complex roots 2. A= (2.79) Their number N is equal to the number of degree of freedom of the system considered. its general solution represents the free (natural) vibrations of the system.81) . rn = hn ± iω n n = 1. 2. The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation 2..75) (2. It is often refered to as the forced vibrations.73 into Eq. 2..72 to so called state-space coordinates..79 is called eigenvalue problem and the process of searching for the corresponding vector z0 is called eigenvector problem. The roots rn are usually complex and conjugated. 2.77.. Therefore.73) be the vector of the generalized velocities. Both of them can be easily solved by means of the commercially available computer programs. Introduction of Eq..

The system with N degree of freedom possesses N natural frequencies.2 -0.transfer functions The response to the external excitation F(t) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is determined by the particular solution of the mathematical model 2.5 1.6 -0.1 1..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 95 In the above expressions Re(z0n ) and Im(z0n ) stand for the real and imaginary part of the complex and conjugated eigenvector z0n associated with the nth root of the set 2. The equation 2.5 1.5 0. z = [z11 . The particular solutions 2. In the general case.83) Let us assume that the excitation force F(t) is a sum of K addends. Forced vibrations .2 1. k k f k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) + iFo sin(ωt + ϕk ) (2.81.6 t T n = 2 π /ω n -0.2 0.4 0.2 0 h<0 t -0.zN1 . the imaginary parts of roots rn represent the natural frequencies of the system and their real parts represent rate of decay of the free vibrations.4 0.84) To facilitate the process of looking for the particular solution of equation 2.zn1 .84 the imaginary part..81 is given in Fig.4 1..7 0.5 0..9 1 1.9 1 1.82) As one can see from the formulae 2.6 0. For the further analysis let us assume that each of them has the following form k F k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) o (2.80 respectively.. z22.6 0. z12.7 0.4 0. If all roots rn of the equation 2.3 0..2 1.2 0. m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2..... z32.1 1. The roots 2. A graphical interpretation of the solutions 2.The problem of searching for the vector of the 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0.83.6 z 1 z h>0 0..1 0.82 indicates that the free motion of a multidegree-of-freedom system is a linear combination of the solutions 2.3 1. z21 .8 0. zN 2 ] C (2. z31 .80 have negative real parts then the equilibrium position of the system considered is stable. zn2. let us introduce the complex excitation force by adding to the expression 2.8 0..1 0..80 has positive real part then the equilibrium position of the system considered is unstable.3 1.85) o o .4 1.81.80 allow the stability of the system equilibrium position to be determined.8 0. . this problem is diﬃcult and goes beyond the scope of this lectures. 24 for the positive and negative magnitude of hn .6 0.81 allow to formulate the general solution that approximates the system free vibrations.8 T n = 2 π /ω n Figure 24 constant magnitudes C is called initial problem.70.4 0. If at least one root of the equation 2. .3 0.

86 into Eq. 25. the particular solution of Eq. Introduction of Eq. 2. fo is a complex number that depends on the amplitude and phase of the external excitation.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 96 The relationship between the complex excitation f k and the real excitation is shown in Fig.87 can be predicted in the complex form 2.88 (2. According to Euler’s formula the complex excitation may be rewritten as Im f k F 0 k k ϕ0 ωt ω F cos( t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k k Re k ϕ0 F k ω t F 0 k ω t Figure 25 follows k k k f k = Fo ei(ωt+ϕo ) = Fo eiϕo eiωt = fo eiωt k k (2.83 yields m¨ + cx + kx = fo eiωt x ˙ xc = aeiωt (2. 2.86) k Here.88) .87) Now. 2.

¢ ¡ 2 (2.87 produces set of the algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the unknown vector a. the vector of the complex excitation fo eiωt into the vector of the complex displacement xc = aeiωt .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 97 Its solution is Introduction of Eq.93) (2.95) −ω m + iωc + k It is easy to see that the element Rpq (iω) of the matrix of transfer functions represents the complex displacement (amplitude and phase) of the system along the coordinates xp caused by the unit excitation 1eiωt along the coordinate xq . 27.91 that the amplitude of the forced vibration xk is equal to the o absolute value of the complex amplitude ak . according to 2. 26. xc = aeiωt = R(iω)fo eiωt (2. x = Re(a) cos ωt − Im(a) sin ωt (2. .88 into Eq. the response of the system xc due to the complex force f is xc = (Re(a) + i Im(a))(cos ωt + i sin ωt) (2.91. Example of three elements of a matrix of the transform functions are presented in Fig.90. The ﬁrst two diagrams present the real and the imaginary parts of the complex transform functions whereas the last two present its absolute value (amplitude) and phase.92 is xk = xk cos(ωt + β k ) o where xk = o p Re(ak )2 + Im(ak )2 β k = arc tan Im(ak ) Re(ak ) (2.89) −ω m + iωc + k a = fo ¢− 1 ¡ fo a = −ω2 m + iωc + k (2.90) Therefore.88. according to 2. This ﬁndings are presented in Fig. 2. 2.92) Motion of the system considered along the coordinate xk .91) Response of the system x due to the real excitation F is represented by the real part of the solution 2. It transfers. and its phase β k is equal to the phase between the complex amplitudes ak and the vector eiωt .94) will be denoted by R(iω) and it is called matrix of transfer functions. The complex matrix ¢− 1 ¡ 2 (2. according to Eq. 2.96) It is easy to see from 2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 98 Im f F 0 k k ϕ0 k a x0 k k k β0 ωt k F cos(ω t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k Re x0 cos( ω t+ β 0 ) k k ϕ0 k β0 k F k k ω t F 0 x0 k k x ω t Figure 26 .

0005 0 0 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.0002 0.1) R(1.0003 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.2) R(1.3) transfer function m/N (imaginary part) 0.1) R(1.0025 0.3) (phase) 1500 frequency rad/s Figure 27 .0001 -0.001 0 -0.003 -0.003 0.2) R(1.1) R(1.003 0.3) transfer functions m/N 4 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 R(1.2) R(1.1) R(1.0015 0.002 -0.0001 0 -0.002 0.001 0.0006 0.0003 0.001 -0.002 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 99 transfer functions m/N (real parts) 0.0035 0.0002 -0.0004 0.2) R(1.004 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.3) transfer function m/N (modulus) 0.0005 0.

Fourier transformation applied to these functions Z +∞ Fq (iω) = e−iωt Fq (t)dt −∞ Z +∞ e−iωt xp (t)dt (2. The amplitude of the complex functions xp (iω) and Fq (iω) q Re(xp (iω))2 + Im(xp (iω))2 |xp (iω)| = q |Fq (iω)| = Re(Fq (iω))2 + Im(Fq (iω))2 (2.98) .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 100 Experimental determination of the transfer functions Fq xq xp xp F(t) q Fq ( iω ) t Fourier R (iω ) i pq ω x( iω ) p x(t) p t x( iω ) p ___ Fq ( iω ) transformation ω ω Figure 28 In order to produce the transfer function between the coordinate xp and the coordinate xq (see Fig. 28) let us apply force Fq (t) along the coordinate xq and record it simultaneously with the system response xp (t) along the coordinate xp .97) xp (iω) = −∞ yields the Fourier transforms in the frequency domain xp (iω) and Fq (iω).

N (2...99) These Fourier transforms allow the transfer function Rpq (iω) to be computed..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 101 represents the amplitude of displacement and force respectively as a function of the frequency ω. Rpq (iω) = xp (iω) Fq (iω) (2. The corresponding phases are determined by the following formulae. ϕxp = arctan ϕF q Im(xp (iω)) Re(xp (iω)) Im(Fq (iω)) = arctan Re(Fq (iω)) (2. is q=N xp (iω) = X q=1 Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) q = 1. xp (iω) = Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) (2.The relationship above can be rewritten in the following matrix form x(iω) = Rpq (iω)F(iω) p = 1..... the response along the coordinate xp caused by set of forces acting along coordinates N coordinates xq ...101) Since the system considered is by assumption linear.. q = 1.103) .N. according to the superposition principle..102) Application of the above described experimental procedure to all coordinates involved in the modelling (p = 1.N (2.100) The above formula determines response of the system along coordinate xp caused by the harmonic excitation Fq along the coordinate xq ..N ) allows to formulate the matrix of the transfer functions Rpq (iω).

105 is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if the following set of the homogeneous algebraic equations is fulﬁlled..108. If the vector of the external excitation F(t) is equal to zero.105 yields (2. these parameters have the physical meaning only for positive values. They represent frequencies of the system free vibrations.111) where Cn is arbitrarily chosen constant. 2. introduction of Eq. . the vector Cn Xn (2. the above set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero ¯ ¯ 2 ¯−ω m + k¯ = 0 (2. Indeed. According to the above deﬁnition the free vibrations are governed by the homogeneous set of equations m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2..105.. They are called natural frequencies. c and k are square and symmetrical. For each of the possible natural frequencies ωn the system of equations 2. ± ω n .106 into 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 102 2. for any physical system.2.106) is a particular solution of the equation 2. 2.106.110) As one can see from Eq. 2. the parameter ω can take any of the following values ±ω1 .107) (−ω 2 m + k)X cos ωt = 0 and the diﬀerential equation 2. .case of small damping In the following analysis it will be assumed that the matrices m.108 too. The number of diﬀerent natural frequencies is therefore equal to the number of degree of freedom.. The vector Xn represents so called natural mode of vibration associated with the natural .109) The above characteristic equation.108 becomes linearly dependent and therefore has inﬁnite number of solution Xn . is solution of the Eq. has N positive roots with respect to the parameter ω2 .. Its follows that if Xn is a solution of Eq..eigenvalue and eigenvector problem If the damping is neglected the equation of the free vibrations is m¨ + kx = 0 x It is easy to see that x = X cos ωt (2.2 Modal analysis . ±ω2 .108) (2.. 2. Size of these matrices is N × N where N is the number of the system degree of freedom. it is said that the system performs free vibrations. ± ω N (2. (−ω2 m + k)X = 0 (2. Hence. ±ω3 .104) Free vibration of the undamped system .105) In turn.

112) If the system is deﬂected according to the this vector and allowed to move with the x3n = X 3n cosω n t x X 1n X 2n X 3n X 4n t Tn Figure 29 initial velocity equal to zero. Now.114) is a particular solution too. 29) the vector Xn contains four numbers Xn = [X1n .105 has been accomplished. one can say that the process of determination of the particular solution xn = Xn cos ω n t (2. The problem of the determination of the natural frequencies is called eigenvalue problem and searching for the corresponding natural modes is called eigenvector problem.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 103 frequency ω n . if a beam with four concentrated masses is considered (see Fig. It determines the shape that the system must possess to oscillate harmonically with the frequency ω n . their linear combination forms the general solution of the equation 2. X3n . Since the solutions ?? and 2. X2n . . In similar manner one can prove that xn = Xn sin ω n t (2.105 xn = N X (Sn Xn sin ω n t + Cn Xn cos ωn t) n=1 (2. For example.113) of the equation 2.115) The 2N constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to satisfy the 2N initial conditions. Therefore the natural frequencies are very often referred to as eigenvalue and the natural modes as eigenvectors.114 are linearly independent. X4n ]T (2. There are N such particular solutions. it will oscillate with the frequency ω n . There are four such a natural modes and four corresponding natural frequencies for this system.

primultiplying the ﬁrst equation of set 2.117 by -1 and then adding them together we are getting (2. since (ω 2 − ω 2 ) = 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 104 Properties of the natural modes. −ω 2 mXn +kXn = 0 n −ω2 mXm +kXm = 0 m −ω 2 XT mXn +XT kXn = 0 m n m T 2 T −ω m Xn mXm +Xn kXm = 0 Since matrices m and k are symmetrical XT kXn = XT kXm m n and XT mXn = XT mXm m n (2. Each eigenvector has to fulﬁll the Eq.117) Now.123) The process of producing of the eigenvectors Ξn is called normalization and the eigenvector Ξn is called normalized eigenvector or normalized mode.118) (2. ΞT mΞn = 1 (2.119) (ω 2 − ω2 )XT mXm = 0 n m n Since for n 6= m (ω2 − ω2 ) 6= 0. Let us denot it by Ξn Ξn = 1 Xn λn (2.116) Primultiplying the ﬁrst equation by XT and the second equation by XT one can get m n (2.111 1 X λn n (2.124 one can conclude that ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn mΞm = 1 if n = m (2. the product XT mXn does not have to be equal to n n n zero. Hence. .120 and 2. Let this product be equal to λ2 n XT mXn = λ2 n n Division of the above equation by λ2 yields n ( But according to 2.108. According to 2.124) n Taking into account Eq’s 2. 2.122.121) 1 1 T Xn )m( Xn ) = 1 λn λn (2. n m XT mXm = 0 for n 6= m n (2.122) is eigenvector too.120) If n = m.125) It is said that eigenvectors Ξn and Ξm that fulﬁll the above conditions are orthogonal with respect to the inertia matrix m.

modal damping Motion of any real system is always associated with a dissipation of energy. ω2 .. . .104) is assumed as the following combination of the matrix of inertia m and stiﬀness k with the unknown coeﬃcients µ and κ.ΞN ] where N is number of degrees of freedom (2. 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥ .128) containing the squared natural frequencies ω 2 n ⎤ 0 .. 0 ⎥ n ⎥ .131) . the structural damping can be omitted.127) Owning to the above orthogonality condition. .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 105 It means that the normalized modes are orthogonal with respect to the matrix of stiﬀness. the structural damping has to be taken into account.117 yields ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn kΞm = (2. Vibrations of any mechanical structures are coupled with deﬂections of the elastic elements. . in turn. 0 ω2 . But in case of absence of such devices. The structural damping is extremely diﬃcult or simply impossible to be predicted by means of any analytical methods. 2 ω =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ .130) This coeﬃcients are to be determined experimentally. . ⎥ ⎥ (2. . cause friction between the particles the elements are made of. . particularly if the system considered is furnished with special devices design for dissipation of energy called dampers. the second of the equations 2.Ξn ..129) 0 . Ξ = [Ξ1 . In many cases. It will be shown that application of the following linear transformation x = Ξη (2. 0 ... 0 (2.. ω2 N Normal coordinates . The modal modes Ξn can be arranged in a square matrix of order N known as the modal matrix Ξ . c =µm+κk (2.. 0 . .. 2.126) ω 2 if n = m n It is easy to see that the developed orthogonality conditions yields ΞT mΞ = 1 ΞT kΞ = ω2 where ω 2 is a square diagonal matrix ⎡ 2 ω1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . In such cases the matrix of damping c (see Eq. These deﬂections. Ξ2 .. . . 0 . ⎦ 0 . The damping caused by such an internal friction and damping due to friction of these elements against the surrounding medium is usually referred to as the structural damping.

138) ΞT F(t) = ΞT ⎢ Fq eiωt ⎥ = Ξqn Fq eiωt n n ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ . Introduction of the solutions 2. introduction of the transformation 2.134) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions 2.132) results in its decoupling. 2.136 for response of the system due to the harmonic excitation along coordinate xq .136) The coeﬃcients ς n = (µ+κω 2 )/2ω n are often referred to as the modal damping ratio. ⎥ ⎢ (2.. each equation of the above set has the following form η n + 2ς n ωn η n + ω2 η n = ΞT F(t) n = 1.131 into 2. 2.137 into equation 2.131 yields motion of the system along the physical coordinates x.136.139) Hence . n Solution of each of the above equations can be obtained independently and according to the discussion carried out in the ﬁrst chapter (page 30.136 takes form ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ .137) p where ω dn = ω n 1 − ς 2 and η pn stands for the particular solution of the nonn homogeneous equation 2. Response to the harmonic excitation . 1. Problem of determination of this particular solution is considered in the next section.46) can be written as follows η n = e−ς n ωn t (Csn sin ωdn t + Ccn cos ω dn t) + η pn (2.135) n where 1 .128 we are getting set of independent equations 1¨ + γ η + ω 2 η = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2..the unit matrix ω2 and γ = (µ1+κω 2 ) .N (2. In this case the right hand side of the equation 2. Indeed..133) Primultiplying both sides of the above equation by ΞT we obtain ΞT mΞ¨ + ΞT (µm+κk)Ξη + ΞT kΞη = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2.transfer functions Let us solve the Eq. 0 η n + 2ς n ω n η n + ω2 η n = Ξqn Fq eiωt ¨ ˙ n n = 1.132 yields mΞ¨ + cΞη + kΞη = F(t) η ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 106 to the mathematical model m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2. 2. Eq.diagonal matrices n n Hence.. . .N ¨ ˙ n n (2.

.. is equal to ±90o ϕn = arctan Im (Rpq (iω n )) = ± arctan ∞ = ±90o Re (Rpq (iω n )) (2.145 that the real part of the transfer function Rpq (iω) is equal to zero for the frequency equal to the natural frequency ω n . ....147) This property allows the natural frequencies to be determined. 2.141) response along coordinate xp xp = e iωt N X ω2 n=1 n Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi (2.146) Alternatively.140) (2..145) Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions The transfer functions Rpq (iω) can be easily obtained by means of a simple experiment (see page 100). ..N.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 107 Therefore ηn = Since Ξqn Fq eiωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ωn n n x = Ξη n = 1...... 2. It can be seen from the equation 2..144) q = 1........ 2. Hence the zero-points of the real part of the transfer functions determine the system natural frequencies.. From the same equation it is apparent that the imaginary parts corresponding to ω ∼ ωn and measured for diﬀer= ent q = 1. ..N (2. 2....142) transfer function between coordinate p and the others X Ξpn Ξqn xp = iωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi Fq e ω n n n=1 n N q = 1. The natural frequencies and the natural modes can be extracted from diagrams of the magnitudes and phases of the transfer function. .. The phase ϕ. 2.N (2.. since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n . natural modes and the modal damping to be identiﬁed.N (2.N (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n (2. .143) = if ω ∼ ωn = Rpq (iω) = Fqxp = eiωt PN ³ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 −ω2 ) n n=1 (ω 2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 n n n PN + Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n Rpq (iω) ∼ + = 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 2ς n ω n ω n n Ξpn Ξqn ((ω 2 −ω2 )−2ς n ωn ωi) n = n=1 (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n ´n n −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ω n ωi q = 1. 2. but for the same p yield the natural modes with accuracy to the ω2 constant magnitude C = − 2ς npnn Ξ Ξnq = C Im(Rpq (iω n )) q = 1.. They allow the natural frequencies.. ... .N (2..

. its modulus is equal to the absolute value of imaginary part.N (2. 30 transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.150) where Signe of the idividual elements Ξnq of the mode n is deremined by signe of the corresponding phase ϕn = ±90o An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer functions is shown in Fig.1) R(1. .0002 0.3) 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1.3) natural mode ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω2 ¯ n¯ ¯ C=¯ Ξpn ¯ transfer functions m/N (phase) π/2 natural frequency −π/2 Figure 30 The demonstated in this chapter approach for solution of the vibration problems is referred to as modal analysis. .00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s 2 1 3 R(1....00025 0..2) R(1. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn ¯ (2.149) (2.148) Ξqn ¯ |Rpq (iω)| = ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω 2 n Ξnq = C |Rpq (iω)| q = 1.0001 0.1) R(1. 2..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 108 Hence Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n .00015 0.2) R(1.

2.xN } ˙ ˙ ˙ mnm xm (2.......152 fulﬁlls the requirement 2. Kinetic energy function Let us consider function 1 T = xT mx x = {x1 .3 Kinetic and potential energy functions ......... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN ¨ ⎫⎞⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ = ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪⎠⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ m1n .152) (2.... ...... the potential energy function and the dissipation function are formulated for a linear system governed by the equation m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where the matrices m....... ..mnn .Dissipation function In this section the kinetic energy function.............ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 109 2.. mmn ... 0.......... ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T − dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎛ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ......xN } ˙ = ˙ ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎪ ......151) Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..155) .... ⎪ ⎪ ¶ µ ⎨ ⎬ d ∂T ∂T ¨ (2... mNn (2......... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ d ⎜1 ⎜ m=N ⎜ ⎜{0... If T is the kinetic energy function. according to Lagrange’s equations should be ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 (2... c and k are symmetric and positive deﬁnite matrices..... ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ mNm xm ˙ m=1 !! Ã Ãm=N m=N X X d 1 = mnm xm + ˙ mmn xm ˙ dt 2 m=1 m=1 If this function is positive deﬁnite (is always positive and is equal to zero if and only if all variables xn are equal to zero) the corresponding matrix m is called positive ˙ deﬁnite matrix. ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 mNm xm = n=N m=N 1X X mnm xn xm ˙ ˙ 2 n=1 m=1 Let us prove that the function 2.......xn ..mnN } xn ⎪ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎪ .....xn .xn . ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = T = xn ˙ {x1 .. ..154) − = {mn1 .0} + {x1 ..154.1.... ..153) ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ ..

.. X ¨ = mnm xm = {mn1 .. x2 ..........mnn ........ ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = V = xn {x1 ......... ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ∂V (2....xn ... m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ¨ Potential energy function Let us consider function (2.....mnN } xn ¨ ⎪ ⎪ ..160) ........ ...159. ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ kNm xm m=1 ! Ãm=N m=N X X 1 = knm xm + kmn xm 2 m=1 m=1 k1n .......159) = {kn1 ..xn ....157) 2 Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..152 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix m is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.. ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ... 1 V = xT kx x = {x1 ......1....156) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Now we may conclude that the function 2.......xn ....ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 110 Since mnm = mmn ! ! Ã m=N Ãm=N ¶ µ d X d ∂T ∂T d 1 X − 2 = mnm xm = ˙ mnm xm ˙ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn dt 2 m=1 dt m=1 ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ m=N ⎨ ...........knN } xn ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . 0........ . kmn ..... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN Let us prove that the function 2...knn .0} + {x1 ....157 fulﬁlls the requirement 2. ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 kNm xm = If V is the potential energy function....... it must be positive deﬁnite and according to Lagrange’s equations should fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..158) k x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ ... ...xN } knm xm (2............. kN n ⎫⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟ ⎟= ⎪⎟ ⎪⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ n=N m=N 1X X knm xn xm 2 n=1 m=1 (2... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ ∂V 1⎜ m=N ⎜{0...xN }T (2..xN } = k x ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn 2⎜ ⎪ ....

.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 111 Since knm = kmn ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ....163) It follows that if the matrix of damping is symmetrical and positive deﬁnite......162) (2.. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ˙ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2.. having in mind the previous consideration.. are not conservative and have to be included in the generalized force Qn ..... The damping forces.164) dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ∂xn ∂ xn ˙ The function D is called dissipation function. . that the function 1 D = xT cx x = {x1 .... such a damping can be included in the Lagrange’s equation in the following way ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − + + = Qn (2.161) Now we may conclude that the function 2. ∂D ˙ = {cn1 ..xn ...... It must be noted that the dissipation function does not represent the dissipation energy.... m=N m=N ⎨ X X ∂V 1 = 2 knm xm = knm xm = {kn1 .xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ....... in a general case. m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2... Dissipation function It is easy to notice....157 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix k is symmetric and positive deﬁnite..cnn ..cnN } xn ⎪ ∂ xn ˙ ⎪ . ..knn ... . .knN } xn ⎪ ∂xn 2 m=1 ⎪ .......

the reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.2.4 Problems Problem 29 l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m2 l2 2 m1 c Figure 31 The point A of the system shown in Fig. . the diﬀerential equations of motion 2.2 · 1012 N/m2 J2 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m2 = 20kg k = 10000N/m c = 100Ns/m A1 = 0.2 · 1012 N/m2 J1 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m1 = 10kg l2 = 2m E2 = 0. the exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion 5. Produce 1.01m f1 = 30rad/s A2 = 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 112 2.165) y = A1 sin(f1 t) + A2 sin(f2 t) where A1 and A2 are amplitudes of this motion and f1 and f2 are the corresponding frequencies. the natural frequencies 3.01m f2 = 35rad/s . Given are: l1 = 1m E1 = 0. the steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation y 4. 31 moves according to the following equation (2.

F(t) = ∙ ¸ 0 cy ˙ (2.167) + + = c cy ˙ −k k + k2 m2 y2 ¨ y2 ˙ y2 or shorter m¨ + cy + ky = F(t) y ˙ where m= ∙ m1 0 0 m2 ¸ .165.166) Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ∙ y1 ˙ y1 ¨ 0 k + k1 y1 0 −k m1 (2.170) (2. the excitation cy is ˙ cy = cA1 f1 cos(f1 t) + cA2 f2 cos(f2 t) = a1 cos(f1 t) + a2 cos(f2 t) ˙ where a1 = cA1 f1 .171) . k= ∙ k + k1 −k −k k + k2 ¸ . 2.169) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 113 Solution 1. ¨ m1 y1 = −k1 y1 − ky1 + ky2 m2 y2 = −k2 y2 − ky2 + ky1 − cy2 + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ (2. 32 allows to develop its mathematical model. c= ∙ 0 0 0 c ¸ . a2 = cA2 f2 Introduction of Eq.168 yields m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) + F2 (t) y ˙ (2.168) Taking into consideration Eq. The diﬀerential equations of motion l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m1 y m2 1 l2 2 c y2 Figure 32 Utilization of the Newton-Euler approach for modelling of the system shown in Fig.170 into the equation of motion 2. 2.

. 734i (2.the natural frequencies To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 114 where F1 (t) = For the given numerical data the stiﬀness of the beam 1 at the point of attachment of the mass 1 is k1 = 3E1 J1 3 · 0. The real part indicates the rate of decay of the free vibrations.175) 2. 0 20 ∙ F1 (t) = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 0 16000 −10000 c= .179) For underdamped system the imaginary part of the above roots represents the natural frequency of the damped system.172) The stiﬀness of the beam 2 at the point of attachment of the mass 2 is k2 = Hence ¸ 10 0 m= .177) (2. 483i ω 2 = −0.171 to the state-space coordinates. F2 (t) = ∙ 0 a2 cos(f2 t) ¸ (2. Free motion .173) ∙ 0 a1 cos(f1 t) ¸ . 6741 ± 24.174) (2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 6000N/m 3 l1 13 (2. The substitution w=y ˙ results in the following set of equations z = Az ˙ where ∙ y w ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ 0 ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎣ −1600.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 12000N/m 3 l2 23 (2. F2 (t) = 30 cos(30t) 35 cos(35t) ∙ 48E2 J2 48 · 0. 8259 ± 45.178) 0 ⎦ −5 (2.176) z= . k= 0 ¸ 100 ∙ −10000 22000 ¸ 0 0 .0 500 ⎡ 0 0 1000 −1100 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 1 ⎥ ⎥ (2. A= Solution of the eigenvalue problem yields the following complex roots ω 1 = −1.

734t − ⎢ = e−0. The two last rows represents the generalized velocities along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 9755 × 10−2 cos 45. 90847 −2 −5. 90847 −2 −5. Im z02 = ⎢ 1. 8259t (1. 049 × 10−3 sin 45. ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ −1. 38263 −. 6392 × 10−2 cos 24. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 3213 × 10 = e−1. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .180) Re z02 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ (2. 483t + ⎢ −1. 26033 . 38263 −. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 9755 × 10−2 −3 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 734t + 6. 35302 −. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 46561 z22 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) sin ω 2 t + Im(z02 ) cos ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 7637 × 10 ⎥ sin 24. . 40969 ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 24. 3213 × 10 = e−1. 9162 × 10 −.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 115 According to 2. 9162 × 10 −. 9755 × 10−2 ⎢ 1.182) are presented in Fig 33. 4508 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1. the particular solutions are Solution of the eigenvector problem produces the following complex vectors. Example of the motion along the coordinate y1 . 049 × 10−3 −3 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 38263 −. 6392 × 10−2 −1. 9162 × 10 −. 26033 . 46561 z11 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) cos ω1 t − Im(z01 ) sin ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1.81. 46561 ⎤ ⎞ z12 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) sin ω 1 t + Im(z01 ) cos ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 477 × 10 ⎥ (2. 90847 −2 −5. 26033 . 049 × 10−3 1. 37705 . 4508 × 10−2 sin 24. 6741t (−1. 049 × 10−3 1. 37705 . 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 734t + ⎢ 1. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 483t + 1. 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 40969 z21 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) cos ω2 t − Im(z02 ) sin ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 35302 −. 483t) y211 = e−0. 3213 × 10 ⎥ Re z01 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . 734t) (2. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. Im z01 = ⎢ −1. 477 × 10 = e−0. 40969 ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 1. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 9755 × 10−2 −6. 35302 −. 477 × 10−3 ⎜⎢ −1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 37705 .181) The two ﬁrst rows in the above solutions represent displacement along the coordinates y1 and y2 respectively. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. associated with the particular solution z11 (y111 ) and z21 (y211 ) y111 = e−1. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 483t − ⎢ −1.

01 0 -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 116 y111[m] 0.01 0 -0.01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.02 Figure 33 .02 y211[m] 0.01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.

according to the superposition rule.189) .185 let us introduce the complex excitation ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 0 0 0 c = = eif1 t = F1 (t) = a1 eif1 t a1 a1 cos(f1 t) + ia1 sin(f1 t) ∙ ¸ 0 if1 t ei30t (2.188) (2.186) (2.5 t[s] -0.01 · sin(35 · t) y[m] (2. is y = y1 + y2 (2.185 m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) y ˙ and y2 is the particular solution of the equation 2.01 0 -0.183) 0.185) To produce the particular solution of the equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 117 3.186 m¨ + cy + ky = F2 (t) y ˙ (2. which represents the forced vibration.01 · sin(30 · t) + 0.02 Figure 34 The time history diagram of this motion is given in Fig. motion of the point A is y = 0.184) where y1 is the particular solution of the equation 2.187) = F10 e = 30 Hence the equation of motion takes form m¨ + cy + ky = F10 eif1 t y ˙ Its particular solution is c c y1 = y10 eif1 t (2. The steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation According to the given data.5 1 1.01 0. 34 The particular solution y.

4196 × 10−4 sin 35t The resultant motion of the system due to both components of excitation is y = y1 + y2 ¸ −.193. 688 × 10−3 − 7. µ∙ −3. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 7855 × 10−4 i (2. 84 × 10−4 i ∙ ¸ −. 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 688 × 10−3 − 7.00 384 cos 30t + . 183 × 10−3 − 1.00 384 − .00 112 sin 30t = −2. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 384 − . 78 × 10−4 sin 35t −2. one can obtained motion due to the excitation F2 (t) c 2 y20 = (−f2 m+if2 c + k)−1 F20 = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ µ 10 0 0 0 16000 −10000 0 2 + 35i + = = −35 0 20 0 100 −10000 22000 35 ¸ ∙ −3.190) −2.193) This resultant motion of the system along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 84 × 10−4 i The motion of the system. as the real part of 2. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t Similarly. 41 × 10−4 sin 35t ∙ (2. 1 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 8 × 10−4 sin 30t − 1. 1546 × 10−3 − 3.189 is ¶ µ∙ ¸ −. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t = −1.00 11 sin 30t − 3. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 4196 × 10−4 i ¸ i35t ¶ (2.00 384 cos 30t + .192) . 183 × 10−3 − 1. 6 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7.00 112i i30t y1 = Re e −2.00 112i = (2. is shown in Fig. 4196 × 10−4 i Hence y2 = Re e ¸ ∙ −3.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 118 where c 2 y10 = (−f1 m+if1 c + k)−1 F10 = ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ µ 16000 −10000 0 0 10 0 0 2 + + 30i = = −30 −10000 22000 0 100 0 20 30 ∙ ¸ −. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t ∙ ¸ −3. 7855 × 10−4 i −1. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t = ¸ ∙ −. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 35 and 36 respectively.191) = −1. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1.00 112 sin 30t + = −2. computed according to the equation 2. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 38 cos 30t + . 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t + −1. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7.

5 1 1.01 Figure 36 .005 0.005 0 -0.5 1 1.5 t[s] -0.01 Figure 35 y2[m] 0.005 0 -0.005 0.5 t[s] -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 119 y1[m] 0.

648 cos 30t + 34.196) Diagram of this force is presented in Fig. If the point A moves with the velocity y and in the same time the mass m2 moves with the ˙ velocity y2 . m2 y2 Therefore.194) .01 · sin 35t) + d − dt (−2. 1405 sin 35t[N] (2. 4 · 10−4 sin 35t)) = = 27. . 1 · 10−3 cos 35t + 1. according to the equation 2. the relative velocity of the point A with respect to the mass m2 is ˙ v = y − y2 ˙ ˙ (2.183.193 we have d FA = 100( dt (0. 8 · 10−4 sin 30t+ −1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 120 4.195) FA = c (y − y2 ) Hence. The exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion y2 c y A y Figure 37 To develop the expression for the force necessary to move the point A according to the assumed motion 2. let us consider the damper c shown in Fig. 37. 503 cos 35t − 8. to realize this motion.38 .01 · sin 30t + 0. 064 sin 30t − 4. it is necessary to apply at the point A the following force ˙ ˙ (2.183 and 2. 6 · 10−3 cos 30t + 7.

197) where P is dependent on the instantaneous displacement y1 .00 38 cos 30t+.200) . 15×10−3 cos 35t+3.193 P = k1 y1 = (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 121 FA[N] 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 0.199) Hence ¡ ¢ RB =6000 −. The reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B. 78×10−4 sin 35t (2. 39 RB = P MB = P l1 (2. P l 1 J1 E 1 B MB RB y1 Figure 39 According to Fig.198) y1 = −.173 3E1 J1 3 · 0.00 11 sin 30t − 3.00 38 cos 30t+.5 t[s] Figure 38 5. 78×10−4 sin 35t ¡ ¢ MB =6000·1· −.00 38 cos 30t + . 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. This relationship is determined by the formula 2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 y1 = = 6000y1 3 l1 13 The motion along the coordinate y1 is determined by the function 2.00 11 sin 30t−3. 15×10−3 cos 35t + 3. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t (2.00 11 sin 30t−3.5 1 1.

m= m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I . shown in Fig. the natural frequencies of the system 2.201) . 42 and released with the initial velocity equal to zero. in terms of the coordinates x and ϕ (see Fig.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 122 Problem 30 The link 1 of a mass m1 .05 m k = 1000 N/m a = 0. the link 1 was placed to the position shown in Fig. x= x ϕ . the normalized natural modes 3. The equation of motion. the equation motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ due to the given initial conditions.202) At the instant t = 0.01 m Produce: 1. can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. 40. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ (2. the diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates 4. All motion is in the vertical plane. For the following data: m1 = 2 kg m2 = 1 kg R = 0. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r is hinged to the link 1 at the point A by means of the massless and rigid rod 4. 41) have been formulated in page 81 to be m¨ + kx = 0 x where 2 I = m2 r2 5 (2. k= 2k 0 0 m2 gR .1 m r = .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 123 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 40 y 1 x k o k x 3 2 r R ϕ G Figure 41 y 1 a k o k x 3 2 r R Figure 42 .

206) ¯ 2 2 n n ¯ −. 1 · 22.1 1 · 0.g.9362 + 1000.0 . ¯∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ −3.0 · 22. X1 = 1) and the other may be produced from the ﬁrst equation of the set 2.203) = m = .0 = −10.207) For ω n = ω1 = 9.208) 1 Φ1 = − 3. 936.0 Φ 0 This set of equations has non-zero solution if and only if its determinant is equal to zero. 1ω2 Φ1 = 0 1 1 (2. the inertia matrix and the stuﬃness matrix are 2 · 1 · 0.0 −. 0913 the equations 2.12 + 0. Hence the equation for the natural frequencies is.0 11ω n + 1. 1ω n −.0) = 90.0 11 1 · 0.001 kgm2 I = 5 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 3.0 0 1 · 10 · 0. 1ωn −. 1 . carried out for the natural frequency ω2 = 22.108 (page 102) one can write the following set of equations (−ω 2 m + k)X = 0 n (2. 091 3 ω1 = 9.99 2 .001 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1000. 936 −22.936 X1 = 1 −3. 0913 ω2 = 22. The natural frequencies and the natural modes According to the given numerical data the moment of inertia of the ball.1 (2.205 become linearly dependent.205) 2 2 −.0 · 9. 936 [s−1 ] ¤ (2.991 2 . Hence for the given numerical data we are getting ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −3.0 = 0 (2.0X1 − .1 According to 2. one of the unknown can be chosen arbitrarily (e.205. 936 9. (2. X2 = 1 Φ2 = ¡ ¢ 1 −3.0 0 1000 0 = k = 0 1.204) where ω stands for the natural frequency and X is the corresponding natural mode. 1ω 2 X 0 n n = (2.0 11ωn + 1.0 ¯ Its roots: yield the wanted natural frequencies £ 22.092 + 1000.0ω2 + 1000.0ω2 + 1000. 091 3 −9.0 −.yields the second mode.0 23ω4 − 14.0ω 2 + 1000.Similar consideration. 1 2 + 1 1 · 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 124 Solution 1. 1ω2 n n ¯ = .0913 These two numbers form the ﬁrst mode of vibrations corresponding to the ﬁrst natural frequency ω 1 . Therefore. 1 · 9.0X1 ω2 + 1000.209) .052 = 0.

1 . 1 9. 99 = 112. 1 .0 . Indeed.991 (2.99 −10. 4375 × 10−2 8. 1 1 1 90.0 .211) (2. 68507 Ξ= 8. 1 . 5296 (2. 4375 × 10−2 .0 11 . 596 ¤ ∙ (2. Normalization of the natural modes According to 2. 4375 × 10−2 Ξ1 = = (2. 68507 Ξ2 = = −7. 5872 = .215) These two vectors forms the normalized modal matrix Ξ. ¸ ∙ 9. 1306 λ2 = 1 −10.991 ¸ (2.991 √ λ2 = 2.213) Division of the eigenvector X1 by the factor λ1 yields the normalized mode Ξ1 .0 11 −10.217) = 0 1 .214) 8.121 the normalization factor is XT mXn = λ2 n n Hence λ2 1 = £ ¸∙ ¸ 3. one can create the modal matrix X = [X1 .0 11 90. ΞT mΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. 5872 −7. 5872 −7. X2 = X1 = 90. 4597 −10. 1 1 2 = 2.99 Similar procedure allows the second normalized mode to be obtained ∙ ¸∙ ¸ £ ¤ 3.991 2. ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1 1 . 68507 −7.99 −10. 4597 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 . 27 .212) (2. 5296 1.0 . ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 9. 1306 = 1. 4375 × 10−2 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 125 Now. 596 90. 27 = 10.216) The normalized eigenvectors must be orthogonal with respect to both the inertia matrix and the stiﬀness matrix. 68507 3.99 √ λ1 = 112.991 . 5296 8. 5872 10.210) In this case the modal matrix has two eigenvectors X1 and X2 . 5296 ¸ ∙ 1 0 (2. X2 ] = ∙ 1 1 90.

36 is v01 sin ω 1 t + η 01 cos ω 1 t η1 = ω1 v02 η2 = sin ω 2 t + η 02 cos ω 2 t (2.220) into 2.3024 × 10−2 .224) ω2 Where η 01 and η 02 stand for the initial position whereas v01 and v02 stand for the initial velocity of the system along the normal coordinates. (ΞT mΞ)¨ +(ΞT kΞ)η = 0 η (2.01142 = (2. The diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates Introducing the substitution 2. 5296 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 2 ¸ 82.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 126 and ΞT kΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. It can be obtained by transforming the initial conditions from the physical coordinates to the normal coordinates. 02 0 ω2 0 (22.142 .218) 2 0 526. 4375 × 10−2 . 091)2 η 1 = 0 ¨ η 2 + (22.3024 −1. 5296 8.222) 0 1 0 (22. 68507 1000 0 9. 647 0 (9.1039 Xo a 0.221) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions. 4375 × 10−2 8. 935)2 η 2 = 0 ¨ (2.223) The general solution of the above set of the diﬀerential equations.01 η 01 −1 −1 = = Ξ =Ξ 1.1 . ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ∙ 1. 5872 −7. 935) 2 3. according to 1.4313 × 10−2 0 0 η 02 Φo ∙ ¸ .225) 1. These initial conditions must be formulated along the normal coordinates. 5872 = 0 1 · 10 · 0. the equations of motion are of the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ 1 0 (9. 935)2 or η 1 + (9. 68507 −7.201 and premultiplying them from the left hand side by ΞT we are getting the diﬀerential equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates η.131 x = Ξη that in the case considered has the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ η1 X = Ξη = Ξ Φ η2 (2. 091)2 0 η+ ¨ η=0 (2. 091)2 ω1 0 0 = = = (2.219) (2.

01142 cos 9.05 0 -0. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1. 68507 . 8066 × 10−2 cos 9. 091t − 9. one has to transform the motion along the normal coordinates beck to the physical ones.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.228) = 9. 0778 × 10−3 cos 9.5 1 1.01142 cos 9.226) (2.227) 4. 4375 × 10−2 .219. 091t + 8. Hence. 5872 −7. using the relationship 2.5 t[s] Figure 44 . 935t This motion is presented in Fig.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.091t X = Ξη = = 1. 9224 × 10−3 cos 22.005 -0. 8066 × 10−2 cos 22.091t η 2 = η 02 cos ω 2 t = 1.5 t[s] -0.15 0.05 -0.01 X[m] 0.15 Φ [rad] 0. The equations of motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ To produce equation of motion along the physical coordinates.1 -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 127 Introduction of the above initial conditions into the equations 2. 935t (2. we are getting ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ 9.935t Φ 8.935t ∙ v01 v02 ¸ = ∙ 0 0 ¸ (2. 43 and 44 0.224 results in motion of the system along the normal coordinates η 1 = η 01 cos ω 1 t = .01 Figure 43 0.5 1 1.2 0.1 0.005 0 0.

is supported by means of the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c as shown in Fig. length L and the moment of inertia about its point of rotation IA . Its end D is ﬁxed and the particle 3 of mass m is attached to the end C. 45. The beam 2 is massless and the Young’s modulus E and the second moment of area J determine its dynamic properties.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 128 Problem 31 L A 1 F=F cosω t o B M.J D 3 l Figure 45 2 The rigid beam 1 of mass M. Derive an expression for the ﬁxing moment and the ﬁxing force at the point D due to the exciting force F that is applied to the system at the point B. . I A k C c E.

K= .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 129 Problem 32 1 O1 s1 k1 c s2 k2 A m1 I O1 G1 G2 b m 2 I O2 O2 a 2 F cosω 1 t 1 k F cosω 2 t 2 Figure 46 The two rods. Answer: RA = Φ2 ak2 . the expression for the forced vibrations of the rods Answer: X = X1 + X2 ¸ ∙ F1 b cos ω 1 t X1 . These rods are connected to each other by means of springs of the stiﬀness k. 1 and 2. Their mass and their moment of inertia about their points of rotation are respectively m1 . IO1 . k1 . k2 and as well as the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. F2 and frequencies ω1 and ω2 . Φ2 . the diﬀerential equation of the small vibrations of the system in the matrix form Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx¸= F ∙ x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −kb2 ca2 −ca2 k1 a2 + kb2 + m1 gs1 Io1 0 . and m2 . are suspended in the vertical plane as shown in Fig.particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ cos ω 2 t −F2 b 3. The centres of gravity of these rods are denoted by G1 and G2 respectively. F= −F2 b 0 ϕ2 2. Produce 1. Vibrations of the system are excited by the two harmonic forces of amplitudes F1 .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ ∙ 0 ¸ 0 X2 . the expression for the dynamic reaction at the point A. M= 2 2 ca∙ −kb2 k2 a2 + kb2 + m2 gs2 ¸−ca ¸ ∙ 0 ¸ Io2 ∙ ϕ1 F1 b 0 cos ω 1 t + cos ω2 t x= . IO2 .the lower element of the matrix X . 46. C= .

K= . the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the standard matrix form. Produce 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 130 Problem 33 b 3 a m M G m1. Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ IA + M(h2 + a2 ) 0 c1 b2 + c2 a2 −c2 a k1 b 0 M= . To attenuate the vibrations of the beam the block 2 of mass m2 was attached. 0 m2 −c2 a 0 k2 c2 ∙ √ ¸ ∙ ¸ α mµω 2 h2 + a2 . The rotor of this motor rotates with the constant velocity ω. 47) is hinged at the point A and is supported at the point C by means of the spring of stiﬀness k1 and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c1 . It can be approximated by a particle of the mass M that is concentrated at the point G that is located by the dimensions h and a. The motor 3 is mounted on this beam. C= . The damping coeﬃcient of the damper between the beam and the block is denoted by c2 and the stiﬀness of the supporting spring in denoted by k2 . Its mass and its moment of inertia about A are m1 and IA respectively.IA c1 C A B c2 2 m2 k1 1 ω h µ k2 D Figure 47 The rigid beam 1 (see Fig. F= cos ωt x= x 0 . Its mass is equal to m and its unbalance is µ.

x .the angular displacement of the beam1. .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 131 α . Produce the expression for the interaction forces at the point A and D.the linear displacement of the block 2 2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

132

Problem 34

l A G k

l

F C

l D

α

B

β

k

Figure 48 Three uniform platforms each of the length l, the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG are hinged together to form a bridge that is shown in Fig. 48. This bridge is supported by means of two springs each of the stiﬀness k. This system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates are denoted by α and β. There is an excitation force F applied at the hinge C. This force can be adopted in the following form F = Fo cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equations of motion of the system and present them in the standard form Answer: M¨ + Kx = F ¸ x ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 1 0 α 0 −1 2 2 3 6 ml ; K = kl ; x = ; F= M= cos ωt 2 0 1 β Fo l −1 3 6 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system Answer: |K − 1ω n | = 0 3. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 A −1 2 X = [−ω M + K] cos ωt = Fo l B 4. the expression for the interaction force between the spring attached to the hinge B and the ground Answer: R = Akl cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

133

Problem 35

1

L

m1,IA x k m k1 B c

ϕ

2

A

y

Figure 49 Figure. 49 shows the physical model of a trolley. It was modelled as a system with two degree of freedom. Its position is determined by two generalized coordinates x and ϕ. The moment of inertia of he trolley about the point A is denoted by IA and its mass by m1 . The dynamic properties of the shock-absorber are approximated by the spring of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. Mass of the wheels 2 are denoted by m and the stiﬀness of its tire is k1 . Motion of the trolley is excited by roughnees of the road. It causes motion of the point B according to the following function. y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system 3. the expression for the amplitudes of the steady state vibration of the system 4. the expression for the amplitude of the interaction force between the tire and suface of the road..

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

134

Problem 36

y A c3 m3 k3 3

2 4

r m2,I2

k2 k1 m1

1

c1 B

Figure 50 In Fig. 50 the physical model of a winch is shown. The blocks 1 and 3 are rigid and their masses are respectively m1 and m3 respectively. The rigid pulley 2 has radius r, mass m2 and the moment of inertia about its axis of rotation I2 . The elastic properties of the rope 4 are modeled by two springs of stiﬀness k1 and k2 . The point A moves with respect to the axis y according to the following equation. y = a cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

135

⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Answer: ⎡ 0 0 m1 c1 0 0 M = ⎣ 0 m2 + m3 0 ⎦ ; C = ⎣ 0 c3 0 ⎦ 0 I2 0⎤ 0 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎡ −k1 −k1 r k1 x1 0 K = ⎣ −k1 k1 + k2 + k3 k1 r − k2 r ⎦ F = ⎣ ak3 ⎦ cos ωt; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ −k1 r k1 r − k2 r (k1 + k2 ) r2 0 ϕ x1 - the linear displacement of the block 1 x2 - the linear displacement of the pulley 2 and the block 3 ϕ - the angular displacement of the pulley 2 2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: The particular solution xp of the equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ The ﬁrst element xp1 of the matrix xp represents displacement of the block 1 3. the expression for the interaction force at point B. Answer RB = c1 xp1 ˙

and I3 are connected to each other by means of the massless shafts that the torsional stiﬀness are k1 . k2 and k3 respectively.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 136 Problem 37 I1 I2 I3 D2 D1 T3 k1 k2 Figure 51 k3 Figure 51 shows the physical model of a compressor. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system 3. the expression for the toque transmitted through the shaft k1. There is a torque T3 applied to the disk I3 . the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. It can be approximated by the following function T3 = T cos ωt Produce: 1. The shaft k1 is connected to the shaft k2 by means of the gear of ratio i = D1 /D2 . I2 . M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. The disks of moment of inertia I1 . .

232) .230) D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 iϕ11 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 (2.231) According to the third Newton’s law we have F12 = F21 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 137 Solution ϕ2 ϕ3 ϕ22 F21 F12 T3 I1 ϕ2 ϕ22 I2 ϕ3 I3 D2 T3 D1 ϕ11 ϕ1 ϕ1 ϕ11 k1 k2 k3 Figure 52 To produce the equations of motion of the system one may split it into ﬁve rigid bodies (Newton approach) and write the following set of equations I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 ϕ22 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 ϕ22 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 where F12 F21 stand for the interaction forces between the rear D1 and D2 . In the above equations not all variables are independent. ϕ22 = iϕ11 Hence the equations can be rewritten as follows I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ (2.229) (2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 138 Hence the second and third equation yields F12 = 2 2 (k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 ) = (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) = F21 D1 D2 k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 = (2. C = 0.235) (2. K = ⎣ −ke ke + k3 −k3 ⎦ . second and ﬁfth equation of the set 2.239) T cos ωt ⎡ ⎤ . x = ⎣ ϕ2 ⎦ I3 0 −k3 k3 ϕ3 ⎡ ⎤ 0 ⎦ 0 F =⎣ (2.231 one can get ¨ I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + I2 ϕ2 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 or µ ¶ 1 ϕ I1 (i¨ 1 ) = −ke (iϕ1 ) + ke ϕ2 i2 I2 ϕ2 = −ke ϕ2 − k3 ϕ2 + ke (iϕ1 ) + k3 ϕ3 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ke = 2 k1 ik1 k2 ϕ1 + ϕ k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 2 k1 k2 i i2 k2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + ϕ1 + ϕ + k3 ϕ3 k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 (2.233) D1 (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) D2 The equation 2.238) M =⎣ I2 The same results one can get by means of the Lagrange’s equations ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ −ke 0 ke iϕ1 ⎦ .233 allows the angular displacement ϕ11 to be expressed in terms of the displacements ϕ1 and ϕ2 .237) (2. ϕ11 = k1 ik2 ϕ + ϕ 2 1 k1 + k2 i k1 + k2 i2 2 (2.236) k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 The above set of equations can be now presented in the matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ where ⎡ 1 I i2 1 where (2.234) Introduction of this relationship into the ﬁrst.

240) . ∂ϕ2 ∂T =0 ∂ϕ3 ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂V 1 ∂ϕ11 1 ∂ϕ11 = = − 1 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) −i k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 = i2 ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 ¶ ¶ µ µ 1 1 1 ∂ϕ11 ∂V ∂ϕ11 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) 1 − i + k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (−1) = k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) = ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 = −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 ∂V 1 = k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (1) = ∂ϕ3 2 = −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 The virtual work produced by the impressed forces acting on the system is δW = (0) ϕ1 + (0) ϕ2 + (T3 ) ϕ3 Introduction of the above expressions into the following Lagrange’s equations ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = Q1 dt ∂ ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q2 dt ∂ ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q3 dt ∂ ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 139 The kinetic energy function and the potential energy function of the system considered are 1 1 1 T = I1 ϕ2 + I2 ϕ2 + I3 ϕ2 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 V 1 k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 1 = k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 = d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ3 ˙ ∂T ∂ϕ1 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − ϕ22 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 = 2 2 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − iϕ11 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 2 2 Hence = I1 ϕ1 ¨ = I2 ϕ2 ¨ = I3 ϕ3 ¨ = 0. ∂T = 0.

I1r = 1 1 1 1 1 = + = k1 + ke k1r k2 k2 i2 It is ke = k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 140 yields the wanted equations of motion of the system considered ¨ I1 ϕ1 + ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 = 0 ¨ I2 ϕ2 + −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 or ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 µ (2.241) They are identical with the equation 2. 53 ϕ1r= iϕ1 I1r=I1 / i2 k1r=k1 / i D2 2 ϕ2 I2 ϕ3 I3 T3 D1 I1 ϕ1 k1 k2 k3 Figure 53 In this ﬁgure I1 k1 .239.244) . k1r = 2 (2.243) (2. It is easy to see that precisely the same equations possesses the system presented in Fig. reduced moment of inertia and reduced stiﬀness.242) 2 i i stands for so called reduced displacement. The equivalent stiﬀness of the shaft assembled of the shaft k2 and k1r can be produced from the following equation ϕ1r = iϕ1 .

53 are as follows µ ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 141 Hence. the equations of motion of the system presented in Fig.245) ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 .

Vibrations of the pendulum about the horizontal axis Z are excited by the harmonic moment M applied to the body 1. These bodies possess masses m1 and m2 and the moments of inertia about the axis through their centers of gravity (G1. The system has two degrees of freedom and the generalized coordinates are denoted by q1 and q2 . G2) are I1 and I2 respectively. the diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the pendulum and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 142 Problem 38 M=Mocosωt O c1 l q1 G1 1 Y A a b c2 c k c q1 q2 k 2 B G2 X Figure 54 Two rigid bodies 1 and 2 were hinged together at the point A to form the double pendulum whose physical model is shown in Fig. Produce: 1.??.

x= IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) IG2 m2 c2 ¸ ∙ q2 ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 ∙ m1 gc1 + m2 g(l + c2 ) 0 0 Mo m2 gc2 K= . F= 0 2ca2 m2 gc2 m2 gc2 + 2kb2 0 2. the expression for the interaction force between the damper and the body 1 at the point B. ¸ ¸ ∙ Answer: ∙ IG1 + m1 c2 + IG2 + m2 (l + c2 )2 IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) q1 1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 143 Take advantage of Lagrange’s equations. M= . C= . . the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the pendulum 3.

The angular displacement α deﬁnes the instantaneous position of this assembly. Its centre of gravity G r is located by the distances a and b. This rotor is unbalanced and its centre of gravity is oﬀ from its axis of rotation by µ.1 and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ . Its moment of inertia about the axis X-X is I X . This assembly is furnished with the dynamic absorber of vibrations.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 144 Problem 39 B X Gr V X R Ω α kv cv kd kv cd l cv e a b d D x Figure 55 The assembly of the ventilator V and its base B (see Fig. This assembly is free to rotate about the horizontal axis X-X and is kept in the horizontal position by means of two springs each of stiﬀness k v and two dampers each of the damping coeﬃcient c v . The block D can translate along the inertial axis x only. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the system shown in Fig. the spring of stiﬀness k d and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c d . Produce: 1. It is made of the block D of mass m d . 55) can be considered as a rigid body. The rotor R of the ventilator V possesses a mass m R and rotates with a constant angular velocity Ω.

Ix 0 . M= 0 m ¸ ∙ ¸ 2cv e2 + cd l2 −cd l 2kv d2 + kd l2 −kd l C= . The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system along the coordinates x and α 3. The expression for the force transmitted to foundation by the damper c v . K= . ∙ . F= cos Ωt x= x 0 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 145 ¸ ∙ Answer. −c l −kd l c kd ∙ d √ ¸ ∙ ¸ d α mR µΩ2 a2 + b2 .

The system performs small oscillation in the vertical plane XY . The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. The support 5 moves along the horizontal axis Y according to the following function Y = a cos ωt The lower end of the rod is connected to the blocks 2 and 3 by means of two springs 4 each of stiﬀness k. 56 is hinged at the point A to the support 5. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the and present it in the following matrix form. 3. It possesses three degrees of freedom and the three independent coordinates are denoted by y2 and y3 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 146 Problem 40 Y 5 A Y 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 2 α B 4 X Figure 56 The uniform rod 1 of mass m and length l shown in Fig. The blocks mass is m2 and m3 respectively. The expression for the driving force that must be applied to the point A in order to assure the assumed motion Y (t). Produce: 1. .

d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = 0 dt ∂ α ∂α ˙ ∂α ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y2 ∂y2 ∂y2 ˙ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y3 ∂y3 ∂y3 ˙ (2.248) (2. rG1 = J(Y + l l sin α) + I( cos α) 2 2 (2.249) .247) Its ﬁrst derivative provide us with the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity.246) To produce the kinetic energy function T associated with the the rod 1. the kinetic energy of the rod is ¶ µ 1 1 l l 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ T1 = m (Y + α cos α) + (− α sin α) + IG1 α2 2 2 2 2 (2. let us develop the position vector of its centre of gravity G1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 147 Solution Y 5 A rG1 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 Y 2 α B 4 X Figure 57 Motion of the system is governed by the Lagrange equations. l l ˙ ˙ ˙ rG1 = J(Y + α cos α) + I(− α sin α) ˙ 2 2 Hence.

252) .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 148 Since the kinetic energy of the blocks 2 and 3 is as follows 1 T2 = m2 y2 ˙2 2 1 T3 = m3 y3 ˙2 2 (2. the total potential energy is 1 1 l V = Vs + Vg = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 − mg cos α (2.255) (2.253) (2. x = ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎦=⎣ ⎣ k2 a (2. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F cos ωt x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 mgl + k2 l2 + k3 l2 −k2 l −k3 l IG + 1 ml2 0 4 2 0 m2 0 ⎦ .254 into equations 2. 58 (2. The free body diagrams are shown in Fig.251) ˙ ˙ ˙2 ˙2 2 2 8 2 2 2 The potential energy of the springs 4 is 1 1 Vs = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 2 2 The potential energy due to gravitation is l Vg = −mgrG1Y = −mg cos α 2 Hence.256) F = k2 Y k3 a y3 k3 Y ⎡ To verify the above equations of motion let us employ the Newton-Euler method for modeling of the system considered.254) 2 2 2 Introducing the expressions 2.250) the total kinetic energy of the whole system is 1 ˙ 1 1 1 1 1 ˙ ˙ T = T1 +T2 +T3 = mY 2 + mlY α cos α+ ml2 α2 + IG1 α2 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 (2. C = 0.246 one can get the required equation in the following matrix form. K = ⎣ −k2 l k2 0 ⎦ M = ⎣ 0 k3 0 0 m3 −k3 l ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 ⎡ ¨ α + 2 mlaω2 − a (k2 l + k3 l) − 2 mY − (k2 l + k3 l) Y ⎦ .251 and 2.

257 gives 1 ¨ IG α = − lmaG1Y + R2Y l + R3Y l 2 (2. l l l l ¨ ¨G1 = J(Y + α cos α − α2 sin α) + I(− α sin α − α2 cos α) r ¨ ˙ ¨ ˙ 2 2 2 2 Hence After linearization l l ¨ ¨ ˙ aG1Y = Y + α cos α − α2 sin α 2 2 l ¨ aG1Y = Y + α ¨ 2 (2.259) In the latest equation aG1Y stands for the component Y of the absolute acceleration of the centre of gravity G1 . It can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of the absolute velocity vector 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 149 Y RAX 5 A RAY Y 1 l 3 G1 y3 y2 G1 2 α B R3Y 4 R3Y R2Y R2Y X Figure 58 For the rod one can produce the following two equations 1 ¨ IG α = − RAY l + 2 maG1Y = RAY + R2Y 1 1 R2Y l + R3Y l 2 2 + R3Y (2.257) The second equation can be used for determination of the unknown interaction force RAY .260) (2.258) RAY = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y Introduction of the above expression into the ﬁrst equation of 2.261) (2.247.262) . (2.

264 we have ¨ m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y Hence.268) ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y They are identical with 2.264) Introducing them into equation 2. R3Y = k3 (y3 − Y − αl) (2.265) (2. M¨ + Kx = F cos ωt x (2.271) (2. It can be predicted as x = A cos ωt Introducing it into the equation of motion we have (−ω 2 M + K)A = F The wanted vector of the amplitudes of the system forced vibrations is ⎤ ⎡ Aα A =(−ω2 M + K)−1 F = ⎣ Ay2 ⎦ Ay3 (2.262 into 2.266) (2.267) The amplitudes of the forced vibration could be obtained from the particular solution of the above equation.263) The interaction forces between the rod and the springs are can be expressed as follows R2Y = k2 (y2 − Y − αl).259 results in the following equation l 1 ¨ IG α = − lm(Y + α) + R2Y l + R3Y l ¨ ¨ 2 2 (2.269) (2.270) (2. the governing equations are 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ (2.263 one can obtain 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 The Newton’s law if apply to the blocks 2 and 3 yields m2 y2 = −R2Y ¨ m3 y3 = −R3Y ¨ Since the interaction forces are deﬁned by 2.255.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 150 Introduction of 2.272) .

the interaction force RAY can be produced as an explicit function of time from 2. 1 U1 2 ω B A m1 U2 ϕ1 ωt F2 Ui1 m2 ϕ2 ωt B A Ui2 Ui x2 F1 x1 Figure 59 In a general case. Each of this forces can be replaced by two forces Ui1 and Ui2 acting in . They are distributed along. RAY 2.273) 2 −k (A − a − Aα l) cos ωt − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt ¶ ¶ µ 2 µ y2 l 2 = m −a − Aα ω − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt 2 = |RAY | cos ωt ¯ ¡ ¯ ¢ l where |RAY | = ¯m −a − 2 Aα ω2 − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l)¯ is the amplitude of the interaction force.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 151 Now.258 = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y ¶ µ l ¨ ¨ = m Y + α − k2 (y2 − Y − αl) − k3 (y3 − Y − αl) 2 µ ¶ l 2 2 = m −aω − Aα ω cos ωt + (2. 59). the centres of gravity of the individual cross-sections do not have to coincide with this axis of rotation.1 Balancing of rotors Let us consider a rigid rotor that rotates with an angular velocity ω about the axis A − A (see Fig. line B − B.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 2. usually unknown. 59).3. Its follows that due to rotation of this body at each cross-section i there exists the centrifugal force Ui (see Fig. due to the limited accuracy of manufacturing.

one can eliminate this unbalance of the rotor by means of two weights of mass m1 and m2 attached at such a position that the centrifugal forces F1 and F2 balance the resultant forces U1 and U2 .denoted in Fig. if the rotor of this machine can be approximated by a rigid body. 1 2 x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 x4 4 4 ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt ωt U 1o U1 x2 t U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a4 a 4o β3 a 3o a3 x3 β3 β4 ωt x3 ωt Figure 60 Let us consider the rotating machine shown in Fig. According to the above discussion. The process of searching for magnitude of the unbalance forces U1 and U2 and their phases ϕ1 and ϕ2 is called balancing. 60. are .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 152 two arbitrarily chosen planes. Each of them is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The balancing of a rotor can be performed with help of a specially design machines before it is installed or can be carried out after its installation ’in its own bearings’. These two arbitrarily chosen planes. 60 by nubers 1 and 2. the unbalance forces can be represented by forces U1 and U2 in two arbitrarily chosen plane. therefore their resultants U1 and U2 are perpendicular to the axis of rotation too. Hence. The second approach for balancing rotors is consider in this section.

j (iω) would be known. These planes. Let us arrange for these vibrations to be recorded in two arbitrarily chosen planes. creates a timing reference mark on the rotor. This mark. The transducer 5. shown in Fig. a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . β 2 ) to be measured.275) If the transfer functions Ri. For long rotors. U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . marked in Fig. allows the phases of the unbalance forces (ϕ1 . this relation would allow the unknow magnitudes of the unbalance as well as their phases to be determined. these plane should oﬀer an easy access and allow additional weights to be attached. there are numerous practical considerations for proper selection. the balancing planes should be chosen as far apart as possible. Test (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (1) m (1) U o (1) U (1) ϕ (1) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (1) 4o a (1) 4 (1) β4 β3 (1) (1) a 3o a3 x3 (1) ωt ωt Figure 61 . The equation 2. Although the selection of the balancing planes is arbitrary. 60 by N. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸∙ a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 = (2. These unbalance forces excite vibrations of this machine.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 153 called balancing plane. Let a3 and a4 be the complex displacements measured in the measurement plasen along the coordinates x3 and x4 with help of the two transducers 3 and 4. 60 by numbers 3 and 4. which is called key phasor.96 oﬀers the relationship between the unknown unbalance forces U1 and U2 and the measured displacements a3 and a4 . In order to identify the transfer functions two additional tests are required.274) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 where a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . U2 = U2o eiϕ2 (2. Furthermore. are called measurement planes. ϕ2 ) and the phases of the recorded displacements (β 1 . for example.

(1) U (1) = Uo eiϕ (2. (1) (1) (1) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 154 An additionl trial weight of mass m(1) (see Fig 61) is attached in the balancing plane 1 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(1) and the know distance µ(1) . The amplitude of this force U (2) is (2) Uo = m(2) µ(2) ω2 (2. There is the following . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (1) . # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 U1 + U (1) = (2. Test (2) (1) (1) (1) a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . The amplitude of this force U (1) is (1) Uo = m(1) µ(1) ω2 (2.276) The response of the system is recorded in both measurment planes so the amplitudes (1) (1) (1) (1) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained. The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (2) .278) (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (2) m (2) Uo (2) U (2) ϕ (2) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (2) 4o a (2) 4 (2) β4 β3 (2) (2) a 3o a3 x3 (2) ωt ωt Figure 62 An additional trial weight of mass m(2) (see Fig 62) is attached in the balancing plane 2 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(2) and the know distance µ(2) . There is the following relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.279) The response of the system is recorded in both measurement planes so the amplitudes (2) (2) (2) (2) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained.277) (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .

285) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4o eiβ 4 U2o eiϕ2 . (2) (2) (2) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3o eiβ 3 U1o eiϕ1 = = (2.284) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 where a3 and a4 represent the know response of the system without the additional weights.281) The formulated equations 2.274. To achieve that let us subtract the equations 2. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (2) U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 + U (2) a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 .274 from 2.274 from 2.280) (2) (2) U (2) = Uo eiϕ (2. the wanted complex imbalances U1 and U2 in the plane 1 and 2 may be computed from the equation 2. (2) (2) (2) (2. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .277 # ∙ Ã" ¸ µ∙ ¸! ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶ (1) a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 a3 U1 + U (1) − = − (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 U2 a4 a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . " # ∙ ¸ ∙ (1) ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 − a3 U = (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) 0 a4 − a4 " # ∙ ¸ (1) a3 − a3 R31 (iω)U (1) = (1) R41 (iω)U (1) a4 − a4 a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R31 (iω) = 3 (1) = 3o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R41 (iω) = 4 (1) = 4o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2.274 ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2. if one subtracts equations 2.283) Now.280 allow the unknown transfer functions and the wanted unbalances U1 and U2 to be computed.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 155 relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.280 one can get a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R32 (iω) = 3 (2) = 3o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R42 (iω) = 4 (2) = 4o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2. 2.282) Similarly.277 and 2.

should be place at angular position (see Fig.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 156 The amplitudes U1o and U2o determine the weights m1 and m2 that should be attached in the balancing planes m1 = m2 U1 r1 ω 2 U2 = r2 ω 2 (2.286) These weights. to balance the rotor.287) x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 4 x4 4 m1 r1 β1 ϕ1 U1o U1 m2 r2 β2 U2o ωt x1 ωt ωt x2 ϕ2 U2 Figure 63 . 63) β 1 = 180o + ϕ1 β 2 = 180o + ϕ2 1 2 (2.

289) (2. 64b). as a function of the angular speed of the rotor is shown in Fig.total mass of the ventilator mr = 20 kg .291) M 100 allows the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the ventilator A to be predicted. 65 .0001 = . a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x mr µ ω 2 b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M M Figure 64 Let us assume that the system has the following parameters: M = 100 kg .288) ωn = M 100 Hence.3.002 2 ω = ω = . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ . Its physical model is shown in Fig. The following mathematical model M x + Kx = mr µω2 cos ωt ¨ (2.distance between the axis of rotation and the centre of gravity u = mr µ = 20 · .stiﬀness of the supporting beam ω = 314 rad/s the ventilator’s operating speed µ = . 64a).imbalance of the rotor The natural frequency of the system is r r K 9000000 = = 300 (2.292) A=¯ 2 ω n − ω2 ¯ ¯ 3002 − ω 2 ¯ Its values.0001 m .290) x + ω 2 x = q cos ωt ¨ n u 2 0. Vibration of this ventilator are due to the imbalance u if its rotor.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 157 2. within the range of the rotor angular speed 0 < ω < 500 the system can be approximated by system with one degree of freedom.0000 2ω 2 q= (2.0000 2ω 2 ¯ ¯ q ¯=¯ ¯ ¯ (2.00 2 kgm .2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations Let us consider vibration of the ventilator shown in Fig.mass of rotor of the ventilator K = 9000000 N/m .

0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[ 1/s] Figure 65 As it can be seen from this diagram. results in the following mathematical model.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 158 0. Application of the Newton’s . the ventilator develops large vibration in vicinity of its working speed ω = 314 rad/s and has to pass the critical speed during the run up.293) . elastic element of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. Such a solution is not acceptable. One of a possible way of reducing these vibration is to furnish the ventilator with the absorber of vibration shown in ﬁg 66 a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M k y k c m m y M c Figure 66 It comprises block of mass m.Euler’s method. M x + (K + k)x − ky + cx − cy = uω2 cosωt ¨ ˙ ˙ m¨ − kx + ky − cx + cy = 0 y ˙ ˙ (2.

c= .294) To analyze the forced vibrations let us introduce the complex excitation ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ M 0 x ¨ +c −c x ˙ K + k −k x + + = 0 m y ¨ −c +c ˙ ∙ ¸ ∙y 2 iωt −k ∙ +k ¸ y ¸ (2. q= .299 and the zero damping results in the following response A1 and A2 of the system along the coordinates x and y respectively. 46 0 ¯ ¯ (2. 67: Remarkable results we are getting if parameters k and m of the absorber fulﬁll the following relationship r k = ω = 314 (2. x= (2.5 −2.299) A = ¯(−ω2 m+iωc + k)−1 q¯ Amplitude A1 .301) . 46 0. as a function of the angular speed of its rotor is presented in Fig.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 159 Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ uω 2 cos ωt x K + k −k x ˙ +c −c x ¨ M 0 = + + y −k +k y ˙ −c +c y ¨ 0 m 0 (2. 46 2.297) ∙ K + k −k −k +k ¸ ∙ uω2 0 ¸ ∙ x y ¸ k= .297 one obtains the formula for the amplitude of the forced vibration ¯ ¯ (2. ¸ ∙ A1 = A= A2 ¯µ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¶−1 ∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ 100 0 0 0 11. 0 m −c +c The above equations takes form m¨ + cx + kx = qeiωt x ˙ If one predicts the particular solution as x = Aeiωt (2.295) uω 2 cos ωt + iuω 2 sin ωt uω e uω 2 iωt = = = e 0 0 0 Introducing notations ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ M 0 +c −c m= .300) m To show it let us assume m = 25 kg and compute the value of the stiﬀness k from the formula 2.002 · ω2 ¯ ¯ + iω + 106 ¯ −ω2 ¯ 0 25 0 0 −2. representing vibrations of the ventilator.300 k = mω 2 = 25 · 3142 = 2.296) and than introduces it into the equation 2. 4649 × 106 N/m Introduction of this data into equation 2.298) (2.

It can be noticed.0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] Figure 67 One can notice that the amplitude of vibration for the working speed ω = 314 rad/s is equal to zero. If the damping tends to inﬁnity. ∙ ¸ A1 = A2 ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸ ∙ ¶−1 ∙ ∙ µ c c 100 0 0. But the ventilator still has to pass resonance in vicinity of ω = 240 rad/s. 46 0 (2.002 · ω2 11.302) The amplitudes of the forced vibration of the ventilator for diﬀerent values of the damping coeﬃcient c. Damping coeﬃcient lager then 5000 results in increment of the amplitude of the ventilator’s forced vibrations. Application of the absorber of vibrations oﬀers a safe operation in region of the angular speed 0 < ω < 500 rad/s. The amplitude is less than 0. The relative motion is ceased and the system behaves like the undamped system with one degree of freedom.5 −2. 46 2 3 6 10 + + iω 10 = −ω c c 0 25 −2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 160 0. The best results of attenuation of vibrations can be achieved if the two local maxima are equal to each other. computed according to the formula 2.302 are collected in the Table 1. 46 2. .00004 m. This case is shown in the last raw of the table 1. that by increasing the damping coeﬃcient c one can lower amplitude of vibrations in all region of frequency. To improve the dynamic response. let us analyze the inﬂuence of the damping coeﬃcient c.

Table 1 0.0001 m = 25 k = 1.0001 m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c=0 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0. 46 × 106 c = 2500 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0. 46 × 106 c = 1000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.75 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 161 .0001 m = 25 k = 2.0001 m = 25 k = 2.0001 m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s ] 0.

1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3. Its position is determined by the coordinate z and its mass dm is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3.t) z dz T A(z).t) + ∂ y(z. According to the second Newton’s law µ ¶ ∂y(z. It is assumed that the tensile force T is large enough to neglect its variations due to small motion of the string around its equilibrium position.Chapter 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3.1) The free body diagram of this element is shown in Fig.2) dm ∂t2 ∂z ∂z ∂z 2 . 1.t) dz ∂z ∂ z2 2 y Figure 1 Strings are elastic elements that are subjected to tensile forces (see Fig. Motion of the string is caused by the unit vertical load f (z.1 Modelling of strings. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. ρ (z) T z ∂ y(z. 1). t) that in a general case can be a function of time t and the position z.1.t) T y(z. t) ∂y(z. 1 A(z) stands for area of cross-section of the string and (z) is its density. In the Fig.t) ∂z ∂ y(z. t) +T + = −T dz + f (z. rods and shafts Modelling of stings f(z. t)dz (3. Let us consider element dz of the sting.

t) ∂ 2 y(z.3) If one divide this equation by A(z) (z)dz it takes form ∂ 2 y(z.t) F(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Modelling of rods T . t) ∂ 2 y(z.1 into Eq.t) + ∂ F(z. A(z).t) + ∂ F(z. t) − λ2 = q(z. A q(z.2 and its simpliﬁcation yields A(z) (z) ∂ 2 y(z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.6) f(z.4) If the string is uniform ( A and ρ are independent of z ) the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y(z.t) z dz dz E(z). 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 3.t) dz ∂z y(z. t) − = 2 2 ∂t A(z) (z) ∂z A(z) (z) (3. t) dz − T dz = f (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 163 Introduction of Eq.t) dz ∂z z Figure 2 .t) F(z. t) A (3.t) F(z.t) z F(z.5) (3. ρ (z) F(z. t) = f (z. t) T f (z.

9) (3. Young’s modulus E(z) and the density (z). t) −λ = q(z. Motion of the rod is excited by the axial force f (z.t) dz ∂z dz = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. t) = f (z. in a general case. 3. are constant) one can get 2 ∂ 2 y(z.12) where λ2 = E . t) ∂ dm A(z)E(z) dz = f (z. 2 element dz. Application of the second Newton’s law to the free body diagram of the element yields. t) ∂y(z. t)dz − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z Since mass of the element is dm = A(z) (z)dz the equation of motion of the element is µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂z (3.10) (3. t) is related to the elongation of the element by Hooke’s law F (z. dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) 2 ∂ y(z. t) ∂y(z. t).7) The axial force F (z. Its instantaneous position is determined by the displacement y(z. q(z.7 one may obtain µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. t) A (3. E. Let as consider a rod of the cross-section A(z).11) (3. t) − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If the rod is uniform ( A. t)dz = −F (z. t) + ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) ∂ A(z) (z) A(z)E(z) = f (z.8) Upon introducing the above expression into Eq.13) .MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 164 Rods are elastic elements that are subjected to the axial forces. t) dz + f (z. t) = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. can be a function of position z and time t. Let us consider the highlighted in Fig. t) ∂F (z. t) + F (z. t) that.

Due to the moment τ (z.t) dz ∂z ϕ (z. ρ (z) ϕ (z. The angular position at the distance z + dz is by the total diﬀerential ∂ϕ(z. t). Let us assume that the torque τ (z. 3). t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) is distributed along the axis z and is a function of time t (see Fig.t) τ (z. J(z).t) dz greater.t) z dz T(z. The shaft has the shear modulus G(z). Let us consider the element dz of the shaft. A(z).t) z T(z.15) . t) + dz + τ (z.14) A A Owning to the generalized Newton’s law we can write the following equation dI ∂ 2 ϕ(z. the cross-section area A(z) and the second moment of area J(z). t). t) ∂T (z.t) ϕ ϕ (z. Its moment of inertia ∂z about the axis z is Z Z 2 dI = r dA (z)dz = (z)dz r2 dA = J(z) (z)dz (3.t) ϕ (z.t) dz ∂z z Figure 3 Shafts are elastic elements that are subjected to torques. t) = −T (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 165 Modelling of shafts G(z).t) + ∂ (z. the shaft performs the torsional vibrations and the instantaneous angular position of the cross-section at z is ϕ(z. the density (z).t) + ∂ T(z. t) + T (z.

∂M(z. t) and the deﬂection ϕ(z.17) (3. t) + dz = 0 V (z. t) ∂ϕ(z. cross-section A(z). The equation of motion of the beam in the z direction is dm ∂ 2 y(z. (z) and G(z) are constant. t) = +V (z. t). t) ∂T (z. t)dz dz = ∂z G(z)J(z) into Eq.2 Modelling of beams Beams are elastic elements that are subjected to lateral loads (forces or moments that have their vectors perpendicular to the centre line of a beam).15 takes form ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) dz dz + M(z. q(z. The instantaneous position of the element dz is highlighted in Fig. Let us consider a beam of the second moment of area J(z). t) − G(z)J(z) J(z) (z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If J(z). t) dz ∂M(z. 3. the equation of motion takes form. The beam performs vibrations due to the external distributed unit load f (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 166 After introduction of Eq. t) − M(z. density (z) and the Young’s modulus E(z). t) J(z) (z) = τ (z. t) 2 ∂ ϕ(z.14 and an elementary simpliﬁcation the equation 3. t) − dz + f (z. yields the relationship between the bending moment M and the shearing force V.1. t) = ∂z Since mass of the element dz is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3. t) + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z (3. t) = τ (z. t) + V (z. t) ∂V (z. 2 ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) = τ (z.21) If one neglect the inertia moment associated with rotation of the element dz.16 we are getting µ ¶ ∂ϕ(z. t) (3.16) − ∂t2 ∂z If we introduce the relationship between the torque T (z. t) (3. t) T (z.23) V (z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. 3.19) where λ2 = G .18) (3. 4.22) Simpliﬁcation of the above equation and omission of the terms of order higher then one with respect to dz. t) J (3. sum of the moments about the point G has to be equal to zero µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂V (z.20) 3. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) −λ = q(z. t) ∂ ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) − V (z.24) .

t) ∂ 4 y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.27) are constant. one can get the equation of motion in the following form ∂ 2 y(z.28) (3. t) = f (z. t) ∂M 2 (z.29) .23.25 yields µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z.26 into equation 3. A(z). t) and the bending moment M(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 4 where λ2 = EJ . motion of the ∂ 2 y(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 167 f(z.t) + ∂ V(z.25) ∂t2 ∂z 2 The mechanics of solids oﬀers the following relationship between the deﬂection of the beam y(z.t) M(z. t) A(z) (z) + = f (z. J. t) + λ2 = q(z.26) V(z. t) + 2 E(z)J(z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z 2 M(z. t) A (3. t) ∂2 A(z) (z) = f (z. t) = E(z)J(z) If the following parameters of the beam A.t)dz M(z. 3.t) y(z. ∂ 2 y(z.t) dz/2 z y Figure 4 and taking into account Eq. t) (3.t) G V(z. E and beam is governed by the following equation (3.t) z f(z.t)+ ∂ ∂z E(z). t).ρ (z) dz (3.J(z).t) dz ∂z M(z. t) ∂z 2 Introduction of equation 3. A q(z.

rods and shafts are described by the same mathematical model. y(z.35) (3. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. 3.2. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. In this case the governing equation ∂ 2 y(z. The strict solution can be produced only if parameters of the system considered are constant.36) ωn λ (3. a function of two variables.31) ∂t2 ∂z 2 Boundary conditions .38) β n = ωn E . rods and shafts The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of Eq.33) for strings for rods (3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t) − λ2 =0 (3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS As could be seen from the previous section.32) Introduction of the predicted solution 3.31 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n or Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0 n where βn = The general solution of this equation is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z where β n = ωn r A T r (3. t) − λ2 = q(z. vibrations of strings.30 describes the free vibration of the system due to a non-zero initial excitation determined by the initial conditions.30 ∂ 2 y(z. One of them is a function of the position z and the other one is a function of time t.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 168 3.34) (3.30) is classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).37) (3.natural frequencies and natural modes Let us predict the particular solution of the above equation in a form of the product of two functions. The general solution. Therefore. the equation 3. If the external excitation q(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 3. its analysis can be discussed simultaneously.1 Free vibration of strings. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.32 into equation 3. t) = 0.

39) . rods and shafts are shown in the following table. Some of the boundary conditions for strings. r G for shafts (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 169 β n = ωn The values for the parameter β n as well as the constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the boundary conditions.

1 z l y string for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free rod for for I z = 0 F = AEYn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 z l ﬁxed-free rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 k z l ﬁxed-elasticaly supported rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = −kYn z l ﬁxed-ﬁxed rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free shaft for for I z = 0 T = GJYn = 0 I z = l T = GJYn = 0 z l ﬁxed free shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 I T = GJYn = 0 z l ﬁxed-ﬁxed shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 170 Table 3.

.46) ωn = β n l For each of this natural frequencies the set of equations 3.∞ (3.43) ¯ sin β n l cos β n l ¯ = 0 Hence.. according to the ﬁrst equation of the set 3. 5 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 171 To demonstrate the way of the determination of the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. If one choose arbitrarily Sn . . Therefore we can conclude that the predicted solution..∞ (3. The above analysis allows to conclude that a continuous system possesses inﬁnite number of the natural frequencies and inﬁnite number of the corresponding natural modes..41 becomes linearly dependant and one of the constants can be chosen arbitrarily.39 one can compute the natural frequencies to be p β n = ωn G s s G nπ G = n = 1. A few ﬁrst of them are shown in Fig.36.44) This equation is called characteristic equation and has inﬁnite number of solution.. In the case of free vibrations of the shaft.say Sn = 1. The ﬁrst mode is called fundamental mode and the corresponding frequency is called fundamental natural frequency.40) Introduction of this boundary conditions into the solution 3. β n = . β2 = . the natural modes determine the angular positions of the cross-section of the shaft ϕ(z)..42) = sin β n l cos β n l 0 Cn This set of equations has non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. n = 1. ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ (3.. in the case considered is nπ Yn (z) = sin β n z = sin z n = 1.. only positive roots of the above equation has the physical meaning π 2π nπ β1 = . For this case the boundary conditions are for for z = 0 z = l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 (3... 2. results in a set of two homogeneous algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Sn and Cn ...36..47) l The functions Yn (z)are called eigenfunctions or natural modes and the corresponding roots ω n are called eigenvalues or natural frequencies.. . Cn has to be equal to 0. . 2.. . 2... 0 = 0 · Sn + 1 · Cn 0 = (sin β n l)Sn + (cos β n l)Cn Its matrix form is ∙ (3... according to 3.... in this particular case we have sin β n l = 0 (3.. let us consider the ﬁxed on both ends shaft (last row of the above Table).41) ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 1 Sn 0 (3.. Since β n and l are always positive.41.45) l l l Taking advantage of equation 3... .∞ (3.

50) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts.49) Premultiplying the equation 3.5 z l=1 -1 Figure 5 Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).4 0.49 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiII (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjII (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.48) (3.8 z 1 -0.5 0 0. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 I ¯ − λ2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ´ ¯l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJI (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 (3.51) j 0 0 Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields Z ³¡ ¡ 2 ¢¯l ¡ I ¢¯ ´ ¢ l 2 2 I ¯ − YJ (z)Yi (z) ¯l = 0 ωi − ωj Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ 0 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 172 1 ϕ (z) 0.48 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.33 −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n Hence −ω 2 Yi (z) − λ2 YiII (z) = 0 i 2 −ω j Yj (z) − λ2 YjII (z) = 0 (3.6 0.52) . Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.2 0.

.32 one of the particular solution of the equation 3. yn (z.59) ∂t To produce the constant Sn and Cn let us introduce the solution 3.∞ (3.55) At this stage of consideration the function Y (z) is known and we are able to produce inﬁnite number of such particular solutions. 0) = V0 (z) (3. 3..56) Since the equation 3.31 is of second order with respect to time.58 into the above initial conditions. the general solution of the equation 3... y(z. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. ∂ y(z. Y0 (z) = V0 (z) = ∞ X n=1 ∞ X n=1 Cn Yn (z) Sn ωn Yn (z) (3. t) = Yn (z) cos ωn t n = 1. 2.. This operation results in the following two equations.. t) = ∞ X n=1 Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t + Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3. to fulﬁll initial conditions we need second set of linearly independent solution. 0) = Y0 (z) y(z.∞ (3. General solution of the homogeneous equation According to 3.58) This solution has to fulﬁll the initial conditions..54) 0 The above property of the eigenfunctions is called orthogonality condition. 2.31 can be adopted in the following form y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 173 It is easy to show that for any boundary conditions the second expression is equal to zero ¡ I ¢¯l ¡ ¢¯l Yi (z)Yj (z) ¯0 − YJI (z)Yi (z) ¯0 = YiI (l)Yj (l)−YiI (0)Yj (0)−YJI (l)Yi (l)+YJI (0)Yi (0) = 0 (3.53) Hence.60) . 3.. yn (z.57) Hence. t) = Yn (z) sin ωn t n = 1. The initial conditions determine the initial position Y0 (z) and the initial velocity V0 (z) of the system considered for the time t equal to zero. It the same manner as it was done in the previous section one may prove that the following functions form the required linearly independent set of solution.31 eventually may be adopted in the following form. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.

65) ∂t2 ∂z 4 Boundary conditions .54 the wanted constants Sn and Cn are Rl Y0 (z)Yn (z)dz Cn = 0 R l Y 2 (z)dz 0 n Rl 1 0 V0 (z)Yn (z)dz (3. take form Rl Y (z) sin nπ zdz 0 0 Cn = R l ¡ ¢l2 nπ sin l z dz 0 Rl 1 0 V0 (z) sin nπ zdz Sn = (3. One of them is a function of the position z and the other is the function of time t. t) ∂ 4 y(z. t) + λ2 =0 (3. t) = 0. the equation 3.62) Sn = Rl 2 ωn Yn (z)dz 0 n=1 ∞ X n=1 0 Sn ω n Z l Yn (z)Ym (z)dz (3. If the external excitation q(z. y(z.natural frequencies and natural modes Similarly to the analysis of strings and shafts. according to 3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.2 Free vibrations of beams For the uniform beam the equation of motion was derived to be ∂ 2 y(z.64) ∂t2 ∂z 4 This equation can be classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).64 describes the free vibration of the beam due to a non-zero initial conditions.66) .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 174 To determine the unknown constants Sn and Cn .61) 0 3. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. let us predict the solution of the above equation in the form of a product of two functions. t) (3. ∂ 2 y(z. a function of two variables.63) ¢l R ¡ ω n l sin nπ z 2 dz 0 l Taking advantage of the developed orthogonality conditions 3. t) ∂ 4 y(z. The general solution.64.2. t) + λ2 = q(z. let us multiply the above equations by Ym (z) and then integrate them side by side Z l ∞ X Z l Y0 (z)Ym (z)dz = Cn Yn (z)Ym (z)dz 0 Z l V0 (z)Ym (z)dz = 0 For the example considered in the previous section the above formulae. The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of 3.47. Its order with respect to time is 2 and with respect to z is equal to 4.

66 into equation 3.68) (3.70) (3. Y2 (z) = e−β n z Y3 (z) = eiβ n z Y1 (z) = e−iβ n z r2 = −β n r3 = iβ n r2 = −iβ n (3.72) (3. 6.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 175 Introduction of the predicted solution 3.67) ω2 Aρ 2 n ω 2 = EJ n λ The standard form of its particular solution is Y (z) = erz r4 = β 4 n Its roots r1 = β n Y1 (z) = eβ n z determine the set of the linearly independent particular solution.65 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n or where Y IV (z) − β 4 Y (z) = 0 n β4 = n (3.69) (3.68 yields the characteristic equation Alternatively.73) Introduction of this solution into the equation 3. 4 Y (z) 1 Y (z) 2 2 Y (z) 3 Y (z) 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 z -2 -4 Figure 6 . one can choose their combinations as the set of the independent solutions eβ n z − e−β n z eβ n z + e−β n z = sinh β n z Y2 (z) = = cosh β n z Y1 (z) = 2 2 eiβ n z − e−iβ n z eiβ n z + e−iβ n z Y3 (z) = = sin β n z Y2 (z) = = cos β n z (3.74) 2 2 A graphical interpretation of these functions for β n = 1 is given in Fig.71) (3.

Bn .2 O l Y z free-free beam O l Y z for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 Y I (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 Y (l) = 0 Y I (l) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = −kY (0) M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = +kY (l) ﬁxed-free beam O l Y z pined-ﬁxed beam O k l Y k z elasticaly supported beam .75) Values for the parameter β n as well as for the constants An .79) The boundary conditions for some cases of beams are shown in Table 3. Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3.76) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z (3. one has to produce four boundary conditions reﬂecting the conditions at both ends of the beam. Since this equation is of fourth order.78) I Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z = Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.68.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 176 The general solution of the equation 3. Table 3. They involve the function Y (z) and its ﬁrst three derivatives with respect to z. Cn and Dn should be chosen to fulﬁll boundary conditions.77) II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n (3. as a linear combination of these particular solutions is Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3.2.

. ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 0 β2 0 −β 2 0 An n n 3 ⎢ β3 ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 −β n 0 ⎢ n ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β 2 sinh β n l β 2 cosh β n l −β 2 sin β n l −β 2 cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ (3.. it is possible to choose arbitrarily one of the constants (for example An ) and the other can be obtained from three arbitrarily chosen equations 3. corresponding to the zero root are shown in Fig. Since the beam considered is free-free in space..79 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the constants An . 7 The ﬁrst few roots are β 0 l = 0 β 1 l = 4. This condition forms the characteristic equation ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 0 −1 ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 ¯ 0 −1 0 ¯ ¯ (3. Modes corresponding to the non-zero roots can be produced according to the following procedure. the characteristic equation has double root of zero magnitude. Bn ..80) They have a non-zero solution if and only if their characteristic determinant is equal to zero. These two modes. for for for for z z z z =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 (3.. For any root of the characteristic equation the set of equations 3. this root is associated with the possible translation and rotation of the beam as a rigid body. Cn and Dn .. (3.84) Introduction of the functions 3.73 β 2 l = 7.. after simpliﬁcation.83) This characteristic equation is transcendental and therefore has inﬁnite number of roots.78 and 3.81.81. Solution of this equation. third and fourth equation we are getting ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = − ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ An sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn ⎡ (3. since its characteristic determinant is zero. takes the following form cosh β n l cos β n l − 1 = 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 177 Let us take advantage of the boundary conditions corresponding to the freefree beam in order to determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes. If we take advantage of the second. becomes linearly dependant.85 β 3 l = 11..81) n n n n 0 Dn β 3 cosh β n l β 3 sinh β n l −β 3 cos β n l β 3 sin β n l n n n n As one can see from the diagram 7. Therefore. 8a) and b).82) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ cosh β n l sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l ¯ that.85) . within a limited range of the parameter β n l is shown in Fig.

73z − 1.0178 cosh 4.73 − cos 4. 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 178 20 cosh βn l cosβn l -1=0 10 β0 l 0 β1 l 5 β2 l β3 l 10 15 βn l -10 -20 Figure 7 Hence.86) For the ﬁrst non-zero root β 1 l = 4.017 8 ⎣ C1 ⎦ = ⎣ cosh 4.73 the above set of equations yields values for constants B1 .73 D1 sinh 4. The formula 3. t) = Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.73 − sin 4. In the same manner one can produce modes for all the other characteristic roots.88) Its graphical representation is shown in Fig. for An = −1 we have ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn (3.73 sin 4. s s EJ (β n l)2 EJ ωn = β 2 = (3.0177 (3. 8d) and e) respectively.73 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.0 ⎦ cosh 4.87) Hence.73 ⎦ ⎣ sinh 4. taking into account the predicted solution 3.0 sinh 4.89) n Aρ l2 Aρ Eventually.0177 cos 4.73z (3. according to Eq. the corresponding mode. 8c).0 sin 4.73z + 1.85 and β 3 l = 11 are shown in Fig. the particular solution is y(z. C1 and D1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ B1 1 0 −1 0 1.66.73 1.75 is Y1 (z) = −1. Modes for β 2 l = 7.90) .73 − cos 4.69 allows the natural frequencies to be computed.73z + 1.

8 1 Figure 8 .2 0.4 z 0.2 0.8 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y0 (z) z b) 0 -1 -2 2 0.2 0.4 z 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.8 1 2 1 Y3 (z) e) 0 -1 -2 0.2 0.6 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 179 2 Y0 (z) 1 a) 0.4 0.4 z 0.6 0.8 1 c) 1 Y (z) 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y2 (z) 0.6 0.6 0.8 1 z d) 0 -1 -2 0.

.73z + 1....0 sin 4....73z (3...ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 180 where Yn (z) and ωn are uniquely determined and Sn is an arbitrarily chosen constant.93) Y2 (z) = ..0178 cosh 4..95 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiIV (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l −ω 2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjIV (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3..95) Premultiplying the equation 3.0 sinh 4.. In the same manner we can show that the function y(z....92) n=1 Y1 (z) = −1. is the general solution of the equation 3. Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.97) ...91) where is the linearly independent particular solution too.96) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts..... It follows that the following linear combination n=∞ X Yn (z) (Sn sin ωn t + Cn cos ω n t) (3.94) (3..73z − 1.65....... Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 III ¯ − λ2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ −ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 j 0 0 (3.. t) = Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3.73z + 1...0177 cos 4. . The constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions.. Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z)......67 −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n Hence −ω2 Yi (z) + λ2 YiIV (z) = 0 i −ω 2 Yj (z) + λ2 YjIV (z) = 0 j (3.94 by Yj (z) and the equation 3...

.98) Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields ¢Rl ¡ 2 ω i − ω 2 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz+ ´ j ³ ³ ¯l ¯l ´ −λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 ³ ³ ¯l ´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ − λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l = 0 +λ Yj (z)Yi (z) 0 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 181 Let us apply the same procedure to the last integral again ³ ¯l ´ Rl −ω 2 0 Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + i ³ ¯l ´ Rl −λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 −ω j R 2 l ¯l ´ Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 + 0 ³ ¯l ´ Rl 2 II I −λ Yj (z)Yi (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 ³ (3. Hence. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.101) 0 The above property of the natural modes is called orthogonality condition and play a very important role in further development of the theory of vibrations.99) The expression ³ ³ ³ ¯l ´ 2 ³ II ¯´ ¯´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ +λ Yi (z)YjI (z)¯l +λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯l −λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l −λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 0 0 0 (3. It is easy to show that for any possible boundary conditions this expression is equal to zero.100) depends exclusively on boundary conditions.

. A1.3 Problems Problem 41 G1. ρ1. J2 z l1 l2 Figure 9 For the shaft shown in Fig. A2. ρ2. J1 G2. 9 produce equation for its natural frequencies.2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 182 3.

108) (3. according to 3.104) (3. t) = Φ2 (z) sin ω n t (3.109) Introduction of these solutions into the equations of motion yields.106) where λ2 = 2 G2 2 (3. t) 2 ∂ ϕ2 (z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 183 Solution For 0 < z < l1 (3.102) motion of the system. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.112) λ1 λ2 These two equations are coupled together by the following boundary conditions for for for for z z z z = = = = 0 l1 l1 l1 + l2 Φ1 (0) = 0 Φ1 (l1 ) = Φ2 (l1 ) G1 J1 ΦI (l1 ) = G2 J2 ΦI (l1 ) 1 2 ΦI (l1 + l2 ) = 0 2 (3.34. ΦII (z) + β 2 Φ1 (z) = 0 1 n1 II Φ2 (z) + β 2 Φ2 (z) = 0 n2 where β n1 = (3.113) The ﬁrst boundary condition reﬂects the fact that the left hand end of the shaft is ﬁxed. The second and the third condition represent the continuity of the angular .111) ωn ωn β n2 = (3. according to 3. t) = Φ1 (z) sin ω n t ϕ2 (z. t) − λ2 =0 1 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 1 Similarly.103) G1 1 (3.105) (3.19. is governed by the following equation ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z. Therefore the particular solution of the above equations must be of the following form ϕ1 (z. t) ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z.107) Both parts of the shaft must have the same natural frequencies.110) (3. one may say that within range l1 < z < l1 + l2 motion of the shaft is governed by 2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 (z.

The last condition says that the torque at the free end is zero.110 and 3.115) (3.117) where ⎡ (3.116) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 184 displacement and continuity of the torque. This homogeneous set of equations has acteristic determinant is equal to zero.118) Solution of this equation for the roots ω n yields the wanted natural frequencies of the shaft.114) (3.111are ωn ωn z + Cn1 cos z λ1 λ1 ωn ωn Φ2 (z) = Sn2 sin z + Cn2 cos z λ2 λ2 Φ1 (z) = Sn1 sin the formulated boundary conditions results in the following set of equations Cn1 = 0 Sn1 sin ωn l1 + Cn1 cos ωn l1 − Sn2 sin ωn l2 − Cn2 cos ωn l2 = 0 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 Sn1 G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 − Cn1 G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 + λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 −Sn2 G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 + Cn2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 +Sn2 ωn cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) − Cn2 ωn sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 Its matrix for is ⎤ Sn1 ⎢ C ⎥ [A] ⎢ n1 ⎥ = 0 ⎣ Sn2 ⎦ Cn2 1 0 ωn cos λ1 l1 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 ωn 0 cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ⎡ (3. Since the general solution of equation 3. ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯ ¯ sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 ⎢ sin ωn l1 λ1 [A] = ⎢ ⎣ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 0 the non-zero solutions if and only if its char0 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ2 λ2 ωn cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 0 − cos ωn l2 λ2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯= 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ⎤ 0 ⎥ − cos ωn l2 λ2 ⎥ ωn ωn G2 J2 λ2 sin λ2 l1 ⎦ − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 .

.A . 10. Compute the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of this assembly.ρ l 2 m z Figure 10 The uniform rod 1 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 185 Problem 42 1 E. shown in Fig. is connected to the block 2 of mass m.

according to Eq.119) (3. t) ¯ ¯ = −AE ∂y(z.t) m z Figure 11 Equation of motion of the block. l F(l. is m ∂ 2 y(l.123) (3. t) = ¯ 0 ¯ ∂ 2 y(z.119.12. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. 11). 3.122) This equation together with the condition corresponding to the upper end of the rod (3. taking advantage of the relationship 3. t) = 0 forms boundary conditions for the equation 3.125) . ( y(0. t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=l ∂z ¯z=l y(0.121) or.120) To produce the boundary conditions let us consider the block 2 with the adjusted inﬁnitesimal element (see Fig. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 3.t) y y(l.t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯ = −AE ∂z ¯ z=l (3.8 ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y(z.124) z=l Introduction of the particular solution (see Eq. t) ∂t2 (3.t) ¯ ∂y(z. is ∂ 2 y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 186 Solution The equation of motion of the rod. according to the Newton’s law.32) y(z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = E (3. t) = −F (l.

after taking advantage of 3.130) Hence.129) or ¢ ¡ 2 mω n sin β n z − AEβ n cos β n z Sn = 0 mω 2 sin n or after simpliﬁcation tan ωn AE l− =0 λ λωn m (3.mass of the rod m = 20kg .mass of the block the characteristic equation takes the following form ³ ω ´ 5059. according to 3.0 n f (ωn ) = tan =0 − 5188.119 and the boundary conditions 3.126.7m/s ρ mr = A × l × ρ = 19.128) Introduction of this solution into boundary conditions yields ½ Cn = 0 mω2 (Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z) − AE (Sn β n cos β n z − Cn β n sin β n z) = 0 n (3. (3.126) The general solution of the equation 3. n with boundary conditions ½ Y (0) = 0 mω2 Y (l) − AEY I (l) = 0 n (3.131) For the following numerical data l = 1m E = 2. 12.126.132) ωn ωn ωn z − AE cos z = 0 λ λ λ (3. the characteristic equation.1 × 1011 N/m2 A = 25 × 10−4 m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 q λ = E = 5188.127) βn = ωn λ (3.124 yields the ordinary diﬀerential equation Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0. is (3. is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 187 into the equation of motion 3.5kg .36.133) .7 ωn Its solution f (ω = 0 is shown in Fig.

according to the diagram 12 are ω1 = 4400.5 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 ωn -0. the system becomes of one degree of freedom and its the only one natural frequency is r r r k EA 2.137) = = = 5123s−1 m lm 20 and the corresponding mode is a straight line.7 (3.7 Y3 (z) = sin 33400 z 5188. ω1 = 33400 s−1 (3.7 (3.5 -1 Figure 12 The ﬁrst three natural frequencies. are Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z = Sn sin ωn ωn z = Sn sin z λ 5188.136) are presented in Fig. ω 2 = 17720.7 Y2 (z) = sin 17720 z 5188. 14 and 15 respectively. .128. 13.134) The corresponding natural modes.1 × 1011 × 25 × 10−4 ω1 = (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 188 1 f( ω n ) 0.If we neglect the mass of the rod.135) For the ﬁrst three natural frequencies the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = sin 4400 z 5188. according to 3.

8 1 -1 Figure 14 1 Y3 (z) 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 189 1 Y (z) 1 0.2 0.5 0.8 1 -1 Figure 13 1 Y2 (z) 0.4 z 0.2 0.4 z 0.2 0.6 0.5 0 -0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 0 -0.5 0.4 z 0.6 0.6 0.8 1 -1 Figure 15 .

16 O z k l y Figure 16 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 190 Problem 43 Produce natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxedelastically supported beam shown in Fig.

t) ¯ ¯ =0 M(z.t)| z=l k l k y(z.143) z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ∂z ∂z ∂z z=l z=l Yn (z)|z=0 = 0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 = 0 ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = 0 Introduction of the solution 3.138) the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. Hence.139) (3. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z.65. forms the boundary conditions associated with the right hand end ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. t) ¯ = ky(z.140) (3. t) ∂ 4 y(z. y(z.142) ∂z 2 ¯z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ ∂M(z. is shown in Fig.t)|z=l y dz z z Figure 17 conditions for the element dz which have to be fulﬁll for any instant of time.144) .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 191 Solution According to the equation 3. t)| V (z. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. the equation of motion of the beam is ∂ 2 y(z. 17. t)|z=l = (3. with the forces acting on it. t)|z=l = E(z)J(z) (3.141) The right hand end.139 into the above boundary conditions yields ¯ III α Yn (z)¯z=l − Yn (z)|z=l = 0 (3. Equilibrium O M(z. t) ¯ ¯ = ∂ EJ ∂ y(z.t)| z=l V(z.

76 to 3. Bn . 3.150) sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ ¯ 3 3 3 3 ¯ β α cosh β l β n α sinh β n l −β n α cos β n l β n α sin β n l ¯ n n ¯ ¯ ¯ − sinh β l ¯ − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l n . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 (3. β4 = n Bn + Dn = 0 An + Cn = 0 2 2 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β n cosh β n l − Cn β n sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l = 0 n An β 3 α cosh β n l + Bn β 3 α sinh β n l − Cn β 3 α cos β n l + Dn β 3 α sin β n l n n n n −(An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l) = 0 (3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are α= Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.146) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z where where (see Eq.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 192 EJ (3.148) The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎢ ⎣ β 3 α cosh β n l β 3 α sinh β n l −β 3 α cos β n l β 3 α sin β n l n n n n − sinh β n l − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ An ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Cn ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Dn (3. Cn and Dn .149) ⎤ 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦ 0 The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.145) k According to the equations 3.144 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .69) ω2 Aρ 2 n (3.147) ω 2 = EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 193 For the following data E = 2.884m−1 β 3 = 7.0525β n sinh β n −.147 β4 = n Aρ 2 ω EJ n (3.01 = 0.0003m2 3 J = 0.03 × 0.18 200 100 0 2 4 6 8 β n -100 -200 Figure 18 From this diagram the ﬁrst three roots are β 1 = 2.0525 k the characteristic equation takes form ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ sinh β n cosh β n − sin β n ¯ 3 ¯ .152) .01 = 2.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.03×0.0525β 3 cos β n n n n ¯ ¯ − sinh β n − cosh β n − sin β n 1 0 − cos β n .1×10 10000 = 0.151) Solution of this equation for its roots β n is presented in Fig.0525β 3 sin β n n − cos β n ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.0525β 3 cosh β .942m−1 β 2 = 4.888m−1 The relationship 3.

and Cn to be computed.149 becomes linearly dependant.156) For the ﬁrst three roots the numerical values of these constants are ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ A1 . ⎣ B2 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.02 sin 4.883 sinh 2.02 sinh 4.883 sin 2.157) Introducing them into the ﬁrst function of 3.883 1.158) The graphical interpretation of these natural modes is given in Fig. The three remaining equations allow the constants An .g.884z − 1.0 ⎦ .154) ⎣ Cn ⎦ 0 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l 1 ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ 1 0 1 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 1 An ⎣ Bn ⎦ = − ⎣ 1 0 Cn sinh β n l cosh β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ An 1 ⎦=⎣ Bn ⎦ + ⎣ 0 − cos β n l Cn ⎤−1 ⎡ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 − cos β n l − sin β n l ⎤ 0 0 ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎦ (3.0 (3. ⎣ B3 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.0s−1 ω2 = Aρ (3.146 and remembering that Dn = 1.02 −1.888z + 1 cos 7.155) (3.0 cosh 7.942z − .3s−1 ω2 = Aρ s β 4 EJ 3 = 932.888z (3.0 sinh 7. Bn .888z − 1. Hence one of the unknown constants can be chosen arbitrarily (e.884z − 1.942z + 1 cos 2.6s−1 Aρ s β 4 EJ 2 = 357.942z − 1.888z − 1.0 sin 7.884z Y3 (z) = 1.02 1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 194 oﬀers values for the wanted natural frequencies s β 4 EJ 1 ω1 = = 129.0 ⎦ C1 C2 C3 −. 19 . ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ An ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ Bn ⎥ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 1 0 (3. we are getting the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = .883 −1. Dn = 1) and the last equation can be crossed out.0 cosh 4.884z + 1 cos 4.153) For each of these roots the set of equations 3.0 cosh 2.942z Y2 (z) = 1.0 ⎦ .0 A2 A3 ⎣ B1 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.

8 1 0 -1 -2 Figure 19 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 195 2 1 Y1 (z) 0.4 z 0.6 0.2 Y2 (z) Y3 (z) 0.

Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the shaft. Its right hand end is supported by means of the massless and rigid beam 2 of length L that is connected to two springs each of the stiﬀness k. 20 is ﬁxed.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 196 Problem 44 ρ . Answer: GJo ωn 2 kL2 λ cot ωn l + 1 = 0 where λ2 = G λ ρ . Jo 1 2 2 z k l L k Figure 20 The left hand end of the shaft 1 shown in Fig. G.

Answer: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ βn αn ¯ ¯ ¯ β n cos β n l − αn sin β n l −β n sin β n l − αn cos β n l ¯ = 0 p Iω2 where β n = ω n G αn = GJn o . 21) are joined together by means of the shaft 1 of the length l. Jo 1 z l Figure 21 Two rigid discs 2 (see Fig. G.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 197 Problem 45 2 2 ρ . Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly. The moment of inertia of each disc about the axis z is I.

164) Introduction of the solution 3.159) the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. Hence.162) The right hand end The displacement and the bending moment has to be equal to zero.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 198 Problem 46 l. 22.161) (3. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3.165) . Hence. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z.163) =0 z=l (3. the equation of motion of the beam is (3. y(z. J. t) ¯ ¯ = E(z)J(z) ∂z 2 ¯ 2 (3.65. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z. A.160) Solution According to the equation 3. t) ∂ 4 y(z. t)|z=l = 0 M(z. t)|z=l ¯ ∂ y(z. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. E. y(z.160 into the above boundary conditions yields Yn (z)|z=0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 Yn (z)|z=l ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3. Produce the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: p λ = EJ sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 β n = ωn λ Aρ ∂ 2 y(z. ρ z l y Figure 22 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig.

Cn and Dn .168) ⎡ ⎤ 0 An ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bn ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Cn ⎦ 0 Dn ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.167) 2 EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.165 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An . 3.171) A development of the above determinant results in the following equation for the unknown parameter β n l .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 199 According to the equations 3.166) where (see Eq.76 to 3. β4 n Bn + Dn An + Cn An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β 2 cosh β n l − Cn β 2 sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l n n n The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ ⎥⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l -sin β n l -cos β n l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3. Bn .79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.170) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sinh β l cosh β l − sin β l − cos β l ¯ n n n n β n l sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 where: (3.169) The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯=0 (3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 ω = n = (3.

171 allows the natural frequences to be produced ωn = λβ 2 = λ n (β n l)2 EJ = (β l)2 l2 Aρl2 n (3.173) r ωn λ λ= EJ Aρ (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 200 βn = The roots β n l of the equation 3.172) .

A l 2 k z Figure 23 The uniform rod 1 shown in Fig. 23 is supported by means of the massless spring of stiﬀness k.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 201 Problem 47 1 ρ . ρ z l y Figure 24 . E. Problem 48 l. J. E. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies. A.

Produce: 1. the boundary conditions for the equation (1) Answer: for z = 0 (1) Y = 0 (2) Y 00 = 0 0 for z = l (3) Y = 0 (4) Y 000 = 0 2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 202 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: cosβl = 0 q EJ where β = 4 Aρω2 . 24.

β2 = JO2 ρ2 Iz . 25 are welded to a motionless wall. G2. Their right hand ends are welded to the plate 3. JO1 l ρ2 . β 1 = λ2 G ρ JO1 ρ1 Iz . t) ∂ 2 ϕ(z. λ1 = q G1 . G1. The diﬀerential equation of motion of a shaft is. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = G . This assembly performs the torsional vibration about axis z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 203 Problem 49 1 2 3 z ρ1 . where. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly described. ∂ 2 ϕ(z.shear modulus ρ — density Answer: ωn β 1 cot λ1 l+β 2 cot ωn l = 1. ρ1 λ2 = q G2 ρ2 . their shear modulus G 1 and G 2 and the second polar moment of area J O1 and J O2 respectively. The moment of inertia of the plate about the axis z is I z . The dynamic properties of the shafts are deﬁned by their density ρ1 and ρ2 . JO2 Figure 25 The left hand ends of the two shafts (1 and 2) depicted in the Fig.

Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the system described. . This element can be treated as a particle of mass m.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 204 Problem 50 m z 1 a l y T 2 Figure 26 The string 1 shown in Fig. density ρ and area of its cross-section A is under the constant tension T. At the position deﬁned by the distance a the element 2 is attached.26 of length l.

t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where T Aρ Solutions of the above equations are of the following form λ2 = y1n (z.t) y2(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 205 Solution ∂y2 ( z.178) (3. in the region a<z<l the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z.176) (3. t ) |z = a ∂z y1(z.t)|z=a=y2(z. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z.t)|z=a T T a l T ∂y1 ( z. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3.179) (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Similarly. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z.174) (3. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z. .175) (3.t) y1(z.177) T Aρ (3.181) where ω n stands for the natural frequency that is common for both parts of the string. t ) | z =a ∂z z y Figure 27 Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0<z<a be ∂ 2 y1 (z.180) (3.

184) (3.187) (3.190) z=a Introduction of the solutions 3. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ = −T +T ∂z ¯z=a ∂z ¯z=a = 0 (3.190 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β n a) S1n + (cos β n a) C1n − (sin β n a) S2n − (cos β n a) C2n = 0 (−mω 2 sin β n a + T β n cos β n a) S1n + (−mω2 sin β n a − T β n sin β n a) C1n + n n − (T β n cos β n a) S2n + (T β n sin β n a) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β n l) S2n + (cos β n l) C2n = 0 (3.188) (3. They are y1n (z.180 and 3.181 into the equations 3.196) ¯ 0 ¯ + T Y2n (z)¯ z=a .180 into the conditions 3.183) (3.178 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n where ω2 Aρω 2 n n = 2 T λ The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows β2 = n Y1n (z) = S1n sin β n z + C1n cos β n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β n z + C2n cos β n z Introduction of the solutions 3. t) |z=a ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z.185) Introduction of the solutions 3.193) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 206 These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0.191) (3.195) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. z = l) and compatibility conditions at z = a.192) (3. t) |z=l = 0 = y2n (z.182) (3.189) (3. t) |z=0 y1n (z.194) 00 (3. t) |z=a ¯ ¯ ∂y1 (z.181 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=a = Y2n (z) |z=a ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ −mω 2 Y1n (z)¯z=a = −T Y1n (z)¯ n Y2n (z) |z=l = 0 (3.175 and 3. t) ¯ ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=a y2n (z. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β n a cos β n a − sin β n a − cos β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ −mω2 sin β n a + ¯=0 −mω 2 sin β n a + n n ¯ −T β n cos β n a T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ +T β n cos β n a −T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β n l cos β n l ¯ (3.189 and 3.186) (3. t) ¯ ∂y2 (z.

188 allow the natural frequencies to be produced s T ωn = β n Aρ . with help of the relationship 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 207 Roots β n of the above equation.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 208 Problem 51 ρ1. A1 ρ2. A2 1 l1 y 2 l2 T z Figure 28 Two strings of length l1 and l2 are loaded with tension T . Produce the natural frequencies of the system described and the corresponding natural modes . Their dynamic properties are determined by the density and the area of their cross-section A.

t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z.205) y2n (z. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ dm = −T ∂t2 ¯ ∂z ¯ z=l1 z=l1 y2n (z. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z. Since dm stands for an inﬁnitesimal mass of this element. t) ¯ ¯ + = 0 ∂z ¯ z=l1 ¯ ∂y1 (z.203) These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0. the above conditions can rewritten as follows y1n (z. z = l1 + l2 ) and compatibility conditions at z = l1 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 209 Solution Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0 < z < l1 be ∂ 2 y1 (z.200) (3. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ∂y2 (z.204) The third condition we are getting by application of the Newton law to the element of the string associated with z = l1 . t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z.201) (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 T A1 ρ1 (3. They are y1n (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 ¯ ∂y2 (z.198) where λ2 = 1 Similarly. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3. t) ¯ ∂y1 (z. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z.197) (3. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 2 T A2 ρ2 (3.202) (3. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 .199) Solutions of the above equations are of the following form y1n (z. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z. t) ¯ ¯ +T ∂z ¯z=l1 (3. in the region l1 < z < l1 + l2 the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) ¯ ¯ − ∂z ¯z=l1 (3.

214) .212) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.211) Y2n (z) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 Introduction of the solutions 3.205 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=l1 = Y2n (z) |z=l1 ¯ 0 ¯ + Y2n (z)¯ = 0 z=l1 (3.203 into the conditions 3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β 1n l1 cos β 1n l1 − sin β 2n l1 − cos β 2n l1 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.209) (3.213) ¯ β 1n cos β 1n l1 −β 1n sin β 1n l1 −β 2n cos β 2n l1 +β 2n sin β 2n l1 ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) ¯ Introducing 3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯=0 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3. the equation can be solved for the natural frequencies of the string.208) The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows Y1n (z) = S1n sin β 1n z + C1n cos β 1n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β 2n z + C2n cos β 2n z Introduction of the solutions 3. The solution is presented for the following set of numerical data.209 and 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 210 Introduction of the solutions 3.208 into the above equation we haveβ 1n = ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ωn cos ωn l1 − ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 0 0 ωn λ2 0 0 ωn − sin λ2 l1 − cos ωn l1 λ2 − ωn cos ωn l1 + ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) λ2 λ2 Now.206) (3.203 into the equations 3.210) ¯ ¯ −Y1n (z)¯ 0 z=l1 (3.201 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n1 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n2 where β2 = 1n ω2 A1 ρ1 ω 2 n n .210 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n + (cos β 1n l1 ) C1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 1n sin β 1n l1 ) C1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.207) (3. = 2 T λ1 β2 = 2n ω2 A2 ρ2 ω 2 n n = 2 T λ2 00 (3.198 and 3.

217) .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 211 l1 = .5 ¡ .5m. C2n can be computed from the homogeneous set of linear equations 3.5 ¢ ¡ . λ2 = A2 ρ = 1·105007800 = 253. (.212. C1n . q q q q T 500 T λ1 = A1 ρ = 179.5 1 1 cos 179 ωn − 179 sin 179 ω n −¡ 1 cos 253 ωn ¢ +¡1 sin 253 ωn ¢ ¯ 179 253 253 ¯ 1 1 0 0 sin 253.)ω n ¯ (3. A2 = 1 · 10−6 m2 . They are ω 1 = 483. l2 = 1. ω3 = 1437.5 + 1. ω 4 = 1861. 29 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡0 ¡1 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 frequency [rad/s] -5 -10 Figure 29 It allows the natural frequencies to be determined.5 ¡ .m. ω2 = 920. S2n .5 sin 179 ω n ¢ cos 179 ω n ¢ − sin 253 ω n ¢ − cos 253 ω n ¢ ¯ ¯=0 ¡ . 1 = 2 = 7800kg/m3 .)ω n cos 253 (.215) The magnitude of the determinant as a function of the frequency ω n is presented in Fig.5 . From the ﬁrst equation one can see that the constant C1n must be equal to zero C1n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.18m/s −6 2·10−6 7800 1 2 ¯ ¯ 0 0 ¯ ¢ ¢ ¡ .5 ¢ . T = 500N.5 ¡ . A1 = 2 · 10−6 m2 .5 + 1.216) The so far unknown constants S1n . ω5 = 2344[rad/s] (3.03m/s.

773 sin 5.907·0.03 = λ1 cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) cos β 23 l1 −(sin β 23 l1 ) sin β (l +l ) 8.18 = 5.907·1.5) − cos β 21 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 1.5) cos 5.675·1.63·0.67 λ2 5.5 < z < 1.67z f or 0.5) β 23 = A plot of the natural modes is shown in Fig.03 = 5.899 sin 3.5 n=3 ω3 = 1437.63z f or0.5) cos 1.5 n=2 ω2 = 920.944 sin 8.5) cos 3.13 β 22 = ω2 = 253.026 23 1 2 = 0.5 = 0. β 11 = ω1 483 483 1 = 179.697 β 21 = ω2 = 253.48 sin 2.5 = 3.5) − cos β 22 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 3.91 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 21 l1 −(sin β 21 l1 ) sin β 21(l 1+l 2) cos 1.15 S12 = (sin β 12 l1 ) (sin 5.13·0.46 sin 1.5 22 1 2 = = 1.46Y11 (z) 21 for 0 < z < 0.675·0.5−(sin 5.944 S13 = (sin β 13 l1 ) − cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 5.5 ω3 1437 = 253.63·1.5 sin 3.5 cos 5.675·1.63·1.697z Y21 (z) = S21 sin β 21 z + 1 cos β 21 z = 3.5 sin 1.03 = 2.91z + 1 cos 1.907·1.5−(sin 1.675·0.63z + 1 cos 3.907·1. β 12 = ω2 920 920 2 = 179.13z Y22 (z) = S22 sin β 22 z + 1 cos β 22 z = 0. β 13 = ω3 1437 = 179. 3 the constants S1n and S2n are n=1 ω 1 = 483.907·0.5 Y11 (z) = S11 sin β 11 z = 3.5 < z < 1.18 = 1.5 Y12 (z) = S12 sin β 12 z = 1.5 S21 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 1.63 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 22 l1 −(sin β 22 l1 ) sin β 22(l 1+l 2) cos 3.5 < z < 1.5 sin = (sin 8.907·1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 212 Since the equations is linearly dependent for roots of its characteristic determinant.773 23 Y13 (z) = S13 sin β 13 z = 0.675·1.67z + 1 cos 5.63·1.5 21 1 2 = = 3. C2n = 1 The set of equations for determination of the remaining constants S1n and S2n is (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n = cos β 2n l1 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) Hence S2n = S1n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) β (l1 +l2 ) cos β 2n l1 − (sin β 2n l1 ) cos β 2n(l1 +l2 ) sin 2n (sin β 1n l1 ) For n = 1.48 S11 = (sin β 11 l1 ) (sin 2.5 S23 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 5.697·0.91z for 0.675·1.026·0.63·1.18 = 3. Hence let us crossed out the second equation and assume C2n = 1. 2.5−(sin 3. 30 . one of them must be crossed out and one of the constant can be assumed arbitrarily.5 S22 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 3.5 = 0.15 sin 5.026z for 0 < z < 0.63·0.5 Y23 (z) = S23 sin β 23 z + 1 cos β 23 z = 0.899 22 for 0 < z < 0.

5 -2 z [m ] Figure 30 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 213 n a tu ra l m o d e s 4 3 2 1 0 0 -1 0 .5 1 1 .

These distinguished points n are called nodes. 32a))The bending and shearing properties of each segment are represented by two springs of stiﬀness kMi and kTi respectively (Fig.. n ......218) Similarly. 33b) requires equal angular deﬂection ( δri = δ ei ) caused by the same bending moment Mi . the actual element (Fig. Equivalence of both. In this kTi = Ti li GAi and yei = Ti kTi (3......1 Rigid Elements Method. number of segments I of constant cross-section (Fig .220) ....... Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Rigid Element Method....219) Mi li 2EJi and δ ei = Mi 2kMi (3. Since: δ ri = the bending stiﬀness is kMi = EJi li (3... the beam is divided into a suﬃcient....221) li The right hand part of the segment li−1 and the left hand part of the subsequent segment li ... 32c). form a section (Fig.. the equivalence of shearing deﬂections (yri = yei ) caused by the same shearing force Ti (Fig.. 32... Each section is considered rigid and its inertia properties are represented by mass mi and moments of inertia Ii .... 33d) yri = li γ ri = yields GAi (3....b)... 33c and Fig...3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS The commercially available computer packages allow to produce stiﬀness and inertia matrix of free in space beam along coordinates yn and ϕyn (see Fig..... 33a) and its model (Fig. 3...... N yn ϕy n Figure 31 are called Rigid Element Method and Finite Element Method.. 31) associated with an arbitrary chosen number N of points.....The most popular approaches for creation of the stiﬀness and inertia matrices 1 2 .........3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 214 3....... for necessary accuracy.

. k Mi-1 z d) y Figure 32 E.Ji li Mi Mi li G.Ai Ti y ri Ti Ti ye i a) c) δri δe i 2δe i k Mi Mi Mi b) Ti kT i d) Figure 33 ... k T i+1 ... li l i+1 .. a) li kT i k Mi l i-1 /2 Gi l i/ 2 mi Ii mi Ii k Mi zli z ri z l i+1 m i+1 I i +1 k Mi+1 z ri+1 b) c) k T i -1 .......DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 215 l i-1 .....

Application of the Lagrange’s equations to the physical model is shown in Fig. . m¨ + ky = 0 y where: ⎡ M1.. ˙˙ ...i−1 0 . ˙ 0 0 0 . ˙ 0 0 . ˙ 0 0 0 .i Ki+1. . ˙ KN.i Ki.. ˙ 0 0 0 .i+1 Ki+1. ˙ 0 0 Mi+1. . . ˙ 0 0 0 . . ˙˙ .i = +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri ∙ −kTi Ki. ˙ 0 0 ... 0 ....1 . ˙ 0 0 .i−1 Ki. . 32d) results in the following equations of motion. ˙ 0 0 . ˙˙ .1 ..231) The geometrical interpretation of the vector of coordinates 3.224) (3. ˙ Ki−1.N ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.228) ¸ (3.231 is given in Fig. . 0 . 34...225) (3. ˙ 0 Ki.The coordinates yi .223) (3. ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located at the centre of gravity of the rigid elements. ˙ Ki−1. .. . ˙ 0 ⎡ y1 ⎢ : ⎢ ⎢ yi−1 ⎢ yb = ⎢ yi ⎢ ⎢ yi+1 ⎢ ⎣ : yN ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. ... .i+1 .i 0 .i−1 0 0 . +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri 2 +kMi−1 + kTi−1 zl2i + kTi zri ¸ +kTi zli+1 −kMi + kTi zli+1 zri ¸ ∙ yi yi = ϕyi .226) (3.229) (3.227) ¸ (3. .i . ˙ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .. ˙ MN. ˙˙ .. . ˙ 0 . ˙ 0 K1..i+1 = −kTi zri ∙ −kTi−1 −kTi−1 zri−1 +kTi−1 zli −kMi−1 + kTi−1 zri−1 zli N =I +1 ¸ ∙ mi 0 Mi.. ˙˙ . .230) (3. . ˙ Mi−1....222) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ k=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ Ki.i+1 . .i = 0 Ii 0 . ˙˙ ...N 0 . ˙ 0 Mi. ˙˙ .. .i−1 = ∙ +kTi−1 + kTi Ki. ... ˙˙ ..DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 216 way a complete symmetry is obtained that gives simple programming for computer analysis.

35This equivalent set of forces along the nodal coordinates Fi Mi element i z node i yi ϕ yi Oi ai Fi y Figure 35 yi .232) . the equation of motion of the free-free beam takes the following form. m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y 3. 36. Introducing notations Fs for the static forces and F(t) for the excitation forces. ϕyi should be added to the mathematical model 3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 217 element 1 Oi node 1 element i element N z node i yi ϕ yi node N y Figure 34 Introduction of the external forces If there is a set of forces acting on the rigid element.g.232. each of them (e. Fi ) can be equivalently replaced by the force Fi applied to the node Oi and the moment Mi = ai · Fi as shown in Fig.2 Finite Elements Method. (3.3. In a general case these forces can be independent of time (static forces) or they can depend on time (excitation forces). Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Finite Elements Method. the shaft is divided into a number of the uniform and ﬂexible elements. The i − th element is shown in Fig.

= ϕyi2 (3. The nodes are denoted by numbers 1 and 2. dz ¯z=0 dz ¯z=li The parameters yi1 and yi2 are called nodal displacements and the parameters ϕi1 and ϕi2 are called nodal rotations.237) 6 3 (2yi1 li . ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 0 1 yi1 C1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ C2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 2 i 1 2 C4 l li 1 0 ϕyi2 2 i ⎤ + li ϕyi1 − 2yi2 + li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ 2 2 (−3yi1 − 2li ϕyi1 + 3yi2 − li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ li ⎥ ⎦ ϕyi1 yi1 (3. Ai . 2.233) dz 4 Integration of the above equation four times yields 1 1 y(z) = C1 z 3 + C2 z 2 + C3 z + C4 6 2 (3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 218 1 z yi1 E i Ji Ai ρi yi2 ϕyi1 li y 2 ϕyi2 Figure 36 In this ﬁgure Ei . The diﬀerential equation of the statically deﬂected line of the element in the plane yz is d4 y(z) Ei Ji =0 (3. 4) must be chosen to fulﬁll the following boundary conditions ¯ ¯ dy(z) ¯ dy(z) ¯ ¯ ¯ = ϕyi1 y(z)|z=li = yi2 .234) The constants of integration Cj (j = 1.236) ⎦ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 6 2 i 1 2 l li 1 0 C4 ϕyi2 2 i Its solution yields the integration constants Cj . and ρi stand for Young modulus. Ji .234 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Cj . ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎡ yi1 C1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ C2 ⎥ = ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ (3. area of cross-section and the unit mass of the element. 3. second moment of area about the neutral axis.235) y(z)|z=0 = yi1 . Introduction of solution 3.

238) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ where: ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 lz + 2 lz ⎪ i ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ∙³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ H1 ⎪ ⎪ z ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 lz + lz ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ li i i H2 li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = {H(z)} = ⎪ H3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 lz − 2 lz ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ i ∙ ³i´ H4 li ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − lz + lz li i i ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 {y} = ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2 (3.241) As one can see from the equation 3.240) Functions H1 .241. t) − ρi =0 ∂z 4 ∂t2 by its discreet representation along the nodal coordinates Ei Ji y [mi ] {¨ (t)} + [ki ] {y (t)} = 0. t) = {H(z)}T {y (t)} (3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. If the ﬁnite element performs motion with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz. These two matrices are going to be developed from the two following criterions: . The following mathematical manipulations are aimed to replace the continues mathematical model of the element considered ∂ 4 y(z. (3. 3. it is assumed that the motion in the plane yz can be approximated by the following equation.239) (3. The matrix {y} contains the nodal coordinates. y(z. As it can be seen from Eq. H2 .238 the deﬂected line of the ﬁnite element is assembled of terms which are linear with respect to the nodal coordinates.242) (3. 3. " "µ ¶ µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # z z z z z y(z) = 1 − 3 yi1 + li ϕyi1 −2 +2 + li li li li li " µ ¶ " µ ¶ µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # 2 2 z z z z yi2 + − li ϕyi2 + 3 −2 + li li li li = {H(z)}T {y} (3.234 one may get it in the following form. H3 . 3. It should be noted that this assumption is acceptable only if the considered element is reasonably short.237 into the equation of the deﬂected line 3. H4 (see Eq. the dynamic deﬂection line is approximated by the static deﬂection line.239) are known as Hermite cubics or shape functions.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 219 After introduction of Eq.243) In the above equations ρi stands for the unit mass of the ﬁnite element and [mi ] and [ki ] stands for the inertia and stiﬀness matrix respectively.

⎤ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎢ H2 H1 li H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dz = ρi 2 ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ 0 2 2 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 9 13 11 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 11 ⎢ l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = ρi li ⎢ 210 i 9 11 13 13 ⎣ li − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 13 11 9 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 ⎢ 11 l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = mi ⎢ 210 i 13 9 11 13 ⎣ l − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 i 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ mi (3.244) It is easy to see that the last row of Eq. To take advantage of the second criterion let us produce expression for the . The potential energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the potential energy of its discreet physical model.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 220 1. t) T = ρ dz 2 0 i ∂t µ ¶µ ¶ Z ∂y(z. 3.245) In the last formula mi stands for mass of the ﬁnite element. 2. t) 1 li ∂y(z. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element is µ ¶2 Z 1 li ∂y(z. t) ρ = dz 2 0 i ∂t ∂t Z ´³ ´ 1 li ³ = ˙ ρi {y (t)}T {H(z)} {H(z)}T {y (t)} dz ˙ 2 0 ∙ Z li ¸ 1 T T = {y (t)} ρi ˙ {H(z)} {H(z)} dz {y (t)} ˙ 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎢ H2 H1 li 1 H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ˙ = {y (t)}T ⎜ρi ˙ 2 ⎝ ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 H4 H11 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li (3. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the kinetic energy of its discreet physical model.244 represents kinetic energy function of the discreet physical model along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 with the following matrix of inertia.

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

221

potential energy function for the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element. µ 2 ¶2 Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) V = Ei Ji dz 2 0 ∂z 2 µ 2 ¶µ 2 ¶ Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) ∂ y(z, t) = dz Ei Ji 2 0 ∂z 2 ∂z 2 ! µ ½ 2 ¾¶ Ã½ 2 ¾T Z d H(z) d H(z) 1 li Ei Ji {y (t)}T {y (t)} dz = 2 0 dz 2 dz 2 " ¾½ 2 ¾T # Z li ½ 2 d H(z) d H(z) 1 {y (t)}T Ei Ji dz {y (t)} = 2 dz 2 dz 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 ⎤ ⎞ 00 00 00 00 00 00 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li ⎜ ⎢ H 00 H 00 li (H 00 )2 l2 H 00 H 00 li H 00 H 00 l2 ⎥ ⎟ 1 T ⎜ i 2 2 3 2 4 i ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ⎢ 200 100 = {y (t)} ⎝Ei Ji 00 00 00 00 00 ⎣ H H 2 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 0 3 1 00 00 00 00 2 00 00 00 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li (H4 )2 li (3.246) As one can see from Eq. 3.246, to fulﬁll the second criterion, the stiﬀness matrix along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 must be as follows. ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 H1 Z li ⎢ H 00 H 00 li ⎢ 200 100 = Ei Ji ⎣ H H 0 3 1 00 00 H4 H1 li ⎡ 12 6li 2 Ei Ji ⎢ 6li 4li ⎢ = 3 ⎣ −12 −6l li i 2 6li 2li H1 H2 li H1 H3 00 00 00 2 (H2 )2 li H2 H3 li 00 00 00 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 00 00 2 00 00 H4 H2 li H4 H3 li ⎤ −12 6li 2 −6li 2li ⎥ ⎥ 12 −6li ⎦ 2 −6li 4li

00 00 00 00

ki

⎤ 00 00 H1 H4 li 00 00 2 H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎥ dz 00 00 H3 H4 li ⎦ 00 2 (H4 )2 li (3.247)

Hence, the mathematical model of the element considered can be written as mi yi + ki yi = Ryi ¨ (3.248)

The vector Ri represents the interaction forces between the neighborhood elements. Ryi = £ Ryi1 Rϕyi1 Ryi2 Rϕyi2 ¤T (3.249)

In exactly the same manner one can create mathematical model for the next to the right hand side element of the shaft, say element j. ¨ mj yj + kj yj = Ryj (3.250)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

222

where: ⎢ mj = mj ⎢ ⎣ kj ⎡

13 35 11 l 210 j 9 70 13 − 420 lj 11 l 210 j 1 2 l 105 j 13 l 420 j 1 2 − 140 lj 9 70 13 l 420 j 13 35 11 − 210 lj

12 6lj −12 6lj 2 2 ⎢ 6lj Ej Aj ⎢ 4lj −6lj 2lj ⎥ ⎥ = 3 lj ⎣ −12 −6lj 12 −6lj ⎦ 2 2 6lj 2lj −6lj 4lj £ ¤T yj = yj1 ϕyj1 yj2 ϕyj2 £ ¤T Ryi = Ryj1 Rϕyj1 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

⎡

⎤ 13 − 420 lj 1 2 − 140 lj ⎥ ⎥ 11 − 210 lj ⎦ 1 2 l 105 j ⎤

(3.251)

(3.252) (3.253)

These two equations of motion (3.248 3.250), associated with the two elements i and j, haveto fulﬁll the compatibility (continuity and equilibrium) conditions. These conditions allow to join those two elements to create one mathematical model representing both elements. In the case considered here, the compatibility conditions between the two elements i and j correspond to the left hand side node of the element i and the right hand side node of the element j. For these nodes the continuity conditions take form ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ yi2 yj1 yij = = (3.254) ϕyi2 ϕyj1 ϕyij and the equilibrium conditions are ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Ryi2 Ryj1 0 + = Rϕyi2 Rϕyj1 0

(3.255)

They results in the following mathematical model of the joint elements. ¨ mij yij + kij yij = Ryij where: ⎡

13 m 35 i 11 lm 210 i i 9 m 70 i 13 − 420 li mi 11 lm 210 i i 1 2 l mi 105 i 13 lm 420 i i 1 2 − 140 li mi

(3.256)

mij

⎢ ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

0 0

0 0

⎤ 13 − 420 li mi 0 0 1 2 ⎥ − 140 li mi 0 0 ⎥ 13 11 9 13 (mi + mj ) (−li mi +lj mj ) m − 420 lj mj ⎥ 35 210 70 j ⎥ 11 1 13 1 2 2 2 (−li mi +lj mj ) 105 (li mi +lj mj ) lj mj − 140 lj mj ⎥ 210 420 ⎥ 9 11 13 13 mj lj mj mj − 210 lj mj ⎦ 70 420 35 1 2 13 1 2 11 − 420 lj mj − 140 lj mj − 210 lj mj 105 lj mj (3.257)

9 m 70 i 13 lm 420 i i

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

223

A 6 Eli2 i i 2 EilAi

kij

⎢ ⎢ i i i i ⎢ A A A A A A A A ⎢ −129 Ei3 i −6 Ei2 i 12( Ei3 i + Ej3 j ) 6(− Ei2 i + Ej2 j ) −12 Ej3 j 6 Ej2 j ⎢ li li li lj li lj lj lj = ⎢ E A E A E A E A A A ⎢ 6 Ei2 i 2 EilAi 6(− Eli2 i + j2 j ) 4( EilAi + jl j ) −6 j2 j 2 jl j li lj lj ⎢ i i j j i ⎢ E A E A E A E A ⎢ 0 0 −12 j3 j −6 j2 j 12 j3 j −6 j2 j lj lj lj lj ⎣ Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj 0 0 6 l2 2 l −6 l2 4 l

j j j j

⎡

A 12 Eli3 i i A 6 Eli2 i

iA 6 El2 i i 4 EilAi

iA −12 El3 i i iA −6 El2 i

0 0

0 0

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(3.258)

yij = Rij =

Repetition of the described procedure to all elements of the shaft results in the mathematical model of the shaft in the plane yz. m¨ + ky = 0 y (3.261)

£

£

yi1 ϕyi1 yij ϕyij yj2 ϕyj2

Ryi1 Rϕyi1 0 0 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

¤T

(3.259) (3.260)

¤T

The geometrical interpretation of the nodal coordinates appearing in the Eq. 3.259 is given in Fig. 37.The coordinates yi , ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located

element 1 Oi node 1 node i yi ϕyi y node N element i element N-1 z

Figure 37 at the ends of the ﬁnite elements. Introduction of the external forces Since the ﬁnite element is considered elastic, the treatment of the external forces presented in the previous section can not be applied. In this case one has to take advantage of the principle of the virtual work. It says that the virtual work produced by a force Fi (see Fig. 38) on the displacement yi is equal to the virtual work produced by a set of forces along the coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 . Hence ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ∂Wi = Fi · yi (ai , t) = {Fi1 , Mi1 , Fi2 , Mi2 } (3.262) ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

224

ai 1 yi1

Fi Ei Ji Ai ρ i

z yi2

ϕ yi1

li y

Figure 38 But according to 3.241 ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ li li li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 y(ai , t) = {H(ai )}T {y (t)} = ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai l

li li i

2

ϕyi2

**Hence, the vector of forces along the nodal coordinates is ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ai ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∙ 1 − 3 li + 2 li ¸ ⎧ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎫ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ Fi1 ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ li li li Mi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = Fi · ⎪ Fi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ Mi2 ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai li l l
**

i i

Introduction of the above expression into the expression for the virtual work yields ⎧ ⎫T ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ai ai ai ⎪ li ⎪ ⎪ i1 ⎪ −2 l + l ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ li i i ϕyi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 (3.264) ∂Wi = Fi · ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ li ⎪ ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ − ai + ai li l l

i i

⎫T ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.263)

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.265)

This forces have to be introduced into the equation of motion 3.261 m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y (3.266)

where, similarly as before, Fs stands for the static forces and F(t) stands for the excitation forces.

268) (3..267) b = ⎣ byi (t) ⎦ . . ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ yb ¨ kbb kbr yb Fb mbb mbr + = mrb mrr yr ¨ krb krr yr Fr Partitioning of the above equations results in the following set of equations ¨ ¨ mbb yb + mbr yr + kbb yb + kbr yr = Fb mrb yb + mrr yr + krb yb + krr yr = Fr ¨ ¨ (3. ⎡ .... (3. . Let us denote by b vector of such coordinates. .BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 225 3. .yN ϕyN Let us assume that the free-free beam is rigidly supported upon several supports Bi (see Fig. The instantaneous position of these supports is determine with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz by coordinates byi (t) . 39)..272) . ⎢ ⎥ (3.269) yr Let us assume that the mathematical model of the beam m¨ + ky = F y is organized with respect to the above vector y of coordinates.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS O Oi bxi byi x Bi yi Figure 39 ϕx i ϕy z i xi y in such a way that its upper part yb contains coordinates along which the shaft is rigidly supported and its lower part yr contains all the remaining coordinates ∙ ¸ yb y= (3. y1 ϕy1 . ⎤ .270) Let us reorganize vector of coordinates of the shaft © ªT y = ϕxN .271) (3.

273 represents the forces of interaction between the moving beam and its supports.267.278) y= yr Partitioning of the equations 3. In this section the procedures for reducing the size of mathematical models will be developed.274) mrr yr + krr yr = Fr − mrb bb − krs bb The last two terms represent the kinemetic excitation of the beam cause by motion of its supports.275) be a solution of this equation. These interaction forces can be now determined.277 yields ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ mee mer ye ¨ cee cer ye ˙ kee ker ye Fe + + = (3. ¨ ¨ mbb b + mbr yr + kbb b + kbr yr = Fb ¨ mrb b + mrr yr + krb b + krr yr = Fr ¨ (3.277 is arranged in such a way that the coordinates which are to be eliminated due to the condensation procedure ye are located in the upper part of the vector y and these which are to be retained for further consideration yr are located in its lower part. the vector yb in the mathematical model 3. ¸ ∙ ye (3. in a general case. that the equation 3. This solution approximate motion of the beam along the remining coordinates yr . Let yr = Yr (t) (3.277) is too large to enable the necessary analysis of the mathematical model to be carried out. due to large number of the uniform sections of the element to be modeld.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS (3. ¨ ¨ Fb = mbb b + mbr Yr + kbb b + kbr Yr (t) 3.279) mre mrr yr ¨ cre crr yr ˙ kre krr yr Fr .272 must be replaced by b. number of the ﬁnal elements is large too. is a known function of time. The vector Fb in the ﬁrst equation of the set 3. It follows that the size of the matrices involved in the discreet mathematical model m¨ + cy + ky = F y ˙ (3. Hence. Hence the above equation can be solved.273) The second equation governs motion of the supported beam and can be rewritten as follows ¨ ¨ (3.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 226 Motion of the beam along the coordinates yb is determined by the boundary conditions 3.276) In meny engineering problems. Let us assume. The vector b.

¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ye 0 kee ker = (3. the kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. one have to determine the relationship between the coordinates ye and the coordinates yr . upon partitioning equation 3.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 227 Hence.280 one may obtain kee ye +ker yr = 0 Therefore the sought relationship is ye = hyr where h = −k−1 ker ee To eliminate the coordinates ye from the mathematical model 3. 4.286) .282) (3. 3.284) 2 Introduction of 3.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. The kinetic energy of the system before condensation is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ mee mer 1£ T ye ˙ T ye yr ˙ ˙ T = mre mrr yr ˙ 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 = ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ye mee ye + ye mer yr + yr mre ye + yr mrr yr ˙ (3.280) kre krr yr 0 (3.5.282 yields ´ 1³ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙r ˙ [hyr ]T mee hyr + [hyr ]T mer yr + yr mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ T = 2 ¢ 1¡ T T = yr h mee hyr +yT hT mer yr +yT mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ 2 ¤ ¢ 1¡ T£ T yr h mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr yr ˙ = ˙ (3.281) (3. if the kinetic energy after condensation is to be the same. Virtual work done by all the external forces before and after condensation must be the same. one may formulate the following criteria of condensation: 1. 2. the inertia matrix after condensation mc must be equal to mc = hT mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr (3. Dissipation function of the system before and after condensation must be the same. Kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same.283) Once the relationship is established.279. Potential energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. According to the ﬁrst criterion. 3. One of many possibilities is to assume that the coordinates ye are obeyed to the static relationship.285) 2 Hence.

according to 3.291) (3.4 Condensation of the external forces.296) . Taking advantage from deﬁnition of potential energy of the system considered ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ kee ker 1£ T ye T ye yr V = kre krr yr 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 T T T ye kee ye + ye ker yr + yr kre ye + yr krr yr (3. Since formula for the dissipation function is of the same form as formula for the kinetic energy.295 (3.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 228 3.289) It is easy to show that sum of the ﬁrst two terms in the above expression is equal to zero.282 ye = hyc permits to produce displacement along the ’cut oﬀ’ coordinates on the base of solution of the equation 3.283. according to the above consideration.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix.290) (3. kc = kre h + krr 3.295) mc yc +cc yc +kc yc = Fc where yc = yr The relationship 3. The virtual work performed by external forces F on the displacements y is ¸ ∙ £ T ¤ Fe T T δW = ye yr = ye Fe +yT Fr r Fr Introduction of 3.294) The condensed mathematical model.5.5. hT kee h + hT ker = (−k−1 ker )T kee (−k−1 ker ) + (−k−1 ker )T ker ee ee ee −1 T −1 T = −(−kee ker ) ker + (−kee ker ) ker = 0 Hence.289 kc = hT kee h + hT ker +kre h + krr (3. can be adopted as follows ¨ ˙ (3.2 Condensation of the damping matrix.282 into the above equation yields ¡ T ¢ ¡ ¢ δW = (hyr )T Fe +yT Fr = yr hT Fe +yT Fr = yT hT Fe +Fr r r r Hence. Indeed. ¡ ¢ Fc = hT Fe +Fr (3. repetition of the above derivation leads to the following deﬁnition of the condensed damping matrix cc = hT cee h + hT cer +cre h + crr (3.5.287) 3.293) (3.292) (3.288) = 2 one can arrive to conclusion that the condensed stiﬀness matrix is of the form 3. they can be transformed as following.

.03 × 0.1×10 10000 = 0. 40.6 PROBLEMS Problem 52 Produce the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxed-elastically supported uniform beam shown in Fig.03×0.0003m2 3 J = 0. O z k l y Figure 40 The exact solution of this problem is presented in page 191 for the following data E = 2.0525 k Use this data to produce the solution by means of approximation of this beam with 10 ﬁnite elements.PROBLEMS 229 3.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.01 = 0.01 = 2.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.

.... ...... ⎥ ⎢ .. y2 . ϕ2 .. ...297.. y11 . 42)... 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ... 0 . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ m¨ + ky = − ⎢ .298) ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ y11 ⎦ k 0 0 0 ϕ11 (3..... .. ⎥ = −k1 y (3.. ⎤⎡ ⎤ y1 . ⎥ = ⎢ . the equation of the beam supported by the spring is m¨ + ks y = 0 y This force should be introduced to the ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 .. it was divided into ten ﬁnite elements as shown in Fig. y11 O ϕ11 z l y -ky11 Figure 42 Therefore. ϕ11 }T (3.......PROBLEMS 230 Solution To create the mathematical model of the free-free beam. y y11 z ϕ11 y = {y1 . 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕ1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ .. 0 0 ...299) ... .297) The inﬂuence of the spring can be represented by the force −ky11 acting along the coordinate y11 (see Fig.... 0 right hand side of the equation 3. ϕ1 . y ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ky11 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 ...... The computed mathematical model is O y1 y2 ϕ1 ϕ2 l y Figure 41 m¨ + ky = 0. 41..

. ϕ1 }T = {0.306) (3... 0 0 0 . .........301) m21 m22 y2 ¨ ks21 ks22 y2 where y1 = {y1 ....302) ⎢ ⎢ ks = k + k1 = k+ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ...PROBLEMS 231 where To introduce the boundary conditions associated with the left hand side of the beam.. let us partition the above mathematical model in such a manner that all the coordinates involved in this boundary conditions are included in the vector y1 . ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 . . ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ m11 m12 y1 ¨ ks11 ks12 y1 + =0 (3.... 0 0 (3... ..304 into 3.303) (3. k 0 ⎦ 0 0 . M}T Introduction of 3.300) R M O y1=0 y2 y11 ϕ11 z l y Figure 43 ϕ1=0 ϕ2 -ky11 According to the boundary conditions (see Fig..... ϕ1 }T y2 = {y2 . y11 .. . . . 0}T and R1 = {R.. ϕ11 }T (3.... 0 ⎥ ⎥ ... ϕ2 . 43) y1 = {y1 ..303 and 3.301 yields ∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ m11 m12 0 ks11 ks12 0 R1 + = y2 ¨ y2 m21 m22 ks21 ks22 0 This equation is equivalent to two equations as follows ¨ m12 y2 + ks12 y2 = R1 ¨ m22 y2 + ks22 y2 = 0 (3.307) (3. ...304) (3.305) .

44) and natural frequencies (second column in the Table) obtained by solving the continuous mathematical model ( see problem page 190).2 0. The equation 3. O 2 y 1 Y1(z) Y2(z) Y3(z) l k z 0 -1 0.6 357.PROBLEMS 232 The second equation 3. This results are compare with natural modes (continuous line in Fig.8 1 -2 Figure 44 Table natural frequenciesof natural frequencies of the descreet system the continuous system [1/sec] [1/sec] 129.65 357.3 933.4 932. Results of this computation is shown in Fig.6 0. 44 by boxes and in the ﬁrst column of the Table below.306 allows the vector of the interation forces R1 to be computed.307 is the equation of motion of the supported beam.0 1 2 3 .5 129. It was solved for the natural modes and the natural frequencies.4 z 0.

x4 is as follows m¨ + kx = 0 x (3. x2 . 45 along coordinates x1 . the static deﬂection curve. x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ m = ⎢ 21 ⎣ k31 k32 k33 k34 ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎦ ⎣ m31 m32 m33 m34 ⎦ m41 m42 m43 m44 k41 k42 k43 k44 x4 (3.308) ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ k11 k12 k13 m14 x1 m11 m12 m13 m14 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m ⎥ ⎥ m22 m23 m24 ⎥ ⎥ . k = ⎢ k21 k22 k23 k24 ⎥ . 2. the interaction forces between the beam and the supports (3.309) 1 2 3 4 x1 x2 Figure 45 x3 x4 This beam is supported upon three rigid pedestals along coordinates x1 . x3 as shown in Fig. 1 2 3 a3 Z a2 sin ω t X Figure 46 The motion of these supports with respect to the inertial system of coordinate XZ is given by the following equations X1 = 0 X2 = a2 sin ωt X3 = a3 Derive expressions for : 1. x2 . x3 . 46.310) .PROBLEMS 233 Problem 53 The mathematical model of a free-free beam shown in Fig.

320.316) (3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = −k43 a3 ¨ The particular solution of the equation 3.310 into the equation 3.PROBLEMS 234 Solution Partitioning of the equations 3.323) (3.311) m11 ⎣ m21 m11 = m31 k11 ⎣ k21 k11 = k31 ⎡ or ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ x1 ¨ k11 k12 x1 R1 m11 m12 + = (3. k22 = k44 k32 k33 k34 (3. m12 = ⎣ m24 ⎦ .318) ¨ x3 ¨ x3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 x1 ¨ ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω2 sin ωt ⎦ . k21 = k41 k42 k43 .308 with respect to the vector of boundary conditions 3.319) or ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt − k43 a3 (3.313) ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ k14 k12 k13 ¤ £ k22 k23 ⎦ . x2 =x4 .322) (3. m21 = m41 m42 m43 . R2 =0 (3.321 is x4 = xs k44 xs = −k43 a3 (3.320) The static deﬂection is due to the time independent term −k43 a3 in the right hand side of the equation 3.310 results in the following equation m¨ + kx = R x where ⎡ ∙ (3.317) where Introduction of boundary conditions 3. k12 = ⎣ k24 ⎦ .312) m21 m22 x2 ¨ k21 k22 x2 R2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ m12 m13 m14 £ ¤ m22 m23 ⎦ . R1 = ⎣ R2 ⎦ .321) .314) ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ x1 R1 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ .315) x3 R3 ¨ ¨ m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ m21 x1 + m22 x2 + k21 x1 + k22 x2 = 0 (3.317 yields ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ¨ £ ¤ x1 ¤ x1 £ ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = − m41 m42 m43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ − k41 k42 k43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ (3. ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ (3. m22 = m44 m32 m33 m34 (3.

xd = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) −ω 2 m44 + k44 (3.326 into the equation 3.324) 1 2 3 a3 4 Z xs X Figure 47 The forced response due to motion of the support 2 (X2 = a2 sin ωt) is represented by the particular solution due to the time dependant term. m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ In this equation x1 stands for the given boundary conditions ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ x1 ¨ 0 ¨ .328) (3.PROBLEMS 235 −k43 a3 k44 Its graphical representation is given in Fig. x1= ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦ ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ (3.325 yields the wanted amplitude of the forced vibration xd . 48 1 2 3 a3 4 xs Z X a2 sinω t Figure 48 xd sinω t This motion causes interaction forces along these coordinates along which the system is attached to the base.326) (3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt ¨ For the above equation.316. These forces can computed from equation 3.327) The resultant motion of the system considered is shown in Fig.325) Implementation of the solution 3. the particular solution may be predicted as follows x4 = xd sin ωt (3. 47 xs = (3.329) .

motion of the system along the coordinate 4 ¨ ¨ x2 = x4 = xs + xd sin ωt x2 = x4 = d2 (xs + xd sin ωt) = −xd ω 2 sin ωt.PROBLEMS 236 and x2 represents.330) Hence. dt2 (3. the wanted vector of interaction forces is as follows ⎤ 0 R1 = m11 ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦+k11 ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦+m12 (−xd ω2 sin ω)+k12 (xs +xd sin ωt) 0 a3 (3.331) 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ . known at this stage.

Part II EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 237 .

The rubber tip 8 is used . It is furnished with the piezoelectric transducer 7 that permits the impulse of the force applied to the object to be measured. The hammer 6 is used to induce vibrations of the object. The spaces between the blocks 2 are ﬁlled in with the foam 4 in order to increase the structural damping.Chapter 4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. It consists of the three rectangular blocks 2 joint together by means of the two springs 3. The transducer 5 allows the acceleration of the highest block to be measured in the horizontal direction.1) is attached to the base 1. 3.1 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION 2 4 5 3 6 7 8 9 10 12 Figure 1 The vibrating object 2. and 4 (see Fig.

To this end let us consider one spring shown in Fig.2. k2 and k3 of the springs can be analytically assessed. the system can be approximated by three degrees of freedom physical model. x2 and x3 are shown in Fig. The blocks 2 are assumed to be rigid and the springs 3 are by assumption massless.3) . which is considered rigid and motionless. These data allow the transfer functions to be produced and sent to the personal computer 11 for further analysis.1 Physical model x3 k3 c3 x2 k2 c2 x1 k1 c1 m1 m2 m3 Figure 2 The base 1. Magnitudes of the stuﬃness k1 .1) Double integration results in the following equation of the bending line. The three independent coordinates x1 .MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 239 to smooth and extend the impulse of force.2. the acceleration of the object and the impulse of the force can be simultaneously recorded and stored in the memory of the spectrum analyzer 10. according to these assumptions.2) (4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 4. EJ FH F dx = z − z2 + A dz 2 2 FH 2 F 3 EJx = z − z + Az + B 4 6 (4. 3 The diﬀerential equation of the deﬂection of the spring is EJ d2 x FH − Fz = M − Fz = 2 dz 2 (4. forms a reference system for measuring its vibrations. 4. Both. Motion of the blocks is restricted to one horizontal direction only. Hence.

**MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
**

z x(H) M=FH/2

240

F

w EJ H x F z

t

M=FH/2

Figure 3 Taking advantage of the boundary conditions associated with the lower end of the spring, one can arrived to the following expression for the bending line. ¶ µ 1 FH 2 F 3 x= (4.4) z − z EJ 4 6 Hence, the deﬂection of the upper end is ¶ µ 1 1 FH 2 F 3 x(H) = H − H = F H3 EJ 4 6 12EJ Therefore the stiﬀness of one spring is k= where 12EJ F = x(H) H3 J= (4.6)

(4.5)

wt3 (4.7) 12 Since we deal with a set of two springs between the blocks, the stiﬀness ki shown in the physical model can be computed according to the following formula. ki = 24Ei Ji Hi3 (4.8)

4.2.2 Mathematical model Application of the Newton’s equations to the developed physical model results in the following set of diﬀerential equations m1 x1 + (c1 + c2 )x1 + (−c2 )x2 + (k1 + k2 )x1 + (−k2 )x2 = F1 ¨ ˙ ˙ m2 x2 + (−c2 )x1 + (c2 + c3 )x2 + (−c3 )x3 + (−k2 )x1 + (k2 + k3 )x2 + (−k3 )x3 = F2 ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ m3 x3 + (−c3 )x2 + c3 x3 + (−k3 )x2 + k3 x3 = F3 ¨ ˙ ˙

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

241

These equations can be rewritten as following m¨ + cx + kx = F x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m1 0 c1 + c2 −c2 m = ⎣ 0 m2 0 ⎦ ; c = ⎣ −c2 c2 + c3 −c3 ⎦ 0 0 m3 0 −c3 c3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ −k2 0 k1 + k2 x1 F1 k2 + k3 −k3 ⎦ ; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ ; F = ⎣ F2 ⎦ k = ⎣ −k2 0 −k3 k3 x3 F3 ⎡ (4.9)

(4.10)

The vector F represents the external excitation that can be applied to the system. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution x = X cos ωt into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system m¨ + kx = F x (4.12) (4.11)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. ±ω1 , ±ω 2 , ±ω 3 (4.14) (4.15)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector X. ¡ 2 ¢ −ω m + k X = 0 (4.13)

Ξ = [Ξ1 , Ξ2 , Ξ2 ]

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form c =µm+κk (4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates η = Ξ−1 x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 105) η n + 2ξ n ω n η n + ω 2 η n = ΞT F(t), ¨ ˙ n n n = 1, 2, 3 (4.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

242

The response of the system along the coordinate xp due to the harmonic excitation Fq eiωt along the coordinate xq , according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is xp = e

iωt N X

ω2 n=1 n

Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate xp as the second derivative with respect to time, is N X Ξpn Ξqn Fq 2 iωt (4.19) xp = −ω e ¨ 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ω n n n=1 n It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate xp and xq , according to 2.144 is Rpq (iω) = xp xp ¨ = −ω 2 = iωt Fq e Fq eiωt ¶ N X µ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 − ω2 ) −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ωn ωi n 2 = −ω + (ω 2 − ω2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n n n n n=1

q = 1, 2, 3 (4.20)

The modal damping ratios ς 1 , ς 2 and ς 3 are unknown and are to be identiﬁed by ﬁtting the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer 5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100). 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page 107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function. First of all let us notice that µ ¶ Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n 2 if ω ∼ ωn Rpq (iω n ) ∼ −ω q = 1, 2, 3 (4.21) + = = 4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 2ς n ωn ω n n Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n , its absolute value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part. ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn Ξqn ¯ ¯ q = 1, 2, 3 (4.22) |Rpq (iω n )| ∼ ¯ =¯ 2ς n ¯ ϕ = arctan Im(Rpq (iωn )) = arctan ∞ = ±90o Re(Rpq (iω n )) (4.23)

and phase ϕ for ω = ω n

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

243

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90o are the wanted natural frequencies ω n . Because ς n and Ξpn are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the transfer functions for ω = ω n represents the modes Ξ1n , Ξ2n , Ξ3n associated with the n − th natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3) natural frequency natural mode 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3)

transfer functions m/N (phase)

π/2

−π/2

frequency rad/s 2 1

Figure 4

4.4

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters The physical model is determined by the following parameters m1 , m2 m3 - masses of the blocks k1 , k2 k3 - stiﬀness of the springs c1 , c2 c3 - damping coeﬃcients

....01 4. These impulses should be applied to the middle of the block........ The following set of data is required E = 0... as the ﬁrst approximation of the damping...... The spectrum analyzer must show the ’waiting for trigger’ sign before the subsequent impulse is applied.......21 × 1012 N/m2 w = ..01 ς 2 = 0...... ξ = 1 corresponds to the critical damping.2 Measurements of the transfer functions According to the description given in section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100) to produce the transfer function Rpq (iω) you have to measure response of the system along the coordinate xp due to impulse along the coordinate xq ..... Since the transducer 5 (Fig. when applying the impulse to the object make sure that the impulse is not excessive Harder impact does not produce better results.. Alternatively the damping properties of the system can be uniquely deﬁned by means of the three modal damping ratios ς 1 ........7 and 4.. let us adopt the following damping ratios ς 1 = 0...m to be measured during the laboratory session t = .... 10 measurements are to be averaged to get one transfer function......595kg The formula 4... x2 or x3 .m to be measured during the laboratory session H1 = .....m to be measured during the laboratory session H2 = ....EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 244 The blocks were weighted before assembly and their masses are m1 = 0...8 24EJ wt3 ki = . 1........ 1) is permanently attached to the mass m3 and the impulse can be applied along the coordinates x1 .. Hence. the laboratory installation permits the following transfer functions to be obtained....24) allows the stiﬀness ki to be computed.... To obtain a reliable result.m to be measured during the laboratory session H3 = ..4...m to be measured during the laboratory session The damping coeﬃcients ci are diﬃcult to be assessed.25) The hammer 6 should be used to introduce the impulse.. ς 2 and ς 3 (see equation 4.........17)...... always place the hammer on the pad provided when it is not used 2. R31 (iω) R32 (iω) R33 (iω) (4....... one has to observe the following. J= Hi3 12 (4. Inspection of the free vibrations of the object lead to the conclusion that the damping is much smaller then the critical one.... .595kg m3 = 0. As the equipment used is delicate and expensive..01 ς 2 = 0.670kg m2 = 0.

m3 . . m2 . Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function). w. In this experiment.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters In a general case. to ﬁt the analytical transfer functions into the experimental one.4. we are going to use the trial and error method. Uncertain are t. Work on one (say R33 (iω) transfer function only.26) Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right). H1 . ξ 3 (4. the identiﬁcation of a physical model parameters from the transfer functions bases on a very complicated curve ﬁtting procedures. H2 . ξ 1 .EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 245 4. ξ 2 . H3 . We assume that the following parameters m1 .27) (4. E were assessed with a suﬃcient accuracy.

. Experimental acceleration-force transfer functions R33 (iω) Choose menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Set up the spectrum analyzer by execution of the sub-menu ’Setup analyzer’ Choose sub-menu ’Perform measurement’.01 E = 0.......... Identiﬁcation of the thickness t and the modal damping ratios ξ i You can see both the experimental and analytical transfer function R33 (iω).......... ξ 2 .......m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0.... ∗ program designed by Dr...... 2..... T..........01 t = ... Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right). response coordinate 3........ ξ 3 in the input data.m of mode 3 springs ∗ Run program ’Prac3 ’ and choose menu ’Input data’ to enter the above data.....WORKSHEET 246 4... Save the initial data..... Set excitation coordinate 3...m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0...21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0. Initial parameters of physical model Measure the missing parameters and insert them to the table below Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0....... execute it and apply 10 times impulse along the coordinates 3 Choose sub-menu ’Time/Frequency domain toggle’ to see the measured transfer function Choose sub-menu ’Transfer TRF to computer’ and execute it Exit menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Choose ’Response display/plot’ to display the transfer functions 3..m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0..595kg H2 = ..670kg H1 = .. try to ﬁt the analytical data into the experimental one.5 WORKSHEET 1... Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function). Chalko .......595kg H3 = .... By varying t.01 w = . ξ 1 ..

Experimental and analytical transfer functions R31 (iω) and R32 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 1 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R31 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 2 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R32 (iω) 5................................m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0.....01 t = ........................................... . ......01 E = 0.....21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0.............................m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.....................m of mode 3 springs Save the identiﬁed parameters.......01 w = .. .... Plot the analytical and the experimental transfer function R33 (iω) 4........ Natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes Choose menu ’Mode shapes display/plot’ to produce the analytical frequencies and modes Plot the natural modes From plots of the experimental transfer functions R31 (iω)... Conclusions ...WORKSHEET 247 Record the identiﬁed parameters in the following table Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.. R32 (iω)..........595kg H2 = ...........m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0. 2 ............m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0.... 6.....595kg H3 = .... R33 (iω) determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes Insert the experimental and analytical frequencies into the table below natural frequency analytical experimental natural frequency natural frequency 1 ...... 3 ....................670kg H1 = ................

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