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FAKUL TA UNIVERZITY KOMENSKEHO
English for Environmental Studies
2005 UNIVERZITA KOMENSKEHO BRATISLAVA
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 THE OVERCROWDED ARK OUR COMMON FUTURE GLOBAL WARMING VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES ENDANGERED SPECIES... WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT AIR POLLUTION THROW-AWAY SOCIETY SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES CASE STUDY WORLD FACES POPULATION EXPLOSION THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY SELECTED TERMS......................................... ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................
5 13 21 27 35 43 49 55 63 69 77 81 89 95 98 99 108
THE OVERCROWDED ARK
You are going to read an article called The Overcrowded Ark. What do you think the article will be about? Discuss with a partner. ~ Look at the following vocabulary. Check that you understand each term: consumption reckoning gap ingenuity malnutrition to to to to to replenish sustain deplete cease generate
Humanity's choices are getting harder and fewer. The Earth's population has doubled since 1950 and consumption has risen even faster. There has to be a reckoning. For many people, it is here already. The few first-class passengers on the planet that is our Noah's Ark are safe for now on the upper deck. It's a very different story down below. How much longer can the rich keep their feet dry? Oil consumption has increased seven-fold in the last 50 years and meat production, marine fish catches and carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning have all at least quadrupled. And freshwater use increased six-fold last century. With 6.1 billion people relying on the resources of the same small planet, we're coming to realize that we're drawing from a finite account. The amount of crops, animals and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds what the planet can replace by an estimated 20 %, meaning it takes 14.4 months to replenish what we use in 12 - or, we can say, that we would need 1.2 Earths to sustain this lifestyle. The gap between rich and poor is becoming wider and more visible. Nearly 30 % of the world's population suffers some form of malnutrition and almost two thirds of humanity lives on less than $2 a day. The family that has to level a forest to grow its food and find the fuel to cook it does not have the choice of living sustainably. The poorest have least power to protect themselves from the effects of global environmental problems such as climate change. And, with the richest 1% of the world's population consuming as much as its poorest 44 %, we would have to use massively more resources if the poor were to live as the rich world does. The optimists say disaster will never strike, as development knows no limits. They argue that human ingenuity will always find a way. Society will find new raw materials, develop cleaner technologies and manage water scarcity so resource depletion and pollution cease to be problems. One argument runs that a better world needs us all to spend and consume more to generate wealth for all - and that industrialisation slows population growth and raises environmental standards.
. to change something. Vocabulary read. Sustainable development works to reverse that. Or. judgment. prices your English pollution unemployment water resources pressures on the environment the world's forests medical care the gap between rich and poor quality of life 6 . deplete to reduce the amount of something that is available 2. Business is getting right with the environment . fly half way round the world on holiday and get a new mobile phone every year. find synonyms for the following expressions: 1. to expand the resource base and adjust how we use it so we're living off biological interest without ever touching principal. Give a definition of consumerism. 2 Current projects / situations We are building a bridge over the Danube. What do you think is the meaning behind the statement: For many people. or process so that it is the opposite of what it was before 4.) The world's population is growing. The climate is getting warmer. reckoning is here already? 2. KIRBY Alex: The Overcrowded Ark Comprehension 1. How does industrialisation affect population growth and environmental standards? 5. in other words. such as a decision. to depend on something in order to continue to live or exist > Using the text you have just Cir Language focus Present progressive We can use the present continuous tense in three important ways to talk about temporary situations. 1 At the moment ram enjoying the lesson. a situation in which there is not enough of something 5. 3 We use the present progressive for changing and developing situations. (NOT The climate gets vparmer. with the focus on the present moment. to desire and work towards achieving something important 3. We don't have enough Earths for this sort of consumer capitalism.> Say what is happening to some of the following. the sceptics say.But if "development" means every person on the planet aspiring to own a car. sustainable development means not using up resources faster than the Earth can replenish them "treating the Earth as if we intended to stay". How do you understand the sentence: How much longer can the rich keep their feet dry? 3. we may as well forget it. What does it mean that we are drawing from a finite account? Can you find other expression from the field of finance? 4.
which meets every year. local actions can lead to the solution of global problems. 1992 1997 Kyoto Climate Change Protocol In 1997. publishes a report Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) which brings the concept of sustainable development onto the international agenda. Agenda 21 Galls on countries to reduce pollution.. It also provides the most commonly used definition of sustainable development describing it as development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs.the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Are you prepared to voluntarily reduce what you consume in order to meet the needs of poor people? A BRIEF HISTORY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1960s The industrialised world first became interested in the concept in the 1960s. Also agreed is a plan of action. The World Commission on Environment and Development chaired by the Prime Minister of Norway. In the following years a number of publications including Paul Erlich's Population Bomb (1968) and the Club of Rome's Limits to Growth (1972) drew attention to global development issues.. governments met in Kyoto. The Summit agrees the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which sets out 27 principles supporting sustainable development. 7 . 1987 Nearly 180 countries meet at the 'Earth Summit' (UN Conference on Environment and Development) in Rio de Janeiro to discuss how to achieve sustainable development. emissions of six major greenhouse gases must be reduced to below 1990 levels for the target period 2008-2012. The Earth Summit also establishes the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Do you agree that the industrial world needs more wealth to protect the environment and that is why the richest country in the world is not willing to sign the Kyoto treaty? 4. In this way. Communication 1. countries met to review progress towards sustainable development. Agenda 21. Do you agree that you can only get the developing world to care about the environment once they " get rich enough to be like us? 2. Governments need to lead this change but emphasises that everyone can play their part in tackling nonsustainable practices. 2002 Johannesburg 2002 "Rio+10" Ten years after the Rio Earth Summit. Mrs Gro Harlem Brundtland. Many credit Rachel Carson and her book The Silent Spring (1962) as the catalyst for worldwide acknowledgment of environmental problems. Japan to once more look at the problem of global warming and a new set of targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases was agreed. Do you think that economic growth and sustainable development are possible? Are they not pulling apart? 3. and a recommendation that all countries should produce national sustainable development strategies. as well as important UN bodies . By 2012. emissions and the use of precious natural resources.
11·'1 a e 1 What the world got: (Negative) to provld~ !JOINer to the t'.. wfth an -effec~ tlvi? transftion plan ttl assist developIng countries' economies. Ene:rgyand climate b . )...The conference focused on poverty and the access to safe drinking water and sanitation. ? 40 000 participants from 191 countries took part in the Johannesburg the cost was 50 million dollars. • To increase the use of sustainable energy sources and restore depleted fish stocks.A.g".. I • Thlsr repo .n. development *' A comrnitmentfrem cowltrfe$ to set domestic renewabl-e en..l. summit... to ).Le. '..Apart from Greenpeace which other environmental organizations do you know? 'What do you think about their activities? Do they playa positive role? 8 .·1.2 billion..""""'''''....an1ty . .aX:n. Teacher:..1 · " l...vobillion :Inthe WiJrlt! currently vvithouteiectridty. b···... It agreed several aims.ce .'What makes a conference successful? Is it the number of attendees? The number of resolutions? Do you think the Earth Summit was successful? Look at this Greenpeace report.• "'"Earth .Summ."" .rgy t.i .l. * A COmrnitm-ent frorn inaustr[alaseO countries '" Commitment to new renew"ble financing for to-an imrnedlate of 20 percent of their energy' sector lending to renewable :I: .o. .. including: • To reduce the number of people that are not connected to clean drinking water supplies from over 1 billion to 500 million by the year 2015. cort'irt1ltrnent from aHoountries to phase out suiJsidies t() fossil Cifidnudear inc!lJsWes " currently estimated at abollt$25n billion (US) per 'I'ear ~ with 10 years...... • To halve the number of people without proper sanitation to 1. Is its critical tone Justified? Class:. f' "s.··...ongs to .. 1 a ..rgets of 20 WIthin 10 Teachers comments: !tlus t t11. Did you know ."" .' IS • crt e.
Governments have a key role in promoting sustainable development. They enter into commitments. .. Sustainable development is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone now and for generations to come by: a) Considering the long term implications of our decisions. which can act as economic incentives.unable to continue at the same rate or in the same way sustainably. . adj. to live sustainably sustainability.e. for example to prepare national programs to contain greenhouse gas emissions. social. making policy and providing coordination. transport). Extend your vocabulary sustain. social dimensions of sustainability 9 . Protecting the environment and using resources Recognising the needs c. g. But governments or even local government cannot make sustainable development happen on their own. They are responsible for setting the direction. and b) Giving equal weight to the environmental.. n .able to continue without causing damage to the environment unsustainable. g. and economic dimensions of development. .HOW COULD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BE ACHIEVED? > Read the text and find out who can make sustainable development happen and which objectives should be integrated. In developing sustainable development strategies they have a number of policy tools at their disposal. adj. and direct expenditure programs. v.to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time sustainable.e. adv.. These include tax policies. .<> Figure 1: Sustainable development incorporates three dimensions Action must be taken by all and at all levels.. which seek to balance environmental concerns with social and economic needs (for example.feverjone SocJa! ICtr""".. legislation and regulation to promote good practice and discourage bad. For sustainable development to happen individuals need to see that the issues relating to sustainability are relevant to them and they need to be able to see what they can easily do to contribute to more sustainable development.
Then we can compare that area with the area necessary for us to produce food. score 4 Do you think we're too obsessive about personal hygiene? If you take a shower once a week.. score 2 Alternatively. score 1 If you use your dishwasher every day or every other day. for example in the United States. score 30 WHERE YOU LIVE How many people live in your home? We will divide your score for this section by the number of people sharing and round up the answer. score 7 a terraced house. score 85 Or do you eat mostly vegetarian dishes? If so. host our infrastructure. If your home is . do you buy more heavily packaged and processed items and not even bother to look at where food comes from? If the answer is yes..your ecological footprint.such as bread. absorb C02. vegetables and meat? If yes. "IS ONE PLANET ENOUGH?" WATER Have you had a bath every day this week? If yes. a flat with just enough room to swing a cat.What is ecological footprint? The ecological footprint is a very simple tool to tell us how much nature do we have. fibres.Find out how much land is needed to support your lifestyle . score 15 Or. score 2 or Do you shower every day rather than have a bath? If so. do you water the garden or wash the car with a hosepipe? Score 4 FOOD When you last went shopping. score 23 a detached house. score 14 If you have a bath just on Sunday night _. ). score 15 a large and spacious flat. score 12 a semi-detached house. do you search out food that comes from closer to home? If you are successful at least part of the time.. Pick the answers that best apply to you. And when we add it up. What sort of food do you eat? Do you insist on meat with every meal? If so. That means that if everyone lived like an American. score 6 On hot. If we divide the planet's ecological capacity by the number of people what we get is about 2 hectares per person. But we only have one! And some of it we should leave for other species. it would take about six planets. it adds up to roughly 9 to 10 hectares of ecological capacity to provide for an average American. how much do we use. sunny summer days. did you buy only locally produced fresh products . score 5 And.._ twice a week. score 33 a semi-detached house 10 .
buying less or reusing things then subtract 15 11 . score 3 4-by-4 PAPER The last book you read. a wood will have to be planted. score 40 Or do you drive a big 4-by-4? Score 75 If your car is something between these two. So. Do you set the thermostat down low. which releases carbon dioxide. so start this section with a score of 75 Do you always switch off the lights if a room is no longer in use? If yes. score 85 If. subtract 10 ELECTRICITY If your power comes from only renewable sources. subtract another 15 If your home is double glazed. start this section with a score of45 On the bright side. score 10 WASTE To dispose of waste. To soak up this greenhouse gas. So. small-engined car? If so. score 20 If you flew to Asia or the Americas. generating your electricity releases carbon dioxide. subtract 8 Are you keen on composting the organic waste left over from the kitchen and garden? If so. score 50 Do you take a bus or train. subtract 10 DAILY TRAVEL Did you drive to college today? Is your car a modem. subtract 10 Do you recycle your plastic containers? If so. score 10 HEATING YOUR HOUSE The heat that keeps you warm probably comes from burning fossil fuel. did you borrow or buy it? If you always buy. score 2 and skip to the next section.score 10 For people outside Britain: If you took at least one long-haul flight. score 5 If you bin your newspapers when you have finished with them. rather than travel by car? If so. subtract 5 If you avoid_generating waste by. start this section with a score of 100 Have you visited the bottle bank in the past month to drop off your empties? If you have. instead. say. score 2 If you always borrow. score 25 If you are fortunate enough to cycle to work or college.HOLIDAY (and business) Where did you go last year? If you flew to Australia. score 85 If you stayed near home. subtract 5 Do you only turn on the heating when absolutely necessary rather than keeping it on the timer all year round? If so. subtract 17 If you keep used cans apart and recycle them. For everyone else. preferring to add another layer of clothing before turning it up? If so. or beyond score 155 Or did you fly to Europe. subtract 10 Computers. you went by road or rail to Europe . using up precious land. subtract 15 If you separate out waste paper for recycling. you get to subtract some points. score 1 Do you always share your newspapers and magazines? If so. you're once again going to use up valuable land.including Slovakia . score 0 If it's half and half. TVs and hi-fis can now be left on standby. If you shun this setting and switch these devices right off. subtract 5 If your home is well insulated.
i. we would need two additional planets to support us! About 7 per cent of the world's population falls into this category. we would need to find three additional planets.to take a number or an amount from a larger number or amount sustain v . to take account of this. Many of the amenities you use every day. If everyone lived like you.to reduce something in amount equitable ad} . double your score..800 Your footprint is above the European average but still below that of the average North American. This is about three times greater than the Earth share. to cause something to exist host v . this is still around twice the average Earth share.to stop commitment n . About 3 per cent of the world population falls into this category.to deliberately avoid someone or something subtract v .the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs deplete v . If everyone lived like you. People who consume more tend to rely more on these amenities.to provide the place and everything that is needed for an organized event implication n .. However.400 Your footprint is below the European average.a possible future effect or result of an action. About 15 per cent of the world's population falls into this category. a score of 350 is equal to CALCULATE YOUR SCORE! If your score is: 200 .600 Your footprint is close to the European average. decision etc incentive n .something that makes a place comfortable or easy to live in cease v . we would need at least one "extra" planet to support consumption. 2 when too much attention is given to buying and owning things: consumption n .the area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population at a specified standard of living indefinitely.AND FINALLY .someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something: reckoning n .to produce.make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time 12 .something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts agree v .a situation in which there is not enough of something shun v . So.a time when the effect of a past mistake is experienced or when a crime is punished replenish v .to fill something up again scarcity n . agree a plan amenity n . using prevailing technology fiuite ad} -limited gap n .a difference between two things generate v .treating all people in a fair and equal way ecological footprint n . for example. rather than being brought there from somewhere else.5 hectares) of a hectare. start a new activity etc indigenous people or things have always been in the place where they are.to make a decision with someone after a discussion with them. make their own demands on land. native ingenuity n . (Each "point" in your score is equal to one-hundredth about 3.something that encourages you to work harder.1 the state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold. from roads to shops and buildings. If everyone on the planet lived like you.a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way consumerism n . If your score is: 400 . event. ~ Glossary achievement n . So. If your score is: 600 . f.
where Gro Harlem's father served as an expert on rehabilitation for the United Nations. By profession. At the Ministry she specialized in children's health issues. Do you know any other environmentalists who have made a difference? Before you start reading. including breastfeeding. As a newly qualified doctor herself. 4. Alongside this early career in medicine. Gro Harlem's career ambition was to follow in her father's footsteps. which were later to bring her fame in the international arena of global environmental thinking. She led her party to election victory three times. she won a scholarship to Harvard School of Public Health. She is noted for being the first woman and the youngest person in the country to hold this post. her great interest in public health issues and environmental concerns. Gro Brundtland pursued her other great interest in public life. 2. cancer prevention and other diseases. In 1965 Dr Brundtland returned to Norway. There. he was a doctor. to to to to to commence champion nurture encompass pursue a) b) c) d) e) follow start include foster. 13 . on 20 April 1939. to commence a nine-year period of working in the Ministry of Health and other positions in the medical field in Oslo. sustain advocate GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND (1939 -) Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland was born in Oslo. a specialist in rehabilitation medicine. Norway. look at the following words and try to match them with their synonyms: l. 3.UNIT 2 OUR COMMON FUTURE Warm up You are going to read about Gro Harlem Brundtland. In 1974 Dr Brundtland was offered and accepted the post of Minister of the Environment. Her commitment both to the Labour Party and also to a vision of health which extends beyond the medical world to encompass environmental issues and human development were the motivational factors leading to a change of career. At the age of 10 she moved with her family to the United States. She also worked in the children's department of the National Hospital and Oslo City Hospital and became Director of Health Services for Oslo's school-age children. was nurtured and developed as she worked alongside distinguished public health experts. namely party politics. From childhood. the family moved to Egypt. In 1981. at the age of 41. A few years later. 5. where her father had been awarded a Rockefeller Scholarship. one of the most important figures in the Environment. and indeed a young mother. she was appointed Prime Minister of Norway. and was Head of Government for more than ten years.
It was during the 1980s. to on in away for 111 If you are not on for Several books drew attention global development issues. sure go back to the text. 6. 4. debated and held public hearings on five continents over almost three years. In 1983 the then United Nations Secretary General invited her to establish and chair the World Commission on Environment and Development. these questions. politician. 7. he was a specialist rehabilitation medicine. In what countries did Gro spend her childhood and youth? How old was she when she returned to Norway and what field did she work in? What were the most important interests in her life? Why did she decide to change her career of Director of Health Services? What was so remarkable at her appointment as Prime Minister? What did she gain international recognition for? What was the task of the World Commission on Environment and Development she chaired? What is the Commission best known for and what major event did it inspire? :> 1 Choose words from the box to make collocations with the verbs: to to to to to commence: champion: nurture: encompass: pursue: interests task career period issues reform ambitions the principle of sustainable development :> 2 Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with a suitable prepositions from the box. Everyone can play their part tackling non-sustainable practices. 5. From: Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment Comprehension :> Answer 1. medical doctor and Master of Public Health. studied. 'energetic and committed' and 'a master survivor'. The Commission engaged in a great deal of empirical research and debate. includes a widely quoted definition of sustainable development. to suggest ways into the twenty first century that would allow the planet's rapidly growing population to meet its basic needs and to come up with a 'global agenda for change'. variously described as 'tough and efficient'. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland. 5. perhaps for the first time in a globally promoted document. The summit had moved from issues like biodiversity and climate change to tackling poverty and poor living conditions. The final Report. continues on her life's pathway in a position where her undoubted talents as doctor. composed of ministers. Our Common Future. when Prime Minister. and promotes the view. 2. 3. 14 . that conservation and development can co-exist. she gained international recognition for championing and promoting the principle of sustainable development. in 1.Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland. or Brundtland Commission. Its daunting task was to investigate the state of the world. 2. Agenda 21 calls countries to reduce pollution. activist and manager can come together in the shaping of global policy on health and the environment. 8. The WCED. 3. included individuals from twenty-two nations. Gro Harlem's father served as an expert rehabilitation. diplomats and law makers. 6. The group. thus spent ten years as eminent physician and scientist in the Norwegian public health system and more than 20 years in senior public office. 4. scientists. By profession. consisting of almost 400 pages.
before. 8. experiences. a young scientist called Francis Crick rushed into his local pub in Cambridge and triumphantly declared that he and his colleague. The report launched in 1992. the family moved to Egypt. Midwest Academy 15 . we usually put these events in chronological order with the past simple. by the time. 3. James Watson. where Gro Harlem's father served as an expert on rehabilitation for the United Nations.) + past participle (gone. By late 1989 the Report had been published in seventeen languages and had generated many other publications. 1. 2. One lunchtime in March 1953. seen. where her father had been awarded a Rockefeller Scholarship. concluded that progress had been made in many areas. adapted from Organizing for Social Change.7. and Watson. like self-confidence. finished etc. C With already and just (a very short time before). not the past simple. and organizational wisdom and direction. B When we use a time expression. it happened before the last event we have talked about . Crick and Watson met in 1951 at the Medical Research Council's Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. had just arrived from America to work on another project. isn't achieved by taking a pill or reading a book. had just discovered 'the secret of life'. A Centre for Our Common Future was established in Geneva. r:jfJ= Language focus had (I'd etc.we use past perfect. If we see how our work supports and contributes to the larger vision. was working on a study of haemoglobin crystals. 4. When the doctor came.that is. A·sense of vision grows out of a set of values. She is noted being the first woman to hold the post. an American and 12 years his junior. In 1974 she was offered and accepted the post of Minister of the Environment. to say that one event happened after another. Gro Brundtland commitment to a vision of health which extends beyond the medical world to encompass environmental issues and human development were the motivational factors leading to a change of career. individual reflections." from: The Importance of Vision. Decide why the past perfect or past simple were used in each case. A few years later. She gained international recognition championing and promoting the principle of sustainable development. then 35. "Vision. the patient had died. He had never flown before. The Commission engaged a great deal of empirical research and debate. where Crick. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. She had just stepped into her office when the telephone rang. such as when. » Study the use of the past perfect and past simple in these short extracts. D The past perfect can emphasize completion.) PAST PERFECT and PAST SIMPLE I/we/they/you/he/she/it A When we give an account of a sequence of past events. we use the past perfect. 5. we use the past simple or past perfect for the event that happened first and the past simple for the event that happened second. If we want to refer to an event out of order . 1 began collecting stamps in June and by July 1had collected more than 1000. our work will seem more meaningful. 9. At the age of 10 Gro moved with her family to the United States.
. but rather a process of change . Britain has £1. the sentences with the words from the box. . 4. to be willing to give time! energy to do sth pledge ... Work in groups." Gro Harlem Brundtland: Our Common Future The Brundtland Report brought the concept of sustainable development onto the international agenda and inspired the planning of a Conference on Environment and Development to take place in 1992 in Rio de Jainero.to ensure that it meets the needs "Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus.. in the final analysis. how would you describe her personality ? What qualities of character do you think an environmentalist should have? Choose from the box below and compare your answers with a colleague. We do not pretend that the process is easy or straightforward... kind generous optimistic honest energetic bright determined enthusiastic committed hard-working reliable clever flexible efficient ambitious pleasant self-confident shy punctual tough competent capable indifferent easy-going understanding extrovert 3. sustainable development must rest on political will.engage in. The Commission believes that widespread poverty is no longer inevitable . Based on the text you read about Gro Brundtland. Extend your vocabulary to to to to commit oneself .. 4. 16 'I .Communication 1. Technology and social organisation can be both managed and improved to make way for a new era of economic growth. Meeting them doesn't us to anything.3 million to the UN for refugee work. 2.promise solemnly and formally pursue .to bind. Is there a quality you do not have but would like to have? What personality trait does the quotation below reflect? What is its message? Was the Commission successful in their efforts? . Painful choices have to be made. to obligate. A world in which poverty is endemic will always be prone to ecological and other catastrophes .. 3. Sustainable development is not a fixed state of harmony. Choose three adjectives from the box which describe you. try to achieve sth promote . 2. How can we most effectively these aims? The City council could do more to recycling.to try to persuade people to support or use something » Complete 1.
UNDP small grant project for SD. the first National Environmental Action Programme (NEAP I) was developed. and NEAP II. which was approved by the SR Government resolution in 2001. Special attention should be paid to Brundtland Town Programme (Rajec). The draft development of the National Strategy of Sustainable Development (NSSD) was preceded by the elaboration of Strategy. People and Water. the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic . Regional Environmental Centre) are very positive. which was approved by the SR Government resolution in 1996. which was approved by the SR Government resolution and by the resolution of the SR National Council of the SR in 1999. This part of the resolution was not fulfilled. helped (MZP SR.together with other central bodies of the State Administration involved . for including the statistic SD indicators in their scope into the Programme of State Statistic Determination of the Statistical Office (SU SR) of the Slovak Republic. At the same time. The ideas of SD or selected parts of local and regional AGENDA 21 have been successfully applied in many villages.SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SLOVAKIA The Slovak Republic has agreed with acceding to Rio Declaration and to AGENDA 21 by the Slovak Government resolution of s= September 1992 No. Principles and Priorities of State Environmental Policy (SSEP). they are gradually being implemented into the education at the universities. companies. 13 towns of the National Healthy Town network participate in the WHO Programme "Healthy Town". the Government has initiated the establishment of the Government Council for SD. projects that are oriented to support the using of renewable energy resources (RER). Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic 17 . from: RIO + 10 Report. lIS. The Programme of the Village Restoring. Kosice and Poprad). The Village Parliament has been founded and many community groups have been working. After SSEP. even though more indicators followed by SU SR are identical with SD indicators. Moreover the particular supervisors of SD indicators should have asked. which had the first meeting in 1999. scientific and research institutes and interest groups (for example Society for Sustainable Living in the SR. Nor the fact that the Slovak Republic was the first state from the associated countries to publish the complete translation of AGENDA 21 and all of 132 SD indicators. annually since 1995.annually develops The Country Profile. towns.the supervisors of SD indicators and AGENDA 21 chapters . Important activities from the point of view of SD include the implementation of ISO 14 000 standard in companies. The Government of the Slovak Republic in the resolution No. 1996). The variety of regional or local activities that are initiated by municipality. 65511997 to the AGENDA 21 proposal applying and evaluating the SD indicators in the Slovak Republic appoint all ministers and other heads of the central bodies of the state administration "to evaluate according to requirements and UNO methods and according to the set supervision the implementation of individual chapters of AGENDA 21 and SD indicators in the Slovak Republic". which is to UNO in the beginning of the 2nd quarter of the year. grammar and basic schools. In accordance with the AGENDA 21 implementation and SD Indicator Evaluation in the SR (1997). universities. There are international activities like Aalborg Charter of SD Towns (in Slovakia Banska Bystrica.
2. From the point of view of sustainable development (SD) which activities were very important? 3. Have you ever heard about the Aalborg Charter? 5. It specifies a framework of control for an Environmental Management System against which an organization can be certified by a third party. These include the following: • • • • • ISO 14004 provides guidance on the development and implementation of environmental management systems 19011 ISO 14010 provides general principles of environmental auditing (now superseded by ISO) ISO 14011 provides specific guidance on audit an environmental management system (now superseded by ISO 19011) ISO 14020+ labeling issues ISO 14040+ covers life cycle issues 18 . ISO 14001 is the corner stone standard of the ISO 14000 series. 5. 1. What is ISO 14000? . ISO 14000 is a series of international standards on environmental management addressing the needs of organizations worldwide by providing a common framework for managing environmental issues. The ideas of SD or selected parts of local and regional AGENDA 21 have been successfully applied in tens of villages. and other organizations that environmental issues have been taken into account in the activities and products of their trading partners. many to help you achieve registration to ISO 14001. scientific and research institutes and interest groups. towns. 4. universities. 3. companies.Comprehension . The Ministry of the Environment annually develops The Country Profile. The ideas of SD are gradually getting into the education at the universities. which is to UNO in the beginning of the 2nd quarter of the year. Positively can be evaluated the variety of regional or local activities that are initiated by municipality. Which regional or local activities can be evaluated very positively? 2. Rewrite the sentences correctly. governments. 1.> Read the text below and explain how ISO 14000 can contribute to better sustainability. The Slovak Repulic as a first state from the associated countries published the complete translation of AGENDA 21.> Each of the sentences below contains an error. What do you know about ISO 14000 standards? 4. How many towns participate in the WHO Programme "Healthy Town"? .> Read the text carefully and answer the following questions. Other standards in the series are actually guidelines. It was developed in order to assure customers. producers.
indigenous people. 3. Social equity and justice . implement and evaluate management schemes aimed at improving urban sustainability.Commitment to promoting sustainable transport. business and industry. Governance . Local to global: Signatories pledge to act to improve sustainability beyond the European Union.Municipalities pledge to preserve natural common goods. examining progress with their LA 21 and local sustainability process.Local governments pledge to increase citizens participation and cooperation with all spheres of governance in their efforts to become more sustainable. Agenda 21 identified 9 Major Groups: women. Natural common goods . children and youth. 7. Local action for health . science and technology. 10. Can it be done? Experience from dialogues developed via the UN Commission for Sustainable Development and the Rio+ 10 review process is positive.Local governments have a duty to protect the health of their citizens. NGOs. Better mobility. including the role of citizens and stakeholders. and farmers. The Aalborg Charter is one of the most famous policy statements for local sustainable development world-wide. social. Local management towards sustainabiIity . Responsible consumption and lifestyle choices . such as THE AALBORG CHARTER. Vibrant and sustainable local economy . around 2300 had signed the Aalborg Charter committing themselves to the fundamental principles of sustainable development. In June 2004 approximately 5000 local governments across Europe had some kind of local sustainable development process in operation. More than 1500 local and regional authorities from 38 countries have committed themselves to the goals of the Aalborg Charter. thereby participating in this unique European Campaign. 8. 4. local authorities. 6. you have a personal interest or involvement in it. What does stakeholder participation mean? A stakeholder is a group or organisation who has influence in a particular area of policy or who is affected by policies. The ten Aalborg Commitments 1. It gave birth to the European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign in 1994.The Slovak Republic is involved in many important international activities and programmes. 19 . We are all stakeholders.Signatories are committed to creating a vibrant local economy that promotes employment without damaging the environment. 5.Commitment to securing inclusive and supportive communities. trade unions. 9. less traffic . economic and health issues. Governing Sustainable Cities The Local Authorities'self-Assessment of Local Agenda (LASALA) project involved a self-assessment exercise with 230 local governments across Europe. Do you have a stake in your locality and its future? If you have a stake in something which is important to you. Planning and design .Urban planning is vital to address environmental. The research demonstrated the significant levels of commitment to the LA21 process and some notable achievements during a very short space of time.Local governments pledge to formulate. 2. Achieving sustainability requires an immense collective effort.Commitment to promoting sustainable consumption.
to bind or obligate. seek to attain or accomplish (an end. NGOs are our future and thanks to them citizens in Dunajska Luzna are starting to change and are more open to new ideas. especially on what will happen in the future stakeholder n . usually public. the Environmental Action Programme for the town includes a section on orgamzmg courses on International Standards Organization (ISO) environmental standards and environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for both officers and politicians. city notable ad} .a solemn binding promise to do sth pledge v . From: Environmental Governance Sourcebook Comprehension 1. e. particularly improving infrastructure in the town.when you judge your own work or progress significant ad} . interesting. municipality n .protection of natural things such as animals. the Community Environmental Association. g. According to a senior politician: an Many civil society organizations are helping to direct Dunajska Luzna to be more sustainable.important.having a tendency to pursue v . they are forming a mosaic of all relevant local issues .. Both civil society and local government respondents concur that there are still major problems to address. or unusual enough to be noticed or mentioned pledge n .. Slovakia In terms of institutional capacity. excellent.having an important effect or influence.deal with. shut down: to decommission a nuclear power plant equity n .to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them conservation n .) self-assessment n .a method or system of government or management. The local authority has set up LA21 commissions to promote sustainability within civil society organizations.to rule governance n .to deactivate.having a good effect call on/upon somebody/something to formally ask someone to do something commit v . as by pledge commit oneself v . forests etc. plants. to prevent them being spoiled or destroyed.a group or organisation who has influence in a particular area of policy or who is affected by policies 20 . which includes the LA21 forum. Which Slovak town took part in LASALA scheme and with what results? ~ Glossary address v . In addition. however.to make a formal. town.to help something to develop or increase. is seen as an important link between local government and the civil society. the mayor is seen as important driving force for sustainable development. object. promise that you will do something promote v . preservation decommission v .administrative district. What is the goal of the Aalborg Charter? 3.to strive to gain. address the needs beneficial ad} . In your own words try to explain briefly to your partner what ISO 14000 standards are? 2. to encourage prone to ad} .engage oneself concur v . and the civil society responses suggest that the input of the university in terms of technical expertise is beneficial for the development of sustainable planning. purpose.a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage govern v .CASE STUDY: Dunajska Luzna. etc.
Efficiency improvements alone could cut energy needs by as much as 30 per cent at virtually no extra cost. have responded by lobbying governments to regulate emissions of greenhouse gases. Slovakia will have as many wind farms as Austria. 1. In the longer term. Some maintain that higher temperatures. (This number will rise as the global population increases. 3. worried that warming could ultimately "bankrupt the industry". And. And. emission reductions of up to 60 per cent "are technically feasible". which have a lot to lose should weather patterns become more extreme.UNIT 3 GLOBAL WARMING Warmup Do you agree with the following statements? Compare your opinions with your neighbour's. in the short term it might not prove that difficult. with significant loss of life". Transition words for predicting: in the future.. For one thing. not all scientists are convinced that human-influenced warming actually affects the climate. All of us will have air-conditioning in our homes. This view is not supported by insurance companies. causing "wide-ranging and mostly adverse impacts on human health. in developed countries.. which have a cooling effect. might produce more clouds.Make two more personal predictions using transition words from the box. The living standard in Slovakia will be the same as in the Czech Republic. which increase evaporation and lead to heavier rainfall. I will be married. less environmentally damaging energy sources. I will have a well-paid job. after a while.5 degrees Celsius. which swept across large parts of the US last year. Reducing harmful emissions is just one area in which the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel is decidedly optimistic. 21 . eventually. later. Hurricane Andrew. gradually. Tropical diseases would almost certainly spread northwards. global temperatures are expected to rise by between 0. before long. harmful emissions will be reduced as the world changes over to cheaper. leaving little to change the climate. cost insurance companies 16. as well as droughts in other areas. say many scientists.8 and 3. and. but such an increase in temperature would cause a rise in sea levels large enough to put the lives of up to 100 million people at risk. could spark off mass migrations as areas become uninhabitable.) Widespread flooding. 4. by 2010 ). 5. Insurers. W ReadingJ By the year 2100. one day. That may not seem like much.5 dollars in damage claims. 2. In five years . However. hurricanes will become more frequent in a warmer world. oceans might absorb most of the increased heat.
The first stems from the uncertainty about how hot the planet is going to get and the time scale involved. It is difficult to get people to act when predictions may take between 50 and 100 years to materialise. (slightly less strong than spark off) The new law has brought about lIed to great changes in education (often used for political/social change) This problems stems from the inflation of recent years. ). reactions to events) The President's statement gave rise to / provoked / generated a lot of critism. (explaining the direct origin of events and states) )-1Retell the main points of the article using some of the learned" cause" words. these words with the definitions below. 3. 4. Use the context to help you. And what should the developing world do? Should it reduce emissions. May 1996 Comprehension ).2 Underline all predictions you can find in the article. perhaps violent. The rise in prices sparked off a lot of political protest (often used for very strong. 2. who face elections every half decade or so. why is almost nothing being done? There are two main reasons.If it is economically and technically feasible to reduce harmful emissions. 6. 5. preventative action against a future threat carries heavy political risks. and suffer the consequences. a) to be the cause of trouble or violence b) to develop as a result of something else c) a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live d) to feel certain that something is true e) unfavourable f) possible. 7.Read the text carefully and answer these questions: a) b) c) d) What does the rise in temperature cause? Why is the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel optimistic? Do you agree that you can cut energy needs at no extra cost? Why is it so difficult to reduce harmful emissions? Vocabulary » 1Match 1. because of mistakes made by the developed world? BBe English. For politicians. likely to work g) so nearly that any difference is not important droughts spark off adverse be convinced feasible virtually stem from Extend you vocabulary Cause and reason words Here are some "cause" words and typical contexts they are used in. 22 .
r::iT' Language focus Using English to Predict The goal of all scientific investigation is to predict the future." he says. given Dr Lomborg's reading of the statistics. m ReadingII ~ Global warming'? Got to admit it's getting better In his famous and rather controversial book The Skeptical Environmentalist academic Bjorn Lomborg has examined reputable statistics on climate change and the so-called "greenhouse effect" only to conclude that the Kyoto Treaty would cost $4 trillion to adopt. and these are difficult to predict. The health of millions could be threatened by increases in malaria. Possibility (may. "It looks benign because we're doing good. and the oceans will warm. rather than 200 lives in the health sector?" Dr Lomborg asks. could) This may launch a debate in Washington that could have an impact on the administration. but only postpone a 2C temperature rise by a mere six years. To save a life via medical means costs around $19.200 islands are no more than 1m above sea level. probably) There are. and is based on the assumption that what we can predict. Climate change could be afar worse threat than terrorism. Dr Lomborg says those painting a grim picture of the environment have largely gone unchallenged. but the downside is that there are less resources to spend elsewhere. water-borne disease and malnutrition. 23 .making the people the first refugees of global warming.000. whether we speak about global warming. To express prediction we can use: Future with "will" Polar and glacial ice will melt. "Is it reasonable that we save one human life in the environment. Probability (be likely to. Within 100 years the Maldives could become uninhabitable since 80 % of its 1. Higher temperatures might produce more clouds. Hypothetical nature (would) Tropical diseases would almost certainly spread northwards. Headlines gloomily predicting environmental collapse are causing society to spend vast sums of money on problems whose seriousness is greatly overblown. skewing the public's understanding of green issues in a way not supported by the available data. Prediction is an essential part of environment science. Future continuous (will be + present participle) Soon an Alaskan village will be relocating to the mainland . likely to be very strong regional variations. might.2 ill. however. protecting biodiversity or population crisis. we can protect ourselves against. to stop someone dying due to an environmental hazard involves an investment of some $4.
especially something that they had been thinking of doing the negative side of something an idea. "This is not just something I believe. 3. 6. 4. 4. the sentences with words from exercise 1: There were outbreaks of rioting in the region When I saw their faces. 7." Breathe easy: Air quality has . 6. 2. 3. the figures."It's sensible not to trustindustry. 9. 4. The of the plan is that we lose a lot of time. "I expected a hostile response. 3." For ordinary people walking litter-strewn. but if there are lots of expert opinions on a level playing field we tend to get pretty close. 2. there's data for this. All the people we questioned lived in the same area. Vocabulary :> 1 Find these l. 5. who makes a point of only using figures collected by bodies such as the United Nations "organisations we typically all trust". The problem is that on environmental issues we have not had a level playing field. Complexity makes ith~dei to make the right decisions. 5. but the academic's attempt to let the figures speak for themselves has provoked the ire of environmentalists. 5. 8. countries etc can all compete fairly with each other because no one has special advantages in or to another place to scatter things around a large area :> 2 Complete 1. I knew something was wrong. car exhaust-filled city streets. improved in London Comprehension 1. The President has adopted a tough on terrorism. which had the effect of The yard was with garbage. 2. 24 . belief or opinion. words in the text and choose the correct meaning: a) b) c) d) e) f) notion downside elsewhere to anger grim to prompt stance to strew a level playing field g) h) i) j) to affect a test or an attempt to get information in a way that makes the results incorrect sad because you think the situation will not improve to make someone angry an opinion that is stated publicly to make someone decide to do something. Does Bjorn Lomborg have an optimistic or pessimistic view of the future? What does he base his opinions on? How did environmentalists react to his ideas? Would you say that the author of the article is neutral or biased? Note down any phrases which can support your opinion. Dr Lomborg'sstatistical revelations may come as a pleasant surprise. but we should be equally wary of the green movement. especially one that is false or not very clear a situation in which different companies." says Dr Lomborg.
Then write your answer to Bjorn Lomborg or to newspapers... I'm afraid that just isn't the case. XY on this matter.dkJ Useful phrases to express your opinion: In my opinion . N. Bjorn Lomborg and some of his most provocative pronouncements. 9. eradicate. Try to find relevant information on the Internet to support your views... Ifind it. disgraceful. Australia and the USA. 1. To my mind . 2. 8.comJ: http://www. 3.7.grcenspirit. indulge. take notes concerning the following points: 25 r ...lomborg. bully. heap.. I do not agree with the that human beings are basically good. write off > 1 While listening. Her situation me to do something about getting a new job.. 4.B. Listening You are going to listen to several Environmentalist.. On February the 16t\ the Kyoto protocol entered into force around the world. reactions to Bjorn Lomborg' s controversial book: Sceptical Make sure that you understand these words: detrimental.. Notable because these are the only members of the OEeD who have not joined and the two countries have two of the highest levels of carbon emissions per capita. What me most was his total lack of remorse. 10. I share your view. As far as I'm concerned . with two notable countries refusing to join. .. I think he is right! he is wrong .. The world's species are not disappearing at an alarming rate The Kyoto Protocol is an expensive waste of money Acid rain does not kill forests Higher estimates of temperature increases are "plainly unlikely" RS Writing task • What are your views on the matter? Consider the above topics and choose the one which interests you the most.. I'm sorry I couldn't go along with that. I'm afraid I can't agree with Mr.comJlombond http://www. http://www. It's not really a when one country is subsidizing its car industry with massive government grants.lomborg-crrors.
We are an intelligent enough species to how to live sustainably. it affects the results.an idea. scandalous downside v . a huge difference. belief. his position . make fearful convince v .to make someone decide to do something skew v . practically write off v . or to another place eradicate v .to be the cause of something. I have been to global warming as "statistically irrelevant localised average temperature variation" for ages. his bias: does he agree with Bjorn Lomborg or is he critical to his opinions? 3.if something skews the results of a test etc.to scatter things around a large area virtually adv .to give someone a lot of something indulge in v . idea. important or successful 26 .in. or opinion plainly adv . the nature of the problem the speaker refers to 2. a step ~ Glossary adverse adj .a situation in which different people. Bjorn Lomborg argues that the Kyoto Protocol will .is he a specialist or not :> 2 How many speakers agreed with Lomborg's views? :> 3 According 1. 5. HELP: recognize. companies. etc can all compete fairly because no one has special advantages notion n .not good or favourable anger v . at. especially trouble or violence stance n .be bossy towards. refer.almost. 3. or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work grim adj .to develop as a result of something else strew v . annoy bring about v . make no diference. If we can cut down on this pollution then we would see a in our health and the conditions in which we all live.to persuade someone to do something detrimental a . making them incorrect spark off v . to cause bully v . intimidate.1.causing harm or injury disgraceful a .looking or sounding very serious heap v .enjoy to excess level playing field . 6.shameful. We have to see Kyoto as to an overall reduction in C02 emissions below their 1990 levels. work out.a plan.the negative part or disadvantage of something elsewhere adv .to make something happen.to decide that a particular thing will not be useful.an opinion that is stated publicly stem from v . to what you have heard fill in the gaps with words that best express the idea of the sentence.eliminate. wipe out feasible adj . It's about time someone that saving a few trees in Brazil is not going to save the world.in a way that is easy to understand or recognize prompt v . countries. 4. 2.to make someone angry.
5 million and 1. f) a term for an ideal condition in which the interrelationships of organisms to one another and their environment appear harmonious.plants. Yet this impressive achievement is only a small beginning. the rain forests are losing an area about the size of Switzerland each year. Biologists who explore biodiversity see it vanishing before their eyes. which interact which each other c) the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs d) the variety of all life forms on Earth . biodiversity 2. whose numbers declined to the point where the last member of the species died and therefore no new members of the species could ever be born again. the extinction rate of species and races is everywhere rising. How much biodiversity is there? Biologists have described a total of between 1. such as a plant or animal. but also the birthrate of new species has declined as the natural environment is destroyed. people. Throughout most of geological time. a) b) m Reading Earth's biodiversity (short for biological diversity) is organized into three levels. individual species and their immediate descendants lived an average of about 1 million years. Estimates of the true number of living species range. including coral reefs (two thirds degraded) and salt marshes and mangrove swamps (half eliminated or radically altered).UNIT 4 VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES Match the key terms of this unit with the correct definition. maintaining a rough equilibrium. 27 . They generally agree that the rate of species extinction is now 100 to 1. Next down are the species that compose the ecosystems: swallowtail butterflies. They disappeared naturally at the rate of about one species per million per year. from 3. 3.000 times as great as it was before the coming of humanity. 1. With other rich environments under similar assault. The principal cause of both extinction and the slowing of evolution is the degrading and destruction of habitats by human action. coral reefs and lakes. animals and microorganisms e) the ceasing to exist of a species or a living organism.8 million species. No longer. moray eels. At the bottom are the variety of genes making up the heredity of each species.6 million to more than 100 million. While covering only 6 % of Earth's land surface. such as rain forests. and newly evolved species replaced them at the same rate. 6. Compare the results with your partner. the basic unit of biological classification the whole complex of living and non-living components in any given area. 4. species ecosystem equilibrium habitat extinction 5. Not only has the extinction rate soared. according to the method employed. At the top are the ecosystems.
Researchers of biodiversity agree that we are in the midst of the seventh mass extinction. that survived and reproduced rapidly to fill the habitable spaces emptied of other life. from the 28 . albeit very slowly. Even if the current rate of habitat destruction were to continue in forests and coral reefs alone. Tens of thousands of species of the world's still surviving flora can be bred or provide genes to increase production in deserts. across 2 million to 5 million or more years. not just the resident master and economic maximizer. There was a bloom of a small number of "disaster species" such as fungi and ferns. There are reasons to be warily optimistic that biodiversity may be salvageable. Similarly. ozone depletion and pollution combined. having been able to spread from isolated pockets difficult to detect.maize. From the coastal sage of California to the rain forests of West Africa. First. these species have devised myriad ways to combat microbes and cancer-causing runaway cells. The last and most famous. I am convinced. life as a whole evolved again to its full. including protection of biodiversity. from early Cambrian times.millions . with disaster species such as fire ants and house mice widely spread. but also faunas and floras would look much the same over large paris of the world. ended the age of dinosaurs. Every species is a masterpiece. Conservation experts now give top priority to "hot spots. which give hope that a great deal can be accomplished in a short span of time. The reason is to be found in the principles of evolutionary biology. Whether it happens in time depends fundamentally on the shift to a new ethic. the hottest of the terrestrial hot spots occupy only 1. wheat and rice . if nothing else. half the species of plants and animals would be gone by the end of the 21st century. Natural pharmaceuticals offered by biodiversity are also underutilized. Caught in an endless arms race. We have scarcely begun to consult them for the experience stored in their genes." pockets of wild nature that contain high concentrations of endangered species. people have cultivated or gathered 7. has been added). Success also depends on attention to sustainable management of the environment. Why? For practical reasons.supply more than half.of other species is an unfathomed reservoir of new and potentially more effective substances. pain killers and blood thinners. These catastrophes followed a typical sequence. Not only would there be many fewer life forms. That change of heart has begun in most countries among a few farsighted leaders and a growing part of the general public. anticancer agents. Only a few hundred wild species have served to stock our antibiotics. the loss of biodiversity will be more consequential to humanity than all of present-day global warming. Our descendants would inherit a biologically impoverished and homogenized world. Throughout history.000 plant species for food. Humanity would then have to wait millions of years for natural evolution to replace what was lost in a single century. swallowtail butterfly (Papilio glaucas) In the long term.4 % of the world's land surface yet are the exclusive home of more than a third of the terrestrial plant and vertebrate species. a few "Lazarus species" reappeared in localities from which they had been wiped out. which occurred 65 million years ago and was caused by a giant meteorite strike off the present-day coast of Yucatan. exquisitely adapted to the particular environment in which it has survived for thousands to millions of years. original variety. Then. a large part of biodiversity was destroyed. saline flats and other marginal habitats. Humanity'S food supply comes from a dangerously narrow sliver of biodiversity. which sees humanity as part of the biosphere and its faithful steward. The biochemistry of the vast majority . As more time passed.Paleontologists recognize six previous mass-extinction events during the past half-billion years (the number was until recently believed to be five. but now another. Today only 20 species provide 90 % of the world's food and three . very slowly.
streams of Appalachia to the Philippine coral reefs, aquatic hot spots occupy a tiny fraction of the shallow water surface. This much of the world can be set aside quickly without crippling economic or social consequences. More difficult but equally important are the preservation and long-term nondestructive use of the remaining fragments of the old-growth forests, including the tropical wildernesses of Asia, Central Africa and Latin America. None of this will be easy, but no great goal ever was. Surely nothing can be more important than to secure the future of the rest of life and thereby to safeguard our own.
Edward O. Wilson, Time, Earth day 2000
Mangrove swamps are found along tropical seacoasts on both sides of the equator. To most people, they look like muddy, swampy places filled with mosquitoes, snakes and spiders. Actually, they are a forest community that bridges the gap between land and sea. Mangrove root systems provide a filtering system allowing the sediments to be removed before entering open water. This sediment would otherwise cover and kill coral reef colonies. The tsunami left less destruction in regions protected by mangroves.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What three types of biodiversity do we know? How did dinosaurs become extinct? Which are the richest environments? What makes scientists think that we are in the midst of the seventh mass extinction? What is the main cause of extinction? Why is it necessary to protect biodiversity? Why might the loss of biodiversity be more significant than global warming and ozone depletion? Can biodiversity be saved? If yes, under what conditions?
>- 1Find the following
words in the text and choose the most suitable expression to describe them. a) impossible to understand b) not capable of being measured c) unexplored, unmeasured capable of being saved b) manageable b) owner of the house
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
salvageable steward resident master assault safeguard
a) manager of the house a)
someone who rules a country only for a limited period b) occupier a) rapt c) violation b) attack a) protect b) escort safely c) save
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Biodiversity hotspots
The concept of the threatened biodiversity hotspots was first developed in 1988 by British ecologist Dr. Norman Myers, and was adopted and has been used by Conservation International and the MacArthur Foundation since 1989. To qualify as a hotspot, an area must contain 0.5 % of the global total of vascular plants (estimated at 300,000 species), or 1,500 species, as endemics. The second major criterion for hotspot status is degree of threat. In order to be included on the list on the basis of this criterion, an area must have lost 70 % or more of its original natural vegetation, leaving 30 % or less in intact condition. The threat criterion enables to distinguish between areas with high diversity and endemism under severe threat (Madagascar and the Philippines) and those with equal or higher diversity and endemism but still largely intact, the so-called major tropical wilderness areas (Amazonia, the Congo forests of Central Africa and New Guinea). Together, the hotspots once occupied a land area of 17,541,969 km', or 11.8 % of the planet's land surface - roughly an area the size of Russia. Cumulatively, they have lost 88 % of this area, meaning that only 12 % of the original extent, remains intact. This represents just 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet, a relatively smaIl area that is equivalent to the American states of Alaska and Texas combined, or about four times the area of France. The overall conclusions of the hotspots analysis are simple and obvious. If we have 44.4 % of all plants and 35 % of all non-fish vertebrates endemic to just 1.4 % of Earth's land surface, and if this same 1.4 % is under the most severe threat, then it is only logical to focus a significant portion of our attention on these areas in the next few decades, and especially over the next two to five years. To put it even more strongly, the hotspots are fundamental to preventing a mass extinction crisis in the early part of this new millennium. If we fail to act in these areas and lose that 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet, we wilIlose, at the very least, those plants and animals that are found nowhere else than in the hotspots - even if all of efforts in other parts of the world are successful. Without decisive action in the hotspots, major extinctions are inevitable. To the question of whether or not we can still have a significant impact on biodiversity losses, Conservation International answers that, despite the significant challenges, we are optimistic. Success will depend on maintaining a very strategic focus on priority regions and building the alliances necessary to pursue conservation in these areas.
Hottest of the hotspots
1. 2. 3. 4. What land area did hotspot once occupy? What criteria must a region meet to be qualified as a hotspot? How can we prevent a mass extinction crisis? Can negative trend be reversed? Are conservationists optimistic?
Madagascar Philippines Sundaland Atlantic Forest Caribbean
r:g= Language focus
Using English for making hypothesis:
A hypothesis is a tentative proposition that resolves a problem or answers a scientific question. Most hypotheses are stated in the present simple tense.
Ifwe have more than 50 percent of global terrestrial biodiversity found in around 1.4% of the land surface of the planet, then it makes sense to concentrate our investments in these areas.
If we fail to act now, it is not just the plant and animal kingdoms and the beauty of the planet that
Sometimes a hypothesis is expressed as a prediction, using the future tense with will.
To talk about imaginary future situations we use if.. ..were + to-infinitive
If he were to have a chance of success, he would need to move to London. If the current rate of habitat destruction were to continue, half the species of plants and animals would be gone by the end of the century.
However, we can't use this pattern with many verbs that describe a state, including know, like, remember, understand
If 1knew they were honest, I'd gladly lend them the money. (not If I were to know ...) If we stopped pouring greenhouse gases into the air tomorrow, the water would still go heating for decades ahead, if not centuries.
)- 1Now go back to the text and find examples of hypothetical constructions.
)- 2 Complete the following sentences with the verbs in the correct form. 1. If we nothing, as many as one-quarter of all today's primates will be dead in 20 years. 2. If people were to keep their cars in their garages, city transport to be more comfortable and cheaper. 3. If Slovak universities to improve educational standard, government would have to increase funding. 4. We to use massively more resources if the poor live as the rich world does. )- 3 Make two more sentences expressing a hypothesis.
Lighter side The teacher came up with a good problem. "Suppose," she asked the second-graders, "there were a dozen sheep and six of them jumped over a fence. How many would be left?" "None," answered little Norman. "None? Norman, you don't know your arithmetic." "Teacher, you don't know your sheep. When one goes, they all go!"
some 18. With the recent enlargement of the EU. Responding to the growing concern of Europeans over the rapid loss of their wild life. requires a concerted effort in communication. The other distinguishing feature of Natura 2000 is that it puts people at the heart of the process rather than on its periphery. which requires that conservation measures 'take account of the economic. Natura 2000 . At the heart of both these Directives is the creation of a network of sites called Natura 2000. all 25 Member States are working together towards the same goal and within the same strong legislative framework (i.EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE Natura 2000 In May 1992 European Union governments adopted legislation designed to protect the most seriously threatened habitats and species across Europe. however. the sheer scale of Natura 2000 should make it a powerful ally in maintaining the economic viability and social fabric of many rural areas.an area equivalent to the size of Germany and Italy put together.putting people at the heart of the process Natura 2000 has to be one of most ambitious initiatives ever launched to protect Europe's rich and diverse natural heritage. For the first time. as much at the local level as at the European level and across all sectors and interest groups. As such. many vulnerable semi-natural habitats and species which are dependent upon positive management will be maintained. This breaks with the more traditional top-down approach of classic nature reserves. the Habitats and Birds Directives) to protect and manage vulnerable species and habitats across their natural range. This principle of collaboration is enshrined in the Habitats Directive. irrespective of national or political boundaries. this coverage is likely to extend even further. By actively associating different stake-holders in the management and implementation of Natura 2000 sites. All of this.e. but they also harbour species and habitats that have almost disappeared from the rest of Europe. the network should add up to substantially more than the sum of its parts. Natura 2000 is in fact more about saying 'take note . It is this European dimension that sets Natura 2000 apart from previous efforts to conserve nature in Europe.000 sites have been proposed for the Natura 2000 Network. it sets out to create an extensive network of protected areas across the European Union to conserve its rare species and habitats. It also follows the principle of good governance which advocates greater participation and openness in shaping and delivering EU policies. 32 .this is for wildlife not people'. Not only do the new Member States have a rich biodiversity of their own. covering almost a fifth of the European territory . So far. where people were tolerated rather than integrated. social and cultural requirements and the regional and local characteristics of the area'. This legislation is called the Habitats Directive and complements the Birds Directive adopted in 1979. both for nature conservation and for people living and working in rural areas. By the same token.this is our common heritage' rather than 'keep out . Such an approach has many advantages.
5. Perhaps we should choose .. but. We have doubts about the long-term economic of the company . 7... 5.. Think about how you will justify your choice to the other students. :> Communication 1 In groups or pairs discuss which regions of Slovakia would you choose as most important for preservation? You are going to present and explain your choice to the rest of the class. Please accept this gift as a small of our appreciation. Man's ability to reason him from other animals. 3. Do you think this is a proposition? The right offree speech is in the Constitution. this is a region with very high biodiversity .. • Agreeing: We entirely agree with .Comprehension 1. with a lot of endemic species . set out. .. 2. 3. They with the aim of becoming the number one team in the league. • Partial disagreeing: We respect X' s arguments in favour of... What is the principal role of Natura 2000? What makes Natura 2000 different from previous efforts to conserve nature in Europe? What other distinguishing feature does it have? How do you understand the principle of good governance? What was the traditional top-down approach of nature reserves? What important condition must be fulfilled to achieve the goals of Natura 2000? Vocabulary :> Fill in the gaps with the words from the box. viable 1. We have to say that X's argument is somewhat unconvincing . ~ Glossary albeit con . set apart. .. 2. We understand the reasons behind your decision .. harbour. 6.. 4. groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something 33 .an arrangement in which two or more countries. :> 2 Listen to the other groups 'decisions and say what you think of the choices they have made... token..although alliance n .. 6.. r:xr Useful expressions For: • Making suggestions: What about..... 4. • Disagreeing: We completely disagree with X on this point... Sinks and draining boards can germs. • Using reasons: I think. viability.. Your evidence is very persuasive .
or get rid of something completely 34 .period of time between two dates or events. fact. especially on what will happen in the future sliver n . or to a family.important.not able to be controlled safeguard v . especially ones with particular qualities combat v . sliver of span n . over/within/in a span of something synergy n . or spoiled maintain v .not broken.to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse concerted effort n . viability wary ad} .threatened ecosystem. situation etc that people pay special attention to harbour v .to happen or exist in a particular place or situation pocket n .to plan or invent a new way of doing something distinguish v .to destroy. distinguish somebody/something from enshrined ad} . person.the crime of physically attacking someone breed v .almost not or almost none at all set apart v .to make someone very poor intact ad} . plan.if a quality sets someone or something apart.assault n .something that represents a feeling. to contain heredity n .to protect something from harm or damage sage n .a small pointed or thin piece that has been cut or broken off something.to suddenly stop existing. disappear viable ad} .to keep animals or plants in order to produce babies or new plants. At least 0. remove.to start doing something or making plans to do something in order to achieve a particular result severe ad} .a viable idea. offer refuge to.very serious significant ad} .having an important effect or influence.to give shelter to.someone who is wary is careful because they think something might be dangerous or harmful wipe out v .the thing.preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it focus n . damaged.to make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before occur v . event etc vanish v .someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago.5 % of all flowering plants must be endemic to a hotspot impoverish v . it makes them different from or better than other people or things set out v . group of people etc that existed in the past devise v . which has lost more than 70 % of their natural vegetation.a herb with grey-green leaves scarcely ad .concerted effortJaction/attack etc. a concerted effort etc is done by people working together in a carefully planned and very determined way consequential ad} .a small area or amount of something that is different from what surrounds it runaway ad} .the process by which mental and physical qualities are passed from a parent to a child before the child is born hotspot 11 .causing so much damage or harm that something no longer works or is no longer effective descendant n .to be the thing that makes someone or something different or special.the additional effectiveness when two or more companies or people combine and work together token n . significant crippling ad} . or method can work successfully.
It reads: panda black and white animal. He orders the special and eats it. 35 . 3." The panda says. CITES and GSA stand for? • SWS means: a) Saving Wildlife Society. I don't understand. So the owner gets out a dictionary and looks under the heading "Panda"." and walks out the door. 6.589 species are now known to be in a perilous position. • Why do different species face the risk of extinction? • What do you know about the Red List of Threatened Species? • What do the abbreviations IUCN. verge sensible. lives in central China. risk equal exchange f) disappear g) dangerous. careful danger. Working in pairs or a small group. perilous jeopardy brink downlist windfall vanish prudent swap assessment sudden unexpected piece of good luck frontier. The leading environmental information network says 15. 2. b) Slovak Wildlife Society. "Hey. After eating. he pulls out a pistol. precarious h) evaluation i) delist a) b) c) d) e) W ReadingI Science counts species on brink The scale of the extinction threat facing animals and plants is made clear in the latest Red List from the IUCN-The World Conservation Union. The owner of the restaurant says. consider the following questions and try to answer them.UNITS ENDANGERED SPECIES Warmup A panda bear walks into a restaurant. 9. 7. you kill my waiter and walk away without saying a word. eats shoots and leaves. "Look it up in the dictionary. 8. what are you doing? You come in here. Panda is the symbol for the wildlife foundation ~ With your partner try to match the words with the correct definitions: 1. 5. 4. kills the waiter and starts to walk out the door.
Endangered . But the latest Red List shows a third of amphibians and almost 50 % of turtles and tortoises are on the brink. or legless amphibians) are the most threatened of all vertebrate groups. It highlights in particular the trouble now facing amphibians and cycads. Near Threatened .Science has understood for some years that an eighth of all birds and a quarter of all mammals are in jeopardy.7. IUCN'S DISAPPEARING WORLD • It lists the 15.266 animals and 8. 21 % of amphibians are Critically Endangered Extinct . people want to collect them." says Dr Simon Stuart. 103 occurred since 1800 Threatened animal species up from 5. too." 36 .it is a real phenomenon. an ancient group of plants. Many have small distributions anyway. there may be 10 million. poor information widespread and abundant exists on the animals and plants that inhabit freshwater and marine habitats. of course.barely two million.Species at high risk million. The GSA includes the first complete assessment of amphibians that was reported in the journal Science last month.) "The fact that we know more makes the situation look worse.259 species threatened with extinction.Surveys suggest last known or Endangered. What is certain is the limited number of of extinction species catalogued by science .205 to 7.000 times natural rate 129 recorded bird extinctions. There are many examples of species being brought back from the brink including the southern white rhino and black-footed ferret. (The 2003 mCN • Red List included 12. because we can list more and more species in trouble. so economic [exploitation] and habitat loss is the last straw.589 species . Some are down to one individual. Earth's oldest seed plants • • • 15. They also have more species on the verge of extinction.9m species described out of an estimated Sm-plus 844 extinctions recorded by science since AD 1500 Current extinction rate may be 100-1.Species at very high risk Estimates for the total number of species on Earth vary of extinction wildly. Critically Endangered . salamanders and caecilians. It is an increase of more than 3. The mCN. whereas the proportions for mammals individual has died and birds are only 10 % and 5 % respectively. Endangered or Vulnerable. "While most threats to biodiversity are human-driven.323 plants and lichens . Human-induced climate change is thought to be an increasingly significant problem.May soon move into While the status of known vertebrates is relatively well above categories Least Concern .266 since 1996 mCN'S SCALE OF THREAT In total.as either Critically Endangered. But that isn't why the trend is accelerating . The GSA shows trends in biodiversity over four years since the last major analysis was done in 2000.000 scientists across the globe.000.Extreme high risk The Red List is only a partial picture of the world's of extinction biodiversity." Over-exploitation and habitat loss are pressures working against many species . human actions alone can prevent many species from becoming extinct. believes the threat facing global biodiversity is escalating. • "A lot of cycads are valuable in the horticultural trade. who has authored a Global Species Assessment (GSA) to accompany the Red List.Species is documented (roughly 40 % assessed). These creatures (which include frogs. which can call on the expertise of some 10. and thousands of dedicated people around the world are doing their utmost to reverse the extinction rate.but so is the competition from introduced (or alien) animals and plants. toads. too.589 species now known to be threatened with extinction 1. for example. there could be 100 Vulnerable .
: 370. We're delighted with the reclassification on the Red List." http://news.two hundred dollars.stm Comprehension 1. How often is the Red List published? Why has the number of species changed so dramatically since the last reJease of the List? What categories of threatened animals do we know? .nineteen oh five Note how the point (. "Today it's on the road to survival.this incredible little toad was once thought extinct. 2002 . 3. we often get very good results. Several hundred tadpoles and toads have been re-introduced to the wild thanks to an initiative run by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.two thousand and two. for example.g. g. e.25 . Is it ever possible to downlist some species? Extend your vocabulary to be at risk of to head for to face to be on the brinklverge/brink to be threatened with to reverse of extinction the extinction rate (iT Language focus NUMERALS We usually use cardinal numbers to talk about money and years.bbc. programme director at Durrell Wildlife.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/sci/tech/4013719. It costs $ 200 . 4. has been reclassified from Critically Endangered to Vulnerable." said Quentin Bloxam.Dr Stuart added: "Where we have been able to concentrate GOOD THINGS conservation focus. The Mallorcan midwife toad. e. 1900 .) and comma (.589 == Three hundred and seventy thousand five hundred and eighty nine In decimals we use point and we say each number indivudally after the point.Seventy-five point two five Global amphibians are in great trouble 37 . : 75.nineteen hundred 1905 . 2. Captive breeding and release programmes make an impact. " Species such as the corncrake and the European otter have been downlisted because of such efforts. Good things are ARE ACHIEVABLE achievable. too. "We've come a long way .) are used.
Peru's forests are among the most biologically diverse on Earth and are home to rare species such as pink dolphins. 12.000 species of vascular plants and provide habitat for nearly 1. conversion of forest land to agriculture. 100 . WWF and TNC each committed approximately $370. pink dolphin 38 .6 million toward conservation efforts in 10 tropical forests over the next 12 years. government allocated $5. Summer 2002 By sending down new stalks. 1. They shelter roughly 20. scientific and managerial training programs and the restoration of diverse animal and plant species. a piece of fruit that has fallen off a tree 2.an area the size of Virginia. mining and oil and gas exploration. 10. Under the agreement.259. sometimes it's more prudent to forgive and move forward.a Windfall for Biodiversity Conservation When fighting to save Earth's vanishing biodiversity. VVhatdo these numbers mean in the context of the first three paragraphs? 15. Peru will save about $14 million in debt payments over the next 16 years. A debt-for-nature swap reduces a government's foreign debt burden in exchange for its commitment to spend a certain amount of its national currency on conservation work.589.000 Activate your language windfall 1. CI's quarterly newsletter. the "walking palm" can shift its position over time to find a spot with more light. scarlet macaws and walking palms.800 bird species.5 million acres of Peruvian rain forest .S. These lush rain forests are under threat from logging. the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) joined forces with the United States and Peru to support a debt-for-nature swap that will help protect more than 27. As a result. which take root. An unprecedented agreement forgiving millions of dollars of Peruvian debt in return for investments in conservation does just that.5 million to cancel a portion of Peru's debt to the United States. Located in the Tropical Andes hotspot.9m.000 and the U. Scarlet macaws are prized for their beauty and personality From: Conservation Frontlines. an amount of money that you get unexpectedly Reading II Peru Agreement . Peru will provide its national currency equivalent of approximately $10. In June 2002. This money will support such activities as the establishment of parks and reserves.1. CI. In return. Conservation International (CI).000.:> Check your memory.
.. Analyzing date from . there is no reason for people to fear these wolves.. Contrary to popular belief. W Reading III Problems of Wolf Conservation in Slovakia At present in Slovakia as a whole there are thought to be 150-350 wolves.. confirms . is the western frontier of "Eastern European" wolves. Results suggest. For unknown reasons. Which species may be lost forever and what are the main threats to Peru's rainforests? Extend your vocabulary Useful expression when writing research report: A study led by scientists revealed. 2S Writing Prepare a short report about one of endangered species in Slovakia. shows trends . Nevertheless. Why might it be sensible sometimes to forgive? Can you recall some examples from your own experience? 2. hunters began to fear prosecution and some associations stopped reporting information on wolf occurrence as well as hunting. which supported wolf conservation in line with the Bern Convention. 39 . which favoured the older Slovak hunting law.. the current high level of legal hunting and poaching is having a considerable impact. Who was a debtor and who was a creditor in the article? Which organizations and which countries joined their forces to find a successful solution? 3. How will Peru use the saved money? What activities will it support? 4. although there were stable numbers of wolves in the 1980-90s. This resulted in hunters continuing to shoot wolves and present their skulls at trophy exhibitions. The main threat to wolves throughout the 20th century was hunting. The results of the study also indicate The authors call for . and the Agriculture Ministry. Foreign and local hunters and a growing class of newly-rich hunters from cities amount to a strong lobby... a controversial High Court decision threw out all attempts to punish hunters for killing wolves and full protection was subsequently repealed.. After 1995.. From 1900-20 and again in 1960-70 the population was wiped out from virtually all the Western Carpathians and. The study includes. centuries of persecution by hunters have made them extremely wary and you will be very lucky if you see one. Slovakia. wolves have not re-colonised all forested mountains since their recovery after 1960-1970 and hunting pressure seems to be restricting dispersal to other regions. Short-lived year round protection granted in 1995 led to a dispute between the Environment Ministry..Comprehension 1. The researchers found that... with its forests full of large ungulates providing extensive refuge and good hunting.
Since 2000 we have raised more than £12.Such is the strength of the hunting lobby that hunting is allowed even in National Parks. 7. lynx and brown bears. R. although research described in this presentation has failed to show any evidence in support of the hypothesis.500 (Sk 840. bears and eagles" holidays and eight BTCV holidays in 2000-02 contributed nearly £26. from: Rigg. 2. 5. S.000) for wildlife conservation and research projects. Present and Future Comprehension whether these statements are true or false: 1.3 of her pack mates were shot in 1999. for example.000 (Sk 1. 3.. Tourists key to saving wolves Tourists can help to save some of Europe's most endangered species. 6. including wolves. hunters blamed wolves for the subsequent fall in population but this was actually due to over-hunting by humans. lost 3 members to a hunt organised for wild boar less than two months after research started.730.: Wolves in the Western Carpathians: Past. Both the working holidays and the wildlife holidays generate money for other projects and also aim to show local people that their wildlife can be a source of profit to them if it is protected. 4. Forestry.P. hoofed mammals and carnivores are not considered fully. Recent programmes of motorway construction and other development have given little or no consideration to their likely impact on the movements of animals. Four "Wolves. The best hope for conservation is world-wide support using non-governmental conservation organizations. Economic problems are likely to cause an increase in poaching. In Slovakia there are deficiencies in the science of wildlife management: for example. A WWF report says the presence in Europe of species like these is a "potentially huge business opportunity". An unsuccessful all year protection programme which was put in place in 1995 led to a dispute between the Environment Ministry and the Ministry of Finances. rather than hunted. the World Wide Fund for Nature believes. After 1995 some associations stopped reporting information on wolf occurrence as well as hunting. wolf numbers are greatly overestimated in official statistics. ungulates and carnivores are not sufficiently integrated in thinking: over-population of Cervus elaphus in the 1980s caused huge damage. The radio-collared female is still being tracked . Wolf predation has also been blamed for the recent dramatic reduction in numbers of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) in the Nizke and Vysoke Tatry. Its goal is to help ensure the long-term survival of endangered species in Slovakia through an integrated approach to solutions for sustainable co-existence with people. bears and eagles" wildlife holidays in Slovakia's Tatra Mountains.000) to local economies in large carnivore areas. In order to raise funds and to provide field assistance SVS organises and hosts working holidays with the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers (BTCV) and runs low impact. Traditional views of the wolf are not damaging to its chances of survival. Decline of Cervus population was caused by great wolf numbers. and Findo. One pack of 5 wolves which was studied by radio-telemetry in Nizke Tatry N. The large amount of hunting makes it difficult for the wolves to move to new locations. Wildlife conservation has a very low priority in Slovakia's struggling economy. sustainable "Wolves. There is also a lack of good popular literature on wolves in Slovakia. Forestry. Traditional views of the wolf are extremely detrimental to its chances of survival. The Slovak Wildlife Society is a not-for-profit organisation established in the UK in 1998. > 1Decide 40 . The best hope for conservation is international support channelled through non-government organisations.
The idea was by the committee. a desert can be very cold. when added to an unpleasant or bad situation.one that soon may no longer exist exploration n ..very dangerous prudent adj .Alytes obstetricans.the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions do/try one's utmost v .used to say that something is true even though people believe the opposite dispersal n . to equal assessment n . amount Time lost through illness to 1.to have advanced to an improved or more developed state contrary to . occurrence.only. contrary to. throw out.a place that provides shelter. especially something difficult barely adv . especially from the weather or from danger 41 . etc. 4.to do something as well as you can by making a great effort endangered species n . ~ Glossary amount to v . ruin. in line with. especially by trying to avoid unnecessary risks raise funds v . with a long tail midwife toad n .Vocabulary ). attempt.to add up in importance. All to control inflation have failed.357 working days I'm a bit of driving in this fog.to collect money that you can use to do a particular job or help people refuge n . " Communication Work in groups and based on the texts you have read in this unit summarise the reasons of why Slovak mammals face extinction. the final and most severe of a series of difficulties macaw n .in jeopardy. in danger of being lost or harmed last straw n . 6.incidence. used before amounts or numbers to emphasize that they are surprisingly small brink 11 .to provide a place where someone or something is protected. Pensions will be increased inflation. 1.Complete the sentences with the words from the box. the fact of something happening perilous adj .an act of trying to do something.border highlight v . or protection from danger reverse v .to change something so that it is the opposite of what it was before shelter v . 5.a situation when you are almost in a new situation. Compare your list with the list you have prepared as a warm-up activity. European toad whose male carries the fertilized eggs wrapped around its hind legs until they hatch occurrence n .sensible and careful. usually a bad one come a long way v . The frequent of earthquakes in the area means that the buildings must be specifically designed to withstand the force.a large brightly coloured bird like a parrot. or the judgment you make attempt 11 . 3.the final thing that. wary. 7. 2. it changes in the same way and at the same rate as it jeopardy n . .to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it in line with sth .if something changes in line with something else. causes failure.the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it frontier n .a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. popular belief.
shoot n .if people throw out a plan or suggestion. now divided into the orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla and composed of the hoofed mammals such as horses. especially in a way that cannot be easily explained wary adj . fruits.a situation in which you give something to someone and get another thing in return throw out v . they refuse to accept it tortoise n . e. or flowers swap n . swine. deer. or a new part that grows on an existing plant stalk n -long narrow part of a plant that supports leaves.animals and plants growing in natural conditions windfall n .g.(Am.the part of a plant that comes up above the ground when it is just beginning to grow.to disappear suddenly.an amount of money that you get unexpectedly 42 L_~ __~~_ .a slow-moving land animal that can pull its head and legs into the hard round shell that covers its body turtle n . a tortoise ungulates n .careful wildlife n . and elephants vanish v . cattle.of or belonging to the former order Ungulata. English) any reptile that has a hard shell covering its body.
shallow. running m Reading Water is the most c0111p1onsubstance on Earth. ). flowing. muddy. covering more than 70 percent of the planet's surface. Every month farmers have been hoping for more rain.2 You can use following adjectives to make collocations with water. n "Nobody expected anything like this. even with the prospect of climate change. stagnant.UNIT 6 WATER. Instead. Choose one and use it in a sentence of your own.BUT WILL THERE BE ENOUGH TO DRINK? Water crisis in Tanzanian capital Water shortages threaten Africa Drought warning despite downpours The UK's looming water crisis Drought leaves Europe's farmers helpless 'Share your bath'! The Philippine government is calling on its citizens to start sharing a bath with their partners. WATER EVERYWHERE . Only a tiny fraction of the planet's water is drinkable. Conditions may get worse in the next 50 years as populations grow and as global 43 . Divide the collocations into two groups depending on whether you consider them positive or negative. are subject to serious water shortages. half the world's population could have trouble finding enough freshwater for drinking and irrigation. which is expensive and difficult to desalinate. About 2 percent is caught in polar ice caps. representing 40 per cent of the world's people. Make a list of possible effects and compare it with your colleagues. dangerous. Within 25 years. Ninety-seven percent is sea water. Water makes up two thirds of our own bodies. Currently. it is a serious suggestion from the Department of the Environment to combat water shortage "The drought is completely unexpected. calm. rough. safe. deep. over 80 countries.1 The headlines reflect the unprecedented droughts all over the world in 2003." Warmup ). In a small group discuss the impacts the shortage of water can have for you and your country. but getting less. We've never had this kind of drought in 50 years. But the abundance of water is an illusion. The plea is not part of a drive to promote intimacy between couples. That leaves just 1 percent to sustain life in the next millennium. clear.
Children suffer respiratory diseases. In 1998. the Colorado River is ranked as one of the worlds most stressed and over-committed nvers.4 billion people lack access to clean drinking water. 25 million people fled their homes because of water crises in river basins . Some 3. A third of the world lives in water stressed areas where consumption outstrips supply. China is in the process of building the world's largest dam on the Yangtze. Now it is causing distress for the opposite reason: it is running dry. When Soviet central planners decided to grow cotton in the desert. Existing social problems and economic trends will compound the severity of the coming water shortage. It's a controversial project expected to displace more than a million people and radically change the ecosystem for the entire region. The Aral Sea in the former Soviet Central Asia may provide a nightmarish glimpse of ecological disaster in the future." More than half of the major rivers are going dry or are polluted. "Up until a hundred years ago. endangering the health and livelihood of those who depend on them. the Yellow River was once the cradle of their civilization. The old port town of Muynak is now 150 kilometres from the coast of the dying sea. MORE THAN HALF OF THE MAJOR RIVERS ARE GOING DRY OR ARE POLLUTED Much of the world relies on natural underground storage tanks called aquifers. while more than half the world's population lacks adequate sanitation. A child dies every eight seconds from drinking contaminated water. "Industry has expanded. we were hardly using but a fraction of the Earth's water.A . agriculture has expanded and the population has boomed.600 miles long.a higher number than refugees of war. it was known throughout history as China's sorrow. It's one of the examples that really shows the close connection between the health of an aquatic ecosystem and community and the people that depend on the ecosystem. 'SOLUTIONS' THAT DAMAGE In China." says Elizabeth Economy of the Council on Foreign Relations. The sea has since lost half its area and threequarters of its volume. Humankind is rapidly using up those reserves. Many scientists believe that the global distribution of water may be altered by climate change.the Yangtze. One needs only to look next door to the former Soviet Union to see the potential damage such solutions can cause. In the United States.S. U. shifting precipitation away from areas that are presently under cultivation. digging ever-deeper wells and lowering water levels in every continent. "Today we are using more than half of it and the result is we are reaching a dangerous point that is not sustainable. By 2025. Ships lie in a sandy graveyard that once had water. the cows are sick and the native fish are all gone." And grandiose plans are in the works to rearrange another river .warming disrupts rainfall patterns." says William Cosgrove of the World Water Council. Chinese officials are even considering moving the capital from Beijing because of chronic water shortages. Currently about 1. environmental refugees could quadruple. because of its tendency to flood. "But there has been no thought given to how to manage the resources of the Yellow River. 44 . they diverted water from the rivers flowing into the AraI Sea to irrigate the fields. nurturing China's northern plains.THE FOLLY OF MAN'S QUEST TO TAME NATURE It's not only communist central planners but capitalists as well who meddle with the flow of rivers. causing millions of deaths each year.
the once-vibrant ecosystem there has turned into a parched and salty marsh. not a single drop of the Colorado reaches the sea. The number of people living in water-stressed countries is projected to climb from the current 470 million to three billion by 2025. On current trends." says a Cocopah chief. as opposed to growing more lettuce in the hot desert. Comprehension >. It took nearly 5. Butin the future. Less than one per cent of the world's surface or below-ground freshwater is accessible for human use. experts studying water say it could stand as a testament to the folly of man's quest to tame nature. Group A will read about China and about the impact of irrigation schemes in the former Soviet Union. Water problems are more related to mismanagement than scarcity. and we are at last beginning to respect this precious resource. filling swimming pools and Ever-thirsty Southern California uses 14 percent more than its allotment. An Indian tribe that has depended on the river for centuries is on the verge of extinction. we must fight to protect what is left of the water supply. Like other environmental resources. "Our dollars would be better spent rejuvenating the delta. But because water is free. But more than delta wildlife is at risk. the clean water that remains is the property of our children and grandchildren. Robert Svadlenka: Crisis and Its Implications for Global Food Security :> Divide into two groups. as the disruption of the environment becomes more fully understood. "For us.1999.Dams harness its might waters and in dry years. As a result. Group B will read about negative consequences of the dams on Colorado river. some say rivaling the pyramids. CNN. the soul. Up to 50 per cent of urban water and 60 per cent of water used in agriculture is wasted through leaks and evaporation. 2. The best things in life are free. Ninety-six workers died during the construction of what was in its day the world's biggest darn. For their sake. we often take it for granted.000 workers four and a half years.Decide whether these sentences are true or false: 1. About 4 percent of the planet's water is locked up in ice at the poles. Clean water is now scarce. WATER IN THE FUTURE Two hundred scientists in 50 countries have identified water shortage as one of the two most worrying problems for the new millennium (the other was climate change). Prepare short summaries and compare these countries> experiences." says Bill Snape of Defenders of Wildlife. is what we call the river. American Southwest. The Colorado is the lifeblood of the burgeoning keeping Las Vegas' 48 golf courses lush. over the next 20 years humans will use 40 per cent more water than they do now. Since 1950. "because the life. Little water is left to flow downstream and nourish the Colorado delta in Mexico. Most of those people live in the developing world. contributing to increased soil erosion and water scarcity. global water use has more than tripled. 45 . January 3. It is an engineering wonder of our age. Logging and land conversion to accommodate human demand has shrunk the world's forests by half. The Hoover Dam was built to bring electricity to a vast area and water to the arid Western United States. this river is life. to build the Hoover Dam in the 1930s. working 24-hour-a-day shifts.
At the mouth of the river is a large area of marsh. Make your own sentence using ever1. ever-greater number of weather-produced catastrophes. Can youfind similar compound adjectives in the article? ). The Yellow River is causing distress because it is running dry. thirsty ). . 3. lush. 8. Humans are digging 2. 46 . unhappiness b) dissapointment 5. parched.2 Which of these expressions related to water does not belong? arid. The water shortage created 25 million environmental refugees in 1998.Complete these sentences with a suitable adjective.. wells. 4. Environmental refugees are people who fled their homes because of hunger. e.3. his ever-loving Wife. Thousands of refugees fled across the border. a) scarcity b) richness 2. dried out by heat. a) low-lying wetland b) small lake 6.. Ever is sometimes used to mean always in compound expressions with adjectives and participles.B. waterless. an ever-increasing debt. a) sadness. a) the place where something started b) birthplace ). The Colorado is the lifeblood of the American Southeast. Fossil records indicate that Africa was the cradle of early human evolution. help grow interfere unwantedly intensify arrange in a sequence. ever-present threat . a) a feeling of extreme worry b) disagreement 4. 5.g. . Southern California uses 14 percent more water than its allotment. 1. The threat to water resources stands as one of the major crises facing the planet. The sorrow she felt over the death of her husband was almost too much to bear. it would save 180 million Iitres of water a day. Vocabulary ).3 Match the verbs from the text with their corresponding definitions l.1 Circle the letter of the answer that matches the meaning of the italicized expression in the sentence. Over 70 countries are subject to serious water shortages. 6. akin in urgency to climate change. It is calculated that if all the adults in England and Wales turned the tap of while cleaning their teeth. 4. a) persons who have escaped from their own country b) prisoners 3. place • N. 7. 2. meddle rank burgeon nurture compound a) b) c) d) e) grow and flourish help develop. There was an abundance of wine at the wedding. China is in the process of building the world's largest dam on the Yellow River. 5.
WOMEN SPEND AS MUCH AS EIGHT HOURS COLLECTING WATER.. Next year we are going skiing in French Alps. the United Kingdom. Etna But we use the in names with Republic. Water: A Critical Resource Did you know .: the Slovak Republic.. Galapagos are a group of islands in Indian Ocean. the Galapagos mountain ranges the Alps. IN OTHER PARTS OF AFRICA. regions Belgium. while in Asia. seas. 4. the USA. the Danube. The United States leads the world at an estimated 578 liters per person per day. Europe countries France. are correct. UNFPA (2002). Everest was first climbed in 1953. 3. Vienna mountains Everest. We use the with the names of oceans.r:Jr Language focus Names with and without the We do not use the with names of places. rivers and canals: the Pacific Ocean. Slovakia states. the High Tatras Raymond Murphy. the average is closer to 95 liters: In contrast. 5. Central Europe islands Corsica. Correct the sentences when necessary. WALKING FOR WATER ONE THIRD OF WOMEN IN EGYPT WALK MORE THAN AN HOUR A DAY FOR WATER. Chicago is on Lake Michigan. The Suez Canal We use the with plural names of places: countries the Netherlands groups of islands the Canary Islands. South of England is warmer than north. Sicily cities. 2. the Adriatic Sea. but some need the.? Vast regional disparities exist in per capita water use. Kingdom. For example: continents Africa. residents of the United Kingdom average 334 liters per person per day. 47 . household water use averages 47 liters per person per day. towns Athens. In Africa. Statec etc. English Grammar in Use > Some of these sentences 1. THE AVERAGE DISTANCE WALKED BY WOMEN IN AFRICA IN SEARCH OF WATER IS 6 KILOMETRES A DAY.
especially when their opinions or needs are different from yours burgeon v . especially one that is likely to have serious results harness v . The population is rising.a request that is urgent or full of emotion quest n .to deliberately try to influence or change a situation that does not concern you. discussion etc by giving special attention to one idea or subject instead of to a previous one 48 .to change the direction in which something travels evaporation.to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want.to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems disparity n . desirable.used to describe the average amount of something in a particular place.to arrange objects in a line or row rejuvenate v . it is likely to happen very soon lush adj .plants that are lush grow many leaves and look healthy and strong meddle v .to manage incompetently nurture v . idea. to interfere mismanagement. This will reduce your fuel bills too A dripping tap could waste as much as 90 litres a week Every time you boil an egg save the cooled water for your houseplants.a small hole that lets liquid or gas flow into or out of something looming.a very stupid thing to do. They'll benefit from the nutrients released from the shell " Communication In pairs prepare a quiz to find out whether somebody is a water-friendly person.to commit more than is feasible. or necessary.to grow or develop quickly combat v .to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse compound v .if a liquid evaporates. evaporate v .if a problem or difficulty looms.WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER • • • • • • • • • Take a shower instead of a bath Wash fruit and vegetables in a bowl instead of running water Make sure your washing machine and dishwasher are full before you tum them on Water plants in the morning or at night toreduce evaporation losses Install a water butt to collect rain water for plants Garden sprinklers use as much water in one day as a family of four in one week Kettles should be filled with enough water for your needs but not to the brim. per capita . or if heat evaporates it.to help a plan.a big difference between two groups of people or things divert v .to change a situation. mismanage .to control and use the natural force or power of something leak n . but water supplies are not ~ Glosssary accommodate v . feeling etc to develop overcommit v . loom v . it changes into a gas folly n .a long search for something that is difficult to find rank v . calculated according to the number of people who live there plea n .to make something work much better or become much better again shift v .
and pesticides. lack of infrastructure like roads to get products to market. 5. > 3 Work 1. direct. 4. miracle plant varieties. genetically engineered products. 7. biotech industry. We may feel a little hungry occasionally. And yet. novel food. 49 . short-term solutions such as sending food. in pairs. 2. machinery. understand not the pain of the an empty one. lack of inputs such as fertilizer. fertilizers. Among the most important are lack of income to buy food. The replenished starving. Reasons for the world's food crisis There are many reasons for the current and projected food crisis. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) not getting adequate food present in great quantity make easier calculated a remedy for all ills or diseases discriminate against lack of an adequate quantity or number abundant undernourished to disadvantage to alleviate deficiency panacea projected iWl Reading I For most people the world food crisis far away. in a world with abundant food. 6. but few of us ever experience the devastating pain of real hunger or the crippling effects of severe malnutrition. Match the following words with their definitions. malnutrition. trade policies that disadvantage farmers in the developing world.UNIT 7 FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT Biotechnology and the World Food Supply Key terms: food crisis. 3. transgenic Warmup How do you understand these proverbs? Do you know their equivalents in your language? A full belly does not understand Hunger is sharper than the sword. lack of information. and low-yield farming practices. > 1 Have you ever been hungry? What is the longest time you have not eaten anything at all? to write down as many words connected with hunger as you can think of > 2 You have one minute Compare your lists. Help tends to focus on single. more than 700 million people are chronically undernourished today. More productive crops will do little to alleviate hunger if deficiencies in those areas are not addressed as well. deficiency.
2 billion. according to the median population projection of the United Nations Population Division. Among the many research areas important for increasing production are the efficient use of irrigation water. But biotechnology. is not essential. there is no reason at this time to invest huge sums in them. many things. Most of it should be done in developing countries to enable people to feed themselves so that they do not become dependent on commodities from abroad. crop improvement through traditional plant breeding. we need more and better targeted agricultural research. such as integrated pest management. Improvements in other parts of the agricultural system are also essential. soy. It will grow to 8. Genetic engineering is changing the food we eat and the world we live in. are in a far different situation from farmers living at the edge of the Sahara desert. In the brave new world of genetic engineering. In sum. they require large amounts of fertilizers. At bottom.3 billion by 2025 and almost 10 billion by 2050.it must find ways to minimize the soil erosion. and economic conditions. research can no longer concentrate exclusively on increased production . Much can' be done to promote the sustainable intensification of agricultural production. And that is what the agricultural biotechnology industry is providing. but other factors will be much more important than transgenic crops in determining whether we meet this challenge. . All of it depends on local climates. and peanuts free of allergens. much less these expensive genetically engineered products. They see wheat. and water. and new ways to manage crop-pest interactions. who cannot afford the products of traditional technology. While some genetically engineered crops will undoubtedly prove useful. What can be done to increase the food supply. Unlike the past. for example. soybeans. pesticides. degradation of lakes and rivers. more productive crops are only part of the solution to the world hunger problem and transgenic crops are not uniquely capable of increasing food production. It would be a tragedy if other necessary actions were not taken because of a mistaken belief that genetic engineering is some sort of a panacea for hunger. Some see biotechnology as the answer to the problem of enabling this much larger population to feed itself. DellaPenna believes that genetically engineered foods are the key to the next wave of advances in agriculture and health. not crops on which the world's hungry depend. These include building and maintaining roads so that farmers can get their crops to market. cotton and fruits like tomatoes.A growing world population In 1996. these products are often inappropriate for the developing world because. These products are of virtually no value to hungry farmers in Africa. especially at the expense of traditional breeding.in rich countries who can afford to pay high prices for seed. In addition. These companies are developing products for farmers . among other things. organizing cooperatives so that farmers can purchase equipment and fertilizer. 50 . and reducing post-harvest losses of crops. Such farmers are interested in field crops like corn. and cassava to help nourish the poor. cultures. and groundwater pollution that can result from industrial agricultural practices. particularly for the poor? Many. genetic engineering techniques are being applied to crops important to the industrialized world. scientists envision this cornucopia: tomatoes and broccoli bursting with cancer-fighting chemicals and vitamin-enhanced crops of rice. A plant biochemist at Michigan State University. bananas that deliver vaccines. It could playa minor and useful role in developing new agricultural products. and vegetable oils so loaded with therapeutic ingredients that doctors "prescribe" hem for patients at risk for cancer and heart disease. For the most part. sweet potatoes. the world's population was 5. Most genetic engineering in agriculture is being done by large transnational corporations that need to sell their products at premium prices to cover the cost of research. if by this we mean crops engineered to contain new genes. Rice farmers in Southeast Asia.
org/food_and_environmentlbiotechnology Did you know . for example. holds that a 10 per cent decrease Americans would release enough grain to feed 60 million people. 51 . 2. Growing corn to of limited arable land than growing corn for humans changes outside of agriculture like improving the shifting the diet of the rich away from excessive feed cows and chickens is a much less efficient use to eat directly. g. 3. the young the disabled the old the rich the poor the sick the handicapped the mentally ill the unemployed the blind These expressions are plural: the blind means "blind people".ucsusa...Finally. Go back to the text and answer the following questions: What are the reasons for the world's food crisis? Can more productive crops help to alleviate hunger? Why do large transnational biotech corporations sell their products at high prices? Why are their products often unsuitable for the developing world? Name at least five ways how deficiencies in the agricultural system but also outside of agriculture can be addressed.cfm ?pageID=319 http://www . the blind next door) We can't use all adjectives in this way: we don't normally talk about the foreign or the greedy. I am collecting money for the blind.. the famed nutritionist. _archive/page. E. meeting the world food crisis will require incomes of the poor through microenterprises and dependence on grain-fed livestock. You may use each word more than once. Vocabulary Collocations: ~ Create as many collocations as possible by joining words from each column. Jean Mayer. in meat consumption by Comprehension ~ 1...: meet challenge to address hunger to alleviate deficiency to echo crisis to meet concern challenges tensions needs criteria r::ifr Language focus We can use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about some social groups. Do you know the blind person next door? (NOT . 4. 5.
it promised to save millions of people from blindness and disease. Lighter side: A man was driving at 80 kph one day when he was passed by a 3-legged chicken. It can certainly help to improve nutrition and health in many developing countries. When the rich make war on each other. ~ Writing be the answer to the problem of the world food crisis? Write a short Can or cannot biotechnology paragraph based on the text.1 Find examples of -ing forms in the last three paragraphs of the article. He saw the farmer and told him the story and the man asked for an explanation. He accelerated and passed the chicken. I hate packing suitcases. The man followed it into a farmyard but couldn't find it anywhere. replied the farmer. Smoking is bad for you. ).ing forms as subjects. W Reading II 'Mirage' of GMs' golden promise Golden rice burst on a world ready and eager for a new beginning. (complement) An -ing form can have its own object. The farmer said that he. Pray for and fight like hell for -ing forms as subjects. I the living (twice) the poor the dead who die. objects etc We can use . (Voltaire) (Mother Jones) 1. (subject) I hate packing.2 Complete the sentences with the expressions from the box.). We owe respect to the dead: to 3. My favourite activity is watching animals. The man tried to catch the chicken but it ran down a side road.1 Find examples of the + adjective phrases in the text. "What do they taste like?" asked the man. Announced with a flourish in January 2000. (object) My favourite activity is reading. Smoking cigarettes is bad for you. ). 52 . his wife and his son all liked chicken legs so he bred genetically modified 3-legged chickens. "we haven't caught one yet". objects or complements. Three minutes later the chicken passed him again as he was driving at 100 kph. "I don't know". (Jean-Paul Sartre) we owe only truth. it's 2.
editor of the British medical journal The Lancet." Golden rice may prove part of the answer to vitamin A deficiency. Improving on Nature So golden rice sounded like a real answer to a genuine problem. because the biotech industry is unlikely to give poor farmers free access to all its inventions.stm 53 . especially since the biotech company responsible. anyway. But it would be an answer that came with a hefty price-tag: the persistent concerns about the safety of GM technology to human health and to wild species. but enables people eating it to produce vitamin A. Short cut That promised quicker results from conventional plant breeding. said: "If anyone tells you that GM is going to feed the world. Every day more than 30. the genes for beta-carotene are already present in conventional rice. perhaps including GM technology. One could make a non-GM vitamin-A rice simply by studying those genes in a more focused way. can provide the weapons for that war . tell them that it is not. The prospects for golden rice receded a little further in 2002. But the sorts of vegetables people used to be able to find have declined in number as the green revolution of the 60s and 70s emphasised monocultures of new varieties. increasing their risk of blindness.000 under-fives die. said: "All the genes are present in rice. partly because it established where the beta-carotene "pathway" sat in the rice code. Beyond that though. they need a diverse diet. People who campaign against GM crops are sometimes accused of wanting to deny the wretched of the Earth the chance to escape poverty and disease. though.uk/go/prlfr//llhi/sciltech/3 122923 . immune problems and other serious conditions. Golden rice looks like being a special case. poorly-fed people are unlikely to be able to absorb beta-carotene even when they eat golden rice. Household consumption of vegetables in India has fallen by 12% in two decades. False dawn Dr Richard Horton. The world is out of joint. The World Health Organisation estimates about 250 million people globally are deficient in vitamin A. Science. as the publicists' dust settled.but that won't ever be a silver bullet. http://news. For a start." Every day 800 million people go to bed with empty stomachs. Zeneca.But. appears a little more prosaic. and it will stay that way until those of us who are well-fed care enough to wage a war on hunger as ferocious as that against terrorism. It is just that they do not work as well in the "natural" varieties as in the novel version. who worked for Syngenta Seeds before his death in June 2003. including green leafy vegetables.bbc. That not only gives it its golden colour. it became clear that golden rice was never going to be a silver bullet. A scientist from the biotech company Syngenta." And from the biotech industry itself. said it would offer the seeds freely to farmers in poor countries. To feed the world takes political and financial will.co. which now includes Zeneca. when scientists published the draft sequences of the rice genome. all in the name of their own ideological obsession. The reality. though not the comprehensive solution it seemed to be. To use it. It is a genetically modified (GM) strain of rice that has been engineered to produce beta-carotene.it's not about production and distribution. said: "Seeking a technological food fix for world hunger may be the most commercially malevolent wild goose chase of the new century.. from easily prevented diseases or from hunger. But some impressive figures echo their concerns.. Steve Smith.
a useless investigation or enterprise g) to do with one big.the key to the next wave of advances in agriculture and health. Writers use them because they have often stronger meaning than non-idiomatic phrases. insane d) an indication of success.not suitable or right for a particular purpose or in a particular situation novel adj . noticeable movement " Communication 1. but it does not fix n .a lack of something that is necessary disadvantage v . especially money. using the information you have now recede v . Sometimes it is possible to guess the meaning of an idiom from the context. 7.unhealthy and weak because you have not had enough food or the right type of food 54 . improvement that proves to be an illusion e) it costs a considerable amount f) a search for sth that can. especially something that you think will be good false dawn n .to calculate what something will be in the future.to have a lot of something or be filled with something deficiency n . Who do you think the author was writing for? a) specialists b) general public c) students of science 2. often genetically engineered panacea 11 . Go back to the article and try to match idioms and their definitions: 1.a small animal or insect that destroys crops or food supplies. not be found.of a new kind. or will.to make something less painful or difficult to deal with burst. a wild goose chase a false dawn silver bullet out of joint with a flourish when (as)the dust settles hefty price-tag a) a simple guaranteed solution for a difficult problem b) when an event of a disorderly or confusing nature is over c) crazed.a hefty amount of something. it gets further and further away until it disappears to have a lot of something or be filled with something undernourished adj .to put someone in a worse situation than others envision v .to imagine something that you think might happen in the future. 4.something that is abundant exists or is available in large quantities so that there is more than enough alleviate v . 2.Extend your vocabulary Idioms are a colourful and fascinating aspect of English. Would you welcome more novel food in our supermarkets? ~ Glossary abundant adj . What are advantages of GMOs? 6. 6. Do you agree with this statement? 4. 3.something that people think will make everything better and solve all their problems.a situation in which something good seems likely to happen.f something you can see or hear recedes.something that solves a problem heftyadj . cure-all pest n . What message is the author trying to convey? 3. be bursting with something v . 5. Genetically engineered foods . vermin project v . is very large inappropriate adj . What is your opinion on genetically modified organisms? 5.
especially as limits and targets may be tightened in response to growing evidence of health impacts at concentrations below the current values. Despite recent reductions in emissions of both ozone precursors and fine particulates (by 30 % and 36 % respectively from 1990 to 2001). which has led to lower emissions from industrial processes. The emission cuts achieved so far have been mainly due to the introduction of catalysts on new cars and to the implementation of the ED solvents directive. Technology measures. The worst effects are generally seen in children. namely nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). such as eye irritation. From: EEA Signals 2004 55 . eastern and southern Europe. much of Europe's urban population remains exposed to concentrations of these pollutants exceeding the levels set to protect human health. Ozone levels were especially high during the summer heatwave of 2003. demand management options and economic instruments are also being considered. as well as those exercising outdoors. These include aggravation of respiratory conditions such as asthma (from short-term exposure) and respiratory and cardiovascular illness as well as premature mortality (from long-term exposure). Discussions are under way within the framework of the ED Clean Air for Europe process that may lead to present limits being reconsidered and eventually tightened. Their effect is likely to be additive. Despite reductions in emissions. while ozone is mainly a problem during the summer months. The air pollutants ground-level ozone and fine particulates are linked through their shared precursors. coughing and chest tightness? + Can you name some of the most serious urban pollutants? • m ReadingI Air pollution: Damaging health in cities High concentrations of ground-level ozone and fine particulates are causing human health problems in cities. it is estimated that up to 45 % of Europe's urban population remains exposed to particulate concentrations exceeding limit values and up to 30 % to ozone concentrations above target levels for protecting human health. For particulates. Further action is needed to bring down pollution.UNIT 8 AIR POLLUTION Warmup Do you think it is healthy to live in Bratislava? + Have you ever had health problems due to air pollution. There is now growing evidence of adverse health effects from concentrations of fine particulates and ozone at levels below the values currently set to protect health. high levels occur over the whole year. When inhaled. at least in the short term. both ozone and particulates have adverse effects on human health. Some people are more vulnerable to high concentrations of ozone and fine particulates than others. These health impacts are caused by high concentrations that occur mainly in the urban areas of central. Proposals under discussion include seeing long-term reduction targets for 2020 for both air quality concentrations and pollutant emissions. asthmatics and the elderly.
.. What tenses are they? Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form.. Experts say many of these deaths could levels.000 premature deaths in Europe each year. 2. active or passive avoid. 6 They by traffic (particularly diesel engines). industry and domestic heating. The situation is the worst in Benelux area. I Commission calculated that air pollution life expectancy by an average of almost nine months across the European Union. pose. 4. penetrate '> 2 Air pollution causes early deaths Air pollution is responsible A study by the European for 310. and even directly into the bloodstream. 4 by tiny particles known as particulate matter. What do ozone and fine particulates have in common? What effects do they have on human health? Where do the high concentrations occur? What time of the year are ozone levels especially high? What groups of people are mostly affected? How can you explain recent reductions in emissions? (iJ=Language Focus PASSIVE TENSE simple present present progressive simple past past progressive present perfect past perfect will future future perfect STRUCTURE am/are/is + past participle am-are-is being + pp was-were + pp was-were being + pp have-has been + pp had been + pp will be + pp will have been + pp EXAMPLE New tunnel will have been finished by 2007. 5.Comprehension 1. 5 3 2 if measures were put in place to cut pollution the economy more than 80bn euros (£55bn). '> 1 Find the passive verbs in the text. cost. 6.. Northern Italy... which can deep into the respiratory tissue. research suggests.. restrict... reduce. 3. Ozone produced when sunlight reacts with pollutants emitted by vehicle exhausts is also a major cause of respiratory disease.. 56 ~ . emit.. The figures show every European takes on average half a day off sick a year due to illnesses linked to air pollution The main threat to health .... and new member states such as Poland and Hungary... adopt...
which is frequently referred to as acid rain. while at the lower levels found in cities. oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. 7 a new strategy on told the BBC: "There are number of ways of doing this. Motorove vozidla v priemyselnych krajinach maju takmer polovicne mnozstvo emisif oxidov dusika. After hours or days of mixing in the air. partially because of the reaction between two common pollutants. we can traffic in inner cities. One of several "greenhouse" gases. It is also found close to the ground. hydrocarbons. whether in the air or lungs. 2. The most dangerous form of these solids are the exceedingly small ''fine particles. A colorless.3 Match the following pollutants with their characteristics: sulphur dioxide. Najhorsie iicinky prejavujii u astmatikov a u starsich. Motor vehicles account for roughly 80 percent. dry cleaning fluids. it kills thousands each year. Vyskum potvrdzuje. "We can reduce burning of fossil fuel. that can penetrate to the deepest recesses of the lung. oxides A colorless and odorless pollutant formed when carbon-rich fuels like coal or oil are burned. Sulfate. " which are small enough to penetrate deep within the lung where only molecule-thick cell walls protect the body. sa obycajne na svedomi dokazal." 8 ). in turn. Mixed with water. It blocks the radiation that streams toward earth from the suns thermonuclear explosions. They refer to the thousands of different pollutants found in unburnt gasoline. At high concentrations. an environment spokesperson for the Commission. they form acids. ze znecistene ovzdusie maze mat' dlhodobe iicinky na zdravie deti. An extraordinarily dangerous air pollutants. carbon dioxide. carbon oxide. especially in children. Studia ze vyssl stupe!'} znecistenia ovzdusia maze vyrazne spomalit' ich rast. dye tretiny oxidu uhol'nateho a priblizne 57 . it can aggravate angina pectoris and cause other damage.to form sulfuric acid. 4. These gases cause respiratory damage. sulfur dioxide forms an exceedingly fine particle called sulfate. reacts with water .whether in clouds or in lungs . odorless gas formed when carbon-rich fuels like coal and oil are burned incompletely.The European Commission is to try to reduce the threat to health by air pollution from May. industrial solvents and many other combinations of hydrogen with carbon. 3. particulate matter.Translate into English 1. we can use alternative energy sources. Barbara Helfferich. ). An invisible gas with a sharp acrid odor that attacks the human respiratory system and can kill asthmatics. of nitrogen ozone.
taking into consideration the costs and advantages.. b) "available" techniques means those techniques developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector. 5.the IPpe Directive. The results draw attention to the importance of care of the living environment and of attempts to eliminate noxious substances from the atmosphere which is reflected in a better health status and development of the child organism.polovicu uhl'ovodikov. where the two areas did not differ as to contamination of the atmosphere. V Eur6pe kazdy rok zomrie predcasne 310 000 l'udf v dosledku znecisteneho ovzdusia. as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator. and should be fully implemented for all existing plants by 2007. 961611EC. In a group of 8-12-year-old children from two areas of Bratislava with a different degree of air pollution the authors investigated repeatedly the growth of the children. The term BAT was introduced for the first time in integrated pollution prevention and control a permitting system for industrial plants based on an EU directive of the same name . What do BATs judge? 58 . ? Traffic congestion is not a new problem . What does the abbreviation BAT stand for and when was it introduced for the first time? 2. under economically and technically viable conditions. achieved the same growth level at the age of 10 years. operated and decommissioned. built. whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Party in question. It was adopted in September 1996. generally to reduce the impact on the environment as a whole.in the centre of Ancient Rome it was so bad that Julius Caesar had to ban all wheeled vehicles during daylight hours. 1. Did you know . After improvement of the living environment in the exposed area children who grew up in an environment. BATs are reference points against which to judge the current performance of an existing installation or to judge a proposal for a new installation. It was revealed that in boys and girls from the exposed area growth was retarded. where that is not practicable. c) "the best" technique means the most effective one in achieving a high protection level of the environment as a whole. The IPPC Directive is about minimizing pollution from various point sources throughout the European Union. m ReadingII WHAT IS BAT AND HOW CAN IT CONTROL POLLUTION? The best available technique means the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for limit values designed to prevent and. > Answer shortly the following questions. whereas the terms: a) "technique" means both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed. maintained. as compared with children from a relatively clean area as well as when compared with the Bratislava population..
we need to reduce traffic growth. lO. 8. 5. Communication It is the use of motor vehicles which accounts for more air pollution than any other single activity. If we want to reduce air pollution. the information under "actions" includes useful verbs and other vocabulary to guide you in developing a number of possible ideas. 7.. But how? Work with members of your group to brainstorm as many ideas as possible. 9. 3.. you will have to add more details to develop these ideas into specific points. 4. The police can chan2:e motorists for driving on roadways during peak hours. You can use the following list to help you think of possible people or organizations (agents) that might be able to take some action regarding the situation. Since the information provided is not complete. 59 . Agents the government drivers citizens Actions reduce coordinate separate pair limit encourage foster promote curb reduce decrease lower introduce allow retire charge traffic congestion traffic lights bus lanes one-way streets the number of cars special programs using bicycles pollution by starting the regular workday earlier and by finishing it earlier congestions city council police four-days weeks employees to work at home old vehicles from the road motorists for driving on roads during rush hours by placing tolls Specific solutions 1. 6. 2. In addition.
Compare them and set priorities. Asking about effectiveness Will this solution really solve the problem? 60 .. Here are some expressions to help you. practical useful economical effective This solution is the most of all. practical effective economical useful beneficial This solution is more than that one. Stating priorities important critical essential item aspect issue point factor The most (to consider) is . good practical effective useful economical One idea is as as the other. Comparing three or more solutions This solution is the best/the worst one of all.You can also add your own ideas and solutions. Comparing two solutions This solution is better than that one. This solution is worse than that one.. USING ENGLISH FOR COMPARING Expressing similarities They are both about the same.
When you know the name of the person you are writing to. the salutation takes the form of Dear followed by a courtesy title and the person's surname. it should be Yours sincerely. if relevant.an illness or health problem that affects you permanently or for a very long time congestion n .to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect currently adv . g. e. or an injury worse catalyst. e. your job title. A comma after the salutation is optional. aggravate v . If the letter begins with a personal name. special programs (using bicycles . both of you should sign it. i.. Signature Always type your name and. Dear Sir or Madam (or Dear Sir / Madam) is used to address a person when you do not know their name or sex. Smith or Deaf }. with the request to strive to... g. effective measures which could improve . an illness. below your handwritten signature.a situation in which it is difficult or impossible to move because there are so many cars or people curb v . Dear Mr Smith:. the complimentary close should be Yours faithfully. Dear Mr Smith. catalytic converter n . foster) . Dear Sirs is used to address a company.to make a bad situation. Not Dear}..e.a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out condition n . xxx Writing formal letters: Salutation Dear Sir opens a letter written to a man whose name you do not know...at the present time 61 . whether single or married.. Dear Mr Smith. ~ Glossary aggravation..~ Writing to the bad traffic situation tn Write a letter to the city mayor suggesting some improvements Bratislava.. whose name you do not know.. and to receive such In my opinion. (In American English a colon is usually used after the salutation. getlemen:). Dear Mr James.. Complimentary close If the letter begins Dear Sir. Dear Madam is used to address a woman.if John Smith.. g. the city should encourage (promote..if J. e. Dear Sirs . Write the letter in pairs.) Yours sincerely. Bratislava 28 February 2005 Dear Sir I call on you as the Mayor of Bratislava .
[usually plural]. a reduction in the size or amount of something.when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant ' foster v .time that you are allowed to spend away from work because you are sick target n . make something more likely to exist.[uncountable]facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true exposure n .something that you are trying to achieve. aim. goal tighten v . idea etc develop over a period of time (synonym encourage. or a time.harmful or poisonous particulates.a volatile liquid or substance changes easily into a gas 62 .cut n .[usually plural] a gas or other substance that is sent into the air encourage v . or system more strict toll n . feeling. bridge etc volatile ad} . sick leave n . especially produced by car engines People suffering from this condition should not smoke. particulate matter n . an amount.the number of deaths during a particular period of time among a particular type or group of people noxious ad} . that is spent by a government or company decrease v .to become less or go down to a lower level. such as a total. or develop evidence n .to persuade someone to do something. promote) life expectancy n .to help a skill.the length of time that a person or animal is expected to live mortality n .the money you have to pay to use a particular road. reduce emission n . or to make something do this. law.happening before the natural or proper time sick.to make a rule. happen. premature ad} .harmful dust in the air.
10 %. Recently. No one wants to actually live near a landfill. This worked because most of the wastes consisted of biodegradable. ends up in our landfills. 30 %) 6.45 %) 5. In addition to less land. 40. it has become a world wide dilemma. and more troublesome to discard. 9 kg) 2. 100) How many kilos of metal? (20. people disposed of municipal solid wastes by gathering it up and discarding it by dumping or burying it in an isolated place. How many kilos of paper does a European family with two children throwaway in one year? (20. about eighty percent. EPA predicts that the MSW will increase to about 216 million tons. landfill space is decreasing. population growing. complicating and lengthening the problem. The demand for more landfills is a problematic situation.45) 4. Prepare a list. organic compounds that easily decomposed. By the year 2000. Therefore we. So what is the solution? 63 . Also back then. That is over four pounds of waste per person per day. 4 kg) 3. 60) Of plastic? (20. How much rubbish do you think the average person in Los Angeles throws away every day? (5. Waste volumes are continually growing. 50. 7. 30. We need to start coming up with some answers before it is too late. 28 %. How much rubbish does the average person in the Third World throwaway every day? (1.UNIT 9 THROW-AWAY SOCIETY Warmup • • • Work in groups and think of the main problems Slovak society has to face today. especially with the U. the people. But while our waste is increasing. And the problem continues. What does BIODEGRADABLE mean? (biodegradable material can be burned. over the last fifty years new synthetic materials have been introduced into the waste stream. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). existing landfills are closing down due to new laws and regulations. What part of the rubbish do most countries turn into energy? (5 . it can break down or rot) W Reading Getting rid of garbage has always been a problem.S. They are multiplying faster than our population growth. However. need to come up with a new solution for disposing our municipal solid wastes. 3. Our wastes are becoming environmentally dangerous. used again. Are environmental problems important for young people? Which problems are most pressing for you? QUIZ 1. the United States generates about 209 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) each year. For hundreds of years. The NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) Syndrome brings political opposition to the building of more landfills. What fraction of domestic rubbish is packaging? (10 %. the volume of trash was much lower than today. costly to clean up. Most of our municipal solids.
.. find the expression that does not fit: waste ... g. for: • • • Substances: Oil is produced in Alaska. Animals: Cats don't like cold weather. 4. g.. for: • • • Places: Museums are closed on Mondays......... sedentary animal .... This disposal scheme functioned adequately. he chose to move his garbage.retain . 7. Alexander: Longman Advanced Grammar 64 . Food: Beans are good for you.multitude ..bring about .discard .. 2.dump host . What did people do with waste in the past? Why did it work? What is the problem with our wastes today? How much waste is generated per person per day in the USA? Why are landfills closing down? What is the NIMBY syndrome? Where does our municipal solid waste go? CiT Language focus For students of English. L. e. No article at all is used: 1 In front of plural countable • • • nouns used in general statements.incorporate .. 2 In front of uncountable • • • nouns (always singular) used in general statements.crowd .when.• hunters and 4 gatherers frequently abandoned their campgrounds to follow 5... because 3 ..garbage .... Food: I like butter..involve generate ..trash . rather than move himself.. but that was about all..•..... People: Women need better pay..wilderness .. Abstract: Life is short ~ I Supply alan or zero article (-).produce . 3.. they sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity areas.. G..separate . 5. the use of articles may be very confusing..•.vast amount .• man faced his first garbage crisis when he became 7 .. Colours: Red is my favourite colour. game or find new stands of plants. Products: Watches aren't expensive.. Activities: Swimming is good for you.abundance consist of .throw out .rubbish ....dispose of . e. Oh.. For most of the past two and 1 half million years 2 human beings left their garbage where it fell.Vocabulary ~ I In each group...myriad .encompass .. 6. Plants: Trees don't grow in the Antarctic.demolish ~ 2 Comprehension questions 1. 6 ..stacks . Languages: English is a world language.create ..include .junk getting rid of .•.
. gather up. who dug into Bronze Age Troy in the 1950s. composting. 5. Rather than move/moving ...3 Can you correct this sentence? Give your reason( s J. People disposed of municipal solid wastes by 2. after several 7 (layer) had been applied.5 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of come up. a program that is most useful to them. where a number of waste management methods are used altogether. Extend your house. Waste management methods include: waste reduction. including in the 2 (city) The archaeologist C. I prefer to buy vegetables instead of growing them. Example: Rather than waste/wasting time doing it yourself. Blegen. Waste Management Methods The solution lies in an integrated approach.. the dominant form of solid and hazardous waste management world-wide remains land disposal. 3.. tidy up. set up. why don't you call a builder? 1. ). We need to . Each city should 6. end up. I tried to repair it instead of throwing it away. Phone them instead of waiting for them to phone. Alexander: Longman Advanced Grammar ). L.). " Communication 1 How can we beat the throw-away society? In groups of 4 or 5 suggest a solution. 3... Our wastes are costly to 4. instead of moving to another one.. the 8 (door) ..when. From prehistory through the present day dumping has been the 1 (means) of disposal favoured everywhere. ). Even though the threats to methods and write a short summary. 1.2 Supply the plural forms of the nouns in brackets only where necessary. 2 In groups of 4 or 5 read one of the texts on waste management Then report to the other groups. G.. recycling.... rather than to move himself. clean up. found that \floor) had become so littered that periodically a fresh supply of "(dirt) or 5 (clay) had been brought in to cover up the 6 (refuse). Land disposal In spite of all the attention to waste reduction. recycling.4 Change the sentences using the expression rather than.... W. and 9 (roof) had to be adjusted upward. Most of our municipal solid waste it . Man faced his first garbage crisis when he became a sedentary animal .. Of course. 2. 4.. 65 . with a new solution for disposing our municipal solid wastes. and treatment. and land disposal.. he chose to move his garbage.. They sometimes . their sleeping and activity areas... in our landfills..
S. without being placed in a carton that really is unnecessary. Landfills. Using recycled materials and recyclable or compostable materials has become a main feature of green products . Many health care products are now simply wrapped.one fundamental. organic wastes into compost. 650.waste minimisation. most large companies in developed countries have undertaken formal waste reduction or pollution prevention programs. and glass waste into construction or road material. Mount Trashmore Park in Virginia Beach. The message is that economic growth does not have to result in massive. Agency for International Development are providing increased waste reduction assistance to developing countries. in some countries. After more than a decade of effort. • Recycling a material for a different application through some type of processing or manufacture.groundwater. universal principle is being applied: It is safer environmentally not to produce waste than to handle. Such actions reduce solid waste generation without sacrificing product quality and cost. steel and automobile oil made from reprocessed oils. providing free technical assistance for smaller companies. is now one of the area's most popular parks. and manage it after it is generated. government programs emphasise pollution prevention by. most of the time.consumer products with less packaging. no toxic chemicals. The trees and recycling facilities using post-consumer greater use of recycled material. green technology . can be turned into a beautiful thing. a 68-foot-high. clean technology. unmanageable amounts of waste. the presence of low-cost. the problems of land disposal have been addressed largely by imposing stringent regulations designed to make the practice safer rather than outlawing it altogether. Notable examples of high-value recycling include is made entirely of recycled material. consumers paper that has a very high recycled-paper content or aluminium made entirely from scrap materials. cleaner production. pollution prevention. they became immediate waste. Waste reduction Although many different phrases are used . waste prevention. source reduction. Also. including turning mixed plastics into park benches. surface water. In industrialised countries. transport. Coffee makers and detergent companies have stopped placing plastic measuring spoons in their products because. reusing glass beverage bottles. and competition between large paper mills using virgin discarded material has sometimes slowed the shift to who profess to want green products often are faced 66 .OOO-ton garbage heap. and soil are well known. available land generally leads to the wide use of land disposal.for example. for example. Also. These regulations have also raised the cost of land disposal enormously. Recycling Recycling can take several forms: • Reusing materials that otherwise would be discarded after their original application . and often smaller sizes. governed by strict rules and regulation. There are some communities that have already overcome their reluctance of landfills. International groups such as the United Nations Environment Program and foreign assistance programs such as those administered by the U.
formal a hot or cold drink detergent n . are etc something. Another problem is the pollution caused by treatment methods.food wastes. especially to people's health or safety heap n .to burn something completely in order to destroy it landfill n . get rid of dump v . as from a kitchen.throwaway.to bring into being.with choices regarding both price and some aspect of product appearance or quality when considering recycled materials. What do you think is the right order? • Land disposal • Recycling (including composting) • Waste prevention or reduction • Waste treatment (incineration) ~ Glossary adjust v . has a reduced volume. incinerate v . get rid of dispose of v . methods is limited by their high cost and by environmental concerns a management.relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing hazardous adj .a liquid or powder used for washing clothes. prohibit profess v . chemical. biological.to declare illegal. physical. Hirschhorn: Managing Solid and Hazardous The hierarchy of waste management methods is jumbled.to say that you do. which can cause passionate public opposition to siting new convert combustible materials Generally. to produce generic adj .group of things placed or thrown. Waste treatment technologies generally fit into the following broad categories: thermal. to place under a ban. leaving a solid residue of ceramic and metallic materials. rubbish outlaw v . one on top of the other. and perhaps produces a residue with some economic value. discard game n . trash generate v .unwillingness 67 . refuse.a method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between layers of matter. or fish hunted for food or sport garbage n . or some combination of these.to throwaway. dishes etc discard v .dangerous. Waste Joel S. the use of thermal bout air pollution and residue facilities. A generic problem with waste treatment is its high cost relative to land disposal options. birds.wild animals. give rise to. in which waste is burned to into gases.to get rid of. Waste treatment The treatment component of the waste hierarchy aims to convert waste into something that is environmentally harmless.to change so as to match or fit. cause to correspond beverage n . The main thermal method is incineration. especially when it is not really true reluctance n . which has contributed to higher costs because of government regulations that require the use of complex equipment to render the treatment facilities environmentally acceptable.
combustion. 2.to place emphasis on stringent adj . residuum sedentary adj .a change in the way people think about something. and not moving or exercising very much shift n .render v . shift from/to site v . in the way something is done etc.tree etc that is still in its natural state and has not been used or changed by people 68 .spending a lot of time sitting down. refuse or rubbish virgin tree n .to cause someone or something to be in a particular condition residue n .worthless or discarded material or objects. The remainder of something after removal of parts or a part.strict. Matter remaining after completion of an abstractive chemical or physical process.1. or filtration. such as evaporation. severe trash n .to situate or locate stress v . distillation.
and are implementing tax incentives and other policy measures favorable to renewable technologies. and environmental benefits of renewable energy. a growing number of nations have recognized the economic. While in Slovakia renewable energy sources are not currently used to a great extent there is great potential to develop this type of energy. A F 69 .UNIT 10 SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Around the world. social.
B. renewable energy technologies are often seen as a "luxury".Form 4 groups.Warmup From the pictures on the previous page. you can prepare it in the form of a grid. wind farm to trap the light readily available to tap energy subsidy solar roof tile fossil-fuel plant drilling well geothermal heat pump biomass feedstock initial costs ). Make a short summary. ). C. What is your opinion? 70 . D) will read about one of renewable energy sources in more detail. If you wish.Which of the renewable energy sources would be most appropriate to Slovakia and why? Discuss your ideas with other students. A grid to compare energy sources Source of renewable energy how they work Advantages disad vantages costs future Do you agree . which could moreover have negative environmental impacts.. can you identify the sources of power represented? • Which of them are used in Slovakia in order to generate electricity? • Can you explain how do you understand the term renewable? ).Test your energy vocabulary Go through the following list of terms and explain as many as you can. Compare your explanations with a partner.. Each group (A.? In Slovakia.
wind power could provide 60% of the UK's electricity. 71 . there is no damage to the environment and no residues are left behind. The advantages of wind power The case for wind farms is quite clear. The most optimistic estimates suggest that by 2050. The noise generated from wind turbines has been criticised by some people who live very close to the wind farms . however over the years. initial costs have fallen. which is connected to a generator which produces the electricity.there is no damage caused by these turbines because there are no chemical or radioactive emissions from them. If the turbines need to be taken down one day. The future The UK subsidy to renewable energies will amount to £1 billion by 2010.because they generally have to be positioned on hills to get the maximum benefits of the wind. How they work Wind turbines generally have 3 blades and they rotate at 10-30 revolutions per minute. this will be reduced. The ground which they are positioned on can still be used for agricultural purposes . The blades face into the wind. although as prices for wind-powered electricity fall. the wind forces them to go round. The other side There are concerns from some people who are worried about wind farms being positioned in their area. and therefore the cost of getting electricity from the wind has dropped considerably.m Reading Wind Power Wind farms The most common way of getting energy from the wind is through setting up 'Wind farms'. guidelines now exist about wind farms they can be built in relation to residential property and turbine technology has advanced significantly. They enable electricity to be produced in an environmentally friendly way .such as sheep grazing. When they were first introduced they were very expensive.however. There are arguments that the money would be better put into energy conservation. which then spins a shaft inside the turbine. The main worries are that they ruin the landscape .
such as the government. the savings on electricity bills in the long-term should make up for this and year on year. In Japan and the USA. architects and power companies . especially during the winter when the Sun is very low. different organisations . In' the Netherlands. Large glass windows help with this.000 and Japan nearly 400. 72 . balconies and trees protect the building from getting too much heat. where there is plenty of available space. They cover the roof of a house and take advantage of the light coming from the Sun. In addition they are very easy to install. Painting the thin pipes black and putting them in a 'greenhouse' type insulator can heat our water supply and therefore reduce the cost of using electricity to heat it. and more recently. and can sell this back to local electricity companies. • The photo voltaic effect is when photo cells convert sunlight directly into electricity . they replace the need for other materials.000. local authorities. and although there are some high costs involved. ill the summer. for example. By 2005 the government aims to have 6. Grants are now available to help homeowners make the switch to renewable energy. Examples abroad The UK is behind many other countries in Europe and the rest of the W orId when it comes to using solar power technologies. This is trapped by the cell and turned into electricity. Germany has started to push lots of money into the development of it for projects there. no extra land space is needed and they can also be situated in urban areas. initially quite expensive. to be used.000 roofs in the UK fitted with solar panels. The past The use of solar power became very popular in the 1970s. However. Photovoltaic cells (PY's) are also being used as roof tiles. is to design buildings so they can collect the heat. but has fallen in and out of favour since depending on the potential savings when compared with fossil-fuel energy costs. The technology now needed is 90 % cheaper than it was in the 1970s. • Another way to take advantage of the energy from the Sun. there are many other benefits. The future Within 10 years photo voltaic cells are likely to be competitive with conventional power sources. there are initial costs which make setting up these projects. billions have been spent on developing PV over a number of years. The advantages As well as the fact that energy from the Sun is readily available. Houses with solar roof tiles can in fact generate more electricity than is needed at certain times in the day. the costs are falling which will make it more widespread. By locating photovoltaic cells on top of houses. By that time Germany expects to have 140.Solar Power How it works There are several different systems which take advantage of the power generated from the Sun. such as tiles.this has been used for sometime to power certain calculators. The costs As with most renewable energy systems. • A reasonably simple method of using the benefits of the Sun is to heat our water pipes. They do this by designing the building sensibly and facing it in a way where it can use the Sun to the maximum benefit. Local councils started fitting council houses with facilities to use solar power.work together to develop solar energy.
they take up very little land compared to traditional fossil-fuel plants and advanced drilling techniques minimise the impact of drilling wells. The first geothermal power plant was built in Ladarello in Italy in 1904. This can also be used to heat domestic water. is to drill deeper and circulate water through the hot dry rock found 3 . as fossil-fuelled power plants produce electricity 65 75 % of the time compared to 90 % from geothermal power plants. which is then concentrated and transferred to the buildings.5 miles under the surface. The pump uses a series of pipes to circulate fluid through the warm ground. Geothermal power plants emit only excess steam and very few trace gases (1000 . the pump transfers heat from the buildings back into the ground. This is about as hot as the surface of the sun. The cost of electricity from geothermal power plants is slowly becoming competitive with that from traditional power plants. Geothermal heat pumps • Electricity production The past Humans have used geothermal energy for thousands of years. when the ground is cooler.the molten and semi-molten magma that makes up the Earth's core. that even the upper 3 metres of the Earth's surface stay at a nearly constant 10 . The advantages By using geothermal energy. geothermal heat pumps can be used nearly anywhere. The costs When a heat pump is used to provide domestic heating.500C at the core just over six and a half thousand kilometres below the crust. While geothermal resources are not spread uniformly. The electricity produced is also more 'available'. The future The next step in using heat trapped inside the earth. Where geothermal energy is used in agriculture (such as to heat greenhouses) heating costs can be cut by up to 80 %. The relatively constant temperature of the top 15 metres of the Earth's surface (or ground water) can be used to heat or cool buildings indirectly. the savings on electricity can outweigh the cost of installing and running the system. In the summer. USA and piped hot water from springs to town buildings. There are three main ways of tapping geothermal energy: • • Direct use Geothermal heat found near the surface of the Earth can be used directly for heating buildings.16C throughout the year.2000 times less carbon dioxide than fossil fuel power plants). The centre of the Earth is extremely hot. The world's first District Heating system was built in 1892 in Idaho. no fossil fuel burning is required. 73 . There are three types of power plant that can convert geothermal energy to electricity. or to venture even deeper and try to utilise the hottest source of all. using hot springs initially for cooking and building reservoirs around springs to create bathing complexes such as those built at Bath by the Romans. which then drives a generator to produce electricity. the liquid absorbs heat from the ground. current estimates are 5. It is not surprising therefore. In the winter when the ground is warmer than the buildings above. All three use a turbine that is driven by steam. depending on the temperature of the geothermal fluid used.Geothermal Energy How it works Geothermal simply means 'Earth's heat'.
are called biomass feedstocks. or recycled cooking greases. But flexible-fuel vehicles. For instance.biofuelsfor our transportation needs (cars. and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Ethanol is an alcohol. wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. Most of the biopower plants in the world use direct-fired systems. wood is still our largest biomass energy resource. some farmers use the waste from their livestock to provide their farms with electricity. sugars. Even the fumes from landfills can be used as a biomass energy source. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. animal fat.Biomass energy We have used biomass energy or bioenergy . or biomass power. and a generator then converts it into electricity. It can be used as an additive to reduce vehicle emissions (typically 20 %) or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. . residues from agriculture or forestry. And today. ever since people started burning wood to cook food or to keep warm. the same found in beer and wine. Several biopower technologies can be used in small. including plants.gov/ 74 . modular systems. Not only do these systems provide renewable energy. modular system generates electricity at a capacity of 5 megawatts or less. or celluloses) through a process similar to brewing beer. This steam is usually captured by a turbine. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil. which run on mixtures of gasoline and up to 85 % ethanol.nrel. These energy crops. This system is designed for use at the small town level or even at the consumer level.for thousands of years.the energy from organic matter . is the use of biomass to generate electricity. For example. Ethanol is mostly used as a fuel additive to cut down a vehicle's carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions. the steam from the power plant is also used for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. are now available. Biofuels Unlike other renewable energy sources. carbon dioxide is actually removed from the atmosphere. In some industries. Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels. But many other sources of biomass can now be used. The use of biomass feedstocks can also help increase profits for the agricultural industry. trucks. A small. They burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. Switchgrass crops can be harvested to make biofuels Biopower Biopower. The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. buses. The net emission of carbon dioxide will be zero as long as plants continue to be replenished for biomass energy purposes. they also help farmers and ranchers meet environmental regulations. It is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates (starches. source: http://www. such as fast-growing trees and grasses. and trains). biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels . These are known as combined heat and power facilities. airplanes. but every time a new plant grows.
More than thirty international organizations also took part. the cause of the ever-greater number of weather-produced catastrophes afflicting the planet.178 18. the share of its installed power generation capacity stemming from renewable sources to 10 %.770 o 1.722 40. From 154 countries. 2004. and will give them new livelihoods. the summit formulated an 'international action program' comprised of about 200 self-commitments. the summit was attended by some 3600 energy.4. The commitments will also give one billion of the world's poor something new and highly essential: the switch to turn on environmentally-compatible energy.2 billion tons by 2015. This reduction will help curb the process of climate change. By exploiting the current potential that is economically viable. Accompanied by a large number of forums.680 2. To help the countries and organizations live up to their commitments. Bs.695 2. The carbon dioxide expended in getting 75 .178 18. for instance. Results.995 27. renewables2004 was 'climate neutral'. over the next five and a half years and at a cost of Euro 50 billion in public and private funds. businesses and social bodies. development and environmental officials. the attendees included 121 heads of state and ministers. the Washington-based Global Environment Facility (GEF) has pledged to supply a further $100 million a year in seed money to renewable energy projects carried out in developing countries.. Slovakia. Cs and Ds get together and share your information. results: issuing from the conference was a 'political declaration'. The thrust of its eleven paragraphs: the world shares 'the vision that renewable sources will become a most important and widely available source of energy'. renewables' commitments will reduce the world's annual output of carbon dioxide by 1. Has your opinion on the most appropriate energy source changed? Read the information below and check your conclusions. In Slovakia there is great potential to develop renewable energy sources. experts.224 solar ener Small hydropower Iants Biomass 25 727 12. in TJ. Made by national govemments. these commitments are of an impressive sweep.456 2. renewables2004 was successful in another way.. China. To attain this goal. May 2004 THE RENEW ABLES 2004 Held in Bonn from June I . has committed itself to increasing. Type Technical 22. 'environment weeks' and other events. These funds will facilitate a $500 million annual flow of investment in such projects. businesspersons and other decision-makers. international organizations. This access will rid the poor of many of their afflictions.683 source: Renewable Energy Policy review. Here is a table showing technically available potential of renewable energy sources. To provide another example.720 3. If fully lived up to. the summit elaborated a long series of 'policy recommendations'. Its size notwithstanding. the Slovak Republic could more than double the present use of these resources.453 potential Current exploitation A vail able potential 21. + • Communication Now all As.
to take action so that a person.to affect someone or something in an unpleasant way. see also overcome roof tile .to use or spend a lot of energy etc in order to do something feedstock raw material for processing or manufacturing industry. The world shares 'the vision that renewable sources will become a most important and widely available source of energy' ~ Glossary afflict v .surovina fit v .to prevent something such as gas or water from getting away venture v .a complete change from one thing to another switchgrass 11 . or qualities of something switch (to) n . reduce the cost of producing goods etctrade/agricultural subsidies etc sweep /l . they do as well as they were expected to.the money you have available to start a new business shaft n . heat. or sound to pass through it issue from v .the way you earn money in order to live molten ad} .the many different and important ideas.something that causes pain or suffering.someone who is at an event such as a meeting or a course expend v .to put a piece of equipment into a place. place etc is no longer affected by something bad or no longer has it.molten metal or rock has been made into a liquid by being heated to a very high temperature notwithstanding adv -formal in spite of something output n . and make them suffer affliction n .a sign.to go somewhere that could be dangerous 76 .to use or take what is needed from something such as an energy supply or an amount of money the broad sweep of history thrust n .a place where water comes up naturally from the ground subsidy 11 . remark. so that it is ready to be used fossil-fuel 11 . around and from the summit is being compensated for by a solar energy project in India. what someone is thinking or feeling. or a new part onto a machine.if something issues from a place or thing. events.a material or object which does not allow electricity.a thin long piece of metal in an engine or machine that turns and passes on power or movement to another part of the machine spring n . do what they promised etc livelihood n .if something or someone lives up to a particular standard or promise. or what is true insulator n .Panicum virga tum tap v .money that is paid by a government or organization to make prices lower.production rid v .a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years indication 12 . it comes out of it live up to v .a thin curved piece of baked clay used for covering roofs seed money (capital) n .the delegates and joumalists (700 all told!) to. event etc that shows what is happening. especially a medical condition attain v -to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time attendee 11 .the main meaning or aim of what someone is saying or doing trap v .
who accused the plant of having inadequate safety technology and being a threat to her and others living in Vienna. a situation that has already happened in many countries that are not selfsufficient. After much speculation. Without an operable Mochovce power plant. The Vienna court judgement upheld a 1989 lawsuit brought against Mochovce by Eva Glawischnig. FOR: Rounding out the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)' s analysis is a safety report and environmental impact assessment. and after making a major investment plan for the renewal of power stations. Mochovce was deemed a well-planned and quality controlled approach to radiological protection. As part of its EU accession agreements.UNIT 11 NUCLEAR ENERGY Mochovce Nuclear Plant . The intention to complete Mochovce. The V2 plant will continue operating. the privatization process was wrapped up. the country is obliged to close down one of the two blocks of the Jaslovske Bohunice VI plant in 2006. Slovenske elektrarne. The Al block broke in 1977 and has not functioned since. Austria's Green party spokesperson and MP. raises more serious issues. is located in a rural yet relatively populated area of Slovakia. The plant. (4) certain environmental impacts associated with construction have already been realized. The environmental impact assessment states that (1) concerning radiological protection. (2) the site emergency plan was consistent with international principles. to Italy's largest electric utility company. consistent with international standards. (3) Mochovce is largely insulated from seismic activity. such as a recent decision made in an Austrian court. and (5) routine radioactive emissions are within internationally accepted limits. This includes the evacuation of former Mochovce village residents and relocation (with compensation). The sale gives Enel a 66-percent stake in Slovenske elektrarne. located 100km east of Bratislava and approximately 150 km from Vienna. however. and the second VI block in 2008. Enel. Italy is one such country where prices are high compared to energy-producing nations. The cabinet sealed the sale of Slovakia's dominant power utility. 77 . The safety report concludes that: Mochovce can be completed according to western and International Atomic Energy Association safety standards without major difficulty. Slovak energy experts worried that Slovak electricity prices would escalate.A Case Study Warmup Discuss with your neighbour: Would you like to live close to a nuclear power plant? The completion of the nuclear reactor at Mochovce in Slovakia has caused a lot of controversy. The issue of energy self-sufficiency is becoming urgent for Slovakia. about 160 kilometres west of the plant. After two-and-a-half years of seeking a strategic investor able to secure sufficient production capacities. A Vienna district court ruled that the Mochovce nuclear power plant presents a threat to the health and lives of Austrians. the future of the Mochovce power plant in Bratislava is clear: Enel intends to complete the nuclear facility.
Norway and Portugal). According to some figures. its potential safety risks and its sustainability. The Chairman of Slovakia's Nuclear Regulatory Authority CUlD) The Slovak Economy Minister The leader of Slovak opposition Slovak Environment Minister Representative of Austrian Government (Deputy Ambassador of Austria) Austria's Green party spokesperson Representative of Geothermal Energy Board Co-ordinator Co-ordinator As co-ordinator you will be responsible for bringing the parties together. 78 . Supporters: The Chairman of Slovakia's • Nuclear Regulatory Authority: You stress the government's commitment to minimum safety standards and point to Slovakia's membership in numerous multilateral conventions on nuclear safety. could resemble Chernobyl in its magnitude. This sarcophagus at Chernobyl has already begun to decay and has been unsuccessful in containing radioactive leakage. concern multiple habitats. negative health effects: In case of the similar nuclear plant in the Gulf of Finland a threefold increase in birth defects and a tenfold increase in cancer mortalities. 8. to put forward new proposals. 2.AGAINST: Since 1993. 6. 5. and hopefully. risks exist. there has been considerable backlash against the completion of Mochovce from EBRD member governments (led primarily by the Austrian Government and including Denmark. 3. 4. In order to do this. and have compounded conventional pollution problems. Don't forget to inform each member of the time limit you are imposing (5 minutes). and animal impacts that could result from a serious nuclear incident. The full impact has still not been fully assessed. as the Chernobyl case shows the problems of attempting containment and cleanup of the actual reactor area. to eventually reach a general concensus. and longterm environmental effects are spread over a vast area. The immense ecological damage caused by the initial incident would only be part of the problem. Luxembourg. List of roles 1. non-governmental environmental organizations and citizens' groups in over 30 countries. Several potential environmental risks exist surrounding the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Thousands of tons of polymers and cement were dropped on the Chernobyl site to contain the escape of radioactive materials. such as an explosion or meltdown. you may look back over any relevant material to support your point of view and help you argue against other cases. g. 7. The Chernobyl incident provides the best example of human. A major incident. as many as 125. Livestock loss has been costly throughout Europe. Netherlands.000 people have now died from Chernobyl-related illnesses. your task will be to prepare your case as thoroughly as possible. What is your opinion about completing the Mochovce nuclear plant? When you have chosen your role. Even if the plant functions without major incidents. You are now being asked to take an active part in the TV discussion about nuclear energy. e.
Little attention was paid to the environmental risks of the water emissions of the plant. or of the possible impact of the plant on uses of local waterways which may be impacted by the presence of the plant.• • All safety issues are fully addressed. no matter how altruistic the proposed finan~ing plans may seem. such as the possibility of seismic activity in this region. Only about 17 % of the potential for renewable energy sources is currently exploited in Slovakia. 3. Slovgeoterm Company 79 . in May 1998 an inspection mission cited the considerable progress achieved in improving the original project. Representative of Geothermal Energy Board: Why is the West funding construction of power plants of a type entirely unwanted in the West? It is evident. 4. Standards regarding the materials which will be used to refurbish the plant are undefined in plant plans. that such reactor deals mean increases in profits by the flagging (weak) nuclear power industry of western Europe and the United States. have not been addressed in plant planning. • Alternative fuel sources have been proposed as a solution. Though coal or other energy sources are arguably safer than nuclear power. The leader of Slovak opposition: • You explain that the improvements and function of the plant would fall within the norms followed by French nuclear power plants. The Slovak Economy Minister: • Inaction is in fact the worst possible outcome. International specialists and annual inspections by (rJD confirm that Mochovce meets international standards for such facilities. which has suffered severe earthquakes in the past. Opposition Slovak Environment Minister: You are the newly appointed Minister of the Environment. The geothermal energy can be used for the district heating and hot water supply. but may present environmental problems of their own. For example. The plans do not include the costs of storage for spent fuel in its cost assessments. 2. Austria's Green party spokesperson: numerous environmental risks: Austrian environmentalists have attempted to highlight 1. they still can cause considerable environmental damage. The only response to the Austrian offer was a promise by Slovak Environment Minister that his ministry would do everything in its power to assure that no more nuclear power stations would be built in Slovakia following the completion of Mochovce. Important questions. • Mochovce is the minimal cost option for Slovakia. • It is in the interest of Slovakia's power self-sufficiency. because if Mochovce were not completed. unsustainable economic progress to be worth the long term environmental costs if it creates jobs and tax revenue? Representative of Austrian Government: The Austrian government offered to fund a $50 million conversion of Mochovce to alternate power sources. You are under tremendous political pressure: Do you consider short term. the Bohunice reactor would not be closed.
war etc .to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it impact n . water etc leaks in or out.a choice you can make in a particular situation sound ad} . request.a very dangerous situation in which the material inside a nuclear reactor melts and burns through its container. causing an overall trend in eastern Europe toward reduced energy consumption. discussion. suggesting that investment in surplus power production is not a sound basis for sustainable economic growth in Slovakia.to put or set by or as ifby authority.the final result of a meeting.becoming tired or losing strength highlight . consider flagging ad} . g. or invitation 80 .animals such as cows and sheep that are kept on a farm meltdown 11 .to refuse an offer.a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events. and could result in an increase in energy efficiency of 50%.when gas.implemented in last years greenhouses heating in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in Galanta. allowing radioactivity to escape option 11 .used especially when no one knows what it will be until it actually happens in lieu . stopping it becoming more powerful etc deem v . Privatisation has resulted in increasing energy prices. The best substitute is likely some form of energy optimisation which would minimize the requirement for new energy sources. Other possible solutions Improved efficiency is proposed as the best solution to deal with energy shortages in Slovakia.instead of leakage 11 . especially against political or social developments containment n . to impose time limit outcome n .sensible and likely to produce the right results turn down v .to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality. But due to favourable geological conditions the energetical potential is much higher. ~ Glossary backlash n . e. or the amount of it that has leaked livestock n . Such a solution would include encouraging investment in the production of high-efficiency technology.the act of keeping something under control.to have an important or noticeable effect on someone or something impose v .
Britain is expected to grow faster than any other major European country. increase. leapfrog. There will be In just the 20th century an extra 120 million more Americans. adding only a further 1. double. including analysis of birth and death rates. shrink. soar W Reading The world is heading for wildly uneven population swings in the next 45 years. and India will leapfrog alone. downsize. pass. the authors expect it to have four million more people. swing. Based on a number of factors. depending whether Russia is classed to be in Europe 81 .5 million in the next 25 years to eventually reach 65 million.UNIT 12 \tVORLD FACES POPULATION EXPLOSION Warmup + Has the population of Slovakia been growing or declining in the last few years? + How many children are there in your family? + What do you think the number of children depends on? + Do you know what is the life-expectancy of men and women + + in Slovakia? What problems can be connected with our crowded planet? Who can solve them? ). people in western Europe will be over the age of 65 by 2050. decline. according to a comprehensive report by leading US demographers released yesterday. dro . transform. at which point its growth is expected to tail off. But the populations of some countries will shrink. the population of China to become the world's most populous country.In how many ways can you express the meaning of the following concepts? change Ito change to grow Igrowth to fall to overtake ). All of them can be found in the article.You can choose words from the box. shift.000 million will be living in the world's poorest African countries by 2050. surge. tail off.rise. They predict that at least an extra 1. with many rich countries "downsizing" during a period in which almost all developing nations will grow at breakneck speed. Bulgaria is expected to lose almost 40 per cent of its population. Within 20 years. One in six the world quadrupled. By then it will have overtaken France as Europe's second or third largest country.
But Japan. who believe sustained growth in developing countries can only be managed with economic help from rich countries. By the year Climate change and ongoing land degradation are widely 2015. the projections call for expected to encourage further widespread movements of more than 26. and fertility rates. Western Asian Despite plagues and nations are expected to gain about 186 million people by 2050 and wars and famines and sub-Saharan African countries more than one billion people.2 billion. age structure. based on countries' own statistics. Eastern Europe is leading the world's down shifters. and the motivation to have fewer comes from anticipating hard times ahead. which today have similar sized populations of about l30 million people. world population is growing by about 70 million people a year.3 billion today. incomes. considered inevitable given present trends. 17. to be published soon by the Washington-based Worldwatch Institute. having long passed China. "The sheer number of people on Earth is now much larger than ever before in history. may have shrunk to roughly 100 million people. population in developing countries could surge by 55 % to more than 8 billion. losing 38 % of its people. of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. By then. 1960. But Europe is expected to have 60 million fewer people than today and some countries could lose more than a third of their populations. As a result. it will say. may have doubled numbers to more than 280 million. The report. They also take into just two mega-cities in the year account the numbers of women using contraception and AidslHN rates. which has only 14 % of its current population under 15. one of the poorest. 2050. Among the major industrialised nations. life such as New York. Africa and Asia will inevitably be transformed. says the report. but do not allow for environmental factors. Bangladesh. millions have been The projections are based on detailed analysis of infant drawn to cities or mega-cities mortality rates. people's lifestyles and global resources. The former World Bank economist Herman Daly believes globalisation and the uncontrolled migration of cheap labour could put potentially catastrophic pressures on local communities and national economies. most crowded and disaster-prone countries. population growth. Bulgaria is expected to return to pre-1914 population levels. We have to ask how rich countries are going to help". Germany and Italy are expected to shrink by about 10 %. said Kirst yen Sherk. let alone 3 billion more". and more recently by the US Population census report. just keeps on growing.or partly in Asia. However. have not kept pace with increases in population. say the authors. Nigeria is expected to have more than doubled its numbers to more than 300 million people. the number of people How some countries will cope with the changes is debatable.3 billion by mid-century from 6. could be unrecognisable by 2050. The thinktank says people usually have as many children as they think they can afford. There were expectancy. while Romania could have 27 % fewer and Russia 25 million fewer people. suggest demographers with the Washington-based Population Reference Bureau. and the planet has virtually no more arable land or fresh water to spare. Over time. people and pressure for migration away from rural areas towards cities and richer countries. a separate report. Countries such as Nigeria and Japan. Today. While the world's few developed countries are expected to grow by about 4 % to over 1. The changes. Overall. confirms trends identified earlier by the UN. India will be the largest country in the world. per-capita cropland 82 . an increase of 43 %. and will likely reach 9. Some experts question whether Earth can even carry today's population at a 'moderately comfortable' standard for the long term. will transform geo-politics and fundamentally affect the world's economies. By a declining birth-rate. Increases in food production per hectare. The population changes are causing growing alarm among experts. "World population is going to grow massively in some of the most vulnerable countries in the world. It is expected to have reached a population of 420 million by 2050. will argue that fertility rates in poor countries could drop if there is a world fuel crisis. only the US will experience what the authors call "significant" growth.
> 1 Use the future perfect to put the beginnings and ends together. > 2 Make 1 2 . has been falling worldwide for 20 years. example: By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. Michael Swan: How English works BEGINNINGS By this time next year I (not finish) the report by Monday In a couple of years the children (leave) horne When I get home tonight When I retire two sentences starting with: By the time you get home 1. 2004. I'll probably (left) school. By then Japan may have shrunk to 100 million people. I( drive) for fourteen hours non-stop. but I probably (not start) work. !Notice that we can use other modal verbs instead of "will" to talk about the future in a less certain way. ENDS and we' 11be able to get a smaller house. 4. August 18...? Human life span more than doubled over the course of the 20th century. 83 . Guardian Did you know . Comprehension 1. John Vidal. completed. or achieved by a particular point in the future: Within 20 years Britain will have overtaken France as Europe's second largest country. the basic food. 3. . 5. 2. and it's needed for Monday morning. and per capita production of grains.. I (work) for forty years. What do scientists base their projections on? What could climate change cause? In what countries is population expected to grow greatly? Which two factors can have catastrophic pressures on local communities and national economies? How can the world cope with the growing population? r::jj= Language focus Future perfect tense: We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended.has shrunk by more than half since 1960.. By next month you should have written your thesis.
7. >4 Translate into English. 3. In 2053. 5. In this first year of the 22nd century the global total of the world population will be around two billion people . Predpoklada sa. 4. water. 5.reading SCENARIO With your partner try to decide whether the following statements are true or false. food production will be growing quickly. The Earth could feed 9 billion people. A common way of reporting what is said by people in general or by an unspecified people is to use: it + passive verb + that-clause It was expected that the damage would be extensive. group of An alternative to it + passive verb + that-clause is to use subject + passive verb + to-infinitive. ktora sa tak stane najl'udnatejsou krajinou na svete. 6. 4. 3. which will lead to great famines. People expect that Bangladesh will be the worst affected country. Medical services could deal properly with any of the diseases. 10. By 2050 Nigeria is expected to have more than doubled its numbers. 5. The damage was expected to be extensive. 2. Cinu predbehne India. 11. People had thought that the chemicals convey important information to the brain. think. 84 . ze v roku 2050 bude mat' Europa 0 60 milionov obyvatel'ov menej. 3. and crops. People are careful not to destroy the soil by using harmful farming technologies. The growing population push demand for drinking and irrigation water beyond supply. >3 Rewrite following sentences in the passive voice. Guess! Then see if you were right by quickly scanning the text. the disease will wipe out nearly all the world's maize crop.Passive in reports if we want to avoid The passive is often used to report what people say. POPULATION Pre. Newspapers reported that there were only two experts on the disease in the country. scientists responded with new ways to feed extra mouths. 4. Some scientists say the mass extinction of dinosaurs was caused by sudden changes in global climate. By the 2050s. 1. 1. ze pocet obyvatel'ov vel'kych priemyselnych krajfn sa do roku 2050 znfzi v dosledku nfzkej miery porodnosti. Urad pre ziskavanie informacii 0 obyvatel'stve so sfdlom vo Washingtone odhaduje. The articles reported that there were 30. 2. People will find the ways how to cope with the breakdown in our natural support systems of soil. 1. Populacia USA rna narast' z terajsich 293 milionov 0 43 percent na 420 milionov v roku 2050. 9. Changing climates mean changing pests.about what we had back in 1950. 8. 2. As the global population grew during the 20th century. Do polovice budiiceho storocia svetova populacia dosiahne pravdepodobne 9.000 people at the concert.3 miliardy. In many places high-yield agriculture will collapse. particularly mentioning who said or thought what we are reporting: People in the area have been told that they should stay indoors.
We knew the danger. It didn't happen in Malthus's day. This led to the great famines. eastern Asia and Europe. first suggested that a growing population might outstrip its food supply. As we all now know. it seems obvious: the Earth could feed 9 billion people . population density triggered two other agents of decline: the great migrations and the plagues. scientists kept crop yields ahead of demand. As the global population grew during the 20th century. The population did reach 9 billion.. Even when the rate of growth of the world population hit its peak in the 1960s and 1970s. an American environmental think tank. which eventually introduced high-yielding crops. This process was well under way by the late 20th century. or for the next two centuries. It simply blew and washed away. MY ROLE TODAY IS TO DISCUSS THE GREAT DEPOPULATION THAT TOOK PLACE LAST CENTURY. The environmental cost was too high to be sustainable. But you can push the world's resources only so far . highyield agriculture collapsed completely. in the 18th century. scientists responded with new ways to feed extra mouths. To put it simply. There were sporadic famines. and compaction by heavy farm machinery left the soil prone to erosion. We destroyed the soil by using harmful farming technologies to wring more crops out of the land. World population plummeted. found that soil and water degradation were already decreasing yields on 16 per cent of the world's agricultural land.ABOUT WHAT WE HAD BACK IN 1950. we ran out of soil and we ran out of water. People ignored the fact that these methods were largely unsustainable. the demographers were half right.but only for a short time. thanks to the "Green Revolution". Indeed. chemical fertilisers and mechanised agriculture to every region capable of using them. food production was declining sharply. It was Thomas Malthus who. and it proved hard to move away from the old technology while maintaining yields. This was partly because research on soil structure dropped to almost nothing when most agricultural research was privatised at the turn of the century. soil degradation helped to halve yields across Australia. Many people stopped worrying about a population crisis. and in 1994 demographers predicted that numbers would stabilise at 9 billion by 2050. Eventually. but in many places little was done to slow soil degradation. What happened to turn the sunny forecasts of the 1990s into the horror that followed? In retrospect. Chemical fertilisers could replace the mineral nutrients taken by the plants.Now read the article in groups to find out whether you were right. Meanwhile. 1. But it was mainly because demand for food was increasing. GOOD MORNING. in 2001 a report by the World Resources Institute. I WOULD LIKE TO START BY SAYING HOW PLEASED I AM TO SEE SO MANY OF YOU AT THE EDINBURGH SCIENCE FESTIVAL IN THIS FIRST YEAR OF THE 22ND CENTURY. By the 1990s it was apparent that population growth had slowed.. LEAVING US WITH TODAY'S GLOBAL TOTAL OF AROUND TWO BILLION PEOPLE . of course. but couldn't restore the soil's fine microstructure. The great dust storms of 85 . but they were triggered by uneven distribution of wealth. Excessive ploughing. But it didn't stay there long. and in many places. By the 2050s.
Astonishing as it seems. many of us would not be here without the genetically engineered high-yield barley the Russians and Canadians now grow in the Arctic. notably in East Asia. Food from the oceans plummeted. By 2000 we had pushed the plants to their limits. Ploughing had always served mainly to control weeds. herbicide-tolerant crops. underground deposits of water. Prices trebled in the 2020s. And in places such as the rice fields of Japan. but the demand for protein was so great that no one could muster the political will. and by 2020 many major stocks had collapsed. starting a wave of famine. Many parts of the world faced the same problem. 4. the huge Chinese pig conglomerates. too. but by then it was too late . urban prosperity increased. In 2026. 2. by the turn of the millennium many of the threats to the global food supply had been predicted. farmers had to go back to relying on rainfall. Even in 2000. The high yields achieved by the Green Revolution came from crop varieties that put more of the carbon they fixed through photosynthesis into grain. Even where water supplies did not depend on aquifers. But it took two decades of research to develop varieties that could thrive on melted permafrost. which received 80 per cent of its water from the river. we were already pouring on as much nitrogen fertiliser as the plants could handle.crop varieties engineered for North America could not thrive in its degraded soils. these had nearly run dry. varieties of maize deliver substantial yields . The greatest challenge. Some fields were already nearing the limit of what they could grow. Ethiopia began damming the Blue Nile. Europe rejected genetically engineered crops until 2035. and North American farmers replaced it with weedkiller after the introduction of genetically engineered. it is now too warm or wet or dry to grow wheat in most places where it thrived a century ago. As we know. a hundred years ago wild fish from the seas provided protein for billions of people. By 2020. reacted by destroying the dam that year and. Likewise. the fertile Punjab was pumping irrigation water from aquifers twice as fast as rainfall could replace it. as had those beneath the breadbasket region of northern China. the swelling population pushed demand for drinking and irrigation water beyond supply. But we took fish out of the sea faster than they could reproduce. Egypt. and less into stalks and leaves. just when climate change began to make that less predictable. This led to skyrocketing demand for milk and meat. after a bloody war. So long as meat eaters could pay. In these regions. 3. But their major impact was on grain reserves: it takes 3 kilograms of grain to produce 1 kilogram of meat. Many irrigated regions were using up ancient. for instance. Similar pressures led Israel to take control of the Jordan in 2029. annexed the entire Blue Nile catchment. The Ogallala aquifer in western North America collapsed soon after. But North America had other problems. Even as the fish harvest dwindled. while Iraq bombed Turkey's Ataturk Dam on the Euphrates two years later. Where there is still enough soil and water. while others drained rain-fed aquifers faster than they were being replenished.but it took a while to develop them. These are generally considered the first of the continuing water wars. What were the scientists doing all this time? After all. has been climate change.the 2050s whipped millions of tonnes of irreplaceable topsoil off the land and brought famine even to wealthy nations. Those once rich ocean areas are now dominated by species that provide little protein. A global ban on fishing might have allowed some to recover even then. primarily water shortages. of course. Thirsty farm animals increased the demand for water. 86 . North America was spared this problem. could easily outbid poor people for grain on the global market. In most cases this change is expected to be permanent.
was the first of five flu pandemics last century. No longer held in check by natural predators. as the megacities mushroomed. these new pests. trash-strewn cities helped launch the bubonic plague pandemic of 2047. designed to cope with the old pests. Simple overcrowding spread diseases such as leprosy. 7. which emerged from pigs in 2018. the decline in hygiene ushered in killers such as dysentery. helped by the global movement of animal produce. Worst of all. As cities outgrew their sewerage and drinking-water systems.5. climate and crops happened too fast for us to cope. But this missed the point that increasing global trade was already spreading invasive. many farmers joined a worldwide exodus and sold their land to the expanding cities. Safety precautions could have prevented the emergence of these infections. Changing climates also meant changing pests. even briefly. and waste out. 87 .a process aided by warmer winters. The vast numbers of displaced people were also a factor in the spread of disease. and the emergence of at least two dozen new diseases. ever-expanding human settlements invaded new territories. for instance. The struggle for costly food. almost every strain of wheat in the world carried the same set of genes involved in photosynthesis. a process that was already under way in the 1990s in mega cities such as Shanghai. plant breeders engineered a dry-land variety of wheat. the disease wiped out nearly all the world's wheat crop. Worse. people died because of violence. After the north Chinese aquifer ran dry. The thought is shocking today. the densely packed masses of hungry people became a perfect breeding ground for epidemics. plants and microbes throughout the world. and spread uncontrollabl y. In the face of all this. Overburdened medical services couldn't deal properly with any of the diseases. became harder and harder. They swelled the numbers of unemployed in these conurbations. including the reinvasion of North America by malaria . Global wheat production still hasn't recovered. The Rio Plus Ten global conference of 2002 famously predicted that all famine would cease. out-of-work urban hordes caused political upheaval nearly everywhere. Warming. exotic insect pests and diseases moved north. When either process faltered.the Flanders flu. which reestablished itself in Europe in the 2030s. But as the region warmed up. proved susceptible to the newcomers. Animal diseases that attack humans flourished . The breakdown in our natural support systems of soil. but their fury has redoubled over much of the past century. 6. In 2047. But new ones also emerged in giant. Famine. 8. The hungry. Unfortunately. as production shortfalls could be met by imports. crowded livestock barns. including monkeypox and the haemorrhagic virus that caused Europe's worst disease mortality since the Middle Ages. This led to novel encounters with local fauna. clean water and healthcare increased tensions between rich and poor . these visitors turned into pests.especially as TV and the Internet constantly reminded the poor of what they did not have. In Africa and South America. war and pestilence have always figured in human history. efforts to flee or plain starvation. especially after the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria made antibiotics redundant. like the old ones. Typhus returned worldwide in 2056. Human-adapted foot and mouth virus (HAFMV) emerged in Taiwan in 2065. The new wheat. Europe could afford to incinerate more than a million cattle that were mainly infected only in their brains. Agriculture gave us yet more plagues. The increasing globalisation of trade cushioned the initial regional food shortages. hard-pressed farmers could not afford them. Getting massive quantities of food in. The sheer size of some cities created its own problems. alien insects. At the time of the first prion disease. notably deserts and tropical forests. But as both demand and the cost of food and water soared. the bunt fungus attacked the very characteristics coded for by those genes and in 2053. which in turn triggered huge migrations of people seeking a living or escaping violence. water. quickly became resistant to the chemicals farmers used to control them. The big corporations had a hard time finding new pesticides.
an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people contraception n . and often stop or disappear completely think tank 11 .to protect someone from the unpleasant effects of something downsize v .the system by which waste material and water is carried away in sewers and then treated to stop it being harmful shrink v ..to increase quickly to a high level surge v .to make regular movements forwards and backwards or from one side to another while hanging from a particular point.to suddenly increase susceptible ad} . Debora MacKenzie.that would have fed 9 billion. A global authority might have been able to monitor and perhaps stem the spread of human. Sometimes I wonder whether it would have been different if. I know the idea of global government is a heresy.a disease that spreads quickly and kills a lot of people release v .to become gradually less. .or the ability to develop it . smaller etc.if a company or organization downsizes. We did once have the technology . size.to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way flee v .the part of a country or area that provides most of its food census n . or to make something do this tail off v .when something begins to be known or noticed falter v .to let news or official information be known and printed. It might have provided jobs in time to prevent some of the mass migrations. or value soar v . it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs dwindle v .to become or to make something smaller in amount. especially a series of events upheaval n . politically or economically for long enough to deliver the solutions when and where they were needed.to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller emergence n .a very big change that often causes problems weedkiIIer ri .9. when industry globalised at the start of the millennium. in order to escape from danger inevitably adv . Could we have avoided any of this misery? I think so. Communication What do you think is the message of the population scenario? ~ Glossary anticipate v .to make something happen very quickly.used for saying that something is certain to happen and cannot be avoided mushroom v .pesticide 88 . But we never stayed organised socially.the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant cushion v . political power had globalised too. kept them free from disease and perhaps living in peace.to make a higher bid than (another bidder) pestilence 11 . if we had acted early. It might have launched earlier research into foreseeable dangers. who work to produce ideas and give advice trigger v . and beyond the power of national and regional governments.to leave somewhere very quickly. New Scientist r::iT Language focus TVhattense do we use to say that it is too late for something to be changed? Look again at the last paragraph and underline all relevant constructions. to publish sewerage 11 .to grow and develop very quickly outbid v . such as a wheat crop that depended on only a few proprietary genes. animal and crop diseases.likely to be affected by a particular problem swing v .to expect that something will happen and be ready for it breadbasket n . We who remain can only wonder what would have happened if it had.a group of people with experience or knowledge of a particular subject. But so many of our crises were outside the realm of corporate concern.
Peace on earth depends on our ability to secure our living environment. Kenya has lost about 90 percent of its forests in the past 50 years. ACT LOCALLY Warmup You are going to read about the first African woman and the first environmentalist to win the Nobel Peace Prize. building materials and to slow deforestation." she said. led mostly by women. 10. Maathai stands at the front of the fight to promote ecologically viable social. her role as an environmental campaigner began after she planted some trees in her back yard. 89 . lack of desire or ability to change the activity of governing a country or controlling an organization e) caretaker f) possible. 6. She has taken a holistic approach to sustainable democracy.> Look at the words on the left and match them with their correct definitions. and without good governance there can be no peace. This inspired her in 1977 to form an organisation known as the Green Belt Movement aiming to curtail the devastating effects of deforestation and desertification. aims to produce firewood. feasible g) to train sb to behave in a particular way h) to give sb the power or authority to do sth i) decrease j) a person who gains as a result of sth a) b) c) d) 1. Maathai dismissed critics who say environmentalism has too little to do with peace to warrant the Nobel accolade. encompass honestness lack of energy. Do you know what did she receive itfor? qDo you know other environmentalists to receive a Nobel Prize? Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2004 to Wangari Maathai for her contribution to sustainable development. viable 2. 9. She thinks development that embraces globally and acts locally .UNIT 13 THINK GLOBALLY. 7. governance to be conditioned to be empowered inertia custodian beneficiary integrity W Reading Kenyan environmentalist Wangari Maathai was the first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. . to curtail 4. A pioneering academic. democracy and peace. to embrace 3. 5. 8. Her tree-planting movement. human rights and women's rights in particular. "The state of any country's environment is a reflection of the kind of governance in place. economic and cultural development in Kenya and in Africa.
and income to support their children's education and household needs. inertia. beneficiary. Does Wangari Maathai consider trying to be honest and righteous worthless if our leaders lack these values? What do you think? Vocabulary :> 1Match address lack understand overcome take face inertia. How do you understand the role of custodians and beneficiaries? 5. shelter. They then make connections between their own personal actions and the problems they witness in the environment and in society.tpe causes and possible solutions.Read the extract from Wangari Maathai' s Nobel lecture. What have the poor in Africa been conditioned to believe? . women did not realize that meeting their needs depended on their environment being healthy and well managed. Through their involvement. Entire communities also come to understand that while it is necessary to hold their governments accountable. accolade 'I 1. This work continues. during which people identify their problems. dismiss. the participants discover that they must be part of the solutions. it is equally important that in their own relationships with each other. The group helped me overcome my and lose weight. poverty and conflicts. namely justice. we have planted over 30 million trees that provide fuel. together. food. Instead they are conditioned to believe that solutions to their problems must come from 'outside'. Comprehension 1. \·.3. they lack not only capital. but also knowledge and skills to address their challenges. 90 . Initially. viable. In order to assist communities to understand these linkages. If people do not understand the relations between their environment. dismiss ressures :> 2 Complete the sentence with the words from the box: embrace. According to Maathai. Further. the work was difficult because historically our people have been persuaded to believe that because they are poor. how can they be helped? 4. What are the leadership values? 6. we developed a citizen education program. They were also unaware that a degraded environment leads to a scramble for scarce resources and may culminate in poverty and even conflict. governance and peace? 2. "So. what relation is there between environment. especially their social and economic position and relevance in the family. integrity and trust. They realize their hidden potential and are empowered to overcome inertia and take action. women gain some degree of power over their lives. They were also unaware of the injustices of international economic arrangements. They come to recognize that they are the primary custodians and beneficiaries of the environment that sustains them. The activity also creates employment and improves soils and watersheds. they exemplify the leadership values they wish to see in their own leaders. In the process. the verbs with the expression from the box to make collocations.
next. first of all.moving from one statement in a text to the next. Are they familiar to you? Match them with their definitions and use them in sentences of your own. 91 . /6 Writing Do you understand saying: Think globally. Some examples of adverbs Time relationships at present. Nuclear energy is the only alternative to coal or gas.3 How many expressions with the word part do you know? In this unit you already have and will come across the following idioms. finally. 6. act locally? How do you envisage your role as a scientist? Write a short essay. By the end of the last century.2. but not completely r::ifj= Language focus Important consideration for successful communication is FLOW . eventually that connect ideas: ' Reformulation to put it simply rather in other words that is to say Highlighting namely particularly . Americans had the idea of the right to free public education for all children. 3. 4. ). to begin with. presently. at this point. to start with then. 5. The goverment has criticisms that the country's health policy is a mess. the highest in the)music business. She received a Grammy Award. Single mothers will be the chief of this new policy. Establishing clear connections of ideas is important to help your reader or listener follow the text. especially mostly specifically Addition also furthermore moreover equally likewise similarly >- Go back to Wangari Maathai's lecture and underline in her text linking words showing the time relationships. have a part to play in part to be part and parcel to be part of the solution to to to to be a necessary feature of something have a particular job or be responsible for something be included or involved in something some degree.
Policy makers have a responsibility to manage risk effectively. 3.good and bad .onto other policy areas and take them into account. 4.In small groups discuss the following questions: 1. MAKING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HAPPEN: ACHIEVING OUR AMBITIONS To achieve sustainable development requires changes in the way policy is made and implemented. This in turn requires clear commitment at the highest level. lack of knowledge must not become an excuse for lack of action or for ill considered action. Improve policy coherence Sustainable development should become the central objective of all sectors and policies. Careful assessment of the full effects of a policy proposal must include estimates of its economic. so as to provide a basis for solutions and political decisions. in line with the precautionary principle. However. To assess proposals systematically better information is needed. This means that policy makers must identify likely spillovers . For example. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION A Sustainable Europe for a Better World: Many of the challenges to sustainability require global action to solve them. How can we make sustainable development happen? What is the role of scientists? What is the task of policy makers? Can we choose our future? Now read the following extracts from key EU documents to check your answers. As EU production and consumption have impacts beyond our borders. Risk and uncertainty are a part of life.5. Climate change and biodiversity are obvious examples. 2. Assessments should take a more consistent approach and employ expertise available from a wide range of policy areas. 15. The Commission believes that developed countries must take the lead in pursuing sustainable development. the implications of an ageing population are still imperfectly understood. both at EU level and in Member States. to provide international leadership and as a first step towards achieving global sustainability. we must also ensure that all our policies help prospects for sustainable development at a global level. and to explain its nature and extent clearly to the public. where relevant. environmental and social impacts inside and outside the EU. It is particularly important to identify clearly the groups who bear the burden of change so that policy makers can judge the need for measures to help these groups to adapt. the effects on gender equality and equal opportunities. This should include. This section makes a number of proposals aimed at securing more effective responses to the challenges we face. The role of science and research is to help identify the nature of the risks and uncertainties we face. and calls on other developed countries to accept their responsibilities as well.2001 92 . A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development The Commission's proposal to the Gothenburg European Council Brussels. as are the implications for biodiversity and public health of some types of environmental pollution or of chemicals such as endocrine disrupters. The Commission believes that the EU should start by putting its own house in order.
consumers and as parents it's Our Future . Protecting the environment presents us with both challenges and opportunities. notably environment objectives into other progress has been made in establishing a comprehensive system of EU. Instead. The world's population is set to grow further. it concerns all of us. through significant improvements in ecoefficiency . and they want to enjoy the beauty of the countryside. in part.OUR FUTURE. The key to our 93 . It is estimated that a person in the western world consumes up to 50 times more resources in a lifetime than the average person in a developing country.Our Choice. the water they drink and the food they eat is free of pollution and contaminants. We cannot solve environmental problems like climate change alone: concerted international efforts are needed. High environmental standards are also an engine for innovation . We should de-couple environmental impacts and degradation from economic growth.creating new markets and business opportunities. they want to live undisturbed by noise. These problems do not respect national boundaries. governments. we must seek to improve the quality of economic growth and other human activities to meet our demands for goods and services and for a clean and healthy environment at the same time. employers or employees. It sets out objectives for the next 10 years and beyond. launched in 1992. Although some would argue that we consume more than our fair share of global resources. The Global Assessment1 of the Fifth Environment Action concluded that progress had been made in many areas. People demand that the air they breathe. unspoilt coastlines and mountain areas. Continued economic growth in the industrialised countries coupled with population growth and the natural desire of developing countries to catch up in terms of material welfare could lead to a huge growth in demand for resources. major environmental controls in the Programme. This is not only an issue for politicians and industry. Environmental degradation in other countries will affect our shared environment and hence our quality of life. It is not only that people aspire to living in a clean and healthy environment but we must also recognise that the costs and other damages caused by pollution and climate change are considerable. environmental measures. OUR CHOICE An Action Programme for the Environment in Europe at the Beginning of the 21 Century The environmental challenges we face in the first decade of the millennium are global challenges. Over the last thirty years. Consumption patterns need to become more sustainable. Protecting our environment does not have to translate into restricting growth or consumption per se. the EU has also taken a leading role in important international agreements for the protection of our environment. The Sixth Environment Action Programme or An Action Programme for the Environment in Europe at the Beginning of the 21 Century focuses on areas where more action is needed and new European initiatives will make a difference. and a broader commitment to the integration of policy areas. we will face unprecedented pressures and impacts on the global environment. They also want a world that is not threatened by climate change. Without better and different ways of meeting this demand.as individuals. *** A clean and healthy environment is part and parcel of the prosperity and quality of life that we desire for ourselves now and for our children in the future.using less natural resource inputs for a given level of economic output or value added. with new on air and water. We all have a part to play .
g. Environment 2010: Our Future.to reduce or limit something.to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time couple v .the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right pioneering ad} . size. its members are connected or united because they share common aims. because you think it is not serious.the process by which useful land. The expanding market for green goods will lead to increased innovation and expanded job opportunities. to separate desertification n .the effect that one situation or problem has on another situation trust n . details.to give an example of something hence adv . Our Choice is not only about protecting the environment for now and the future. is sustainable development: finding ways of improving our quality of life without causing harm to the environment. European business will prosper in this expanding market.combine curtail v . qualities. We particularly need to encourage business to go further. thorough condition n . true.a calculation of the value. Increased attention to environmental measures will improve efficiency and productivity. it is also about improving the quality of life for us all.to give someone more control over their own life or situation estimate n .praise for someone who is greatly admired. opinion. activity. goodness etc of someone or something uncertainty n . ~ Glossary accolade n .a strong belief in the honesty.for this reason integrity n .to cause to became separated.including all the necessary facts.to refuse to consider someone's idea. or beliefs comprehensive ad} .someone who is responsible for looking after something important or valuable de-couple v .long-term welfare. future generations or the people of both the rich and developing world. religion etc empower v . changes into desert dismiss v . or important embrace v . e. or a prize given to them for their work assessment n . freedom. in Europe and around the world. on a voluntary basis and through legislation. especially farm land.someone who gets advantages from an action or change coherence n .introducing new and better methods or ideas for the first time precautionary ad} .the high land separating two river systems 94 . amount etc of something exemplify v .a calculation about the cost or value of something.situation in which people compete with and push each other in order to get what they want spillover n . or problems that need to be dealt with.when you feel doubt about what will happen watershed n .done in order to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from happening scramble n .if a group has coherence. or the judgment you make beneficiary n . a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. opinion etc.to eagerly accept a new idea.governmen custodian n .
pristup k informaciam balance .Environrnentalne rnanazerske systerny environmental measures .environrnentalne normy (standardy) equilibrium . obnova energie environmental care . obdobie sucha ecoefficiency .spotreba consumption pattern .rovnovaha best available technologies (BAT) .zmena klfmy congestion .biodiverzita biomass .znecist'ujuca latka contamination .Aalborgska charta Access to information .zfskavanie energie.zredukovanie.environmentalny manazment Environmental Management Systems .environmentalny vplyv environmental impact assessment .obmedzenie.vzorec spotreby containment . pracf prostriedok disposal Iikvidacia (odpadu) drought . konzumny sp6sob zivota consumption .podmienky zachovania zivotneho prostredia environmental controlenvironmentalna kontrola (riadenie) environmental degradation .ochrana zivotneho prostredia consumer society .cistiaci.iinosnost' prostredia catalyst.SELECTED TERMS Aalborg charter .oxid uhlicity carrying capacity .environmentalne opatrenia environmental responsibility .smernica na posiidenie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie environmental issues . vypust'anie endangered species .konzumerizmus.rozhodovanie decommissioning .environmentalne otazky (problemy environmental constraints .zodpovednosf za zivotne prostredie environmental sound technology .proces rozsirovania pristf detergent .biomasa biotechnologies .environmentalne problemy environmetnallabeling . catalytic converter .biotechnol6gie carbon dioxide .rovnovaha = 95 .katalyzator climate change .ekologicka stopa (environmentalny priestor) ecological networks . infikovanie decision-making .environmentalne oznacovanie vyrobkov ecological footprint . zdecimovanie desertification .starostlivost' 0 zivotne prostredie environmental concerns .odlesriovanie depletion .znecistenie.ekologicke siete emission .posudzovanie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie environmental impact assessment directive .degradacia zivotneho prostredia envioronmental disturbance .oznacovanie vyrobkov setrnych k zivotnemu prostrediu environmental management .ohrozene druhy energy recovery .suchota.environrnentaone vhodne (prijatel'ne) technol6gie environmental standards .vyradenie z prevadzky deforestation .ekologicka efektfvnost' ecolabeling .narusenie zivotneho prostredia environmental hazard .najlepsie dostupne technol6gie biodiversity . kontrola contaminant .konzumna spolocnost' consumerism .environmentalny hazard (nebezpecie) environmental impact .dopravna zapcha conservation .emisia.
skladka.prel'udnenie particulates.prfrodne zdroje nitric acid .surovina fertilizer . particulate matter .do mace obyvatel'stvo.spal'ovanie indigenous people .kyselina dusicna non-govermental organisations . habitat hazardous waste .odpadky.(zasadny) rozdiel.global economy good governance dobre spravovanie. povodni.neziskova organizacia nuclear waste disposal= Iikvidacia a ulozenie RAO Our Common Future .neobnovitel'ne zdroje not-for-profit organisation .zle hospodarenie municipality .globalna krfza global problems .sarnospravna obec.equity .pozornost'. mesto.prfrcdna krajina natural sources .problem potravinovej bezpecnosti fossil fuels .celostny prfstup household .sklenfkove plyny habitat . hlavny predmet zaujmu food security problem . riskantny pollutant .domacnost' hydrocarbons .sklenikovy efekt greenhouse gases .d6kaz(y) exposure .spolocne prfrodne bohatstvo natural landscape .dobre spravovanie.populacna expl6zia . I 96 _l_ I .rovnost'.uhl'ovodiky impact .krajinna ekol6gia Limits to Growth .mimovladne organizacie (MVO) nonrenewable resources .fosflne paliva frontier .impakt incentive . skladovanie odpadu pod zemou landscape .(lovna) zver gap . vplyvu feedstock .odhad evaporation . spravodlivost' establishment of parks and reserves .jernne castice perilous . smeti gender equality .p6rodnost' natural common goods .Nasa spolocna budticnost' (dokument OSN) overpopulation .vystavenie (nepriaznivyrn) podmienkam.masove vyhynutie meltdown .integrovany manazment krajiny jeopardy .roztavenie prehriateho jadra nukleameho reaktora mismanagement .nebezpecenstvo.rodova rovnost' global crisis . medzera garbage . domorodf obyvatelia integrated landscape management .stimul incineration .nebezpecny.Kj6tsky protokol landfill . priepast'.nebezpecny odpad holistic approach .odparovanie evidence . riadenie greenhouse effect . riadenie governance .krajina landscape ecology .znecist'ujuca 1Mb population explosion .priernyselne hnojivo focus .globalne problemy globalna ekonomika .zakladanie chranenych oblasti a rezervacii estimate .Hranice rastu (dokument) local economy -Tokalna ekonomika mass extinction . oblast' natality . riziko Kyoto protocol.hranica game .biotop.
vetena elektrareii 97 .chudoba power company .spravcovstvo subsidies .participacia.udrzatel'ny zivot sustainable society .najomnfk terrestrial plants . iicast' verejnosti refuge .ciel'ove skupiny / ciel'ove oblasti Third world .zivotmi uroveii.panenske oblasti vertebrate .trvalo udrzatel'na spolocnost' tenant .slnecna energia species . primeranost' sulphate .udrzatel'nost' sustainable development .verejne povedomie.splasky.chranene tizemia public awareness .skoliaci program wilderness areas .obnovenie druhov rubbish .rast populacie population projection .suchozernske rastliny target groups / target areas .population growth .vhodnost'.odpadove hospodarstvo well-being .ochrana prirody (vol'ne zijucich zvierat) windmill .zainteresovane skupiny stewardship .stavovec waste management .kyselina sfrova sustainabiIity .veterny mlyn. udrzatel'ny rozvoj sustainable life .populacna projekcia poverty .trvaIo udrzatel'ny rozvoj.princip predbeznej opatrnosti protected areas . smeti sewage .utocisko renewable resources .treti svet training program .kanalizacia solar energy . povedomie verejnosti public participation .dotacie suitability . sulfat sulphuric acid .odpadky.elektrareii precautionary principle .sfran.obnovitel'ne zdroje restauration of species . odpadova voda sewerage . telesna a dusevna pohoda wildlife conservation .druh stakeholders .
Dohovor o medzinarodnom obchode s ohrozenymi druhmi vol'ne zijucich zivoctchov a rastlin UNCCD (United Nations Conventions to Combat Desertification in Countries -Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification.Svetova zdravotnicka organizacia WTO (World Trade Organisation) .Mileniove rozvojove ciele 98 .Konferencia OSN 0 zrvotnom prostredi cloveka FREQUENT TERMS BAT (Best Available Technologies) .Konferencia OSN 0 zivotnom prostredf a rozvoji WSSD (World Summit on Sustainable Development) .Dohovor 0 biologickej diverzite CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) .Organizacia Spojenych narodov pre vyzivu a pol'nohospodarstvo GEF (Global Environmental Facility) .Svetova obchodna organizacia WCED (World Commission for Environment and Development) . predovsetkym v Afrike UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) .ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS EEA (European Environmental Agency) .Svetovy zvaz ochrany prirody UNCSD (United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development) .najlepsie dostupne techno16gie EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) .Eur6pska environmentalna agennira FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) .Globalny fond zivotneho prostredia IUCN (World Conservation Union) .Svetova komisia pre zivotne prostredie a rozvoj WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) .Komisia OSN pre trvalo udrzatel'ny rozvoj FoE (Friends of the Earth) .Rozvojovy program OSN IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL EVENTS UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) . particularly in Africa) Dohovor OSN 0 boji proti dezertifikacii v krajinach postihnutych suchom.Priatelia Zeme OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) .Integrovana prevencia a kontrola znecist'ovania LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) .Planovanie najnizsfch nakladov LIFE (Financial Instrument for the Environment) .Environmentalne manazerske systemy IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) .Analyza zivotneho cyklu LCP (Least Cost Planning) .Ramcovy dohovor OSN 0 zmene klfmy UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) .Ustav pre sledovanie sveta IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CBC (Convention on Biological Diversity) .Environmentalny program OSN UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) .Financny nastroj pre zivotne prostredie MDG (Millenium Development Goals) .Svetovy fond pre prfrodu WWI (Worldwatch Institute) .Summit Zeme 0 trvalo udrzatel'nom rozvoji UNCHE (United Nations Conference on Human Environment) .Posudzovanie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie. postidenie environmentalneho dopadu EMS (Environmental Managerial Systems) .Organizacia pre ekonornicku spolupracu a rozvoj WHO (World Health Organisation) .
to make something happen. annoy D rozculit'.an act of trying to do something. or the judgment you make D ohodnotenie.to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time D dosiahnut' attempt n . the boat built by Noah for survival during the Flood D archa (Noemova) assault n .a situation when you are almost in a new situation. J. especially something difficult D pokus attendee someone who is at an event such as a meeting or a course D iicastnik.something that is abundant exists or is available in large quantities so that there is more than enough D hojny.the part of a country or area that provides most of its food D tirodna oblast' breed v . iba beneficial adj . pocta accommodate v . napadnutie assessment 11 . or a prize given to them for their work D vyznamenanie.to make something less painful or difficult to deal with D zmiernit'. objasiiovat' achievement 11 .although alleviate v . t'azkost' aggravate v . used before amounts or numbers to emphasize that they are surprisingly small D len.to expect that something will happen and be ready for it D predvidat'.praise for someone who is greatly admired. predpovedat' ark 11 . prospesny beneficiary n .not good or favourable nepriaznivy D afflict v .an arrangement in which two or more countries.the crime of physically attacking someone titok.something that makes a place comfortable or easy to live in D vybavenie.someone who gets advantages from an action or change D obdarovany. zmensit' alliance 11 .a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events. pokraj bully v .something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts D iispech. suzovat' affliction 11 . priostrenie D hoci albeit con .to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want.vzacna lasica iijuca v preriach USA so zltou srst'ou a ciemymi nohami (Mustela nigripes) breadbasket 11 . prijemca beverage n . especially ones with particular qualities D chovat'. riesit' (problemy) adjust v .to change so as to match or fit.to add up in importance. and make them suffer D postihmit'. cinit' 2 to be the reason why something happens.only. to cause D zapriclnlt'. zariadenie amount to v . a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation.having a good effectD blahodarny. trapit'. sl'achtit' bring about v .to affect someone or something in an unpleasant way.to make someone angry.to keep animals or plants in order to produce babies or new plants. especially a medical condition D trapenie. especially against political or social developments D prudka reakcia. usually a bad one D okra]. an illness. cinit' anger v . groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something D spojenectvo amenity n .something that causes pain or suffering. rozhnevat' 99 I . make fearful D sikanovat'.in the Old Testament. vydatny accolade 11 . explain D vysvetl'ovat'. ~ J '.GLOSSARY anticipate v .deal with D venovat' sa. upravit' adverse adj .' . pestovat'. odpor barely adv . or an injury worse D zhorsit'. zastrasovat' abundant adj . cause to correspond D prisposobit'. especially when their opinions or needs are different from yoursD vyhoviet'. navstevnik backlash n . odveta. sposobit' brink 11 . intimidate. dosiahnutie address v .to make a bad situation. uspokojit' account for v-I to form a particular amount or part of something Dtvorit'._.formal a hot or cold drink D napoj black-footed ferret n . odhad attain v . pohroma. st'azit' aggravation 11 - zhorsenie.a calculation about the cost or value of something.be bossy towards. to equal D rovnat' sa.
e.used especially in news reports 0 bojovat'. freedom 0 znizit'.chriastel' pol'ny (crex crex) corporate concern .causing so much damage or harm that something no longer works or is no longer effective 0 paralyzujiici.1 the state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold. zhorsit' comprehensive ad} . obmedzit' currently teraz adv . forests etc. suvislost'. to prevent them being spoiled or destroyed.important.protection of natural things such as animals.to formally ask someone to do something 0 vyzvat' (koho na co) catalyst.combine commit v .to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems 0 st'azit'. komplexny concerted effort faction/attack etc. zavazny 0 conservation n .a large round container for collecting or storing liquids.a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way 0 zavazok.to have a lot of something or be filled with something 0 byt' pIny na prasknutie butt n . activity. zmiernit' dopad custodian n . its members are connected or united because they share common aims. podmieiiovat'. n .to grow or develop quickly sa rozvijat' 0 rychlo burst. curtail v .if a group has coherence.to reduce or limit something. thorough 0 tiplny.to persuade someone to do something census n .to stop 0 prestat'. significant dOiezity.the act of keeping something under control. is done by people working together in a carefully planned and very determined way 0 siistredene tisilie concur v .to have advanced to an improved or more developed state 0 vyrazne pokrocit' commit oneself v .to protect someone from the unpleasant effects of something 0 stlmit'. a rainwater butt 0 sud call on/upon somebody/something .including all the necessary facts.used to say that something is true even though people believe the opposite 0 na rozdiel convince v . kust6d 0 cut n . that is spent by a government or company 0 obmedzenie.the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant 0 antikoncepcia contrary to ad} . ochorenie condition v . povinnost' compound v .an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people 0 scftanie l'udu coherence n .to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect 0 drzat' na uzde. kontrola contraception n . or beliefs 0 siidrznost'.someone who is responsible for looking after something important or valuable spravca.an illness or health problem that affects you permanently or for a very long time 0 t'azkosti. stopping it becoming more powerful etc 0 obmedzenie.to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time 0 formovat'. combat v .to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them 0 zhodovat' sa. details.to bind or obligate.at the present time 0 v sticasnosti. as by pledge 0 zaviazat' commitment n . preservation 0 ochrana zivotneho prostredia consumerism n . vychovavat' 0 spajat' sa crippling ad} . or problems that need to be dealt with. zredukovat' cushion v .a situation in which it is difficult or impossible to move because there are so many cars or people 0 dopravna zapcha consequential ad} .the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs 0 spotreba containment n . 2 when too much attention is given to buying and owning things 0 konzumny sposob zivota consumption n . be bursting with something v . a reduction in the size or amount of something. zastavit' congestion n .burgeon v . plants. qualities. catalytic converter n .engage oneself rozhodmit' sa 0 zaviazat' o presvedcit' corncrake sa.to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse . redukcia 100 .[usually plural].a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out 0 katalyzator cease v . zapasit' s eim come a long way v . ochromujtici curb v .zaujem obchodnych spolocnosti couple v . spojitost'. g. siihlasit' condition n .
to change the direction in which something travels 0 odklonit'. 0 or something different or special. especially farm land. changes into desert 0 proces rozsirovania pusH detergent n . group of people etc that existed in the past 0 potomok. or filtration. happen. opinion etc. 0 zlepsit'.to improve something zdokonalit' disgraceful adj . zredukovat'. or important 0 zavrhmit'. rezfduum distinguish enshrined adj . rozlisovat' divert v .to reduce something in amount 0 spotrebovat'.a liquid or powder used for washing clothes.to throwaway. to separate 0 rozdelit'. religion etc 0 prijat'.to deactivate.throwaway. umoznit'. odmietnut'. vyradit' get rid of 0 zahodit'. uchovavany v .to do something as well as you can by making a great effort 0 maximalne sa snazit' downside n . or to make something do this. zmensovat' sa ecological footprint n . nicivy devise v . rozdiel dispersal n . zredukovat' drilling well n . distinguish somebody/something from 0 rozlfsit'. at.decommission v . skandalny dismiss v . discard 0 skladat' odpad.shameful.to become less or go down to a lower level.the production or release of something o emisia.to give someone more control over their own life or situation 0 posilnit'.one that soon may no longer exist 0 ohrozene druhy enhance v .to cause to became separated. zdecimovat' descendant n .the process by which useful land.to get rid of.causing harm or injury 0 skodIivy.to plan or invent a new way of doing something 0 vymysliet'. podporovat'.when something begins to be known or noticed vynorenie sa. nasledovnik desertification n . distillation. or to another place 0 inde embrace v . make something more likely to exist. zbavit' sa dwindle v . stimulovat' endangered species n .to persuade someone to do something. zahriiat' emergence n .to be the thing that makes someone 101 .the area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population 0 ekologicka stopa.to refuse to consider someone's idea. because you think it is not serious. zmensit' sa deem v . it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs 0 znizit'. zlikvidovat' get rid of 0 zbavit' sa. vyptist'anie emission n . vyprist'anie empower v .to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality. rozsirenie dispose of v . nevyhoda downsize v . uvitat'.to eagerly accept a new idea. reduce 0 znfzit' sa. izolovat' decrease v . pokladat' deficiency n . vyhodit'.a lack of something that is necessary 0 nedostatok deplete v . environmentalny priestor elsewhere adv . dishes etc 0 cistiaci. 0 zvysok. objavenie sa emission n .to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller 0 ubiidat'.a difference between two or more things. or to a family.[usually plural] a gas or other substance that is sent into the air 0 emisia. opinion. navrhmit' disadvantage v . zmocnit' encourage v .if a company or organization downsizes.vrtna sonda dump v .the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions 0 rozptyI. neb rat' do uvahy disparity n .in.preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it 0 uchovany.someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago. shut down: to decommission a nuclear power plant vyradit' z prevadzky de-couple v . praci prostriedok detrimental adj . or develop 0 povzbudit'. residuum usadenina. presmerovat' do/try one's utmost v . consider 0 povazovat'. scandalous hanebny.to make someone less likely to be successful or to put them in a worse situation than others 0 znevyhodnit' discard v . especially an unfair one 0 nerovnost'.the negative part or disadvantage of something 0 haelk. true.
or a new part onto a machine. spiitat' hazardous ad} . upevnit' fix n . smeti generate v .wild animals. amount etc of something 0 odhad evaporation. idea etc develop over a period of time (synonym encourage. pomahat' rozvoju frontier n . nahrornadit' hefty adj .a calculation of the value.when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant 0 vystavenie zlym (poveternostnym) podmienkam false dawn n . one on top of the other 0 hrornada.to rule 0 vladnut'. feeling.a method or system of government or management 0 dobre spravovanie. spravodlivost' eradicate v . to produce 0 vyrobit'. refuse. riadit' governance n .for this reason fit v .dangerous. badanie exposure n .the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it 0 prieskum. situation etc that people pay special attention to 0 pozornost'.a difference between two things garbage n .neuteseny harbour contain 0 0 byt' priaznivym v .the thing. nerozum.to give someone a lot of something 0 nakopit'. spravovat'. it changes into a gas 0 odparovanie evidence n .border hranica game n .to control and use the natural force or power of something 0 vyuzlt'.to help a skill. give rise to. hlavny predmet zaujmu folly n . . trash 0 odpadky.to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way 0 ochabovat'. especially one that is likely to have serious results 0 sialenost'.to use or spend a lot of energy etc in order to do something 0 vydat'. but it does not 0 plana nadej falter v . wipe out 0 odstranit'. promote) 0 podporovat'. unikmit' focus n .a plan. slaby 0 a preto.to give shelter to. or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work 0 uskutocnitel'ny feedstock raw material for processing or manufacturing industry 0 surovina finite ad} -limited 0 konecny.a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years 0 fosiIne palivo foster v .relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing 0 vseobecny. idea. vyrabat'. especially something that you think will be good 0 predvidat'.looking or sounding very serious chrnurny.the process by which mental and physical qualities are passed from a parent to a 102 -- . stvarnit' expend v . typicky.[uncountable]facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true 0 dokazty) exemplify v . predstavovat' si equitable ad} treating all people in a fair and equal way 0 spravodlivy equity n .ensure v . or fish hunted for food or sport 0 (lovna) zver gap n . upadat' feasible ad} . birds.a hefty amount of something.group of things placed or thrown. especially money.food wastes. vynalozit' energiu exploration n . as from a kitchen. zIikvidovat' estimate v . riadenie grim ad} . kopa heap v . in order to escape from danger 0 utiect'.to make certain that something will happen properly 0 zarucit'. zabezpeeit' envision v . especially to people's health or safety 0 nebezpecny heap n . zabudovat'.a situation in which something good seems likely to happen. person. evaporate v . or if heat evaporates it. offer refuge to.to give an example of something 0 demonstrovat'.a very stupid thing to do. to prostredim harness v . is very large 0 vel'ky hence adv . vytvarat' generic adj .to imagine something that you think might happen in the future.to leave somewhere very quickly. rodovy govern v . size.something that solves a problem 0 riesenie flagging ad} .~ . blaznovstvo fossil-fuel n .a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage o rovnost'.to put a piece of equipment into a place.to bring into being.eliminate.if a liquid evaporates. so that it is ready to be used 0 namontovat'.becoming tired or losing strength 0 upadajtici. a teda heredity n . obmedzeny flee v .
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