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Published by: Anubha Suri on Feb 18, 2011
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Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers , readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products

, ideas, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or t o consume that particular brand. These messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a large number of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain ac tion. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their pro ducts or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise item s other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest g roups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organization s may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th a nd early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Different types of media can be used to deliver these me ssages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, r adio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $300 billion in the United States[1] and $500 billion worldwide[citation needed]. Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates are Interpub lic, Omnicom, Publicis, and WPP.

Advertising theoryHierarchy of effects model[9] It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual a dvertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a busine ss buyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are: 1.Awareness 2.Knowledge 3.Liking 4.Preference 5.Conviction 6.The actual purchase Means-End Theory This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means t hat leads the consumer to a desired end state. Leverage Points It is designed to move the consumer from understanding a product's benefits to l

Introduction to Advertising Advertising facilitates large scale marketing. Advertising is certai . to attract attention. All products old and new. It is a medium of mass communicat ion. to create awareness and finally to influence the buying behavior of consumers.inking those benefits with personal values. New communication techniques a re now used for making advertising attractive and agreeable. radio an d newspapers indicates its benefits in sales promotion. The basic purpose o f advertising is to give information. Manufacturers supply information about new products through advertising. Advertising is within th e scope of promotion which is one element in the marketing mix. It is getting po pularity in the present highly competitive and consumer oriented marketing. Th e fact that companies spend crores of rupees on advertising through TV. Verbal and Visual Images 1. consumer and durable. cheap and costly need extensive adve rtising for sales promotion and consumer support.

Secon dly. The term 'Advertising' originates from the Latin word 'advertere' which means "t o turn the mind towards". advertising needs the sponsor of the message known.Non-personal presentation : Advertising is non-personal in character as agains t salesmanship which is personal (face to face communication) in character.nly needed in marketing but is equally important and essential in social. etc. and life insurance is useful for placing new ideas before the people. Advertising attracts attention towards a product. 5. The American Marketing Association def ines advertising as "any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas. It influences the buying decis . 2. given in the advertisement. and instru ctions to be followed while using the product are given in the advertisements. advertising is non-personal selling. goods or services by an identified sponsor. services and ideas : Advertising is basically for gi ving information to consumers.Paid form of communication : The advertiser has to pay to the media for giving publicity to his advertising message. This information is always related to the feature s and benefits of goods and services of different types. Advertising is a form of paid communication. The aim is to make the ideas p opular and thereby to promote sales. In a dvertising. The details of pr oducts such as features. goods and services. family welfare. This suggests that advertising act s as a marketing vehicle and is useful for drawing the attention of people (pros pects) towards a specific product/service/manufacturer. Firstly. A dvertising has psychological impact on consumers. advertising acts as important marketing tool fo r presentation and promotion of ideas. slogan. 4. 3. uses. However even in ad vertising target consumers or target market can be selected for making an advert ising appeal. Features of Advertising 1. 3. Advertising will be meaningless if the a dvertiser is not clearly identified. The information supplied g ives education and guidance to consumers and facilitates correct selection of go ods by them. Definition of Advertising Advertising is defined differently by different authorities and the institutions dealing with the subject of advertising. advertisement is paid for by the s ponsor/advertiser.Gives publicity to goods. This rule is applicable to all advertising media including press. He pays for the advertisement and natural ly he decides the size. cultur al and political aspects of our life. creates desire to have the same and finally induces consumers to visit the market and purchase the same. The dictionary meaning of the term advertising is "to give public notice or to announce publicity". manufacturer's name. he exercises control over the advertisement." This definition suggests th e following features of advertising.Basically for persuasion : Advertising aims at persuasion of potential custome rs. Naturally.Advertising provides information : The basic purpose of advertising is to prov ide information about products/services to prospective buyers. For example. 2. prices. Thirdly. the message is given to all and not to one specific individual. It is a medium of mass communication f or large scale selling. advertising on family planning . Advertising gives new i deas to consumers as its contents are meaningful. benefits. Finally. T he advertising message and brand name are also given.

Important element in marketing mix : Advertising is an important element in ma rketing mix. Advertising is a science as it has its principles and rules. This is possible th rough the element of creativity which is the essence of advertising. Various concessions are offered to consumers in the initial period. Advantages of Advertising The advantages of advertising can be divided into two main groups. They introduce new techniques for introducing creativity.Creates new demand : Advertising spreads information and encourages consumers to purchase new products. The waste in advertising can be minimized through such target orie nted advertising.ions of consumers. housewives. Thus. 4. Such advertising leads to the creation of new demand. 8. This gives p ositive response from the consumers. science and a profession. Let' s find out how each of them gets benefited by advertising. Without creativity. Science and Profession : It is now universally accepted that advertisi ng is an art. advertising supports and supplements personal se . advertising creates new demand from n on-users. This selection of a specific market is called target market.) for the purpose of advertising. Due to advertising. Advertising becomes effective and result oriented when it is tar get oriented. In brief. It gives information to consumers and encourages them to purchase more.g.1 Benefits of Advertising to Manufacturers 1. This creates demand and the manufacturer is able to sell new products a long with the existing ones. This is natural as advertising alone is not a dequate for promoting sales.Target oriented : It is possible to make intensive advertising by selecting a specific market or specific segment of consumers (e. 4. It is an art as it needs creativity for raising its effectiveness.the essence of advertising : Advertising is a method of presentin g a product in an artistic. information about new products is given to the pr ospects. Creativity can be introduced by creative people (professionals) in the field of advertising . 7.An Art. One group den otes benefits to manufactures and other group denotes benefit to consumers. It gives advance information to the prospects. The job of a salesman becomes easy as consumers develop affinity to specific products. Advertising agencies and space brokers function as professionals in the field of advertising. 6. Manufacturers expand their production base due to higher market demand cr eated through advertising. 2. They visit the shop in order to purchase a particular product which they know through adve rtising media. It supports the sales promotion efforts of the manufacturer and mak es positive contribution in sales promotion provided other elements in the marke ting mix are reasonably favorable.Facilitates effective personal selling : Advertising creates proper background for personal selling. etc . Many companies now spend huge funds on advertising and public relations 9.Creativity . advertising will be like a body without a soul. attractive and agreeable manner. children. 3. 4.Large scale production and marketing : Advertising is useful as a sales promot ion technique.Introduction of new products : Advertising facilitates the introduction of new products. Advertising is now treated as a profession with its professional bodies and code of conduct for members.

the profit ma rgin of the manufacturer increases. They remember what is urgently required to be purchased through advertising. Even the product can be used for different purposes because of the information supplied through advertisements. This avoids possible damage of the product purchased . 7. Advertisi ng builds brand image and this develops consumer loyalty towards a specific bran d.Sales promotion : A manufacturer can make his sales promotion campaign success ful by using the support of advertising. Role of Advertising in Selling Consumer Durables . 3.Goodwill builder : A manufacturer can build up goodwill and good image in the business world and also among the consumers through advertising. Advertising guides consumers in the selection of most suitab le goods for their daily life.Facing competition : A manufacturer can face market competition effectively an d can make his products popular through advertising. 6. This leads to reduction in the cost of production and distribution. For example. The social welf are programmes and community service activities can be given wide publicity thro ugh advertising. Th is enables a manufacturer to conduct production on a large scale. He can remove misunderstand ing among consumers about his products through appropriate advertising. He can prepare proper background for th e success of such campaign as advertising facilitates direct communication with consumers.Removes misunderstanding : Advertising helps consumers in removing their misun derstanding about certain products. They can study the advertisements of competitors and select the products w hich are profitable to them. manufactu res have to bring down the price in order to attract customers. 8.Information and guidance : Consumers get information and guidance from adverti sing.Special attraction to consumers : Advertising leads to competition among manuf acturers and retailers. 4. All this is beneficial to consumers in terms of price and quality of goods. They have to sup ply quality goods in order to attract more customers. 4. Thus advertising provides higher standard of livi ng to consumers as a social group 5.Builds brand image : Manufacturers introduce branding for making their product s popular with distinct personality. As a result. 2. 6. 5.Acts as reminder : Advertising acts as a reminder to consumers. The brands are made popular through adverti sing. They change their attitudes towards certain products and services due to advertising. As a result.Raises living standards : Advertising raises the standard of living of people by supplying information about goods and services which can offer convenience an d pleasure to them. Even the progress of the Organisation can be brought to the not ice of the public through advertising. consumers develop loyalty towards a specific brand. 9.lling. This avoids their cheating and exploitation at the hands of middlemen.Effective product use : Consumers get information about uses/benefits of diffe rent products through advertising. Such attraction offers benefits to consumers. They also get guidance as regards the right m anner of using the product.2 Benefits of Advertising to Consumers 1. They have to offer something special in order to attract consumers. 5.Reduces cost of production : Advertising creates demand and promotes sales.

Effective advertising of consumer durables creates proper background for perso nal selling.Advertising of consumer products enables a manufacturer to face market competi tion effectively. 4. soap. This encourages consumers to purchase a durable product. 2. Types of Advertising Media Advertising media are as noted in the chart given below: It may be noted that advertising media have their special features. skin cream. money.) or industrial products. etc. (machine. They remember to purchase a useful product on the eve of the fest ival.) or durable products.Advertising is useful for giving information and guidance to prospective buyer s of consumer durables. An attraction is created in the minds of consumers and they are enc ouraged to visit retail shop in order to see the article or look at the demonstr ation of its working. media and measurement. 5. 1. TV. This technique facilitates sales promotion during the festival period. (tooth paste. Here. evaluation and broad decisions need to be taken in regard to these five areas while organising an advertising programme/campaig n. etc. Even consumers can make appropriate selection of a suitable product by studying the advertisements of competitors. Such advertisements are common during festivals. merits. 6. Here. He can give special features of his product and also suggest h ow his product is superior to that of his competitors. and other concessions offered.The following points suggest the role of advertising in selling sales promotion of consumer durables. advertising can be made effectively. etc.Advertising of consumer durables during the festival period acts as a reminder to consumers. Decision-making in Advertising While undertaking advertising campaign or while organising an advertising progra mme for products : consumer products. 7. Five Ms of advertising are five basic considerations which need to be given p . Even local dealer may offer certain concession to his customers. limi tations and suitability.) concerned company has to take certain decisions and adjust the advertising activity accordingly. face powder . Such advertising decision-making is a five-ste p process (Five Ms of advertising) consisting of mission. effective advertising of consumer durables is necessary and useful for regular selling. He can make suitable advertisement of such concessi on for large scale selling at the local level. benefits. In other words. message. An advertiser has to consider his advertising budget an d select the most appropriate advertising media and use them for advertising pur pose. price discount. This is useful for sales promotion of consumer durables. etc. (car. In short. 3. Here. the salesman can use his skills and see that the art icle is purchased by his visitors. to the purchasers of consumer durables and encourage interested customers to take initiative in p urchasing the durable articles. advertising gives the details of special features.The seller of consumer products (manufacturing company) may like to offer attr active gift or price discount to interested consumers. for providing information and guidance to consumers and finall y for sales promotion. chocolate.

face powder. and features of prospect ive buyers and so on. Advertising is costly and companies have to spend crores of rupees for this purpose. Such decisions constitute the steps in the advertising. etc. in formation and guidance to consumers. It means the budget allocation made by the company for advertising. Attractive and me aningful messages give positive results and the advertising becomes result-orien ted.roper attention so as to have positive/favorable effect of advertising efforts. Naturally. effectiveness and so on. media used. chocolates and so on. artists. 8. soaps. coverage of advertising. etc. 4. market goodwill. media used. Money provided is a limiting factor as effectiveness of advertising. The services of creative writers. the advertiser has to decide the message to be given. 2. Naturally. The objecti ves behind advertising are varied in character.Message : Message is provided through the text of advertisement. The b uyers are mainly children and others of lower age groups or for the benefit (ple asure and satisfaction) of younger generation. developing brand loyalty. ext ensive advertising on TV. soap. For advertising consumer product like chocolate. The pictures or slogans used should be short and impressive. advertising activity needs appropriate decision-making o n various matters. These considerations are particularly applicable to consumer product marketing s uch as tooth paste. are used for giving attract ive message to the consumers. body creams. products to be advertised. are related to the funds provided for advertising purpose. T he message is also related to the decisions taken as regards mission and money p rovided for advertising. For consumer products like chocolate. Advertising will be effective/result oriented when it is made with proper planni ng and appropriate decisions as regards the objectives. It should be also attractive and agreeable to younger generation. 3. coverage. making the products popular/successful an d introduction of a new product. The advertiser has to take decision about the media to be used for advertising purpose. The selection of media dep ends on the budget provided. guidance and motivation of prospective buyers. slogans and so on. the manufacturing/marketing company will have to provide huge money for advertising purpose.Media : Media of advertising are already noted previously.Mission : This refers to the purpose/objective behind advertising. Advertising should be always within the limits of funds provided. etc. The message i s given through written words. In short. Decision in regard to mission is a basic one as other decisions are to be adjusted as per the mission or objective or purpose o f advertising decided. decisions on advertising package should be adjusted as per the budge t allocation for advertising. facing market competition effectively. the media to be used for communicating the message.Money : This refers to the finance provided for advertising purpose (advertisi ng budget). newspapers. pictures. funds provid ed and so on. the specific customer group selected for giving the message and so on. They include sales promotion. These media are c ostly. radio. Naturally. sales promotion and mak ing the product popular in the market. Five Ms of Advertising An advertiser has to take decisions on the following aspects: 1. is required. the mission/objective include facing market competition. the message is important. the extent of crea tivity. It may be noted that consumer products like tooth paste or chocolate are highly competitive with many substitutes easily available in the market. The advertising message should be simple and easily understandable with the help of picture or slogan. tooth paste. Here. Wrong decision on media may make advertising ineffective a . Media diffe r as regards cost. The message is for t he information.

mission.Measure : Measure relates to the effectiveness of advertising. In brief. Such testing facilitates introduction of suitable remedial measures. including political concepts and political candidates. This decision-making as regards effectiveness of advertising is equ ally important and essential. An advertiser w ill like to make evaluation of advertisement in order to judge its effectiveness . the truth or reality of political claims. advertisi ng on radio programmes for children. attitudes. and. if required. Even success of sales promotion programme is useful for measuring advertising effectiveness. in the case of political campaign advertis ing. decision-making is necessary in advertising. For measuring effectiveness of chocolate advertising. the post advertising sale is one major consideration. TV advertising particularly a cartoon channel . money. b ecause the results have potentially far-reaching effects on the population at la rge. For advertising popular and extensively used consumer items like chocolate. it will be modified or withd rawn. media and me asurement political advertising advertising whose central focus is the marketing of ideas. advertising in children books or newspaper supplements for children. etc. message. If an advertisement is not effective /purposeful. T he essential task of political advertising is to gain the confidence of the peop le for their acceptance of ideas and. to influence their vote. Also. 5. This suggests that media should be selected prope rly and decision in this regard is important and critical. political advertising carries a moral implication. Political advertising raises many controversial social questions concerning the funding of political campaigns. the advertising objectives must be met within a specific time frame. the media should be selected properly. Political advertising differs from commercial adve rtising in that the product is either a person or a philosophy rather than goods and services. This is necessary for avoiding expenditure on the advertisement which is n ot effective or is not likely to give positive results. Demand creation in new market segments or in new age groups is another consideration for the measurement of advertising effectivenes s.nd money spent will be wasted. in addition. like other areas of marketing management. and concer ns about public issues. An advertiser has to mea sure the effectiveness of his advertisement programme/ campaign and take suitabl e decisions. This relates to Five Ms . a nd the likelihood of slanderous or libelous claims made by political candidates .

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