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English_Environmental

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Sections

  • UNIT 1 THE OVERCROWDED ARK
  • UNIT 2 OUR COMMON FUTURE
  • UNIT 3 GLOBAL WARMING
  • UNIT 4 VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES
  • UNITS ENDANGERED SPECIES
  • UNIT 8 AIR POLLUTION
  • UNIT 9 THROW-AWAY SOCIETY
  • UNIT 10 SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • UNIT 13 THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY
  • SELECTED TERMS
  • ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS
  • GLOSSARY

PRIRODOVEDECKA

FAKUL TA UNIVERZITY KOMENSKEHO

English for Environmental Studies
JARMILA CIHOvA

2005 UNIVERZITA KOMENSKEHO BRATISLAVA

CONTENTS
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 THE OVERCROWDED ARK OUR COMMON FUTURE GLOBAL WARMING VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES ENDANGERED SPECIES... WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT AIR POLLUTION THROW-AWAY SOCIETY SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES CASE STUDY WORLD FACES POPULATION EXPLOSION THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY SELECTED TERMS......................................... ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................
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5 13 21 27 35 43 49 55 63 69 77 81 89 95 98 99 108

3

UNIT 1

THE OVERCROWDED ARK

You are going to read an article called The Overcrowded Ark. What do you think the article will be about? Discuss with a partner. ~ Look at the following vocabulary. Check that you understand each term: consumption reckoning gap ingenuity malnutrition to to to to to replenish sustain deplete cease generate

fWl

Reading

Humanity's choices are getting harder and fewer. The Earth's population has doubled since 1950 and consumption has risen even faster. There has to be a reckoning. For many people, it is here already. The few first-class passengers on the planet that is our Noah's Ark are safe for now on the upper deck. It's a very different story down below. How much longer can the rich keep their feet dry? Oil consumption has increased seven-fold in the last 50 years and meat production, marine fish catches and carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning have all at least quadrupled. And freshwater use increased six-fold last century. With 6.1 billion people relying on the resources of the same small planet, we're coming to realize that we're drawing from a finite account. The amount of crops, animals and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds what the planet can replace by an estimated 20 %, meaning it takes 14.4 months to replenish what we use in 12 - or, we can say, that we would need 1.2 Earths to sustain this lifestyle. The gap between rich and poor is becoming wider and more visible. Nearly 30 % of the world's population suffers some form of malnutrition and almost two thirds of humanity lives on less than $2 a day. The family that has to level a forest to grow its food and find the fuel to cook it does not have the choice of living sustainably. The poorest have least power to protect themselves from the effects of global environmental problems such as climate change. And, with the richest 1% of the world's population consuming as much as its poorest 44 %, we would have to use massively more resources if the poor were to live as the rich world does. The optimists say disaster will never strike, as development knows no limits. They argue that human ingenuity will always find a way. Society will find new raw materials, develop cleaner technologies and manage water scarcity so resource depletion and pollution cease to be problems. One argument runs that a better world needs us all to spend and consume more to generate wealth for all - and that industrialisation slows population growth and raises environmental standards.

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such as a decision. Vocabulary read.) The world's population is growing. Or. How does industrialisation affect population growth and environmental standards? 5. find synonyms for the following expressions: 1. What does it mean that we are drawing from a finite account? Can you find other expression from the field of finance? 4. judgment. to change something. How do you understand the sentence: How much longer can the rich keep their feet dry? 3. to expand the resource base and adjust how we use it so we're living off biological interest without ever touching principal. Sustainable development works to reverse that. prices your English pollution unemployment water resources pressures on the environment the world's forests medical care the gap between rich and poor quality of life 6 . . 2 Current projects / situations We are building a bridge over the Danube. with the focus on the present moment. the sceptics say. What do you think is the meaning behind the statement: For many people.> Say what is happening to some of the following. to desire and work towards achieving something important 3. Business is getting right with the environment . we may as well forget it. sustainable development means not using up resources faster than the Earth can replenish them "treating the Earth as if we intended to stay". The climate is getting warmer. fly half way round the world on holiday and get a new mobile phone every year. or process so that it is the opposite of what it was before 4. 3 We use the present progressive for changing and developing situations. Give a definition of consumerism. We don't have enough Earths for this sort of consumer capitalism. 1 At the moment ram enjoying the lesson. in other words. (NOT The climate gets vparmer. KIRBY Alex: The Overcrowded Ark Comprehension 1. to depend on something in order to continue to live or exist > Using the text you have just Cir Language focus Present progressive We can use the present continuous tense in three important ways to talk about temporary situations. reckoning is here already? 2. deplete to reduce the amount of something that is available 2.But if "development" means every person on the planet aspiring to own a car. a situation in which there is not enough of something 5.

The World Commission on Environment and Development chaired by the Prime Minister of Norway. By 2012. local actions can lead to the solution of global problems. Communication 1. Governments need to lead this change but emphasises that everyone can play their part in tackling nonsustainable practices. In this way. governments met in Kyoto. publishes a report Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) which brings the concept of sustainable development onto the international agenda. In the following years a number of publications including Paul Erlich's Population Bomb (1968) and the Club of Rome's Limits to Growth (1972) drew attention to global development issues.the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Framework Convention on Climate Change. 1992 1997 Kyoto Climate Change Protocol In 1997... 7 . Agenda 21 Galls on countries to reduce pollution. Japan to once more look at the problem of global warming and a new set of targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases was agreed. Do you agree that you can only get the developing world to care about the environment once they " get rich enough to be like us? 2. Mrs Gro Harlem Brundtland. Do you agree that the industrial world needs more wealth to protect the environment and that is why the richest country in the world is not willing to sign the Kyoto treaty? 4. emissions and the use of precious natural resources. emissions of six major greenhouse gases must be reduced to below 1990 levels for the target period 2008-2012. which meets every year. Do you think that economic growth and sustainable development are possible? Are they not pulling apart? 3. countries met to review progress towards sustainable development. and a recommendation that all countries should produce national sustainable development strategies. Also agreed is a plan of action. 1987 Nearly 180 countries meet at the 'Earth Summit' (UN Conference on Environment and Development) in Rio de Janeiro to discuss how to achieve sustainable development. Many credit Rachel Carson and her book The Silent Spring (1962) as the catalyst for worldwide acknowledgment of environmental problems. 2002 Johannesburg 2002 "Rio+10" Ten years after the Rio Earth Summit. The Summit agrees the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which sets out 27 principles supporting sustainable development. as well as important UN bodies . Agenda 21. It also provides the most commonly used definition of sustainable development describing it as development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs. Are you prepared to voluntarily reduce what you consume in order to meet the needs of poor people? A BRIEF HISTORY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1960s The industrialised world first became interested in the concept in the 1960s. The Earth Summit also establishes the UN Commission on Sustainable Development.

""""'''''. cort'irt1ltrnent from aHoountries to phase out suiJsidies t() fossil Cifidnudear inc!lJsWes " currently estimated at abollt$25n billion (US) per 'I'ear ~ with 10 years..• "'"Earth .ce . '.."" .an1ty .Le.. .. • To halve the number of people without proper sanitation to 1.o.. development *' A comrnitmentfrem cowltrfe$ to set domestic renewabl-e en.. Did you know .n.rgets of 20 WIthin 10 Teachers comments: !tlus t t11..' IS • crt e... * A COmrnitm-ent frorn inaustr[alaseO countries '" Commitment to new renew"ble financing for to-an imrnedlate of 20 percent of their energy' sector lending to renewable :I: .l....Summ.A. Is its critical tone Justified? Class:.. Teacher:. wfth an -effec~ tlvi? transftion plan ttl assist developIng countries' economies. b···.l. ). I • Thlsr repo . .rgy t.. • To increase the use of sustainable energy sources and restore depleted fish stocks.ongs to ."" ..The conference focused on poverty and the access to safe drinking water and sanitation..g"... 1 a .2 billion..'What makes a conference successful? Is it the number of attendees? The number of resolutions? Do you think the Earth Summit was successful? Look at this Greenpeace report... It agreed several aims.··.1 · " l.. including: • To reduce the number of people that are not connected to clean drinking water supplies from over 1 billion to 500 million by the year 2015.i . f' "s.·1.. to ).. ? 40 000 participants from 191 countries took part in the Johannesburg the cost was 50 million dollars..Apart from Greenpeace which other environmental organizations do you know? 'What do you think about their activities? Do they playa positive role? 8 .. Ene:rgyand climate b .aX:n. summit.11·'1 a e 1 What the world got: (Negative) to provld~ !JOINer to the t'.vobillion :Inthe WiJrlt! currently vvithouteiectridty..

adv. .. Governments have a key role in promoting sustainable development. g. Sustainable development is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone now and for generations to come by: a) Considering the long term implications of our decisions. n . In developing sustainable development strategies they have a number of policy tools at their disposal. and b) Giving equal weight to the environmental. social. g.. social dimensions of sustainability 9 . But governments or even local government cannot make sustainable development happen on their own.e. .feverjone SocJa! ICtr""". legislation and regulation to promote good practice and discourage bad. making policy and providing coordination. Protecting the environment and using resources Recognising the needs c. adj.e. . They enter into commitments. For sustainable development to happen individuals need to see that the issues relating to sustainability are relevant to them and they need to be able to see what they can easily do to contribute to more sustainable development. and economic dimensions of development. These include tax policies. which can act as economic incentives. Extend your vocabulary sustain.<> Figure 1: Sustainable development incorporates three dimensions Action must be taken by all and at all levels.unable to continue at the same rate or in the same way sustainably. which seek to balance environmental concerns with social and economic needs (for example. transport). for example to prepare national programs to contain greenhouse gas emissions. and direct expenditure programs..able to continue without causing damage to the environment unsustainable..to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time sustainable. adj. They are responsible for setting the direction. . v..HOW COULD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BE ACHIEVED? > Read the text and find out who can make sustainable development happen and which objectives should be integrated. to live sustainably sustainability.

for example in the United States. If we divide the planet's ecological capacity by the number of people what we get is about 2 hectares per person._ twice a week. score 2 Alternatively.. fibres. score 23 a detached house. did you buy only locally produced fresh products . sunny summer days. score 7 a terraced house. absorb C02. it would take about six planets. do you buy more heavily packaged and processed items and not even bother to look at where food comes from? If the answer is yes. host our infrastructure. If your home is . score 85 Or do you eat mostly vegetarian dishes? If so. it adds up to roughly 9 to 10 hectares of ecological capacity to provide for an average American.What is ecological footprint? The ecological footprint is a very simple tool to tell us how much nature do we have. What sort of food do you eat? Do you insist on meat with every meal? If so. score 15 Or.your ecological footprint. do you water the garden or wash the car with a hosepipe? Score 4 FOOD When you last went shopping. "IS ONE PLANET ENOUGH?" WATER Have you had a bath every day this week? If yes. a flat with just enough room to swing a cat. score 12 a semi-detached house. And when we add it up. how much do we use. score 1 If you use your dishwasher every day or every other day. That means that if everyone lived like an American. score 15 a large and spacious flat. But we only have one! And some of it we should leave for other species. vegetables and meat? If yes. score 5 And. do you search out food that comes from closer to home? If you are successful at least part of the time. score 6 On hot. score 33 a semi-detached house 10 .such as bread. score 30 WHERE YOU LIVE How many people live in your home? We will divide your score for this section by the number of people sharing and round up the answer. )... score 2 or Do you shower every day rather than have a bath? If so. score 4 Do you think we're too obsessive about personal hygiene? If you take a shower once a week. Then we can compare that area with the area necessary for us to produce food. score 14 If you have a bath just on Sunday night _. Pick the answers that best apply to you..Find out how much land is needed to support your lifestyle .

or beyond score 155 Or did you fly to Europe. score 5 If you bin your newspapers when you have finished with them. score 50 Do you take a bus or train. subtract 10 DAILY TRAVEL Did you drive to college today? Is your car a modem. score 3 4-by-4 PAPER The last book you read. TVs and hi-fis can now be left on standby. you get to subtract some points. start this section with a score of45 On the bright side. say. using up precious land. small-engined car? If so. score 1 Do you always share your newspapers and magazines? If so. so start this section with a score of 75 Do you always switch off the lights if a room is no longer in use? If yes. score 25 If you are fortunate enough to cycle to work or college. subtract 5 If your home is well insulated. So. If you shun this setting and switch these devices right off. you're once again going to use up valuable land. For everyone else. which releases carbon dioxide. generating your electricity releases carbon dioxide. subtract another 15 If your home is double glazed. score 85 If you stayed near home. subtract 10 Do you recycle your plastic containers? If so. rather than travel by car? If so. subtract 5 Do you only turn on the heating when absolutely necessary rather than keeping it on the timer all year round? If so. subtract 15 If you separate out waste paper for recycling. To soak up this greenhouse gas. subtract 8 Are you keen on composting the organic waste left over from the kitchen and garden? If so. preferring to add another layer of clothing before turning it up? If so. score 10 WASTE To dispose of waste.HOLIDAY (and business) Where did you go last year? If you flew to Australia. subtract 17 If you keep used cans apart and recycle them. score 10 HEATING YOUR HOUSE The heat that keeps you warm probably comes from burning fossil fuel.score 10 For people outside Britain: If you took at least one long-haul flight. score 0 If it's half and half. subtract 10 ELECTRICITY If your power comes from only renewable sources. did you borrow or buy it? If you always buy. score 20 If you flew to Asia or the Americas. instead. score 40 Or do you drive a big 4-by-4? Score 75 If your car is something between these two. a wood will have to be planted. buying less or reusing things then subtract 15 11 .including Slovakia . you went by road or rail to Europe . score 2 If you always borrow. start this section with a score of 100 Have you visited the bottle bank in the past month to drop off your empties? If you have. score 2 and skip to the next section. subtract 5 If you avoid_generating waste by. score 85 If. subtract 10 Computers. Do you set the thermostat down low. So.

to make a decision with someone after a discussion with them. If everyone lived like you.400 Your footprint is below the European average. So.to deliberately avoid someone or something subtract v .something that encourages you to work harder.AND FINALLY . f.5 hectares) of a hectare. decision etc incentive n .to produce. (Each "point" in your score is equal to one-hundredth about 3.something that makes a place comfortable or easy to live in cease v . from roads to shops and buildings.make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time 12 . If everyone lived like you.a situation in which there is not enough of something shun v . People who consume more tend to rely more on these amenities. About 3 per cent of the world population falls into this category.. to take account of this.1 the state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold. However. this is still around twice the average Earth share. If your score is: 400 . So.to reduce something in amount equitable ad} .to provide the place and everything that is needed for an organized event implication n . make their own demands on land.to fill something up again scarcity n . to cause something to exist host v .treating all people in a fair and equal way ecological footprint n . agree a plan amenity n . start a new activity etc indigenous people or things have always been in the place where they are. we would need at least one "extra" planet to support consumption.the area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population at a specified standard of living indefinitely.someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something: reckoning n ..600 Your footprint is close to the European average.a possible future effect or result of an action. rather than being brought there from somewhere else. If everyone on the planet lived like you. If your score is: 600 . we would need to find three additional planets.a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way consumerism n . Many of the amenities you use every day. i. we would need two additional planets to support us! About 7 per cent of the world's population falls into this category.to stop commitment n . a score of 350 is equal to CALCULATE YOUR SCORE! If your score is: 200 . ~ Glossary achievement n . for example.something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts agree v . native ingenuity n .a time when the effect of a past mistake is experienced or when a crime is punished replenish v . using prevailing technology fiuite ad} -limited gap n . event.the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs deplete v . 2 when too much attention is given to buying and owning things: consumption n .a difference between two things generate v . This is about three times greater than the Earth share.800 Your footprint is above the European average but still below that of the average North American. About 15 per cent of the world's population falls into this category.to take a number or an amount from a larger number or amount sustain v . double your score.

Her commitment both to the Labour Party and also to a vision of health which extends beyond the medical world to encompass environmental issues and human development were the motivational factors leading to a change of career. one of the most important figures in the Environment. cancer prevention and other diseases. he was a doctor.UNIT 2 OUR COMMON FUTURE Warm up You are going to read about Gro Harlem Brundtland. 13 . A few years later. 5. By profession. a specialist in rehabilitation medicine. Gro Harlem's career ambition was to follow in her father's footsteps. At the age of 10 she moved with her family to the United States. In 1965 Dr Brundtland returned to Norway. at the age of 41. From childhood. Gro Brundtland pursued her other great interest in public life. In 1981. where Gro Harlem's father served as an expert on rehabilitation for the United Nations. 4. she won a scholarship to Harvard School of Public Health. namely party politics. and indeed a young mother. Do you know any other environmentalists who have made a difference? Before you start reading. to to to to to commence champion nurture encompass pursue a) b) c) d) e) follow start include foster. She is noted for being the first woman and the youngest person in the country to hold this post. where her father had been awarded a Rockefeller Scholarship. In 1974 Dr Brundtland was offered and accepted the post of Minister of the Environment. She led her party to election victory three times. and was Head of Government for more than ten years. sustain advocate GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND (1939 -) Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland was born in Oslo. 2. including breastfeeding. Alongside this early career in medicine. look at the following words and try to match them with their synonyms: l. she was appointed Prime Minister of Norway. At the Ministry she specialized in children's health issues. There. the family moved to Egypt. She also worked in the children's department of the National Hospital and Oslo City Hospital and became Director of Health Services for Oslo's school-age children. Norway. As a newly qualified doctor herself. on 20 April 1939. which were later to bring her fame in the international arena of global environmental thinking. her great interest in public health issues and environmental concerns. was nurtured and developed as she worked alongside distinguished public health experts. to commence a nine-year period of working in the Ministry of Health and other positions in the medical field in Oslo. 3.

activist and manager can come together in the shaping of global policy on health and the environment. In what countries did Gro spend her childhood and youth? How old was she when she returned to Norway and what field did she work in? What were the most important interests in her life? Why did she decide to change her career of Director of Health Services? What was so remarkable at her appointment as Prime Minister? What did she gain international recognition for? What was the task of the World Commission on Environment and Development she chaired? What is the Commission best known for and what major event did it inspire? :> 1 Choose words from the box to make collocations with the verbs: to to to to to commence: champion: nurture: encompass: pursue: interests task career period issues reform ambitions the principle of sustainable development :> 2 Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with a suitable prepositions from the box. he was a specialist rehabilitation medicine. In 1983 the then United Nations Secretary General invited her to establish and chair the World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. consisting of almost 400 pages. 'energetic and committed' and 'a master survivor'. or Brundtland Commission. Everyone can play their part tackling non-sustainable practices. politician. 6. Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland. Agenda 21 calls countries to reduce pollution. Its daunting task was to investigate the state of the world. perhaps for the first time in a globally promoted document. The WCED. when Prime Minister. to suggest ways into the twenty first century that would allow the planet's rapidly growing population to meet its basic needs and to come up with a 'global agenda for change'. studied. variously described as 'tough and efficient'. 2.Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland. 3. these questions. 3. 14 . includes a widely quoted definition of sustainable development. that conservation and development can co-exist. medical doctor and Master of Public Health. continues on her life's pathway in a position where her undoubted talents as doctor. 7. diplomats and law makers. she gained international recognition for championing and promoting the principle of sustainable development. 4. 2. It was during the 1980s. 4. The final Report. to on in away for 111 If you are not on for Several books drew attention global development issues. and promotes the view. Gro Harlem's father served as an expert rehabilitation. debated and held public hearings on five continents over almost three years. included individuals from twenty-two nations. thus spent ten years as eminent physician and scientist in the Norwegian public health system and more than 20 years in senior public office. The summit had moved from issues like biodiversity and climate change to tackling poverty and poor living conditions. in 1. From: Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment Comprehension :> Answer 1. 5. scientists. The group. 8. The Commission engaged in a great deal of empirical research and debate. composed of ministers. sure go back to the text. By profession. 6. 5.

C With already and just (a very short time before). we usually put these events in chronological order with the past simple. She is noted being the first woman to hold the post. In 1974 she was offered and accepted the post of Minister of the Environment. 3." from: The Importance of Vision. Decide why the past perfect or past simple were used in each case. isn't achieved by taking a pill or reading a book. 9. before. to say that one event happened after another.) PAST PERFECT and PAST SIMPLE I/we/they/you/he/she/it A When we give an account of a sequence of past events. She gained international recognition championing and promoting the principle of sustainable development. finished etc. 4. 5. If we see how our work supports and contributes to the larger vision. The report launched in 1992. 2. A Centre for Our Common Future was established in Geneva. If we want to refer to an event out of order . When the doctor came. "Vision. Gro Brundtland commitment to a vision of health which extends beyond the medical world to encompass environmental issues and human development were the motivational factors leading to a change of career. B When we use a time expression. 1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. Midwest Academy 15 . James Watson. our work will seem more meaningful. adapted from Organizing for Social Change. At the age of 10 Gro moved with her family to the United States. The Commission engaged a great deal of empirical research and debate. and organizational wisdom and direction. and Watson. He had never flown before. was working on a study of haemoglobin crystals. where Crick. it happened before the last event we have talked about . such as when. A·sense of vision grows out of a set of values. we use the past perfect. » Study the use of the past perfect and past simple in these short extracts. by the time. 1 began collecting stamps in June and by July 1had collected more than 1000. a young scientist called Francis Crick rushed into his local pub in Cambridge and triumphantly declared that he and his colleague. the family moved to Egypt. where her father had been awarded a Rockefeller Scholarship. had just discovered 'the secret of life'. Crick and Watson met in 1951 at the Medical Research Council's Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.we use past perfect. then 35. By late 1989 the Report had been published in seventeen languages and had generated many other publications. r:jfJ= Language focus had (I'd etc. One lunchtime in March 1953. not the past simple. seen. we use the past simple or past perfect for the event that happened first and the past simple for the event that happened second. had just arrived from America to work on another project.7. She had just stepped into her office when the telephone rang. 8. A few years later. an American and 12 years his junior. where Gro Harlem's father served as an expert on rehabilitation for the United Nations.that is. concluded that progress had been made in many areas. experiences. individual reflections. the patient had died.) + past participle (gone. like self-confidence. D The past perfect can emphasize completion.

. but rather a process of change . . Meeting them doesn't us to anything. how would you describe her personality ? What qualities of character do you think an environmentalist should have? Choose from the box below and compare your answers with a colleague. How can we most effectively these aims? The City council could do more to recycling. Britain has £1.. try to achieve sth promote . 4.. Is there a quality you do not have but would like to have? What personality trait does the quotation below reflect? What is its message? Was the Commission successful in their efforts? . in the final analysis.. We do not pretend that the process is easy or straightforward. kind generous optimistic honest energetic bright determined enthusiastic committed hard-working reliable clever flexible efficient ambitious pleasant self-confident shy punctual tough competent capable indifferent easy-going understanding extrovert 3.to try to persuade people to support or use something » Complete 1. A world in which poverty is endemic will always be prone to ecological and other catastrophes . Choose three adjectives from the box which describe you.. Thus.to bind. Work in groups.3 million to the UN for refugee work.to ensure that it meets the needs "Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.engage in. to obligate. Painful choices have to be made.. 16 'I .. 4. Extend your vocabulary to to to to commit oneself . Sustainable development is not a fixed state of harmony. 3.Communication 1. 2.. Technology and social organisation can be both managed and improved to make way for a new era of economic growth." Gro Harlem Brundtland: Our Common Future The Brundtland Report brought the concept of sustainable development onto the international agenda and inspired the planning of a Conference on Environment and Development to take place in 1992 in Rio de Jainero.promise solemnly and formally pursue . Based on the text you read about Gro Brundtland. the sentences with the words from the box. sustainable development must rest on political will. to be willing to give time! energy to do sth pledge . The Commission believes that widespread poverty is no longer inevitable . 2.

which was approved by the SR Government resolution and by the resolution of the SR National Council of the SR in 1999. which had the first meeting in 1999. 65511997 to the AGENDA 21 proposal applying and evaluating the SD indicators in the Slovak Republic appoint all ministers and other heads of the central bodies of the state administration "to evaluate according to requirements and UNO methods and according to the set supervision the implementation of individual chapters of AGENDA 21 and SD indicators in the Slovak Republic". universities. Principles and Priorities of State Environmental Policy (SSEP). The ideas of SD or selected parts of local and regional AGENDA 21 have been successfully applied in many villages. After SSEP. Kosice and Poprad). The Programme of the Village Restoring. The variety of regional or local activities that are initiated by municipality. annually since 1995. which is to UNO in the beginning of the 2nd quarter of the year. Moreover the particular supervisors of SD indicators should have asked. which was approved by the SR Government resolution in 1996.annually develops The Country Profile. People and Water. The Government of the Slovak Republic in the resolution No. UNDP small grant project for SD. they are gradually being implemented into the education at the universities. There are international activities like Aalborg Charter of SD Towns (in Slovakia Banska Bystrica. Important activities from the point of view of SD include the implementation of ISO 14 000 standard in companies. companies. This part of the resolution was not fulfilled. the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic . 13 towns of the National Healthy Town network participate in the WHO Programme "Healthy Town". lIS. which was approved by the SR Government resolution in 2001. helped (MZP SR. and NEAP II.SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SLOVAKIA The Slovak Republic has agreed with acceding to Rio Declaration and to AGENDA 21 by the Slovak Government resolution of s= September 1992 No. the Government has initiated the establishment of the Government Council for SD. Regional Environmental Centre) are very positive.together with other central bodies of the State Administration involved . projects that are oriented to support the using of renewable energy resources (RER). 1996). towns. for including the statistic SD indicators in their scope into the Programme of State Statistic Determination of the Statistical Office (SU SR) of the Slovak Republic. Nor the fact that the Slovak Republic was the first state from the associated countries to publish the complete translation of AGENDA 21 and all of 132 SD indicators. The Village Parliament has been founded and many community groups have been working. the first National Environmental Action Programme (NEAP I) was developed. scientific and research institutes and interest groups (for example Society for Sustainable Living in the SR. At the same time. even though more indicators followed by SU SR are identical with SD indicators. Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic 17 . In accordance with the AGENDA 21 implementation and SD Indicator Evaluation in the SR (1997). Special attention should be paid to Brundtland Town Programme (Rajec). from: RIO + 10 Report. grammar and basic schools. The draft development of the National Strategy of Sustainable Development (NSSD) was preceded by the elaboration of Strategy.the supervisors of SD indicators and AGENDA 21 chapters .

The ideas of SD or selected parts of local and regional AGENDA 21 have been successfully applied in tens of villages. scientific and research institutes and interest groups. universities. Other standards in the series are actually guidelines. Which regional or local activities can be evaluated very positively? 2. which is to UNO in the beginning of the 2nd quarter of the year. 1. ISO 14001 is the corner stone standard of the ISO 14000 series. 1. producers.> Read the text below and explain how ISO 14000 can contribute to better sustainability. 4. 5. What is ISO 14000? . From the point of view of sustainable development (SD) which activities were very important? 3. governments. How many towns participate in the WHO Programme "Healthy Town"? . What do you know about ISO 14000 standards? 4. These include the following: • • • • • ISO 14004 provides guidance on the development and implementation of environmental management systems 19011 ISO 14010 provides general principles of environmental auditing (now superseded by ISO) ISO 14011 provides specific guidance on audit an environmental management system (now superseded by ISO 19011) ISO 14020+ labeling issues ISO 14040+ covers life cycle issues 18 . 2. The Ministry of the Environment annually develops The Country Profile. It was developed in order to assure customers.> Read the text carefully and answer the following questions.> Each of the sentences below contains an error. Have you ever heard about the Aalborg Charter? 5. and other organizations that environmental issues have been taken into account in the activities and products of their trading partners. The Slovak Repulic as a first state from the associated countries published the complete translation of AGENDA 21. many to help you achieve registration to ISO 14001. Rewrite the sentences correctly. towns. companies. ISO 14000 is a series of international standards on environmental management addressing the needs of organizations worldwide by providing a common framework for managing environmental issues. Positively can be evaluated the variety of regional or local activities that are initiated by municipality.Comprehension . It specifies a framework of control for an Environmental Management System against which an organization can be certified by a third party. The ideas of SD are gradually getting into the education at the universities. 3.

5. The Aalborg Charter is one of the most famous policy statements for local sustainable development world-wide. Planning and design . economic and health issues. The ten Aalborg Commitments 1. children and youth. examining progress with their LA 21 and local sustainability process. less traffic . 10. 6. 3.Local governments pledge to formulate.Commitment to promoting sustainable transport. Achieving sustainability requires an immense collective effort.Local governments have a duty to protect the health of their citizens. science and technology. Social equity and justice . Agenda 21 identified 9 Major Groups: women. thereby participating in this unique European Campaign. trade unions. What does stakeholder participation mean? A stakeholder is a group or organisation who has influence in a particular area of policy or who is affected by policies. In June 2004 approximately 5000 local governments across Europe had some kind of local sustainable development process in operation. NGOs. 2. 19 . Natural common goods .Commitment to promoting sustainable consumption. implement and evaluate management schemes aimed at improving urban sustainability.Municipalities pledge to preserve natural common goods. Can it be done? Experience from dialogues developed via the UN Commission for Sustainable Development and the Rio+ 10 review process is positive. The research demonstrated the significant levels of commitment to the LA21 process and some notable achievements during a very short space of time. Governing Sustainable Cities The Local Authorities'self-Assessment of Local Agenda (LASALA) project involved a self-assessment exercise with 230 local governments across Europe. Better mobility.Commitment to securing inclusive and supportive communities. 8. 4.The Slovak Republic is involved in many important international activities and programmes. It gave birth to the European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign in 1994.Urban planning is vital to address environmental. Governance .Local governments pledge to increase citizens participation and cooperation with all spheres of governance in their efforts to become more sustainable. social. Vibrant and sustainable local economy . around 2300 had signed the Aalborg Charter committing themselves to the fundamental principles of sustainable development. local authorities. We are all stakeholders. Responsible consumption and lifestyle choices . you have a personal interest or involvement in it. More than 1500 local and regional authorities from 38 countries have committed themselves to the goals of the Aalborg Charter. such as THE AALBORG CHARTER.Signatories are committed to creating a vibrant local economy that promotes employment without damaging the environment. indigenous people. including the role of citizens and stakeholders. Local action for health . business and industry. Local to global: Signatories pledge to act to improve sustainability beyond the European Union. 7. Local management towards sustainabiIity . and farmers. 9. Do you have a stake in your locality and its future? If you have a stake in something which is important to you.

Which Slovak town took part in LASALA scheme and with what results? ~ Glossary address v . purpose.to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them conservation n . g.to rule governance n . What is the goal of the Aalborg Charter? 3. According to a senior politician: an Many civil society organizations are helping to direct Dunajska Luzna to be more sustainable. is seen as an important link between local government and the civil society. to prevent them being spoiled or destroyed.to deactivate.a solemn binding promise to do sth pledge v .. From: Environmental Governance Sourcebook Comprehension 1.engage oneself concur v . plants. promise that you will do something promote v . they are forming a mosaic of all relevant local issues . The local authority has set up LA21 commissions to promote sustainability within civil society organizations.protection of natural things such as animals. NGOs are our future and thanks to them citizens in Dunajska Luzna are starting to change and are more open to new ideas. as by pledge commit oneself v . Slovakia In terms of institutional capacity. Both civil society and local government respondents concur that there are still major problems to address. preservation decommission v . to encourage prone to ad} . especially on what will happen in the future stakeholder n . forests etc. the Environmental Action Programme for the town includes a section on orgamzmg courses on International Standards Organization (ISO) environmental standards and environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for both officers and politicians. which includes the LA21 forum.important. In your own words try to explain briefly to your partner what ISO 14000 standards are? 2.a group or organisation who has influence in a particular area of policy or who is affected by policies 20 . e. seek to attain or accomplish (an end.having a good effect call on/upon somebody/something to formally ask someone to do something commit v . shut down: to decommission a nuclear power plant equity n . particularly improving infrastructure in the town. the Community Environmental Association. the mayor is seen as important driving force for sustainable development.having an important effect or influence.when you judge your own work or progress significant ad} .deal with. object. or unusual enough to be noticed or mentioned pledge n . usually public.CASE STUDY: Dunajska Luzna.) self-assessment n . excellent.to strive to gain. municipality n .a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage govern v .to make a formal. address the needs beneficial ad} .to bind or obligate.having a tendency to pursue v .. interesting. In addition.a method or system of government or management. and the civil society responses suggest that the input of the university in terms of technical expertise is beneficial for the development of sustainable planning.to help something to develop or increase.administrative district. however. etc. town. city notable ad} .

Make two more personal predictions using transition words from the box. However. 5. 21 . as well as droughts in other areas. Transition words for predicting: in the future. but such an increase in temperature would cause a rise in sea levels large enough to put the lives of up to 100 million people at risk. For one thing. worried that warming could ultimately "bankrupt the industry".. after a while. oceans might absorb most of the increased heat. 2. later. That may not seem like much. Hurricane Andrew. have responded by lobbying governments to regulate emissions of greenhouse gases. with significant loss of life". And. hurricanes will become more frequent in a warmer world. one day.5 degrees Celsius. All of us will have air-conditioning in our homes. which have a lot to lose should weather patterns become more extreme. say many scientists. Tropical diseases would almost certainly spread northwards. causing "wide-ranging and mostly adverse impacts on human health. 3. Some maintain that higher temperatures. This view is not supported by insurance companies. cost insurance companies 16. leaving little to change the climate. might produce more clouds. The living standard in Slovakia will be the same as in the Czech Republic. and.UNIT 3 GLOBAL WARMING Warmup Do you agree with the following statements? Compare your opinions with your neighbour's. Reducing harmful emissions is just one area in which the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel is decidedly optimistic. 4. global temperatures are expected to rise by between 0. 1.) Widespread flooding. W ReadingJ By the year 2100. before long. by 2010 ). Insurers.5 dollars in damage claims. gradually. I will have a well-paid job.. less environmentally damaging energy sources. In five years . in developed countries. Slovakia will have as many wind farms as Austria. (This number will rise as the global population increases. not all scientists are convinced that human-influenced warming actually affects the climate. which have a cooling effect. And. which swept across large parts of the US last year. emission reductions of up to 60 per cent "are technically feasible".8 and 3. in the short term it might not prove that difficult. could spark off mass migrations as areas become uninhabitable. In the longer term. eventually. I will be married. which increase evaporation and lead to heavier rainfall. harmful emissions will be reduced as the world changes over to cheaper. Efficiency improvements alone could cut energy needs by as much as 30 per cent at virtually no extra cost.

because of mistakes made by the developed world? BBe English. 2. The first stems from the uncertainty about how hot the planet is going to get and the time scale involved.2 Underline all predictions you can find in the article. (explaining the direct origin of events and states) )-1Retell the main points of the article using some of the learned" cause" words. perhaps violent. a) to be the cause of trouble or violence b) to develop as a result of something else c) a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live d) to feel certain that something is true e) unfavourable f) possible. these words with the definitions below. 4. 22 . The rise in prices sparked off a lot of political protest (often used for very strong. 7. and suffer the consequences. Use the context to help you. May 1996 Comprehension ). And what should the developing world do? Should it reduce emissions. reactions to events) The President's statement gave rise to / provoked / generated a lot of critism. preventative action against a future threat carries heavy political risks. For politicians. why is almost nothing being done? There are two main reasons.Read the text carefully and answer these questions: a) b) c) d) What does the rise in temperature cause? Why is the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel optimistic? Do you agree that you can cut energy needs at no extra cost? Why is it so difficult to reduce harmful emissions? Vocabulary » 1Match 1. 6. (slightly less strong than spark off) The new law has brought about lIed to great changes in education (often used for political/social change) This problems stems from the inflation of recent years. It is difficult to get people to act when predictions may take between 50 and 100 years to materialise. 5. likely to work g) so nearly that any difference is not important droughts spark off adverse be convinced feasible virtually stem from Extend you vocabulary Cause and reason words Here are some "cause" words and typical contexts they are used in. ).If it is economically and technically feasible to reduce harmful emissions. 3. who face elections every half decade or so.

rather than 200 lives in the health sector?" Dr Lomborg asks. Headlines gloomily predicting environmental collapse are causing society to spend vast sums of money on problems whose seriousness is greatly overblown. and these are difficult to predict. Future continuous (will be + present participle) Soon an Alaskan village will be relocating to the mainland . could) This may launch a debate in Washington that could have an impact on the administration.200 islands are no more than 1m above sea level. The health of millions could be threatened by increases in malaria.000. skewing the public's understanding of green issues in a way not supported by the available data. To express prediction we can use: Future with "will" Polar and glacial ice will melt." he says. protecting biodiversity or population crisis. we can protect ourselves against. but the downside is that there are less resources to spend elsewhere. 23 . Higher temperatures might produce more clouds. likely to be very strong regional variations.r::iT' Language focus Using English to Predict The goal of all scientific investigation is to predict the future. given Dr Lomborg's reading of the statistics.making the people the first refugees of global warming. probably) There are. Climate change could be afar worse threat than terrorism. but only postpone a 2C temperature rise by a mere six years. Probability (be likely to. however. might. and is based on the assumption that what we can predict.2 ill. Dr Lomborg says those painting a grim picture of the environment have largely gone unchallenged. To save a life via medical means costs around $19. "Is it reasonable that we save one human life in the environment. Within 100 years the Maldives could become uninhabitable since 80 % of its 1. Possibility (may. m ReadingII ~ Global warming'? Got to admit it's getting better In his famous and rather controversial book The Skeptical Environmentalist academic Bjorn Lomborg has examined reputable statistics on climate change and the so-called "greenhouse effect" only to conclude that the Kyoto Treaty would cost $4 trillion to adopt. whether we speak about global warming. to stop someone dying due to an environmental hazard involves an investment of some $4. "It looks benign because we're doing good. Hypothetical nature (would) Tropical diseases would almost certainly spread northwards. water-borne disease and malnutrition. and the oceans will warm. Prediction is an essential part of environment science.

especially one that is false or not very clear a situation in which different companies. especially something that they had been thinking of doing the negative side of something an idea. 2. but if there are lots of expert opinions on a level playing field we tend to get pretty close. 5. I knew something was wrong. The of the plan is that we lose a lot of time. Does Bjorn Lomborg have an optimistic or pessimistic view of the future? What does he base his opinions on? How did environmentalists react to his ideas? Would you say that the author of the article is neutral or biased? Note down any phrases which can support your opinion. countries etc can all compete fairly with each other because no one has special advantages in or to another place to scatter things around a large area :> 2 Complete 1. 3. 7. 9. "This is not just something I believe." Breathe easy: Air quality has . 2. car exhaust-filled city streets. improved in London Comprehension 1. The problem is that on environmental issues we have not had a level playing field. which had the effect of The yard was with garbage. Vocabulary :> 1 Find these l. 3. 3. 24 . the sentences with words from exercise 1: There were outbreaks of rioting in the region When I saw their faces. 8. Complexity makes ith~dei to make the right decisions. "I expected a hostile response. but the academic's attempt to let the figures speak for themselves has provoked the ire of environmentalists. 4. Dr Lomborg'sstatistical revelations may come as a pleasant surprise. words in the text and choose the correct meaning: a) b) c) d) e) f) notion downside elsewhere to anger grim to prompt stance to strew a level playing field g) h) i) j) to affect a test or an attempt to get information in a way that makes the results incorrect sad because you think the situation will not improve to make someone angry an opinion that is stated publicly to make someone decide to do something. 4. The President has adopted a tough on terrorism. 5. 6. but we should be equally wary of the green movement. 2." says Dr Lomborg. there's data for this. 5. the figures. All the people we questioned lived in the same area. belief or opinion. 6."It's sensible not to trustindustry. 4. who makes a point of only using figures collected by bodies such as the United Nations "organisations we typically all trust"." For ordinary people walking litter-strewn.

8.. Ifind it. As far as I'm concerned .. 1.comJ: http://www. 3. The world's species are not disappearing at an alarming rate The Kyoto Protocol is an expensive waste of money Acid rain does not kill forests Higher estimates of temperature increases are "plainly unlikely" RS Writing task • What are your views on the matter? Consider the above topics and choose the one which interests you the most. Bjorn Lomborg and some of his most provocative pronouncements. take notes concerning the following points: 25 r .dkJ Useful phrases to express your opinion: In my opinion .. 2.. To my mind . indulge.. disgraceful.lomborg. On February the 16t\ the Kyoto protocol entered into force around the world.B.. Then write your answer to Bjorn Lomborg or to newspapers.. heap... I think he is right! he is wrong .7. Her situation me to do something about getting a new job. I share your view. I'm afraid I can't agree with Mr. Listening You are going to listen to several Environmentalist. eradicate. Try to find relevant information on the Internet to support your views. It's not really a when one country is subsidizing its car industry with massive government grants. 10.. with two notable countries refusing to join. bully. I'm sorry I couldn't go along with that. Notable because these are the only members of the OEeD who have not joined and the two countries have two of the highest levels of carbon emissions per capita.. . I do not agree with the that human beings are basically good.. I'm afraid that just isn't the case.lomborg-crrors. N. XY on this matter..grcenspirit. write off > 1 While listening. What me most was his total lack of remorse. http://www. 4. 9. Australia and the USA. reactions to Bjorn Lomborg' s controversial book: Sceptical Make sure that you understand these words: detrimental.comJlombond http://www.

a situation in which different people. especially trouble or violence stance n . idea.in.enjoy to excess level playing field .to develop as a result of something else strew v .the negative part or disadvantage of something elsewhere adv .to give someone a lot of something indulge in v .eliminate. I have been to global warming as "statistically irrelevant localised average temperature variation" for ages. it affects the results. his position . work out.looking or sounding very serious heap v . wipe out feasible adj . 3. or opinion plainly adv . making them incorrect spark off v . a huge difference.a plan. or to another place eradicate v .shameful. practically write off v .in a way that is easy to understand or recognize prompt v . etc can all compete fairly because no one has special advantages notion n .to make someone decide to do something skew v . companies. We have to see Kyoto as to an overall reduction in C02 emissions below their 1990 levels.not good or favourable anger v . scandalous downside v .to make something happen.to persuade someone to do something detrimental a . Bjorn Lomborg argues that the Kyoto Protocol will . a step ~ Glossary adverse adj . HELP: recognize.an idea. at.is he a specialist or not :> 2 How many speakers agreed with Lomborg's views? :> 3 According 1. 6. make no diference. refer. his bias: does he agree with Bjorn Lomborg or is he critical to his opinions? 3. 4.to make someone angry.be bossy towards. We are an intelligent enough species to how to live sustainably. or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work grim adj .almost. It's about time someone that saving a few trees in Brazil is not going to save the world. the nature of the problem the speaker refers to 2. annoy bring about v . countries.to scatter things around a large area virtually adv . make fearful convince v .1. intimidate.to be the cause of something. belief.to decide that a particular thing will not be useful. If we can cut down on this pollution then we would see a in our health and the conditions in which we all live. 5. to cause bully v .if something skews the results of a test etc. to what you have heard fill in the gaps with words that best express the idea of the sentence.causing harm or injury disgraceful a .an opinion that is stated publicly stem from v . important or successful 26 . 2.

such as rain forests. species ecosystem equilibrium habitat extinction 5.plants. No longer. 1. While covering only 6 % of Earth's land surface. 27 . They disappeared naturally at the rate of about one species per million per year. Compare the results with your partner. the rain forests are losing an area about the size of Switzerland each year. maintaining a rough equilibrium. and newly evolved species replaced them at the same rate.UNIT 4 VANISHING BEFORE OUR EYES Match the key terms of this unit with the correct definition. Not only has the extinction rate soared. Biologists who explore biodiversity see it vanishing before their eyes. including coral reefs (two thirds degraded) and salt marshes and mangrove swamps (half eliminated or radically altered). They generally agree that the rate of species extinction is now 100 to 1. How much biodiversity is there? Biologists have described a total of between 1. animals and microorganisms e) the ceasing to exist of a species or a living organism. Next down are the species that compose the ecosystems: swallowtail butterflies. whose numbers declined to the point where the last member of the species died and therefore no new members of the species could ever be born again.6 million to more than 100 million. such as a plant or animal. from 3. With other rich environments under similar assault. individual species and their immediate descendants lived an average of about 1 million years. Throughout most of geological time.5 million and 1. At the top are the ecosystems. according to the method employed. 6. people. 3. Yet this impressive achievement is only a small beginning.000 times as great as it was before the coming of humanity. The principal cause of both extinction and the slowing of evolution is the degrading and destruction of habitats by human action. coral reefs and lakes. Estimates of the true number of living species range. biodiversity 2. 4. the extinction rate of species and races is everywhere rising. a) b) m Reading Earth's biodiversity (short for biological diversity) is organized into three levels. but also the birthrate of new species has declined as the natural environment is destroyed. which interact which each other c) the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs d) the variety of all life forms on Earth . At the bottom are the variety of genes making up the heredity of each species. the basic unit of biological classification the whole complex of living and non-living components in any given area. f) a term for an ideal condition in which the interrelationships of organisms to one another and their environment appear harmonious. moray eels.8 million species.

The last and most famous. which sees humanity as part of the biosphere and its faithful steward. Today only 20 species provide 90 % of the world's food and three .000 plant species for food. including protection of biodiversity. We have scarcely begun to consult them for the experience stored in their genes. across 2 million to 5 million or more years. ended the age of dinosaurs. Similarly. Humanity would then have to wait millions of years for natural evolution to replace what was lost in a single century. The biochemistry of the vast majority . albeit very slowly. Why? For practical reasons. Natural pharmaceuticals offered by biodiversity are also underutilized. Not only would there be many fewer life forms. Then. Only a few hundred wild species have served to stock our antibiotics. original variety. Throughout history. wheat and rice . life as a whole evolved again to its full. Whether it happens in time depends fundamentally on the shift to a new ethic. Caught in an endless arms race." pockets of wild nature that contain high concentrations of endangered species. but also faunas and floras would look much the same over large paris of the world. people have cultivated or gathered 7. saline flats and other marginal habitats. having been able to spread from isolated pockets difficult to detect. Success also depends on attention to sustainable management of the environment.4 % of the world's land surface yet are the exclusive home of more than a third of the terrestrial plant and vertebrate species. from early Cambrian times. with disaster species such as fire ants and house mice widely spread. Tens of thousands of species of the world's still surviving flora can be bred or provide genes to increase production in deserts. these species have devised myriad ways to combat microbes and cancer-causing runaway cells. the loss of biodiversity will be more consequential to humanity than all of present-day global warming. which occurred 65 million years ago and was caused by a giant meteorite strike off the present-day coast of Yucatan. Humanity'S food supply comes from a dangerously narrow sliver of biodiversity. but now another. The reason is to be found in the principles of evolutionary biology. anticancer agents. the hottest of the terrestrial hot spots occupy only 1. Even if the current rate of habitat destruction were to continue in forests and coral reefs alone. Our descendants would inherit a biologically impoverished and homogenized world. half the species of plants and animals would be gone by the end of the 21st century. There are reasons to be warily optimistic that biodiversity may be salvageable. very slowly. From the coastal sage of California to the rain forests of West Africa. As more time passed. that survived and reproduced rapidly to fill the habitable spaces emptied of other life. from the 28 . Researchers of biodiversity agree that we are in the midst of the seventh mass extinction. That change of heart has begun in most countries among a few farsighted leaders and a growing part of the general public. if nothing else.Paleontologists recognize six previous mass-extinction events during the past half-billion years (the number was until recently believed to be five. There was a bloom of a small number of "disaster species" such as fungi and ferns.millions . a large part of biodiversity was destroyed.of other species is an unfathomed reservoir of new and potentially more effective substances.supply more than half.maize. Every species is a masterpiece. pain killers and blood thinners. exquisitely adapted to the particular environment in which it has survived for thousands to millions of years. a few "Lazarus species" reappeared in localities from which they had been wiped out. has been added). not just the resident master and economic maximizer. swallowtail butterfly (Papilio glaucas) In the long term. Conservation experts now give top priority to "hot spots. First. These catastrophes followed a typical sequence. which give hope that a great deal can be accomplished in a short span of time. I am convinced. ozone depletion and pollution combined.

streams of Appalachia to the Philippine coral reefs, aquatic hot spots occupy a tiny fraction of the shallow water surface. This much of the world can be set aside quickly without crippling economic or social consequences. More difficult but equally important are the preservation and long-term nondestructive use of the remaining fragments of the old-growth forests, including the tropical wildernesses of Asia, Central Africa and Latin America. None of this will be easy, but no great goal ever was. Surely nothing can be more important than to secure the future of the rest of life and thereby to safeguard our own.
Edward O. Wilson, Time, Earth day 2000

Mangrove swamps are found along tropical seacoasts on both sides of the equator. To most people, they look like muddy, swampy places filled with mosquitoes, snakes and spiders. Actually, they are a forest community that bridges the gap between land and sea. Mangrove root systems provide a filtering system allowing the sediments to be removed before entering open water. This sediment would otherwise cover and kill coral reef colonies. The tsunami left less destruction in regions protected by mangroves.

Comprehension
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What three types of biodiversity do we know? How did dinosaurs become extinct? Which are the richest environments? What makes scientists think that we are in the midst of the seventh mass extinction? What is the main cause of extinction? Why is it necessary to protect biodiversity? Why might the loss of biodiversity be more significant than global warming and ozone depletion? Can biodiversity be saved? If yes, under what conditions?

Vocabulary

>- 1Find the following
1. unfathomed

words in the text and choose the most suitable expression to describe them. a) impossible to understand b) not capable of being measured c) unexplored, unmeasured capable of being saved b) manageable b) owner of the house

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

salvageable steward resident master assault safeguard

a)

a) manager of the house a)

someone who rules a country only for a limited period b) occupier a) rapt c) violation b) attack a) protect b) escort safely c) save

29

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Biodiversity hotspots
The concept of the threatened biodiversity hotspots was first developed in 1988 by British ecologist Dr. Norman Myers, and was adopted and has been used by Conservation International and the MacArthur Foundation since 1989. To qualify as a hotspot, an area must contain 0.5 % of the global total of vascular plants (estimated at 300,000 species), or 1,500 species, as endemics. The second major criterion for hotspot status is degree of threat. In order to be included on the list on the basis of this criterion, an area must have lost 70 % or more of its original natural vegetation, leaving 30 % or less in intact condition. The threat criterion enables to distinguish between areas with high diversity and endemism under severe threat (Madagascar and the Philippines) and those with equal or higher diversity and endemism but still largely intact, the so-called major tropical wilderness areas (Amazonia, the Congo forests of Central Africa and New Guinea). Together, the hotspots once occupied a land area of 17,541,969 km', or 11.8 % of the planet's land surface - roughly an area the size of Russia. Cumulatively, they have lost 88 % of this area, meaning that only 12 % of the original extent, remains intact. This represents just 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet, a relatively smaIl area that is equivalent to the American states of Alaska and Texas combined, or about four times the area of France. The overall conclusions of the hotspots analysis are simple and obvious. If we have 44.4 % of all plants and 35 % of all non-fish vertebrates endemic to just 1.4 % of Earth's land surface, and if this same 1.4 % is under the most severe threat, then it is only logical to focus a significant portion of our attention on these areas in the next few decades, and especially over the next two to five years. To put it even more strongly, the hotspots are fundamental to preventing a mass extinction crisis in the early part of this new millennium. If we fail to act in these areas and lose that 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet, we wilIlose, at the very least, those plants and animals that are found nowhere else than in the hotspots - even if all of efforts in other parts of the world are successful. Without decisive action in the hotspots, major extinctions are inevitable. To the question of whether or not we can still have a significant impact on biodiversity losses, Conservation International answers that, despite the significant challenges, we are optimistic. Success will depend on maintaining a very strategic focus on priority regions and building the alliances necessary to pursue conservation in these areas.

Hottest of the hotspots

• •


Comprehension
1. 2. 3. 4. What land area did hotspot once occupy? What criteria must a region meet to be qualified as a hotspot? How can we prevent a mass extinction crisis? Can negative trend be reversed? Are conservationists optimistic?

• •

Madagascar Philippines Sundaland Atlantic Forest Caribbean

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r:g= Language focus

Using English for making hypothesis:
A hypothesis is a tentative proposition that resolves a problem or answers a scientific question. Most hypotheses are stated in the present simple tense.
Ifwe have more than 50 percent of global terrestrial biodiversity found in around 1.4% of the land surface of the planet, then it makes sense to concentrate our investments in these areas.

If we fail to act now, it is not just the plant and animal kingdoms and the beauty of the planet that
will suffer.

Sometimes a hypothesis is expressed as a prediction, using the future tense with will.

To talk about imaginary future situations we use if.. ..were + to-infinitive
If he were to have a chance of success, he would need to move to London. If the current rate of habitat destruction were to continue, half the species of plants and animals would be gone by the end of the century.

zr

However, we can't use this pattern with many verbs that describe a state, including know, like, remember, understand
If 1knew they were honest, I'd gladly lend them the money. (not If I were to know ...) If we stopped pouring greenhouse gases into the air tomorrow, the water would still go heating for decades ahead, if not centuries.

)- 1Now go back to the text and find examples of hypothetical constructions.
)- 2 Complete the following sentences with the verbs in the correct form. 1. If we nothing, as many as one-quarter of all today's primates will be dead in 20 years. 2. If people were to keep their cars in their garages, city transport to be more comfortable and cheaper. 3. If Slovak universities to improve educational standard, government would have to increase funding. 4. We to use massively more resources if the poor live as the rich world does. )- 3 Make two more sentences expressing a hypothesis.

Lighter side The teacher came up with a good problem. "Suppose," she asked the second-graders, "there were a dozen sheep and six of them jumped over a fence. How many would be left?" "None," answered little Norman. "None? Norman, you don't know your arithmetic." "Teacher, you don't know your sheep. When one goes, they all go!"

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EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE Natura 2000 In May 1992 European Union governments adopted legislation designed to protect the most seriously threatened habitats and species across Europe. For the first time. where people were tolerated rather than integrated. All of this. Natura 2000 . as much at the local level as at the European level and across all sectors and interest groups. however. many vulnerable semi-natural habitats and species which are dependent upon positive management will be maintained.an area equivalent to the size of Germany and Italy put together. This legislation is called the Habitats Directive and complements the Birds Directive adopted in 1979. the Habitats and Birds Directives) to protect and manage vulnerable species and habitats across their natural range.000 sites have been proposed for the Natura 2000 Network. Natura 2000 is in fact more about saying 'take note . Responding to the growing concern of Europeans over the rapid loss of their wild life. 32 . the network should add up to substantially more than the sum of its parts.this is for wildlife not people'. With the recent enlargement of the EU. the sheer scale of Natura 2000 should make it a powerful ally in maintaining the economic viability and social fabric of many rural areas. The other distinguishing feature of Natura 2000 is that it puts people at the heart of the process rather than on its periphery. At the heart of both these Directives is the creation of a network of sites called Natura 2000. social and cultural requirements and the regional and local characteristics of the area'. both for nature conservation and for people living and working in rural areas. This breaks with the more traditional top-down approach of classic nature reserves. Such an approach has many advantages. Not only do the new Member States have a rich biodiversity of their own. So far. It also follows the principle of good governance which advocates greater participation and openness in shaping and delivering EU policies. By actively associating different stake-holders in the management and implementation of Natura 2000 sites. this coverage is likely to extend even further. requires a concerted effort in communication. By the same token. As such.putting people at the heart of the process Natura 2000 has to be one of most ambitious initiatives ever launched to protect Europe's rich and diverse natural heritage.this is our common heritage' rather than 'keep out . covering almost a fifth of the European territory . This principle of collaboration is enshrined in the Habitats Directive. irrespective of national or political boundaries.e. some 18. It is this European dimension that sets Natura 2000 apart from previous efforts to conserve nature in Europe. which requires that conservation measures 'take account of the economic. it sets out to create an extensive network of protected areas across the European Union to conserve its rare species and habitats. but they also harbour species and habitats that have almost disappeared from the rest of Europe. all 25 Member States are working together towards the same goal and within the same strong legislative framework (i.

• Agreeing: We entirely agree with . 3. groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something 33 .. ... 6. • Using reasons: I think. We have to say that X's argument is somewhat unconvincing . set out. viable 1. 6...... 5. What is the principal role of Natura 2000? What makes Natura 2000 different from previous efforts to conserve nature in Europe? What other distinguishing feature does it have? How do you understand the principle of good governance? What was the traditional top-down approach of nature reserves? What important condition must be fulfilled to achieve the goals of Natura 2000? Vocabulary :> Fill in the gaps with the words from the box. 2. set apart.. Man's ability to reason him from other animals.Comprehension 1... We have doubts about the long-term economic of the company . this is a region with very high biodiversity . 3. • Disagreeing: We completely disagree with X on this point. Do you think this is a proposition? The right offree speech is in the Constitution.. 4. . 2.. 7. • Partial disagreeing: We respect X' s arguments in favour of. but. :> Communication 1 In groups or pairs discuss which regions of Slovakia would you choose as most important for preservation? You are going to present and explain your choice to the rest of the class. ~ Glossary albeit con . Sinks and draining boards can germs.although alliance n . Think about how you will justify your choice to the other students.. 4. They with the aim of becoming the number one team in the league. harbour.. Your evidence is very persuasive . :> 2 Listen to the other groups 'decisions and say what you think of the choices they have made. 5.an arrangement in which two or more countries..... Please accept this gift as a small of our appreciation. with a lot of endemic species . token. Perhaps we should choose . We understand the reasons behind your decision .. viability.... r:xr Useful expressions For: • Making suggestions: What about.

event etc vanish v .to make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before occur v . significant crippling ad} . to contain heredity n .if a quality sets someone or something apart. At least 0.assault n .a small area or amount of something that is different from what surrounds it runaway ad} . group of people etc that existed in the past devise v .not broken. or method can work successfully.to plan or invent a new way of doing something distinguish v . viability wary ad} .to be the thing that makes someone or something different or special. it makes them different from or better than other people or things set out v .to protect something from harm or damage sage n .a small pointed or thin piece that has been cut or broken off something.a viable idea. a concerted effort etc is done by people working together in a carefully planned and very determined way consequential ad} .concerted effortJaction/attack etc. or to a family.important. sliver of span n .the process by which mental and physical qualities are passed from a parent to a child before the child is born hotspot 11 .very serious significant ad} .the additional effectiveness when two or more companies or people combine and work together token n .to happen or exist in a particular place or situation pocket n . which has lost more than 70 % of their natural vegetation.someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago.to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse concerted effort n . over/within/in a span of something synergy n .causing so much damage or harm that something no longer works or is no longer effective descendant n . remove.a herb with grey-green leaves scarcely ad . distinguish somebody/something from enshrined ad} . or get rid of something completely 34 .the crime of physically attacking someone breed v . especially ones with particular qualities combat v .the thing.something that represents a feeling.preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it focus n . or spoiled maintain v .to give shelter to.to destroy. disappear viable ad} .to suddenly stop existing.to make someone very poor intact ad} . situation etc that people pay special attention to harbour v .not able to be controlled safeguard v .period of time between two dates or events.someone who is wary is careful because they think something might be dangerous or harmful wipe out v .threatened ecosystem.5 % of all flowering plants must be endemic to a hotspot impoverish v .to start doing something or making plans to do something in order to achieve a particular result severe ad} . plan. damaged.to keep animals or plants in order to produce babies or new plants. fact. especially on what will happen in the future sliver n . offer refuge to.almost not or almost none at all set apart v .having an important effect or influence. person.

" The panda says. 35 . 6. 8. It reads: panda black and white animal. CITES and GSA stand for? • SWS means: a) Saving Wildlife Society. perilous jeopardy brink downlist windfall vanish prudent swap assessment sudden unexpected piece of good luck frontier. lives in central China. I don't understand. Panda is the symbol for the wildlife foundation ~ With your partner try to match the words with the correct definitions: 1. he pulls out a pistol. "Look it up in the dictionary.589 species are now known to be in a perilous position. So the owner gets out a dictionary and looks under the heading "Panda". risk equal exchange f) disappear g) dangerous. The owner of the restaurant says.UNITS ENDANGERED SPECIES Warmup A panda bear walks into a restaurant. • Why do different species face the risk of extinction? • What do you know about the Red List of Threatened Species? • What do the abbreviations IUCN. 3. 2. you kill my waiter and walk away without saying a word. verge sensible. 5. precarious h) evaluation i) delist a) b) c) d) e) W ReadingI Science counts species on brink The scale of the extinction threat facing animals and plants is made clear in the latest Red List from the IUCN-The World Conservation Union. what are you doing? You come in here. He orders the special and eats it. "Hey. eats shoots and leaves. Working in pairs or a small group. careful danger. 4. kills the waiter and starts to walk out the door. b) Slovak Wildlife Society. 7. 9. After eating. The leading environmental information network says 15. consider the following questions and try to answer them." and walks out the door.

000 scientists across the globe.000. because we can list more and more species in trouble. there could be 100 Vulnerable . Human-induced climate change is thought to be an increasingly significant problem. salamanders and caecilians.266 animals and 8.323 plants and lichens .205 to 7. The GSA shows trends in biodiversity over four years since the last major analysis was done in 2000. toads.Extreme high risk The Red List is only a partial picture of the world's of extinction biodiversity.Surveys suggest last known or Endangered. It is an increase of more than 3. who has authored a Global Species Assessment (GSA) to accompany the Red List. poor information widespread and abundant exists on the animals and plants that inhabit freshwater and marine habitats. But that isn't why the trend is accelerating . and thousands of dedicated people around the world are doing their utmost to reverse the extinction rate. (The 2003 mCN • Red List included 12. IUCN'S DISAPPEARING WORLD • It lists the 15. which can call on the expertise of some 10.589 species now known to be threatened with extinction 1.Species at high risk million. whereas the proportions for mammals individual has died and birds are only 10 % and 5 % respectively. But the latest Red List shows a third of amphibians and almost 50 % of turtles and tortoises are on the brink. there may be 10 million. for example. an ancient group of plants. or legless amphibians) are the most threatened of all vertebrate groups.9m species described out of an estimated Sm-plus 844 extinctions recorded by science since AD 1500 Current extinction rate may be 100-1. too.Species at very high risk Estimates for the total number of species on Earth vary of extinction wildly. What is certain is the limited number of of extinction species catalogued by science . • "A lot of cycads are valuable in the horticultural trade." says Dr Simon Stuart. There are many examples of species being brought back from the brink including the southern white rhino and black-footed ferret.Species is documented (roughly 40 % assessed). Endangered . Some are down to one individual. people want to collect them. The GSA includes the first complete assessment of amphibians that was reported in the journal Science last month. These creatures (which include frogs." Over-exploitation and habitat loss are pressures working against many species . too. human actions alone can prevent many species from becoming extinct. It highlights in particular the trouble now facing amphibians and cycads. Earth's oldest seed plants • • • 15.) "The fact that we know more makes the situation look worse.but so is the competition from introduced (or alien) animals and plants. Endangered or Vulnerable.barely two million.000 times natural rate 129 recorded bird extinctions. of course. Many have small distributions anyway. The mCN.Science has understood for some years that an eighth of all birds and a quarter of all mammals are in jeopardy. "While most threats to biodiversity are human-driven. believes the threat facing global biodiversity is escalating. Critically Endangered .it is a real phenomenon.266 since 1996 mCN'S SCALE OF THREAT In total. Near Threatened .as either Critically Endangered.589 species .259 species threatened with extinction. 103 occurred since 1800 Threatened animal species up from 5. so economic [exploitation] and habitat loss is the last straw.May soon move into While the status of known vertebrates is relatively well above categories Least Concern . 21 % of amphibians are Critically Endangered Extinct .7." 36 . They also have more species on the verge of extinction.

too.stm Comprehension 1.) and comma (. : 75.this incredible little toad was once thought extinct. It costs $ 200 .nineteen oh five Note how the point (. programme director at Durrell Wildlife.) are used. 2.Dr Stuart added: "Where we have been able to concentrate GOOD THINGS conservation focus.two thousand and two. How often is the Red List published? Why has the number of species changed so dramatically since the last reJease of the List? What categories of threatened animals do we know? ." said Quentin Bloxam. has been reclassified from Critically Endangered to Vulnerable. 4. e.two hundred dollars. Captive breeding and release programmes make an impact. we often get very good results. Is it ever possible to downlist some species? Extend your vocabulary to be at risk of to head for to face to be on the brinklverge/brink to be threatened with to reverse of extinction the extinction rate (iT Language focus NUMERALS We usually use cardinal numbers to talk about money and years.bbc.nineteen hundred 1905 . 2002 .g. "Today it's on the road to survival. for example. 1900 .co.: 370.25 .uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/sci/tech/4013719. We're delighted with the reclassification on the Red List.589 == Three hundred and seventy thousand five hundred and eighty nine In decimals we use point and we say each number indivudally after the point. The Mallorcan midwife toad. " Species such as the corncrake and the European otter have been downlisted because of such efforts. e. Several hundred tadpoles and toads have been re-introduced to the wild thanks to an initiative run by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.Seventy-five point two five Global amphibians are in great trouble 37 . Good things are ARE ACHIEVABLE achievable. g. "We've come a long way . 3." http://news.

Peru will save about $14 million in debt payments over the next 16 years.S. VVhatdo these numbers mean in the context of the first three paragraphs? 15. the "walking palm" can shift its position over time to find a spot with more light. Conservation International (CI). sometimes it's more prudent to forgive and move forward. This money will support such activities as the establishment of parks and reserves. 10.800 bird species.9m. As a result. scarlet macaws and walking palms.6 million toward conservation efforts in 10 tropical forests over the next 12 years.:> Check your memory.000 and the U. 1. A debt-for-nature swap reduces a government's foreign debt burden in exchange for its commitment to spend a certain amount of its national currency on conservation work. 100 .259.5 million to cancel a portion of Peru's debt to the United States.000 species of vascular plants and provide habitat for nearly 1. Summer 2002 By sending down new stalks. They shelter roughly 20. In June 2002. mining and oil and gas exploration.1. WWF and TNC each committed approximately $370. Peru's forests are among the most biologically diverse on Earth and are home to rare species such as pink dolphins. Peru will provide its national currency equivalent of approximately $10. CI.an area the size of Virginia.589. These lush rain forests are under threat from logging. In return.000 Activate your language windfall 1. Under the agreement.000. pink dolphin 38 . An unprecedented agreement forgiving millions of dollars of Peruvian debt in return for investments in conservation does just that. which take root. government allocated $5. scientific and managerial training programs and the restoration of diverse animal and plant species. 12.5 million acres of Peruvian rain forest . an amount of money that you get unexpectedly Reading II Peru Agreement . Scarlet macaws are prized for their beauty and personality From: Conservation Frontlines. Located in the Tropical Andes hotspot. a piece of fruit that has fallen off a tree 2.a Windfall for Biodiversity Conservation When fighting to save Earth's vanishing biodiversity. the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) joined forces with the United States and Peru to support a debt-for-nature swap that will help protect more than 27. conversion of forest land to agriculture. CI's quarterly newsletter.

is the western frontier of "Eastern European" wolves. Nevertheless. How will Peru use the saved money? What activities will it support? 4... Who was a debtor and who was a creditor in the article? Which organizations and which countries joined their forces to find a successful solution? 3. For unknown reasons. Why might it be sensible sometimes to forgive? Can you recall some examples from your own experience? 2. Results suggest. Analyzing date from .. The researchers found that. W Reading III Problems of Wolf Conservation in Slovakia At present in Slovakia as a whole there are thought to be 150-350 wolves. centuries of persecution by hunters have made them extremely wary and you will be very lucky if you see one. there is no reason for people to fear these wolves. Short-lived year round protection granted in 1995 led to a dispute between the Environment Ministry. although there were stable numbers of wolves in the 1980-90s. wolves have not re-colonised all forested mountains since their recovery after 1960-1970 and hunting pressure seems to be restricting dispersal to other regions. 39 . The study includes. After 1995.Comprehension 1.. a controversial High Court decision threw out all attempts to punish hunters for killing wolves and full protection was subsequently repealed. and the Agriculture Ministry.. confirms . The results of the study also indicate The authors call for . Slovakia. Contrary to popular belief. This resulted in hunters continuing to shoot wolves and present their skulls at trophy exhibitions... Foreign and local hunters and a growing class of newly-rich hunters from cities amount to a strong lobby. with its forests full of large ungulates providing extensive refuge and good hunting. 2S Writing Prepare a short report about one of endangered species in Slovakia.. the current high level of legal hunting and poaching is having a considerable impact. which supported wolf conservation in line with the Bern Convention. hunters began to fear prosecution and some associations stopped reporting information on wolf occurrence as well as hunting. which favoured the older Slovak hunting law. shows trends .. From 1900-20 and again in 1960-70 the population was wiped out from virtually all the Western Carpathians and.. Which species may be lost forever and what are the main threats to Peru's rainforests? Extend your vocabulary Useful expression when writing research report: A study led by scientists revealed... The main threat to wolves throughout the 20th century was hunting.

and Findo.Such is the strength of the hunting lobby that hunting is allowed even in National Parks. Since 2000 we have raised more than £12. 5. The large amount of hunting makes it difficult for the wolves to move to new locations. One pack of 5 wolves which was studied by radio-telemetry in Nizke Tatry N. Forestry. The radio-collared female is still being tracked . The Slovak Wildlife Society is a not-for-profit organisation established in the UK in 1998. After 1995 some associations stopped reporting information on wolf occurrence as well as hunting. from: Rigg. Recent programmes of motorway construction and other development have given little or no consideration to their likely impact on the movements of animals. Traditional views of the wolf are not damaging to its chances of survival. wolf numbers are greatly overestimated in official statistics. Economic problems are likely to cause an increase in poaching. rather than hunted. 7. There is also a lack of good popular literature on wolves in Slovakia. 3. Both the working holidays and the wildlife holidays generate money for other projects and also aim to show local people that their wildlife can be a source of profit to them if it is protected.3 of her pack mates were shot in 1999. including wolves.000 (Sk 1. Its goal is to help ensure the long-term survival of endangered species in Slovakia through an integrated approach to solutions for sustainable co-existence with people. bears and eagles" holidays and eight BTCV holidays in 2000-02 contributed nearly £26.. 6. Present and Future Comprehension whether these statements are true or false: 1. the World Wide Fund for Nature believes.000) to local economies in large carnivore areas. 4. lost 3 members to a hunt organised for wild boar less than two months after research started.000) for wildlife conservation and research projects. although research described in this presentation has failed to show any evidence in support of the hypothesis. A WWF report says the presence in Europe of species like these is a "potentially huge business opportunity". Forestry. In Slovakia there are deficiencies in the science of wildlife management: for example. lynx and brown bears. An unsuccessful all year protection programme which was put in place in 1995 led to a dispute between the Environment Ministry and the Ministry of Finances. hunters blamed wolves for the subsequent fall in population but this was actually due to over-hunting by humans. > 1Decide 40 .500 (Sk 840. The best hope for conservation is world-wide support using non-governmental conservation organizations. hoofed mammals and carnivores are not considered fully. bears and eagles" wildlife holidays in Slovakia's Tatra Mountains. Wildlife conservation has a very low priority in Slovakia's struggling economy. S. 2. In order to raise funds and to provide field assistance SVS organises and hosts working holidays with the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers (BTCV) and runs low impact. Wolf predation has also been blamed for the recent dramatic reduction in numbers of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) in the Nizke and Vysoke Tatry. R.: Wolves in the Western Carpathians: Past. Decline of Cervus population was caused by great wolf numbers. Traditional views of the wolf are extremely detrimental to its chances of survival. The best hope for conservation is international support channelled through non-government organisations. ungulates and carnivores are not sufficiently integrated in thinking: over-population of Cervus elaphus in the 1980s caused huge damage.P. for example. sustainable "Wolves. Tourists key to saving wolves Tourists can help to save some of Europe's most endangered species.730. Four "Wolves.

a place that provides shelter.sensible and careful.Alytes obstetricans. to equal assessment n . attempt.in jeopardy. All to control inflation have failed.a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. in line with. especially by trying to avoid unnecessary risks raise funds v . wary. or the judgment you make attempt 11 .to add up in importance.the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it frontier n .used to say that something is true even though people believe the opposite dispersal n . contrary to.to change something so that it is the opposite of what it was before shelter v ..if something changes in line with something else.very dangerous prudent adj . a desert can be very cold. it changes in the same way and at the same rate as it jeopardy n . amount Time lost through illness to 1.to have advanced to an improved or more developed state contrary to .Complete the sentences with the words from the box.a situation when you are almost in a new situation. when added to an unpleasant or bad situation.to collect money that you can use to do a particular job or help people refuge n .only. usually a bad one come a long way v . causes failure.to provide a place where someone or something is protected.to do something as well as you can by making a great effort endangered species n .the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions do/try one's utmost v . Pensions will be increased inflation. the final and most severe of a series of difficulties macaw n . especially from the weather or from danger 41 . The idea was by the committee. 2. or protection from danger reverse v .Vocabulary ). 3. Compare your list with the list you have prepared as a warm-up activity. especially something difficult barely adv .the final thing that.one that soon may no longer exist exploration n . 5. 7.a large brightly coloured bird like a parrot. European toad whose male carries the fertilized eggs wrapped around its hind legs until they hatch occurrence n . " Communication Work in groups and based on the texts you have read in this unit summarise the reasons of why Slovak mammals face extinction. throw out. used before amounts or numbers to emphasize that they are surprisingly small brink 11 . 6.357 working days I'm a bit of driving in this fog.an act of trying to do something. popular belief. 4. . occurrence.border highlight v . 1. The frequent of earthquakes in the area means that the buildings must be specifically designed to withstand the force. with a long tail midwife toad n .incidence.to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it in line with sth . ruin. the fact of something happening perilous adj . etc. in danger of being lost or harmed last straw n . ~ Glossary amount to v .

a slow-moving land animal that can pull its head and legs into the hard round shell that covers its body turtle n . and elephants vanish v . a tortoise ungulates n . they refuse to accept it tortoise n .an amount of money that you get unexpectedly 42 L_~ __~~_ .of or belonging to the former order Ungulata.animals and plants growing in natural conditions windfall n .shoot n . especially in a way that cannot be easily explained wary adj . now divided into the orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla and composed of the hoofed mammals such as horses.(Am. cattle.the part of a plant that comes up above the ground when it is just beginning to grow. swine. deer.if people throw out a plan or suggestion. e.careful wildlife n . fruits. or flowers swap n . or a new part that grows on an existing plant stalk n -long narrow part of a plant that supports leaves.g.to disappear suddenly.a situation in which you give something to someone and get another thing in return throw out v . English) any reptile that has a hard shell covering its body.

That leaves just 1 percent to sustain life in the next millennium. Make a list of possible effects and compare it with your colleagues. rough. The plea is not part of a drive to promote intimacy between couples. half the world's population could have trouble finding enough freshwater for drinking and irrigation. dangerous. shallow." Warmup ). representing 40 per cent of the world's people. Every month farmers have been hoping for more rain. deep. muddy. Divide the collocations into two groups depending on whether you consider them positive or negative. flowing. Currently. which is expensive and difficult to desalinate. About 2 percent is caught in polar ice caps. over 80 countries. ). it is a serious suggestion from the Department of the Environment to combat water shortage "The drought is completely unexpected. WATER EVERYWHERE . even with the prospect of climate change. stagnant. Instead. calm.UNIT 6 WATER. Choose one and use it in a sentence of your own. Only a tiny fraction of the planet's water is drinkable. are subject to serious water shortages. clear. Conditions may get worse in the next 50 years as populations grow and as global 43 .2 You can use following adjectives to make collocations with water. but getting less.1 The headlines reflect the unprecedented droughts all over the world in 2003. n "Nobody expected anything like this. running m Reading Water is the most c0111p1onsubstance on Earth. safe. Ninety-seven percent is sea water. But the abundance of water is an illusion. In a small group discuss the impacts the shortage of water can have for you and your country. We've never had this kind of drought in 50 years. Within 25 years.BUT WILL THERE BE ENOUGH TO DRINK? Water crisis in Tanzanian capital Water shortages threaten Africa Drought warning despite downpours The UK's looming water crisis Drought leaves Europe's farmers helpless 'Share your bath'! The Philippine government is calling on its citizens to start sharing a bath with their partners. covering more than 70 percent of the planet's surface. Water makes up two thirds of our own bodies.

causing millions of deaths each year. they diverted water from the rivers flowing into the AraI Sea to irrigate the fields. Currently about 1. while more than half the world's population lacks adequate sanitation.a higher number than refugees of war.4 billion people lack access to clean drinking water.A .600 miles long.warming disrupts rainfall patterns. The Aral Sea in the former Soviet Central Asia may provide a nightmarish glimpse of ecological disaster in the future. Many scientists believe that the global distribution of water may be altered by climate change. Chinese officials are even considering moving the capital from Beijing because of chronic water shortages. "Up until a hundred years ago." says Elizabeth Economy of the Council on Foreign Relations.the Yangtze. "Industry has expanded. nurturing China's northern plains. digging ever-deeper wells and lowering water levels in every continent. "Today we are using more than half of it and the result is we are reaching a dangerous point that is not sustainable. Some 3." More than half of the major rivers are going dry or are polluted. agriculture has expanded and the population has boomed. It's a controversial project expected to displace more than a million people and radically change the ecosystem for the entire region. Now it is causing distress for the opposite reason: it is running dry. Children suffer respiratory diseases. The sea has since lost half its area and threequarters of its volume. 44 . The old port town of Muynak is now 150 kilometres from the coast of the dying sea. Humankind is rapidly using up those reserves. Ships lie in a sandy graveyard that once had water. It's one of the examples that really shows the close connection between the health of an aquatic ecosystem and community and the people that depend on the ecosystem. "But there has been no thought given to how to manage the resources of the Yellow River.S. 25 million people fled their homes because of water crises in river basins . When Soviet central planners decided to grow cotton in the desert. A child dies every eight seconds from drinking contaminated water.THE FOLLY OF MAN'S QUEST TO TAME NATURE It's not only communist central planners but capitalists as well who meddle with the flow of rivers. the cows are sick and the native fish are all gone. China is in the process of building the world's largest dam on the Yangtze. shifting precipitation away from areas that are presently under cultivation. U. the Colorado River is ranked as one of the worlds most stressed and over-committed nvers." says William Cosgrove of the World Water Council. A third of the world lives in water stressed areas where consumption outstrips supply." And grandiose plans are in the works to rearrange another river . In 1998. By 2025. environmental refugees could quadruple. In the United States. 'SOLUTIONS' THAT DAMAGE In China. we were hardly using but a fraction of the Earth's water. Existing social problems and economic trends will compound the severity of the coming water shortage. MORE THAN HALF OF THE MAJOR RIVERS ARE GOING DRY OR ARE POLLUTED Much of the world relies on natural underground storage tanks called aquifers. One needs only to look next door to the former Soviet Union to see the potential damage such solutions can cause. because of its tendency to flood. it was known throughout history as China's sorrow. the Yellow River was once the cradle of their civilization. endangering the health and livelihood of those who depend on them.

But because water is free. this river is life. It took nearly 5. Less than one per cent of the world's surface or below-ground freshwater is accessible for human use.1999.000 workers four and a half years. Little water is left to flow downstream and nourish the Colorado delta in Mexico. not a single drop of the Colorado reaches the sea. Butin the future. some say rivaling the pyramids. Since 1950. to build the Hoover Dam in the 1930s. The number of people living in water-stressed countries is projected to climb from the current 470 million to three billion by 2025. The Hoover Dam was built to bring electricity to a vast area and water to the arid Western United States. CNN. Group A will read about China and about the impact of irrigation schemes in the former Soviet Union. the clean water that remains is the property of our children and grandchildren. As a result. "For us." says Bill Snape of Defenders of Wildlife. "because the life. is what we call the river. The best things in life are free. we often take it for granted. The Colorado is the lifeblood of the burgeoning keeping Las Vegas' 48 golf courses lush. as the disruption of the environment becomes more fully understood. Ninety-six workers died during the construction of what was in its day the world's biggest darn. "Our dollars would be better spent rejuvenating the delta. An Indian tribe that has depended on the river for centuries is on the verge of extinction. Group B will read about negative consequences of the dams on Colorado river. Clean water is now scarce. It is an engineering wonder of our age. the soul. 45 . Most of those people live in the developing world. Prepare short summaries and compare these countries> experiences. we must fight to protect what is left of the water supply. experts studying water say it could stand as a testament to the folly of man's quest to tame nature. American Southwest.Dams harness its might waters and in dry years. Robert Svadlenka: Crisis and Its Implications for Global Food Security :> Divide into two groups. Logging and land conversion to accommodate human demand has shrunk the world's forests by half. WATER IN THE FUTURE Two hundred scientists in 50 countries have identified water shortage as one of the two most worrying problems for the new millennium (the other was climate change). About 4 percent of the planet's water is locked up in ice at the poles. over the next 20 years humans will use 40 per cent more water than they do now. Water problems are more related to mismanagement than scarcity. For their sake. But more than delta wildlife is at risk. 2. global water use has more than tripled. working 24-hour-a-day shifts. Comprehension >. Like other environmental resources. the once-vibrant ecosystem there has turned into a parched and salty marsh. and we are at last beginning to respect this precious resource." says a Cocopah chief. as opposed to growing more lettuce in the hot desert. January 3. On current trends. Up to 50 per cent of urban water and 60 per cent of water used in agriculture is wasted through leaks and evaporation. contributing to increased soil erosion and water scarcity. filling swimming pools and Ever-thirsty Southern California uses 14 percent more than its allotment.Decide whether these sentences are true or false: 1.

unhappiness b) dissapointment 5.2 Which of these expressions related to water does not belong? arid.g. a) a feeling of extreme worry b) disagreement 4. e. ever-present threat . The threat to water resources stands as one of the major crises facing the planet. The water shortage created 25 million environmental refugees in 1998. parched. The sorrow she felt over the death of her husband was almost too much to bear. There was an abundance of wine at the wedding. waterless. 8.1 Circle the letter of the answer that matches the meaning of the italicized expression in the sentence. 6.3. Environmental refugees are people who fled their homes because of hunger. The Colorado is the lifeblood of the American Southeast. Make your own sentence using ever1.. 46 . an ever-increasing debt.. 5. place • N. ever-greater number of weather-produced catastrophes. China is in the process of building the world's largest dam on the Yellow River. meddle rank burgeon nurture compound a) b) c) d) e) grow and flourish help develop. help grow interfere unwantedly intensify arrange in a sequence. 2. Ever is sometimes used to mean always in compound expressions with adjectives and participles. . a) the place where something started b) birthplace ).Complete these sentences with a suitable adjective. At the mouth of the river is a large area of marsh. Over 70 countries are subject to serious water shortages. thirsty ). 4. 4. It is calculated that if all the adults in England and Wales turned the tap of while cleaning their teeth. Can youfind similar compound adjectives in the article? ). lush. it would save 180 million Iitres of water a day. Southern California uses 14 percent more water than its allotment. Humans are digging 2. The Yellow River is causing distress because it is running dry.3 Match the verbs from the text with their corresponding definitions l. Thousands of refugees fled across the border. 3. wells. a) sadness. Vocabulary ). a) persons who have escaped from their own country b) prisoners 3. . his ever-loving Wife. dried out by heat.B. a) scarcity b) richness 2. 7. akin in urgency to climate change. Fossil records indicate that Africa was the cradle of early human evolution. 5. a) low-lying wetland b) small lake 6. 1.

the average is closer to 95 liters: In contrast. the United Kingdom. Everest was first climbed in 1953. Sicily cities. the USA. the Adriatic Sea. household water use averages 47 liters per person per day. South of England is warmer than north. UNFPA (2002). are correct. Next year we are going skiing in French Alps. Etna But we use the in names with Republic. Correct the sentences when necessary.r:Jr Language focus Names with and without the We do not use the with names of places. while in Asia. Europe countries France. seas. the Galapagos mountain ranges the Alps. The Suez Canal We use the with plural names of places: countries the Netherlands groups of islands the Canary Islands. Galapagos are a group of islands in Indian Ocean. IN OTHER PARTS OF AFRICA. Vienna mountains Everest. but some need the. the Danube. residents of the United Kingdom average 334 liters per person per day. WOMEN SPEND AS MUCH AS EIGHT HOURS COLLECTING WATER. 47 . 2. Kingdom.. 3. rivers and canals: the Pacific Ocean. regions Belgium. towns Athens.. We use the with the names of oceans. THE AVERAGE DISTANCE WALKED BY WOMEN IN AFRICA IN SEARCH OF WATER IS 6 KILOMETRES A DAY. Central Europe islands Corsica. WALKING FOR WATER ONE THIRD OF WOMEN IN EGYPT WALK MORE THAN AN HOUR A DAY FOR WATER. 4. In Africa. Water: A Critical Resource Did you know . English Grammar in Use > Some of these sentences 1. The United States leads the world at an estimated 578 liters per person per day. Statec etc.? Vast regional disparities exist in per capita water use. For example: continents Africa. the High Tatras Raymond Murphy. Chicago is on Lake Michigan. Slovakia states. 5.: the Slovak Republic.

a small hole that lets liquid or gas flow into or out of something looming.plants that are lush grow many leaves and look healthy and strong meddle v .to change the direction in which something travels evaporation.if a problem or difficulty looms. The population is rising.to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want. to interfere mismanagement.to control and use the natural force or power of something leak n . it is likely to happen very soon lush adj .to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems disparity n . especially one that is likely to have serious results harness v . mismanage .to help a plan.if a liquid evaporates. loom v .used to describe the average amount of something in a particular place.a long search for something that is difficult to find rank v . or necessary. feeling etc to develop overcommit v . They'll benefit from the nutrients released from the shell " Communication In pairs prepare a quiz to find out whether somebody is a water-friendly person.WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER • • • • • • • • • Take a shower instead of a bath Wash fruit and vegetables in a bowl instead of running water Make sure your washing machine and dishwasher are full before you tum them on Water plants in the morning or at night toreduce evaporation losses Install a water butt to collect rain water for plants Garden sprinklers use as much water in one day as a family of four in one week Kettles should be filled with enough water for your needs but not to the brim.a request that is urgent or full of emotion quest n .a very stupid thing to do.to arrange objects in a line or row rejuvenate v . This will reduce your fuel bills too A dripping tap could waste as much as 90 litres a week Every time you boil an egg save the cooled water for your houseplants. but water supplies are not ~ Glosssary accommodate v . discussion etc by giving special attention to one idea or subject instead of to a previous one 48 . desirable. per capita .to deliberately try to influence or change a situation that does not concern you. especially when their opinions or needs are different from yours burgeon v .a big difference between two groups of people or things divert v .to make something work much better or become much better again shift v . evaporate v .to manage incompetently nurture v .to grow or develop quickly combat v .to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse compound v . calculated according to the number of people who live there plea n .to change a situation. or if heat evaporates it.to commit more than is feasible. idea. it changes into a gas folly n .

lack of inputs such as fertilizer. 4. 3. in a world with abundant food. We may feel a little hungry occasionally. biotech industry. lack of information. understand not the pain of the an empty one. deficiency. trade policies that disadvantage farmers in the developing world. And yet. 7. but few of us ever experience the devastating pain of real hunger or the crippling effects of severe malnutrition. 2. Reasons for the world's food crisis There are many reasons for the current and projected food crisis. lack of infrastructure like roads to get products to market. More productive crops will do little to alleviate hunger if deficiencies in those areas are not addressed as well. miracle plant varieties. more than 700 million people are chronically undernourished today. genetically engineered products. 5. transgenic Warmup How do you understand these proverbs? Do you know their equivalents in your language? A full belly does not understand Hunger is sharper than the sword. direct. and pesticides. short-term solutions such as sending food. Match the following words with their definitions. > 3 Work 1. > 1 Have you ever been hungry? What is the longest time you have not eaten anything at all? to write down as many words connected with hunger as you can think of > 2 You have one minute Compare your lists. The replenished starving. Help tends to focus on single.UNIT 7 FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT Biotechnology and the World Food Supply Key terms: food crisis. machinery. 49 . Among the most important are lack of income to buy food. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) not getting adequate food present in great quantity make easier calculated a remedy for all ills or diseases discriminate against lack of an adequate quantity or number abundant undernourished to disadvantage to alleviate deficiency panacea projected iWl Reading I For most people the world food crisis far away. 6. malnutrition. novel food. fertilizers. and low-yield farming practices. in pairs.

cultures. DellaPenna believes that genetically engineered foods are the key to the next wave of advances in agriculture and health. research can no longer concentrate exclusively on increased production . These products are of virtually no value to hungry farmers in Africa. It would be a tragedy if other necessary actions were not taken because of a mistaken belief that genetic engineering is some sort of a panacea for hunger. especially at the expense of traditional breeding. And that is what the agricultural biotechnology industry is providing. 50 . In the brave new world of genetic engineering. Such farmers are interested in field crops like corn. and peanuts free of allergens. Some see biotechnology as the answer to the problem of enabling this much larger population to feed itself. they require large amounts of fertilizers. These companies are developing products for farmers . In sum. They see wheat. such as integrated pest management. according to the median population projection of the United Nations Population Division. more productive crops are only part of the solution to the world hunger problem and transgenic crops are not uniquely capable of increasing food production.A growing world population In 1996. organizing cooperatives so that farmers can purchase equipment and fertilizer. bananas that deliver vaccines. pesticides. the world's population was 5. What can be done to increase the food supply. many things. who cannot afford the products of traditional technology. A plant biochemist at Michigan State University. particularly for the poor? Many. if by this we mean crops engineered to contain new genes. It could playa minor and useful role in developing new agricultural products. These include building and maintaining roads so that farmers can get their crops to market. and reducing post-harvest losses of crops. and new ways to manage crop-pest interactions. But biotechnology. sweet potatoes. soybeans. genetic engineering techniques are being applied to crops important to the industrialized world. While some genetically engineered crops will undoubtedly prove useful. for example. degradation of lakes and rivers. is not essential. Most of it should be done in developing countries to enable people to feed themselves so that they do not become dependent on commodities from abroad. crop improvement through traditional plant breeding. much less these expensive genetically engineered products. Genetic engineering is changing the food we eat and the world we live in.3 billion by 2025 and almost 10 billion by 2050. and water.2 billion. these products are often inappropriate for the developing world because. Rice farmers in Southeast Asia. we need more and better targeted agricultural research. not crops on which the world's hungry depend. At bottom. and vegetable oils so loaded with therapeutic ingredients that doctors "prescribe" hem for patients at risk for cancer and heart disease. It will grow to 8. cotton and fruits like tomatoes. and cassava to help nourish the poor.it must find ways to minimize the soil erosion. For the most part. are in a far different situation from farmers living at the edge of the Sahara desert. Improvements in other parts of the agricultural system are also essential. there is no reason at this time to invest huge sums in them.in rich countries who can afford to pay high prices for seed. among other things. . but other factors will be much more important than transgenic crops in determining whether we meet this challenge. and economic conditions. scientists envision this cornucopia: tomatoes and broccoli bursting with cancer-fighting chemicals and vitamin-enhanced crops of rice. In addition. Most genetic engineering in agriculture is being done by large transnational corporations that need to sell their products at premium prices to cover the cost of research. Much can' be done to promote the sustainable intensification of agricultural production. Among the many research areas important for increasing production are the efficient use of irrigation water. soy. and groundwater pollution that can result from industrial agricultural practices. All of it depends on local climates. Unlike the past.

Go back to the text and answer the following questions: What are the reasons for the world's food crisis? Can more productive crops help to alleviate hunger? Why do large transnational biotech corporations sell their products at high prices? Why are their products often unsuitable for the developing world? Name at least five ways how deficiencies in the agricultural system but also outside of agriculture can be addressed.. meeting the world food crisis will require incomes of the poor through microenterprises and dependence on grain-fed livestock. 5. org/food_and_environmentlbiotechnology Did you know . 4. in meat consumption by Comprehension ~ 1. Growing corn to of limited arable land than growing corn for humans changes outside of agriculture like improving the shifting the diet of the rich away from excessive feed cows and chickens is a much less efficient use to eat directly. the blind next door) We can't use all adjectives in this way: we don't normally talk about the foreign or the greedy. the young the disabled the old the rich the poor the sick the handicapped the mentally ill the unemployed the blind These expressions are plural: the blind means "blind people". holds that a 10 per cent decrease Americans would release enough grain to feed 60 million people. 3. Do you know the blind person next door? (NOT . _archive/page.Finally.cfm ?pageID=319 http://www ..ucsusa. You may use each word more than once. I am collecting money for the blind. E. Jean Mayer.. 51 . for example. 2. Vocabulary Collocations: ~ Create as many collocations as possible by joining words from each column.: meet challenge to address hunger to alleviate deficiency to echo crisis to meet concern challenges tensions needs criteria r::ifr Language focus We can use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about some social groups.. g.. the famed nutritionist.

1 Find examples of the + adjective phrases in the text. The man tried to catch the chicken but it ran down a side road.2 Complete the sentences with the expressions from the box. W Reading II 'Mirage' of GMs' golden promise Golden rice burst on a world ready and eager for a new beginning. Smoking is bad for you. replied the farmer. It can certainly help to improve nutrition and health in many developing countries. (Voltaire) (Mother Jones) 1. (subject) I hate packing. "I don't know". Pray for and fight like hell for -ing forms as subjects. I the living (twice) the poor the dead who die. He saw the farmer and told him the story and the man asked for an explanation. Three minutes later the chicken passed him again as he was driving at 100 kph. ~ Writing be the answer to the problem of the world food crisis? Write a short Can or cannot biotechnology paragraph based on the text. it promised to save millions of people from blindness and disease. it's 2. "we haven't caught one yet". ). (complement) An -ing form can have its own object.). 52 . objects or complements. his wife and his son all liked chicken legs so he bred genetically modified 3-legged chickens. The man followed it into a farmyard but couldn't find it anywhere. ). The farmer said that he. When the rich make war on each other. Lighter side: A man was driving at 80 kph one day when he was passed by a 3-legged chicken. He accelerated and passed the chicken. Announced with a flourish in January 2000. "What do they taste like?" asked the man. My favourite activity is watching animals. (Jean-Paul Sartre) we owe only truth.ing forms as subjects. (object) My favourite activity is reading. objects etc We can use . I hate packing suitcases. Smoking cigarettes is bad for you. We owe respect to the dead: to 3.1 Find examples of -ing forms in the last three paragraphs of the article.

" Every day 800 million people go to bed with empty stomachs. The reality. though.. But it would be an answer that came with a hefty price-tag: the persistent concerns about the safety of GM technology to human health and to wild species. The World Health Organisation estimates about 250 million people globally are deficient in vitamin A. Beyond that though. said it would offer the seeds freely to farmers in poor countries. and it will stay that way until those of us who are well-fed care enough to wage a war on hunger as ferocious as that against terrorism. immune problems and other serious conditions. including green leafy vegetables. perhaps including GM technology.uk/go/prlfr//llhi/sciltech/3 122923 . from easily prevented diseases or from hunger. editor of the British medical journal The Lancet.But. It is just that they do not work as well in the "natural" varieties as in the novel version. But the sorts of vegetables people used to be able to find have declined in number as the green revolution of the 60s and 70s emphasised monocultures of new varieties. To feed the world takes political and financial will. One could make a non-GM vitamin-A rice simply by studying those genes in a more focused way. False dawn Dr Richard Horton. poorly-fed people are unlikely to be able to absorb beta-carotene even when they eat golden rice. Improving on Nature So golden rice sounded like a real answer to a genuine problem. Golden rice looks like being a special case.stm 53 . For a start. Short cut That promised quicker results from conventional plant breeding. Steve Smith. though not the comprehensive solution it seemed to be. Science. tell them that it is not. partly because it established where the beta-carotene "pathway" sat in the rice code. as the publicists' dust settled. can provide the weapons for that war . The prospects for golden rice receded a little further in 2002. it became clear that golden rice was never going to be a silver bullet. A scientist from the biotech company Syngenta.000 under-fives die. That not only gives it its golden colour.co. It is a genetically modified (GM) strain of rice that has been engineered to produce beta-carotene. the genes for beta-carotene are already present in conventional rice." And from the biotech industry itself. but enables people eating it to produce vitamin A. when scientists published the draft sequences of the rice genome. The world is out of joint." Golden rice may prove part of the answer to vitamin A deficiency. But some impressive figures echo their concerns. To use it. increasing their risk of blindness.it's not about production and distribution. http://news. said: "If anyone tells you that GM is going to feed the world. they need a diverse diet. People who campaign against GM crops are sometimes accused of wanting to deny the wretched of the Earth the chance to escape poverty and disease. said: "Seeking a technological food fix for world hunger may be the most commercially malevolent wild goose chase of the new century. who worked for Syngenta Seeds before his death in June 2003. especially since the biotech company responsible. Every day more than 30. because the biotech industry is unlikely to give poor farmers free access to all its inventions.. all in the name of their own ideological obsession.bbc. appears a little more prosaic. anyway. Household consumption of vegetables in India has fallen by 12% in two decades.but that won't ever be a silver bullet. Zeneca. which now includes Zeneca. said: "All the genes are present in rice.

especially something that you think will be good false dawn n .not suitable or right for a particular purpose or in a particular situation novel adj .a hefty amount of something. 5.f something you can see or hear recedes. 6.something that is abundant exists or is available in large quantities so that there is more than enough alleviate v . 3. using the information you have now recede v . Sometimes it is possible to guess the meaning of an idiom from the context.Extend your vocabulary Idioms are a colourful and fascinating aspect of English. What message is the author trying to convey? 3.of a new kind. What is your opinion on genetically modified organisms? 5. vermin project v .to make something less painful or difficult to deal with burst. especially money. improvement that proves to be an illusion e) it costs a considerable amount f) a search for sth that can.a lack of something that is necessary disadvantage v . Writers use them because they have often stronger meaning than non-idiomatic phrases. cure-all pest n . Do you agree with this statement? 4. 4. not be found.something that people think will make everything better and solve all their problems. be bursting with something v .something that solves a problem heftyadj . a wild goose chase a false dawn silver bullet out of joint with a flourish when (as)the dust settles hefty price-tag a) a simple guaranteed solution for a difficult problem b) when an event of a disorderly or confusing nature is over c) crazed. Go back to the article and try to match idioms and their definitions: 1. 7.to imagine something that you think might happen in the future.a situation in which something good seems likely to happen. insane d) an indication of success. a useless investigation or enterprise g) to do with one big.to put someone in a worse situation than others envision v .a small animal or insect that destroys crops or food supplies. is very large inappropriate adj . What are advantages of GMOs? 6.to have a lot of something or be filled with something deficiency n . 2.the key to the next wave of advances in agriculture and health. Genetically engineered foods . or will. but it does not fix n . it gets further and further away until it disappears to have a lot of something or be filled with something undernourished adj . noticeable movement " Communication 1. Who do you think the author was writing for? a) specialists b) general public c) students of science 2.to calculate what something will be in the future. Would you welcome more novel food in our supermarkets? ~ Glossary abundant adj . often genetically engineered panacea 11 .unhealthy and weak because you have not had enough food or the right type of food 54 .

Despite reductions in emissions. The air pollutants ground-level ozone and fine particulates are linked through their shared precursors. at least in the short term. From: EEA Signals 2004 55 . it is estimated that up to 45 % of Europe's urban population remains exposed to particulate concentrations exceeding limit values and up to 30 % to ozone concentrations above target levels for protecting human health. eastern and southern Europe. The emission cuts achieved so far have been mainly due to the introduction of catalysts on new cars and to the implementation of the ED solvents directive. These include aggravation of respiratory conditions such as asthma (from short-term exposure) and respiratory and cardiovascular illness as well as premature mortality (from long-term exposure). both ozone and particulates have adverse effects on human health. Their effect is likely to be additive. Despite recent reductions in emissions of both ozone precursors and fine particulates (by 30 % and 36 % respectively from 1990 to 2001). especially as limits and targets may be tightened in response to growing evidence of health impacts at concentrations below the current values. For particulates. as well as those exercising outdoors. much of Europe's urban population remains exposed to concentrations of these pollutants exceeding the levels set to protect human health.UNIT 8 AIR POLLUTION Warmup Do you think it is healthy to live in Bratislava? + Have you ever had health problems due to air pollution. These health impacts are caused by high concentrations that occur mainly in the urban areas of central. Further action is needed to bring down pollution. Discussions are under way within the framework of the ED Clean Air for Europe process that may lead to present limits being reconsidered and eventually tightened. Proposals under discussion include seeing long-term reduction targets for 2020 for both air quality concentrations and pollutant emissions. asthmatics and the elderly. When inhaled. coughing and chest tightness? + Can you name some of the most serious urban pollutants? • m ReadingI Air pollution: Damaging health in cities High concentrations of ground-level ozone and fine particulates are causing human health problems in cities. while ozone is mainly a problem during the summer months. Technology measures. namely nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). high levels occur over the whole year. which has led to lower emissions from industrial processes. demand management options and economic instruments are also being considered. Ozone levels were especially high during the summer heatwave of 2003. Some people are more vulnerable to high concentrations of ozone and fine particulates than others. There is now growing evidence of adverse health effects from concentrations of fine particulates and ozone at levels below the values currently set to protect health. The worst effects are generally seen in children. such as eye irritation.

6.000 premature deaths in Europe each year. pose. adopt. 56 ~ ... What do ozone and fine particulates have in common? What effects do they have on human health? Where do the high concentrations occur? What time of the year are ozone levels especially high? What groups of people are mostly affected? How can you explain recent reductions in emissions? (iJ=Language Focus PASSIVE TENSE simple present present progressive simple past past progressive present perfect past perfect will future future perfect STRUCTURE am/are/is + past participle am-are-is being + pp was-were + pp was-were being + pp have-has been + pp had been + pp will be + pp will have been + pp EXAMPLE New tunnel will have been finished by 2007. I Commission calculated that air pollution life expectancy by an average of almost nine months across the European Union. Northern Italy.. industry and domestic heating. active or passive avoid. The figures show every European takes on average half a day off sick a year due to illnesses linked to air pollution The main threat to health . '> 1 Find the passive verbs in the text. and even directly into the bloodstream. 3. What tenses are they? Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form... which can deep into the respiratory tissue.. The situation is the worst in Benelux area. emit. 6 They by traffic (particularly diesel engines). restrict. 4 by tiny particles known as particulate matter...... Experts say many of these deaths could levels. cost.. 2. 5 3 2 if measures were put in place to cut pollution the economy more than 80bn euros (£55bn).... penetrate '> 2 Air pollution causes early deaths Air pollution is responsible A study by the European for 310. research suggests. and new member states such as Poland and Hungary.Comprehension 1. Ozone produced when sunlight reacts with pollutants emitted by vehicle exhausts is also a major cause of respiratory disease.... 5. reduce. 4.

ze znecistene ovzdusie maze mat' dlhodobe iicinky na zdravie deti. sulfur dioxide forms an exceedingly fine particle called sulfate. that can penetrate to the deepest recesses of the lung. 3. Barbara Helfferich. A colorless. Vyskum potvrdzuje. 7 a new strategy on told the BBC: "There are number of ways of doing this. while at the lower levels found in cities. carbon oxide. it can aggravate angina pectoris and cause other damage.whether in clouds or in lungs ." 8 ). particulate matter. odorless gas formed when carbon-rich fuels like coal and oil are burned incompletely.Translate into English 1. These gases cause respiratory damage. "We can reduce burning of fossil fuel. The most dangerous form of these solids are the exceedingly small ''fine particles. sa obycajne na svedomi dokazal. They refer to the thousands of different pollutants found in unburnt gasoline. industrial solvents and many other combinations of hydrogen with carbon. It blocks the radiation that streams toward earth from the suns thermonuclear explosions. of nitrogen ozone. Mixed with water. An invisible gas with a sharp acrid odor that attacks the human respiratory system and can kill asthmatics. It is also found close to the ground. At high concentrations. whether in the air or lungs. An extraordinarily dangerous air pollutants.3 Match the following pollutants with their characteristics: sulphur dioxide. we can use alternative energy sources. Studia ze vyssl stupe!'} znecistenia ovzdusia maze vyrazne spomalit' ich rast. Sulfate. After hours or days of mixing in the air. ). they form acids.The European Commission is to try to reduce the threat to health by air pollution from May. partially because of the reaction between two common pollutants. reacts with water . oxides A colorless and odorless pollutant formed when carbon-rich fuels like coal or oil are burned. it kills thousands each year. Motorove vozidla v priemyselnych krajinach maju takmer polovicne mnozstvo emisif oxidov dusika. " which are small enough to penetrate deep within the lung where only molecule-thick cell walls protect the body.to form sulfuric acid. Motor vehicles account for roughly 80 percent. oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. 2. in turn. One of several "greenhouse" gases. 4. an environment spokesperson for the Commission. Najhorsie iicinky prejavujii u astmatikov a u starsich. especially in children. we can traffic in inner cities. carbon dioxide. hydrocarbons. which is frequently referred to as acid rain. dye tretiny oxidu uhol'nateho a priblizne 57 . dry cleaning fluids.

c) "the best" technique means the most effective one in achieving a high protection level of the environment as a whole. and should be fully implemented for all existing plants by 2007. whereas the terms: a) "technique" means both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed. In a group of 8-12-year-old children from two areas of Bratislava with a different degree of air pollution the authors investigated repeatedly the growth of the children. operated and decommissioned.polovicu uhl'ovodikov.in the centre of Ancient Rome it was so bad that Julius Caesar had to ban all wheeled vehicles during daylight hours. What do BATs judge? 58 . generally to reduce the impact on the environment as a whole. where that is not practicable. maintained. Did you know . 1. 5. After improvement of the living environment in the exposed area children who grew up in an environment. taking into consideration the costs and advantages. What does the abbreviation BAT stand for and when was it introduced for the first time? 2.. BATs are reference points against which to judge the current performance of an existing installation or to judge a proposal for a new installation. The results draw attention to the importance of care of the living environment and of attempts to eliminate noxious substances from the atmosphere which is reflected in a better health status and development of the child organism. ? Traffic congestion is not a new problem . whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Party in question. > Answer shortly the following questions. It was revealed that in boys and girls from the exposed area growth was retarded. built. as compared with children from a relatively clean area as well as when compared with the Bratislava population. where the two areas did not differ as to contamination of the atmosphere. The term BAT was introduced for the first time in integrated pollution prevention and control a permitting system for industrial plants based on an EU directive of the same name . The IPPC Directive is about minimizing pollution from various point sources throughout the European Union. m ReadingII WHAT IS BAT AND HOW CAN IT CONTROL POLLUTION? The best available technique means the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for limit values designed to prevent and. V Eur6pe kazdy rok zomrie predcasne 310 000 l'udf v dosledku znecisteneho ovzdusia. 961611EC. under economically and technically viable conditions. It was adopted in September 1996. b) "available" techniques means those techniques developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector. as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator. achieved the same growth level at the age of 10 years.the IPpe Directive..

But how? Work with members of your group to brainstorm as many ideas as possible. The police can chan2:e motorists for driving on roadways during peak hours.. 4. Since the information provided is not complete. 2. 8. you will have to add more details to develop these ideas into specific points. we need to reduce traffic growth. Communication It is the use of motor vehicles which accounts for more air pollution than any other single activity. 6. If we want to reduce air pollution. 9. In addition. the information under "actions" includes useful verbs and other vocabulary to guide you in developing a number of possible ideas. 3.. Agents the government drivers citizens Actions reduce coordinate separate pair limit encourage foster promote curb reduce decrease lower introduce allow retire charge traffic congestion traffic lights bus lanes one-way streets the number of cars special programs using bicycles pollution by starting the regular workday earlier and by finishing it earlier congestions city council police four-days weeks employees to work at home old vehicles from the road motorists for driving on roads during rush hours by placing tolls Specific solutions 1. You can use the following list to help you think of possible people or organizations (agents) that might be able to take some action regarding the situation. lO. 5. 59 . 7.

Here are some expressions to help you. Stating priorities important critical essential item aspect issue point factor The most (to consider) is . This solution is worse than that one. practical effective economical useful beneficial This solution is more than that one. good practical effective useful economical One idea is as as the other. Asking about effectiveness Will this solution really solve the problem? 60 .You can also add your own ideas and solutions. Compare them and set priorities. practical useful economical effective This solution is the most of all.. Comparing three or more solutions This solution is the best/the worst one of all. USING ENGLISH FOR COMPARING Expressing similarities They are both about the same. Comparing two solutions This solution is better than that one..

. g.) Yours sincerely. Dear Madam is used to address a woman..a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out condition n . xxx Writing formal letters: Salutation Dear Sir opens a letter written to a man whose name you do not know. e.if J..an illness or health problem that affects you permanently or for a very long time congestion n ..~ Writing to the bad traffic situation tn Write a letter to the city mayor suggesting some improvements Bratislava. Dear Mr Smith. e. effective measures which could improve . an illness. below your handwritten signature.. whether single or married. Dear Mr Smith.. foster) . ~ Glossary aggravation.to make a bad situation.. catalytic converter n . Signature Always type your name and. aggravate v . Dear Sirs . and to receive such In my opinion.. both of you should sign it. Dear Mr Smith:. Dear Sir or Madam (or Dear Sir / Madam) is used to address a person when you do not know their name or sex. with the request to strive to.e. g.. it should be Yours sincerely. Write the letter in pairs. Dear Mr James.. your job title. the salutation takes the form of Dear followed by a courtesy title and the person's surname. if relevant. the city should encourage (promote. A comma after the salutation is optional. Dear Sirs is used to address a company. Complimentary close If the letter begins Dear Sir. (In American English a colon is usually used after the salutation.to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect currently adv . If the letter begins with a personal name.. getlemen:). or an injury worse catalyst. the complimentary close should be Yours faithfully. special programs (using bicycles . Smith or Deaf }. e.a situation in which it is difficult or impossible to move because there are so many cars or people curb v . When you know the name of the person you are writing to.if John Smith.at the present time 61 . g. Bratislava 28 February 2005 Dear Sir I call on you as the Mayor of Bratislava . whose name you do not know.. i. Not Dear}..

law.harmful or poisonous particulates.[uncountable]facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true exposure n .cut n . premature ad} .the length of time that a person or animal is expected to live mortality n .harmful dust in the air.to make a rule. an amount.to persuade someone to do something. that is spent by a government or company decrease v .the number of deaths during a particular period of time among a particular type or group of people noxious ad} . reduce emission n . feeling.[usually plural].happening before the natural or proper time sick.to become less or go down to a lower level. or to make something do this. or system more strict toll n . goal tighten v . especially produced by car engines People suffering from this condition should not smoke. idea etc develop over a period of time (synonym encourage. bridge etc volatile ad} .to help a skill. particulate matter n . a reduction in the size or amount of something. make something more likely to exist.something that you are trying to achieve.time that you are allowed to spend away from work because you are sick target n . such as a total.the money you have to pay to use a particular road. promote) life expectancy n . aim. happen. or develop evidence n .a volatile liquid or substance changes easily into a gas 62 . sick leave n .when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant ' foster v . or a time.[usually plural] a gas or other substance that is sent into the air encourage v .

50. The demand for more landfills is a problematic situation. They are multiplying faster than our population growth. about eighty percent. Therefore we. 28 %.45 %) 5. By the year 2000. Prepare a list. 30. In addition to less land. Most of our municipal solids. 3. the people. Are environmental problems important for young people? Which problems are most pressing for you? QUIZ 1. existing landfills are closing down due to new laws and regulations. over the last fifty years new synthetic materials have been introduced into the waste stream. and more troublesome to discard. That is over four pounds of waste per person per day. What fraction of domestic rubbish is packaging? (10 %. 30 %) 6. How much rubbish do you think the average person in Los Angeles throws away every day? (5. For hundreds of years. it can break down or rot) W Reading Getting rid of garbage has always been a problem. The NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) Syndrome brings political opposition to the building of more landfills. Our wastes are becoming environmentally dangerous. Also back then. EPA predicts that the MSW will increase to about 216 million tons. 60) Of plastic? (20. Recently.10 %. it has become a world wide dilemma. people disposed of municipal solid wastes by gathering it up and discarding it by dumping or burying it in an isolated place. need to come up with a new solution for disposing our municipal solid wastes.UNIT 9 THROW-AWAY SOCIETY Warmup • • • Work in groups and think of the main problems Slovak society has to face today. What does BIODEGRADABLE mean? (biodegradable material can be burned. population growing.S. But while our waste is increasing. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However. 7. How much rubbish does the average person in the Third World throwaway every day? (1. 4 kg) 3. costly to clean up. No one wants to actually live near a landfill. Waste volumes are continually growing. This worked because most of the wastes consisted of biodegradable. What part of the rubbish do most countries turn into energy? (5 . especially with the U. So what is the solution? 63 . 40. 100) How many kilos of metal? (20. the United States generates about 209 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) each year. We need to start coming up with some answers before it is too late. the volume of trash was much lower than today. organic compounds that easily decomposed. 9 kg) 2. And the problem continues. used again. How many kilos of paper does a European family with two children throwaway in one year? (20.45) 4. ends up in our landfills. landfill space is decreasing. complicating and lengthening the problem.

•. for: • • • Places: Museums are closed on Mondays.involve generate . g.abundance consist of .create .multitude ... 3. 2 In front of uncountable • • • nouns (always singular) used in general statements..myriad ..dispose of .when.bring about .. Abstract: Life is short ~ I Supply alan or zero article (-)... Alexander: Longman Advanced Grammar 64 . 2. sedentary animal .rubbish . g. This disposal scheme functioned adequately.encompass . find the expression that does not fit: waste .. for: • • • Substances: Oil is produced in Alaska. Animals: Cats don't like cold weather..include ..throw out .vast amount . What did people do with waste in the past? Why did it work? What is the problem with our wastes today? How much waste is generated per person per day in the USA? Why are landfills closing down? What is the NIMBY syndrome? Where does our municipal solid waste go? CiT Language focus For students of English..retain . 7.... 4.. Products: Watches aren't expensive... For most of the past two and 1 half million years 2 human beings left their garbage where it fell..• man faced his first garbage crisis when he became 7 ... Colours: Red is my favourite colour.junk getting rid of ... 5. L.crowd .dump host .separate ..... 6. they sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity areas...incorporate .•. rather than move himself. game or find new stands of plants...garbage .. Food: Beans are good for you.... Food: I like butter. he chose to move his garbage.discard .produce ... People: Women need better pay....... Plants: Trees don't grow in the Antarctic.• hunters and 4 gatherers frequently abandoned their campgrounds to follow 5.demolish ~ 2 Comprehension questions 1. 6 .... Activities: Swimming is good for you. e.•.. but that was about all. e. Languages: English is a world language.wilderness .trash ..stacks ... Oh.Vocabulary ~ I In each group. G.. No article at all is used: 1 In front of plural countable • • • nouns used in general statements. the use of articles may be very confusing. because 3 .

. clean up. end up. Example: Rather than waste/wasting time doing it yourself. Alexander: Longman Advanced Grammar ). 3.2 Supply the plural forms of the nouns in brackets only where necessary. who dug into Bronze Age Troy in the 1950s. Waste Management Methods The solution lies in an integrated approach.. Even though the threats to methods and write a short summary. and 9 (roof) had to be adjusted upward. a program that is most useful to them. Each city should 6..3 Can you correct this sentence? Give your reason( s J.4 Change the sentences using the expression rather than.. with a new solution for disposing our municipal solid wastes.. tidy up. Our wastes are costly to 4. why don't you call a builder? 1. Waste management methods include: waste reduction..).. G. ). Most of our municipal solid waste it . They sometimes . after several 7 (layer) had been applied. composting. 3. ). L.when.. People disposed of municipal solid wastes by 2. W. and treatment. including in the 2 (city) The archaeologist C.5 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of come up. 5. From prehistory through the present day dumping has been the 1 (means) of disposal favoured everywhere. " Communication 1 How can we beat the throw-away society? In groups of 4 or 5 suggest a solution. where a number of waste management methods are used altogether.. I tried to repair it instead of throwing it away. I prefer to buy vegetables instead of growing them. and land disposal... 65 .. 2 In groups of 4 or 5 read one of the texts on waste management Then report to the other groups. gather up. Blegen. 4.. found that \floor) had become so littered that periodically a fresh supply of "(dirt) or 5 (clay) had been brought in to cover up the 6 (refuse)... in our landfills. Extend your house.... their sleeping and activity areas. the 8 (door) . rather than to move himself. instead of moving to another one. 1. We need to . recycling.... 2. Phone them instead of waiting for them to phone. Rather than move/moving .. recycling.. Land disposal In spite of all the attention to waste reduction. Of course. the dominant form of solid and hazardous waste management world-wide remains land disposal. he chose to move his garbage. Man faced his first garbage crisis when he became a sedentary animal . set up.

can be turned into a beautiful thing. Mount Trashmore Park in Virginia Beach. There are some communities that have already overcome their reluctance of landfills.one fundamental.S. and soil are well known. Waste reduction Although many different phrases are used . 650. source reduction. transport. In industrialised countries. and manage it after it is generated. Agency for International Development are providing increased waste reduction assistance to developing countries. in some countries.for example. the problems of land disposal have been addressed largely by imposing stringent regulations designed to make the practice safer rather than outlawing it altogether. Coffee makers and detergent companies have stopped placing plastic measuring spoons in their products because.groundwater. steel and automobile oil made from reprocessed oils. Such actions reduce solid waste generation without sacrificing product quality and cost. The trees and recycling facilities using post-consumer greater use of recycled material. green technology . and competition between large paper mills using virgin discarded material has sometimes slowed the shift to who profess to want green products often are faced 66 . clean technology. most large companies in developed countries have undertaken formal waste reduction or pollution prevention programs. surface water. Recycling Recycling can take several forms: • Reusing materials that otherwise would be discarded after their original application . organic wastes into compost. Many health care products are now simply wrapped. unmanageable amounts of waste. government programs emphasise pollution prevention by. Landfills. available land generally leads to the wide use of land disposal. the presence of low-cost. universal principle is being applied: It is safer environmentally not to produce waste than to handle. After more than a decade of effort. Using recycled materials and recyclable or compostable materials has become a main feature of green products . governed by strict rules and regulation. including turning mixed plastics into park benches. most of the time. International groups such as the United Nations Environment Program and foreign assistance programs such as those administered by the U. waste prevention. is now one of the area's most popular parks. These regulations have also raised the cost of land disposal enormously. for example.OOO-ton garbage heap. they became immediate waste.waste minimisation. Also. and often smaller sizes. The message is that economic growth does not have to result in massive. and glass waste into construction or road material. providing free technical assistance for smaller companies.consumer products with less packaging. reusing glass beverage bottles. a 68-foot-high. Also. without being placed in a carton that really is unnecessary. cleaner production. • Recycling a material for a different application through some type of processing or manufacture. Notable examples of high-value recycling include is made entirely of recycled material. no toxic chemicals. pollution prevention. consumers paper that has a very high recycled-paper content or aluminium made entirely from scrap materials.

trash generate v . Waste treatment The treatment component of the waste hierarchy aims to convert waste into something that is environmentally harmless. dishes etc discard v . and perhaps produces a residue with some economic value.a liquid or powder used for washing clothes. rubbish outlaw v . discard game n .to say that you do. in which waste is burned to into gases.to declare illegal. The main thermal method is incineration.a method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between layers of matter. refuse. the use of thermal bout air pollution and residue facilities. to place under a ban. What do you think is the right order? • Land disposal • Recycling (including composting) • Waste prevention or reduction • Waste treatment (incineration) ~ Glossary adjust v . are etc something. or fish hunted for food or sport garbage n .with choices regarding both price and some aspect of product appearance or quality when considering recycled materials.to burn something completely in order to destroy it landfill n . to produce generic adj .throwaway.to throwaway. Waste treatment technologies generally fit into the following broad categories: thermal.to change so as to match or fit. prohibit profess v .formal a hot or cold drink detergent n . methods is limited by their high cost and by environmental concerns a management. get rid of dispose of v . or some combination of these. as from a kitchen. which can cause passionate public opposition to siting new convert combustible materials Generally. leaving a solid residue of ceramic and metallic materials. give rise to. especially to people's health or safety heap n . which has contributed to higher costs because of government regulations that require the use of complex equipment to render the treatment facilities environmentally acceptable. Hirschhorn: Managing Solid and Hazardous The hierarchy of waste management methods is jumbled. has a reduced volume.relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing hazardous adj . cause to correspond beverage n . physical.wild animals.unwillingness 67 . Waste Joel S. birds. biological. A generic problem with waste treatment is its high cost relative to land disposal options. especially when it is not really true reluctance n . incinerate v .group of things placed or thrown.to bring into being.food wastes. chemical. Another problem is the pollution caused by treatment methods. one on top of the other.to get rid of. get rid of dump v .dangerous.

strict. refuse or rubbish virgin tree n . such as evaporation. combustion.render v .to situate or locate stress v .a change in the way people think about something.1. Matter remaining after completion of an abstractive chemical or physical process. distillation. residuum sedentary adj . and not moving or exercising very much shift n .to cause someone or something to be in a particular condition residue n . in the way something is done etc.tree etc that is still in its natural state and has not been used or changed by people 68 . severe trash n . 2. The remainder of something after removal of parts or a part.worthless or discarded material or objects. shift from/to site v .spending a lot of time sitting down.to place emphasis on stringent adj . or filtration.

UNIT 10 SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Around the world. a growing number of nations have recognized the economic. and are implementing tax incentives and other policy measures favorable to renewable technologies. and environmental benefits of renewable energy. While in Slovakia renewable energy sources are not currently used to a great extent there is great potential to develop this type of energy. A F 69 . social.

renewable energy technologies are often seen as a "luxury". Each group (A.Which of the renewable energy sources would be most appropriate to Slovakia and why? Discuss your ideas with other students.Test your energy vocabulary Go through the following list of terms and explain as many as you can. Make a short summary. B. D) will read about one of renewable energy sources in more detail. C.Form 4 groups... Compare your explanations with a partner. you can prepare it in the form of a grid.? In Slovakia. which could moreover have negative environmental impacts. If you wish. A grid to compare energy sources Source of renewable energy how they work Advantages disad vantages costs future Do you agree . can you identify the sources of power represented? • Which of them are used in Slovakia in order to generate electricity? • Can you explain how do you understand the term renewable? ). ). wind farm to trap the light readily available to tap energy subsidy solar roof tile fossil-fuel plant drilling well geothermal heat pump biomass feedstock initial costs ). What is your opinion? 70 .Warmup From the pictures on the previous page.

m Reading Wind Power Wind farms The most common way of getting energy from the wind is through setting up 'Wind farms'. this will be reduced. The most optimistic estimates suggest that by 2050. and therefore the cost of getting electricity from the wind has dropped considerably. When they were first introduced they were very expensive. They enable electricity to be produced in an environmentally friendly way . however over the years. If the turbines need to be taken down one day. The blades face into the wind. The ground which they are positioned on can still be used for agricultural purposes . The noise generated from wind turbines has been criticised by some people who live very close to the wind farms . which then spins a shaft inside the turbine. The main worries are that they ruin the landscape .there is no damage caused by these turbines because there are no chemical or radioactive emissions from them. There are arguments that the money would be better put into energy conservation. initial costs have fallen. How they work Wind turbines generally have 3 blades and they rotate at 10-30 revolutions per minute. which is connected to a generator which produces the electricity.however. there is no damage to the environment and no residues are left behind.because they generally have to be positioned on hills to get the maximum benefits of the wind.such as sheep grazing. wind power could provide 60% of the UK's electricity. the wind forces them to go round. guidelines now exist about wind farms they can be built in relation to residential property and turbine technology has advanced significantly. The other side There are concerns from some people who are worried about wind farms being positioned in their area. 71 . The future The UK subsidy to renewable energies will amount to £1 billion by 2010. The advantages of wind power The case for wind farms is quite clear. although as prices for wind-powered electricity fall.

architects and power companies .work together to develop solar energy. The past The use of solar power became very popular in the 1970s. is to design buildings so they can collect the heat. • Another way to take advantage of the energy from the Sun. • The photo voltaic effect is when photo cells convert sunlight directly into electricity . The future Within 10 years photo voltaic cells are likely to be competitive with conventional power sources. where there is plenty of available space. the costs are falling which will make it more widespread. In addition they are very easy to install. to be used.this has been used for sometime to power certain calculators. and although there are some high costs involved. The technology now needed is 90 % cheaper than it was in the 1970s. initially quite expensive. They do this by designing the building sensibly and facing it in a way where it can use the Sun to the maximum benefit. they replace the need for other materials. such as tiles.such as the government. By 2005 the government aims to have 6. local authorities. This is trapped by the cell and turned into electricity. Germany has started to push lots of money into the development of it for projects there. The advantages As well as the fact that energy from the Sun is readily available. By locating photovoltaic cells on top of houses. Photovoltaic cells (PY's) are also being used as roof tiles. Houses with solar roof tiles can in fact generate more electricity than is needed at certain times in the day. there are initial costs which make setting up these projects. and more recently. there are many other benefits. billions have been spent on developing PV over a number of years. no extra land space is needed and they can also be situated in urban areas.000 and Japan nearly 400. They cover the roof of a house and take advantage of the light coming from the Sun. Large glass windows help with this. different organisations . balconies and trees protect the building from getting too much heat. especially during the winter when the Sun is very low. ill the summer. Painting the thin pipes black and putting them in a 'greenhouse' type insulator can heat our water supply and therefore reduce the cost of using electricity to heat it. In Japan and the USA. Local councils started fitting council houses with facilities to use solar power.000 roofs in the UK fitted with solar panels. Grants are now available to help homeowners make the switch to renewable energy. • A reasonably simple method of using the benefits of the Sun is to heat our water pipes. By that time Germany expects to have 140. However. the savings on electricity bills in the long-term should make up for this and year on year. but has fallen in and out of favour since depending on the potential savings when compared with fossil-fuel energy costs. The costs As with most renewable energy systems. for example. 72 . Examples abroad The UK is behind many other countries in Europe and the rest of the W orId when it comes to using solar power technologies.Solar Power How it works There are several different systems which take advantage of the power generated from the Sun. and can sell this back to local electricity companies.000. In' the Netherlands.

when the ground is cooler. The cost of electricity from geothermal power plants is slowly becoming competitive with that from traditional power plants. The world's first District Heating system was built in 1892 in Idaho. This is about as hot as the surface of the sun. The future The next step in using heat trapped inside the earth. In the winter when the ground is warmer than the buildings above. is to drill deeper and circulate water through the hot dry rock found 3 . There are three main ways of tapping geothermal energy: • • Direct use Geothermal heat found near the surface of the Earth can be used directly for heating buildings.500C at the core just over six and a half thousand kilometres below the crust. The advantages By using geothermal energy. using hot springs initially for cooking and building reservoirs around springs to create bathing complexes such as those built at Bath by the Romans. geothermal heat pumps can be used nearly anywhere. which then drives a generator to produce electricity. Geothermal heat pumps • Electricity production The past Humans have used geothermal energy for thousands of years. as fossil-fuelled power plants produce electricity 65 75 % of the time compared to 90 % from geothermal power plants. This can also be used to heat domestic water. no fossil fuel burning is required. It is not surprising therefore. Geothermal power plants emit only excess steam and very few trace gases (1000 .Geothermal Energy How it works Geothermal simply means 'Earth's heat'. current estimates are 5. the pump transfers heat from the buildings back into the ground. The costs When a heat pump is used to provide domestic heating. There are three types of power plant that can convert geothermal energy to electricity.5 miles under the surface. that even the upper 3 metres of the Earth's surface stay at a nearly constant 10 . they take up very little land compared to traditional fossil-fuel plants and advanced drilling techniques minimise the impact of drilling wells. depending on the temperature of the geothermal fluid used. All three use a turbine that is driven by steam. The first geothermal power plant was built in Ladarello in Italy in 1904. which is then concentrated and transferred to the buildings. the liquid absorbs heat from the ground.16C throughout the year. The relatively constant temperature of the top 15 metres of the Earth's surface (or ground water) can be used to heat or cool buildings indirectly. or to venture even deeper and try to utilise the hottest source of all. In the summer. While geothermal resources are not spread uniformly. The pump uses a series of pipes to circulate fluid through the warm ground. Where geothermal energy is used in agriculture (such as to heat greenhouses) heating costs can be cut by up to 80 %.the molten and semi-molten magma that makes up the Earth's core.2000 times less carbon dioxide than fossil fuel power plants). The electricity produced is also more 'available'. 73 . the savings on electricity can outweigh the cost of installing and running the system. USA and piped hot water from springs to town buildings. The centre of the Earth is extremely hot.

and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. These energy crops. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. airplanes. but every time a new plant grows. and a generator then converts it into electricity. For example. Ethanol is an alcohol. The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. In some industries.nrel. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil. which run on mixtures of gasoline and up to 85 % ethanol. Not only do these systems provide renewable energy. But flexible-fuel vehicles. But many other sources of biomass can now be used. are now available. Most of the biopower plants in the world use direct-fired systems. Switchgrass crops can be harvested to make biofuels Biopower Biopower. residues from agriculture or forestry. biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels . some farmers use the waste from their livestock to provide their farms with electricity. carbon dioxide is actually removed from the atmosphere. sugars. wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills.gov/ 74 . or biomass power. or celluloses) through a process similar to brewing beer.biofuelsfor our transportation needs (cars. such as fast-growing trees and grasses. trucks. For instance. ever since people started burning wood to cook food or to keep warm. including plants. Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels. buses. the steam from the power plant is also used for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. This steam is usually captured by a turbine. the same found in beer and wine. modular systems.the energy from organic matter . The net emission of carbon dioxide will be zero as long as plants continue to be replenished for biomass energy purposes. wood is still our largest biomass energy resource. It is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates (starches.for thousands of years. are called biomass feedstocks. animal fat. It can be used as an additive to reduce vehicle emissions (typically 20 %) or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines.Biomass energy We have used biomass energy or bioenergy . The use of biomass feedstocks can also help increase profits for the agricultural industry. Even the fumes from landfills can be used as a biomass energy source. This system is designed for use at the small town level or even at the consumer level. Biofuels Unlike other renewable energy sources. A small. and trains). Ethanol is mostly used as a fuel additive to cut down a vehicle's carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions. is the use of biomass to generate electricity. They burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. And today. . or recycled cooking greases. they also help farmers and ranchers meet environmental regulations. modular system generates electricity at a capacity of 5 megawatts or less. source: http://www. These are known as combined heat and power facilities. Several biopower technologies can be used in small.

2004. Accompanied by a large number of forums. over the next five and a half years and at a cost of Euro 50 billion in public and private funds. the cause of the ever-greater number of weather-produced catastrophes afflicting the planet. From 154 countries. and will give them new livelihoods.178 18. has committed itself to increasing. businesspersons and other decision-makers. May 2004 THE RENEW ABLES 2004 Held in Bonn from June I .680 2. Type Technical 22.995 27. The commitments will also give one billion of the world's poor something new and highly essential: the switch to turn on environmentally-compatible energy. for instance. Slovakia.695 2. the summit was attended by some 3600 energy. To provide another example. China. By exploiting the current potential that is economically viable. Here is a table showing technically available potential of renewable energy sources..722 40. 'environment weeks' and other events. To help the countries and organizations live up to their commitments. the summit elaborated a long series of 'policy recommendations'. + • Communication Now all As. Results. renewables2004 was successful in another way. businesses and social bodies. renewables2004 was 'climate neutral'. Has your opinion on the most appropriate energy source changed? Read the information below and check your conclusions. If fully lived up to. Its size notwithstanding. the summit formulated an 'international action program' comprised of about 200 self-commitments.224 solar ener Small hydropower Iants Biomass 25 727 12. in TJ. These funds will facilitate a $500 million annual flow of investment in such projects. The thrust of its eleven paragraphs: the world shares 'the vision that renewable sources will become a most important and widely available source of energy'. This reduction will help curb the process of climate change.720 3.453 potential Current exploitation A vail able potential 21. results: issuing from the conference was a 'political declaration'.178 18. experts.2 billion tons by 2015. More than thirty international organizations also took part. Made by national govemments. To attain this goal. the attendees included 121 heads of state and ministers.. the Slovak Republic could more than double the present use of these resources. renewables' commitments will reduce the world's annual output of carbon dioxide by 1. This access will rid the poor of many of their afflictions.683 source: Renewable Energy Policy review.770 o 1. Bs. In Slovakia there is great potential to develop renewable energy sources. the Washington-based Global Environment Facility (GEF) has pledged to supply a further $100 million a year in seed money to renewable energy projects carried out in developing countries. international organizations.456 2. Cs and Ds get together and share your information. these commitments are of an impressive sweep. The carbon dioxide expended in getting 75 . development and environmental officials.4. the share of its installed power generation capacity stemming from renewable sources to 10 %.

to use or spend a lot of energy etc in order to do something feedstock raw material for processing or manufacturing industry.a material or object which does not allow electricity.to prevent something such as gas or water from getting away venture v . so that it is ready to be used fossil-fuel 11 .surovina fit v .to use or take what is needed from something such as an energy supply or an amount of money the broad sweep of history thrust n . The world shares 'the vision that renewable sources will become a most important and widely available source of energy' ~ Glossary afflict v . they do as well as they were expected to. or what is true insulator n . or a new part onto a machine.a complete change from one thing to another switchgrass 11 .the money you have available to start a new business shaft n . what someone is thinking or feeling. or qualities of something switch (to) n .Panicum virga tum tap v . especially a medical condition attain v -to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time attendee 11 .the many different and important ideas. heat. or sound to pass through it issue from v .production rid v . see also overcome roof tile .to put a piece of equipment into a place.a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years indication 12 .if something or someone lives up to a particular standard or promise.the delegates and joumalists (700 all told!) to.the way you earn money in order to live molten ad} . around and from the summit is being compensated for by a solar energy project in India.a sign. remark.someone who is at an event such as a meeting or a course expend v .money that is paid by a government or organization to make prices lower.molten metal or rock has been made into a liquid by being heated to a very high temperature notwithstanding adv -formal in spite of something output n . and make them suffer affliction n . event etc that shows what is happening.a place where water comes up naturally from the ground subsidy 11 .a thin long piece of metal in an engine or machine that turns and passes on power or movement to another part of the machine spring n . place etc is no longer affected by something bad or no longer has it.something that causes pain or suffering. reduce the cost of producing goods etctrade/agricultural subsidies etc sweep /l .to affect someone or something in an unpleasant way. events.if something issues from a place or thing.a thin curved piece of baked clay used for covering roofs seed money (capital) n .to go somewhere that could be dangerous 76 . do what they promised etc livelihood n .the main meaning or aim of what someone is saying or doing trap v .to take action so that a person. it comes out of it live up to v .

The environmental impact assessment states that (1) concerning radiological protection. a situation that has already happened in many countries that are not selfsufficient. The intention to complete Mochovce. The plant. such as a recent decision made in an Austrian court. is located in a rural yet relatively populated area of Slovakia. This includes the evacuation of former Mochovce village residents and relocation (with compensation). and after making a major investment plan for the renewal of power stations. Austria's Green party spokesperson and MP. The Vienna court judgement upheld a 1989 lawsuit brought against Mochovce by Eva Glawischnig. and (5) routine radioactive emissions are within internationally accepted limits. Without an operable Mochovce power plant. The Al block broke in 1977 and has not functioned since. (3) Mochovce is largely insulated from seismic activity. Enel. A Vienna district court ruled that the Mochovce nuclear power plant presents a threat to the health and lives of Austrians. located 100km east of Bratislava and approximately 150 km from Vienna. (2) the site emergency plan was consistent with international principles. the country is obliged to close down one of the two blocks of the Jaslovske Bohunice VI plant in 2006. however. The safety report concludes that: Mochovce can be completed according to western and International Atomic Energy Association safety standards without major difficulty. (4) certain environmental impacts associated with construction have already been realized. The issue of energy self-sufficiency is becoming urgent for Slovakia. 77 . The V2 plant will continue operating. The sale gives Enel a 66-percent stake in Slovenske elektrarne. The cabinet sealed the sale of Slovakia's dominant power utility. about 160 kilometres west of the plant. As part of its EU accession agreements. who accused the plant of having inadequate safety technology and being a threat to her and others living in Vienna.A Case Study Warmup Discuss with your neighbour: Would you like to live close to a nuclear power plant? The completion of the nuclear reactor at Mochovce in Slovakia has caused a lot of controversy. After two-and-a-half years of seeking a strategic investor able to secure sufficient production capacities. the future of the Mochovce power plant in Bratislava is clear: Enel intends to complete the nuclear facility. and the second VI block in 2008. Slovenske elektrarne. the privatization process was wrapped up. Slovak energy experts worried that Slovak electricity prices would escalate. FOR: Rounding out the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)' s analysis is a safety report and environmental impact assessment.UNIT 11 NUCLEAR ENERGY Mochovce Nuclear Plant . consistent with international standards. Mochovce was deemed a well-planned and quality controlled approach to radiological protection. raises more serious issues. to Italy's largest electric utility company. After much speculation. Italy is one such country where prices are high compared to energy-producing nations.

This sarcophagus at Chernobyl has already begun to decay and has been unsuccessful in containing radioactive leakage. 4. Supporters: The Chairman of Slovakia's • Nuclear Regulatory Authority: You stress the government's commitment to minimum safety standards and point to Slovakia's membership in numerous multilateral conventions on nuclear safety. 2. negative health effects: In case of the similar nuclear plant in the Gulf of Finland a threefold increase in birth defects and a tenfold increase in cancer mortalities. could resemble Chernobyl in its magnitude.000 people have now died from Chernobyl-related illnesses. and have compounded conventional pollution problems. Netherlands. as many as 125. Don't forget to inform each member of the time limit you are imposing (5 minutes). Livestock loss has been costly throughout Europe. your task will be to prepare your case as thoroughly as possible. Luxembourg. A major incident. g. 6. and longterm environmental effects are spread over a vast area. e. there has been considerable backlash against the completion of Mochovce from EBRD member governments (led primarily by the Austrian Government and including Denmark. The immense ecological damage caused by the initial incident would only be part of the problem. risks exist. 7. and hopefully. to eventually reach a general concensus. According to some figures. List of roles 1. you may look back over any relevant material to support your point of view and help you argue against other cases. 8. 5. 3. non-governmental environmental organizations and citizens' groups in over 30 countries. Several potential environmental risks exist surrounding the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Norway and Portugal). its potential safety risks and its sustainability. concern multiple habitats. You are now being asked to take an active part in the TV discussion about nuclear energy. Even if the plant functions without major incidents. Thousands of tons of polymers and cement were dropped on the Chernobyl site to contain the escape of radioactive materials. such as an explosion or meltdown.AGAINST: Since 1993. to put forward new proposals. and animal impacts that could result from a serious nuclear incident. The full impact has still not been fully assessed. The Chairman of Slovakia's Nuclear Regulatory Authority CUlD) The Slovak Economy Minister The leader of Slovak opposition Slovak Environment Minister Representative of Austrian Government (Deputy Ambassador of Austria) Austria's Green party spokesperson Representative of Geothermal Energy Board Co-ordinator Co-ordinator As co-ordinator you will be responsible for bringing the parties together. as the Chernobyl case shows the problems of attempting containment and cleanup of the actual reactor area. What is your opinion about completing the Mochovce nuclear plant? When you have chosen your role. 78 . In order to do this. The Chernobyl incident provides the best example of human.

Austria's Green party spokesperson: numerous environmental risks: Austrian environmentalists have attempted to highlight 1. Representative of Geothermal Energy Board: Why is the West funding construction of power plants of a type entirely unwanted in the West? It is evident. have not been addressed in plant planning. Important questions. Only about 17 % of the potential for renewable energy sources is currently exploited in Slovakia. in May 1998 an inspection mission cited the considerable progress achieved in improving the original project. • Mochovce is the minimal cost option for Slovakia. The leader of Slovak opposition: • You explain that the improvements and function of the plant would fall within the norms followed by French nuclear power plants. the Bohunice reactor would not be closed. Little attention was paid to the environmental risks of the water emissions of the plant. no matter how altruistic the proposed finan~ing plans may seem. 2. 3.• • All safety issues are fully addressed. because if Mochovce were not completed. The geothermal energy can be used for the district heating and hot water supply. You are under tremendous political pressure: Do you consider short term. 4. or of the possible impact of the plant on uses of local waterways which may be impacted by the presence of the plant. but may present environmental problems of their own. Slovgeoterm Company 79 . • It is in the interest of Slovakia's power self-sufficiency. For example. they still can cause considerable environmental damage. International specialists and annual inspections by (rJD confirm that Mochovce meets international standards for such facilities. The Slovak Economy Minister: • Inaction is in fact the worst possible outcome. Standards regarding the materials which will be used to refurbish the plant are undefined in plant plans. that such reactor deals mean increases in profits by the flagging (weak) nuclear power industry of western Europe and the United States. Opposition Slovak Environment Minister: You are the newly appointed Minister of the Environment. • Alternative fuel sources have been proposed as a solution. which has suffered severe earthquakes in the past. Though coal or other energy sources are arguably safer than nuclear power. The plans do not include the costs of storage for spent fuel in its cost assessments. such as the possibility of seismic activity in this region. The only response to the Austrian offer was a promise by Slovak Environment Minister that his ministry would do everything in its power to assure that no more nuclear power stations would be built in Slovakia following the completion of Mochovce. unsustainable economic progress to be worth the long term environmental costs if it creates jobs and tax revenue? Representative of Austrian Government: The Austrian government offered to fund a $50 million conversion of Mochovce to alternate power sources.

g.to refuse an offer.a very dangerous situation in which the material inside a nuclear reactor melts and burns through its container. request.a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events. consider flagging ad} . to impose time limit outcome n . But due to favourable geological conditions the energetical potential is much higher.instead of leakage 11 . Other possible solutions Improved efficiency is proposed as the best solution to deal with energy shortages in Slovakia.when gas. water etc leaks in or out.a choice you can make in a particular situation sound ad} . Privatisation has resulted in increasing energy prices. suggesting that investment in surplus power production is not a sound basis for sustainable economic growth in Slovakia.to have an important or noticeable effect on someone or something impose v . war etc . ~ Glossary backlash n . or invitation 80 . stopping it becoming more powerful etc deem v .implemented in last years greenhouses heating in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in Galanta. e. The best substitute is likely some form of energy optimisation which would minimize the requirement for new energy sources.to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it impact n .to put or set by or as ifby authority. causing an overall trend in eastern Europe toward reduced energy consumption. discussion. and could result in an increase in energy efficiency of 50%. especially against political or social developments containment n . Such a solution would include encouraging investment in the production of high-efficiency technology.sensible and likely to produce the right results turn down v . or the amount of it that has leaked livestock n .the act of keeping something under control.used especially when no one knows what it will be until it actually happens in lieu .becoming tired or losing strength highlight .the final result of a meeting.to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality. allowing radioactivity to escape option 11 .animals such as cows and sheep that are kept on a farm meltdown 11 .

surge. transform. By then it will have overtaken France as Europe's second or third largest country. increase. the authors expect it to have four million more people. Britain is expected to grow faster than any other major European country. and India will leapfrog alone. shift. swing. the population of China to become the world's most populous country. shrink. They predict that at least an extra 1. dro . Based on a number of factors. Within 20 years. One in six the world quadrupled. people in western Europe will be over the age of 65 by 2050. according to a comprehensive report by leading US demographers released yesterday. depending whether Russia is classed to be in Europe 81 .000 million will be living in the world's poorest African countries by 2050. But the populations of some countries will shrink.rise.5 million in the next 25 years to eventually reach 65 million. decline.UNIT 12 \tVORLD FACES POPULATION EXPLOSION Warmup + Has the population of Slovakia been growing or declining in the last few years? + How many children are there in your family? + What do you think the number of children depends on? + Do you know what is the life-expectancy of men and women + + in Slovakia? What problems can be connected with our crowded planet? Who can solve them? ). adding only a further 1. pass. leapfrog. Bulgaria is expected to lose almost 40 per cent of its population. There will be In just the 20th century an extra 120 million more Americans. soar W Reading The world is heading for wildly uneven population swings in the next 45 years.In how many ways can you express the meaning of the following concepts? change Ito change to grow Igrowth to fall to overtake ). downsize.You can choose words from the box. tail off. double. with many rich countries "downsizing" during a period in which almost all developing nations will grow at breakneck speed. All of them can be found in the article. including analysis of birth and death rates. at which point its growth is expected to tail off.

By then. will argue that fertility rates in poor countries could drop if there is a world fuel crisis. life such as New York. 1960. one of the poorest. of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. which today have similar sized populations of about l30 million people. The thinktank says people usually have as many children as they think they can afford. 2050. per-capita cropland 82 .2 billion. But Europe is expected to have 60 million fewer people than today and some countries could lose more than a third of their populations. But Japan. "World population is going to grow massively in some of the most vulnerable countries in the world. could be unrecognisable by 2050. Eastern Europe is leading the world's down shifters. say the authors. It is expected to have reached a population of 420 million by 2050. The population changes are causing growing alarm among experts. and the motivation to have fewer comes from anticipating hard times ahead. while Romania could have 27 % fewer and Russia 25 million fewer people. world population is growing by about 70 million people a year. it will say. incomes. age structure. which has only 14 % of its current population under 15. Nigeria is expected to have more than doubled its numbers to more than 300 million people. There were expectancy. Western Asian Despite plagues and nations are expected to gain about 186 million people by 2050 and wars and famines and sub-Saharan African countries more than one billion people. They also take into just two mega-cities in the year account the numbers of women using contraception and AidslHN rates. By a declining birth-rate. While the world's few developed countries are expected to grow by about 4 % to over 1. a separate report. may have doubled numbers to more than 280 million. and more recently by the US Population census report. and fertility rates. said Kirst yen Sherk. based on countries' own statistics. losing 38 % of its people. However. and will likely reach 9. the projections call for expected to encourage further widespread movements of more than 26. India will be the largest country in the world. Germany and Italy are expected to shrink by about 10 %. have not kept pace with increases in population. Today. just keeps on growing. 17. millions have been The projections are based on detailed analysis of infant drawn to cities or mega-cities mortality rates. the number of people How some countries will cope with the changes is debatable. Bangladesh. Some experts question whether Earth can even carry today's population at a 'moderately comfortable' standard for the long term. may have shrunk to roughly 100 million people. Increases in food production per hectare. The former World Bank economist Herman Daly believes globalisation and the uncontrolled migration of cheap labour could put potentially catastrophic pressures on local communities and national economies. having long passed China. We have to ask how rich countries are going to help". The changes. people and pressure for migration away from rural areas towards cities and richer countries. population in developing countries could surge by 55 % to more than 8 billion. population growth. The report. and the planet has virtually no more arable land or fresh water to spare. will transform geo-politics and fundamentally affect the world's economies. Overall. an increase of 43 %. Africa and Asia will inevitably be transformed. considered inevitable given present trends. Bulgaria is expected to return to pre-1914 population levels. "The sheer number of people on Earth is now much larger than ever before in history. let alone 3 billion more". who believe sustained growth in developing countries can only be managed with economic help from rich countries. says the report.3 billion by mid-century from 6.3 billion today. As a result. Over time. Among the major industrialised nations. Countries such as Nigeria and Japan. only the US will experience what the authors call "significant" growth. suggest demographers with the Washington-based Population Reference Bureau. By the year Climate change and ongoing land degradation are widely 2015. to be published soon by the Washington-based Worldwatch Institute.or partly in Asia. but do not allow for environmental factors. confirms trends identified earlier by the UN. most crowded and disaster-prone countries. people's lifestyles and global resources.

By then Japan may have shrunk to 100 million people. !Notice that we can use other modal verbs instead of "will" to talk about the future in a less certain way. ENDS and we' 11be able to get a smaller house. 3. I (work) for forty years. has been falling worldwide for 20 years.. 2004. > 1 Use the future perfect to put the beginnings and ends together.. 4. example: By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 2. completed. Michael Swan: How English works BEGINNINGS By this time next year I (not finish) the report by Monday In a couple of years the children (leave) horne When I get home tonight When I retire two sentences starting with: By the time you get home 1. Guardian Did you know . Comprehension 1. and per capita production of grains. By next month you should have written your thesis. . What do scientists base their projections on? What could climate change cause? In what countries is population expected to grow greatly? Which two factors can have catastrophic pressures on local communities and national economies? How can the world cope with the growing population? r::jj= Language focus Future perfect tense: We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended.? Human life span more than doubled over the course of the 20th century. the basic food.. 5. John Vidal. I'll probably (left) school. or achieved by a particular point in the future: Within 20 years Britain will have overtaken France as Europe's second largest country. but I probably (not start) work. August 18.has shrunk by more than half since 1960. I( drive) for fourteen hours non-stop.. 83 . and it's needed for Monday morning. > 2 Make 1 2 .

11. 4. 2. 84 . In this first year of the 22nd century the global total of the world population will be around two billion people . 4. 8. 5. the disease will wipe out nearly all the world's maize crop. Changing climates mean changing pests. A common way of reporting what is said by people in general or by an unspecified people is to use: it + passive verb + that-clause It was expected that the damage would be extensive. 3. 5. 4. 2. think. ktora sa tak stane najl'udnatejsou krajinou na svete. Urad pre ziskavanie informacii 0 obyvatel'stve so sfdlom vo Washingtone odhaduje. Cinu predbehne India. The damage was expected to be extensive. By the 2050s. 3. group of An alternative to it + passive verb + that-clause is to use subject + passive verb + to-infinitive. In 2053. Populacia USA rna narast' z terajsich 293 milionov 0 43 percent na 420 milionov v roku 2050.about what we had back in 1950. POPULATION Pre. 1. food production will be growing quickly. The Earth could feed 9 billion people. which will lead to great famines. particularly mentioning who said or thought what we are reporting: People in the area have been told that they should stay indoors. ze pocet obyvatel'ov vel'kych priemyselnych krajfn sa do roku 2050 znfzi v dosledku nfzkej miery porodnosti. People expect that Bangladesh will be the worst affected country. As the global population grew during the 20th century. Newspapers reported that there were only two experts on the disease in the country. Some scientists say the mass extinction of dinosaurs was caused by sudden changes in global climate. Guess! Then see if you were right by quickly scanning the text. People are careful not to destroy the soil by using harmful farming technologies. By 2050 Nigeria is expected to have more than doubled its numbers.reading SCENARIO With your partner try to decide whether the following statements are true or false. Medical services could deal properly with any of the diseases. 3. water. People will find the ways how to cope with the breakdown in our natural support systems of soil. >4 Translate into English. Do polovice budiiceho storocia svetova populacia dosiahne pravdepodobne 9.000 people at the concert. ze v roku 2050 bude mat' Europa 0 60 milionov obyvatel'ov menej. In many places high-yield agriculture will collapse. 6. 9. scientists responded with new ways to feed extra mouths. 1. 10. People had thought that the chemicals convey important information to the brain.Passive in reports if we want to avoid The passive is often used to report what people say. The articles reported that there were 30. 5. 2. Predpoklada sa. and crops.3 miliardy. The growing population push demand for drinking and irrigation water beyond supply. 1. 7. >3 Rewrite following sentences in the passive voice.

thanks to the "Green Revolution". The great dust storms of 85 . it seems obvious: the Earth could feed 9 billion people . highyield agriculture collapsed completely. It didn't happen in Malthus's day. first suggested that a growing population might outstrip its food supply. GOOD MORNING.but only for a short time. We knew the danger. found that soil and water degradation were already decreasing yields on 16 per cent of the world's agricultural land. population density triggered two other agents of decline: the great migrations and the plagues. But you can push the world's resources only so far . scientists responded with new ways to feed extra mouths. But it was mainly because demand for food was increasing. food production was declining sharply. As we all now know. Excessive ploughing. This process was well under way by the late 20th century. soil degradation helped to halve yields across Australia. Eventually. but in many places little was done to slow soil degradation. This was partly because research on soil structure dropped to almost nothing when most agricultural research was privatised at the turn of the century. of course. Many people stopped worrying about a population crisis. I WOULD LIKE TO START BY SAYING HOW PLEASED I AM TO SEE SO MANY OF YOU AT THE EDINBURGH SCIENCE FESTIVAL IN THIS FIRST YEAR OF THE 22ND CENTURY. By the 2050s. Chemical fertilisers could replace the mineral nutrients taken by the plants. This led to the great famines. and compaction by heavy farm machinery left the soil prone to erosion. chemical fertilisers and mechanised agriculture to every region capable of using them. or for the next two centuries. We destroyed the soil by using harmful farming technologies to wring more crops out of the land. What happened to turn the sunny forecasts of the 1990s into the horror that followed? In retrospect. eastern Asia and Europe. Even when the rate of growth of the world population hit its peak in the 1960s and 1970s. The population did reach 9 billion. But it didn't stay there long. which eventually introduced high-yielding crops. and in many places. but couldn't restore the soil's fine microstructure. By the 1990s it was apparent that population growth had slowed. scientists kept crop yields ahead of demand. but they were triggered by uneven distribution of wealth. There were sporadic famines. Meanwhile.ABOUT WHAT WE HAD BACK IN 1950. we ran out of soil and we ran out of water. LEAVING US WITH TODAY'S GLOBAL TOTAL OF AROUND TWO BILLION PEOPLE . It was Thomas Malthus who. People ignored the fact that these methods were largely unsustainable. the demographers were half right. and in 1994 demographers predicted that numbers would stabilise at 9 billion by 2050. As the global population grew during the 20th century.. in the 18th century. an American environmental think tank. and it proved hard to move away from the old technology while maintaining yields. World population plummeted.Now read the article in groups to find out whether you were right. The environmental cost was too high to be sustainable. To put it simply. Indeed. in 2001 a report by the World Resources Institute. 1. MY ROLE TODAY IS TO DISCUSS THE GREAT DEPOPULATION THAT TOOK PLACE LAST CENTURY. It simply blew and washed away..

The high yields achieved by the Green Revolution came from crop varieties that put more of the carbon they fixed through photosynthesis into grain. In these regions. while Iraq bombed Turkey's Ataturk Dam on the Euphrates two years later. has been climate change. Even as the fish harvest dwindled. the swelling population pushed demand for drinking and irrigation water beyond supply. the fertile Punjab was pumping irrigation water from aquifers twice as fast as rainfall could replace it. And in places such as the rice fields of Japan. The greatest challenge. but by then it was too late . and North American farmers replaced it with weedkiller after the introduction of genetically engineered. 2. herbicide-tolerant crops. 3.crop varieties engineered for North America could not thrive in its degraded soils. many of us would not be here without the genetically engineered high-yield barley the Russians and Canadians now grow in the Arctic. But North America had other problems. Europe rejected genetically engineered crops until 2035. but the demand for protein was so great that no one could muster the political will. of course. Those once rich ocean areas are now dominated by species that provide little protein. after a bloody war. urban prosperity increased. and by 2020 many major stocks had collapsed. North America was spared this problem. Astonishing as it seems. starting a wave of famine. Thirsty farm animals increased the demand for water. In 2026.the 2050s whipped millions of tonnes of irreplaceable topsoil off the land and brought famine even to wealthy nations. underground deposits of water. could easily outbid poor people for grain on the global market. reacted by destroying the dam that year and. Ethiopia began damming the Blue Nile.but it took a while to develop them. while others drained rain-fed aquifers faster than they were being replenished. Many parts of the world faced the same problem. But it took two decades of research to develop varieties that could thrive on melted permafrost. the huge Chinese pig conglomerates. notably in East Asia. 4. annexed the entire Blue Nile catchment. a hundred years ago wild fish from the seas provided protein for billions of people. Where there is still enough soil and water. As we know. These are generally considered the first of the continuing water wars. just when climate change began to make that less predictable. varieties of maize deliver substantial yields . which received 80 per cent of its water from the river. But their major impact was on grain reserves: it takes 3 kilograms of grain to produce 1 kilogram of meat. it is now too warm or wet or dry to grow wheat in most places where it thrived a century ago. for instance. So long as meat eaters could pay. By 2000 we had pushed the plants to their limits. This led to skyrocketing demand for milk and meat. Food from the oceans plummeted. and less into stalks and leaves. But we took fish out of the sea faster than they could reproduce. Prices trebled in the 2020s. Likewise. The Ogallala aquifer in western North America collapsed soon after. Egypt. Similar pressures led Israel to take control of the Jordan in 2029. In most cases this change is expected to be permanent. By 2020. What were the scientists doing all this time? After all. these had nearly run dry. Many irrigated regions were using up ancient. by the turn of the millennium many of the threats to the global food supply had been predicted. we were already pouring on as much nitrogen fertiliser as the plants could handle. 86 . as had those beneath the breadbasket region of northern China. Ploughing had always served mainly to control weeds. Some fields were already nearing the limit of what they could grow. A global ban on fishing might have allowed some to recover even then. Even in 2000. farmers had to go back to relying on rainfall. Even where water supplies did not depend on aquifers. too. primarily water shortages.

out-of-work urban hordes caused political upheaval nearly everywhere. plants and microbes throughout the world. The struggle for costly food. ever-expanding human settlements invaded new territories. crowded livestock barns. But new ones also emerged in giant. No longer held in check by natural predators. became harder and harder. but their fury has redoubled over much of the past century.especially as TV and the Internet constantly reminded the poor of what they did not have. which in turn triggered huge migrations of people seeking a living or escaping violence. The increasing globalisation of trade cushioned the initial regional food shortages.5. especially after the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria made antibiotics redundant. Getting massive quantities of food in. the disease wiped out nearly all the world's wheat crop. including monkeypox and the haemorrhagic virus that caused Europe's worst disease mortality since the Middle Ages. and the emergence of at least two dozen new diseases. Worse. the bunt fungus attacked the very characteristics coded for by those genes and in 2053. designed to cope with the old pests. almost every strain of wheat in the world carried the same set of genes involved in photosynthesis. This led to novel encounters with local fauna. a process that was already under way in the 1990s in mega cities such as Shanghai. climate and crops happened too fast for us to cope. At the time of the first prion disease. was the first of five flu pandemics last century. Simple overcrowding spread diseases such as leprosy. Animal diseases that attack humans flourished . In the face of all this. The hungry. They swelled the numbers of unemployed in these conurbations. which emerged from pigs in 2018. When either process faltered. Global wheat production still hasn't recovered. The new wheat. as production shortfalls could be met by imports. including the reinvasion of North America by malaria . the densely packed masses of hungry people became a perfect breeding ground for epidemics. Overburdened medical services couldn't deal properly with any of the diseases. 87 . But this missed the point that increasing global trade was already spreading invasive. Famine. these new pests. exotic insect pests and diseases moved north. The thought is shocking today. Human-adapted foot and mouth virus (HAFMV) emerged in Taiwan in 2065. efforts to flee or plain starvation. hard-pressed farmers could not afford them. water. as the megacities mushroomed. quickly became resistant to the chemicals farmers used to control them. which reestablished itself in Europe in the 2030s. plant breeders engineered a dry-land variety of wheat. Europe could afford to incinerate more than a million cattle that were mainly infected only in their brains. and spread uncontrollabl y. 7. people died because of violence. alien insects. clean water and healthcare increased tensions between rich and poor . Changing climates also meant changing pests. war and pestilence have always figured in human history. The breakdown in our natural support systems of soil. But as the region warmed up. Worst of all. In 2047. like the old ones. The sheer size of some cities created its own problems. trash-strewn cities helped launch the bubonic plague pandemic of 2047. The Rio Plus Ten global conference of 2002 famously predicted that all famine would cease. 8. The big corporations had a hard time finding new pesticides. Agriculture gave us yet more plagues. for instance. 6. Unfortunately. the decline in hygiene ushered in killers such as dysentery.a process aided by warmer winters. In Africa and South America. proved susceptible to the newcomers. As cities outgrew their sewerage and drinking-water systems.the Flanders flu. The vast numbers of displaced people were also a factor in the spread of disease. Safety precautions could have prevented the emergence of these infections. notably deserts and tropical forests. Warming. After the north Chinese aquifer ran dry. and waste out. many farmers joined a worldwide exodus and sold their land to the expanding cities. Typhus returned worldwide in 2056. even briefly. But as both demand and the cost of food and water soared. helped by the global movement of animal produce. these visitors turned into pests.

a disease that spreads quickly and kills a lot of people release v . politically or economically for long enough to deliver the solutions when and where they were needed.likely to be affected by a particular problem swing v .to leave somewhere very quickly.to become or to make something smaller in amount. especially a series of events upheaval n . and beyond the power of national and regional governments. animal and crop diseases. size.when something begins to be known or noticed falter v . or to make something do this tail off v . or value soar v . But we never stayed organised socially.the system by which waste material and water is carried away in sewers and then treated to stop it being harmful shrink v . We who remain can only wonder what would have happened if it had. We did once have the technology .a group of people with experience or knowledge of a particular subject. Communication What do you think is the message of the population scenario? ~ Glossary anticipate v . such as a wheat crop that depended on only a few proprietary genes.the part of a country or area that provides most of its food census n ..to make regular movements forwards and backwards or from one side to another while hanging from a particular point. smaller etc.9. A global authority might have been able to monitor and perhaps stem the spread of human. kept them free from disease and perhaps living in peace.to protect someone from the unpleasant effects of something downsize v .an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people contraception n .to expect that something will happen and be ready for it breadbasket n . .pesticide 88 .or the ability to develop it .to increase quickly to a high level surge v .to suddenly increase susceptible ad} .to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way flee v . who work to produce ideas and give advice trigger v .used for saying that something is certain to happen and cannot be avoided mushroom v . New Scientist r::iT Language focus TVhattense do we use to say that it is too late for something to be changed? Look again at the last paragraph and underline all relevant constructions.to make something happen very quickly. It might have provided jobs in time to prevent some of the mass migrations. to publish sewerage 11 . in order to escape from danger inevitably adv . But so many of our crises were outside the realm of corporate concern. Sometimes I wonder whether it would have been different if. Debora MacKenzie. Could we have avoided any of this misery? I think so.to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller emergence n . It might have launched earlier research into foreseeable dangers. when industry globalised at the start of the millennium. if we had acted early. it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs dwindle v . I know the idea of global government is a heresy.a very big change that often causes problems weedkiIIer ri .to let news or official information be known and printed. and often stop or disappear completely think tank 11 .if a company or organization downsizes.to become gradually less.to grow and develop very quickly outbid v . political power had globalised too.that would have fed 9 billion.the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant cushion v .to make a higher bid than (another bidder) pestilence 11 .

" she said. A pioneering academic. ACT LOCALLY Warmup You are going to read about the first African woman and the first environmentalist to win the Nobel Peace Prize. building materials and to slow deforestation. viable 2. 89 . encompass honestness lack of energy. democracy and peace. governance to be conditioned to be empowered inertia custodian beneficiary integrity W Reading Kenyan environmentalist Wangari Maathai was the first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. "The state of any country's environment is a reflection of the kind of governance in place. Kenya has lost about 90 percent of its forests in the past 50 years. 6. Her tree-planting movement. . She thinks development that embraces globally and acts locally . led mostly by women.> Look at the words on the left and match them with their correct definitions. Maathai stands at the front of the fight to promote ecologically viable social. and without good governance there can be no peace. She has taken a holistic approach to sustainable democracy. 5. economic and cultural development in Kenya and in Africa. lack of desire or ability to change the activity of governing a country or controlling an organization e) caretaker f) possible. 8. 7. her role as an environmental campaigner began after she planted some trees in her back yard. Do you know what did she receive itfor? qDo you know other environmentalists to receive a Nobel Prize? Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2004 to Wangari Maathai for her contribution to sustainable development.UNIT 13 THINK GLOBALLY. to curtail 4. Peace on earth depends on our ability to secure our living environment. Maathai dismissed critics who say environmentalism has too little to do with peace to warrant the Nobel accolade. feasible g) to train sb to behave in a particular way h) to give sb the power or authority to do sth i) decrease j) a person who gains as a result of sth a) b) c) d) 1. human rights and women's rights in particular. 10. to embrace 3. This inspired her in 1977 to form an organisation known as the Green Belt Movement aiming to curtail the devastating effects of deforestation and desertification. aims to produce firewood. 9.

but also knowledge and skills to address their challenges. They were also unaware of the injustices of international economic arrangements. during which people identify their problems. it is equally important that in their own relationships with each other. Initially. especially their social and economic position and relevance in the family. women gain some degree of power over their lives. The activity also creates employment and improves soils and watersheds. we developed a citizen education program. Comprehension 1. and income to support their children's education and household needs. accolade 'I 1. Does Wangari Maathai consider trying to be honest and righteous worthless if our leaders lack these values? What do you think? Vocabulary :> 1Match address lack understand overcome take face inertia. Entire communities also come to understand that while it is necessary to hold their governments accountable. namely justice. \·. the verbs with the expression from the box to make collocations. the participants discover that they must be part of the solutions. the work was difficult because historically our people have been persuaded to believe that because they are poor. They come to recognize that they are the primary custodians and beneficiaries of the environment that sustains them. beneficiary. 90 . they exemplify the leadership values they wish to see in their own leaders. "So. In the process. viable. In order to assist communities to understand these linkages.Read the extract from Wangari Maathai' s Nobel lecture. poverty and conflicts. The group helped me overcome my and lose weight. what relation is there between environment. dismiss ressures :> 2 Complete the sentence with the words from the box: embrace. They then make connections between their own personal actions and the problems they witness in the environment and in society. how can they be helped? 4. According to Maathai. governance and peace? 2. they lack not only capital. Instead they are conditioned to believe that solutions to their problems must come from 'outside'. together. This work continues. How do you understand the role of custodians and beneficiaries? 5. They were also unaware that a degraded environment leads to a scramble for scarce resources and may culminate in poverty and even conflict. shelter.tpe causes and possible solutions. we have planted over 30 million trees that provide fuel. Further. They realize their hidden potential and are empowered to overcome inertia and take action. What have the poor in Africa been conditioned to believe? . What are the leadership values? 6. dismiss. If people do not understand the relations between their environment. Through their involvement. inertia.3. integrity and trust. food. women did not realize that meeting their needs depended on their environment being healthy and well managed.

). to start with then. Nuclear energy is the only alternative to coal or gas. /6 Writing Do you understand saying: Think globally. presently.moving from one statement in a text to the next. She received a Grammy Award. to begin with. 5. have a part to play in part to be part and parcel to be part of the solution to to to to be a necessary feature of something have a particular job or be responsible for something be included or involved in something some degree. The goverment has criticisms that the country's health policy is a mess.2. Establishing clear connections of ideas is important to help your reader or listener follow the text. 91 . especially mostly specifically Addition also furthermore moreover equally likewise similarly >- Go back to Wangari Maathai's lecture and underline in her text linking words showing the time relationships. at this point. Americans had the idea of the right to free public education for all children. 6.3 How many expressions with the word part do you know? In this unit you already have and will come across the following idioms. Are they familiar to you? Match them with their definitions and use them in sentences of your own. next. Single mothers will be the chief of this new policy. first of all. act locally? How do you envisage your role as a scientist? Write a short essay. eventually that connect ideas: ' Reformulation to put it simply rather in other words that is to say Highlighting namely particularly . 3. finally. Some examples of adverbs Time relationships at present. By the end of the last century. but not completely r::ifj= Language focus Important consideration for successful communication is FLOW . 4. the highest in the)music business.

2001 92 . However. 4. To assess proposals systematically better information is needed. where relevant. lack of knowledge must not become an excuse for lack of action or for ill considered action. The Commission believes that developed countries must take the lead in pursuing sustainable development. both at EU level and in Member States. 15. MAKING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HAPPEN: ACHIEVING OUR AMBITIONS To achieve sustainable development requires changes in the way policy is made and implemented. Risk and uncertainty are a part of life.onto other policy areas and take them into account. It is particularly important to identify clearly the groups who bear the burden of change so that policy makers can judge the need for measures to help these groups to adapt. the effects on gender equality and equal opportunities. so as to provide a basis for solutions and political decisions. environmental and social impacts inside and outside the EU. For example. The role of science and research is to help identify the nature of the risks and uncertainties we face.5. 3. Policy makers have a responsibility to manage risk effectively. This in turn requires clear commitment at the highest level. as are the implications for biodiversity and public health of some types of environmental pollution or of chemicals such as endocrine disrupters. 2. and to explain its nature and extent clearly to the public. This means that policy makers must identify likely spillovers . to provide international leadership and as a first step towards achieving global sustainability. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION A Sustainable Europe for a Better World: Many of the challenges to sustainability require global action to solve them. This should include. we must also ensure that all our policies help prospects for sustainable development at a global level.good and bad . in line with the precautionary principle. Careful assessment of the full effects of a policy proposal must include estimates of its economic. and calls on other developed countries to accept their responsibilities as well. the implications of an ageing population are still imperfectly understood. A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development The Commission's proposal to the Gothenburg European Council Brussels. This section makes a number of proposals aimed at securing more effective responses to the challenges we face. How can we make sustainable development happen? What is the role of scientists? What is the task of policy makers? Can we choose our future? Now read the following extracts from key EU documents to check your answers. Climate change and biodiversity are obvious examples. Assessments should take a more consistent approach and employ expertise available from a wide range of policy areas. Improve policy coherence Sustainable development should become the central objective of all sectors and policies. The Commission believes that the EU should start by putting its own house in order.In small groups discuss the following questions: 1. As EU production and consumption have impacts beyond our borders.

launched in 1992. and a broader commitment to the integration of policy areas. It is estimated that a person in the western world consumes up to 50 times more resources in a lifetime than the average person in a developing country.Our Choice. Protecting our environment does not have to translate into restricting growth or consumption per se. We cannot solve environmental problems like climate change alone: concerted international efforts are needed. Instead.using less natural resource inputs for a given level of economic output or value added. unspoilt coastlines and mountain areas. the EU has also taken a leading role in important international agreements for the protection of our environment. These problems do not respect national boundaries. governments. it concerns all of us. It is not only that people aspire to living in a clean and healthy environment but we must also recognise that the costs and other damages caused by pollution and climate change are considerable. major environmental controls in the Programme. The world's population is set to grow further. We should de-couple environmental impacts and degradation from economic growth.as individuals. in part. It sets out objectives for the next 10 years and beyond. OUR CHOICE An Action Programme for the Environment in Europe at the Beginning of the 21 Century The environmental challenges we face in the first decade of the millennium are global challenges. Continued economic growth in the industrialised countries coupled with population growth and the natural desire of developing countries to catch up in terms of material welfare could lead to a huge growth in demand for resources. They also want a world that is not threatened by climate change. Without better and different ways of meeting this demand.OUR FUTURE. they want to live undisturbed by noise. the water they drink and the food they eat is free of pollution and contaminants. The Sixth Environment Action Programme or An Action Programme for the Environment in Europe at the Beginning of the 21 Century focuses on areas where more action is needed and new European initiatives will make a difference. Environmental degradation in other countries will affect our shared environment and hence our quality of life. notably environment objectives into other progress has been made in establishing a comprehensive system of EU. with new on air and water. The Global Assessment1 of the Fifth Environment Action concluded that progress had been made in many areas. environmental measures. People demand that the air they breathe. through significant improvements in ecoefficiency . employers or employees. Over the last thirty years. High environmental standards are also an engine for innovation . Although some would argue that we consume more than our fair share of global resources. We all have a part to play .creating new markets and business opportunities. This is not only an issue for politicians and industry. Consumption patterns need to become more sustainable. Protecting the environment presents us with both challenges and opportunities. we will face unprecedented pressures and impacts on the global environment. consumers and as parents it's Our Future . The key to our 93 . we must seek to improve the quality of economic growth and other human activities to meet our demands for goods and services and for a clean and healthy environment at the same time. *** A clean and healthy environment is part and parcel of the prosperity and quality of life that we desire for ourselves now and for our children in the future. and they want to enjoy the beauty of the countryside.

to eagerly accept a new idea. or the judgment you make beneficiary n . Our Choice is not only about protecting the environment for now and the future.a calculation about the cost or value of something.to give an example of something hence adv . a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. in Europe and around the world. The expanding market for green goods will lead to increased innovation and expanded job opportunities. on a voluntary basis and through legislation.someone who is responsible for looking after something important or valuable de-couple v . g.to reduce or limit something. activity. or problems that need to be dealt with.the high land separating two river systems 94 . We particularly need to encourage business to go further. religion etc empower v .to cause to became separated. future generations or the people of both the rich and developing world.praise for someone who is greatly admired.a strong belief in the honesty. to separate desertification n . or beliefs comprehensive ad} .when you feel doubt about what will happen watershed n .for this reason integrity n . European business will prosper in this expanding market. or a prize given to them for their work assessment n .to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time couple v . Environment 2010: Our Future. opinion etc.done in order to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from happening scramble n . opinion.the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right pioneering ad} .long-term welfare. size. is sustainable development: finding ways of improving our quality of life without causing harm to the environment. freedom.governmen custodian n .situation in which people compete with and push each other in order to get what they want spillover n .to refuse to consider someone's idea.someone who gets advantages from an action or change coherence n . it is also about improving the quality of life for us all. its members are connected or united because they share common aims. changes into desert dismiss v . qualities. because you think it is not serious. thorough condition n .the process by which useful land. goodness etc of someone or something uncertainty n . ~ Glossary accolade n .combine curtail v . details.introducing new and better methods or ideas for the first time precautionary ad} .if a group has coherence.a calculation of the value.including all the necessary facts. especially farm land. amount etc of something exemplify v .the effect that one situation or problem has on another situation trust n . true. or important embrace v .to give someone more control over their own life or situation estimate n . e. Increased attention to environmental measures will improve efficiency and productivity.

rovnovaha best available technologies (BAT) .vzorec spotreby containment .ekologicke siete emission . zdecimovanie desertification .odlesriovanie depletion . pracf prostriedok disposal Iikvidacia (odpadu) drought .proces rozsirovania pristf detergent .Aalborgska charta Access to information .iinosnost' prostredia catalyst.obmedzenie. obdobie sucha ecoefficiency . konzumny sp6sob zivota consumption .vyradenie z prevadzky deforestation .ohrozene druhy energy recovery .konzumna spolocnost' consumerism .posudzovanie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie environmental impact assessment directive .environrnentaone vhodne (prijatel'ne) technol6gie environmental standards .emisia.znecistenie. vypust'anie endangered species .konzumerizmus.rovnovaha = 95 .spotreba consumption pattern . obnova energie environmental care .zmena klfmy congestion .katalyzator climate change . catalytic converter .environmentalny manazment Environmental Management Systems .pristup k informaciam balance .environmentalne otazky (problemy environmental constraints . kontrola contaminant .starostlivost' 0 zivotne prostredie environmental concerns .environmentalne opatrenia environmental responsibility .narusenie zivotneho prostredia environmental hazard . infikovanie decision-making .Environrnentalne rnanazerske systerny environmental measures .zredukovanie.dopravna zapcha conservation .rozhodovanie decommissioning .environmentalne oznacovanie vyrobkov ecological footprint .SELECTED TERMS Aalborg charter .degradacia zivotneho prostredia envioronmental disturbance .environmentalny vplyv environmental impact assessment .environrnentalne normy (standardy) equilibrium .biodiverzita biomass .podmienky zachovania zivotneho prostredia environmental controlenvironmentalna kontrola (riadenie) environmental degradation .environmentalny hazard (nebezpecie) environmental impact .ekologicka stopa (environmentalny priestor) ecological networks .najlepsie dostupne technol6gie biodiversity .suchota.zodpovednosf za zivotne prostredie environmental sound technology .ochrana zivotneho prostredia consumer society .oznacovanie vyrobkov setrnych k zivotnemu prostrediu environmental management .smernica na posiidenie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie environmental issues .environmentalne problemy environmetnallabeling .zfskavanie energie.znecist'ujuca latka contamination .oxid uhlicity carrying capacity .biomasa biotechnologies .biotechnol6gie carbon dioxide .cistiaci.ekologicka efektfvnost' ecolabeling .

mimovladne organizacie (MVO) nonrenewable resources .pozornost'.surovina fertilizer .neobnovitel'ne zdroje not-for-profit organisation .p6rodnost' natural common goods .rodova rovnost' global crisis . I 96 _l_ I . habitat hazardous waste .fosflne paliva frontier .hranica game .sklenikovy efekt greenhouse gases .problem potravinovej bezpecnosti fossil fuels .(lovna) zver gap .spolocne prfrodne bohatstvo natural landscape . riziko Kyoto protocol.populacna expl6zia .prfrcdna krajina natural sources . spravodlivost' establishment of parks and reserves .do mace obyvatel'stvo.sarnospravna obec.nebezpecny.(zasadny) rozdiel.Kj6tsky protokol landfill .celostny prfstup household .prel'udnenie particulates. medzera garbage .rovnost'.priernyselne hnojivo focus . riadenie greenhouse effect .zakladanie chranenych oblasti a rezervacii estimate .roztavenie prehriateho jadra nukleameho reaktora mismanagement .masove vyhynutie meltdown .dobre spravovanie.Nasa spolocna budticnost' (dokument OSN) overpopulation .prfrodne zdroje nitric acid .jernne castice perilous .Hranice rastu (dokument) local economy -Tokalna ekonomika mass extinction . oblast' natality . skladovanie odpadu pod zemou landscape .global economy good governance dobre spravovanie.spal'ovanie indigenous people .integrovany manazment krajiny jeopardy .impakt incentive . hlavny predmet zaujmu food security problem . povodni. domorodf obyvatelia integrated landscape management . mesto.nebezpecny odpad holistic approach .globalne problemy globalna ekonomika .nebezpecenstvo.domacnost' hydrocarbons .zle hospodarenie municipality .equity .biotop.skladka.neziskova organizacia nuclear waste disposal= Iikvidacia a ulozenie RAO Our Common Future .sklenfkove plyny habitat . riskantny pollutant .odhad evaporation . vplyvu feedstock .odparovanie evidence .globalna krfza global problems .krajina landscape ecology .krajinna ekol6gia Limits to Growth .znecist'ujuca 1Mb population explosion .d6kaz(y) exposure .uhl'ovodiky impact . smeti gender equality . riadenie governance .odpadky.kyselina dusicna non-govermental organisations . priepast'.stimul incineration . particulate matter .vystavenie (nepriaznivyrn) podmienkam.

princip predbeznej opatrnosti protected areas .najomnfk terrestrial plants .chranene tizemia public awareness . vetena elektrareii 97 .rast populacie population projection .treti svet training program .veterny mlyn.suchozernske rastliny target groups / target areas .obnovenie druhov rubbish .zainteresovane skupiny stewardship .kyselina sfrova sustainabiIity .participacia. sulfat sulphuric acid .stavovec waste management .elektrareii precautionary principle .obnovitel'ne zdroje restauration of species .utocisko renewable resources .trvaIo udrzatel'ny rozvoj.kanalizacia solar energy .druh stakeholders . smeti sewage . udrzatel'ny rozvoj sustainable life .spravcovstvo subsidies .odpadky.zivotmi uroveii.chudoba power company . primeranost' sulphate .dotacie suitability .sfran.odpadove hospodarstvo well-being . telesna a dusevna pohoda wildlife conservation . iicast' verejnosti refuge .verejne povedomie.trvalo udrzatel'na spolocnost' tenant .vhodnost'.populacna projekcia poverty .udrzatel'ny zivot sustainable society .slnecna energia species .udrzatel'nost' sustainable development . povedomie verejnosti public participation .panenske oblasti vertebrate . odpadova voda sewerage .splasky.population growth .skoliaci program wilderness areas .ochrana prirody (vol'ne zijucich zvierat) windmill .ciel'ove skupiny / ciel'ove oblasti Third world .

Dohovor o medzinarodnom obchode s ohrozenymi druhmi vol'ne zijucich zivoctchov a rastlin UNCCD (United Nations Conventions to Combat Desertification in Countries -Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification.Konferencia OSN 0 zrvotnom prostredi cloveka FREQUENT TERMS BAT (Best Available Technologies) .Mileniove rozvojove ciele 98 .Planovanie najnizsfch nakladov LIFE (Financial Instrument for the Environment) . predovsetkym v Afrike UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) .Ustav pre sledovanie sveta IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CBC (Convention on Biological Diversity) .ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS EEA (European Environmental Agency) .Svetovy zvaz ochrany prirody UNCSD (United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development) . postidenie environmentalneho dopadu EMS (Environmental Managerial Systems) .Komisia OSN pre trvalo udrzatel'ny rozvoj FoE (Friends of the Earth) .Posudzovanie vplyvov na zivotne prostredie.Globalny fond zivotneho prostredia IUCN (World Conservation Union) .Organizacia pre ekonornicku spolupracu a rozvoj WHO (World Health Organisation) .Dohovor 0 biologickej diverzite CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) .Rozvojovy program OSN IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL EVENTS UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) .Environmentalne manazerske systemy IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) .Summit Zeme 0 trvalo udrzatel'nom rozvoji UNCHE (United Nations Conference on Human Environment) .Organizacia Spojenych narodov pre vyzivu a pol'nohospodarstvo GEF (Global Environmental Facility) .Eur6pska environmentalna agennira FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) . particularly in Africa) Dohovor OSN 0 boji proti dezertifikacii v krajinach postihnutych suchom.Financny nastroj pre zivotne prostredie MDG (Millenium Development Goals) .Svetova komisia pre zivotne prostredie a rozvoj WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) .Environmentalny program OSN UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) .Svetova zdravotnicka organizacia WTO (World Trade Organisation) .Svetova obchodna organizacia WCED (World Commission for Environment and Development) .Svetovy fond pre prfrodu WWI (Worldwatch Institute) .Analyza zivotneho cyklu LCP (Least Cost Planning) .Ramcovy dohovor OSN 0 zmene klfmy UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) .Integrovana prevencia a kontrola znecist'ovania LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) .najlepsie dostupne techno16gie EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) .Konferencia OSN 0 zivotnom prostredf a rozvoji WSSD (World Summit on Sustainable Development) .Priatelia Zeme OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) .

st'azit' aggravation 11 - zhorsenie. t'azkost' aggravate v . upravit' adverse adj . objasiiovat' achievement 11 . ~ J '.the crime of physically attacking someone titok.to make something happen. cinit' anger v . suzovat' affliction 11 . used before amounts or numbers to emphasize that they are surprisingly small D len. priostrenie D hoci albeit con .something that makes a place comfortable or easy to live in D vybavenie. pocta accommodate v .in the Old Testament.deal with D venovat' sa.an act of trying to do something.vzacna lasica iijuca v preriach USA so zltou srst'ou a ciemymi nohami (Mustela nigripes) breadbasket 11 .to make something less painful or difficult to deal with D zmiernit'.having a good effectD blahodarny. zastrasovat' abundant adj .GLOSSARY anticipate v . especially a medical condition D trapenie. the boat built by Noah for survival during the Flood D archa (Noemova) assault n . pokraj bully v .an arrangement in which two or more countries. an illness. rozhnevat' 99 I . or an injury worse D zhorsit'.only. or a prize given to them for their work D vyznamenanie.something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts D iispech.someone who gets advantages from an action or change D obdarovany.formal a hot or cold drink D napoj black-footed ferret n .to change so as to match or fit. especially against political or social developments D prudka reakcia. especially when their opinions or needs are different from yoursD vyhoviet'.to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want. zariadenie amount to v .a situation when you are almost in a new situation. explain D vysvetl'ovat'. groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something D spojenectvo amenity n .a calculation about the cost or value of something. odpor barely adv . annoy D rozculit'.to expect that something will happen and be ready for it D predvidat'. napadnutie assessment 11 . to equal D rovnat' sa. zmensit' alliance 11 . and make them suffer D postihmit'. predpovedat' ark 11 . iba beneficial adj . vydatny accolade 11 . uspokojit' account for v-I to form a particular amount or part of something Dtvorit'. a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation. or the judgment you make D ohodnotenie. usually a bad one D okra]. especially something difficult D pokus attendee someone who is at an event such as a meeting or a course D iicastnik. cinit' 2 to be the reason why something happens. to cause D zapriclnlt'. pestovat'._.to make a bad situation.a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events. sl'achtit' bring about v . especially ones with particular qualities D chovat'. pohroma. trapit'.to make someone angry.' .not good or favourable nepriaznivy D afflict v .the part of a country or area that provides most of its food D tirodna oblast' breed v . odhad attain v . J. prijemca beverage n . make fearful D sikanovat'. intimidate.to affect someone or something in an unpleasant way. sposobit' brink 11 .to keep animals or plants in order to produce babies or new plants.to add up in importance.something that causes pain or suffering. navstevnik backlash n .to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time D dosiahnut' attempt n .something that is abundant exists or is available in large quantities so that there is more than enough D hojny. cause to correspond D prisposobit'.be bossy towards. dosiahnutie address v . odveta. prospesny beneficiary n . riesit' (problemy) adjust v .although alleviate v .praise for someone who is greatly admired.

the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant 0 antikoncepcia contrary to ad} . zapasit' s eim come a long way v . qualities.chriastel' pol'ny (crex crex) corporate concern . details. suvislost'. povinnost' compound v . combat v .to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time 0 formovat'.to have a lot of something or be filled with something 0 byt' pIny na prasknutie butt n .important. kontrola contraception n . komplexny concerted effort faction/attack etc.causing so much damage or harm that something no longer works or is no longer effective 0 paralyzujiici. n .at the present time 0 v sticasnosti. or problems that need to be dealt with.to reduce or limit something. zavazny 0 conservation n . zhorsit' comprehensive ad} . plants.1 the state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold. that is spent by a government or company 0 obmedzenie.a large round container for collecting or storing liquids. significant dOiezity. kust6d 0 cut n .an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people 0 scftanie l'udu coherence n .used especially in news reports 0 bojovat'. is done by people working together in a carefully planned and very determined way 0 siistredene tisilie concur v .combine commit v .to grow or develop quickly sa rozvijat' 0 rychlo burst. catalytic converter n .engage oneself rozhodmit' sa 0 zaviazat' o presvedcit' corncrake sa. activity.a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way 0 zavazok.to protect someone from the unpleasant effects of something 0 stlmit'.[usually plural]. spojitost'. ochorenie condition v .if a group has coherence.zaujem obchodnych spolocnosti couple v . redukcia 100 .burgeon v . a rainwater butt 0 sud call on/upon somebody/something .the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs 0 spotreba containment n . vychovavat' 0 spajat' sa crippling ad} .a situation in which it is difficult or impossible to move because there are so many cars or people 0 dopravna zapcha consequential ad} .to persuade someone to do something census n . thorough 0 tiplny.a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out 0 katalyzator cease v .protection of natural things such as animals.used to say that something is true even though people believe the opposite 0 na rozdiel convince v .to stop 0 prestat'. zmiernit' dopad custodian n . as by pledge 0 zaviazat' commitment n . obmedzit' currently teraz adv .to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect 0 drzat' na uzde.the act of keeping something under control. freedom 0 znizit'. curtail v .to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems 0 st'azit'.to have advanced to an improved or more developed state 0 vyrazne pokrocit' commit oneself v . podmieiiovat'.to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse . a reduction in the size or amount of something. preservation 0 ochrana zivotneho prostredia consumerism n . its members are connected or united because they share common aims. to prevent them being spoiled or destroyed. zredukovat' cushion v .including all the necessary facts. g. be bursting with something v . stopping it becoming more powerful etc 0 obmedzenie. 2 when too much attention is given to buying and owning things 0 konzumny sposob zivota consumption n . e.to formally ask someone to do something 0 vyzvat' (koho na co) catalyst. or beliefs 0 siidrznost'.to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them 0 zhodovat' sa. forests etc.someone who is responsible for looking after something important or valuable spravca.an illness or health problem that affects you permanently or for a very long time 0 t'azkosti. siihlasit' condition n . zastavit' congestion n . ochromujtici curb v .to bind or obligate.

nasledovnik desertification n . to separate 0 rozdelit'. nevyhoda downsize v . vyptist'anie emission n . zmocnit' encourage v .to deactivate.to refuse to consider someone's idea. zdecimovat' descendant n . rozdiel dispersal n . happen. praci prostriedok detrimental adj .a lack of something that is necessary 0 nedostatok deplete v . shut down: to decommission a nuclear power plant vyradit' z prevadzky de-couple v . because you think it is not serious. especially farm land.one that soon may no longer exist 0 ohrozene druhy enhance v .to be the thing that makes someone 101 . 0 zlepsit'. vyprist'anie empower v . rozlisovat' divert v . distillation.in. religion etc 0 prijat'. residuum usadenina. consider 0 povazovat'. 0 or something different or special.to become less or go down to a lower level. navrhmit' disadvantage v . uchovavany v . umoznit'.to plan or invent a new way of doing something 0 vymysliet'. or develop 0 povzbudit'.to persuade someone to do something. odmietnut'.the process by which useful land. rezfduum distinguish enshrined adj . or to another place 0 inde embrace v .to throwaway.shameful. opinion. neb rat' do uvahy disparity n .to think of something in a particular way or as having a particular quality.the area of land and water required to support a defined economy or human population 0 ekologicka stopa.to change the direction in which something travels 0 odklonit'.when something begins to be known or noticed vynorenie sa. zlikvidovat' get rid of 0 zbavit' sa. group of people etc that existed in the past 0 potomok. true. zmensovat' sa ecological footprint n . or to make something do this. pokladat' deficiency n . or to a family. presmerovat' do/try one's utmost v . scandalous hanebny.to improve something zdokonalit' disgraceful adj . skandalny dismiss v . distinguish somebody/something from 0 rozlfsit'. nicivy devise v . vyhodit'. opinion etc.to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller 0 ubiidat'. stimulovat' endangered species n . it reduces the number of people it employs in order to reduce costs 0 znizit'.decommission v .to eagerly accept a new idea. changes into desert 0 proces rozsirovania pusH detergent n .a liquid or powder used for washing clothes. uvitat'.the production or release of something o emisia. reduce 0 znfzit' sa.to make someone less likely to be successful or to put them in a worse situation than others 0 znevyhodnit' discard v . or important 0 zavrhmit'.if a company or organization downsizes.to give someone more control over their own life or situation 0 posilnit'.to do something as well as you can by making a great effort 0 maximalne sa snazit' downside n . vyradit' get rid of 0 zahodit'. at.causing harm or injury 0 skodIivy. podporovat'. 0 zvysok.throwaway. make something more likely to exist.preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it 0 uchovany.the negative part or disadvantage of something 0 haelk. zredukovat'. zbavit' sa dwindle v . dishes etc 0 cistiaci. environmentalny priestor elsewhere adv .to cause to became separated. zmensit' sa deem v .vrtna sonda dump v .a difference between two or more things. izolovat' decrease v .to get rid of. discard 0 skladat' odpad. objavenie sa emission n .the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions 0 rozptyI.to reduce something in amount 0 spotrebovat'. zredukovat' drilling well n .[usually plural] a gas or other substance that is sent into the air 0 emisia.someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago. zahriiat' emergence n . or filtration. rozsirenie dispose of v . especially an unfair one 0 nerovnost'.

blaznovstvo fossil-fuel n .neuteseny harbour contain 0 0 byt' priaznivym v .for this reason fit v .to give shelter to.when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant 0 vystavenie zlym (poveternostnym) podmienkam false dawn n . rodovy govern v . or a new part onto a machine. upadat' feasible ad} .relating to a whole group of things rather than to one thing 0 vseobecny. situation etc that people pay special attention to 0 pozornost'. pomahat' rozvoju frontier n . give rise to.border hranica game n . wipe out 0 odstranit'.a situation in which something good seems likely to happen.something that solves a problem 0 riesenie flagging ad} . vynalozit' energiu exploration n .to help a skill.a plan.to make certain that something will happen properly 0 zarucit'.eliminate. unikmit' focus n .to rule 0 vladnut'.dangerous. person. offer refuge to.to control and use the natural force or power of something 0 vyuzlt'. predstavovat' si equitable ad} treating all people in a fair and equal way 0 spravodlivy equity n . spravodlivost' eradicate v . smeti generate v . riadit' governance n .to use or spend a lot of energy etc in order to do something 0 vydat'. especially to people's health or safety 0 nebezpecny heap n .if a liquid evaporates. slaby 0 a preto.to bring into being.to leave somewhere very quickly. spravovat'. amount etc of something 0 odhad evaporation. birds.to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way 0 ochabovat'.wild animals. it changes into a gas 0 odparovanie evidence n . kopa heap v . refuse.~ . or fish hunted for food or sport 0 (lovna) zver gap n .the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it 0 prieskum. idea. trash 0 odpadky. idea etc develop over a period of time (synonym encourage.a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years 0 fosiIne palivo foster v . hlavny predmet zaujmu folly n . size.food wastes.[uncountable]facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true 0 dokazty) exemplify v .group of things placed or thrown.the thing. or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work 0 uskutocnitel'ny feedstock raw material for processing or manufacturing industry 0 surovina finite ad} -limited 0 konecny. is very large 0 vel'ky hence adv .a situation in which all people are treated equally and no one has an unfair advantage o rovnost'. feeling. especially something that you think will be good 0 predvidat'.becoming tired or losing strength 0 upadajtici. in order to escape from danger 0 utiect'. nerozum.ensure v . vytvarat' generic adj . badanie exposure n . especially money. upevnit' fix n .to give an example of something 0 demonstrovat'.to imagine something that you think might happen in the future. to produce 0 vyrobit'.to put a piece of equipment into a place.a very stupid thing to do. so that it is ready to be used 0 namontovat'. spiitat' hazardous ad} .the process by which mental and physical qualities are passed from a parent to a 102 -- . evaporate v . but it does not 0 plana nadej falter v . riadenie grim ad} . vyrabat'.a calculation of the value.looking or sounding very serious chrnurny. stvarnit' expend v . zabezpeeit' envision v . typicky. promote) 0 podporovat'. nahrornadit' hefty adj . as from a kitchen. to prostredim harness v . or if heat evaporates it. especially one that is likely to have serious results 0 sialenost'.a method or system of government or management 0 dobre spravovanie. zIikvidovat' estimate v . obmedzeny flee v .a hefty amount of something. . one on top of the other 0 hrornada.a difference between two things garbage n . a teda heredity n . zabudovat'.to give someone a lot of something 0 nakopit'.

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