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## FIFTH EUROPEAN OPT~CS SUMMER SCHOOL

Applications

of Modern .Optics·

## 8-12 July 1985

FIFTH

EUROPEAN

OPTICS

SUMMER

SCHOOL

-Applications

of Modern

Optics"

8-

12th

July

1985

University

Speakers:

University

of Reading: Dr .. G. W. Green Professor H. H. Hopkins Professor B. R. Jennings Dr. J. Macdonald Dr. M. H. Tinker

Visiting: Dr. S. G. Brown Professor B. Culshaw Professor F. Lanzi Professor J. C. Vienot Dr. M.G.F. Wilson Dr. J. K. Wright University of London University of Strathclyde DFVLR. Wessling. W. Germany University of Besancon. France University of London JK Lasers. Rugby.

co
Lecture Duration numbers ( hours)

NTENTS

Title

Lecturer

Foundation lectures 1 2 3 4 5 6.7 8 1.5 1 1.5 1.5 2 1 Fourier analysis and !interference HHH HHH BRJ theory of lasers and Image devices Image formatlon HHH MHT GWG JM

Geometrical

## Applications 9 10 11.12 13 14.15 16 17 18 19 20

Lectures 1.5 1 2 2 2 2 1 2.5 1.5 1 Industrial applications of lasers of lasers JKW SGB HHH sensors optics BC MGFW JCV optical elements JM FL BRJ BRJ

1.1

FOURIER

ANALYSIS

H.H. HOPKINS
Lecture 1

1.

ditions,

any function

## val from x = xl to x = x2, by a series of the form

where p = (X2 - Xl) is the length of the interval, efficients are given by an b
n

PXI
Sln

dx

0.2)

## (1.1) takes the

!{f(x - 0) + f(x + OJ} where f(x - 0) and f(x + 0) are the values left and right of the value of x. a function thus gives its 'local average'

(1. 3)

A Fourier

is then written
f(x)

## L a cos {('2TIn) --- x n=l n p

00

(L4)

where a
a

o n

!a 20

o
(1. 5) ~ arctan (- ::)

(1.4) represents

f(x) inside Xl

<

<

X2 as a constant If we replace

terms.

o x in (1.4)

term

!a

1.2

## by x ± mp, with m changed. periodic

±l, ±2, .. ~ the values of the cosines of the form of f(x) in this interval. and 'wave-number',

are un-

l-

E-

C5

xn
of a discrete

(1. 6)

## so that the Fourier equally

spectrum

consists

set of terms

spaced in wave-number,

## The complex amplitude

of the term n is
a

a exp{i¢ } n n

(1. 7)

This is the complex number whos e modulus and whose argument x T 0. is the initial phase, For a function given by
T n n

## lS the real amplitude, that is the phase at in a finite interval

of time, represented

frequency

1
T

(1. 8)

and n

0, having v

## or D.C. term. in employing for-

In optics there are usually the complex form of Fourier mulae cos 6 !{exp(i6)
+ exp(-i6)}

series.

the standard

Sln 6

ii{exp(i6)

- exp(-i6)}

f (x)

(1. 9)

where

the coefficients

MUltiplying

complex numbers.

an

d'

lntegratlng

1.3

The integral

m, S1nce p

## This leaves only the term n

F n

m, and thus

(1.10)
in (1.9). It should be

gives the values of the coefficients noted that the positive then has a negative An important one not involving by (1.10), sign.

=

that 1S n 1S,

1=1.

The value of F

for negative

where

denotes

F

## Thus, for a real function,

(1.11)

-n

F* n

and, also, F

o F

real.
a .

We may thus wr i te
F

0'

!a n exp{ -i<jJ} n

n~ 1

(l.12)

so that F +n = ~a n exp{+i~ }, by (1.11). 't'n ±n in (1.9) to give f(x) exactly as 1n (1.4) above.

We now combine

the terms

(1.13)

form of series,

we

## thus get: (constant term)

=a

=F

(complex amplitude

of term n)

a exp{i<jJ}
n n

2F* n

(n ~ 1) (1.14)

giving jugates

the important

quantities F.
n

directly

## from the complex

con-

of the coefficients
n

sign used in

(1.9) it is F

itself which

appears

1.4

series

is simpler. x,

n

of the

n

## = +1, +2, ....

and negative theory to beams diffracted form of the Fourier

d.

correspond

to the left

.c 0.1•

## to the set of coefficients

ser~es. Integrals and Transforms f(x) ~n a finite interval repetition To represent of this segment f(x) over the to of

2.

Fourier

A Fourier p

series represents

## (X2 - Xl), and gives a periodic from Xl

f(x) to the left and right of p. infinite interval take a limiting the Fourier

-00

to x2

+00,

it is necessary

integral

F then,

## then goes over to a continuous

that Xl is negat1ve

wr

Since p i.t e 00

r.s

## the spatial frequencies

is small, and we

= (~).

The coefficient

now

00S f(x)exp{i(2nno0)x}dx
Xl We, therefore, introduce

x2

(1.15)

and

-+

0 as p

-+

00

the 'spectral

densi ty'
F

n 00

F(n00)

S2f(x)exp{i(2nno0)x}dX Xl
-+
00

(1.16)

## which does rema~n finite as p series (1.9) becomes

Using

(1.16),

the Fourier

1.5

f (x)

L
n=-oo

F(noa exp{-i(2TInoa)x}da

(1.17)

(1.17)

oa ~

0;

and, 1n

integral
(1.18)

whilst

(1.16) becomes

F (a)

(1.19)

which
(1.16)

transform

Fourier quencies

spectrum

## If f(x) is real, we have

F (-a)

j[f(Xlexp{-i2,"XldX

~ {Jrf (xleXP{+i2n"xldx]*

that 1S
F (-a) F"~ (a) (1. 20)

F (a)

in the complex

Fourier

ser1es repre-

## As in that case, we may write !a.(a)exp{-i<jJ(a)}

a >,. 0 (1.21)

when

F(-a)
The Fourier integral
(1.18)

0

0.22)

## f(x) or, replacing

f Cx)

+00 SF(a)exp{-i2TIax}da
o

## + fF(a)exp{+i2TIax}da -00 integral + F(-a)exp{-i2TIax}}da

a by -a in the second

= f{F(a)exp{-i2TIax}
o

1.6

and, using

Sa
o

F*(cr)

cr > 0

(1.24)

## (1.14) for a Fourier

series.

If we use a positive

3.

Theory
-00

+00,

to in-00

a Fourier

## series and a discrete over of a The

spectrum, whereas to

a non-periodic spectrum

+00.

## The use of the 8-function function

periodic

also to be described

transform,

a-"=

involving

<p

the conditions.

Lim ¢(x, a)

o
00

I- 0 x o
x

(1. 25)

of unit
+00

'strength',

Lim
a-"=

S ¢ (x , a) dx

(1.26)

-00

## to be taken after the inte-

1.7

gration has been effected. An easy way to visualise illuminated infinitesimal intensity passing slit of uniform width, a a-function intensity is to consider an (since

p(x).

If the slit is of

the intensity

is zero for x
00 at x

t-

0, but

the slit is
+00
p

= o.

## The total flux

through

(x)dx of illuwhen

-00

and this is equal to unity for a slit of unit 'strength' mination. For this case, if a the slit is of width 1 we have

= intensity of illumination

a'

¢ (x , a)

o
which satisfies

Ixl Ixl
+1.

<

~a
1 2a Also 1

(1. 27)

>-

## (1.25) in the limit a ~

00

f
¢(x, a) may be used:

+00 ¢ (x , a)dx

= f~aa

dx

-00

-Za
0.26). Other forms of are
T;

## wh i.ch =1 when a ~ 00, and so satisfies examples

O(x)

~~ .., a~

sin (nax)
(n x)

(1
\..L

..

') Q\ ~U/

and

a
Note that

(x)

Lim a exp{-na2x2}
a~

(1.29)

is precisely

## A useful result employing of the function

F (0)

the a-function

f(x)

1.

The defining

formula

+00

-00

exp{ i2nox}dx

~ Lim J;exp{i2nox}dx a~ -Z

(1.30)

which evaluates

to give

1.8

F (a)

Li.rr a+=

. sin ('ITaa)
('ITa)

a (a)

(1. 31)

of this result

lS

= 0 for a

0, and
cr

F(a) =
It

00

for

O.

lS

## also easy to show that f(x )

o
wh i ch is often referred a-function. and, for X Using periodic Fourier
o

Xl Xo

< <

Xo

<

x2

(1.32)

xl or xo> X2
I

to as the 'sifting

property

of the

For X

series

(1. 33)

whose Fourier

transform

will be

Combining

0

factors, by

replaced

(a - ~),

## and using the integral then gives

(1. 34)

of

This
0

lS

It may be noted that F (a) n(p , w i th 'strengths' F n n zero for all other spatial frequencies, but gives infinite spectral densities at the points a

'1)

a series of equally

spaced a-functions,

at the points
lS

a.
n

4.

Functions A function

of Two Variables f(x, y) of the tHO variables ex, y) can be repby the lines

bounded

1.9
+00 f (x , y)

m=-oo where p

(1.35)

found

discrete

## spectrum, with spatial

n(il _
Each component of (1.35) is equivalent azimuth.
\j!

(1. 37)

to a one-dimensional

y) be
Then

fre-

coordinate

\j!

\j!

\j!

+ x Sln

\j!

Y)

(0

(0

cos

\j!

\j!)x

(0

\j!

Choosing $to be such that T tan gives T \j! (1.38) sln \j! cos 1); ## and the above expression becomes simply (0 x+ y) n 0X, whe r a (1.39) T ## All terms in the Fourier serles ## (1.35) for which of the form ## given value thus give components n m n has a 1.10 ## F with a given by (1.39). equivalent mn ## exp{ iox:} f(x, y) is thus functions ## The 2-dimensional This ## to the superposition azimuths 1jJ. of a set of I-dimensional lS i(x) an extremely important result for optics. Note that, using (1.39) for /(02 + T2) in the m n above formulae for sin 1jJ and cos lP, a spatial frequency component 1jJ corresponds in different a in the azimuth to the frequency ## pair (a cos 1jJ, ## T sin 1jJ). To represent Xl and Yl to the spectral + ## f(x, y) over the whole + ## ex, y)-plane, +00. = vie ## allow of the and In ## -00, and x2 and Y2 to spatial frequencies ## are then wri tten 00 series (i) ## The spacings and OT = F mn (t). ## densi ty is F (moo , nOT ) = F ## the limi t, the Fourier f(x, y) where ## /pq mn (1. 33) becomes OOOT. fIF(O, -00 +00 Sff(X, -00 T)exp{-i2n(ox + Ty)}dodT (1. 40) F(o, T) y)exp{+ i2n(ox + Ty)}dxdy (1.41) lS ## the double Fourier For a perfectly ## transform. function f(x, y), with periods p and periodic ## in the x- and y-directions, F(o, T) ## we find from (1.35) +00 L: F ## m=-oo n=-oo where mn o(o_m p' T-E:. )' q (1.42) ## for the Fourier transform, lS the significance to be attached to the o-function of two ## variables. For a 2-dimensional f (x , y) ## function which depends transform G(O)O(T) is only on x, say ## g(x), the double Fourier F(o, T) (1. 43) 1.11 where <5 (r) ## is the transform g(x)h(y). Theorem of a factor h (y) f(x, y) 5. ## The Convolution If a function f(x') is defined +00 ## by the integral (1.44) f(x') J:gCX)h(X' - x)dx ## it ~s said to be the convolution Fourier transform ## of g(x) with hex). The of f(x') is given by ## or, interchanging FCo) ## the order of integration, +00 g(x)exp{i27rox}dx hex' - x)exp{i27ro(x' x=-oo x'=-w factor in the first integral gives H(o): similarly having +00 ## - x)}dx' been caninte- ## the new exponential celled second integral, ## in the second. Hence Using ## (x' - x) as the variable for the it merely the first ## gral gives G(o). F (0) G(o)H(o) F(o) is merely (1.45) ## so that, with product the convolution Further, ## f(x') defined theorem. as in (1.44), the is of the Fourier transforms ## of g(x) and hex). This if +00 F (0) j'G(O)H(OI -00 - o)do (1. 46) defines Feo), then f ex) g (x) hex) (1. 47) ## It follows the product from ## (1.47) and (1.46) that the Fourier transform of of ## of g(x) and hex) is given by the convolution their transforms. 2.1 THE INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT BEAMS: ## COHERENCE AND INCOHERENCE ## H.H. HOPKINS Lecture ,2. 1. Coherence ## and Incoherence at a point P and the resultant When the ## If two beams of light superpose intensity resultant is found to be equal to the sum of the separate intenintensity is greater or less than the sum of the two that is when there is some interference, coherent. The deis, therefore, a measure of the ## sities at P, the two beams are said to be incoherent. separate intensities, the two beams are either fully or partially gree to which two beams interfere degree of coherence between them. Light beams corning from different light source, a tungsten filament interference. sources. These are consequently points of an ordinary lamp, do not show spatially incoherent mode do interfere: two light beams even this or a mercury By contrast, light beams from two separate points of in a single transverse Again, coherent source. ## a laser operating 1S a spatially from the same element of any light source will not show interference at a point P if the two paths, followed by the beams from the given source element, have too great a difference optical path length. the coherence a wave-train of the source. This difference length of.the radiatiDn~andthetimerequired of this length to be emitted is the coherence Ordinary, so-called lengths varying IUIU. in for time ## in path length specifies ## thermal or incoherent, from the order of'l~ up ## sources have coherence to (in rare cases) 200 have a coherence ## A laser, on the other hand, may ## length of 1 km or more when operated contin~ uously 1n a single mode. It 1S important beams to interfere difference to note that the terms 'coherent' and 'incoWe consider any two instantaneously; but, if their phaseinterference over any time, ## herent' do not have any absolute meaning. ## changes in a random manner with time, there will be and destructive ## equally often constructive ## period of time which is much longer than the coherence 2.2 T Now no detector responds instantaneousof the radiation. coh ly: it must absorb energy, and this together with other phythat a detector measures only an average inl.Je can thus characterise any detector by an integrat- ## sical factors means tensity. int time, T. When T. t »T lnt ln changes in the phase difference beams, and the time-averaged superposed two beams h there will be many random co between two superposed incoherent as constructive intensities interference, of the two is then equal to the ## giving as often destructive ## intensity measured time-averaged ## simple sum of the separate beams. It is only in this sense that we say that the that is that they ## show, or do not show, interference: or incoherent. are coherent ## We shall first consider, relationships coherence between ## by means of simple examples, the ## the width of the energy spectrum purposes, beams of different ## and the and then frequency ## time of a source, or of a beam of radiation, and that beams from different ## show that, for practical are incoherent, incoherent parts of a spatially ## source do not interfere. ## For the former it lS assumed has T. »1/6v, where 6v = difference ln frelnt quency; and, for the second case, that T. »T h' where t.n t co T h = coherence time of the radiation. co that the detector Typical values coherence time, T co of the coherence h length, L = L co hlc, are: L coh' and of the ## Source Tungsten lamp Hg lamp (7\ coh coh .z, 1]1 ## 0.3 x 10-14 sec. 10-10 sec. ## Low-pressure Cadmium Laser Laser = 546.1 nm) ## 30 rum 200 rum 300 rum 1 km ## lamp (7\ = 643.8 nm) ## 0.7 x 10-9 sec. 10-9 sec. 0.3 x 10-5 sec. :2.3 Typical values of the integrating time, T. , of detectors ~nt are: ## Detecto,r Human eye Photographic Photocells Photomultiplier and circuit plate T. ~nt ## :::;:: sec. 0.05 exposure time ## 0.1 - 0.001 sec. (circuit bandwidth)-1 It is seen that, in most circumstances, T. t »T ~n 2. co h is well satisfied. Time and Energy Spectrum the condition Coherence Consider ## a source wh i.ch emits a "ave for a time T; is a cos(2TIV t) o the wave disturbance Set) o as shown in Figure.1. 1. (transform) The function It I It I < > !T !T (2..1) ## Set) has Fourier spectrum s (v) cos(2TIV t)exp(-i2TIvt)dt o or s (v) a sin{TIT(v - v )} o a sin{TIT(v - v )} o 2 TI V + V ) ( (2 .2) o 2TI(v - v ) o ## Now Set) is a real function, complex amplitude ## and hence its physical spectrum has 2s(v) with v ~ o. Ao = 400 nrn to 700 nm, so that v lies be tween O. 75 x 1015 o 0 and 0.43 x 1015 Hz. The second term in (3.2) is thus negligible, and the energy spectrum of the wave-train (3.1) is cn, For visible light waves, E (v) ('2..3) ## with v ~ O. mum E(v) o The form of E(v). shown in Figure 2.2, has a maXland falls to zero at v is thus (2.4) = (aT)2 at v = v 0' = v0 (liT). The half-width ## of the energy spectrum ts» ~ 1 T ## and is narrower used in principal principal coherence and ~V2 ~ ## the longer the cohe re nce time. ## The sign ~ is case, a single two to use ## (2.4) because this relation, exact for the present spectrum comprises spectral V2, holds in all cases whe re the energy maXlmum. maXlma l/T2' For a doublet In E(v), at VI and line, having it is necessary ## times, TI and T2 for each component, when ~VI z llTI The light emitted by any element sequence of wave+ t ra i n , each having at random times. averaged trains. spectrum, questions niques", 3. ## of a source consists a coherence of a where ## time, and emitted ## It may be shown that (Z. 4) still holds, times of the individual ## ts» is the h aLf+w i dth of the overall energy spectrum and T is an value of the coherence Moreover, wavethrough energy the if the light from the source passes longer wave-trains a monochromator, relationship Hhich gives a light beam with a narrower [For details see Chapter ## the device creates ~v ~ liT. and preserves ## of this, and of other Tech- of coherence, 6 of "Advanced Optical ## edited by A.C.S. van Heel, North-Holland]. Intensity The Time-Averaged ## If the ,Ilave dis.t urhance at any point as S (t ) a cos{2nvt lS let) e} (2.5) ## the instantaneous time-averaged, intensity ## {S(t)}2, and the measured, intensity lS thus T ~:ria2cos2{2TIvt 2 + e}dt writing cos2{2nvt + e} ## ! + !cos{4rrvt + 2e}, the integral because during the integrating of the ## second term is negligible ## v for a light wave wi.II give a time, T. ## very large number of oscillations 2..5 We thus find I (:2 .6) ## for the measured square amplitude. intensity, where A ## a/1:2 ~s the root-mean- ## If any two wave-s pr oduce disturbances instantaneous SI (r) and S2 (t ) at a is ## point P, the resultant {SI(t) + S2(t)}2, intensity ## and the time-average value of this is (1..7) ## where <>T denotes ## the average over a time T. = If SI(t) acts ## alone, that is S2(t) 0, (:1..7) gives ## where II is the intensity meaning ## of the first beam. With a similar ## for 12, (3.7) becomes I (2.8) ## and the resultant intensities measured intensity ## I is the sum of the separate term!. The value of ## together with an 'interference on the spectral involved. ## this term depends source coherence, path-differences composition ## of the light, the the sp.atialextent· of the source and the optical The effects of these different using the concepts of de- factors, we shall see, may be described grees of temporal and spatial coherence. 4. Two Beams of Different Consider then two beams, Frequency VI, of frequency ## v2 and having amplitudes resultant is ## and phases aI, a2 and ¢1, ¢2' The instantaneous ## and the time-averaged intensity (Z .8) 2.6 T II + 12 + 2~Jr~ala2COS{2TIVlt + ¢~cos{2TIV2t + ¢2}dt - "2 Noting that II the product of the cosines In terms of the sum and difference angles, gives T II + 12 =I- ## 2v'r1-I;tTI{COS[2TI(V2 - Vl)t + ¢2 - ¢1] "2 ## In which the second term lS negligible The remaining because ## of the very large terms give I ('2 .9) ## for the measured intensity. Figure:2 .2. (3.9) ## For (v2 - vI) ## 0 it has the value unity, and gives I (2.10) ## and there is perfect creases coherence. ## The degree of coherence Thus, for QV » to zero when QV ## = IV2 - vll = liT. is zero, and de= 1 ## the final term in (2.9) E2.11) ## so that there lS complete terference to be observed quency may thus be written incoherence. between The condition for infre- ## two waves of different QV < ('2.12) where T integrating ## time of the detector. For T 10-6 sec, for example using a photomultiplier and circuit of bandwidth = 106 Hz, the permissible frequency (2.12) is 106 Hz. Even for a coherence length L co h 1 metre, that is :2.7 h = 0.33 x 10-S sec., the half-width of the energy spectrum co is ~v = 3 x lOS Hz. Thus,even with a relatively fast detector and a long coherence is only frequencies interference. length, such as that given by a laser, separated by less than ~v!300 which will therefore, that under practical as incoherent. frequencies it show con- We conclude, ## di tions we may regard different 5. ## Two Beams From Different Let the wave disturbances Elements of a Source Sl and ## at the two source elements, S2 in Figure 2..3, be (2 .13) (2.14) where 8l(t) and 82(t) are the source phases, which will change constant only over periods of the time T h' Suppose these disturbances co paths to a point P, and letO',~, 0',2 at P. If tl, t2 are the.times produced at P of randomly with time, remaining order of the coherence be their amplitudes will be travel along two different on arrival ## flight from Sl to P and S2 to P, the disturbances S!(t) s; (t) Now tl <= PI! c, where Plis P. ¢l Thus~21Tvtl = ..... 21TVPl!C the optical path length from Sl to -(21T!A)Pl =-kpl=¢l, defined where phase- ## (phase at P) - (phase at Sl) is an 'instrumental' If ¢2 is similarly to combine at Pare difference. disturbances ## for the path two, the S (t ) ## aicos{21Tvt + ¢l + 8l(t - tl)} a;cos{21Tvt + ¢2 + 82(t - t2)} intensity S; (t ) ## so that, by (2.8) above, the resultant 1S I' Ii + Ii + 2~ia;cos{21Tvt + ¢l + 8l(t - tl)} ## COS{21TVt + ¢2 + 82(t - t2)}>T 2..8 where Ii (ai/IZ)2, 12 ## (a /12)2 are the separate time of the detector. as the ## intensities, twice plus ## and T ~s the integrating the product the cosine Expressing of the cos~nes ## 'cosine of the difference ## of the sum' leaves I' Ii + I; + 2IriI210s{(<P2 - <PI) ## + S2(t - t2) - SI(t - tl)})T (2,15) the time-average of the sum-term being ## zero. incoherent un- ## If 81, 82 are different source, the source phases elements of a spatially ## SI(t) and S2(t) will be completely of the cosine i.n correlated, change ## so that the argument with time. during (2.15) w i.Ll, randomly such random changes h there wi.I I be very many co the integrating time of the detector, as often negative as positive, the If T »T ## so that, the cosines being time-average ~s zero. In this case II (2.16) ## and there is no interference elements of a spatially between light beams from different incoherent ## source. of a spatially incoherent of a are If 81, source, ## 82 are the same element ## as at 8 in Figure coherent source 1.4, or different (i.e. a laser), elements spatially identical: ## the source phases say. (2.15) that is S2(t) SI(t) Set), then gives It Ii + 12 +2/IIII.~OS{(<P2 -<PI) ## + S(t - tz) - S(t -tI)})T (2.17) and interference source phase the phase zero; is possible. However, even in this case, the at times at time t. ~ t + This completely uncorrelated with co In this case also the time-average ~s that I' we then have again ## I~ + I;, and there is no ~n- terference. This condition is that ## If PI' P2 are the optical This condition path lengths, to tl P2/C• is thus equivalent 2.9 L (2. • 18) coh ## so that no interference ceeds the coheren6e in Figure is observed ## if the path-difference Physically, S m exas seen ## length of tha radiation. 2.4, this condition is that a wave-train leaving the source gives rise to (S')1 and (S')2 at P which never overlap m m there. If Ipl - P21 « ## Leoh' we shall have I (t ## - t2) - (t; - tl) «Tcoh ## and we may thus write 8(t - t2) I' = 8(t - tl)' ## (2.17) then gives (:2.19) ## and there is perfect 6. ## coherence. Source of (X; Y) In place The Intensity Produced by a Spatially Incoherent Finite Size and Finite Spectral Width Let E(X, Y; v) be the energy distribution at the point ## of the source, expressed The energy spectrum The point as a function of frequency, v. 1 of v it is often convenient ## to use the wave+numbe r a I = vic. of ampli- ## of the source is then written component E(X, Y; a). ## (X, Y) of the source then gives a disturbance of wave-number of unit amplitude tude /E(X, Y; a) for the Fourier Let a wave-disturbance at (X, Y) produce The component elemen.tsof a. ## and zero initial phase complex amplitude U(X, Y; a) at a point P. at (X, Y) of the source then Since different a from the who l.e source do not .interfere,t.he ## a of the disturbance incoherent ## gives /E(X, Y; a)U(X, Y; 0) at the point P. a spatially ## total intensi ty at P due to light of wave-number source S is given by I'(a) Integrating =JJE(X, S ## Y; o)IU(X, Y; 0)12dXdY range then gives (2.20) ## over the wave-number 00 I' =SI'(O)dO (2.21) o for the total intensity We thus consider produced at P. of given wave-number a Fourier component ## and a typical point in the source. ## This light is perfectly coherent, but is incoherent add such intensities finally integrate wave-numbers present with light from all other points wi th other wave+numb ers . intensity points of the source, over the range of of and ## the source and also incoherent We then ## from the different in the source. coherent source, this resultant ## For a spatially placed by ## (1.20) has merely to be re- .;"", I' (0) Pl/E(X, Y; 0)U(X, Y; 0)dXdY12 ('2.22) are then ## slnce light beams from the different perfectly coherent. source elements ## The procedure different justified turbances ## of (2.20) regards Fourier as mutually incoherent incoherent »T components, source. even of ## the same frequency, ## when they corne from This is ## points of a spatially since, given that T. component elements i.n t ## do not show interference. h' the total wave disco Howe ve r , beams deriving or coherent source, are ## from a Fourier from different here assumed differences elaborate from a single element of the source, of a spatially coherent To justify irrespective of the path rather more The effects to be perfectly involved. this requires considerations ## than those given above. length emerge, as in (2~21). ## of the finite coherence in fact, on integrating ## over the range of wave-numbers, 2.ti -T E(vJ Llv = Vr ## F/gure .2.. 1 The enepgy spect:rum of a wave - t-rain ## sin {TrT (v2 - VI)} ## fT}' T{v2. -V,)J Figure 2·2 The Punctiion sin [TrT(v2_ - ## ~)y{ ltT(1.Jz- 1-}J] Fi9ure 2. •..3 Light: ## ueams from two .seoorot:e source elements pz Fi9ure .2 -4 or Light; beams I source ## the -scsrne. element: when P« - P2 > L coh from 2,13 ## THE THEORY OF PARTIAL COHERENCE H.H. HOPKINS 1. ## The Degree of Temporal Coherence o Let E (a) o In Figure ## light from the same point P at P. at P o ## travels along be the ## two different paths to superpose number a ## energy spectrum of the disturbance ## as a function of wavea will give interare mutually time of components = (l/A). Each Fourier component Fourier ## ference at P, but the different incoherent the detector ~n the practical is » T ## case where the integrating the coherence time of the radiation. coh' If Plea), P2(a) are the optical path lengths from Po to P along the two paths, and pea) = Plea) - P2(a) ## is the path difference, ## the component a, will give at P an intensity I (a) p ## Il(a) + I2(a) + 2/Il(a)I2(a)cos{2~ap(a)} (2. '2.3) whe re II (a), ## I2(a) are the separate intensities arriving at P, at P and k ## (2~/A) has been written 2~a. ## The total intensity ## due to all wave-numbers I a is thus I"T""T"" 2~-'-1-'-2 II + 12+ SJ CO ## =I-l I'-2--:(--'a) ("'-a-c-") } 1112 cos f Znop Io ) do (2,24-) where 11,2 = JrIl)2(a)da o ## are the total separate intensities at P. sign of Now, if a varies over a large range, the oscillating cos{2TIap(a)} will cause the integral unless pea) is correspondingly many components term averages turbances many give destructive small. a give constructive interference, p in (2.~) ## to be negligible, is when at P and as This situation interference ## so that the interference The two total disIn other cases, o to zero, and I II + 12' ## arriving at P are then incoherent. the interference term may average at P. for example when pea) is small or the energy spectrum E (a) is very narrow, to a non-zero covalue, and this allows us to define a degree of temporal herence between the two disturbances To simplify the analysis, we shall consider the special case of p. ## when the intensity transmittances, Tl(a) ## Tl(a) and T2(a), along the two ## paths and the optical path difference ## pea) are all independent Tl, T2(a) a. ## That is, we shall write ## T2 and pea) indices ## This requires contained 113 2 = ## that the absorptions and refractive of the ## media in the two paths be constant in E 0 (a). 00 ## for the range of wave-numbers Tl; 2E 0 (a) and ## We then have 11.2(0) ~ (.:2.21.\:) becomes 00 ## TIJ 2SEo (a)do , so that o II + 12 + 2/III2SE(a)cos(2nap)da o (:2..25 ) where E (a) (2.2b) lS the normalised energy spectrum s = (0 - at P . o ## Since E(a) will be wave+numbe ## zero outs ide a range on ei ther side of the mean vie shall use the variable 0 ), 0 ra, o ## which wi l.I take both that E(a)cos{2nap) 0 positive and negative values. Noting ## E(s)cos{2n(a real part, ## + s ) p} = Re{E(s)exp[i2n(a o (2.25.) may be wri tten ## + s)p]}, "There Re{} (2,'rJ) P where ## K(p) the Fourier transform lEeS +00 )exp{i2nps }ds (2.2'3) -0 lS of the normalised energy spectrum (:2.29) E (s ) (2.2<)') is simply (2,2(0,) with s (a - ## a ) used as the variable. o ## The quantity which ## K(p), we shall see, specifies arriving p. the degree to when ## the two total disturbances at P interfere, ## they have a path-difference ## Since the times of flight from P o to P differ by pic the disturbance leaving P 0 at time t interferes wi.t h that leaving P at time t + (pic). For these o two reasons, K(p) is designated the (complex) degree of temporal ## coherence between treatments t a comparison + ## the two disturbances at P. ## Indeed, many it to be essentially ## of this problem err in considering of the t~tal disturbances at Po at times t and pea) ## (p/c), and overlook ## the fact that the path-difference for different Fourier in (2.2+) can depend on a, so that the difference times of flight is different Moreover, such treatments the total disturbances into account do not consider ## in the two components. between the coherence as they arrive o. ## at P, and thus do not take T1(0), the possibility of a the transmittances ## T2(0) varying with the wave-number If we write K(p) W(p)exp{il/J(p)}, (:2.2.7) ## gives P + l/J(p)} (2::$0)

II + I2 + 2W(P)lrlI2cos{2TfO

## at P to be the same as that for the waves,

o

of monochromatic

with intensities
I

II and so

12 and of the mean "lave-number 0 , but with a ference' H(p). that p varies, I
p

degree of inter-

If P in Figure

2·5

## II + 12 ± 2H(p) 11112' these fringes by C

the contrast,
+I

or v i s i b i l i. ty of gives
(2.3\ )

C

.), m~n

where

## = 2/1112/ (II + 12) is the contrast obtained w i.t h two

coherent .waves. interfere. line with the Thus H(p) , which is such that
.two

perfectly turbances

## o ·_;;;:W(p) L,measuresthedegree.to,whichthe . .:;;

A useful case to consider is a spectral
gaussian profile, E (0)
o E (s )

total di s-

(2.'32 )

and then,by

(2,2S),

exp{-TI(60p)2}

W(p)

(2,31

=0-0

±60:

thus 60 is

## length Thus in-

will be given by L

1//:'0,

to 0.04 .when p

(1//:'0).

of decreasing

contrast

## zero for path differences For p::;:0.10(1/60)

(1//:'0) = Lcoh'
always occurs when Ipl «

= LcohllO,
coherence. customary Ipl «

we This to Lcoh

## have W(p) ~ 0.97, and thez~ is almos~ perfect

Lh, and it has become co . speak of quasi-monochromatic light in this case. some ways, an unfortunate rise to the path-difference 2. term because p. has rather more to do with the instrumental

This is, In

the condition

arrangement

giving

The Degree of Spatial Coherence In the same way that the mutually incoherent Fourier comof

ponents

of different

frequency

## source give a reduced

coherence between

## any two points

wh i ch the source illuminates. In Figure 2.7 , dS is an element at (X, Y) of spatially coherent source S, having a distribution over its surface.
VI

In-

mutually

P2+ P, there-

## ampli.tudes transmittances sultant complex amplitude giving an intensity tensities dI to get dI

p

;of .the<pathsPI-+

## at P by dA is (flUI + f2V2), The different elewe add the partial in-

IflUI + f2U212dS.

p

or, expanding

## The total intensities

produced

at PI and P2 are

2.17

(2.34-)

so that

where
(2

_'u, )

will be seen to specify the (complex) degree of spatial coherence between ledge of explicit the total disturbances at P2 and Pl' Knowing II, I2 and the complex transmittances reference fl' f2, it requires only a know-

## r21 to obtain the resultant intensity at PI without

to the source itself. transmittances of the paths the com-

If Tl, T2 are the intensity plex transmittances Thus Ifll2Il produced are fl

~exp(-ikpl)

and f2

!T2eip(-ikp2)'

## = II and If212I2 = I2 are the separate intensities

Also /III2fyf2 - P2)}, so that (2.'35·) may be written

## at P by the light from PI and P2'

IrlI21T1T2exp{ik(Pl

and shows how the two separate bined depending turh.ancesatJ>2.and If we wr i t e f21 PI-

intensities

V21exp(iS21),

Ip

(2,'j8 )

(PI - P2)

## there will be fringes of contrast

c
so that V21 measures terfere,

1 2

(2.39

1nthe

## (complex) degree of spatial coherence, because

it

lS

the co-

herence b e twe en points P2, PI which are spatially separated. ): If P2 coincides with PI, 12 = II and U*U IUl12 In (2.'3(,; I2 The the formulae (2,.3"" ) then show that (2.36 ) gives r21 = l. value of r21 decreases as the points P2 and PI are separated.

We shall obtain a formula for the degree of spatial coherence r21 between any two points P2 and PI when directly with the (mutually incoherent)
0.

illucom-

minated by a source with intensity Yo(X, Y). tensity associated ponents of given wave-number Let Pl. P2 in Figure direction
y o

o

0

(X, Y) at P

=

UI

Iy o eX,
o

Y)exp(-ikRI),
0

Iy o (X,

Iy o (X,
(2.30

Y);

and so

Y)exp(-ikR2),

## where ) now gives

(P PI), R2 = (P P 2) .

## The general formula

This integral is identical with the integral giving the complex amplitude source. at P2 produced by a spherical wave converging equal to the intensity
y

to PI,

(X, Y) of the

theorem.

The coordinates

o

## (L2R2, N2R2, N2R2) , so that if P

has coordinates

(X, Y, 0),

X) 2 + (MIRl X)2 + (N2R2 Exp and i ng the brackets gives In Rt, and noting that Li + Hi + Nt 1,

## or, with the same type of approximation

as in diffraction

theory,

2 .13

and similarly

Hence

and

(2.4-0)

now becomes

(2.'t1

where

(2.34-.)

pve

"R2

ffyS

(X, Y)dXdY
0

- R2)}SIy(x,
S

Y)exp{ix}dXdY

(2,,+3.)

(2. '74-.)

## r(X, .y). yo(X,y)/JJyo

S

(X, Y)dXdY

is the normalised

intensity

## in the source. of along is

To study the effect of source size on the visibility fringes in a 2-beam interferometer, points PI, P2 in the source space whose geometrical the two paths are at a point P in the fringe plane. mula V21
(2.~3)

= Ir211.

## the t"IO special

cases illustrated

and a circular

=

(2~4Z') that X
(2.43')

k(~X + nY)/D,

then gives

(~D)

3}

dXdY
)

(2.£6

the integral

transform

of

For acircula~

find y(X, Y)

(2 .'-t~ )

where JI(x)

lS

function

(2.47 )

2.9 .

When P2 and PI
lS

the coherence

zero for

3.83;

## that is, when

0.61
(o/D) we get either zero or a very small contrast.
>,. 0.88;

(2)+~

For x ~ 1, we

## find V21 = 2Jl (x)/x

that is, wh en
0.16;', (2 . y.':)

## k(j:f1 - R2) is simply the phase ·.difference

diverging from S.
o

'l,Je of trans-

=

by a distance

o

=

through Pl'

We then have

L1, M2

## rs zero, so that of Figure

!k(X2 + y2){(1/RI)

## The points P2 and PI for this gives

(2.50.)

case are shown lying on the axis in the lmver diagram 2;8 Using this value of X, (2.~5)

2,1.1

(2,51 )

0 when x

## n, and that (sin x/x) ~ 0.88

when x ~ 0.86, we find, for the case when P2 and PI lie on the same ray from the centre of the source,

1(~J- (~JJ
t
11 \ 11 \

as the condition

and (2.53 )

as the condition

If this source

100 mm and

(with Rl

=

merely
b e twaen

## 50.6 mm and 4.5 metres.

- (R2)' and p in these calculations emphasises max m~n the great importance in 2-beam interferometers of arranging that on the same interplane. This condition
o

the points P2 and PI should lie as nearly as possible ray from So' is satisfied the same ray from S , after following the two separate

## for the above case of a circular

0.4:\.2 n2 (2. 5Lf ) which ensures that V21 ~ 0.80. More details are to be found in

Chapter 6 of 'Advanced Optical Techniques', A.C.S. van Heel, North-Holland. 3. The Total Coherence The treatment Factor

edited by

## of the degree of spatial

coherence

~n

2. '2:2.

Section

2.2~ applies

to each Fourier

component

of a source time »T

for

the normal

has integrating

over 0 to obtain

the expression
(0)

## Ii (0) + I~(o) + 2/Ii(0)I;(0)Re[V21(0)exp[iS21(0~

exp { i21T0[(Rl - R2)]

+ PI (0) - P2 (0) }}

or, integrating

over 0,
I

(2.5',)

12

where

.:r.1}-

path difference

from S , that is
o

light of wave-

## For a narrow (2,%),

(2.57') ,

spectral

width,

the variation

of

V21 (0)exp{iS21 (o) } wi t.h 0 may be ignored, (2.47) and (2.50.), (2.S'1).

## as may be seen from We then find, for

V 21 (0 )exp{ iS21 (0 )}
o 0

oo

12

0,

and optical

path lengths

## are also ~n-

(2.59 )

2.23.
as rn (2.27), (2.. :2.S) above, with

pea)

p.

Writing gives

(2.59)

used in (2.Sb)

pI2

(2.6<))

effect

## of (a) the finite spectral

Hid th of

the source and (b) _the f i.n.i size of the source. t.e

The visibility

) thus applies to, say, a 2-beam interferometer o using a low-pressure Hg lamp as source: p 1S the optical pathdifference and V21(a
o

a• o

S

## for the mean wave-number

potib I E (0-)
o

Fi9ure

2,5

The degree

of t;emporal coherence

-Lll,.-

~o

S=tr-ff. o

## ',The .•• ene,....gy ..spect;r:urn.·.'·ol1d. ·cbede9ree OF temporal coherence

Fi9LJre

2.7·

The degree

of spatial coherence

2..'25

f2

~(L2~M2,N2)

Yo«y)--?>
x

Figure

a.s

Calculation of tihe

degree

of spatia}

coherence

/-0

0-8 2I,('C)

x
..O-.b 0-4

j \
\\
\

1-0

0-8
Sin )(

x
·i()-6

\
\
\

o
-0-2

\
~

0-2

V
~

/ +-,

o
-0-2

8
X

10

\
4

if

(\
8

\
10

»:

Figure . 2,9

The curves of

2J, (x) x

and

sin.x
.Jr

3.
Lecture 3 OF UGHT

POLARISATION

B. R.
I. Wave Nature Light which. coupled propagate each media. controlled other at may any a of Ught be considered in time. as an

JENNINGS

an

in

## instant similarly in to field

oscillating magnetic

with

(H). oscillating

coupled

fields to

linearly and

space

field

vectors

the

## direb.OOrtuot? t5e are in

wave

propagation. their

these

vectors

phase of the

and

relative Each

are the

by the

physical wave

parameters

medium.

three-dimensional

equation

curl

(curl

E)

V2

E=
equation. those for Of E the and various

(1)

H replacing
equations. waves

E for
it is

the usual

magnetic to

solutions

of

consider

H which

represent

namely

cos(k·r

cut)

( 2)

H has this is

similar

form. as

In cos

some 9

the 9).

## function The part

(wt

k· r ) form

is used.
is used

but for

insignificant

exponential is the

## mathematical equations frequency propagation

convenience.

when

real

alone t
X A I

considered. time.

Eo
and

is r

the the or

vector vector k

amplitude. (r

w
+

1
the

z ~).

vector

vector

is important

and

has

form

( 3)

where

is

the which

of

the

wave. to

For

Isotropic

media.

## useful and the

expressions properties

parameters

fundamental

constants

of the

3. 2

c/n

.c

.and

(4)

with

c the

speed

of light

in vacuo.

and

€o

the

absolute

permittivities of

of

the

medium

and media. of of

## respectively parameter Fig. 1. of

whilst
€r

JJ. and
the the

JJ.o are

permeabilltes or E.

these

same
constant

is

relative

permittivity of

## medium. fixed and

shows

inter-relation to

## H relative and describe

E.
the

we

shall

hereafter in terms

H E.

figures

phenomena

presence

of H should

be forgotten

however.

II.

POLARISED UGHT Figure 1 Implies same and k an electric It vector represents which linearly Is maintained (formerly with to with called time. consider the the plane) The the E

## vector polarised vectors

in

the light

plane. has a

sinusoidally of

varying

amplitude instructive

E and of in

define

a plane

## vibration. various may

It is

combination oscillating

## two such waves

planes Then

under which

conditions. X and

Consider Y axes

waves travel

orthogonal z direction.

define

as they

in a common

wt +6)

resultant

electric

field

is

then

achieved

by vector

## addition. with n an integer. the fields are in phase and one

If 6 has

or ± (201T)

( 6)

This

is

again

linearly

polarised

beam.

but

of

amplitude

(E

ox

E 2) ~ oy

3,2(a)

x
Fi gure
1

z
Relationship between electric and magnetic field vectors and

## the wave vector

Figure

/'

,
/'

z
Linearly polarised light at azimuth

e.

3.3

inclined two

at

an

azimuth factors.

of

with two

a=

## tan-1(Eo,/EOY)' polarised in the beams. same

This

illustrates are in

important

namely polarised

linearly

which direction

phase. similar an be

orthogonally angular

propagating to form

with at can

frequency.

## combine azimuth. mutually Eo)(.and case

a single any

linearly linearly

## polarised polarised linearly

beam beam

inclined resolved

In-phase.

polarised

components

## Consider propagate (a) ( b) in the

where

linearly

polarised

beams

(Eqn. 5)

same

z-directlon. (Eox

but have

equal

amplitudes phase

EOY

a constant

difference

of -TT 12

Ex Ey

= l'
= {'

(kz

wt)

wt)

}
has the form

(7)

resultant

of the

disturbance

=
is

Eo{

l'

cos (kz

wt)

+ {'

sin

(kz

wt)}
(Eo>. whilst

time

independent

amplitude plane.

time

restricted

1)

In fact" in a

the

electric sense

rotates observer

at who If

w
The

clockwise

## is right-circularly between the {'

( Fig. 3) . components

phase negative.

n 12

l'

becomes

Eo{

l'

cos (kz

wt) -

f'
of

sin

(kz

wt)}

(9)

produces

a disturbance

characterised

2Eo

l'

cos (kz

wt)

(10)

which indicates
«()

same

direction,

polarised
(Il) A

linearly

polarised

can

be

split

into

two

circularly

polarised

## beams of opposite handedness, The beams of most general case of and

and of equal amplitude and phase. combination produce of two linearly polarised light.

the

## variable vector with

amplitudes traces

phase

elliptically around as an

polarised

The resultant
(z)

rotates projects

a

direction

a varying

i. e.

4) .

the

instantaneous

amplitudes

of the

generating

linear

waves,

Ex and Ey

= =

## Eox cos (kz EOY cos (kz

- wt> - wt + 6)

( 11)

The second component can be expressed as E/EOY from 11 (a), :: cos (kz - wt) cos 6 sin (kz - wt) sin 0

Exl Eox
{1 -

=
x

and so that

(E IE

ox

)2}~ =

sin ( kz - wt),

or

given by

tan (28)

3,4(a)

Figure

z
RLght circularly
polarised 1 ight

Figure

Elliptically

polarised

light

3. 5

It Is more

easily

recognised

with

{)

(2n

+ 1) 71/2.

when

a .... O.

and

(12)

Once
(I)

Eoy

Eo'

this

becomes
0

## E2+E2=E2 y x which (II) is a circle If {) ... 71. as explained

above.

then

which (iii)

is a line. The various variable states that can be generated amplitudes light can from the ellipse are equation with

phase

{) (and

relative

EOy/Eox> be

shown in

In Fig. 5. of two

(Iv)

Just

as

circularly

considered so

terms

## orthogonally light beam Natural can

polarised be generated

polarised a combination

beams. of

## elliptically and a right

polarised circular

a left

## of different exhibits phases to the has

amplitudes. no long-time preferred of place the and It polarisation multitudinous time. Is all vary state. sources with time to vary states The which in a as at of of

Light

and

## orientations light at any

natural no

that

long-time

correlation. of different

sometimes states

In fact. rate

it consists

polarisation

## as to render including singly

them

indiscernible polarised

can

occur.

may consist

## component that a the of

within

The the

tempted in It

think of

foregoing generating

of a

various

states

pair

somewhat that

## reality. ability crystals

however. to or break as

when a

certain

have as

beam

generating them.

natural

devices

3. 6

III.

## PROPAGATION Many crystals As properties with

IN CRYSTALS are structurally Is an anisotropic. electrtic for Their (and atomic array differs with

light vary

## phenomenon. This reflects charges For the

with

anisotropic

ease their

which

the

E vector in the of

displace

atomic

electronic the

regular

positions the

various light

materials.

## speed and beam the with

depends of of the

upon light.

## polarisation different common In

potartlsatlon that

material. or a

The

most

phenomenon which to

Illustratess polarised

orthogonally

beams is as

light. beam

In which the

passes

through from

Further lasers

## encountered the the crystal.

intense is the

optical realm

beams of

high optics.

power

through we limit

non-linear

In this

chapter.

discussion

to linear

phenomena . .QQuble RefractiQn In basic dielectric theory. local dipoles of moment p are induced in

a material

by a field

E according

to the

polarisability

a.

where

aE

or

Na

(13)

with Here.

P the

polarisation

density

and

N the

number and

of

dipoles

per

unit

volume.

can

## have various susceptibility

values X

with

direction where

is thus

a tensor.

Often.

the

is used

=
This is also a tensor which relates that liquids. The further equation

NaE directlfy to

(14)

a,

especially

for

gases

and

g.7

## €r indicates that €r and

(1

+ X>
similarly tensor properties. In general. therefore.

€ are

(15)

crystals.

the

tensor

is symmetric as

and

the

trace

components

principal

=
that

o o
o
the
X33

In

passing.

one of the

notes material.

off-diagonal

terms

relate

to

the

absorption

properties

that

v2

c2 2""'

and

that

at optical

frequencies

n2

Er•

wave equation

(Eqn , 1)

becomes

=

~-

=
at

and

=-

iw E.

then

expanding

out

and

equating

components

to the

equations

( 16)

## collecting which equate

all

terms with

on zero.

the

left Hence.

in

each the

case.

one

obtains of the

three

equations must

equate with

determinant

coefficients

zero.

namely

3.7(a)

Figure 5

/ tJ 0
phase

Jr:{
~

Il

-S

\
0 = n/2, it would

Various polarisation

o.

If E

oy

= Eox ,and

Figure 6

OA

k surface

~.8

This

forms the

surface ~

in

'k' The

space

To

Interpret

it.

consider

= O.

determinant

becomes

## {[~~r-~2+ky21 } [{ [~~r-}[ [~W r ~2}_ [ ky2

ct. { A

'\ 2ky2

}[
when either (or both) A or

1
O.

which

is satisfied

Bare

then

,\2 + ky2
~2

=
+

(n Wlc)2 3

(1

and
(n

ky2 (n wlc)2 1

wlc)

=
is

(18)

Eqn. the

17 other

is

18 yz.

an

equations are

appear

for

normals

generally

encountered

Consider
'\ ;k

x axis, are

then

=
of

0, kx'

y2)

max

(4.16)

where
R(a,T)

=JJf(X,
_00

(4.18)

transform

of the aperture

## to be zero outside the initial

the reg10n of A itself. (4.17) shows that any aperture distribution of diffracted by pair frequency integral ampli tude determined

Omitting function

factors,

an angular

a = L/A,

T = H/>'"

4.8
+00

f(X, Y)

J1F(a,
-00

(4.19) a exp(i¢)

## = Y = Z = 0 has complex amplitude

U

a exp(i¢)exp{-ik(LX

+ MY)}

= 0.

Comparison

## (4.20) shows that any disturbance,

f(X, Y), at the screen is of plane wave s , where the plane a exp(i¢)
=

F(a,,),

## a are spatial frequencies

=

L A.

,=

A.

(4.21)

of f(X, Y). exp{-ikZ} falls on a screen of complex leaving the screen at Z light has L or negative values of positive

r rx, Y).

= M = 0,

or negative

## to the left and right, or

above and below the direct beam. fracted light is equal to (1/A.) The· above fo rmu.l becomes a focus;of'theplanewaves We, therefore,

The maximum values of L, Mare is detail of size ;;.A.. that is at the directions (L, M).

## = IMI = 1, so the maximum spatial frequency producing dif, which

exact as·R-+oo,

diffraetecialongthe

## expect to find the same type of result if the aperR

ture plane A is replaced by a sphere of radius or near the plane Z sphere of radius

= D, and P is at

= D = R. o
o

We now have the case of the lower has coordinates (X, Y, Z) on a and P, with coordinates

R

and centre 0;

## (~, n, C) having origin at 0, is taken to be on the sphere OP,

of radius R and centre C. We now have

(~ - X)2
which uSlng the equations

(n - y)2

(R

C - Z)2

of the spheres EP

## and OP, namely

4.9
X2 + y2 + Z2 - 2R Z
a

0, easily re-

duces to

Factorising gives
RR

a a

R , this
a

a

factor

(l/R) ~
a

## (l/R ), and omitting

a

(i/AR )exp{-ikR

}, gives

Up " U(~,

n) ~ exp i -i£(~,

[~x;0nY

i~]}dXdY
(4.22)

a

a

## on the sphere is written

dA

dXdY/cos
a

8 ~ dXdY.

last, like the approximation shall show that the quantity practical cases.

(l/R)~

(l/R ), merely

o

I (~X

nY)/R

, in all

## Thus, the surface r2 p2

equations (EP )2
a

above glve X2 + y2 + Z2 2R Z
a

(OP)2

so that I;;Z/R
a
zrp,

so that

(4.24)
If

(~X + nY) /R

## the resultant and, for A

amplitude

at P

will be negligible.

=

4.10

a

mID,

Hence

u(~, n)

-00

## + JJdXdY [. (~XARO n~17

(4.25) with f(X, Y) defined to be zero outside the reg~on of the aperture

A.
There are two special cases of (4.25) which are important. If R

00,

and then

U(~, n)

exp{-iE(~,

n)}F(Ai ' o

A;O)

(4.27)

The intensity

## at points ~n the (~, n)-plane is g~ven by

I(~, n)

lu(~, n) 12
by

(4.28)

that is, w i rh high accuracy, Fourier objects. transform of f(X, Y). the theory of image formation

## the squared modulus of the This result is of importance ~n and of coherent

both of incoherent

18

-R' 0'

= O.

(OP) •

transform
(EP a

herent cavity.

.4.11

~A

int:egT'al

y
p

----7 R=/)
x

FiguT'e 4-- 2

Fresnel

## diF-Ffloct:ion : tihe point: of stationary phase

4.12

~5=
Figure 4-·3 Fresnel diFfraction at:

0-85

edge

a .straiqnt:

<,

'-

<,
<;

'-

'-

:s

'-

...,

..,
1

Figure 4-4

Fr-aunboper-

diFfraction {orrnutae

r
i

Lec:tture 5 LASERS 1. 1. Introduction Lasers several lamps or have been described from These as Ideal light sources. by Laser light differs In PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

respects bodies.

light

generated are

## conventional in that the

discharge a laser is is

differences also

quantitative in that

but

qualitative

iight

well

extremely

These lasers

spawned to of

## modern or order more to

applications of the

designed expense

## enhance the No that others. short have of

features. areas to Is to

usually of

revolutionize possibly

many do

science variety

could

justice here

the

Our so that

purpose more

establish may

basis

laser

specific

applications

establish

limitations

conventional

## sources. of Black below.

Thermal Body

modelled of this

by

Planck's are

Important

results

theory

discussed

Electromagnetic temperature by

In

thermal

equilibrium density
U

with with

cavity

at

T has a distribution

frequency

v given

Planck's

Law.

and

the

emittance

into

all directions

from

unit

area

of the

surface

W(v.T)

ov

c
4

s.
In terms of the wavelength spectrum

W().,T>

d).=

ehV/k.
spectrum peaks at

lI).T

-1

d)'

The

km
with

2.9 x 106 T

nm

with

an

Integrated

total

emittance

over

all

W Tot al with Black and are body neither and source of if sources are limited nor system to

a -r4
X

Stephen's

Law

a = 5.68
In terms

10-8

Watts

m-2

K-4•
temperature radiations the light can at the are then never cost by

of

brightness The

by the

## monochromatic. is an used image to

individual or focus

whose can

exceed of

that

losing

most

## coherence with have lines and area

can

only

improved of light.

drastically

reducing

than suffer

since

## limitations incoherent intenstty.

directionality of the

individual for

source

required

.&

## and Absorption energy levels

by atoms
give rise to three distinct

of electrons

in atoms

interactions

Nn

E",

(a)

Soontaneous Here an

atom decay

E,...,

random

lower

level.

## probability/sec between the

of

decay

Anm

where

Anm

is

the

Einstein

'A'

coefficient

two levels.

(b)

Absorption An atom to reach The in the the lower level Is driven by resonant radiation of density
Uv

upper

Uv

probability/sec

=
hVn m

Uv

8mn where

Is

the

Einstein

## 'S' coefficient Total (c) absorbed

between power

levels. 8mn

Stimulated An atom

emission in the upper the level Is driven Since Is coherent hvnm. are reciprocal only processes when and also that by It resonant Is with radiation. by the
.=

of

density

uv'

to

reach the

lower

level.

driven the

incoming

emission

driving

## Totai radiated It Is the apparent

=
(b)

No

Uv

Bnm (c)

and

incident

have

a net

amplification

This

Inequality

Is

at

the

basis

of

laser

action.

or

light

amplification

by

stimulated It body Is

emission easy to

of radiation. show that then if atoms are in thermal on equilibrium populations with black

in a cavity

the

Boltzman

condition

together

with

Planck's

law.

to the

equality

Bnm

8mn

and

81Thv3 nm

The

prerequisite

for

laser

laction

Is then

that

Nn

> Nm.

Population

inversion

3000K

kT

Is

only gives

It and

follows

laboratory of

equilibrium will

## dominate. equilibrium with

action only of

considerable

thermal

attained to

a transient
the

continuously

a continuous

energy from

achieve

appropriate Is to

Further. the

if

coherent

stimulated

emission then

incoherent

spontaneous

emission

Both

these of

conditions the

become Is

## difficult are infra two red

10 achieve of the

as

the why

reasons UV

high

more The

whereas

## techniques and will be

for

achieving

population in more

inversion detail

## specific variety laser than on 1. 4 An amplifiers

type

discussed we must

later try to

lasers. lower

Meanwhiie and

## understand and spatial lamp

why

bandwidth from

greater

temporal gas

coherence operating

a single spontaneous

spectral

line

a conventional

discharge

## A simple laser system inverted for population of

atoms

resonant
/,

/! -;1
~ "'-,
_._--_._----------------------_:[

~ }o>-+t-:~---~
k" r/

such

is

## contained Any travelling

in

narrow of

tube

within

cavity

by two along

plane the

wave

appropriate by stimulated

frequency emission.

be

amplified

coherently

\$5
The will wave be will be successively between mirror profile. of from Is reflected the mirrors. and is within An this the cavity and a standing wave wave be

travelling be

may

spatially

profile laser

frequently In

resulting losses

diffraction

aperture.

some

occur of the

diffraction

profile

amplifier

The will

## arrangement. beam with as

the

requirement spatial

of

## reflections. the at beam Infinity size is

produce

excellent

coherence a point

profile. and

This

behaves can be

If It originated down to

from a

## accordingly only and

focussed laser

point This

Image produces

whose

limited intensity

at the at the

aperture.

extremely

high

focus.

1. 5

laser
To evaluate

bandwidth

of

a laser Secondly

we the

must

first

consider arises

the a

of

the

## themselves. cavity These and and are only as

output to

from

wave cavity

such

is

restricted longitudinally

a and

conditions

certain

discrete

wavelengths

bandwidth with

of

the

## themselves for This the

is

exactly state

the when

same the

as

that are

spontaneous discharge

upper

atoms

in a conventional

we wilt

examine

first.

1.5. 1
a.

Bandwidth linewidth

of Spontaneous

Emission

Natural An

individual

atom the

in

an

excited

state

has ; less

with

particular

transition to

states) have

excited

a natural

If the

Vo

of

as

damped energy

harmonic

oscillator

at

the

frequency

then

the T

dipole

wet)

decays and is

## exponentially given In this

wen

We e-tlT

where

Is the

natural

case

by T

1
Fourier at ve analysis leads of to this a damped bandwidth sinusoidal b.v such output that

Av=l/T.
The order Unfortunately the situation with radiation T and in other a is coherent then only over times of

if T=lOns
real

discharge and by

atoms

during T

## Its decay and the In a in line

then is

the

phase

than

coherence

reduced. be significant

conventional a high

width

could

pressure

## Doppler serious motion

Broadening than and a. the or b. is the of fact that individual produces With a emitters a are

more

thermal

ensemble the

## emitters linewidth. with is the Doppler

Doppler

bandwidth distribution

which the

## greatly resulting .6v o

exceeds iineshape

natural

Maxwellian by

is Gaussian

a width

.6vo given

7. 16x10-7 v
0

(I1J2

M1

(M the

Under 100

typical times

## discharge the natural

lamp width

conditions and

accordingly

determines

effective

S.7
bandwidth spactral for the (-1 GHz) line of a and coherence lamp. system. frequency It time It (-1 ns) Is also obtainable the from a single

discharge In a laser of

## bandwidth Doppler for high

amplifiers Is lines. to

We

note

that most

a function

becomes

serious

Important and

realise

that

althouqh of of

the a

Doppler conventional

width

determines lamp

the It of

temporal the

## coherence bandwidth cavity

discharge a laser

the

## output 'in the

from iaser.

because

requirements Standing

by the

modes

1. 5. 2
a. Axial For wave.

In a laser

cavity

modes wave must to fit be the coherently cavity amplified L with the wavelength of the standing

the A.

length

= =

nA

where

n is any
C

integer.

2
c A

11

n.

The

separation

.6vm
n

=~
the

values
~1Im

of
-

L300

O. 5m MHz. of

and

A-

650nm.

## -1. 5 x 106 and

contains

material

refractive

index

7}

then

L in

the

above.

is the b.

optical

length.

f 7]d!.
are wave to possible and has that This uniphase in the a laser lowest this has with cavity. diffraction transverse a no simple phase but the losses. mode TEMoois As has

## modes modes axial

transverse to it is an

nearest result

easy to

arrange

only mode

## gain profile the beam

oscillate. its

Gaussian reversals

across (unlike

wavefront.

higher

modes).

S.8 1.5.3.
laser Bandwidth combine gain : Axial the of modes within the gain bandwidth in the the laser cavity of

## We can with the the laser

now

longitudinal the

modes

possible to predict

Doppler output.

curve

amplification

bandwidth

In

the

## diagram wiihin the the

we

see

four Only

longitudinal two of to

## modes these iie

failing above cavity laser two mode It Is apparent that If are the

011. 112

necessary laser

## losses output frequencies bandwidth

action.

su perposition and
113,

each

and be

the

## maximum for above

temporal example threshold. usually not by will Doppler The laser system. is

coherence

required the

selected. lie

by

## laser. the will

one will by

will to

is done value

frequency determined

near

v 0 but not
length and

at

110

and

any be width.

atomic

## property. losses in the

Similarly cavity

bandwidth. alt

by

the

by

the

bandwidth. determined.

Ov. as

and for

the any

cavity

quality

factor.

Q.

of

single

mode In the

electronic

oscillator.

by the

losses

=
l)v

## and from of the

the the

losses

can

be measured or from

## either the free supply decays

directly decay Is y
o

bandwidth when

oscillations The
-21TtiV

the

power

turned
-21TV

off.

stored

energy

as e For

tla

:::::e the

a laser

single

mode

bandwidth

is

usually

5.9
much too small to from time be the can Is The measured coherence be directly. time or as from the as It the time the can time after time single be of free which over mode measured decay an which laser 01

Interpreted or

## collection coherence be and less a

photons lost.

lost.

alternatively of a well of

bandwidth

designed 5x

1MHz on

a basic of In is

frequency

iO 14Hz giving
a laser. the 108•

a Q of with

## coherence could speed and

time be of

10-6
the

sec. future to

Such

used light

establish part in

standard In terms

defined.

to

one

wavelength

frequency

## of a stabllsed and any Is no spatial other

laser. coherence source. than available In the single many with laser light Is the In and

less

Important to

power mode

usually

attempt

select

laser

is allowed

to operate for

in several

modes

simultaneously.

## Mirror systems Although our

lasers so this far has implied the case the the in end per use of plane except faces of mirrors for a is at ruby ruby low.

discussion cavity

the

end

of the

laser

where

the

mirrors gas

are

## In most mirrors are

lasers.

amplifier

unit

length

unsatisfactory is very

following (1· of

1.

The

alignment

critical many

order

to

confine

near

paraxial 2. The

rays' to allow

passes

through

Gaussian the

beam

profile

## uniphase coherence too Both mrrrors. high.

mirror

surfaces and

and the

spatial are

diffraction

losses

these

problems

can

be with

much

reduced to

by their

use of

of

spherical and

appropriately

positioned

respect

curvature

5. 10 mounted wavefronts mirrors (good been outside from the the discharge tube for ease of alignment. are almost The uniphase and spherical rays. have

diffraction-limited good

beam

spherical of near

also

produce

## geometrical stable popular. the

confinement using

paraxial mirrors or

Several most

spherical

but the

lasers. and.

## are the where

confocal maximum

hemispherical the

power

is

required.

## arrangements. better modes around l'

Such

configurations against alignment Mirrors losses; layers 1. 1 A Population prerequisite inversion the details there inversion for laser action be higher

(e. g.

on glass.

two

energy between

levels the

Is two

that levels. to
f,..,r

## must of are the

a
~

first

techniques
.f_"l.I
1'0'," ~C'I Je'l Cil

do
__
ro

this

are

specific
!'=ar.::':'l. Qle

each

~1.J~+_~

""'_1

~'f0LOI'1

## ___ ro.;",_ ......... +l \.,.i\JII';:)IUglC.\.tVII~

,-&,hl,....h
"HI...,.,

\.I!:!IIIn
'l'UIiU

.v.

any

atoms reside

must at all

be

excited

from

some· ground

state

level This

in

which

they can or

practical

laboratory absorption.

temperatures. which is

excitation process. be a

achleved

either

by photon or It

by

with In

other is not

## atoms. possible one other

which to

resonant between

invert

population

without

Involving

at least

level.

5,. 11
If only levels El and
E2

are

involved E2 will

then also

any be

excitation loser

## mechanism at deexcitation energy light

from

E1 to from Is from

A
II

effective

back

E2 to

E,

flo

same of

difference

involved. E1 to

Uf'\

'

I P ;rja
i.

jJ

'I L

il

E2.'

111~er'B
y
£/

frequency

E2
could

## emission; with sufficient produce inversion. E3 (pump

intensitity equal

light In

at

v'2
and also at E3

be to but no

populations E3 is to

E,

E2 (saturation
it is possible the and decay same

of

the

When the

to raise

E1 to This

atoms an to

time

could If after

## produce pumping from

inversion E3 there to

E2 (as from

laser E3 to

slow

E2

back

develop

between

is that to

E,
invert

## is a ground against E2,

is initially an excited

and this

case

a used

excited lower

empty)

E,

sometimes in

E2.

reasons lasers,

lasers success

these or

cases laser

known

system

amplif!er be

and by by

through pumping

this and

rate

at which the

at which by and

laser general,

some

## pumping. a high for

solid length:

lasers lasers

of amplifiers longer

per

unit

be

to compensate

S.12

1.8

Control

and

modulation

of the

laser

output

1.B.l
in power

Q Switching many high pulsed output become operate power from applications the laser. by the (CW) Important. the laser action itself Inevitably and the hence depletes the gain. the In It is desirable Many lasers. to produce extremely pumped can high by be

such

as those whilst

process much

others preferred

to

be

when

## and coherence be appreciated and the It Is up to

that

laser same

level way If

reduces onset of

the

population action

Inversion limits

inhibit value

laser then

is built

laser

single or

output Q

pulse

obtained. Is

since

achieved to

phase can

## restoring to used done

Q suddenly a train

output

be

## repeated can can be be

produce to

powerful from

procedure Q switching 1. 2.

produce

a train several

pulses

a CW laser.

In onaof which

including: produces which of the cavity absorbs two alignment. the of laser the

A rapidly An light

rotating

## mirror saturable 'light

periodically (dye)

absorber

## produces transparency using

saturation of the a

levels

absorber 3.

hence

## absorber. cell or a Kerr cell with

Electro-optical crossed

switching

Pockets

4.

Acoustic

## by a piezoelectric greatly in cost In pulse

crystal. lengths produced Whilst power [from the 10 j..I..sin average higher.

10ns in of a laser

## and convenience. peak

overall

power

Is reduced

by Q switching. the

is much

S. 13
1. 8. 2.
The also be Cavlt'j' dumping processes used with to of a CW lase. in reiation of to Q switching (modulation) produce the pulse is the of a pulsed from laser can In

described

produce

a train It is

pulses to

a CW laser. rates an

possible

several until

MHz the

dumping. input

Here

reaches

balance

the of and

## cavity the the

then are

opened released

rapidly In a

using time -

optical The

and is

cavity process

2L/c.

Is repeated.

1.8.3
An driven exceeds excited exciting excited modes with

Mode locking of a CW lase. optical at the and the the the switch (e. g. KDP crystal> frequency the is placed c/2l. of the In the cavity the and Is Just be of are all

inter-mode the

When gain

gain will

losses the

centre

curve

modulation modes

sidebands this

which

are once

## capable these until

nearest two

frequency; be excited

next-nearest within

similarly curve

and

so on

above

threshold

width These

I::J.v

are

coherently
"..~i:ll
nil,

excited
......

fixed

phase

relationships

## between If there the are

_.,._,..,I_1f""
1.,VUCoO:)

:_ .. __ ..t __ "Bl.t:1llt:1lt;!J.

bJ
\ It
average producing this CW laser large power. pulses narrow are purpose pulse Mode resulting 200MHz. amplitude laser fusion widths locking can can

modes the

each

having

same

produced

have which is

height

that

where

## Nand and small

neodymium/VAG be also as

dye as

lasers 10-12s

## by phase are likely

modulation to prove

modulation. experiments

Mode and

in communications.

5.14

1.8.4

Harmonic

with

a laser through In turn matter act by Inducing secondary per unit oscillating sources of is

## Electromagnetic electric radiation. related dipoles The in

propagates which or

as

induced

polarisation E by

dipole

moment

volume.

P.

to the

electric

field

of If E Is an oscillatlng field E

the medium.

Eo slnwt + 2
E~ (1-cos2wt) wave but

## then Under first normal term

o,Eo of

slnwt an

+ ....
(E-100Vm-1) in the also only the fields In

conditions be

need

## considered (E-l Is 05 Vm-') apparent

extreme

generated some

in a laser It the
02

can order be

crystals. of

involve

original to

frequency

## harmonic of the 30% newer

For the

be non-zero generation

crystal

harmonic For

most KDP

beam.

## example. Into the

conversion materials

efficiency promise

harmonic

even

higher

efficiencies.

"

S.16 2.2 Solid State Semiconductor lasers (Low and small power i. r. but and with very poor high coherence efficiency. In red very

size and

## Very heavily with large

doped

forward

current

productlon recombination

from at the

## electron-hole junction with

hv=band
Usually also

gap

of semiconductor.
and pulsed but can

cooled

be CWo

Typical CW -

output
1 watt. >"=840nm; doping )"=640nm).

(with

Phosphorus

## Very modulated Other range

important at up to more

fibre

optic

since

small

and

easily

recent

materials

techniques

3s
a.~
i

2. 3

and i. r ,

low but

efficiency with

in

the

excellent and

collis;,,,!

- A.to_.

temporal

coherence

## low cost). Helium-Neon Gas

/'··/sr"'1~(l,,,('1' ~f

discharge

pumping

with from

~-~~~

## collisional metastable as upper

exchange

\!
sta{es.!\ to laser levels. neon excited

s.
2. 2. 1 Solid State

## A SUMMARY OF SOME lASER lasers (High power

Crystal

I. r but with
3 level Typical Puised repetition Q switched Very laser

flashlamp
).=

output lOJ

694 i ms

in

( 10kW)

## low efficiency length

< 0.1%.
-1 mm normally and

Coherence poor Neodymium Ions Nd3 + In YAG or glass 4 level Very spatial

coherence.

laser;

## low threshold. output pulsed or

high

power

CWo
Typical output CW. at 10kHz 20kV'J peak power
).=

1. 06

usn

h>..-l nm

of width

## lOOns. ruby 1%. to give very large laser.

Coherence

as for -

Low efficiency Often used in conjunction e. g. with 5000J 1500J 350J a laser amplifier

chain

pulses fusion)

(Mode

TW peak

height>

j.Lm

lOmW

633

nm

A'A.-

lO-5nm

(single

mode)

also

at

).

1.15

.am

3.39

available.

2.4

D. C.
is the Typical

discharge

In

mixture

of

helium

and

Od" ion.
output

ccvo

>.
or

441. 6 nm
325 nm

50

mW

5 mW

2.5

Atomic

gas

Ion lasers

(High

CW

the but

visible very

with low

## excellent efficiency f4.rgon Ion

4.p

cost). argon is of atoms necessary cooling confinement low are at high ~ a very and with of O. 10/0

To high has

Ionise current

and

excite d.c.

## dlscharge;l problems and

difficult lsolatron

.J....,-

electrical

~-

rv72..nr<"'l

the

lons,

l\

At

".-.t ,b,"

(3p·)

but

output

coherence

Typical

## output lines with

5

(CW) at ).. to

L
.. Krypton Similar

Major each
r!::c:d:~ (3p

=
20

488
watts

nm

and

)..

514

nm. UV at

up

and

also

near

fl,r-(r-Rulm15",......,d

"l up

to

watts.

Ion to Argon Ion but with more emission at red end of spectrum.

## S.lB 2.£) Molecuiar gas

lasers

(Very

high

CW

power

In

far

Infra

red

and

with

very. high Carbon Most based dioxide powerful on the CW laser with levels many

efficiency)

industrial

welding/cutting of the

applications

and

rotational A Sq

## modes (CW) with

molecule.

S'tj"" ,..~,tt.~
HDd'!..

JV\~e

t; r''1:e

,...,.\ CY..t!2....

). = 10,. 6 J.Lm
efficiencies and good up

powers

up Low beam

to

a few

kW

and

## to· 20%. of the

divergence to many

focussing requiring

applications

highest

powers.

o---o~~---o

0- - -4# -

--;)

el~c~-rt:, ..-,c.-

a re.u.rtL

:;-t:o..!:..t;;.."

2. 6 s.

Exclmer lasers Kr F

(UV

high

power

pulsed. from

High

g.

## formed often a bound

a a

non-binding state. is

excited fluorine

krypton

and via

subjected

excitation

discharge us with

or electron

beam in

exclrner excited

molecule state it

formed

exclusively

a
the

100% groundstate.

population Laser

inversion action follows of at and 20% 100 pump the lower level

between

and as

## empties with giving dye 15M

rapidly Watt

the

molecule of of the ). 20

are Hz

possible

## pulses powers also In

repetition. for a

averaged and

Watt. a

excellent laser.

laser

laser

future

possible

fusion

S.19 2.7 Dye lasers (Tunable medium visible Large vibrational vibrational In solution the rapid wavelength power spectrum). organic modes mode each (has dye of a molecules oscillation set of have and many each levols. by and laser. good CW or pulsed. over with the

coherence

rotational is

rotational

level

10-125)
The

collisions

these transition

.' 11,

c(lff r-oct.·on.

.1

'JT"/:;"9

Including

becomes and

continuum are

## levels Fast any level longer

and

the

absorption relaxation

spectrum between

spectrum

band. in

## internal absorption within a

vibrational process

rotational from

results

causes

the

## band If such with output a

wavelengths in a then

to the and Is

a dye

## incorporated another laser

·flashlamp over a

possible

range

where at the

wavelength

selection

by

maximising out

chosen or an

## wavelength. intercavity The large locking.

Tuning

carried

diffraction the

grating

interference bandwidth

etalon.

depending makes

bandwidth very

required. for

gain

profile

lasers Typical

suitable

mode 6G

output of

Rhodamine a few

H ;'rJ

CW output as low as

watts.

tunable With

550

650

## nrrirC~it picosecond pulse trains at

10-7 nm

(15KHz). produced.

mode

locking

several

GHz have

been