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FAKUL TA UNIVERZITY KOMENSKEHO
English for Environmental Studies
2005 UNIVERZITA KOMENSKEHO BRATISLAVA
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 THE OVERCROWDED ARK OUR COMMON FUTURE GLOBAL WARMING VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES ENDANGERED SPECIES... WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT AIR POLLUTION THROW-AWAY SOCIETY SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES CASE STUDY WORLD FACES POPULATION EXPLOSION THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY SELECTED TERMS......................................... ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................
5 13 21 27 35 43 49 55 63 69 77 81 89 95 98 99 108
THE OVERCROWDED ARK
You are going to read an article called The Overcrowded Ark. What do you think the article will be about? Discuss with a partner. ~ Look at the following vocabulary. Check that you understand each term: consumption reckoning gap ingenuity malnutrition to to to to to replenish sustain deplete cease generate
Humanity's choices are getting harder and fewer. The Earth's population has doubled since 1950 and consumption has risen even faster. There has to be a reckoning. For many people, it is here already. The few first-class passengers on the planet that is our Noah's Ark are safe for now on the upper deck. It's a very different story down below. How much longer can the rich keep their feet dry? Oil consumption has increased seven-fold in the last 50 years and meat production, marine fish catches and carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning have all at least quadrupled. And freshwater use increased six-fold last century. With 6.1 billion people relying on the resources of the same small planet, we're coming to realize that we're drawing from a finite account. The amount of crops, animals and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds what the planet can replace by an estimated 20 %, meaning it takes 14.4 months to replenish what we use in 12 - or, we can say, that we would need 1.2 Earths to sustain this lifestyle. The gap between rich and poor is becoming wider and more visible. Nearly 30 % of the world's population suffers some form of malnutrition and almost two thirds of humanity lives on less than $2 a day. The family that has to level a forest to grow its food and find the fuel to cook it does not have the choice of living sustainably. The poorest have least power to protect themselves from the effects of global environmental problems such as climate change. And, with the richest 1% of the world's population consuming as much as its poorest 44 %, we would have to use massively more resources if the poor were to live as the rich world does. The optimists say disaster will never strike, as development knows no limits. They argue that human ingenuity will always find a way. Society will find new raw materials, develop cleaner technologies and manage water scarcity so resource depletion and pollution cease to be problems. One argument runs that a better world needs us all to spend and consume more to generate wealth for all - and that industrialisation slows population growth and raises environmental standards.
2 Current projects / situations We are building a bridge over the Danube. fly half way round the world on holiday and get a new mobile phone every year. We don't have enough Earths for this sort of consumer capitalism. we may as well forget it. judgment. a situation in which there is not enough of something 5. to depend on something in order to continue to live or exist > Using the text you have just Cir Language focus Present progressive We can use the present continuous tense in three important ways to talk about temporary situations. Vocabulary read. reckoning is here already? 2. What does it mean that we are drawing from a finite account? Can you find other expression from the field of finance? 4. (NOT The climate gets vparmer. Business is getting right with the environment . such as a decision. What do you think is the meaning behind the statement: For many people. the sceptics say. Or. find synonyms for the following expressions: 1. sustainable development means not using up resources faster than the Earth can replenish them "treating the Earth as if we intended to stay". 1 At the moment ram enjoying the lesson. KIRBY Alex: The Overcrowded Ark Comprehension 1. to expand the resource base and adjust how we use it so we're living off biological interest without ever touching principal. with the focus on the present moment. or process so that it is the opposite of what it was before 4. to desire and work towards achieving something important 3. How do you understand the sentence: How much longer can the rich keep their feet dry? 3.> Say what is happening to some of the following. deplete to reduce the amount of something that is available 2. Give a definition of consumerism. Sustainable development works to reverse that.But if "development" means every person on the planet aspiring to own a car. How does industrialisation affect population growth and environmental standards? 5. . prices your English pollution unemployment water resources pressures on the environment the world's forests medical care the gap between rich and poor quality of life 6 . The climate is getting warmer. to change something. in other words.) The world's population is growing. 3 We use the present progressive for changing and developing situations.
Also agreed is a plan of action. The World Commission on Environment and Development chaired by the Prime Minister of Norway. The Earth Summit also establishes the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. publishes a report Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) which brings the concept of sustainable development onto the international agenda. The Summit agrees the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which sets out 27 principles supporting sustainable development. In the following years a number of publications including Paul Erlich's Population Bomb (1968) and the Club of Rome's Limits to Growth (1972) drew attention to global development issues. By 2012. governments met in Kyoto. Are you prepared to voluntarily reduce what you consume in order to meet the needs of poor people? A BRIEF HISTORY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1960s The industrialised world first became interested in the concept in the 1960s. 7 . Do you agree that the industrial world needs more wealth to protect the environment and that is why the richest country in the world is not willing to sign the Kyoto treaty? 4. 1987 Nearly 180 countries meet at the 'Earth Summit' (UN Conference on Environment and Development) in Rio de Janeiro to discuss how to achieve sustainable development. 2002 Johannesburg 2002 "Rio+10" Ten years after the Rio Earth Summit. Governments need to lead this change but emphasises that everyone can play their part in tackling nonsustainable practices.the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Communication 1.. and a recommendation that all countries should produce national sustainable development strategies. Mrs Gro Harlem Brundtland.. Do you think that economic growth and sustainable development are possible? Are they not pulling apart? 3. In this way. It also provides the most commonly used definition of sustainable development describing it as development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs. Do you agree that you can only get the developing world to care about the environment once they " get rich enough to be like us? 2. as well as important UN bodies . emissions of six major greenhouse gases must be reduced to below 1990 levels for the target period 2008-2012. local actions can lead to the solution of global problems. Agenda 21. 1992 1997 Kyoto Climate Change Protocol In 1997. Many credit Rachel Carson and her book The Silent Spring (1962) as the catalyst for worldwide acknowledgment of environmental problems. emissions and the use of precious natural resources. Agenda 21 Galls on countries to reduce pollution. countries met to review progress towards sustainable development. which meets every year. Japan to once more look at the problem of global warming and a new set of targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases was agreed.
. • To increase the use of sustainable energy sources and restore depleted fish stocks. Ene:rgyand climate b .··.....·1. 1 a . It agreed several aims. wfth an -effec~ tlvi? transftion plan ttl assist developIng countries' economies. * A COmrnitm-ent frorn inaustr[alaseO countries '" Commitment to new renew"ble financing for to-an imrnedlate of 20 percent of their energy' sector lending to renewable :I: . f' "s."" . Is its critical tone Justified? Class:..A.vobillion :Inthe WiJrlt! currently vvithouteiectridty. b···. • To halve the number of people without proper sanitation to 1.. cort'irt1ltrnent from aHoountries to phase out suiJsidies t() fossil Cifidnudear inc!lJsWes " currently estimated at abollt$25n billion (US) per 'I'ear ~ with 10 years. summit..""""'''''.g"..rgets of 20 WIthin 10 Teachers comments: !tlus t t11.l..n...an1ty .Le. including: • To reduce the number of people that are not connected to clean drinking water supplies from over 1 billion to 500 million by the year 2015.rgy t...... '.. development *' A comrnitmentfrem cowltrfe$ to set domestic renewabl-e en.ce . I • Thlsr repo . Teacher:. ? 40 000 participants from 191 countries took part in the Johannesburg the cost was 50 million dollars.11·'1 a e 1 What the world got: (Negative) to provld~ !JOINer to the t'.The conference focused on poverty and the access to safe drinking water and sanitation...."" ..ongs to .l.Summ.Apart from Greenpeace which other environmental organizations do you know? 'What do you think about their activities? Do they playa positive role? 8 .• "'"Earth .' IS • crt e.aX:n. ).'What makes a conference successful? Is it the number of attendees? The number of resolutions? Do you think the Earth Summit was successful? Look at this Greenpeace report.. ..i .1 · " l. Did you know .2 billion.o.. to )....
e. and direct expenditure programs.. which can act as economic incentives. For sustainable development to happen individuals need to see that the issues relating to sustainability are relevant to them and they need to be able to see what they can easily do to contribute to more sustainable development. Governments have a key role in promoting sustainable development.. Sustainable development is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone now and for generations to come by: a) Considering the long term implications of our decisions. These include tax policies. g. legislation and regulation to promote good practice and discourage bad. and b) Giving equal weight to the environmental. adv.. They are responsible for setting the direction. . n . for example to prepare national programs to contain greenhouse gas emissions. In developing sustainable development strategies they have a number of policy tools at their disposal.HOW COULD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BE ACHIEVED? > Read the text and find out who can make sustainable development happen and which objectives should be integrated. Extend your vocabulary sustain. . . and economic dimensions of development. adj. . But governments or even local government cannot make sustainable development happen on their own..able to continue without causing damage to the environment unsustainable. adj. They enter into commitments. social. v. which seek to balance environmental concerns with social and economic needs (for example. transport).unable to continue at the same rate or in the same way sustainably. to live sustainably sustainability.. making policy and providing coordination. social dimensions of sustainability 9 . Protecting the environment and using resources Recognising the needs c.feverjone SocJa! ICtr""". g.e.<> Figure 1: Sustainable development incorporates three dimensions Action must be taken by all and at all levels.to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time sustainable.
such as bread. score 12 a semi-detached house. host our infrastructure. score 4 Do you think we're too obsessive about personal hygiene? If you take a shower once a week. it would take about six planets.. Then we can compare that area with the area necessary for us to produce food. score 7 a terraced house.. score 5 And. If we divide the planet's ecological capacity by the number of people what we get is about 2 hectares per person. score 6 On hot. score 2 or Do you shower every day rather than have a bath? If so. did you buy only locally produced fresh products . But we only have one! And some of it we should leave for other species. And when we add it up. "IS ONE PLANET ENOUGH?" WATER Have you had a bath every day this week? If yes.Find out how much land is needed to support your lifestyle . how much do we use. a flat with just enough room to swing a cat. score 33 a semi-detached house 10 . sunny summer days. score 2 Alternatively. score 85 Or do you eat mostly vegetarian dishes? If so. do you water the garden or wash the car with a hosepipe? Score 4 FOOD When you last went shopping. That means that if everyone lived like an American. score 30 WHERE YOU LIVE How many people live in your home? We will divide your score for this section by the number of people sharing and round up the answer. If your home is . score 14 If you have a bath just on Sunday night _. absorb C02..What is ecological footprint? The ecological footprint is a very simple tool to tell us how much nature do we have. score 23 a detached house. for example in the United States. Pick the answers that best apply to you. What sort of food do you eat? Do you insist on meat with every meal? If so. vegetables and meat? If yes. it adds up to roughly 9 to 10 hectares of ecological capacity to provide for an average American. score 15 a large and spacious flat.._ twice a week. score 15 Or. do you search out food that comes from closer to home? If you are successful at least part of the time. ).your ecological footprint. fibres. do you buy more heavily packaged and processed items and not even bother to look at where food comes from? If the answer is yes. score 1 If you use your dishwasher every day or every other day.
subtract 10 DAILY TRAVEL Did you drive to college today? Is your car a modem. subtract 8 Are you keen on composting the organic waste left over from the kitchen and garden? If so. or beyond score 155 Or did you fly to Europe. score 2 and skip to the next section. you went by road or rail to Europe . score 3 4-by-4 PAPER The last book you read. subtract 5 Do you only turn on the heating when absolutely necessary rather than keeping it on the timer all year round? If so. so start this section with a score of 75 Do you always switch off the lights if a room is no longer in use? If yes. generating your electricity releases carbon dioxide. subtract 10 ELECTRICITY If your power comes from only renewable sources. small-engined car? If so. did you borrow or buy it? If you always buy. Do you set the thermostat down low. score 1 Do you always share your newspapers and magazines? If so. So. subtract 17 If you keep used cans apart and recycle them. subtract 5 If you avoid_generating waste by. score 10 WASTE To dispose of waste. score 40 Or do you drive a big 4-by-4? Score 75 If your car is something between these two. you're once again going to use up valuable land. If you shun this setting and switch these devices right off. score 20 If you flew to Asia or the Americas. score 85 If. subtract another 15 If your home is double glazed. subtract 10 Computers. say.score 10 For people outside Britain: If you took at least one long-haul flight. subtract 15 If you separate out waste paper for recycling. subtract 10 Do you recycle your plastic containers? If so. TVs and hi-fis can now be left on standby. To soak up this greenhouse gas. preferring to add another layer of clothing before turning it up? If so. score 0 If it's half and half. a wood will have to be planted. score 5 If you bin your newspapers when you have finished with them. instead.HOLIDAY (and business) Where did you go last year? If you flew to Australia. you get to subtract some points. subtract 5 If your home is well insulated. score 25 If you are fortunate enough to cycle to work or college. buying less or reusing things then subtract 15 11 . using up precious land. So. start this section with a score of 100 Have you visited the bottle bank in the past month to drop off your empties? If you have. For everyone else. score 85 If you stayed near home.including Slovakia . score 10 HEATING YOUR HOUSE The heat that keeps you warm probably comes from burning fossil fuel. start this section with a score of45 On the bright side. rather than travel by car? If so. score 2 If you always borrow. score 50 Do you take a bus or train. which releases carbon dioxide.
i. rather than being brought there from somewhere else. start a new activity etc indigenous people or things have always been in the place where they are. So. we would need at least one "extra" planet to support consumption. This is about three times greater than the Earth share.a possible future effect or result of an action. Many of the amenities you use every day.AND FINALLY . we would need two additional planets to support us! About 7 per cent of the world's population falls into this category. for example. decision etc incentive n .to stop commitment n .the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs deplete v . About 3 per cent of the world population falls into this category. make their own demands on land. About 15 per cent of the world's population falls into this category.to deliberately avoid someone or something subtract v . If your score is: 600 .600 Your footprint is close to the European average.400 Your footprint is below the European average.something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts agree v .someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something: reckoning n . (Each "point" in your score is equal to one-hundredth about 3. double your score.something that encourages you to work harder. a score of 350 is equal to CALCULATE YOUR SCORE! If your score is: 200 .to make a decision with someone after a discussion with them.treating all people in a fair and equal way ecological footprint n . People who consume more tend to rely more on these amenities.a time when the effect of a past mistake is experienced or when a crime is punished replenish v . f.a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way consumerism n .to take a number or an amount from a larger number or amount sustain v . So.. If your score is: 400 . to cause something to exist host v .a situation in which there is not enough of something shun v .. from roads to shops and buildings. If everyone lived like you.5 hectares) of a hectare.to fill something up again scarcity n . However. event. we would need to find three additional planets. If everyone on the planet lived like you. agree a plan amenity n . to take account of this. this is still around twice the average Earth share.to reduce something in amount equitable ad} .800 Your footprint is above the European average but still below that of the average North American. 2 when too much attention is given to buying and owning things: consumption n . native ingenuity n .to provide the place and everything that is needed for an organized event implication n .something that makes a place comfortable or easy to live in cease v .1 the state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold. ~ Glossary achievement n . using prevailing technology fiuite ad} -limited gap n .to produce. If everyone lived like you.make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time 12 .the area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population at a specified standard of living indefinitely.a difference between two things generate v .
In 1974 Dr Brundtland was offered and accepted the post of Minister of the Environment. 2. She led her party to election victory three times. at the age of 41. 3. 4. including breastfeeding. where her father had been awarded a Rockefeller Scholarship. In 1981. on 20 April 1939. namely party politics. At the Ministry she specialized in children's health issues. Gro Brundtland pursued her other great interest in public life. There. A few years later. In 1965 Dr Brundtland returned to Norway. She is noted for being the first woman and the youngest person in the country to hold this post. one of the most important figures in the Environment. where Gro Harlem's father served as an expert on rehabilitation for the United Nations. cancer prevention and other diseases. Do you know any other environmentalists who have made a difference? Before you start reading. was nurtured and developed as she worked alongside distinguished public health experts. which were later to bring her fame in the international arena of global environmental thinking. Alongside this early career in medicine. 5. he was a doctor. to commence a nine-year period of working in the Ministry of Health and other positions in the medical field in Oslo. to to to to to commence champion nurture encompass pursue a) b) c) d) e) follow start include foster. look at the following words and try to match them with their synonyms: l. She also worked in the children's department of the National Hospital and Oslo City Hospital and became Director of Health Services for Oslo's school-age children. sustain advocate GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND (1939 -) Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland was born in Oslo. Gro Harlem's career ambition was to follow in her father's footsteps.UNIT 2 OUR COMMON FUTURE Warm up You are going to read about Gro Harlem Brundtland. As a newly qualified doctor herself. she won a scholarship to Harvard School of Public Health. From childhood. she was appointed Prime Minister of Norway. her great interest in public health issues and environmental concerns. the family moved to Egypt. By profession. and indeed a young mother. 13 . a specialist in rehabilitation medicine. At the age of 10 she moved with her family to the United States. Her commitment both to the Labour Party and also to a vision of health which extends beyond the medical world to encompass environmental issues and human development were the motivational factors leading to a change of career. and was Head of Government for more than ten years. Norway.
The Commission engaged in a great deal of empirical research and debate. Agenda 21 calls countries to reduce pollution. continues on her life's pathway in a position where her undoubted talents as doctor. It was during the 1980s. 6. 3. 4. sure go back to the text. scientists. 6. 7. In what countries did Gro spend her childhood and youth? How old was she when she returned to Norway and what field did she work in? What were the most important interests in her life? Why did she decide to change her career of Director of Health Services? What was so remarkable at her appointment as Prime Minister? What did she gain international recognition for? What was the task of the World Commission on Environment and Development she chaired? What is the Commission best known for and what major event did it inspire? :> 1 Choose words from the box to make collocations with the verbs: to to to to to commence: champion: nurture: encompass: pursue: interests task career period issues reform ambitions the principle of sustainable development :> 2 Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with a suitable prepositions from the box. Everyone can play their part tackling non-sustainable practices. in 1. The final Report. politician. or Brundtland Commission. studied. 4. variously described as 'tough and efficient'. to suggest ways into the twenty first century that would allow the planet's rapidly growing population to meet its basic needs and to come up with a 'global agenda for change'. In 1983 the then United Nations Secretary General invited her to establish and chair the World Commission on Environment and Development. 14 . diplomats and law makers. when Prime Minister. 8. Its daunting task was to investigate the state of the world. Gro Harlem's father served as an expert rehabilitation. and promotes the view. 2. that conservation and development can co-exist. thus spent ten years as eminent physician and scientist in the Norwegian public health system and more than 20 years in senior public office. The WCED. included individuals from twenty-two nations. perhaps for the first time in a globally promoted document. 5. he was a specialist rehabilitation medicine. 2. Our Common Future. includes a widely quoted definition of sustainable development. From: Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment Comprehension :> Answer 1. activist and manager can come together in the shaping of global policy on health and the environment.Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland. 'energetic and committed' and 'a master survivor'. The group. composed of ministers. to on in away for 111 If you are not on for Several books drew attention global development issues. medical doctor and Master of Public Health. these questions. 5. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland. she gained international recognition for championing and promoting the principle of sustainable development. 3. The summit had moved from issues like biodiversity and climate change to tackling poverty and poor living conditions. debated and held public hearings on five continents over almost three years. consisting of almost 400 pages. By profession.
C With already and just (a very short time before). a young scientist called Francis Crick rushed into his local pub in Cambridge and triumphantly declared that he and his colleague. She had just stepped into her office when the telephone rang. If we see how our work supports and contributes to the larger vision. By late 1989 the Report had been published in seventeen languages and had generated many other publications. isn't achieved by taking a pill or reading a book.that is. experiences." from: The Importance of Vision. He had never flown before. we use the past simple or past perfect for the event that happened first and the past simple for the event that happened second.7. At the age of 10 Gro moved with her family to the United States. When the doctor came. In 1974 she was offered and accepted the post of Minister of the Environment. One lunchtime in March 1953. » Study the use of the past perfect and past simple in these short extracts. we use the past perfect. 8. before. we usually put these events in chronological order with the past simple. Gro Brundtland commitment to a vision of health which extends beyond the medical world to encompass environmental issues and human development were the motivational factors leading to a change of career. had just discovered 'the secret of life'. and Watson. A Centre for Our Common Future was established in Geneva. B When we use a time expression. such as when.) PAST PERFECT and PAST SIMPLE I/we/they/you/he/she/it A When we give an account of a sequence of past events. The report launched in 1992. not the past simple. and organizational wisdom and direction. by the time. James Watson. was working on a study of haemoglobin crystals. She is noted being the first woman to hold the post. where Gro Harlem's father served as an expert on rehabilitation for the United Nations. an American and 12 years his junior. where her father had been awarded a Rockefeller Scholarship. the family moved to Egypt. She gained international recognition championing and promoting the principle of sustainable development. finished etc. A few years later. like self-confidence. 1. Midwest Academy 15 . A·sense of vision grows out of a set of values. had just arrived from America to work on another project. Decide why the past perfect or past simple were used in each case. Crick and Watson met in 1951 at the Medical Research Council's Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. 5. D The past perfect can emphasize completion. the patient had died. "Vision. 2. where Crick. then 35. seen. 9. 4. concluded that progress had been made in many areas.) + past participle (gone. it happened before the last event we have talked about . individual reflections.we use past perfect. our work will seem more meaningful. The Commission engaged a great deal of empirical research and debate. If we want to refer to an event out of order . r:jfJ= Language focus had (I'd etc. to say that one event happened after another. 3. adapted from Organizing for Social Change. 1 began collecting stamps in June and by July 1had collected more than 1000.
" Gro Harlem Brundtland: Our Common Future The Brundtland Report brought the concept of sustainable development onto the international agenda and inspired the planning of a Conference on Environment and Development to take place in 1992 in Rio de Jainero.engage in. to obligate.to bind.3 million to the UN for refugee work.to ensure that it meets the needs "Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Extend your vocabulary to to to to commit oneself . the sentences with the words from the box. We do not pretend that the process is easy or straightforward. 4. Choose three adjectives from the box which describe you. Technology and social organisation can be both managed and improved to make way for a new era of economic growth. 4. Meeting them doesn't us to anything. Is there a quality you do not have but would like to have? What personality trait does the quotation below reflect? What is its message? Was the Commission successful in their efforts? . sustainable development must rest on political will. Work in groups. Britain has £1.. kind generous optimistic honest energetic bright determined enthusiastic committed hard-working reliable clever flexible efficient ambitious pleasant self-confident shy punctual tough competent capable indifferent easy-going understanding extrovert 3. . Thus.... 3. but rather a process of change . in the final analysis.to try to persuade people to support or use something » Complete 1. 2. try to achieve sth promote .promise solemnly and formally pursue . Painful choices have to be made. 2. 16 'I .Communication 1.... How can we most effectively these aims? The City council could do more to recycling. to be willing to give time! energy to do sth pledge . A world in which poverty is endemic will always be prone to ecological and other catastrophes .. The Commission believes that widespread poverty is no longer inevitable . Based on the text you read about Gro Brundtland. how would you describe her personality ? What qualities of character do you think an environmentalist should have? Choose from the box below and compare your answers with a colleague. Sustainable development is not a fixed state of harmony.
they are gradually being implemented into the education at the universities. the Government has initiated the establishment of the Government Council for SD. The variety of regional or local activities that are initiated by municipality. 13 towns of the National Healthy Town network participate in the WHO Programme "Healthy Town". lIS. which was approved by the SR Government resolution in 1996. grammar and basic schools. helped (MZP SR. the first National Environmental Action Programme (NEAP I) was developed. and NEAP II. People and Water. Moreover the particular supervisors of SD indicators should have asked. UNDP small grant project for SD. Nor the fact that the Slovak Republic was the first state from the associated countries to publish the complete translation of AGENDA 21 and all of 132 SD indicators. which had the first meeting in 1999. Special attention should be paid to Brundtland Town Programme (Rajec). annually since 1995. which was approved by the SR Government resolution in 2001. universities. projects that are oriented to support the using of renewable energy resources (RER). the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic . This part of the resolution was not fulfilled. from: RIO + 10 Report. companies. which was approved by the SR Government resolution and by the resolution of the SR National Council of the SR in 1999. There are international activities like Aalborg Charter of SD Towns (in Slovakia Banska Bystrica. The ideas of SD or selected parts of local and regional AGENDA 21 have been successfully applied in many villages. even though more indicators followed by SU SR are identical with SD indicators. After SSEP. which is to UNO in the beginning of the 2nd quarter of the year. The Village Parliament has been founded and many community groups have been working. The draft development of the National Strategy of Sustainable Development (NSSD) was preceded by the elaboration of Strategy. Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic 17 .the supervisors of SD indicators and AGENDA 21 chapters . Regional Environmental Centre) are very positive. 1996). scientific and research institutes and interest groups (for example Society for Sustainable Living in the SR.together with other central bodies of the State Administration involved . The Government of the Slovak Republic in the resolution No.annually develops The Country Profile. towns. Kosice and Poprad).SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SLOVAKIA The Slovak Republic has agreed with acceding to Rio Declaration and to AGENDA 21 by the Slovak Government resolution of s= September 1992 No. Important activities from the point of view of SD include the implementation of ISO 14 000 standard in companies. In accordance with the AGENDA 21 implementation and SD Indicator Evaluation in the SR (1997). for including the statistic SD indicators in their scope into the Programme of State Statistic Determination of the Statistical Office (SU SR) of the Slovak Republic. Principles and Priorities of State Environmental Policy (SSEP). The Programme of the Village Restoring. 65511997 to the AGENDA 21 proposal applying and evaluating the SD indicators in the Slovak Republic appoint all ministers and other heads of the central bodies of the state administration "to evaluate according to requirements and UNO methods and according to the set supervision the implementation of individual chapters of AGENDA 21 and SD indicators in the Slovak Republic". At the same time.
The Slovak Repulic as a first state from the associated countries published the complete translation of AGENDA 21. The Ministry of the Environment annually develops The Country Profile. It specifies a framework of control for an Environmental Management System against which an organization can be certified by a third party. companies. 1. scientific and research institutes and interest groups. universities. 4. From the point of view of sustainable development (SD) which activities were very important? 3. 2. which is to UNO in the beginning of the 2nd quarter of the year. ISO 14000 is a series of international standards on environmental management addressing the needs of organizations worldwide by providing a common framework for managing environmental issues. Other standards in the series are actually guidelines.> Read the text carefully and answer the following questions. The ideas of SD are gradually getting into the education at the universities.> Read the text below and explain how ISO 14000 can contribute to better sustainability. towns. 5. Which regional or local activities can be evaluated very positively? 2.> Each of the sentences below contains an error. It was developed in order to assure customers.Comprehension . Positively can be evaluated the variety of regional or local activities that are initiated by municipality. The ideas of SD or selected parts of local and regional AGENDA 21 have been successfully applied in tens of villages. What do you know about ISO 14000 standards? 4. Rewrite the sentences correctly. Have you ever heard about the Aalborg Charter? 5. 3. 1. How many towns participate in the WHO Programme "Healthy Town"? . What is ISO 14000? . and other organizations that environmental issues have been taken into account in the activities and products of their trading partners. many to help you achieve registration to ISO 14001. producers. governments. ISO 14001 is the corner stone standard of the ISO 14000 series. These include the following: • • • • • ISO 14004 provides guidance on the development and implementation of environmental management systems 19011 ISO 14010 provides general principles of environmental auditing (now superseded by ISO) ISO 14011 provides specific guidance on audit an environmental management system (now superseded by ISO 19011) ISO 14020+ labeling issues ISO 14040+ covers life cycle issues 18 .
NGOs. Social equity and justice . 9. such as THE AALBORG CHARTER. Agenda 21 identified 9 Major Groups: women. science and technology. It gave birth to the European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign in 1994. 3. trade unions. Achieving sustainability requires an immense collective effort. including the role of citizens and stakeholders.Urban planning is vital to address environmental. 4. Planning and design . 5. social. thereby participating in this unique European Campaign. Local management towards sustainabiIity .The Slovak Republic is involved in many important international activities and programmes. business and industry. 8. you have a personal interest or involvement in it. Better mobility. The research demonstrated the significant levels of commitment to the LA21 process and some notable achievements during a very short space of time. More than 1500 local and regional authorities from 38 countries have committed themselves to the goals of the Aalborg Charter.Local governments pledge to formulate.Commitment to securing inclusive and supportive communities. examining progress with their LA 21 and local sustainability process. Can it be done? Experience from dialogues developed via the UN Commission for Sustainable Development and the Rio+ 10 review process is positive. Do you have a stake in your locality and its future? If you have a stake in something which is important to you. economic and health issues. implement and evaluate management schemes aimed at improving urban sustainability.Local governments have a duty to protect the health of their citizens. indigenous people. Governance . less traffic . 7. The ten Aalborg Commitments 1. What does stakeholder participation mean? A stakeholder is a group or organisation who has influence in a particular area of policy or who is affected by policies. Natural common goods . 10. around 2300 had signed the Aalborg Charter committing themselves to the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Local to global: Signatories pledge to act to improve sustainability beyond the European Union. local authorities.Local governments pledge to increase citizens participation and cooperation with all spheres of governance in their efforts to become more sustainable.Commitment to promoting sustainable consumption. Governing Sustainable Cities The Local Authorities'self-Assessment of Local Agenda (LASALA) project involved a self-assessment exercise with 230 local governments across Europe. Vibrant and sustainable local economy . Responsible consumption and lifestyle choices .Commitment to promoting sustainable transport. The Aalborg Charter is one of the most famous policy statements for local sustainable development world-wide. We are all stakeholders. In June 2004 approximately 5000 local governments across Europe had some kind of local sustainable development process in operation.Municipalities pledge to preserve natural common goods. 2. Local action for health .Signatories are committed to creating a vibrant local economy that promotes employment without damaging the environment. children and youth. 6. and farmers. 19 .
) self-assessment n . is seen as an important link between local government and the civil society. plants. forests etc. the Community Environmental Association.protection of natural things such as animals. shut down: to decommission a nuclear power plant equity n .to bind or obligate..a group or organisation who has influence in a particular area of policy or who is affected by policies 20 . preservation decommission v .administrative district. object. especially on what will happen in the future stakeholder n . From: Environmental Governance Sourcebook Comprehension 1.a method or system of government or management. and the civil society responses suggest that the input of the university in terms of technical expertise is beneficial for the development of sustainable planning. purpose.deal with. the mayor is seen as important driving force for sustainable development.engage oneself concur v .CASE STUDY: Dunajska Luzna. interesting. Which Slovak town took part in LASALA scheme and with what results? ~ Glossary address v . g. Both civil society and local government respondents concur that there are still major problems to address.to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them conservation n . What is the goal of the Aalborg Charter? 3.to strive to gain. address the needs beneficial ad} . excellent. as by pledge commit oneself v .having an important effect or influence. etc. promise that you will do something promote v .to deactivate. which includes the LA21 forum. usually public.to help something to develop or increase. In addition. they are forming a mosaic of all relevant local issues .when you judge your own work or progress significant ad} . the Environmental Action Programme for the town includes a section on orgamzmg courses on International Standards Organization (ISO) environmental standards and environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for both officers and politicians. however. or unusual enough to be noticed or mentioned pledge n . e.to make a formal.having a good effect call on/upon somebody/something to formally ask someone to do something commit v .having a tendency to pursue v .to rule governance n . The local authority has set up LA21 commissions to promote sustainability within civil society organizations.a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage govern v . seek to attain or accomplish (an end. NGOs are our future and thanks to them citizens in Dunajska Luzna are starting to change and are more open to new ideas. Slovakia In terms of institutional capacity. to encourage prone to ad} . city notable ad} . In your own words try to explain briefly to your partner what ISO 14000 standards are? 2.a solemn binding promise to do sth pledge v . According to a senior politician: an Many civil society organizations are helping to direct Dunajska Luzna to be more sustainable.important. town. municipality n .. to prevent them being spoiled or destroyed. particularly improving infrastructure in the town.
In five years . with significant loss of life". could spark off mass migrations as areas become uninhabitable.UNIT 3 GLOBAL WARMING Warmup Do you agree with the following statements? Compare your opinions with your neighbour's. 21 . oceans might absorb most of the increased heat. less environmentally damaging energy sources. I will be married. Insurers. have responded by lobbying governments to regulate emissions of greenhouse gases. after a while. And. 4. in the short term it might not prove that difficult.8 and 3. but such an increase in temperature would cause a rise in sea levels large enough to put the lives of up to 100 million people at risk. Slovakia will have as many wind farms as Austria. For one thing. Efficiency improvements alone could cut energy needs by as much as 30 per cent at virtually no extra cost. which increase evaporation and lead to heavier rainfall. and..5 dollars in damage claims. 5. which have a cooling effect.. 1. The living standard in Slovakia will be the same as in the Czech Republic. say many scientists. might produce more clouds. later. 2. (This number will rise as the global population increases. This view is not supported by insurance companies. 3. before long. I will have a well-paid job. cost insurance companies 16. global temperatures are expected to rise by between 0. not all scientists are convinced that human-influenced warming actually affects the climate. In the longer term.Make two more personal predictions using transition words from the box. That may not seem like much. as well as droughts in other areas. which have a lot to lose should weather patterns become more extreme. gradually.) Widespread flooding. W ReadingJ By the year 2100. All of us will have air-conditioning in our homes. And. eventually. hurricanes will become more frequent in a warmer world. which swept across large parts of the US last year. Tropical diseases would almost certainly spread northwards. causing "wide-ranging and mostly adverse impacts on human health. one day. by 2010 ). Hurricane Andrew. in developed countries. However. Reducing harmful emissions is just one area in which the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel is decidedly optimistic. leaving little to change the climate. worried that warming could ultimately "bankrupt the industry". emission reductions of up to 60 per cent "are technically feasible". Transition words for predicting: in the future. harmful emissions will be reduced as the world changes over to cheaper. Some maintain that higher temperatures.5 degrees Celsius.
May 1996 Comprehension ). And what should the developing world do? Should it reduce emissions. The first stems from the uncertainty about how hot the planet is going to get and the time scale involved. For politicians. It is difficult to get people to act when predictions may take between 50 and 100 years to materialise.Read the text carefully and answer these questions: a) b) c) d) What does the rise in temperature cause? Why is the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel optimistic? Do you agree that you can cut energy needs at no extra cost? Why is it so difficult to reduce harmful emissions? Vocabulary » 1Match 1. Use the context to help you. a) to be the cause of trouble or violence b) to develop as a result of something else c) a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live d) to feel certain that something is true e) unfavourable f) possible.2 Underline all predictions you can find in the article. perhaps violent. 3. 22 . 6. likely to work g) so nearly that any difference is not important droughts spark off adverse be convinced feasible virtually stem from Extend you vocabulary Cause and reason words Here are some "cause" words and typical contexts they are used in. ). because of mistakes made by the developed world? BBe English. The rise in prices sparked off a lot of political protest (often used for very strong. (slightly less strong than spark off) The new law has brought about lIed to great changes in education (often used for political/social change) This problems stems from the inflation of recent years. (explaining the direct origin of events and states) )-1Retell the main points of the article using some of the learned" cause" words.If it is economically and technically feasible to reduce harmful emissions. preventative action against a future threat carries heavy political risks. 7. reactions to events) The President's statement gave rise to / provoked / generated a lot of critism. 5. and suffer the consequences. 2. these words with the definitions below. 4. why is almost nothing being done? There are two main reasons. who face elections every half decade or so.
"It looks benign because we're doing good. Higher temperatures might produce more clouds. water-borne disease and malnutrition. to stop someone dying due to an environmental hazard involves an investment of some $4.000. To express prediction we can use: Future with "will" Polar and glacial ice will melt. Prediction is an essential part of environment science. but the downside is that there are less resources to spend elsewhere. likely to be very strong regional variations. protecting biodiversity or population crisis. whether we speak about global warming.r::iT' Language focus Using English to Predict The goal of all scientific investigation is to predict the future. To save a life via medical means costs around $19. The health of millions could be threatened by increases in malaria. might. and is based on the assumption that what we can predict. skewing the public's understanding of green issues in a way not supported by the available data. Probability (be likely to. m ReadingII ~ Global warming'? Got to admit it's getting better In his famous and rather controversial book The Skeptical Environmentalist academic Bjorn Lomborg has examined reputable statistics on climate change and the so-called "greenhouse effect" only to conclude that the Kyoto Treaty would cost $4 trillion to adopt. rather than 200 lives in the health sector?" Dr Lomborg asks." he says. however.2 ill. "Is it reasonable that we save one human life in the environment. Hypothetical nature (would) Tropical diseases would almost certainly spread northwards. Dr Lomborg says those painting a grim picture of the environment have largely gone unchallenged. but only postpone a 2C temperature rise by a mere six years. Possibility (may. 23 . and the oceans will warm. could) This may launch a debate in Washington that could have an impact on the administration.200 islands are no more than 1m above sea level. Within 100 years the Maldives could become uninhabitable since 80 % of its 1.making the people the first refugees of global warming. probably) There are. Future continuous (will be + present participle) Soon an Alaskan village will be relocating to the mainland . and these are difficult to predict. Climate change could be afar worse threat than terrorism. given Dr Lomborg's reading of the statistics. we can protect ourselves against. Headlines gloomily predicting environmental collapse are causing society to spend vast sums of money on problems whose seriousness is greatly overblown.
2." says Dr Lomborg." Breathe easy: Air quality has . Dr Lomborg'sstatistical revelations may come as a pleasant surprise. improved in London Comprehension 1. 6." For ordinary people walking litter-strewn. Complexity makes ith~dei to make the right decisions. 7. 4. but we should be equally wary of the green movement."It's sensible not to trustindustry. 4. car exhaust-filled city streets. The President has adopted a tough on terrorism. I knew something was wrong. 24 . but if there are lots of expert opinions on a level playing field we tend to get pretty close. 5. the figures. Does Bjorn Lomborg have an optimistic or pessimistic view of the future? What does he base his opinions on? How did environmentalists react to his ideas? Would you say that the author of the article is neutral or biased? Note down any phrases which can support your opinion. especially one that is false or not very clear a situation in which different companies. 2. belief or opinion. 5. The of the plan is that we lose a lot of time. "This is not just something I believe. 3. "I expected a hostile response. there's data for this. All the people we questioned lived in the same area. 5. especially something that they had been thinking of doing the negative side of something an idea. 2. 6. 3. 9. 3. 8. countries etc can all compete fairly with each other because no one has special advantages in or to another place to scatter things around a large area :> 2 Complete 1. the sentences with words from exercise 1: There were outbreaks of rioting in the region When I saw their faces. Vocabulary :> 1 Find these l. The problem is that on environmental issues we have not had a level playing field. but the academic's attempt to let the figures speak for themselves has provoked the ire of environmentalists. which had the effect of The yard was with garbage. words in the text and choose the correct meaning: a) b) c) d) e) f) notion downside elsewhere to anger grim to prompt stance to strew a level playing field g) h) i) j) to affect a test or an attempt to get information in a way that makes the results incorrect sad because you think the situation will not improve to make someone angry an opinion that is stated publicly to make someone decide to do something. who makes a point of only using figures collected by bodies such as the United Nations "organisations we typically all trust". 4.
write off > 1 While listening.. Her situation me to do something about getting a new job. I do not agree with the that human beings are basically good. The world's species are not disappearing at an alarming rate The Kyoto Protocol is an expensive waste of money Acid rain does not kill forests Higher estimates of temperature increases are "plainly unlikely" RS Writing task • What are your views on the matter? Consider the above topics and choose the one which interests you the most. bully. I'm sorry I couldn't go along with that.lomborg-crrors. Try to find relevant information on the Internet to support your views. Bjorn Lomborg and some of his most provocative pronouncements. Listening You are going to listen to several Environmentalist. What me most was his total lack of remorse..7.. with two notable countries refusing to join. N. http://www. On February the 16t\ the Kyoto protocol entered into force around the world.. Notable because these are the only members of the OEeD who have not joined and the two countries have two of the highest levels of carbon emissions per capita. disgraceful. I'm afraid that just isn't the case. take notes concerning the following points: 25 r .lomborg. eradicate. Then write your answer to Bjorn Lomborg or to newspapers. I share your view.. Ifind it. 10. It's not really a when one country is subsidizing its car industry with massive government grants.comJlombond http://www. indulge. XY on this matter.. 2.dkJ Useful phrases to express your opinion: In my opinion ... 3. I'm afraid I can't agree with Mr.. . heap..grcenspirit.comJ: http://www. 8.B. 9.... 4. To my mind . 1. I think he is right! he is wrong . reactions to Bjorn Lomborg' s controversial book: Sceptical Make sure that you understand these words: detrimental. As far as I'm concerned . Australia and the USA.
to give someone a lot of something indulge in v . practically write off v . I have been to global warming as "statistically irrelevant localised average temperature variation" for ages. annoy bring about v . Bjorn Lomborg argues that the Kyoto Protocol will .the negative part or disadvantage of something elsewhere adv .a plan.shameful.if something skews the results of a test etc. 4.a situation in which different people.be bossy towards. to cause bully v . to what you have heard fill in the gaps with words that best express the idea of the sentence. his position .to be the cause of something. scandalous downside v .eliminate. a huge difference.1. belief. especially trouble or violence stance n . refer. 5. HELP: recognize.not good or favourable anger v . work out.to persuade someone to do something detrimental a . or opinion plainly adv .enjoy to excess level playing field .to decide that a particular thing will not be useful.in a way that is easy to understand or recognize prompt v . It's about time someone that saving a few trees in Brazil is not going to save the world.an idea.to make someone angry.looking or sounding very serious heap v . wipe out feasible adj .is he a specialist or not :> 2 How many speakers agreed with Lomborg's views? :> 3 According 1. the nature of the problem the speaker refers to 2.an opinion that is stated publicly stem from v . a step ~ Glossary adverse adj . etc can all compete fairly because no one has special advantages notion n . or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work grim adj .in.causing harm or injury disgraceful a . make fearful convince v . companies. countries. at. 2. We have to see Kyoto as to an overall reduction in C02 emissions below their 1990 levels. intimidate. making them incorrect spark off v .almost. 3. important or successful 26 . it affects the results.to make something happen.to scatter things around a large area virtually adv . idea. 6.to make someone decide to do something skew v .to develop as a result of something else strew v . We are an intelligent enough species to how to live sustainably. or to another place eradicate v . If we can cut down on this pollution then we would see a in our health and the conditions in which we all live. make no diference. his bias: does he agree with Bjorn Lomborg or is he critical to his opinions? 3.
such as a plant or animal. 3.6 million to more than 100 million.000 times as great as it was before the coming of humanity. 4. such as rain forests. 27 . 1. whose numbers declined to the point where the last member of the species died and therefore no new members of the species could ever be born again. Compare the results with your partner. people. While covering only 6 % of Earth's land surface. How much biodiversity is there? Biologists have described a total of between 1. the extinction rate of species and races is everywhere rising. maintaining a rough equilibrium. f) a term for an ideal condition in which the interrelationships of organisms to one another and their environment appear harmonious. the rain forests are losing an area about the size of Switzerland each year.8 million species. They generally agree that the rate of species extinction is now 100 to 1. Throughout most of geological time. biodiversity 2. They disappeared naturally at the rate of about one species per million per year. At the top are the ecosystems. coral reefs and lakes.5 million and 1.UNIT 4 VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES Match the key terms of this unit with the correct definition. animals and microorganisms e) the ceasing to exist of a species or a living organism. Not only has the extinction rate soared. moray eels. but also the birthrate of new species has declined as the natural environment is destroyed. Biologists who explore biodiversity see it vanishing before their eyes. according to the method employed. from 3. At the bottom are the variety of genes making up the heredity of each species. which interact which each other c) the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs d) the variety of all life forms on Earth . Next down are the species that compose the ecosystems: swallowtail butterflies. Yet this impressive achievement is only a small beginning.plants. species ecosystem equilibrium habitat extinction 5. and newly evolved species replaced them at the same rate. With other rich environments under similar assault. The principal cause of both extinction and the slowing of evolution is the degrading and destruction of habitats by human action. No longer. the basic unit of biological classification the whole complex of living and non-living components in any given area. 6. individual species and their immediate descendants lived an average of about 1 million years. including coral reefs (two thirds degraded) and salt marshes and mangrove swamps (half eliminated or radically altered). a) b) m Reading Earth's biodiversity (short for biological diversity) is organized into three levels. Estimates of the true number of living species range.
but also faunas and floras would look much the same over large paris of the world. I am convinced.maize. Then. a large part of biodiversity was destroyed. saline flats and other marginal habitats. original variety. swallowtail butterfly (Papilio glaucas) In the long term. from the 28 . The biochemistry of the vast majority . Throughout history.millions ." pockets of wild nature that contain high concentrations of endangered species. Humanity would then have to wait millions of years for natural evolution to replace what was lost in a single century. including protection of biodiversity. ozone depletion and pollution combined. Conservation experts now give top priority to "hot spots. Similarly. very slowly. From the coastal sage of California to the rain forests of West Africa.000 plant species for food. which sees humanity as part of the biosphere and its faithful steward. these species have devised myriad ways to combat microbes and cancer-causing runaway cells. Not only would there be many fewer life forms. if nothing else. First. anticancer agents. which occurred 65 million years ago and was caused by a giant meteorite strike off the present-day coast of Yucatan. Why? For practical reasons. a few "Lazarus species" reappeared in localities from which they had been wiped out.of other species is an unfathomed reservoir of new and potentially more effective substances. As more time passed. Every species is a masterpiece. Even if the current rate of habitat destruction were to continue in forests and coral reefs alone.4 % of the world's land surface yet are the exclusive home of more than a third of the terrestrial plant and vertebrate species. albeit very slowly. The last and most famous. life as a whole evolved again to its full. Tens of thousands of species of the world's still surviving flora can be bred or provide genes to increase production in deserts. with disaster species such as fire ants and house mice widely spread. Whether it happens in time depends fundamentally on the shift to a new ethic. but now another. These catastrophes followed a typical sequence. which give hope that a great deal can be accomplished in a short span of time. exquisitely adapted to the particular environment in which it has survived for thousands to millions of years. Success also depends on attention to sustainable management of the environment. Humanity'S food supply comes from a dangerously narrow sliver of biodiversity. half the species of plants and animals would be gone by the end of the 21st century. Caught in an endless arms race. across 2 million to 5 million or more years. Researchers of biodiversity agree that we are in the midst of the seventh mass extinction.supply more than half. Only a few hundred wild species have served to stock our antibiotics. Our descendants would inherit a biologically impoverished and homogenized world. the loss of biodiversity will be more consequential to humanity than all of present-day global warming.Paleontologists recognize six previous mass-extinction events during the past half-billion years (the number was until recently believed to be five. people have cultivated or gathered 7. That change of heart has begun in most countries among a few farsighted leaders and a growing part of the general public. not just the resident master and economic maximizer. pain killers and blood thinners. having been able to spread from isolated pockets difficult to detect. There are reasons to be warily optimistic that biodiversity may be salvageable. The reason is to be found in the principles of evolutionary biology. wheat and rice . the hottest of the terrestrial hot spots occupy only 1. that survived and reproduced rapidly to fill the habitable spaces emptied of other life. There was a bloom of a small number of "disaster species" such as fungi and ferns. Natural pharmaceuticals offered by biodiversity are also underutilized. from early Cambrian times. has been added). Today only 20 species provide 90 % of the world's food and three . ended the age of dinosaurs. We have scarcely begun to consult them for the experience stored in their genes.
streams of Appalachia to the Philippine coral reefs, aquatic hot spots occupy a tiny fraction of the shallow water surface. This much of the world can be set aside quickly without crippling economic or social consequences. More difficult but equally important are the preservation and long-term nondestructive use of the remaining fragments of the old-growth forests, including the tropical wildernesses of Asia, Central Africa and Latin America. None of this will be easy, but no great goal ever was. Surely nothing can be more important than to secure the future of the rest of life and thereby to safeguard our own.
Edward O. Wilson, Time, Earth day 2000
Mangrove swamps are found along tropical seacoasts on both sides of the equator. To most people, they look like muddy, swampy places filled with mosquitoes, snakes and spiders. Actually, they are a forest community that bridges the gap between land and sea. Mangrove root systems provide a filtering system allowing the sediments to be removed before entering open water. This sediment would otherwise cover and kill coral reef colonies. The tsunami left less destruction in regions protected by mangroves.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What three types of biodiversity do we know? How did dinosaurs become extinct? Which are the richest environments? What makes scientists think that we are in the midst of the seventh mass extinction? What is the main cause of extinction? Why is it necessary to protect biodiversity? Why might the loss of biodiversity be more significant than global warming and ozone depletion? Can biodiversity be saved? If yes, under what conditions?
>- 1Find the following
words in the text and choose the most suitable expression to describe them. a) impossible to understand b) not capable of being measured c) unexplored, unmeasured capable of being saved b) manageable b) owner of the house
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
salvageable steward resident master assault safeguard
a) manager of the house a)
someone who rules a country only for a limited period b) occupier a) rapt c) violation b) attack a) protect b) escort safely c) save
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Biodiversity hotspots
The concept of the threatened biodiversity hotspots was first developed in 1988 by British ecologist Dr. Norman Myers, and was adopted and has been used by Conservation International and the MacArthur Foundation since 1989. To qualify as a hotspot, an area must contain 0.5 % of the global total of vascular plants (estimated at 300,000 species), or 1,500 species, as endemics. The second major criterion for hotspot status is degree of threat. In order to be included on the list on the basis of this criterion, an area must have lost 70 % or more of its original natural vegetation, leaving 30 % or less in intact condition. The threat criterion enables to distinguish between areas with high diversity and endemism under severe threat (Madagascar and the Philippines) and those with equal or higher diversity and endemism but still largely intact, the so-called major tropical wilderness areas (Amazonia, the Congo forests of Central Africa and New Guinea). Together, the hotspots once occupied a land area of 17,541,969 km', or 11.8 % of the planet's land surface - roughly an area the size of Russia. Cumulatively, they have lost 88 % of this area, meaning that only 12 % of the original extent, remains intact. This represents just 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet, a relatively smaIl area that is equivalent to the American states of Alaska and Texas combined, or about four times the area of France. The overall conclusions of the hotspots analysis are simple and obvious. If we have 44.4 % of all plants and 35 % of all non-fish vertebrates endemic to just 1.4 % of Earth's land surface, and if this same 1.4 % is under the most severe threat, then it is only logical to focus a significant portion of our attention on these areas in the next few decades, and especially over the next two to five years. To put it even more strongly, the hotspots are fundamental to preventing a mass extinction crisis in the early part of this new millennium. If we fail to act in these areas and lose that 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet, we wilIlose, at the very least, those plants and animals that are found nowhere else than in the hotspots - even if all of efforts in other parts of the world are successful. Without decisive action in the hotspots, major extinctions are inevitable. To the question of whether or not we can still have a significant impact on biodiversity losses, Conservation International answers that, despite the significant challenges, we are optimistic. Success will depend on maintaining a very strategic focus on priority regions and building the alliances necessary to pursue conservation in these areas.
Hottest of the hotspots
1. 2. 3. 4. What land area did hotspot once occupy? What criteria must a region meet to be qualified as a hotspot? How can we prevent a mass extinction crisis? Can negative trend be reversed? Are conservationists optimistic?
Madagascar Philippines Sundaland Atlantic Forest Caribbean
r:g= Language focus
Using English for making hypothesis:
A hypothesis is a tentative proposition that resolves a problem or answers a scientific question. Most hypotheses are stated in the present simple tense.
Ifwe have more than 50 percent of global terrestrial biodiversity found in around 1.4% of the land surface of the planet, then it makes sense to concentrate our investments in these areas.
If we fail to act now, it is not just the plant and animal kingdoms and the beauty of the planet that
Sometimes a hypothesis is expressed as a prediction, using the future tense with will.
To talk about imaginary future situations we use if.. ..were + to-infinitive
If he were to have a chance of success, he would need to move to London. If the current rate of habitat destruction were to continue, half the species of plants and animals would be gone by the end of the century.
However, we can't use this pattern with many verbs that describe a state, including know, like, remember, understand
If 1knew they were honest, I'd gladly lend them the money. (not If I were to know ...) If we stopped pouring greenhouse gases into the air tomorrow, the water would still go heating for decades ahead, if not centuries.
)- 1Now go back to the text and find examples of hypothetical constructions.
)- 2 Complete the following sentences with the verbs in the correct form. 1. If we nothing, as many as one-quarter of all today's primates will be dead in 20 years. 2. If people were to keep their cars in their garages, city transport to be more comfortable and cheaper. 3. If Slovak universities to improve educational standard, government would have to increase funding. 4. We to use massively more resources if the poor live as the rich world does. )- 3 Make two more sentences expressing a hypothesis.
Lighter side The teacher came up with a good problem. "Suppose," she asked the second-graders, "there were a dozen sheep and six of them jumped over a fence. How many would be left?" "None," answered little Norman. "None? Norman, you don't know your arithmetic." "Teacher, you don't know your sheep. When one goes, they all go!"
Responding to the growing concern of Europeans over the rapid loss of their wild life. Not only do the new Member States have a rich biodiversity of their own.an area equivalent to the size of Germany and Italy put together. many vulnerable semi-natural habitats and species which are dependent upon positive management will be maintained. requires a concerted effort in communication. At the heart of both these Directives is the creation of a network of sites called Natura 2000. this coverage is likely to extend even further. The other distinguishing feature of Natura 2000 is that it puts people at the heart of the process rather than on its periphery. It also follows the principle of good governance which advocates greater participation and openness in shaping and delivering EU policies. Natura 2000 . All of this. By actively associating different stake-holders in the management and implementation of Natura 2000 sites. 32 . With the recent enlargement of the EU. It is this European dimension that sets Natura 2000 apart from previous efforts to conserve nature in Europe. social and cultural requirements and the regional and local characteristics of the area'.000 sites have been proposed for the Natura 2000 Network. As such. Natura 2000 is in fact more about saying 'take note .e. it sets out to create an extensive network of protected areas across the European Union to conserve its rare species and habitats. Such an approach has many advantages. covering almost a fifth of the European territory . however. This legislation is called the Habitats Directive and complements the Birds Directive adopted in 1979. the sheer scale of Natura 2000 should make it a powerful ally in maintaining the economic viability and social fabric of many rural areas. irrespective of national or political boundaries.this is our common heritage' rather than 'keep out . both for nature conservation and for people living and working in rural areas. some 18. This breaks with the more traditional top-down approach of classic nature reserves. So far. the network should add up to substantially more than the sum of its parts. the Habitats and Birds Directives) to protect and manage vulnerable species and habitats across their natural range.this is for wildlife not people'. where people were tolerated rather than integrated. as much at the local level as at the European level and across all sectors and interest groups. This principle of collaboration is enshrined in the Habitats Directive.EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE Natura 2000 In May 1992 European Union governments adopted legislation designed to protect the most seriously threatened habitats and species across Europe. By the same token.putting people at the heart of the process Natura 2000 has to be one of most ambitious initiatives ever launched to protect Europe's rich and diverse natural heritage. all 25 Member States are working together towards the same goal and within the same strong legislative framework (i. but they also harbour species and habitats that have almost disappeared from the rest of Europe. For the first time. which requires that conservation measures 'take account of the economic.
~ Glossary albeit con . We have to say that X's argument is somewhat unconvincing ..an arrangement in which two or more countries. 4. 3.. 6.. 6.. We understand the reasons behind your decision .. Do you think this is a proposition? The right offree speech is in the Constitution.. Your evidence is very persuasive .although alliance n .. :> 2 Listen to the other groups 'decisions and say what you think of the choices they have made.. We have doubts about the long-term economic of the company . They with the aim of becoming the number one team in the league.. groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something 33 . Perhaps we should choose . viable 1. • Agreeing: We entirely agree with . set apart... 2. . 5. token. • Disagreeing: We completely disagree with X on this point.. 2.. with a lot of endemic species . • Partial disagreeing: We respect X' s arguments in favour of.Comprehension 1. Think about how you will justify your choice to the other students.. • Using reasons: I think. 5. viability.. set out. What is the principal role of Natura 2000? What makes Natura 2000 different from previous efforts to conserve nature in Europe? What other distinguishing feature does it have? How do you understand the principle of good governance? What was the traditional top-down approach of nature reserves? What important condition must be fulfilled to achieve the goals of Natura 2000? Vocabulary :> Fill in the gaps with the words from the box... Sinks and draining boards can germs.. :> Communication 1 In groups or pairs discuss which regions of Slovakia would you choose as most important for preservation? You are going to present and explain your choice to the rest of the class. 7..... . 4. r:xr Useful expressions For: • Making suggestions: What about. but. harbour. Man's ability to reason him from other animals. 3. this is a region with very high biodiversity . Please accept this gift as a small of our appreciation..
the process by which mental and physical qualities are passed from a parent to a child before the child is born hotspot 11 .the additional effectiveness when two or more companies or people combine and work together token n . group of people etc that existed in the past devise v .concerted effortJaction/attack etc.not broken.a herb with grey-green leaves scarcely ad .period of time between two dates or events. event etc vanish v .to start doing something or making plans to do something in order to achieve a particular result severe ad} . situation etc that people pay special attention to harbour v .something that represents a feeling.almost not or almost none at all set apart v . especially ones with particular qualities combat v . disappear viable ad} .a small area or amount of something that is different from what surrounds it runaway ad} .5 % of all flowering plants must be endemic to a hotspot impoverish v .to make someone very poor intact ad} . viability wary ad} .to happen or exist in a particular place or situation pocket n . significant crippling ad} . sliver of span n .threatened ecosystem.the thing. it makes them different from or better than other people or things set out v . which has lost more than 70 % of their natural vegetation.to keep animals or plants in order to produce babies or new plants. or method can work successfully.assault n . or get rid of something completely 34 . distinguish somebody/something from enshrined ad} .a viable idea.to suddenly stop existing.someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago.to give shelter to. plan.to make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before occur v . a concerted effort etc is done by people working together in a carefully planned and very determined way consequential ad} . or spoiled maintain v .someone who is wary is careful because they think something might be dangerous or harmful wipe out v . especially on what will happen in the future sliver n .causing so much damage or harm that something no longer works or is no longer effective descendant n .very serious significant ad} .to plan or invent a new way of doing something distinguish v .to be the thing that makes someone or something different or special. person.having an important effect or influence.to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse concerted effort n .preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it focus n . offer refuge to. At least 0.not able to be controlled safeguard v . remove. over/within/in a span of something synergy n . damaged.if a quality sets someone or something apart.the crime of physically attacking someone breed v .important. to contain heredity n .a small pointed or thin piece that has been cut or broken off something. fact.to destroy.to protect something from harm or damage sage n . or to a family.
• Why do different species face the risk of extinction? • What do you know about the Red List of Threatened Species? • What do the abbreviations IUCN. consider the following questions and try to answer them. I don't understand. Panda is the symbol for the wildlife foundation ~ With your partner try to match the words with the correct definitions: 1. CITES and GSA stand for? • SWS means: a) Saving Wildlife Society. you kill my waiter and walk away without saying a word. careful danger." and walks out the door. perilous jeopardy brink downlist windfall vanish prudent swap assessment sudden unexpected piece of good luck frontier. precarious h) evaluation i) delist a) b) c) d) e) W ReadingI Science counts species on brink The scale of the extinction threat facing animals and plants is made clear in the latest Red List from the IUCN-The World Conservation Union. 7." The panda says. Working in pairs or a small group. It reads: panda black and white animal. b) Slovak Wildlife Society. 5. 8. 3. So the owner gets out a dictionary and looks under the heading "Panda". verge sensible. 2.UNITS ENDANGERED SPECIES Warmup A panda bear walks into a restaurant. 9. 35 . "Look it up in the dictionary. he pulls out a pistol. eats shoots and leaves.589 species are now known to be in a perilous position. 6. what are you doing? You come in here. "Hey. The owner of the restaurant says. lives in central China. The leading environmental information network says 15. 4. He orders the special and eats it. risk equal exchange f) disappear g) dangerous. After eating. kills the waiter and starts to walk out the door.
There are many examples of species being brought back from the brink including the southern white rhino and black-footed ferret. The GSA includes the first complete assessment of amphibians that was reported in the journal Science last month. Endangered or Vulnerable.) "The fact that we know more makes the situation look worse. of course. Critically Endangered .7. which can call on the expertise of some 10. But the latest Red List shows a third of amphibians and almost 50 % of turtles and tortoises are on the brink.266 animals and 8. believes the threat facing global biodiversity is escalating. But that isn't why the trend is accelerating . whereas the proportions for mammals individual has died and birds are only 10 % and 5 % respectively.barely two million.589 species now known to be threatened with extinction 1. These creatures (which include frogs. They also have more species on the verge of extinction. Human-induced climate change is thought to be an increasingly significant problem. 21 % of amphibians are Critically Endangered Extinct .it is a real phenomenon.Species is documented (roughly 40 % assessed). 103 occurred since 1800 Threatened animal species up from 5. What is certain is the limited number of of extinction species catalogued by science .205 to 7.323 plants and lichens .000 times natural rate 129 recorded bird extinctions. salamanders and caecilians. (The 2003 mCN • Red List included 12. Some are down to one individual. Earth's oldest seed plants • • • 15. IUCN'S DISAPPEARING WORLD • It lists the 15. there could be 100 Vulnerable . The GSA shows trends in biodiversity over four years since the last major analysis was done in 2000.May soon move into While the status of known vertebrates is relatively well above categories Least Concern .589 species .259 species threatened with extinction." Over-exploitation and habitat loss are pressures working against many species ." 36 . there may be 10 million. or legless amphibians) are the most threatened of all vertebrate groups." says Dr Simon Stuart.Species at high risk million. The mCN. for example. too.Surveys suggest last known or Endangered. human actions alone can prevent many species from becoming extinct.000.000 scientists across the globe. an ancient group of plants. who has authored a Global Species Assessment (GSA) to accompany the Red List. • "A lot of cycads are valuable in the horticultural trade. so economic [exploitation] and habitat loss is the last straw.as either Critically Endangered.266 since 1996 mCN'S SCALE OF THREAT In total.Science has understood for some years that an eighth of all birds and a quarter of all mammals are in jeopardy. because we can list more and more species in trouble.Extreme high risk The Red List is only a partial picture of the world's of extinction biodiversity. It highlights in particular the trouble now facing amphibians and cycads. "While most threats to biodiversity are human-driven. toads. poor information widespread and abundant exists on the animals and plants that inhabit freshwater and marine habitats.Species at very high risk Estimates for the total number of species on Earth vary of extinction wildly.9m species described out of an estimated Sm-plus 844 extinctions recorded by science since AD 1500 Current extinction rate may be 100-1. It is an increase of more than 3. people want to collect them. too. Many have small distributions anyway.but so is the competition from introduced (or alien) animals and plants. Endangered . Near Threatened . and thousands of dedicated people around the world are doing their utmost to reverse the extinction rate.
25 . has been reclassified from Critically Endangered to Vulnerable.this incredible little toad was once thought extinct. for example.two hundred dollars.nineteen hundred 1905 . Several hundred tadpoles and toads have been re-introduced to the wild thanks to an initiative run by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.two thousand and two.Dr Stuart added: "Where we have been able to concentrate GOOD THINGS conservation focus. How often is the Red List published? Why has the number of species changed so dramatically since the last reJease of the List? What categories of threatened animals do we know? . It costs $ 200 .bbc.: 370. we often get very good results. " Species such as the corncrake and the European otter have been downlisted because of such efforts. too.g. Good things are ARE ACHIEVABLE achievable. 2002 .) and comma (. 1900 . "We've come a long way .Seventy-five point two five Global amphibians are in great trouble 37 . 2. We're delighted with the reclassification on the Red List. programme director at Durrell Wildlife. Is it ever possible to downlist some species? Extend your vocabulary to be at risk of to head for to face to be on the brinklverge/brink to be threatened with to reverse of extinction the extinction rate (iT Language focus NUMERALS We usually use cardinal numbers to talk about money and years. e. e.stm Comprehension 1.589 == Three hundred and seventy thousand five hundred and eighty nine In decimals we use point and we say each number indivudally after the point." http://news." said Quentin Bloxam. 3. g.co. 4.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/sci/tech/4013719.nineteen oh five Note how the point (. Captive breeding and release programmes make an impact. "Today it's on the road to survival. The Mallorcan midwife toad.) are used. : 75.
S. 1. CI's quarterly newsletter. These lush rain forests are under threat from logging. They shelter roughly 20. Peru's forests are among the most biologically diverse on Earth and are home to rare species such as pink dolphins.000. pink dolphin 38 .800 bird species. In June 2002. An unprecedented agreement forgiving millions of dollars of Peruvian debt in return for investments in conservation does just that. scarlet macaws and walking palms. Located in the Tropical Andes hotspot. As a result. This money will support such activities as the establishment of parks and reserves. Under the agreement.5 million acres of Peruvian rain forest .a Windfall for Biodiversity Conservation When fighting to save Earth's vanishing biodiversity. the "walking palm" can shift its position over time to find a spot with more light.1. In return. Peru will save about $14 million in debt payments over the next 16 years.259.000 species of vascular plants and provide habitat for nearly 1. scientific and managerial training programs and the restoration of diverse animal and plant species. CI. government allocated $5.6 million toward conservation efforts in 10 tropical forests over the next 12 years. conversion of forest land to agriculture.9m.000 Activate your language windfall 1. Summer 2002 By sending down new stalks. Peru will provide its national currency equivalent of approximately $10.:> Check your memory. an amount of money that you get unexpectedly Reading II Peru Agreement . mining and oil and gas exploration. VVhatdo these numbers mean in the context of the first three paragraphs? 15. WWF and TNC each committed approximately $370. 10. Conservation International (CI). Scarlet macaws are prized for their beauty and personality From: Conservation Frontlines.an area the size of Virginia.000 and the U.589.5 million to cancel a portion of Peru's debt to the United States. 12. sometimes it's more prudent to forgive and move forward. 100 . which take root. a piece of fruit that has fallen off a tree 2. A debt-for-nature swap reduces a government's foreign debt burden in exchange for its commitment to spend a certain amount of its national currency on conservation work. the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) joined forces with the United States and Peru to support a debt-for-nature swap that will help protect more than 27.
The study includes. a controversial High Court decision threw out all attempts to punish hunters for killing wolves and full protection was subsequently repealed. and the Agriculture Ministry. The main threat to wolves throughout the 20th century was hunting. Results suggest.. shows trends .. From 1900-20 and again in 1960-70 the population was wiped out from virtually all the Western Carpathians and. Why might it be sensible sometimes to forgive? Can you recall some examples from your own experience? 2. Short-lived year round protection granted in 1995 led to a dispute between the Environment Ministry. How will Peru use the saved money? What activities will it support? 4.. hunters began to fear prosecution and some associations stopped reporting information on wolf occurrence as well as hunting. with its forests full of large ungulates providing extensive refuge and good hunting. Who was a debtor and who was a creditor in the article? Which organizations and which countries joined their forces to find a successful solution? 3. confirms . The results of the study also indicate The authors call for .. centuries of persecution by hunters have made them extremely wary and you will be very lucky if you see one. wolves have not re-colonised all forested mountains since their recovery after 1960-1970 and hunting pressure seems to be restricting dispersal to other regions.... which favoured the older Slovak hunting law. W Reading III Problems of Wolf Conservation in Slovakia At present in Slovakia as a whole there are thought to be 150-350 wolves. is the western frontier of "Eastern European" wolves. 2S Writing Prepare a short report about one of endangered species in Slovakia. Which species may be lost forever and what are the main threats to Peru's rainforests? Extend your vocabulary Useful expression when writing research report: A study led by scientists revealed. Slovakia.. The researchers found that. which supported wolf conservation in line with the Bern Convention. Foreign and local hunters and a growing class of newly-rich hunters from cities amount to a strong lobby. Analyzing date from . although there were stable numbers of wolves in the 1980-90s. After 1995. This resulted in hunters continuing to shoot wolves and present their skulls at trophy exhibitions.. For unknown reasons. Nevertheless. 39 .Comprehension 1. Contrary to popular belief... the current high level of legal hunting and poaching is having a considerable impact.. there is no reason for people to fear these wolves.
. In order to raise funds and to provide field assistance SVS organises and hosts working holidays with the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers (BTCV) and runs low impact. 6.3 of her pack mates were shot in 1999. Since 2000 we have raised more than £12. Wildlife conservation has a very low priority in Slovakia's struggling economy. Both the working holidays and the wildlife holidays generate money for other projects and also aim to show local people that their wildlife can be a source of profit to them if it is protected. Traditional views of the wolf are extremely detrimental to its chances of survival. and Findo. After 1995 some associations stopped reporting information on wolf occurrence as well as hunting.P. hunters blamed wolves for the subsequent fall in population but this was actually due to over-hunting by humans. The Slovak Wildlife Society is a not-for-profit organisation established in the UK in 1998. wolf numbers are greatly overestimated in official statistics. the World Wide Fund for Nature believes. hoofed mammals and carnivores are not considered fully. 4. ungulates and carnivores are not sufficiently integrated in thinking: over-population of Cervus elaphus in the 1980s caused huge damage. R.000) for wildlife conservation and research projects. 5. > 1Decide 40 . The large amount of hunting makes it difficult for the wolves to move to new locations.: Wolves in the Western Carpathians: Past. Forestry. The radio-collared female is still being tracked . Its goal is to help ensure the long-term survival of endangered species in Slovakia through an integrated approach to solutions for sustainable co-existence with people. Forestry. Wolf predation has also been blamed for the recent dramatic reduction in numbers of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) in the Nizke and Vysoke Tatry. lynx and brown bears. 3. S.000 (Sk 1. lost 3 members to a hunt organised for wild boar less than two months after research started. 2. Four "Wolves. There is also a lack of good popular literature on wolves in Slovakia. bears and eagles" wildlife holidays in Slovakia's Tatra Mountains. 7. Tourists key to saving wolves Tourists can help to save some of Europe's most endangered species. A WWF report says the presence in Europe of species like these is a "potentially huge business opportunity". including wolves. Present and Future Comprehension whether these statements are true or false: 1. One pack of 5 wolves which was studied by radio-telemetry in Nizke Tatry N. Recent programmes of motorway construction and other development have given little or no consideration to their likely impact on the movements of animals. rather than hunted. Economic problems are likely to cause an increase in poaching. for example. sustainable "Wolves. Traditional views of the wolf are not damaging to its chances of survival. although research described in this presentation has failed to show any evidence in support of the hypothesis. The best hope for conservation is world-wide support using non-governmental conservation organizations. Decline of Cervus population was caused by great wolf numbers. bears and eagles" holidays and eight BTCV holidays in 2000-02 contributed nearly £26. The best hope for conservation is international support channelled through non-government organisations.Such is the strength of the hunting lobby that hunting is allowed even in National Parks.000) to local economies in large carnivore areas.500 (Sk 840. from: Rigg.730. An unsuccessful all year protection programme which was put in place in 1995 led to a dispute between the Environment Ministry and the Ministry of Finances. In Slovakia there are deficiencies in the science of wildlife management: for example.
357 working days I'm a bit of driving in this fog. or the judgment you make attempt 11 .to add up in importance.to have advanced to an improved or more developed state contrary to . 1. especially something difficult barely adv . occurrence. etc. or protection from danger reverse v . The idea was by the committee.in jeopardy. 5.a large brightly coloured bird like a parrot.Complete the sentences with the words from the box. especially by trying to avoid unnecessary risks raise funds v . the fact of something happening perilous adj .very dangerous prudent adj . 4.to provide a place where someone or something is protected.used to say that something is true even though people believe the opposite dispersal n . wary. 6.to change something so that it is the opposite of what it was before shelter v . ruin. .. The frequent of earthquakes in the area means that the buildings must be specifically designed to withstand the force. in danger of being lost or harmed last straw n .if something changes in line with something else. attempt. popular belief. " Communication Work in groups and based on the texts you have read in this unit summarise the reasons of why Slovak mammals face extinction.Vocabulary ).Alytes obstetricans.incidence.only. when added to an unpleasant or bad situation. it changes in the same way and at the same rate as it jeopardy n . European toad whose male carries the fertilized eggs wrapped around its hind legs until they hatch occurrence n . Compare your list with the list you have prepared as a warm-up activity. a desert can be very cold.border highlight v . All to control inflation have failed. causes failure.the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it frontier n .a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. 7. amount Time lost through illness to 1. ~ Glossary amount to v . 2.the final thing that.sensible and careful.an act of trying to do something. in line with. throw out. to equal assessment n .to do something as well as you can by making a great effort endangered species n .one that soon may no longer exist exploration n .a place that provides shelter. 3. with a long tail midwife toad n .to collect money that you can use to do a particular job or help people refuge n . especially from the weather or from danger 41 . contrary to.to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it in line with sth . usually a bad one come a long way v . Pensions will be increased inflation. used before amounts or numbers to emphasize that they are surprisingly small brink 11 . the final and most severe of a series of difficulties macaw n .a situation when you are almost in a new situation.the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions do/try one's utmost v .
a situation in which you give something to someone and get another thing in return throw out v .a slow-moving land animal that can pull its head and legs into the hard round shell that covers its body turtle n .(Am.if people throw out a plan or suggestion. or a new part that grows on an existing plant stalk n -long narrow part of a plant that supports leaves. English) any reptile that has a hard shell covering its body. swine. especially in a way that cannot be easily explained wary adj .an amount of money that you get unexpectedly 42 L_~ __~~_ . now divided into the orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla and composed of the hoofed mammals such as horses.shoot n .animals and plants growing in natural conditions windfall n .the part of a plant that comes up above the ground when it is just beginning to grow. e. and elephants vanish v .to disappear suddenly.of or belonging to the former order Ungulata. or flowers swap n .g. a tortoise ungulates n . they refuse to accept it tortoise n . cattle. fruits. deer.careful wildlife n .
which is expensive and difficult to desalinate. stagnant. over 80 countries. In a small group discuss the impacts the shortage of water can have for you and your country. flowing. Conditions may get worse in the next 50 years as populations grow and as global 43 . WATER EVERYWHERE . Water makes up two thirds of our own bodies. But the abundance of water is an illusion. clear. ).1 The headlines reflect the unprecedented droughts all over the world in 2003. shallow. are subject to serious water shortages. We've never had this kind of drought in 50 years.BUT WILL THERE BE ENOUGH TO DRINK? Water crisis in Tanzanian capital Water shortages threaten Africa Drought warning despite downpours The UK's looming water crisis Drought leaves Europe's farmers helpless 'Share your bath'! The Philippine government is calling on its citizens to start sharing a bath with their partners. n "Nobody expected anything like this. even with the prospect of climate change.2 You can use following adjectives to make collocations with water. Every month farmers have been hoping for more rain. Choose one and use it in a sentence of your own." Warmup ). The plea is not part of a drive to promote intimacy between couples. it is a serious suggestion from the Department of the Environment to combat water shortage "The drought is completely unexpected. muddy. safe. half the world's population could have trouble finding enough freshwater for drinking and irrigation. Currently. dangerous. Ninety-seven percent is sea water. Instead. deep. Make a list of possible effects and compare it with your colleagues. calm. Within 25 years. running m Reading Water is the most c0111p1onsubstance on Earth. That leaves just 1 percent to sustain life in the next millennium. but getting less. representing 40 per cent of the world's people. Divide the collocations into two groups depending on whether you consider them positive or negative. Only a tiny fraction of the planet's water is drinkable. About 2 percent is caught in polar ice caps.UNIT 6 WATER. rough. covering more than 70 percent of the planet's surface.
4 billion people lack access to clean drinking water. The Aral Sea in the former Soviet Central Asia may provide a nightmarish glimpse of ecological disaster in the future. By 2025. In 1998. Many scientists believe that the global distribution of water may be altered by climate change. digging ever-deeper wells and lowering water levels in every continent. MORE THAN HALF OF THE MAJOR RIVERS ARE GOING DRY OR ARE POLLUTED Much of the world relies on natural underground storage tanks called aquifers. Children suffer respiratory diseases. A third of the world lives in water stressed areas where consumption outstrips supply. "But there has been no thought given to how to manage the resources of the Yellow River." More than half of the major rivers are going dry or are polluted. "Up until a hundred years ago. it was known throughout history as China's sorrow. U. In the United States. they diverted water from the rivers flowing into the AraI Sea to irrigate the fields. Ships lie in a sandy graveyard that once had water. Chinese officials are even considering moving the capital from Beijing because of chronic water shortages.THE FOLLY OF MAN'S QUEST TO TAME NATURE It's not only communist central planners but capitalists as well who meddle with the flow of rivers. China is in the process of building the world's largest dam on the Yangtze.600 miles long. It's one of the examples that really shows the close connection between the health of an aquatic ecosystem and community and the people that depend on the ecosystem. we were hardly using but a fraction of the Earth's water." says Elizabeth Economy of the Council on Foreign Relations. "Today we are using more than half of it and the result is we are reaching a dangerous point that is not sustainable. It's a controversial project expected to displace more than a million people and radically change the ecosystem for the entire region." And grandiose plans are in the works to rearrange another river . environmental refugees could quadruple.a higher number than refugees of war. 44 . causing millions of deaths each year. When Soviet central planners decided to grow cotton in the desert. Humankind is rapidly using up those reserves. The sea has since lost half its area and threequarters of its volume. Now it is causing distress for the opposite reason: it is running dry. nurturing China's northern plains. 25 million people fled their homes because of water crises in river basins . One needs only to look next door to the former Soviet Union to see the potential damage such solutions can cause. the Yellow River was once the cradle of their civilization. agriculture has expanded and the population has boomed. because of its tendency to flood. 'SOLUTIONS' THAT DAMAGE In China. the Colorado River is ranked as one of the worlds most stressed and over-committed nvers. while more than half the world's population lacks adequate sanitation. The old port town of Muynak is now 150 kilometres from the coast of the dying sea.warming disrupts rainfall patterns. "Industry has expanded." says William Cosgrove of the World Water Council.the Yangtze.A .S. the cows are sick and the native fish are all gone. Currently about 1. Existing social problems and economic trends will compound the severity of the coming water shortage. shifting precipitation away from areas that are presently under cultivation. A child dies every eight seconds from drinking contaminated water. endangering the health and livelihood of those who depend on them. Some 3.
Like other environmental resources. Clean water is now scarce. filling swimming pools and Ever-thirsty Southern California uses 14 percent more than its allotment. this river is life. is what we call the river. the clean water that remains is the property of our children and grandchildren.Dams harness its might waters and in dry years. "For us. Robert Svadlenka: Crisis and Its Implications for Global Food Security :> Divide into two groups. "because the life. some say rivaling the pyramids. contributing to increased soil erosion and water scarcity. 45 . About 4 percent of the planet's water is locked up in ice at the poles. Ninety-six workers died during the construction of what was in its day the world's biggest darn.1999. Comprehension >. An Indian tribe that has depended on the river for centuries is on the verge of extinction. we often take it for granted. CNN. The Colorado is the lifeblood of the burgeoning keeping Las Vegas' 48 golf courses lush. American Southwest. the soul. Butin the future. WATER IN THE FUTURE Two hundred scientists in 50 countries have identified water shortage as one of the two most worrying problems for the new millennium (the other was climate change). It took nearly 5. over the next 20 years humans will use 40 per cent more water than they do now. The number of people living in water-stressed countries is projected to climb from the current 470 million to three billion by 2025. we must fight to protect what is left of the water supply. As a result. Up to 50 per cent of urban water and 60 per cent of water used in agriculture is wasted through leaks and evaporation. 2. The Hoover Dam was built to bring electricity to a vast area and water to the arid Western United States. Group A will read about China and about the impact of irrigation schemes in the former Soviet Union. Since 1950. as the disruption of the environment becomes more fully understood. Little water is left to flow downstream and nourish the Colorado delta in Mexico. experts studying water say it could stand as a testament to the folly of man's quest to tame nature. as opposed to growing more lettuce in the hot desert. January 3. Water problems are more related to mismanagement than scarcity. The best things in life are free." says Bill Snape of Defenders of Wildlife. But more than delta wildlife is at risk. Less than one per cent of the world's surface or below-ground freshwater is accessible for human use. the once-vibrant ecosystem there has turned into a parched and salty marsh. to build the Hoover Dam in the 1930s. Logging and land conversion to accommodate human demand has shrunk the world's forests by half. It is an engineering wonder of our age.Decide whether these sentences are true or false: 1. Most of those people live in the developing world. For their sake. "Our dollars would be better spent rejuvenating the delta. working 24-hour-a-day shifts. On current trends. and we are at last beginning to respect this precious resource. not a single drop of the Colorado reaches the sea." says a Cocopah chief.000 workers four and a half years. Group B will read about negative consequences of the dams on Colorado river. Prepare short summaries and compare these countries> experiences. global water use has more than tripled. But because water is free.
Fossil records indicate that Africa was the cradle of early human evolution. a) persons who have escaped from their own country b) prisoners 3. a) low-lying wetland b) small lake 6. 8.3. 6. thirsty ). Over 70 countries are subject to serious water shortages. ever-present threat . Can youfind similar compound adjectives in the article? ).g. meddle rank burgeon nurture compound a) b) c) d) e) grow and flourish help develop. help grow interfere unwantedly intensify arrange in a sequence. 2. Make your own sentence using ever1. 4. China is in the process of building the world's largest dam on the Yellow River. The Yellow River is causing distress because it is running dry. waterless. The threat to water resources stands as one of the major crises facing the planet.. Vocabulary ). Southern California uses 14 percent more water than its allotment. 46 . his ever-loving Wife. 3. ever-greater number of weather-produced catastrophes.2 Which of these expressions related to water does not belong? arid. The water shortage created 25 million environmental refugees in 1998. Thousands of refugees fled across the border. unhappiness b) dissapointment 5. 7. Humans are digging 2. . a) the place where something started b) birthplace ). a) sadness. an ever-increasing debt. parched. There was an abundance of wine at the wedding. The Colorado is the lifeblood of the American Southeast. akin in urgency to climate change. lush. dried out by heat. The sorrow she felt over the death of her husband was almost too much to bear. . a) a feeling of extreme worry b) disagreement 4. 5. It is calculated that if all the adults in England and Wales turned the tap of while cleaning their teeth. Environmental refugees are people who fled their homes because of hunger.Complete these sentences with a suitable adjective. Ever is sometimes used to mean always in compound expressions with adjectives and participles. wells. a) scarcity b) richness 2. 4. it would save 180 million Iitres of water a day. 1. e.1 Circle the letter of the answer that matches the meaning of the italicized expression in the sentence. 5.3 Match the verbs from the text with their corresponding definitions l.. place • N.B. At the mouth of the river is a large area of marsh.
Slovakia states. For example: continents Africa. Next year we are going skiing in French Alps. WOMEN SPEND AS MUCH AS EIGHT HOURS COLLECTING WATER. Vienna mountains Everest.. IN OTHER PARTS OF AFRICA. Galapagos are a group of islands in Indian Ocean. WALKING FOR WATER ONE THIRD OF WOMEN IN EGYPT WALK MORE THAN AN HOUR A DAY FOR WATER. 5. the Danube. the High Tatras Raymond Murphy. are correct. We use the with the names of oceans. 4. South of England is warmer than north. Central Europe islands Corsica. 3. Chicago is on Lake Michigan. the Galapagos mountain ranges the Alps. Everest was first climbed in 1953. household water use averages 47 liters per person per day. but some need the. regions Belgium. Water: A Critical Resource Did you know . THE AVERAGE DISTANCE WALKED BY WOMEN IN AFRICA IN SEARCH OF WATER IS 6 KILOMETRES A DAY. In Africa..: the Slovak Republic. seas. Correct the sentences when necessary. The Suez Canal We use the with plural names of places: countries the Netherlands groups of islands the Canary Islands. the USA. 47 . Kingdom. UNFPA (2002). rivers and canals: the Pacific Ocean. Europe countries France.r:Jr Language focus Names with and without the We do not use the with names of places. The United States leads the world at an estimated 578 liters per person per day. the average is closer to 95 liters: In contrast. the United Kingdom. English Grammar in Use > Some of these sentences 1. Sicily cities. towns Athens. residents of the United Kingdom average 334 liters per person per day. while in Asia. the Adriatic Sea. 2. Etna But we use the in names with Republic.? Vast regional disparities exist in per capita water use. Statec etc.
it is likely to happen very soon lush adj .plants that are lush grow many leaves and look healthy and strong meddle v . it changes into a gas folly n .to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse compound v . discussion etc by giving special attention to one idea or subject instead of to a previous one 48 .to grow or develop quickly combat v .a very stupid thing to do.to control and use the natural force or power of something leak n .used to describe the average amount of something in a particular place. They'll benefit from the nutrients released from the shell " Communication In pairs prepare a quiz to find out whether somebody is a water-friendly person.to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want. or if heat evaporates it. desirable.to change the direction in which something travels evaporation.to deliberately try to influence or change a situation that does not concern you. The population is rising. but water supplies are not ~ Glosssary accommodate v . especially when their opinions or needs are different from yours burgeon v . calculated according to the number of people who live there plea n .to manage incompetently nurture v .a small hole that lets liquid or gas flow into or out of something looming.WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER • • • • • • • • • Take a shower instead of a bath Wash fruit and vegetables in a bowl instead of running water Make sure your washing machine and dishwasher are full before you tum them on Water plants in the morning or at night toreduce evaporation losses Install a water butt to collect rain water for plants Garden sprinklers use as much water in one day as a family of four in one week Kettles should be filled with enough water for your needs but not to the brim. This will reduce your fuel bills too A dripping tap could waste as much as 90 litres a week Every time you boil an egg save the cooled water for your houseplants. especially one that is likely to have serious results harness v .to commit more than is feasible.to make something work much better or become much better again shift v . or necessary.a long search for something that is difficult to find rank v . feeling etc to develop overcommit v . mismanage .to help a plan.to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems disparity n . loom v . to interfere mismanagement. evaporate v . idea.a request that is urgent or full of emotion quest n . per capita .a big difference between two groups of people or things divert v .if a problem or difficulty looms.to arrange objects in a line or row rejuvenate v .if a liquid evaporates.to change a situation.
The replenished starving. machinery. short-term solutions such as sending food. lack of information. > 3 Work 1. malnutrition. Among the most important are lack of income to buy food. and pesticides. 5. more than 700 million people are chronically undernourished today. understand not the pain of the an empty one. Match the following words with their definitions. And yet. miracle plant varieties. fertilizers. trade policies that disadvantage farmers in the developing world. genetically engineered products. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) not getting adequate food present in great quantity make easier calculated a remedy for all ills or diseases discriminate against lack of an adequate quantity or number abundant undernourished to disadvantage to alleviate deficiency panacea projected iWl Reading I For most people the world food crisis far away. transgenic Warmup How do you understand these proverbs? Do you know their equivalents in your language? A full belly does not understand Hunger is sharper than the sword. 3. 7. direct.UNIT 7 FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT Biotechnology and the World Food Supply Key terms: food crisis. but few of us ever experience the devastating pain of real hunger or the crippling effects of severe malnutrition. Reasons for the world's food crisis There are many reasons for the current and projected food crisis. lack of inputs such as fertilizer. and low-yield farming practices. in a world with abundant food. 49 . 6. in pairs. 4. lack of infrastructure like roads to get products to market. > 1 Have you ever been hungry? What is the longest time you have not eaten anything at all? to write down as many words connected with hunger as you can think of > 2 You have one minute Compare your lists. Help tends to focus on single. biotech industry. 2. novel food. deficiency. More productive crops will do little to alleviate hunger if deficiencies in those areas are not addressed as well. We may feel a little hungry occasionally.
especially at the expense of traditional breeding. scientists envision this cornucopia: tomatoes and broccoli bursting with cancer-fighting chemicals and vitamin-enhanced crops of rice. they require large amounts of fertilizers. genetic engineering techniques are being applied to crops important to the industrialized world. In addition. Such farmers are interested in field crops like corn.3 billion by 2025 and almost 10 billion by 2050.A growing world population In 1996. particularly for the poor? Many. organizing cooperatives so that farmers can purchase equipment and fertilizer. among other things. these products are often inappropriate for the developing world because. we need more and better targeted agricultural research. They see wheat. Improvements in other parts of the agricultural system are also essential. In the brave new world of genetic engineering. bananas that deliver vaccines. is not essential. the world's population was 5. and reducing post-harvest losses of crops. While some genetically engineered crops will undoubtedly prove useful. and vegetable oils so loaded with therapeutic ingredients that doctors "prescribe" hem for patients at risk for cancer and heart disease. DellaPenna believes that genetically engineered foods are the key to the next wave of advances in agriculture and health. What can be done to increase the food supply.2 billion. Most genetic engineering in agriculture is being done by large transnational corporations that need to sell their products at premium prices to cover the cost of research. but other factors will be much more important than transgenic crops in determining whether we meet this challenge. A plant biochemist at Michigan State University.it must find ways to minimize the soil erosion. and economic conditions. and water. and groundwater pollution that can result from industrial agricultural practices. Genetic engineering is changing the food we eat and the world we live in.in rich countries who can afford to pay high prices for seed. It would be a tragedy if other necessary actions were not taken because of a mistaken belief that genetic engineering is some sort of a panacea for hunger. It will grow to 8. cotton and fruits like tomatoes. for example. if by this we mean crops engineered to contain new genes. according to the median population projection of the United Nations Population Division. pesticides. degradation of lakes and rivers. And that is what the agricultural biotechnology industry is providing. All of it depends on local climates. such as integrated pest management. much less these expensive genetically engineered products. crop improvement through traditional plant breeding. research can no longer concentrate exclusively on increased production . 50 . and new ways to manage crop-pest interactions. who cannot afford the products of traditional technology. For the most part. In sum. Most of it should be done in developing countries to enable people to feed themselves so that they do not become dependent on commodities from abroad. At bottom. Among the many research areas important for increasing production are the efficient use of irrigation water. It could playa minor and useful role in developing new agricultural products. soy. not crops on which the world's hungry depend. there is no reason at this time to invest huge sums in them. Unlike the past. and cassava to help nourish the poor. cultures. Some see biotechnology as the answer to the problem of enabling this much larger population to feed itself. soybeans. These products are of virtually no value to hungry farmers in Africa. These companies are developing products for farmers . . Much can' be done to promote the sustainable intensification of agricultural production. sweet potatoes. many things. Rice farmers in Southeast Asia. and peanuts free of allergens. are in a far different situation from farmers living at the edge of the Sahara desert. But biotechnology. more productive crops are only part of the solution to the world hunger problem and transgenic crops are not uniquely capable of increasing food production. These include building and maintaining roads so that farmers can get their crops to market.
5.: meet challenge to address hunger to alleviate deficiency to echo crisis to meet concern challenges tensions needs criteria r::ifr Language focus We can use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about some social groups. Do you know the blind person next door? (NOT .Finally. org/food_and_environmentlbiotechnology Did you know . 4. 51 . 3. I am collecting money for the blind.cfm ?pageID=319 http://www .. _archive/page. 2. Vocabulary Collocations: ~ Create as many collocations as possible by joining words from each column. holds that a 10 per cent decrease Americans would release enough grain to feed 60 million people. Jean Mayer. E.. You may use each word more than once. Growing corn to of limited arable land than growing corn for humans changes outside of agriculture like improving the shifting the diet of the rich away from excessive feed cows and chickens is a much less efficient use to eat directly. the famed nutritionist. the young the disabled the old the rich the poor the sick the handicapped the mentally ill the unemployed the blind These expressions are plural: the blind means "blind people". Go back to the text and answer the following questions: What are the reasons for the world's food crisis? Can more productive crops help to alleviate hunger? Why do large transnational biotech corporations sell their products at high prices? Why are their products often unsuitable for the developing world? Name at least five ways how deficiencies in the agricultural system but also outside of agriculture can be addressed. the blind next door) We can't use all adjectives in this way: we don't normally talk about the foreign or the greedy.. in meat consumption by Comprehension ~ 1. meeting the world food crisis will require incomes of the poor through microenterprises and dependence on grain-fed livestock.. g.ucsusa.. for example.
objects or complements. ). replied the farmer. Three minutes later the chicken passed him again as he was driving at 100 kph. My favourite activity is watching animals. (Voltaire) (Mother Jones) 1. Smoking is bad for you. 52 . "we haven't caught one yet". (Jean-Paul Sartre) we owe only truth. Lighter side: A man was driving at 80 kph one day when he was passed by a 3-legged chicken.1 Find examples of -ing forms in the last three paragraphs of the article.1 Find examples of the + adjective phrases in the text. it's 2.ing forms as subjects. The man followed it into a farmyard but couldn't find it anywhere. He accelerated and passed the chicken. We owe respect to the dead: to 3. it promised to save millions of people from blindness and disease. ). Smoking cigarettes is bad for you. (complement) An -ing form can have its own object. The man tried to catch the chicken but it ran down a side road. (object) My favourite activity is reading.). "What do they taste like?" asked the man. It can certainly help to improve nutrition and health in many developing countries. objects etc We can use .2 Complete the sentences with the expressions from the box. (subject) I hate packing. When the rich make war on each other. "I don't know". I the living (twice) the poor the dead who die. his wife and his son all liked chicken legs so he bred genetically modified 3-legged chickens. He saw the farmer and told him the story and the man asked for an explanation. I hate packing suitcases. ~ Writing be the answer to the problem of the world food crisis? Write a short Can or cannot biotechnology paragraph based on the text. The farmer said that he. Pray for and fight like hell for -ing forms as subjects. W Reading II 'Mirage' of GMs' golden promise Golden rice burst on a world ready and eager for a new beginning. Announced with a flourish in January 2000.
" And from the biotech industry itself." Every day 800 million people go to bed with empty stomachs. A scientist from the biotech company Syngenta. Improving on Nature So golden rice sounded like a real answer to a genuine problem. when scientists published the draft sequences of the rice genome. especially since the biotech company responsible. they need a diverse diet. Household consumption of vegetables in India has fallen by 12% in two decades. The World Health Organisation estimates about 250 million people globally are deficient in vitamin A. The world is out of joint. False dawn Dr Richard Horton. though not the comprehensive solution it seemed to be.co. The reality. Steve Smith. It is just that they do not work as well in the "natural" varieties as in the novel version.it's not about production and distribution.But. To use it. editor of the British medical journal The Lancet. said it would offer the seeds freely to farmers in poor countries. which now includes Zeneca. from easily prevented diseases or from hunger.but that won't ever be a silver bullet." Golden rice may prove part of the answer to vitamin A deficiency. tell them that it is not. perhaps including GM technology. can provide the weapons for that war . the genes for beta-carotene are already present in conventional rice. said: "Seeking a technological food fix for world hunger may be the most commercially malevolent wild goose chase of the new century. Golden rice looks like being a special case. because the biotech industry is unlikely to give poor farmers free access to all its inventions. For a start. That not only gives it its golden colour. immune problems and other serious conditions. though. said: "If anyone tells you that GM is going to feed the world. said: "All the genes are present in rice.000 under-fives die. including green leafy vegetables.uk/go/prlfr//llhi/sciltech/3 122923 . as the publicists' dust settled. But it would be an answer that came with a hefty price-tag: the persistent concerns about the safety of GM technology to human health and to wild species. partly because it established where the beta-carotene "pathway" sat in the rice code. One could make a non-GM vitamin-A rice simply by studying those genes in a more focused way. and it will stay that way until those of us who are well-fed care enough to wage a war on hunger as ferocious as that against terrorism. http://news. who worked for Syngenta Seeds before his death in June 2003. Beyond that though. But the sorts of vegetables people used to be able to find have declined in number as the green revolution of the 60s and 70s emphasised monocultures of new varieties.. appears a little more prosaic. all in the name of their own ideological obsession. it became clear that golden rice was never going to be a silver bullet. increasing their risk of blindness. Every day more than 30. People who campaign against GM crops are sometimes accused of wanting to deny the wretched of the Earth the chance to escape poverty and disease.stm 53 . The prospects for golden rice receded a little further in 2002. To feed the world takes political and financial will. Short cut That promised quicker results from conventional plant breeding. anyway.. But some impressive figures echo their concerns. poorly-fed people are unlikely to be able to absorb beta-carotene even when they eat golden rice.bbc. Science. It is a genetically modified (GM) strain of rice that has been engineered to produce beta-carotene. but enables people eating it to produce vitamin A. Zeneca.
a small animal or insect that destroys crops or food supplies. often genetically engineered panacea 11 . a useless investigation or enterprise g) to do with one big.Extend your vocabulary Idioms are a colourful and fascinating aspect of English.the key to the next wave of advances in agriculture and health.to make something less painful or difficult to deal with burst. 6.to put someone in a worse situation than others envision v . 2. cure-all pest n . Do you agree with this statement? 4. Who do you think the author was writing for? a) specialists b) general public c) students of science 2. Writers use them because they have often stronger meaning than non-idiomatic phrases.a hefty amount of something.f something you can see or hear recedes.to imagine something that you think might happen in the future. What message is the author trying to convey? 3.something that people think will make everything better and solve all their problems. or will.to have a lot of something or be filled with something deficiency n . What are advantages of GMOs? 6. Genetically engineered foods .to calculate what something will be in the future. Would you welcome more novel food in our supermarkets? ~ Glossary abundant adj .of a new kind. especially money. Go back to the article and try to match idioms and their definitions: 1. it gets further and further away until it disappears to have a lot of something or be filled with something undernourished adj . What is your opinion on genetically modified organisms? 5. 4.a lack of something that is necessary disadvantage v . vermin project v .unhealthy and weak because you have not had enough food or the right type of food 54 .something that solves a problem heftyadj .something that is abundant exists or is available in large quantities so that there is more than enough alleviate v . be bursting with something v . not be found. 7.not suitable or right for a particular purpose or in a particular situation novel adj . 3. a wild goose chase a false dawn silver bullet out of joint with a flourish when (as)the dust settles hefty price-tag a) a simple guaranteed solution for a difficult problem b) when an event of a disorderly or confusing nature is over c) crazed. using the information you have now recede v . insane d) an indication of success. is very large inappropriate adj . but it does not fix n . improvement that proves to be an illusion e) it costs a considerable amount f) a search for sth that can.a situation in which something good seems likely to happen. 5. noticeable movement " Communication 1. especially something that you think will be good false dawn n . Sometimes it is possible to guess the meaning of an idiom from the context.
The air pollutants ground-level ozone and fine particulates are linked through their shared precursors. When inhaled. From: EEA Signals 2004 55 . Some people are more vulnerable to high concentrations of ozone and fine particulates than others. Further action is needed to bring down pollution. Ozone levels were especially high during the summer heatwave of 2003. namely nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The worst effects are generally seen in children. Proposals under discussion include seeing long-term reduction targets for 2020 for both air quality concentrations and pollutant emissions. much of Europe's urban population remains exposed to concentrations of these pollutants exceeding the levels set to protect human health. There is now growing evidence of adverse health effects from concentrations of fine particulates and ozone at levels below the values currently set to protect health. Despite reductions in emissions. For particulates. asthmatics and the elderly. coughing and chest tightness? + Can you name some of the most serious urban pollutants? • m ReadingI Air pollution: Damaging health in cities High concentrations of ground-level ozone and fine particulates are causing human health problems in cities. as well as those exercising outdoors. Discussions are under way within the framework of the ED Clean Air for Europe process that may lead to present limits being reconsidered and eventually tightened. such as eye irritation. The emission cuts achieved so far have been mainly due to the introduction of catalysts on new cars and to the implementation of the ED solvents directive. Despite recent reductions in emissions of both ozone precursors and fine particulates (by 30 % and 36 % respectively from 1990 to 2001). Technology measures. Their effect is likely to be additive. at least in the short term. high levels occur over the whole year.UNIT 8 AIR POLLUTION Warmup Do you think it is healthy to live in Bratislava? + Have you ever had health problems due to air pollution. eastern and southern Europe. both ozone and particulates have adverse effects on human health. it is estimated that up to 45 % of Europe's urban population remains exposed to particulate concentrations exceeding limit values and up to 30 % to ozone concentrations above target levels for protecting human health. which has led to lower emissions from industrial processes. These health impacts are caused by high concentrations that occur mainly in the urban areas of central. demand management options and economic instruments are also being considered. These include aggravation of respiratory conditions such as asthma (from short-term exposure) and respiratory and cardiovascular illness as well as premature mortality (from long-term exposure). especially as limits and targets may be tightened in response to growing evidence of health impacts at concentrations below the current values. while ozone is mainly a problem during the summer months.
. cost. adopt.. pose. Ozone produced when sunlight reacts with pollutants emitted by vehicle exhausts is also a major cause of respiratory disease. industry and domestic heating. 4 by tiny particles known as particulate matter. restrict. Northern Italy. The figures show every European takes on average half a day off sick a year due to illnesses linked to air pollution The main threat to health . 5 3 2 if measures were put in place to cut pollution the economy more than 80bn euros (£55bn). 2.. 6 They by traffic (particularly diesel engines). What do ozone and fine particulates have in common? What effects do they have on human health? Where do the high concentrations occur? What time of the year are ozone levels especially high? What groups of people are mostly affected? How can you explain recent reductions in emissions? (iJ=Language Focus PASSIVE TENSE simple present present progressive simple past past progressive present perfect past perfect will future future perfect STRUCTURE am/are/is + past participle am-are-is being + pp was-were + pp was-were being + pp have-has been + pp had been + pp will be + pp will have been + pp EXAMPLE New tunnel will have been finished by 2007. penetrate '> 2 Air pollution causes early deaths Air pollution is responsible A study by the European for 310. active or passive avoid...Comprehension 1. 5..000 premature deaths in Europe each year. and even directly into the bloodstream. 6.. which can deep into the respiratory tissue. '> 1 Find the passive verbs in the text. research suggests... emit... 3. reduce. I Commission calculated that air pollution life expectancy by an average of almost nine months across the European Union.. What tenses are they? Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form.... The situation is the worst in Benelux area. 4... 56 ~ .. Experts say many of these deaths could levels. and new member states such as Poland and Hungary.
oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. Mixed with water. ).whether in clouds or in lungs . An extraordinarily dangerous air pollutants. Studia ze vyssl stupe!'} znecistenia ovzdusia maze vyrazne spomalit' ich rast. At high concentrations. " which are small enough to penetrate deep within the lung where only molecule-thick cell walls protect the body. hydrocarbons. reacts with water . Motorove vozidla v priemyselnych krajinach maju takmer polovicne mnozstvo emisif oxidov dusika. 4. oxides A colorless and odorless pollutant formed when carbon-rich fuels like coal or oil are burned. It is also found close to the ground.Translate into English 1. they form acids. Vyskum potvrdzuje. dye tretiny oxidu uhol'nateho a priblizne 57 ." 8 ). carbon oxide. dry cleaning fluids. These gases cause respiratory damage. 3. It blocks the radiation that streams toward earth from the suns thermonuclear explosions. particulate matter. in turn. They refer to the thousands of different pollutants found in unburnt gasoline.The European Commission is to try to reduce the threat to health by air pollution from May.3 Match the following pollutants with their characteristics: sulphur dioxide. whether in the air or lungs. carbon dioxide. sulfur dioxide forms an exceedingly fine particle called sulfate. especially in children.to form sulfuric acid. we can traffic in inner cities. Barbara Helfferich. partially because of the reaction between two common pollutants. that can penetrate to the deepest recesses of the lung. it can aggravate angina pectoris and cause other damage. odorless gas formed when carbon-rich fuels like coal and oil are burned incompletely. "We can reduce burning of fossil fuel. One of several "greenhouse" gases. 2. After hours or days of mixing in the air. An invisible gas with a sharp acrid odor that attacks the human respiratory system and can kill asthmatics. 7 a new strategy on told the BBC: "There are number of ways of doing this. of nitrogen ozone. which is frequently referred to as acid rain. we can use alternative energy sources. The most dangerous form of these solids are the exceedingly small ''fine particles. Sulfate. Najhorsie iicinky prejavujii u astmatikov a u starsich. it kills thousands each year. industrial solvents and many other combinations of hydrogen with carbon. while at the lower levels found in cities. Motor vehicles account for roughly 80 percent. A colorless. an environment spokesperson for the Commission. ze znecistene ovzdusie maze mat' dlhodobe iicinky na zdravie deti. sa obycajne na svedomi dokazal.
as compared with children from a relatively clean area as well as when compared with the Bratislava population. The results draw attention to the importance of care of the living environment and of attempts to eliminate noxious substances from the atmosphere which is reflected in a better health status and development of the child organism. taking into consideration the costs and advantages. What does the abbreviation BAT stand for and when was it introduced for the first time? 2.polovicu uhl'ovodikov. achieved the same growth level at the age of 10 years. What do BATs judge? 58 . c) "the best" technique means the most effective one in achieving a high protection level of the environment as a whole. m ReadingII WHAT IS BAT AND HOW CAN IT CONTROL POLLUTION? The best available technique means the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for limit values designed to prevent and. ? Traffic congestion is not a new problem . It was revealed that in boys and girls from the exposed area growth was retarded. b) "available" techniques means those techniques developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector. 961611EC.the IPpe Directive. where that is not practicable. built. whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Party in question. under economically and technically viable conditions.. The term BAT was introduced for the first time in integrated pollution prevention and control a permitting system for industrial plants based on an EU directive of the same name . Did you know .in the centre of Ancient Rome it was so bad that Julius Caesar had to ban all wheeled vehicles during daylight hours. operated and decommissioned. as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator. 5. It was adopted in September 1996. After improvement of the living environment in the exposed area children who grew up in an environment. generally to reduce the impact on the environment as a whole. whereas the terms: a) "technique" means both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed. The IPPC Directive is about minimizing pollution from various point sources throughout the European Union. V Eur6pe kazdy rok zomrie predcasne 310 000 l'udf v dosledku znecisteneho ovzdusia. > Answer shortly the following questions. where the two areas did not differ as to contamination of the atmosphere. In a group of 8-12-year-old children from two areas of Bratislava with a different degree of air pollution the authors investigated repeatedly the growth of the children. 1. BATs are reference points against which to judge the current performance of an existing installation or to judge a proposal for a new installation. and should be fully implemented for all existing plants by 2007.. maintained.
Agents the government drivers citizens Actions reduce coordinate separate pair limit encourage foster promote curb reduce decrease lower introduce allow retire charge traffic congestion traffic lights bus lanes one-way streets the number of cars special programs using bicycles pollution by starting the regular workday earlier and by finishing it earlier congestions city council police four-days weeks employees to work at home old vehicles from the road motorists for driving on roads during rush hours by placing tolls Specific solutions 1. The police can chan2:e motorists for driving on roadways during peak hours. 7. You can use the following list to help you think of possible people or organizations (agents) that might be able to take some action regarding the situation. 3. In addition. 4.. 2. lO. 8. Communication It is the use of motor vehicles which accounts for more air pollution than any other single activity. 9. Since the information provided is not complete. we need to reduce traffic growth. 59 . But how? Work with members of your group to brainstorm as many ideas as possible.. If we want to reduce air pollution. 5. 6. the information under "actions" includes useful verbs and other vocabulary to guide you in developing a number of possible ideas. you will have to add more details to develop these ideas into specific points.
You can also add your own ideas and solutions. Comparing two solutions This solution is better than that one. practical useful economical effective This solution is the most of all. This solution is worse than that one. good practical effective useful economical One idea is as as the other. practical effective economical useful beneficial This solution is more than that one... Stating priorities important critical essential item aspect issue point factor The most (to consider) is . Asking about effectiveness Will this solution really solve the problem? 60 . Here are some expressions to help you. Comparing three or more solutions This solution is the best/the worst one of all. USING ENGLISH FOR COMPARING Expressing similarities They are both about the same. Compare them and set priorities.
Dear Mr Smith. Bratislava 28 February 2005 Dear Sir I call on you as the Mayor of Bratislava . e. g. and to receive such In my opinion. e. Dear Sir or Madam (or Dear Sir / Madam) is used to address a person when you do not know their name or sex..) Yours sincerely.. or an injury worse catalyst. the salutation takes the form of Dear followed by a courtesy title and the person's surname. it should be Yours sincerely.e. xxx Writing formal letters: Salutation Dear Sir opens a letter written to a man whose name you do not know. Dear Mr James..... if relevant.to make a bad situation. Not Dear}.a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out condition n . an illness. effective measures which could improve . special programs (using bicycles . the city should encourage (promote.. If the letter begins with a personal name. the complimentary close should be Yours faithfully. getlemen:). i. Dear Mr Smith..~ Writing to the bad traffic situation tn Write a letter to the city mayor suggesting some improvements Bratislava. whether single or married.at the present time 61 .if John Smith. e. both of you should sign it. foster) .a situation in which it is difficult or impossible to move because there are so many cars or people curb v . Complimentary close If the letter begins Dear Sir. catalytic converter n .. whose name you do not know.. Smith or Deaf }. Dear Mr Smith:. with the request to strive to. Dear Sirs . ~ Glossary aggravation. A comma after the salutation is optional.if J. g. Dear Madam is used to address a woman.. Signature Always type your name and. Write the letter in pairs. Dear Sirs is used to address a company. below your handwritten signature. your job title. (In American English a colon is usually used after the salutation.. When you know the name of the person you are writing to.an illness or health problem that affects you permanently or for a very long time congestion n .. aggravate v .to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect currently adv . g.
or system more strict toll n .[usually plural]. a reduction in the size or amount of something.the number of deaths during a particular period of time among a particular type or group of people noxious ad} . or a time.cut n .to make a rule. especially produced by car engines People suffering from this condition should not smoke. promote) life expectancy n . make something more likely to exist.a volatile liquid or substance changes easily into a gas 62 . particulate matter n .harmful dust in the air.the length of time that a person or animal is expected to live mortality n .happening before the natural or proper time sick. that is spent by a government or company decrease v . idea etc develop over a period of time (synonym encourage.to help a skill.[usually plural] a gas or other substance that is sent into the air encourage v . an amount.the money you have to pay to use a particular road. premature ad} .time that you are allowed to spend away from work because you are sick target n . goal tighten v . happen.[uncountable]facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true exposure n . feeling.to become less or go down to a lower level. reduce emission n . sick leave n .harmful or poisonous particulates.when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant ' foster v .to persuade someone to do something. or to make something do this.something that you are trying to achieve. bridge etc volatile ad} . or develop evidence n . aim. such as a total. law.
it can break down or rot) W Reading Getting rid of garbage has always been a problem. 9 kg) 2. No one wants to actually live near a landfill. need to come up with a new solution for disposing our municipal solid wastes. complicating and lengthening the problem. 4 kg) 3.S. The demand for more landfills is a problematic situation.45) 4. How much rubbish do you think the average person in Los Angeles throws away every day? (5. What part of the rubbish do most countries turn into energy? (5 .UNIT 9 THROW-AWAY SOCIETY Warmup • • • Work in groups and think of the main problems Slovak society has to face today. especially with the U. Therefore we. over the last fifty years new synthetic materials have been introduced into the waste stream. How many kilos of paper does a European family with two children throwaway in one year? (20. existing landfills are closing down due to new laws and regulations. But while our waste is increasing. 40. people disposed of municipal solid wastes by gathering it up and discarding it by dumping or burying it in an isolated place. Waste volumes are continually growing. So what is the solution? 63 . Our wastes are becoming environmentally dangerous. Prepare a list. And the problem continues. Are environmental problems important for young people? Which problems are most pressing for you? QUIZ 1. What fraction of domestic rubbish is packaging? (10 %. By the year 2000. However.10 %. We need to start coming up with some answers before it is too late. and more troublesome to discard. 60) Of plastic? (20. Also back then. it has become a world wide dilemma. Most of our municipal solids. organic compounds that easily decomposed. costly to clean up. That is over four pounds of waste per person per day. 30 %) 6. 28 %. This worked because most of the wastes consisted of biodegradable. The NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) Syndrome brings political opposition to the building of more landfills. 50. used again. 100) How many kilos of metal? (20. 7. population growing. How much rubbish does the average person in the Third World throwaway every day? (1. Recently. 30. For hundreds of years. In addition to less land. What does BIODEGRADABLE mean? (biodegradable material can be burned.45 %) 5. the United States generates about 209 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) each year. landfill space is decreasing. 3. about eighty percent. They are multiplying faster than our population growth. the people. ends up in our landfills. EPA predicts that the MSW will increase to about 216 million tons. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). the volume of trash was much lower than today.
dispose of .junk getting rid of ..separate ..incorporate . Products: Watches aren't expensive. 2. game or find new stands of plants.. 6.trash ..vast amount . Abstract: Life is short ~ I Supply alan or zero article (-).demolish ~ 2 Comprehension questions 1.•.myriad . 4. G.•. for: • • • Places: Museums are closed on Mondays. 6 .retain . find the expression that does not fit: waste ..... Plants: Trees don't grow in the Antarctic... sedentary animal . No article at all is used: 1 In front of plural countable • • • nouns used in general statements..stacks ..wilderness .....bring about ..encompass .produce .involve generate . Languages: English is a world language.•... e. the use of articles may be very confusing..... Oh. they sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity areas..include .. rather than move himself..... Animals: Cats don't like cold weather... L..crowd .Vocabulary ~ I In each group...abundance consist of . because 3 . e. Food: I like butter. Food: Beans are good for you... but that was about all.create ..dump host .. Alexander: Longman Advanced Grammar 64 .rubbish ..• man faced his first garbage crisis when he became 7 .throw out .when. 2 In front of uncountable • • • nouns (always singular) used in general statements. 7.. Colours: Red is my favourite colour. Activities: Swimming is good for you. People: Women need better pay. What did people do with waste in the past? Why did it work? What is the problem with our wastes today? How much waste is generated per person per day in the USA? Why are landfills closing down? What is the NIMBY syndrome? Where does our municipal solid waste go? CiT Language focus For students of English. For most of the past two and 1 half million years 2 human beings left their garbage where it fell..• hunters and 4 gatherers frequently abandoned their campgrounds to follow 5. 5.. 3. for: • • • Substances: Oil is produced in Alaska...garbage .multitude .discard . he chose to move his garbage. g... g... This disposal scheme functioned adequately...
why don't you call a builder? 1. 1.... Each city should 6. L. clean up.. Our wastes are costly to 4.. where a number of waste management methods are used altogether.. and treatment..5 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of come up... rather than to move himself. Even though the threats to methods and write a short summary. Most of our municipal solid waste it .. Alexander: Longman Advanced Grammar ). 3. in our landfills... 4. From prehistory through the present day dumping has been the 1 (means) of disposal favoured everywhere.. gather up. he chose to move his garbage. the dominant form of solid and hazardous waste management world-wide remains land disposal. G. instead of moving to another one... the 8 (door) . People disposed of municipal solid wastes by 2. composting. Waste Management Methods The solution lies in an integrated approach. Waste management methods include: waste reduction. 2. They sometimes . and 9 (roof) had to be adjusted upward. We need to . Extend your house. after several 7 (layer) had been applied.. " Communication 1 How can we beat the throw-away society? In groups of 4 or 5 suggest a solution. 2 In groups of 4 or 5 read one of the texts on waste management Then report to the other groups. and land disposal.. set up. Blegen. Land disposal In spite of all the attention to waste reduction. ). end up. I prefer to buy vegetables instead of growing them. found that \floor) had become so littered that periodically a fresh supply of "(dirt) or 5 (clay) had been brought in to cover up the 6 (refuse). who dug into Bronze Age Troy in the 1950s. Man faced his first garbage crisis when he became a sedentary animal ..2 Supply the plural forms of the nouns in brackets only where necessary.. 3. Example: Rather than waste/wasting time doing it yourself. tidy up.4 Change the sentences using the expression rather than.3 Can you correct this sentence? Give your reason( s J. including in the 2 (city) The archaeologist C.. I tried to repair it instead of throwing it away.. Phone them instead of waiting for them to phone.when.. Of course. ). with a new solution for disposing our municipal solid wastes. recycling. their sleeping and activity areas. 5.). recycling. a program that is most useful to them. W. 65 . Rather than move/moving ..
organic wastes into compost.for example. including turning mixed plastics into park benches. Recycling Recycling can take several forms: • Reusing materials that otherwise would be discarded after their original application . is now one of the area's most popular parks. International groups such as the United Nations Environment Program and foreign assistance programs such as those administered by the U. source reduction. the presence of low-cost. without being placed in a carton that really is unnecessary. The message is that economic growth does not have to result in massive. most of the time.consumer products with less packaging. In industrialised countries. 650. green technology . most large companies in developed countries have undertaken formal waste reduction or pollution prevention programs.S. After more than a decade of effort. Notable examples of high-value recycling include is made entirely of recycled material. and often smaller sizes. consumers paper that has a very high recycled-paper content or aluminium made entirely from scrap materials. governed by strict rules and regulation. reusing glass beverage bottles. Many health care products are now simply wrapped. can be turned into a beautiful thing. available land generally leads to the wide use of land disposal. cleaner production. surface water. Also. Mount Trashmore Park in Virginia Beach. waste prevention.OOO-ton garbage heap. universal principle is being applied: It is safer environmentally not to produce waste than to handle. the problems of land disposal have been addressed largely by imposing stringent regulations designed to make the practice safer rather than outlawing it altogether. they became immediate waste. transport. for example. Such actions reduce solid waste generation without sacrificing product quality and cost. clean technology. Coffee makers and detergent companies have stopped placing plastic measuring spoons in their products because. Agency for International Development are providing increased waste reduction assistance to developing countries. The trees and recycling facilities using post-consumer greater use of recycled material. These regulations have also raised the cost of land disposal enormously.groundwater. and soil are well known.one fundamental. and competition between large paper mills using virgin discarded material has sometimes slowed the shift to who profess to want green products often are faced 66 . government programs emphasise pollution prevention by. no toxic chemicals. Waste reduction Although many different phrases are used . Also. unmanageable amounts of waste. and glass waste into construction or road material. • Recycling a material for a different application through some type of processing or manufacture. a 68-foot-high. and manage it after it is generated. Using recycled materials and recyclable or compostable materials has become a main feature of green products . in some countries. steel and automobile oil made from reprocessed oils. There are some communities that have already overcome their reluctance of landfills. pollution prevention.waste minimisation. providing free technical assistance for smaller companies. Landfills.
methods is limited by their high cost and by environmental concerns a management. chemical. prohibit profess v .wild animals. refuse. cause to correspond beverage n . A generic problem with waste treatment is its high cost relative to land disposal options.to change so as to match or fit. The main thermal method is incineration. especially when it is not really true reluctance n . birds. give rise to. one on top of the other. in which waste is burned to into gases. are etc something.relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing hazardous adj . has a reduced volume. as from a kitchen. or fish hunted for food or sport garbage n . Another problem is the pollution caused by treatment methods.to bring into being.unwillingness 67 .a liquid or powder used for washing clothes.to burn something completely in order to destroy it landfill n .to get rid of. biological.with choices regarding both price and some aspect of product appearance or quality when considering recycled materials. rubbish outlaw v .dangerous. or some combination of these. which has contributed to higher costs because of government regulations that require the use of complex equipment to render the treatment facilities environmentally acceptable. Waste Joel S.to declare illegal.group of things placed or thrown. especially to people's health or safety heap n . the use of thermal bout air pollution and residue facilities. trash generate v .to say that you do. physical. which can cause passionate public opposition to siting new convert combustible materials Generally.a method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between layers of matter. to produce generic adj . Waste treatment technologies generally fit into the following broad categories: thermal. get rid of dump v . incinerate v . leaving a solid residue of ceramic and metallic materials.throwaway. Hirschhorn: Managing Solid and Hazardous The hierarchy of waste management methods is jumbled. discard game n . dishes etc discard v . and perhaps produces a residue with some economic value.food wastes.to throwaway. to place under a ban. get rid of dispose of v . Waste treatment The treatment component of the waste hierarchy aims to convert waste into something that is environmentally harmless.formal a hot or cold drink detergent n . What do you think is the right order? • Land disposal • Recycling (including composting) • Waste prevention or reduction • Waste treatment (incineration) ~ Glossary adjust v .
tree etc that is still in its natural state and has not been used or changed by people 68 .spending a lot of time sitting down. refuse or rubbish virgin tree n .to place emphasis on stringent adj .render v .a change in the way people think about something. distillation. Matter remaining after completion of an abstractive chemical or physical process.worthless or discarded material or objects.to cause someone or something to be in a particular condition residue n . combustion.strict. in the way something is done etc. such as evaporation. and not moving or exercising very much shift n . severe trash n .to situate or locate stress v . residuum sedentary adj .1. or filtration. shift from/to site v . The remainder of something after removal of parts or a part. 2.
A F 69 . and environmental benefits of renewable energy. social.UNIT 10 SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Around the world. While in Slovakia renewable energy sources are not currently used to a great extent there is great potential to develop this type of energy. a growing number of nations have recognized the economic. and are implementing tax incentives and other policy measures favorable to renewable technologies.
Compare your explanations with a partner.Test your energy vocabulary Go through the following list of terms and explain as many as you can. you can prepare it in the form of a grid. can you identify the sources of power represented? • Which of them are used in Slovakia in order to generate electricity? • Can you explain how do you understand the term renewable? ).? In Slovakia. B. A grid to compare energy sources Source of renewable energy how they work Advantages disad vantages costs future Do you agree . D) will read about one of renewable energy sources in more detail... which could moreover have negative environmental impacts.Form 4 groups. Each group (A. wind farm to trap the light readily available to tap energy subsidy solar roof tile fossil-fuel plant drilling well geothermal heat pump biomass feedstock initial costs ).Warmup From the pictures on the previous page. Make a short summary. C. ). renewable energy technologies are often seen as a "luxury".Which of the renewable energy sources would be most appropriate to Slovakia and why? Discuss your ideas with other students. If you wish. What is your opinion? 70 .
The blades face into the wind. initial costs have fallen. this will be reduced. 71 . They enable electricity to be produced in an environmentally friendly way .there is no damage caused by these turbines because there are no chemical or radioactive emissions from them.because they generally have to be positioned on hills to get the maximum benefits of the wind. which is connected to a generator which produces the electricity.however. The advantages of wind power The case for wind farms is quite clear. however over the years. The future The UK subsidy to renewable energies will amount to £1 billion by 2010.such as sheep grazing. The other side There are concerns from some people who are worried about wind farms being positioned in their area. The noise generated from wind turbines has been criticised by some people who live very close to the wind farms . which then spins a shaft inside the turbine. there is no damage to the environment and no residues are left behind. There are arguments that the money would be better put into energy conservation. When they were first introduced they were very expensive. The ground which they are positioned on can still be used for agricultural purposes . although as prices for wind-powered electricity fall. The main worries are that they ruin the landscape . How they work Wind turbines generally have 3 blades and they rotate at 10-30 revolutions per minute. If the turbines need to be taken down one day. wind power could provide 60% of the UK's electricity. the wind forces them to go round. The most optimistic estimates suggest that by 2050.m Reading Wind Power Wind farms The most common way of getting energy from the wind is through setting up 'Wind farms'. guidelines now exist about wind farms they can be built in relation to residential property and turbine technology has advanced significantly. and therefore the cost of getting electricity from the wind has dropped considerably.
Local councils started fitting council houses with facilities to use solar power. Photovoltaic cells (PY's) are also being used as roof tiles. They cover the roof of a house and take advantage of the light coming from the Sun. Houses with solar roof tiles can in fact generate more electricity than is needed at certain times in the day. Painting the thin pipes black and putting them in a 'greenhouse' type insulator can heat our water supply and therefore reduce the cost of using electricity to heat it.this has been used for sometime to power certain calculators. By 2005 the government aims to have 6.000 roofs in the UK fitted with solar panels. The advantages As well as the fact that energy from the Sun is readily available. and more recently. billions have been spent on developing PV over a number of years. but has fallen in and out of favour since depending on the potential savings when compared with fossil-fuel energy costs. Grants are now available to help homeowners make the switch to renewable energy. • Another way to take advantage of the energy from the Sun. The costs As with most renewable energy systems. Examples abroad The UK is behind many other countries in Europe and the rest of the W orId when it comes to using solar power technologies. 72 . In Japan and the USA. Large glass windows help with this. the costs are falling which will make it more widespread. This is trapped by the cell and turned into electricity. and although there are some high costs involved. ill the summer.work together to develop solar energy.Solar Power How it works There are several different systems which take advantage of the power generated from the Sun. for example.000. architects and power companies .000 and Japan nearly 400. However. to be used. especially during the winter when the Sun is very low. is to design buildings so they can collect the heat. • The photo voltaic effect is when photo cells convert sunlight directly into electricity . By locating photovoltaic cells on top of houses. • A reasonably simple method of using the benefits of the Sun is to heat our water pipes. In addition they are very easy to install. and can sell this back to local electricity companies. In' the Netherlands. they replace the need for other materials. Germany has started to push lots of money into the development of it for projects there. The past The use of solar power became very popular in the 1970s. The future Within 10 years photo voltaic cells are likely to be competitive with conventional power sources.such as the government. By that time Germany expects to have 140. such as tiles. balconies and trees protect the building from getting too much heat. the savings on electricity bills in the long-term should make up for this and year on year. no extra land space is needed and they can also be situated in urban areas. different organisations . initially quite expensive. The technology now needed is 90 % cheaper than it was in the 1970s. there are initial costs which make setting up these projects. local authorities. there are many other benefits. They do this by designing the building sensibly and facing it in a way where it can use the Sun to the maximum benefit. where there is plenty of available space.
16C throughout the year. There are three main ways of tapping geothermal energy: • • Direct use Geothermal heat found near the surface of the Earth can be used directly for heating buildings. using hot springs initially for cooking and building reservoirs around springs to create bathing complexes such as those built at Bath by the Romans. Geothermal power plants emit only excess steam and very few trace gases (1000 . the pump transfers heat from the buildings back into the ground.2000 times less carbon dioxide than fossil fuel power plants). as fossil-fuelled power plants produce electricity 65 75 % of the time compared to 90 % from geothermal power plants. the liquid absorbs heat from the ground. This is about as hot as the surface of the sun. no fossil fuel burning is required. There are three types of power plant that can convert geothermal energy to electricity. geothermal heat pumps can be used nearly anywhere. The advantages By using geothermal energy. which then drives a generator to produce electricity. In the summer. that even the upper 3 metres of the Earth's surface stay at a nearly constant 10 .Geothermal Energy How it works Geothermal simply means 'Earth's heat'. While geothermal resources are not spread uniformly.500C at the core just over six and a half thousand kilometres below the crust. when the ground is cooler. current estimates are 5. The costs When a heat pump is used to provide domestic heating. USA and piped hot water from springs to town buildings. This can also be used to heat domestic water. The world's first District Heating system was built in 1892 in Idaho. The first geothermal power plant was built in Ladarello in Italy in 1904. Geothermal heat pumps • Electricity production The past Humans have used geothermal energy for thousands of years. The relatively constant temperature of the top 15 metres of the Earth's surface (or ground water) can be used to heat or cool buildings indirectly. or to venture even deeper and try to utilise the hottest source of all.5 miles under the surface. 73 . Where geothermal energy is used in agriculture (such as to heat greenhouses) heating costs can be cut by up to 80 %. The centre of the Earth is extremely hot. The cost of electricity from geothermal power plants is slowly becoming competitive with that from traditional power plants. It is not surprising therefore. The electricity produced is also more 'available'. depending on the temperature of the geothermal fluid used. they take up very little land compared to traditional fossil-fuel plants and advanced drilling techniques minimise the impact of drilling wells. All three use a turbine that is driven by steam.the molten and semi-molten magma that makes up the Earth's core. is to drill deeper and circulate water through the hot dry rock found 3 . the savings on electricity can outweigh the cost of installing and running the system. which is then concentrated and transferred to the buildings. The future The next step in using heat trapped inside the earth. In the winter when the ground is warmer than the buildings above. The pump uses a series of pipes to circulate fluid through the warm ground.
. airplanes. they also help farmers and ranchers meet environmental regulations. and a generator then converts it into electricity. The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. These energy crops.the energy from organic matter .nrel. The use of biomass feedstocks can also help increase profits for the agricultural industry. Even the fumes from landfills can be used as a biomass energy source. Ethanol is an alcohol. or biomass power. It can be used as an additive to reduce vehicle emissions (typically 20 %) or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. In some industries. is the use of biomass to generate electricity. Most of the biopower plants in the world use direct-fired systems. the steam from the power plant is also used for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. For example. But flexible-fuel vehicles. They burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels. source: http://www.biofuelsfor our transportation needs (cars. wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. Several biopower technologies can be used in small. which run on mixtures of gasoline and up to 85 % ethanol. and trains). Switchgrass crops can be harvested to make biofuels Biopower Biopower. Ethanol is mostly used as a fuel additive to cut down a vehicle's carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions. or celluloses) through a process similar to brewing beer. ever since people started burning wood to cook food or to keep warm.for thousands of years. are now available. or recycled cooking greases. are called biomass feedstocks. A small. and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes.gov/ 74 . animal fat. carbon dioxide is actually removed from the atmosphere. trucks. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil. the same found in beer and wine. This system is designed for use at the small town level or even at the consumer level. For instance. biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels . Biofuels Unlike other renewable energy sources. wood is still our largest biomass energy resource. such as fast-growing trees and grasses. sugars. These are known as combined heat and power facilities. The net emission of carbon dioxide will be zero as long as plants continue to be replenished for biomass energy purposes. buses. It is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates (starches. including plants. modular systems. residues from agriculture or forestry. but every time a new plant grows. But many other sources of biomass can now be used. This steam is usually captured by a turbine. And today. modular system generates electricity at a capacity of 5 megawatts or less. Not only do these systems provide renewable energy.Biomass energy We have used biomass energy or bioenergy . some farmers use the waste from their livestock to provide their farms with electricity.
China.456 2. the summit was attended by some 3600 energy. Accompanied by a large number of forums. This reduction will help curb the process of climate change. the summit elaborated a long series of 'policy recommendations'. The thrust of its eleven paragraphs: the world shares 'the vision that renewable sources will become a most important and widely available source of energy'. This access will rid the poor of many of their afflictions. development and environmental officials. in TJ.720 3. Type Technical 22. the summit formulated an 'international action program' comprised of about 200 self-commitments.178 18. results: issuing from the conference was a 'political declaration'. Its size notwithstanding. experts. has committed itself to increasing.680 2. Bs. If fully lived up to..695 2. May 2004 THE RENEW ABLES 2004 Held in Bonn from June I .683 source: Renewable Energy Policy review. for instance. businesses and social bodies. Has your opinion on the most appropriate energy source changed? Read the information below and check your conclusions. More than thirty international organizations also took part. Cs and Ds get together and share your information. businesspersons and other decision-makers.2 billion tons by 2015. To help the countries and organizations live up to their commitments. the Slovak Republic could more than double the present use of these resources. international organizations. the attendees included 121 heads of state and ministers. These funds will facilitate a $500 million annual flow of investment in such projects. 2004.722 40. In Slovakia there is great potential to develop renewable energy sources.770 o 1. + • Communication Now all As. and will give them new livelihoods. renewables2004 was 'climate neutral'. The commitments will also give one billion of the world's poor something new and highly essential: the switch to turn on environmentally-compatible energy..178 18. over the next five and a half years and at a cost of Euro 50 billion in public and private funds. The carbon dioxide expended in getting 75 . these commitments are of an impressive sweep. By exploiting the current potential that is economically viable. 'environment weeks' and other events. To provide another example. the share of its installed power generation capacity stemming from renewable sources to 10 %. Slovakia. renewables' commitments will reduce the world's annual output of carbon dioxide by 1.995 27.4.453 potential Current exploitation A vail able potential 21. Here is a table showing technically available potential of renewable energy sources. renewables2004 was successful in another way. Made by national govemments. the Washington-based Global Environment Facility (GEF) has pledged to supply a further $100 million a year in seed money to renewable energy projects carried out in developing countries.224 solar ener Small hydropower Iants Biomass 25 727 12. the cause of the ever-greater number of weather-produced catastrophes afflicting the planet. To attain this goal. Results. From 154 countries.
a complete change from one thing to another switchgrass 11 .a sign.someone who is at an event such as a meeting or a course expend v . or a new part onto a machine. heat.the many different and important ideas. or sound to pass through it issue from v .to affect someone or something in an unpleasant way.a material or object which does not allow electricity.to put a piece of equipment into a place. they do as well as they were expected to. place etc is no longer affected by something bad or no longer has it. remark. it comes out of it live up to v .money that is paid by a government or organization to make prices lower. events.a place where water comes up naturally from the ground subsidy 11 .to use or take what is needed from something such as an energy supply or an amount of money the broad sweep of history thrust n .the way you earn money in order to live molten ad} .production rid v .a thin curved piece of baked clay used for covering roofs seed money (capital) n .something that causes pain or suffering.the delegates and joumalists (700 all told!) to. so that it is ready to be used fossil-fuel 11 . The world shares 'the vision that renewable sources will become a most important and widely available source of energy' ~ Glossary afflict v . do what they promised etc livelihood n .if something or someone lives up to a particular standard or promise.the main meaning or aim of what someone is saying or doing trap v . around and from the summit is being compensated for by a solar energy project in India.surovina fit v . and make them suffer affliction n .if something issues from a place or thing.a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years indication 12 . reduce the cost of producing goods etctrade/agricultural subsidies etc sweep /l .to use or spend a lot of energy etc in order to do something feedstock raw material for processing or manufacturing industry. or what is true insulator n .to take action so that a person. event etc that shows what is happening. what someone is thinking or feeling. or qualities of something switch (to) n .a thin long piece of metal in an engine or machine that turns and passes on power or movement to another part of the machine spring n .Panicum virga tum tap v .the money you have available to start a new business shaft n . especially a medical condition attain v -to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time attendee 11 .to prevent something such as gas or water from getting away venture v .to go somewhere that could be dangerous 76 . see also overcome roof tile .molten metal or rock has been made into a liquid by being heated to a very high temperature notwithstanding adv -formal in spite of something output n .
UNIT 11 NUCLEAR ENERGY Mochovce Nuclear Plant . is located in a rural yet relatively populated area of Slovakia. (2) the site emergency plan was consistent with international principles. The safety report concludes that: Mochovce can be completed according to western and International Atomic Energy Association safety standards without major difficulty. The intention to complete Mochovce. and after making a major investment plan for the renewal of power stations. located 100km east of Bratislava and approximately 150 km from Vienna. Mochovce was deemed a well-planned and quality controlled approach to radiological protection. After much speculation. Slovak energy experts worried that Slovak electricity prices would escalate. the privatization process was wrapped up. to Italy's largest electric utility company. A Vienna district court ruled that the Mochovce nuclear power plant presents a threat to the health and lives of Austrians. about 160 kilometres west of the plant. a situation that has already happened in many countries that are not selfsufficient. The Vienna court judgement upheld a 1989 lawsuit brought against Mochovce by Eva Glawischnig. however. The sale gives Enel a 66-percent stake in Slovenske elektrarne. (3) Mochovce is largely insulated from seismic activity. raises more serious issues. The cabinet sealed the sale of Slovakia's dominant power utility. The issue of energy self-sufficiency is becoming urgent for Slovakia. Italy is one such country where prices are high compared to energy-producing nations. who accused the plant of having inadequate safety technology and being a threat to her and others living in Vienna.A Case Study Warmup Discuss with your neighbour: Would you like to live close to a nuclear power plant? The completion of the nuclear reactor at Mochovce in Slovakia has caused a lot of controversy. The Al block broke in 1977 and has not functioned since. The environmental impact assessment states that (1) concerning radiological protection. Austria's Green party spokesperson and MP. such as a recent decision made in an Austrian court. Enel. consistent with international standards. the future of the Mochovce power plant in Bratislava is clear: Enel intends to complete the nuclear facility. Without an operable Mochovce power plant. After two-and-a-half years of seeking a strategic investor able to secure sufficient production capacities. and the second VI block in 2008. the country is obliged to close down one of the two blocks of the Jaslovske Bohunice VI plant in 2006. Slovenske elektrarne. This includes the evacuation of former Mochovce village residents and relocation (with compensation). FOR: Rounding out the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)' s analysis is a safety report and environmental impact assessment. As part of its EU accession agreements. (4) certain environmental impacts associated with construction have already been realized. 77 . and (5) routine radioactive emissions are within internationally accepted limits. The plant. The V2 plant will continue operating.
to put forward new proposals. such as an explosion or meltdown. You are now being asked to take an active part in the TV discussion about nuclear energy. Netherlands. 4.AGAINST: Since 1993. risks exist. to eventually reach a general concensus. and longterm environmental effects are spread over a vast area. and animal impacts that could result from a serious nuclear incident. Several potential environmental risks exist surrounding the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The Chairman of Slovakia's Nuclear Regulatory Authority CUlD) The Slovak Economy Minister The leader of Slovak opposition Slovak Environment Minister Representative of Austrian Government (Deputy Ambassador of Austria) Austria's Green party spokesperson Representative of Geothermal Energy Board Co-ordinator Co-ordinator As co-ordinator you will be responsible for bringing the parties together. Thousands of tons of polymers and cement were dropped on the Chernobyl site to contain the escape of radioactive materials. This sarcophagus at Chernobyl has already begun to decay and has been unsuccessful in containing radioactive leakage. The immense ecological damage caused by the initial incident would only be part of the problem. g. 78 . negative health effects: In case of the similar nuclear plant in the Gulf of Finland a threefold increase in birth defects and a tenfold increase in cancer mortalities. as the Chernobyl case shows the problems of attempting containment and cleanup of the actual reactor area. Norway and Portugal). The Chernobyl incident provides the best example of human. 7. non-governmental environmental organizations and citizens' groups in over 30 countries. What is your opinion about completing the Mochovce nuclear plant? When you have chosen your role. List of roles 1. Even if the plant functions without major incidents. your task will be to prepare your case as thoroughly as possible. as many as 125. Don't forget to inform each member of the time limit you are imposing (5 minutes). Livestock loss has been costly throughout Europe. and have compounded conventional pollution problems.000 people have now died from Chernobyl-related illnesses. The full impact has still not been fully assessed. there has been considerable backlash against the completion of Mochovce from EBRD member governments (led primarily by the Austrian Government and including Denmark. Supporters: The Chairman of Slovakia's • Nuclear Regulatory Authority: You stress the government's commitment to minimum safety standards and point to Slovakia's membership in numerous multilateral conventions on nuclear safety. According to some figures. 5. Luxembourg. A major incident. you may look back over any relevant material to support your point of view and help you argue against other cases. 8. concern multiple habitats. In order to do this. e. and hopefully. 3. its potential safety risks and its sustainability. 6. could resemble Chernobyl in its magnitude. 2.
or of the possible impact of the plant on uses of local waterways which may be impacted by the presence of the plant. that such reactor deals mean increases in profits by the flagging (weak) nuclear power industry of western Europe and the United States. The only response to the Austrian offer was a promise by Slovak Environment Minister that his ministry would do everything in its power to assure that no more nuclear power stations would be built in Slovakia following the completion of Mochovce. 2. Opposition Slovak Environment Minister: You are the newly appointed Minister of the Environment. • It is in the interest of Slovakia's power self-sufficiency. unsustainable economic progress to be worth the long term environmental costs if it creates jobs and tax revenue? Representative of Austrian Government: The Austrian government offered to fund a $50 million conversion of Mochovce to alternate power sources. because if Mochovce were not completed.• • All safety issues are fully addressed. have not been addressed in plant planning. Important questions. Though coal or other energy sources are arguably safer than nuclear power. Only about 17 % of the potential for renewable energy sources is currently exploited in Slovakia. • Alternative fuel sources have been proposed as a solution. The leader of Slovak opposition: • You explain that the improvements and function of the plant would fall within the norms followed by French nuclear power plants. The plans do not include the costs of storage for spent fuel in its cost assessments. which has suffered severe earthquakes in the past. • Mochovce is the minimal cost option for Slovakia. For example. Standards regarding the materials which will be used to refurbish the plant are undefined in plant plans. such as the possibility of seismic activity in this region. the Bohunice reactor would not be closed. International specialists and annual inspections by (rJD confirm that Mochovce meets international standards for such facilities. but may present environmental problems of their own. Austria's Green party spokesperson: numerous environmental risks: Austrian environmentalists have attempted to highlight 1. You are under tremendous political pressure: Do you consider short term. The geothermal energy can be used for the district heating and hot water supply. The Slovak Economy Minister: • Inaction is in fact the worst possible outcome. 3. Slovgeoterm Company 79 . 4. they still can cause considerable environmental damage. no matter how altruistic the proposed finan~ing plans may seem. Little attention was paid to the environmental risks of the water emissions of the plant. in May 1998 an inspection mission cited the considerable progress achieved in improving the original project. Representative of Geothermal Energy Board: Why is the West funding construction of power plants of a type entirely unwanted in the West? It is evident.
a choice you can make in a particular situation sound ad} . Privatisation has resulted in increasing energy prices.the act of keeping something under control. request. or the amount of it that has leaked livestock n . e.to put or set by or as ifby authority. g.becoming tired or losing strength highlight . allowing radioactivity to escape option 11 . Such a solution would include encouraging investment in the production of high-efficiency technology. war etc .instead of leakage 11 . water etc leaks in or out. especially against political or social developments containment n .to refuse an offer.when gas. discussion. consider flagging ad} .to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality.a very dangerous situation in which the material inside a nuclear reactor melts and burns through its container. causing an overall trend in eastern Europe toward reduced energy consumption. and could result in an increase in energy efficiency of 50%. But due to favourable geological conditions the energetical potential is much higher. or invitation 80 .animals such as cows and sheep that are kept on a farm meltdown 11 .the final result of a meeting.to have an important or noticeable effect on someone or something impose v . Other possible solutions Improved efficiency is proposed as the best solution to deal with energy shortages in Slovakia. to impose time limit outcome n . suggesting that investment in surplus power production is not a sound basis for sustainable economic growth in Slovakia.to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it impact n .implemented in last years greenhouses heating in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in Galanta. The best substitute is likely some form of energy optimisation which would minimize the requirement for new energy sources. stopping it becoming more powerful etc deem v .used especially when no one knows what it will be until it actually happens in lieu . ~ Glossary backlash n .a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events.sensible and likely to produce the right results turn down v .
downsize.rise. the authors expect it to have four million more people. decline. By then it will have overtaken France as Europe's second or third largest country. leapfrog. shrink.You can choose words from the box. Britain is expected to grow faster than any other major European country. All of them can be found in the article. There will be In just the 20th century an extra 120 million more Americans.000 million will be living in the world's poorest African countries by 2050. Within 20 years. at which point its growth is expected to tail off. depending whether Russia is classed to be in Europe 81 . according to a comprehensive report by leading US demographers released yesterday. But the populations of some countries will shrink. swing. with many rich countries "downsizing" during a period in which almost all developing nations will grow at breakneck speed. shift. transform.In how many ways can you express the meaning of the following concepts? change Ito change to grow Igrowth to fall to overtake ). dro . including analysis of birth and death rates. surge. the population of China to become the world's most populous country. pass.UNIT 12 \tVORLD FACES POPULATION EXPLOSION Warmup + Has the population of Slovakia been growing or declining in the last few years? + How many children are there in your family? + What do you think the number of children depends on? + Do you know what is the life-expectancy of men and women + + in Slovakia? What problems can be connected with our crowded planet? Who can solve them? ). They predict that at least an extra 1. and India will leapfrog alone. double. soar W Reading The world is heading for wildly uneven population swings in the next 45 years. Based on a number of factors. increase. Bulgaria is expected to lose almost 40 per cent of its population. tail off. One in six the world quadrupled. adding only a further 1. people in western Europe will be over the age of 65 by 2050.5 million in the next 25 years to eventually reach 65 million.
based on countries' own statistics. While the world's few developed countries are expected to grow by about 4 % to over 1. Eastern Europe is leading the world's down shifters. Among the major industrialised nations. have not kept pace with increases in population. millions have been The projections are based on detailed analysis of infant drawn to cities or mega-cities mortality rates. and the motivation to have fewer comes from anticipating hard times ahead. The former World Bank economist Herman Daly believes globalisation and the uncontrolled migration of cheap labour could put potentially catastrophic pressures on local communities and national economies. Overall. incomes. and will likely reach 9. Germany and Italy are expected to shrink by about 10 %. while Romania could have 27 % fewer and Russia 25 million fewer people. Nigeria is expected to have more than doubled its numbers to more than 300 million people. said Kirst yen Sherk. and the planet has virtually no more arable land or fresh water to spare. We have to ask how rich countries are going to help". By the year Climate change and ongoing land degradation are widely 2015. The report. world population is growing by about 70 million people a year. Today. but do not allow for environmental factors. "The sheer number of people on Earth is now much larger than ever before in history. losing 38 % of its people. 1960. Over time. one of the poorest. may have doubled numbers to more than 280 million. But Europe is expected to have 60 million fewer people than today and some countries could lose more than a third of their populations. The changes. Bulgaria is expected to return to pre-1914 population levels. and more recently by the US Population census report. By a declining birth-rate. which today have similar sized populations of about l30 million people. which has only 14 % of its current population under 15. population in developing countries could surge by 55 % to more than 8 billion. The population changes are causing growing alarm among experts. Africa and Asia will inevitably be transformed. "World population is going to grow massively in some of the most vulnerable countries in the world. They also take into just two mega-cities in the year account the numbers of women using contraception and AidslHN rates. confirms trends identified earlier by the UN.3 billion today. India will be the largest country in the world. it will say. Some experts question whether Earth can even carry today's population at a 'moderately comfortable' standard for the long term. By then. let alone 3 billion more". just keeps on growing. As a result. Western Asian Despite plagues and nations are expected to gain about 186 million people by 2050 and wars and famines and sub-Saharan African countries more than one billion people. having long passed China.3 billion by mid-century from 6. Countries such as Nigeria and Japan. people's lifestyles and global resources. There were expectancy. It is expected to have reached a population of 420 million by 2050. most crowded and disaster-prone countries. But Japan. will argue that fertility rates in poor countries could drop if there is a world fuel crisis. per-capita cropland 82 . only the US will experience what the authors call "significant" growth. of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. a separate report. suggest demographers with the Washington-based Population Reference Bureau. people and pressure for migration away from rural areas towards cities and richer countries. an increase of 43 %. population growth.or partly in Asia. However. 2050. to be published soon by the Washington-based Worldwatch Institute. Increases in food production per hectare. who believe sustained growth in developing countries can only be managed with economic help from rich countries. age structure. 17. and fertility rates. considered inevitable given present trends. The thinktank says people usually have as many children as they think they can afford. Bangladesh. could be unrecognisable by 2050. may have shrunk to roughly 100 million people. will transform geo-politics and fundamentally affect the world's economies. say the authors.2 billion. the number of people How some countries will cope with the changes is debatable. says the report. life such as New York. the projections call for expected to encourage further widespread movements of more than 26.
I (work) for forty years.has shrunk by more than half since 1960.. What do scientists base their projections on? What could climate change cause? In what countries is population expected to grow greatly? Which two factors can have catastrophic pressures on local communities and national economies? How can the world cope with the growing population? r::jj= Language focus Future perfect tense: We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended. Michael Swan: How English works BEGINNINGS By this time next year I (not finish) the report by Monday In a couple of years the children (leave) horne When I get home tonight When I retire two sentences starting with: By the time you get home 1. Guardian Did you know . 3. and it's needed for Monday morning. completed.. or achieved by a particular point in the future: Within 20 years Britain will have overtaken France as Europe's second largest country. 4. > 2 Make 1 2 . !Notice that we can use other modal verbs instead of "will" to talk about the future in a less certain way. By then Japan may have shrunk to 100 million people. > 1 Use the future perfect to put the beginnings and ends together.. August 18. the basic food. 2004. . 83 . has been falling worldwide for 20 years. I( drive) for fourteen hours non-stop. 2.? Human life span more than doubled over the course of the 20th century. By next month you should have written your thesis. Comprehension 1. example: By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. ENDS and we' 11be able to get a smaller house. and per capita production of grains. I'll probably (left) school.. 5. but I probably (not start) work. John Vidal.
3. which will lead to great famines. think. scientists responded with new ways to feed extra mouths. 4. The Earth could feed 9 billion people. particularly mentioning who said or thought what we are reporting: People in the area have been told that they should stay indoors. water. Predpoklada sa.reading SCENARIO With your partner try to decide whether the following statements are true or false. 2. 5. 6. 1. 7. 1. People will find the ways how to cope with the breakdown in our natural support systems of soil. food production will be growing quickly. 3. People had thought that the chemicals convey important information to the brain. ktora sa tak stane najl'udnatejsou krajinou na svete. Newspapers reported that there were only two experts on the disease in the country. 10. Do polovice budiiceho storocia svetova populacia dosiahne pravdepodobne 9. The damage was expected to be extensive. 4. group of An alternative to it + passive verb + that-clause is to use subject + passive verb + to-infinitive. Guess! Then see if you were right by quickly scanning the text. The articles reported that there were 30.Passive in reports if we want to avoid The passive is often used to report what people say. By 2050 Nigeria is expected to have more than doubled its numbers. >3 Rewrite following sentences in the passive voice. ze pocet obyvatel'ov vel'kych priemyselnych krajfn sa do roku 2050 znfzi v dosledku nfzkej miery porodnosti. 9. Medical services could deal properly with any of the diseases. 2. ze v roku 2050 bude mat' Europa 0 60 milionov obyvatel'ov menej. 5. A common way of reporting what is said by people in general or by an unspecified people is to use: it + passive verb + that-clause It was expected that the damage would be extensive. 8. Some scientists say the mass extinction of dinosaurs was caused by sudden changes in global climate. 1. POPULATION Pre. Urad pre ziskavanie informacii 0 obyvatel'stve so sfdlom vo Washingtone odhaduje. 4. and crops. 3. 84 . >4 Translate into English. By the 2050s. Populacia USA rna narast' z terajsich 293 milionov 0 43 percent na 420 milionov v roku 2050.000 people at the concert.about what we had back in 1950. In 2053. In many places high-yield agriculture will collapse. Changing climates mean changing pests. 5.3 miliardy. the disease will wipe out nearly all the world's maize crop. In this first year of the 22nd century the global total of the world population will be around two billion people . Cinu predbehne India. 2. People expect that Bangladesh will be the worst affected country. As the global population grew during the 20th century. People are careful not to destroy the soil by using harmful farming technologies. 11. The growing population push demand for drinking and irrigation water beyond supply.
Indeed. Eventually. GOOD MORNING. the demographers were half right. By the 2050s.ABOUT WHAT WE HAD BACK IN 1950. Meanwhile. population density triggered two other agents of decline: the great migrations and the plagues. As we all now know. and in 1994 demographers predicted that numbers would stabilise at 9 billion by 2050. There were sporadic famines. To put it simply. eastern Asia and Europe. but they were triggered by uneven distribution of wealth. 1. but couldn't restore the soil's fine microstructure. first suggested that a growing population might outstrip its food supply. It didn't happen in Malthus's day..but only for a short time. which eventually introduced high-yielding crops. By the 1990s it was apparent that population growth had slowed. This was partly because research on soil structure dropped to almost nothing when most agricultural research was privatised at the turn of the century. This led to the great famines. an American environmental think tank. scientists kept crop yields ahead of demand. It simply blew and washed away. in the 18th century. we ran out of soil and we ran out of water. As the global population grew during the 20th century. found that soil and water degradation were already decreasing yields on 16 per cent of the world's agricultural land. I WOULD LIKE TO START BY SAYING HOW PLEASED I AM TO SEE SO MANY OF YOU AT THE EDINBURGH SCIENCE FESTIVAL IN THIS FIRST YEAR OF THE 22ND CENTURY. We destroyed the soil by using harmful farming technologies to wring more crops out of the land. LEAVING US WITH TODAY'S GLOBAL TOTAL OF AROUND TWO BILLION PEOPLE . and compaction by heavy farm machinery left the soil prone to erosion. What happened to turn the sunny forecasts of the 1990s into the horror that followed? In retrospect. But it was mainly because demand for food was increasing. But you can push the world's resources only so far . Chemical fertilisers could replace the mineral nutrients taken by the plants. MY ROLE TODAY IS TO DISCUSS THE GREAT DEPOPULATION THAT TOOK PLACE LAST CENTURY. food production was declining sharply.Now read the article in groups to find out whether you were right. or for the next two centuries. Many people stopped worrying about a population crisis. thanks to the "Green Revolution". The great dust storms of 85 . of course. It was Thomas Malthus who. This process was well under way by the late 20th century. and it proved hard to move away from the old technology while maintaining yields. The population did reach 9 billion. Even when the rate of growth of the world population hit its peak in the 1960s and 1970s. highyield agriculture collapsed completely. it seems obvious: the Earth could feed 9 billion people . scientists responded with new ways to feed extra mouths. but in many places little was done to slow soil degradation. People ignored the fact that these methods were largely unsustainable. We knew the danger. But it didn't stay there long. World population plummeted. and in many places. soil degradation helped to halve yields across Australia. Excessive ploughing. The environmental cost was too high to be sustainable.. chemical fertilisers and mechanised agriculture to every region capable of using them. in 2001 a report by the World Resources Institute.
2. the huge Chinese pig conglomerates. Prices trebled in the 2020s. Even where water supplies did not depend on aquifers. and North American farmers replaced it with weedkiller after the introduction of genetically engineered. By 2020. and less into stalks and leaves. annexed the entire Blue Nile catchment. In most cases this change is expected to be permanent. North America was spared this problem. many of us would not be here without the genetically engineered high-yield barley the Russians and Canadians now grow in the Arctic. As we know. while Iraq bombed Turkey's Ataturk Dam on the Euphrates two years later. Europe rejected genetically engineered crops until 2035. Where there is still enough soil and water. Egypt. By 2000 we had pushed the plants to their limits. the fertile Punjab was pumping irrigation water from aquifers twice as fast as rainfall could replace it. These are generally considered the first of the continuing water wars.the 2050s whipped millions of tonnes of irreplaceable topsoil off the land and brought famine even to wealthy nations. we were already pouring on as much nitrogen fertiliser as the plants could handle. Likewise. A global ban on fishing might have allowed some to recover even then. Even as the fish harvest dwindled. The Ogallala aquifer in western North America collapsed soon after. a hundred years ago wild fish from the seas provided protein for billions of people. 3. Many parts of the world faced the same problem. but by then it was too late . for instance. Even in 2000.crop varieties engineered for North America could not thrive in its degraded soils. notably in East Asia. Ploughing had always served mainly to control weeds. 86 . just when climate change began to make that less predictable. This led to skyrocketing demand for milk and meat. as had those beneath the breadbasket region of northern China. What were the scientists doing all this time? After all. Similar pressures led Israel to take control of the Jordan in 2029. The high yields achieved by the Green Revolution came from crop varieties that put more of the carbon they fixed through photosynthesis into grain. and by 2020 many major stocks had collapsed. herbicide-tolerant crops. primarily water shortages. Ethiopia began damming the Blue Nile. urban prosperity increased. In these regions. but the demand for protein was so great that no one could muster the political will. the swelling population pushed demand for drinking and irrigation water beyond supply. 4. reacted by destroying the dam that year and. after a bloody war. by the turn of the millennium many of the threats to the global food supply had been predicted. So long as meat eaters could pay. Thirsty farm animals increased the demand for water. farmers had to go back to relying on rainfall. varieties of maize deliver substantial yields . But it took two decades of research to develop varieties that could thrive on melted permafrost. it is now too warm or wet or dry to grow wheat in most places where it thrived a century ago. But their major impact was on grain reserves: it takes 3 kilograms of grain to produce 1 kilogram of meat. The greatest challenge. Food from the oceans plummeted. In 2026.but it took a while to develop them. could easily outbid poor people for grain on the global market. of course. underground deposits of water. starting a wave of famine. But we took fish out of the sea faster than they could reproduce. Those once rich ocean areas are now dominated by species that provide little protein. which received 80 per cent of its water from the river. while others drained rain-fed aquifers faster than they were being replenished. these had nearly run dry. And in places such as the rice fields of Japan. Many irrigated regions were using up ancient. Some fields were already nearing the limit of what they could grow. too. has been climate change. But North America had other problems. Astonishing as it seems.
helped by the global movement of animal produce. Overburdened medical services couldn't deal properly with any of the diseases. Simple overcrowding spread diseases such as leprosy. but their fury has redoubled over much of the past century. As cities outgrew their sewerage and drinking-water systems. Unfortunately. Agriculture gave us yet more plagues. Worst of all. which in turn triggered huge migrations of people seeking a living or escaping violence. The breakdown in our natural support systems of soil. The thought is shocking today. clean water and healthcare increased tensions between rich and poor . In Africa and South America. 8. which emerged from pigs in 2018. became harder and harder. especially after the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria made antibiotics redundant. plant breeders engineered a dry-land variety of wheat. 7. as the megacities mushroomed. Animal diseases that attack humans flourished . and spread uncontrollabl y. Worse. But as the region warmed up. plants and microbes throughout the world. In 2047. The Rio Plus Ten global conference of 2002 famously predicted that all famine would cease. climate and crops happened too fast for us to cope. proved susceptible to the newcomers. many farmers joined a worldwide exodus and sold their land to the expanding cities. The struggle for costly food. these visitors turned into pests. When either process faltered. quickly became resistant to the chemicals farmers used to control them. Global wheat production still hasn't recovered. even briefly. The hungry. exotic insect pests and diseases moved north. designed to cope with the old pests. The new wheat. the densely packed masses of hungry people became a perfect breeding ground for epidemics. ever-expanding human settlements invaded new territories. alien insects. Human-adapted foot and mouth virus (HAFMV) emerged in Taiwan in 2065. the decline in hygiene ushered in killers such as dysentery. as production shortfalls could be met by imports. was the first of five flu pandemics last century. But as both demand and the cost of food and water soared. Warming. The vast numbers of displaced people were also a factor in the spread of disease. The increasing globalisation of trade cushioned the initial regional food shortages. including the reinvasion of North America by malaria .a process aided by warmer winters. including monkeypox and the haemorrhagic virus that caused Europe's worst disease mortality since the Middle Ages. like the old ones.5. notably deserts and tropical forests. But new ones also emerged in giant. No longer held in check by natural predators. efforts to flee or plain starvation. Safety precautions could have prevented the emergence of these infections. 6. Getting massive quantities of food in. out-of-work urban hordes caused political upheaval nearly everywhere. these new pests. hard-pressed farmers could not afford them. Famine. and the emergence of at least two dozen new diseases. Changing climates also meant changing pests.the Flanders flu. the disease wiped out nearly all the world's wheat crop. Europe could afford to incinerate more than a million cattle that were mainly infected only in their brains. war and pestilence have always figured in human history. which reestablished itself in Europe in the 2030s. In the face of all this. The big corporations had a hard time finding new pesticides. water. almost every strain of wheat in the world carried the same set of genes involved in photosynthesis. At the time of the first prion disease. people died because of violence. a process that was already under way in the 1990s in mega cities such as Shanghai. the bunt fungus attacked the very characteristics coded for by those genes and in 2053.especially as TV and the Internet constantly reminded the poor of what they did not have. and waste out. crowded livestock barns. After the north Chinese aquifer ran dry. The sheer size of some cities created its own problems. 87 . Typhus returned worldwide in 2056. This led to novel encounters with local fauna. They swelled the numbers of unemployed in these conurbations. But this missed the point that increasing global trade was already spreading invasive. for instance. trash-strewn cities helped launch the bubonic plague pandemic of 2047.
to become gradually less.to become or to make something smaller in amount. A global authority might have been able to monitor and perhaps stem the spread of human. animal and crop diseases.to increase quickly to a high level surge v .pesticide 88 . political power had globalised too.to protect someone from the unpleasant effects of something downsize v . I know the idea of global government is a heresy. Sometimes I wonder whether it would have been different if.used for saying that something is certain to happen and cannot be avoided mushroom v .an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people contraception n .. or to make something do this tail off v . But we never stayed organised socially.if a company or organization downsizes.to suddenly increase susceptible ad} . in order to escape from danger inevitably adv . politically or economically for long enough to deliver the solutions when and where they were needed. and often stop or disappear completely think tank 11 .the part of a country or area that provides most of its food census n .to leave somewhere very quickly. when industry globalised at the start of the millennium. and beyond the power of national and regional governments.that would have fed 9 billion.or the ability to develop it .to expect that something will happen and be ready for it breadbasket n . to publish sewerage 11 .the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant cushion v .when something begins to be known or noticed falter v .to grow and develop very quickly outbid v .to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller emergence n .to let news or official information be known and printed. But so many of our crises were outside the realm of corporate concern. who work to produce ideas and give advice trigger v .the system by which waste material and water is carried away in sewers and then treated to stop it being harmful shrink v .to make something happen very quickly. it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs dwindle v .a disease that spreads quickly and kills a lot of people release v . if we had acted early.9. Debora MacKenzie. New Scientist r::iT Language focus TVhattense do we use to say that it is too late for something to be changed? Look again at the last paragraph and underline all relevant constructions. It might have launched earlier research into foreseeable dangers. or value soar v . We did once have the technology .a group of people with experience or knowledge of a particular subject.to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way flee v .to make a higher bid than (another bidder) pestilence 11 .likely to be affected by a particular problem swing v . smaller etc. It might have provided jobs in time to prevent some of the mass migrations.to make regular movements forwards and backwards or from one side to another while hanging from a particular point. Could we have avoided any of this misery? I think so. especially a series of events upheaval n . size. We who remain can only wonder what would have happened if it had. such as a wheat crop that depended on only a few proprietary genes. . Communication What do you think is the message of the population scenario? ~ Glossary anticipate v . kept them free from disease and perhaps living in peace.a very big change that often causes problems weedkiIIer ri .
governance to be conditioned to be empowered inertia custodian beneficiary integrity W Reading Kenyan environmentalist Wangari Maathai was the first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. and without good governance there can be no peace. "The state of any country's environment is a reflection of the kind of governance in place. 89 . This inspired her in 1977 to form an organisation known as the Green Belt Movement aiming to curtail the devastating effects of deforestation and desertification." she said. aims to produce firewood.UNIT 13 THINK GLOBALLY. 10. She thinks development that embraces globally and acts locally . Do you know what did she receive itfor? qDo you know other environmentalists to receive a Nobel Prize? Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2004 to Wangari Maathai for her contribution to sustainable development. encompass honestness lack of energy. 5. to curtail 4. building materials and to slow deforestation. 8. A pioneering academic. human rights and women's rights in particular. led mostly by women. her role as an environmental campaigner began after she planted some trees in her back yard. Her tree-planting movement. . 9. viable 2. ACT LOCALLY Warmup You are going to read about the first African woman and the first environmentalist to win the Nobel Peace Prize. 7. Kenya has lost about 90 percent of its forests in the past 50 years. Maathai dismissed critics who say environmentalism has too little to do with peace to warrant the Nobel accolade. She has taken a holistic approach to sustainable democracy. Peace on earth depends on our ability to secure our living environment. Maathai stands at the front of the fight to promote ecologically viable social. 6. lack of desire or ability to change the activity of governing a country or controlling an organization e) caretaker f) possible. to embrace 3. feasible g) to train sb to behave in a particular way h) to give sb the power or authority to do sth i) decrease j) a person who gains as a result of sth a) b) c) d) 1.> Look at the words on the left and match them with their correct definitions. economic and cultural development in Kenya and in Africa. democracy and peace.
shelter. the participants discover that they must be part of the solutions. how can they be helped? 4. 90 . They come to recognize that they are the primary custodians and beneficiaries of the environment that sustains them. In order to assist communities to understand these linkages. inertia. accolade 'I 1.tpe causes and possible solutions. food. poverty and conflicts. The activity also creates employment and improves soils and watersheds. They realize their hidden potential and are empowered to overcome inertia and take action. viable. namely justice. the work was difficult because historically our people have been persuaded to believe that because they are poor. They were also unaware that a degraded environment leads to a scramble for scarce resources and may culminate in poverty and even conflict. they lack not only capital. the verbs with the expression from the box to make collocations. we developed a citizen education program. Comprehension 1. it is equally important that in their own relationships with each other. governance and peace? 2. Further. According to Maathai. especially their social and economic position and relevance in the family. How do you understand the role of custodians and beneficiaries? 5. dismiss ressures :> 2 Complete the sentence with the words from the box: embrace. Initially. In the process. What have the poor in Africa been conditioned to believe? . Entire communities also come to understand that while it is necessary to hold their governments accountable. we have planted over 30 million trees that provide fuel. They were also unaware of the injustices of international economic arrangements. Instead they are conditioned to believe that solutions to their problems must come from 'outside'. Does Wangari Maathai consider trying to be honest and righteous worthless if our leaders lack these values? What do you think? Vocabulary :> 1Match address lack understand overcome take face inertia. "So. women did not realize that meeting their needs depended on their environment being healthy and well managed. beneficiary. integrity and trust. \·. Through their involvement. The group helped me overcome my and lose weight. during which people identify their problems. what relation is there between environment. women gain some degree of power over their lives. but also knowledge and skills to address their challenges. together.3. They then make connections between their own personal actions and the problems they witness in the environment and in society. they exemplify the leadership values they wish to see in their own leaders.Read the extract from Wangari Maathai' s Nobel lecture. This work continues. If people do not understand the relations between their environment. and income to support their children's education and household needs. What are the leadership values? 6. dismiss.
the highest in the)music business. presently.moving from one statement in a text to the next. act locally? How do you envisage your role as a scientist? Write a short essay. She received a Grammy Award. have a part to play in part to be part and parcel to be part of the solution to to to to be a necessary feature of something have a particular job or be responsible for something be included or involved in something some degree. first of all. The goverment has criticisms that the country's health policy is a mess. 91 . Nuclear energy is the only alternative to coal or gas. but not completely r::ifj= Language focus Important consideration for successful communication is FLOW . 3. to start with then. finally. /6 Writing Do you understand saying: Think globally. especially mostly specifically Addition also furthermore moreover equally likewise similarly >- Go back to Wangari Maathai's lecture and underline in her text linking words showing the time relationships. next. By the end of the last century. Americans had the idea of the right to free public education for all children. at this point. 5. 4. Some examples of adverbs Time relationships at present. to begin with. Single mothers will be the chief of this new policy. eventually that connect ideas: ' Reformulation to put it simply rather in other words that is to say Highlighting namely particularly . Establishing clear connections of ideas is important to help your reader or listener follow the text. 6. Are they familiar to you? Match them with their definitions and use them in sentences of your own.2.3 How many expressions with the word part do you know? In this unit you already have and will come across the following idioms. ).
2. we must also ensure that all our policies help prospects for sustainable development at a global level. to provide international leadership and as a first step towards achieving global sustainability. the effects on gender equality and equal opportunities. both at EU level and in Member States. This means that policy makers must identify likely spillovers . COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION A Sustainable Europe for a Better World: Many of the challenges to sustainability require global action to solve them.2001 92 . so as to provide a basis for solutions and political decisions. It is particularly important to identify clearly the groups who bear the burden of change so that policy makers can judge the need for measures to help these groups to adapt. The role of science and research is to help identify the nature of the risks and uncertainties we face. As EU production and consumption have impacts beyond our borders. This in turn requires clear commitment at the highest level. 4.5.good and bad . in line with the precautionary principle. Policy makers have a responsibility to manage risk effectively. and to explain its nature and extent clearly to the public. This should include. where relevant. environmental and social impacts inside and outside the EU. Climate change and biodiversity are obvious examples.onto other policy areas and take them into account. 3. The Commission believes that developed countries must take the lead in pursuing sustainable development. and calls on other developed countries to accept their responsibilities as well. For example. Assessments should take a more consistent approach and employ expertise available from a wide range of policy areas. MAKING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HAPPEN: ACHIEVING OUR AMBITIONS To achieve sustainable development requires changes in the way policy is made and implemented. Careful assessment of the full effects of a policy proposal must include estimates of its economic. Improve policy coherence Sustainable development should become the central objective of all sectors and policies.In small groups discuss the following questions: 1. How can we make sustainable development happen? What is the role of scientists? What is the task of policy makers? Can we choose our future? Now read the following extracts from key EU documents to check your answers. 15. lack of knowledge must not become an excuse for lack of action or for ill considered action. This section makes a number of proposals aimed at securing more effective responses to the challenges we face. However. as are the implications for biodiversity and public health of some types of environmental pollution or of chemicals such as endocrine disrupters. Risk and uncertainty are a part of life. A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development The Commission's proposal to the Gothenburg European Council Brussels. To assess proposals systematically better information is needed. The Commission believes that the EU should start by putting its own house in order. the implications of an ageing population are still imperfectly understood.
Continued economic growth in the industrialised countries coupled with population growth and the natural desire of developing countries to catch up in terms of material welfare could lead to a huge growth in demand for resources. through significant improvements in ecoefficiency . The Global Assessment1 of the Fifth Environment Action concluded that progress had been made in many areas. they want to live undisturbed by noise. in part.Our Choice. the EU has also taken a leading role in important international agreements for the protection of our environment. and they want to enjoy the beauty of the countryside.OUR FUTURE. launched in 1992. notably environment objectives into other progress has been made in establishing a comprehensive system of EU. Although some would argue that we consume more than our fair share of global resources.as individuals. Environmental degradation in other countries will affect our shared environment and hence our quality of life. employers or employees. It is not only that people aspire to living in a clean and healthy environment but we must also recognise that the costs and other damages caused by pollution and climate change are considerable. we must seek to improve the quality of economic growth and other human activities to meet our demands for goods and services and for a clean and healthy environment at the same time. It sets out objectives for the next 10 years and beyond. the water they drink and the food they eat is free of pollution and contaminants.using less natural resource inputs for a given level of economic output or value added. High environmental standards are also an engine for innovation . We cannot solve environmental problems like climate change alone: concerted international efforts are needed. environmental measures.creating new markets and business opportunities. Protecting the environment presents us with both challenges and opportunities. It is estimated that a person in the western world consumes up to 50 times more resources in a lifetime than the average person in a developing country. We all have a part to play . They also want a world that is not threatened by climate change. This is not only an issue for politicians and industry. We should de-couple environmental impacts and degradation from economic growth. People demand that the air they breathe. Instead. Without better and different ways of meeting this demand. *** A clean and healthy environment is part and parcel of the prosperity and quality of life that we desire for ourselves now and for our children in the future. The key to our 93 . governments. with new on air and water. unspoilt coastlines and mountain areas. consumers and as parents it's Our Future . major environmental controls in the Programme. Over the last thirty years. it concerns all of us. Protecting our environment does not have to translate into restricting growth or consumption per se. These problems do not respect national boundaries. Consumption patterns need to become more sustainable. and a broader commitment to the integration of policy areas. we will face unprecedented pressures and impacts on the global environment. The Sixth Environment Action Programme or An Action Programme for the Environment in Europe at the Beginning of the 21 Century focuses on areas where more action is needed and new European initiatives will make a difference. OUR CHOICE An Action Programme for the Environment in Europe at the Beginning of the 21 Century The environmental challenges we face in the first decade of the millennium are global challenges. The world's population is set to grow further.
introducing new and better methods or ideas for the first time precautionary ad} . e. g.the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right pioneering ad} .for this reason integrity n . amount etc of something exemplify v . European business will prosper in this expanding market. or important embrace v . thorough condition n .to eagerly accept a new idea.a calculation of the value. a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation.long-term welfare. true. religion etc empower v .done in order to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from happening scramble n .someone who gets advantages from an action or change coherence n .to refuse to consider someone's idea. or the judgment you make beneficiary n .someone who is responsible for looking after something important or valuable de-couple v . goodness etc of someone or something uncertainty n .governmen custodian n . it is also about improving the quality of life for us all. freedom. Increased attention to environmental measures will improve efficiency and productivity. Environment 2010: Our Future. changes into desert dismiss v .the high land separating two river systems 94 .to give someone more control over their own life or situation estimate n .praise for someone who is greatly admired. is sustainable development: finding ways of improving our quality of life without causing harm to the environment.a calculation about the cost or value of something. ~ Glossary accolade n . its members are connected or united because they share common aims. opinion.situation in which people compete with and push each other in order to get what they want spillover n . qualities.when you feel doubt about what will happen watershed n .to reduce or limit something.the effect that one situation or problem has on another situation trust n .the process by which useful land. Our Choice is not only about protecting the environment for now and the future.including all the necessary facts. or a prize given to them for their work assessment n .combine curtail v . future generations or the people of both the rich and developing world. in Europe and around the world. because you think it is not serious.to cause to became separated. The expanding market for green goods will lead to increased innovation and expanded job opportunities.a strong belief in the honesty. to separate desertification n . We particularly need to encourage business to go further. on a voluntary basis and through legislation.to give an example of something hence adv .to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time couple v . opinion etc. details. or problems that need to be dealt with. or beliefs comprehensive ad} . especially farm land. activity.if a group has coherence. size.
pracf prostriedok disposal Iikvidacia (odpadu) drought .environrnentaone vhodne (prijatel'ne) technol6gie environmental standards .smernica na posiidenie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie environmental issues .degradacia zivotneho prostredia envioronmental disturbance .zodpovednosf za zivotne prostredie environmental sound technology .cistiaci.vyradenie z prevadzky deforestation . obdobie sucha ecoefficiency .environmentalne oznacovanie vyrobkov ecological footprint .environmentalne opatrenia environmental responsibility .rozhodovanie decommissioning . vypust'anie endangered species .biomasa biotechnologies . obnova energie environmental care .ekologicke siete emission .biodiverzita biomass .ohrozene druhy energy recovery .narusenie zivotneho prostredia environmental hazard .ekologicka stopa (environmentalny priestor) ecological networks .konzumna spolocnost' consumerism .znecistenie.suchota.ekologicka efektfvnost' ecolabeling .odlesriovanie depletion .proces rozsirovania pristf detergent .starostlivost' 0 zivotne prostredie environmental concerns .spotreba consumption pattern . zdecimovanie desertification .environmentalne problemy environmetnallabeling .oxid uhlicity carrying capacity .zfskavanie energie.zredukovanie.environrnentalne normy (standardy) equilibrium .najlepsie dostupne technol6gie biodiversity .environmentalny vplyv environmental impact assessment .rovnovaha best available technologies (BAT) . catalytic converter . infikovanie decision-making .dopravna zapcha conservation . konzumny sp6sob zivota consumption .vzorec spotreby containment .zmena klfmy congestion .podmienky zachovania zivotneho prostredia environmental controlenvironmentalna kontrola (riadenie) environmental degradation .SELECTED TERMS Aalborg charter .emisia.pristup k informaciam balance .Aalborgska charta Access to information .posudzovanie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie environmental impact assessment directive .environmentalny hazard (nebezpecie) environmental impact . kontrola contaminant .environmentalny manazment Environmental Management Systems .iinosnost' prostredia catalyst.znecist'ujuca latka contamination .ochrana zivotneho prostredia consumer society .rovnovaha = 95 .konzumerizmus.katalyzator climate change .biotechnol6gie carbon dioxide .oznacovanie vyrobkov setrnych k zivotnemu prostrediu environmental management .environmentalne otazky (problemy environmental constraints .Environrnentalne rnanazerske systerny environmental measures .obmedzenie.
roztavenie prehriateho jadra nukleameho reaktora mismanagement .neziskova organizacia nuclear waste disposal= Iikvidacia a ulozenie RAO Our Common Future .mimovladne organizacie (MVO) nonrenewable resources .zle hospodarenie municipality .globalne problemy globalna ekonomika . riadenie greenhouse effect .odparovanie evidence .celostny prfstup household .hranica game .biotop.nebezpecenstvo. domorodf obyvatelia integrated landscape management .prfrodne zdroje nitric acid . medzera garbage .spolocne prfrodne bohatstvo natural landscape .rodova rovnost' global crisis .odhad evaporation .nebezpecny odpad holistic approach .impakt incentive .stimul incineration .spal'ovanie indigenous people .surovina fertilizer .uhl'ovodiky impact . povodni.prfrcdna krajina natural sources .znecist'ujuca 1Mb population explosion .skladka.Hranice rastu (dokument) local economy -Tokalna ekonomika mass extinction .sarnospravna obec. riziko Kyoto protocol.vystavenie (nepriaznivyrn) podmienkam.(zasadny) rozdiel.masove vyhynutie meltdown . particulate matter .rovnost'.p6rodnost' natural common goods . skladovanie odpadu pod zemou landscape .global economy good governance dobre spravovanie.nebezpecny.fosflne paliva frontier .zakladanie chranenych oblasti a rezervacii estimate .integrovany manazment krajiny jeopardy .do mace obyvatel'stvo. spravodlivost' establishment of parks and reserves .neobnovitel'ne zdroje not-for-profit organisation . vplyvu feedstock .priernyselne hnojivo focus .problem potravinovej bezpecnosti fossil fuels . oblast' natality . I 96 _l_ I .jernne castice perilous .odpadky.d6kaz(y) exposure .prel'udnenie particulates. riskantny pollutant . riadenie governance .equity .krajina landscape ecology .kyselina dusicna non-govermental organisations .sklenikovy efekt greenhouse gases . habitat hazardous waste . priepast'.domacnost' hydrocarbons .Nasa spolocna budticnost' (dokument OSN) overpopulation .populacna expl6zia .(lovna) zver gap .Kj6tsky protokol landfill .krajinna ekol6gia Limits to Growth .globalna krfza global problems .sklenfkove plyny habitat . hlavny predmet zaujmu food security problem .dobre spravovanie. smeti gender equality .pozornost'. mesto.
povedomie verejnosti public participation .chranene tizemia public awareness .suchozernske rastliny target groups / target areas . smeti sewage .najomnfk terrestrial plants .druh stakeholders .population growth . iicast' verejnosti refuge .populacna projekcia poverty .zainteresovane skupiny stewardship . vetena elektrareii 97 .obnovenie druhov rubbish .dotacie suitability .spravcovstvo subsidies .panenske oblasti vertebrate .odpadky.sfran.slnecna energia species .vhodnost'.trvalo udrzatel'na spolocnost' tenant . odpadova voda sewerage .zivotmi uroveii.participacia.utocisko renewable resources .splasky. primeranost' sulphate . telesna a dusevna pohoda wildlife conservation .trvaIo udrzatel'ny rozvoj.odpadove hospodarstvo well-being .verejne povedomie.chudoba power company .stavovec waste management .udrzatel'ny zivot sustainable society .elektrareii precautionary principle .princip predbeznej opatrnosti protected areas . udrzatel'ny rozvoj sustainable life .rast populacie population projection .kyselina sfrova sustainabiIity .treti svet training program .obnovitel'ne zdroje restauration of species .ochrana prirody (vol'ne zijucich zvierat) windmill .kanalizacia solar energy .udrzatel'nost' sustainable development .veterny mlyn.ciel'ove skupiny / ciel'ove oblasti Third world .skoliaci program wilderness areas . sulfat sulphuric acid .
Svetova zdravotnicka organizacia WTO (World Trade Organisation) .Planovanie najnizsfch nakladov LIFE (Financial Instrument for the Environment) .Konferencia OSN 0 zrvotnom prostredi cloveka FREQUENT TERMS BAT (Best Available Technologies) . predovsetkym v Afrike UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) .Priatelia Zeme OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) .Dohovor 0 biologickej diverzite CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) .Summit Zeme 0 trvalo udrzatel'nom rozvoji UNCHE (United Nations Conference on Human Environment) .Ustav pre sledovanie sveta IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CBC (Convention on Biological Diversity) .Environmentalny program OSN UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) .Organizacia pre ekonornicku spolupracu a rozvoj WHO (World Health Organisation) .ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS EEA (European Environmental Agency) . particularly in Africa) Dohovor OSN 0 boji proti dezertifikacii v krajinach postihnutych suchom.Dohovor o medzinarodnom obchode s ohrozenymi druhmi vol'ne zijucich zivoctchov a rastlin UNCCD (United Nations Conventions to Combat Desertification in Countries -Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification.Svetova komisia pre zivotne prostredie a rozvoj WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) . postidenie environmentalneho dopadu EMS (Environmental Managerial Systems) .Financny nastroj pre zivotne prostredie MDG (Millenium Development Goals) .Globalny fond zivotneho prostredia IUCN (World Conservation Union) .Komisia OSN pre trvalo udrzatel'ny rozvoj FoE (Friends of the Earth) .najlepsie dostupne techno16gie EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) .Eur6pska environmentalna agennira FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) .Svetova obchodna organizacia WCED (World Commission for Environment and Development) .Analyza zivotneho cyklu LCP (Least Cost Planning) .Integrovana prevencia a kontrola znecist'ovania LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) .Mileniove rozvojove ciele 98 .Ramcovy dohovor OSN 0 zmene klfmy UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) .Svetovy fond pre prfrodu WWI (Worldwatch Institute) .Posudzovanie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie.Konferencia OSN 0 zivotnom prostredf a rozvoji WSSD (World Summit on Sustainable Development) .Organizacia Spojenych narodov pre vyzivu a pol'nohospodarstvo GEF (Global Environmental Facility) .Environmentalne manazerske systemy IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) .Rozvojovy program OSN IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL EVENTS UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) .Svetovy zvaz ochrany prirody UNCSD (United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development) .
praise for someone who is greatly admired.although alleviate v . especially a medical condition D trapenie.to make a bad situation.to expect that something will happen and be ready for it D predvidat'.a situation when you are almost in a new situation. groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something D spojenectvo amenity n .vzacna lasica iijuca v preriach USA so zltou srst'ou a ciemymi nohami (Mustela nigripes) breadbasket 11 . cinit' anger v . or a prize given to them for their work D vyznamenanie. zastrasovat' abundant adj . sposobit' brink 11 . pokraj bully v . trapit'.something that causes pain or suffering.to make something happen. riesit' (problemy) adjust v . dosiahnutie address v . upravit' adverse adj . an illness.to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want. pohroma. to cause D zapriclnlt'.something that makes a place comfortable or easy to live in D vybavenie. J.someone who gets advantages from an action or change D obdarovany. especially against political or social developments D prudka reakcia. cause to correspond D prisposobit'. and make them suffer D postihmit'.to affect someone or something in an unpleasant way. iba beneficial adj . usually a bad one D okra]. odpor barely adv .not good or favourable nepriaznivy D afflict v .only.the part of a country or area that provides most of its food D tirodna oblast' breed v . odhad attain v . pestovat'. to equal D rovnat' sa.to change so as to match or fit. predpovedat' ark 11 . odveta.to add up in importance. uspokojit' account for v-I to form a particular amount or part of something Dtvorit'. napadnutie assessment 11 .a calculation about the cost or value of something. a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. especially something difficult D pokus attendee someone who is at an event such as a meeting or a course D iicastnik. make fearful D sikanovat'. the boat built by Noah for survival during the Flood D archa (Noemova) assault n . explain D vysvetl'ovat'. priostrenie D hoci albeit con . suzovat' affliction 11 . or the judgment you make D ohodnotenie. especially when their opinions or needs are different from yoursD vyhoviet'.the crime of physically attacking someone titok. t'azkost' aggravate v .to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time D dosiahnut' attempt n .an arrangement in which two or more countries. pocta accommodate v . especially ones with particular qualities D chovat'. prospesny beneficiary n . navstevnik backlash n .an act of trying to do something.a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events.deal with D venovat' sa.to make someone angry. st'azit' aggravation 11 - zhorsenie.to make something less painful or difficult to deal with D zmiernit'. or an injury worse D zhorsit'. sl'achtit' bring about v .having a good effectD blahodarny. annoy D rozculit'. vydatny accolade 11 . prijemca beverage n .GLOSSARY anticipate v . intimidate.' ._.in the Old Testament. zmensit' alliance 11 . rozhnevat' 99 I . objasiiovat' achievement 11 . cinit' 2 to be the reason why something happens. used before amounts or numbers to emphasize that they are surprisingly small D len.be bossy towards.something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts D iispech. ~ J '.formal a hot or cold drink D napoj black-footed ferret n .something that is abundant exists or is available in large quantities so that there is more than enough D hojny. zariadenie amount to v .to keep animals or plants in order to produce babies or new plants.
to prevent them being spoiled or destroyed. n .the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs 0 spotreba containment n .to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time 0 formovat'.to stop 0 prestat'.a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out 0 katalyzator cease v .a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way 0 zavazok. combat v .to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems 0 st'azit'.to protect someone from the unpleasant effects of something 0 stlmit'. activity.to persuade someone to do something census n .to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect 0 drzat' na uzde.to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them 0 zhodovat' sa.the act of keeping something under control.at the present time 0 v sticasnosti.used especially in news reports 0 bojovat'. redukcia 100 .someone who is responsible for looking after something important or valuable spravca.used to say that something is true even though people believe the opposite 0 na rozdiel convince v . kust6d 0 cut n .important. its members are connected or united because they share common aims. significant dOiezity. freedom 0 znizit'. zastavit' congestion n .the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant 0 antikoncepcia contrary to ad} . qualities.engage oneself rozhodmit' sa 0 zaviazat' o presvedcit' corncrake sa. thorough 0 tiplny.if a group has coherence.to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse .an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people 0 scftanie l'udu coherence n . preservation 0 ochrana zivotneho prostredia consumerism n .zaujem obchodnych spolocnosti couple v .a large round container for collecting or storing liquids. 2 when too much attention is given to buying and owning things 0 konzumny sposob zivota consumption n .to reduce or limit something. povinnost' compound v .including all the necessary facts.to formally ask someone to do something 0 vyzvat' (koho na co) catalyst.to have a lot of something or be filled with something 0 byt' pIny na prasknutie butt n .a situation in which it is difficult or impossible to move because there are so many cars or people 0 dopravna zapcha consequential ad} . that is spent by a government or company 0 obmedzenie. zhorsit' comprehensive ad} . zredukovat' cushion v . ochorenie condition v .1 the state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold. komplexny concerted effort faction/attack etc.causing so much damage or harm that something no longer works or is no longer effective 0 paralyzujiici. or beliefs 0 siidrznost'. details. kontrola contraception n . siihlasit' condition n .protection of natural things such as animals. ochromujtici curb v . zavazny 0 conservation n . or problems that need to be dealt with. be bursting with something v .to have advanced to an improved or more developed state 0 vyrazne pokrocit' commit oneself v .an illness or health problem that affects you permanently or for a very long time 0 t'azkosti.burgeon v . a reduction in the size or amount of something. as by pledge 0 zaviazat' commitment n . catalytic converter n . suvislost'. zmiernit' dopad custodian n .[usually plural]. curtail v . forests etc. zapasit' s eim come a long way v . a rainwater butt 0 sud call on/upon somebody/something . stopping it becoming more powerful etc 0 obmedzenie.combine commit v . g. e. obmedzit' currently teraz adv .to bind or obligate.to grow or develop quickly sa rozvijat' 0 rychlo burst.chriastel' pol'ny (crex crex) corporate concern . vychovavat' 0 spajat' sa crippling ad} . is done by people working together in a carefully planned and very determined way 0 siistredene tisilie concur v . plants. podmieiiovat'. spojitost'.
to make someone less likely to be successful or to put them in a worse situation than others 0 znevyhodnit' discard v . presmerovat' do/try one's utmost v . rozlisovat' divert v .to cause to became separated. 0 zlepsit'. zmensit' sa deem v .the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions 0 rozptyI. uchovavany v . reduce 0 znfzit' sa.the area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population 0 ekologicka stopa. or to make something do this. umoznit'.the negative part or disadvantage of something 0 haelk. because you think it is not serious. or important 0 zavrhmit'.in. changes into desert 0 proces rozsirovania pusH detergent n .to be the thing that makes someone 101 . skandalny dismiss v .throwaway.the production or release of something o emisia.to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller 0 ubiidat'.one that soon may no longer exist 0 ohrozene druhy enhance v . group of people etc that existed in the past 0 potomok. izolovat' decrease v . opinion etc. podporovat'. especially an unfair one 0 nerovnost'. vyprist'anie empower v . nevyhoda downsize v .causing harm or injury 0 skodIivy. nicivy devise v . it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs 0 znizit'. uvitat'. or to a family.the process by which useful land. religion etc 0 prijat'. scandalous hanebny.to plan or invent a new way of doing something 0 vymysliet'. distinguish somebody/something from 0 rozlfsit'. especially farm land. zredukovat'. to separate 0 rozdelit'. vyptist'anie emission n . zmensovat' sa ecological footprint n . opinion.vrtna sonda dump v . 0 or something different or special. zahriiat' emergence n .to improve something zdokonalit' disgraceful adj .to change the direction in which something travels 0 odklonit'. dishes etc 0 cistiaci. true. praci prostriedok detrimental adj . distillation.to give someone more control over their own life or situation 0 posilnit'. objavenie sa emission n . navrhmit' disadvantage v .to deactivate. or to another place 0 inde embrace v . or develop 0 povzbudit'.to refuse to consider someone's idea.to do something as well as you can by making a great effort 0 maximalne sa snazit' downside n .to become less or go down to a lower level. make something more likely to exist. consider 0 povazovat'. vyradit' get rid of 0 zahodit'.[usually plural] a gas or other substance that is sent into the air 0 emisia. neb rat' do uvahy disparity n .a liquid or powder used for washing clothes. zbavit' sa dwindle v .a lack of something that is necessary 0 nedostatok deplete v . zmocnit' encourage v .to persuade someone to do something. vyhodit'.to get rid of.when something begins to be known or noticed vynorenie sa. zdecimovat' descendant n . 0 zvysok. rozdiel dispersal n . shut down: to decommission a nuclear power plant vyradit' z prevadzky de-couple v .shameful. at. residuum usadenina. nasledovnik desertification n .to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality.to throwaway.a difference between two or more things.to reduce something in amount 0 spotrebovat'. zredukovat' drilling well n . pokladat' deficiency n . stimulovat' endangered species n .to eagerly accept a new idea.if a company or organization downsizes.decommission v . rozsirenie dispose of v . discard 0 skladat' odpad.someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago. odmietnut'. rezfduum distinguish enshrined adj . or filtration. zlikvidovat' get rid of 0 zbavit' sa. environmentalny priestor elsewhere adv .preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it 0 uchovany. happen.
a method or system of government or management 0 dobre spravovanie. person. idea.for this reason fit v . zabezpeeit' envision v . promote) 0 podporovat'.to use or spend a lot of energy etc in order to do something 0 vydat'. spravovat'.to make certain that something will happen properly 0 zarucit'.a hefty amount of something. birds. one on top of the other 0 hrornada. spravodlivost' eradicate v . zIikvidovat' estimate v . badanie exposure n .when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant 0 vystavenie zlym (poveternostnym) podmienkam false dawn n .to give an example of something 0 demonstrovat'. feeling. give rise to. obmedzeny flee v .relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing 0 vseobecny.the thing. especially something that you think will be good 0 predvidat'. especially money.to help a skill.to rule 0 vladnut'.dangerous. offer refuge to. riadenie grim ad} .a difference between two things garbage n .to control and use the natural force or power of something 0 vyuzlt'. especially one that is likely to have serious results 0 sialenost'. or fish hunted for food or sport 0 (lovna) zver gap n .if a liquid evaporates. vyrabat'. so that it is ready to be used 0 namontovat'. unikmit' focus n . typicky.food wastes. spiitat' hazardous ad} . to prostredim harness v . is very large 0 vel'ky hence adv . idea etc develop over a period of time (synonym encourage. nahrornadit' hefty adj . to produce 0 vyrobit'. wipe out 0 odstranit'.to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way 0 ochabovat'. stvarnit' expend v .~ . blaznovstvo fossil-fuel n .the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it 0 prieskum. upevnit' fix n . nerozum. vytvarat' generic adj .a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage o rovnost'. riadit' governance n . amount etc of something 0 odhad evaporation. as from a kitchen.a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years 0 fosiIne palivo foster v . refuse. trash 0 odpadky.group of things placed or thrown. vynalozit' energiu exploration n .a calculation of the value.becoming tired or losing strength 0 upadajtici.border hranica game n .to bring into being. especially to people's health or safety 0 nebezpecny heap n . in order to escape from danger 0 utiect'.ensure v . or if heat evaporates it.something that solves a problem 0 riesenie flagging ad} .a situation in which something good seems likely to happen. or a new part onto a machine. upadat' feasible ad} . pomahat' rozvoju frontier n .to give shelter to.to leave somewhere very quickly. smeti generate v . .to imagine something that you think might happen in the future. hlavny predmet zaujmu folly n .eliminate.to put a piece of equipment into a place.a very stupid thing to do.wild animals. predstavovat' si equitable ad} treating all people in a fair and equal way 0 spravodlivy equity n . it changes into a gas 0 odparovanie evidence n . slaby 0 a preto. or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work 0 uskutocnitel'ny feedstock raw material for processing or manufacturing industry 0 surovina finite ad} -limited 0 konecny. size.to give someone a lot of something 0 nakopit'.a plan.the process by which mental and physical qualities are passed from a parent to a 102 -- . situation etc that people pay special attention to 0 pozornost'.[uncountable]facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true 0 dokazty) exemplify v . a teda heredity n . rodovy govern v . zabudovat'. kopa heap v . but it does not 0 plana nadej falter v .looking or sounding very serious chrnurny.neuteseny harbour contain 0 0 byt' priaznivym v . evaporate v .
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