# Centre of Mass

We use moments to find the centre of mass of uniform plane figures and discrete mass distributions. In M1 we used moments to calculate the centre of mass for non uniform rods but in M2 we need to consider two dimensions. M1 RECAP ............................................................................................................................... 2 CENTRE OF MASS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES DISTRIBUTED IN TWO DIMENSIONS ..................................................................................................................... 3 QUESTIONS 1..................................................................................................................... 6 CENTRE OF MASS OF A UNIFORM PLANE LAMINA. ......................................... 8 APPLICATION TO COMPOSITE FIGURES. .............................................................11 FRAMEWORKS CONSTRUCTED FROM UNIFORM RODS AND WIRES. ..... 15 QUESTIONS 2 .................................................................................................................. 17 EQUILIBRIUM OF A UNIFORM LAMINA ON AN INCLINED PLANE........ 22 EQUILIBRIUM OF A PLANE LAMINA .................................................................... 24 QUESTIONS 3 ................................................................................................................. 27

M1 Recap Example 1 Three particles of mass 6kg, 3kg and 2.5kg are attached to a light rod PQ of length 3m at the points P, Q and R, where PR = 0.9m. Find the position of the centre of mass of the system.

P

Q

R

0.9m

6g

3g

2.5g

Start by adding the centre of mass to the diagram and let the distance PG be x.

P

Q

G

R

0.9m

6g

3g

11.5g

2.5g

Taking moments about P gives: 11.5g × x = 3g × 0.9 + 3 × 2.5g x = 0.89m

Example 2 Particles of mass 2kg. It is assumed that the centre of mass horizontally is at X and vertically at Y . Separate Masses 5 12 5 Total Mass 17 X Y Mass x co-ord Y co-ord 2 0 0 4 0 5 6 12 0 To find the distance of the centre of mass from PQ we use the formula: § mx !§ mX i i i . Given that PQ = 5cm and QR = 12cm calculate the distance of the centre of mass of the system from a) PQ b) PS Q 4kg 5cm 2kg P S 12cm R 5kg 6kg It is very easy to make simple numerical mistakes with these questions and therefore you are advised to set the question out in a table.Centre of mass of a system of particles distributed in two dimensions The principle applied above is simply applied firstly in the horizontal direction and then vertically. 4kg. 5kg and 6kg are attached to the corners of a light rectangular plate PQRS.

To find the distance from PS we use the formula: i i Example 3 The diagram below shows a series of particles that make up a s stem. ) . !§ mi  3kg       ¦  !1 . Find the coordinates of the centre of mass of the s stem. ¥ ¤¢  !1 ¡ ¦   §m ¢ £   ! . kg g With an example such as this it is once again easy to make a simple numerical mistake as students may miss the minus signs. g (x. ). ©         ¨    ¤§ ¢ ! . The centre of mass of the s stem is at the point (x.

5 4 1 3 -1 -2 Total Mass 11. .5Y "" .Using the same tabular approach: Separate Masses 2.5   ! 11. 4) ## ! 4  2.5  12  15 ! 11.5 X Y Mass x co-ord Y co-ord 2 -2 2 i i 3 5 2 Using the formula: § mx !§ mX i 4  2.22 And similarly for the y direction: § m y !§ m Y i i i Y! . 4 Therefore the centre of mass of the system is at (2.5X X ! 2.22.

5kg lie in the (x.5kg attached to it at P Q and R respectively.2) respectively.5kg. where PQ = 1. Determine the distance of the centre of mass from R.5kg 8cm 4kg P S 16cm R 6kg 3kg 3 Four particles of mass 1kg. Calculate the coordinates of the centre of mass of the system. Given that PQ = 8cm and QR = 16cm calculate the distance of the centre of mass of the system from a) PQ b) PS Q 2.5kg.2).3). 2kg.5m. 5kg and 2. 2. 6kg and 3kg are attached to the corners of a light rectangular plate PQRS. 3kg and 2. (-2.2) and (-3. .Questions 1 1 A light rod PR of length 3. 2 Particles of mass 4kg. (4.5m has particles of mass 1.y) plane at the points with coordinates (1.

Three masses of value 2. B 12cm 18cm A C .4 The system below is made up of three light rods. 4kg and 1kg are placed at the vertices A.5kg. B and C respectively. Calculate the distance of the centre of mass from a) AB b) AC.

at centre o Isosceles:. .at the intersection of the medians A median is a line that joins a vertex of a triangle to the centre of the side opposite to the vertex. y y y Uniform rectangular lamina:.Centre of mass of a uniform plane lamina.at centre of disc Uniform triangular lamina:o Equilateral:. where EG = EC. B D E G A F C y Uniform circular arc:.the centre of mass is along the axis of r sin E from the centre where is measured symmetry at a distance E in radians. The centre of mass of a scalene triangle is at a point one third of the way along the median (from the edge). The centre of mass of the triangle ABC is at the point G. Obviously there are some standard results to be taken for granted.at centre of the shape Uniform circular disc:.

) r 2 . distance 3E (note the use of in the formula and 2 in the diagram.r 2 y Uniform Sector:.centre of mass is on the axis of symmetry at a 2r sin E from the centre. where is measured in radians.

. B 12m D 18m A C Note that D has coordinates (0. Therefore C of M is at (6.6). B 12m 18m A C From the definitions above the centre of mass is at the point that is one third of the way along DC.4).Example 4 Calculate the coordinates of the centre of mass of the uniform triangular lamina ABC if the point A is placed at the origin.

5cm F D A E One only needs to consider the distance of the centre of mass from the edge AB as the shape is symmetrical and therefore the centre of M will lie along the mirror line.75m Since the separate parts are uniform I have used the areas to represent the masses. The centre of mass of the isosceles triangle will be one third of the way along the line FD which is a distance of 14.75m 6 14. Assume that the shape ABCDE is a uniform lamina made up of a rectangle and an isosceles triangle. By applying the tabular method we get:Separate Masses 108m 33.5 Total Mass 141. All you need to do is treat each part separately. C B 12cm 9cm 7.Application to composite figures. Since the rectangle ABCE is uniform its centre of mass will be 6 cm from AB. \$ Mass x co-ord . Example 5 The centre of mass for the shape below can be found by using the same ideas as those set out above.5cm from the line AB.

) ! 1 1. &13 0 13 22 1 0 )( A 5 ( v1 )  (1 . % Using the formula: §m ' !§ mi 5 & 5 5 6 5 5 ' 2 5 5 % . m &13 0 132 32 11 . The formula for the entre of mass for a uniform se tor is Using the tabular approa h again: 4 4 2 4 T T T 4 ! sin ! ) ' 4 2 0 4 4 2 2 4 y o-ord v v sin T T v v sin T T sin T & 6 96 8 Mass 9T Separate Masses 1 T % 4 the angle at the entre is r sin E where E . Obviously in the above e ample = . 4 7 6 5 @ m m Total Mass T 5 5 ' 5 5 5 5 5 5 54( ) ! . ! 1 1. By definition the entre of mass will lie on the mirror line. v & . Cal ulate the enter of mass of the obje t.i i E ample The obje t below is formed by removing a uniform semi ir ular dis of radius m from a se ond uniform semi ir ular dis of radius m.

Obviously the disc we are interested in can be found by subtracting the small semi circular disc from the larger one. Using the same formula again: § mx !§ mX i i i 144 18 ! 27 TX 2 X ! 2. The same principle of adding and subtracting parts can be applied to the example below. B 16cm C 1.5cm 10cm 3cm 6cm A 12cm B C 8 T» « ¬18T T sin 2 ¼ ­ ½ « 9T ¬2 ­ 4 T » 27 sin ¼ ! TX 2½ 2 T B C D . Calculate the centre of mass of the plate. Example 7 The object below is formed by removing two uniform circular discs from a uniform rectangular lamina.97 So the centre of mass is 2.97cm from the centre along the axis of symmetry.

5) Y = 4.Circle 1 Mass x co-ord Y co-ord 2. D (120-4.5 D .25 3 6 Y Plate = Rectangular Lamina .87cm from AD.87cm Therefore the centre of mass is 5.77cm Looking at it vertically: § m y !§ m Y i i i (120-4.5 + 13.Circle 2 i i i = 5.75 + 27) D Separate Masses Circle 2 Rectangular Lamina 2.5) D § mx !§ m = 720 ² (7.Circle 1 .25 120 12 6 6 5 Total Mass Plate 120-4.5) Y = 600 ² (13.77cm from AB and 4.

Find the centre of mass of the framework assuming that A is at the origin. Also note that the centre of mass of the arc arc is 2 E will have a negative x coordinate. Separate Masses Rod AB Rod AC Rod BC 12m 16m 20m 0 8 8 Total Mass Framework (48 + 6)m Y co-ord 6 0 6 Y F E Mass x co-ord Arc AB 6m T 6si 2 ! 12 T T 2 6 .Frameworks constructed from uniform rods and wires. B 20cm 12cm 16cm A C Remembering that the formula for the centre of mass of a uniform circular T r sin E and that E ! . By definition the centre of mass of a uniform rod is at its centre therefore a framework can be treated as a series of particles. Example 8 The framework ABC is made up of three uniform rods and a semi circular arc.

y !§ R H I ). H I (1 v )  ( v ) ( Tv Q 1 ) !( T G G P  T) I H R c g .Looking at the problem horizontally: § mx !§ mX i i i And now vertically: i i i rq p i g h Therefore the entre of fead ! . . ass is at the point with oordinates (3. a Y a a a (1 v )  ( v ) ( Tv ) ! (  T) c b W X ` V Y X b V § UTSG S ! . 3.

Questions 2 1 For the uniform laminae below determine the coordinates of the centre of mass. a) b) c) .

14cm B C D E 27cm 19cm A 6cm F 3 The diagram shows a uniform lamina PQRS.2 Determine the coordinates of the centre of mass of the uniform plate below assuming that A is at the origin. Find the distance of centre of mass from a) PQ b) PS Q 12cm R 12cm P 18cm S .

Find the distance of the centre of mass of the sector from the centre of circle. 25c m 100º 5T radians. 5 An arc of a circle has a radius 18cm and an angle the centre of 18cm 5T 8 .4 A uniform circular sector has a radius of 25cm and the angle at the centre is 100º. 8 Find the distance of the centre of mass of the arc from the centre of circle.

Find the distance of the centre of mass from AB. Calculate the distance of the centre of mass from the centre of the circle.6 A uniform framework is made up of a uniform circular arc and two uniform rods as displayed in the diagram below. A 14cm 9cm C B 27cm . 25c m 100º 7 A thin isosceles triangular plate has a corner folded over as shown in the diagram below.

B A .5cm is removed from the original disc where the centre is 3cm from A along the line AB. The disc is then added back onto the original disc where the centre of the disc is 0.5cm from A along the line AB. Calculate the distance of the centre of mass of the earring from A.5cm. As part of the construction process a circular disc of radius 0.8 The earring below is formed from a uniform circular disc of radius 2.

Equilibrium of a uniform lamina on an inclined plane. For an inclined lamina to remain in equilibrium on an inclined plane the line of action of the weight must fall within the side of the lamina that is in contact with the plane (as shown in the diagram below). G . G In the second diagram the object will topple over.

In exam questions students need to be careful in choosing the angle. Given that the lamina is in limiting equilibrium find the angle . a diagram and the application of alternate angles is usually sufficient.Example 9 A uniform rectangular lamina is placed on a plane inclined at an angle . r y vu s t . 6cm 1 cm G By simple trigonometry: an U ! . x w @ U ! 1.

a) (i) From AB (ii) From AF. 8cm B C D E 15cm 9cm A 3cm F a) Splitting the shape into two rectangles and applying the tabular approach gives: 8cm B C 2 D 1 15cm E 9cm A 3cm F . in cm. Exam question The diagram shows a uniform sheet of metal.Equilibrium of a plane lamina A suspended lamina will be in equilibrium when its centre of mass is directly below the point of suspension. to the nearest degree the angle made by CD with the downward vertical. The shape hangs in equilibrium from the point C. b) Find. of the centre of mass of the plate. Find the distance.

AF is .5) ! 75X X ! 3. by definition CG will be verti al        §  !§   § mx !§ m    Mass x co-ord Y co-ord      .    ( v .1cm And now vertically: i i i   b) On e the obje t is suspended fro and hen e needs to be found.1cm Therefore the distance from AB is 3.     Therefore the distan e fro   ! .5 5.5 7.5 12 Total Mass Plate 75m Y Looking at the problem horizontally: i i i (45 1.5) (30 5. )( v1 ) ! C.Using the tabular approach: Separate Masses Rectangle 1 Rectangle 2 45m 30m 1.

.8cm B C G E 15cm 9cm D A 3cm F U! q po nm m m n n nm herefore the gle betwee the dow w rd vertic l j U! . r kd h gf l d CD is . ji e d . . º.

in cm. b) Find. a) (i) From AB (ii) From AF The shape hangs in equilibrium from the midpoint of the edge AB. . to the nearest degree the angle made by ED with the downward vertical.Questions 3 1 The diagram shows a uniform sheet of metal. Calculate in radians the angle that the diameter makes with the downward vertical. of the centre of mass of the plate. 14cm B C D E 22cm 16cm A 5cm F 2 A uniform semicircular lamina is suspended from a point on the diameter half way between the centre and the outer edge. Find the distance.

find the angle that AB makes with the downward vertical. find the angle that AD makes with the horizontal.3 The framework ABC is made up of three uniform rods and a semi circular arc. Calculate the distance of the centre of mass from: a) HG b) JL A L M B D 6cm J I 10cm H G 2cm F E C If the object is freely suspended from B and is hanging in equilibrium. 4 The metallic lamina below is non-uniform. 5 If the object in example 7 is freely suspended from D. Find the centre of mass of the framework assuming that A is at the origin. find the angle that BC makes with the downward vertical. B 15cm 9cm 12cm A C If the framework is suspended from B. Areas CDEF and IFGH are twice as dense as the rest of the plate. .

5cm If the object above is placed on an inclined plane.5cm. The distance OB is 2. from O.6 The earring below is formed from three quarters of a circular disc of radius 3cm. along the line of symmetry. find the angle that AB makes with the mirror line. A B O If the earring is freely suspended from A. Find the distance of the centre of mass.5m from a second uniform semi circular disc of radius 8m. 7 The object below is formed by removing a uniform semi circular disc of radius 2. 8m 2. at what angle would the object topple? . Calculate the center of mass of the object.