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WALTER
E. MEYERHOF
PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS STANFORD UNIVERSITY
~~r~r~r~cGRAWHILL M
NEW YORK
SAN FRANCISCO
TORONTO
BOOK COMPANY
ST. LOUIS LONDON
r~~~~r~
SYDNEY
McGraw·Hill Series in Fundamentals of Physics: an undergraduate textbook program
EDITOR E. U. CONDON
lJNIYERSITYOF
COLORADO
MEMBERS OF TIlE ADVISORY BOARD D. ALLAN BROMLEY YALE ARTIlUR F. KIP UNIVERSITY HUGH D. YOUNG CARNEGIE
UNIVfRSITY OF CAUFORNlA, INS1lTIJTE BERKELEY
OF TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTORY TEXTS BEISER CONCEPTS OF MODERN PHYSICS KIP FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY AND MAONETISM YOUNG FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT YOUNG FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS UPPERDIVISION TEXTS KRAUT FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS MEYERHOF ElEMENTS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS REIF FUNDAMENTALS OF STAnsnCAL AND THERMAL
PHYSICS
ELEMENTS
OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS
•
Copyright '~ 1967 by McGrawHill, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
PRINTED
IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
2 3 4 5 6 7 S \J  ~\LL\L\[ 1 0 \) S
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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
CATALOG
CARD
NUMBER:
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This book presents certain elements of nuclear physics at a level suitable for undergraduate physics students or for nuclear engineers. The material is also useful to scientists in other fields who wish to have more than a descriptive understanding of nuclear physics. The book grew out or a onequarter course in nuclear physics for students who had as their physics preparation only a oneyear college course, as well as a survey course in atomic physics, but whose mathematical preparation included calculus and ordinary differential equations. The basic approach of the book is to present a limited amount of experimental information and to give the reader a feeling for its physical implications with the aid of quantummechanical concepts. Wherever possible, a preliminary discussion on the basis of classical theories is given. Sufficient quantum mechanics is introduced to permit correct orderormagnitude estimates of nuclear quantities.
v
VI
PREFACE
Beginning students of nuclear physics are often overwhelmed and discouraged by the wealth and diversity of the experimental and theoretical material. These tendencies have been avoided, first, by presenting only the important concepts in detail, and second, by giving as unified an approach as possible, based on the nuclear shell model. Also, comparisons are made between atomic and nuclear phenomena whenever they are helpful. The book begins with a brief description of nuclear concepts. The next topic, nuclear structure, forms the heart of the subject. Those elements of quantum mechanics are given that are needed for an understanding of nuclear physics. Although radioactive decay and nuclear reactions reveal new aspects, they are treated, so far as possible, as extensions of the concepts of nuclear structure in order to emphasize the unity of the subject. The interactions of nuclear radiations with matter are briefly reviewed, because they are basic to the detection methods of nuclear radiations. The material in the book is suitable for a onesemester course, and also for a onequarter course if either the appendix on the twonucleon system, the introduction of quantum mechanics, or the interaction of nuclear radiations with matter are omitted. The background given here should make it possible for the interested reader to pursue the study of nuclear accelerators, the applications of fission or fusion, and elementaryparticle physics in more complete treatments. At the end of every chapter there are problems at various levels of difficulty that have been chosen to illustrate and elaborate the text. All the tabular or graphical material needed for their solution is included in the book. The book has profited from several preliminary reviews, in particular by Professor W. E. Burcham, F.R.S., and from criticism by students. lowe the greatest indebtedness and gratitude to Marion Middleton for her skillful and accurate preparation of the manuscript and prior preliminary editions, and to my wife for her unbounded patience.
WALTER E. MEYERHOF
PREFACE
V
1
BASIC NUCLEAR CONCEPTS
11 12 Introduction Basic nuclear properties a b
C NUCLEAR NUCLEAR INTRINSIC DYNAMIC MASS AND SIZE CHARGE
1
1 3
3
OF A NUCLEUS
4
MOMENTUM OF NUCLEI
ANGULAR PROPERTIES
6
d
7
e
Problems
NOMENCLATURE
7 .
8
Vlll
CONTENTS
2
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
21 22 Introduction Elements of quantum
WAVES
11
11
mechanics 12 15
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
12
a
b
C
DE BROGLIE SCHRODINGER
EQUATION OF
INTERPRETATION SCHRODINGER WAVE
\F.
17 19
d
EQUATION FOR TWO
IN SPHERICAL PARTICLES
COORDINATES
e
f
EQUATION FORCES
UNDER
MUTUAL PARTICLE BARRIER PARITY
21
CUBICAL BOX OF A PART(CLE
IN A CLOSED PENETRATION
g
h
23
23 28 32
31
33
ENERGY SHORT PER NUCLEON. Of NUCLEAR FORCES AND RANGE
Nuclear
binding energy
a b
C
DEFINIT(ONS AVERAGE
BINDlNG
SATURATION SEPIlRATION ABUNDANCE
34
ENERGY
SYSTEMATICS
36
NUCUDES
d 24
SYSTEMATICS
OF STABLE
37
Liquiddrop
model. Semiempirical
ENERGY
mass formula
NUCLEUS
40 41
a
b
C
COULOMB ASYMMETRY
OF A SPHERICAL
ENERGY
42
LINE
MASS PARABOLAS. SUMMARY. SHELL
STABILITY EFFECTS
43
d 25
45
Shell model
46
BASIS OF THE SHELL SHELL MODEL
a
b
C
EXPERIMENTAL SINGLEPARTICLE SPINORBIT OTHER
48
MODEL
52 55 60 of nuclear forces 64 69
COUPLING
MODEL
d 26 27
NUCLEAR
MODELS
57
Energy Charge
levels of nuclei symmetry and independence
Problems
3
INTERACTIONS OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS WITH MATIER
31 32 Introduction Interaction of charged particles with matter
73 73 74
CO:.lTENTS
IX 33 Interaction a
ENERGY ENERGY
of neutrons
LOSS OF
with matter
85
NEUTRONS OF
85
NEUTRONS AFTER COLLISION
b
34
DrSTR(BUTlON
88 91
Interaction
of gamma
OF
radiation
GAMMA
with matter 91
a
b
C
ATTENUATION COMPTOr;
RAYS
tFFECT
93
EFFECT
PHOTOELfCTRIC PAIR PRODUCTION
99
d
35
100 with matter
Interaction Detection
of positrons of nuclear
104 104
36
radiations .
Problems
]08
4
RADIOACTIVE
41 42
DECAY.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
113 114
Introduction Radioactivity a b
C DECAY OF A SINGLE OF RADIOISOTOPE
114
PRODUCTION BY NUCLEAR PRODUCTION BY
A RADIOISOTOPE
BOMBARDMENT OF
117
A RADrOISOTOPE PARENT
A DECAYING CASES
117
120
d 43 44
SPECIAL
119 states
Widths Gamma
of decaying decay
OF
122
GAMMA FOR DECAY GAMMA EFFECTS DECAYS
a
b
C
ENERGETICS DECAY
122
DECAY
CONSTANT
124 127
QUANTUM
MECHANICAL OF
125
d e f
CLASSIFICATION INTERNAL NUCLEAR FROM
GAMMA
CONVERSION STRUCTURE DECAY
131
INFORMATION
GAMMA
135
45
Alpha
decay
..
OF ALPHA FOR DECAY ALPHA
...........
135
DECAY
135
a
b
C
ENERGETICS DECAY
CONSTANT
138
HINDRANCE
FACTORS
144 146
d
ALPHAPARTICLE
SPECTRA
x
46 Beta decay
a b
C NEUTRINO ENERGETICS DECAY SHAPE HYPOTHESIS OF BETA FOR
CONTENTS ..............
146
DECAY BETA
146
150
DECAY
CONSTANT OF BETA AND
150 157
d
SPECTRUM CLASSIFICATION DECAY
154
OF BETA DECAYS
e
f
LIFETIME
ELECTRONCAPTURE INVERSE PARITY NUCLEAR FROM BETA DECAY
161
IN BETA DECAY
g
h
163 164
INFORMATION
NONCONSERVATION STRUCTURE DECAY
BETA
165 ............. _ .. 166
Problems
..
5
NUCLEAR REACTIONS
51 52 Introduction Application of conservation laws
a
ENERGETICS. OTHER CONSERVATION LAWS OF LINEAR MOMENTUM
171
171 174
175 179
b
CONSERVATION
53 Types of nuclear reactions 54 Cross sections a b
C DEFINITION ENERGY OF OF AND CROSS SECTION
180
un
181 185
CROSS SECTIONS ANGULAR CROSS SECTION OF DEPENDENCE SECTIONS
EXPERIMENTAL CROSS
COULOMB QUALITATIVE
185
NEUTRON
d
DISCUSSION
191
55
Compoundnucleus reactions
a
FORMATION DECAY SPECIAL OF OF THE THE COMPOUND NUCLEUS
. . 194
196 198
b
C
COMPOUND
NUCLEUS
CASES
200 ................. 203
MODEL
56
Direct reactions
a b
C OPTICAL SURFACE STRIPPING MODEL
203
INTERACTION REACTIONS
207
211
CONTENTS
Xl 57
Fission a
b
C ENERGY DETAILS FISSION RELEASE OF THE CROSS IN FISSION
211 212 214
FISSION
PROCESS
SECTION
217
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
6
NUCLEAR FORCE
61 Introduction 62
.
223 224
223
Meson theory of nuclear forces .
Problems
230
A
NUCLEAR FORCE INFORMATION FROM THE TWONUCLEON SYSTEM AI Structure of the deuteron
A2 Scattering theory . . . .
SCATTERING PARTIAL SWAVE AMPLITUDE ANALYSIS SHIFf
231
232 235
235 237 240 241
WAVE PHASE
SCATTERING
LENGTH
A3 A4 A5
Neutronproton scattering
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Virtual state of the deuteron. Neutron scattering by parahydrogen 246 Parameters of the twonucleon force . . . . . . . . . . . 248
B
PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
OF THE ELEMENTS
251 255
c
D
PROPERTIES
OF STABLE NUCLIDES
VALUES OF PHYSICAL CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS . . . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX
261
263 269
11
INTRODUCTION
A study of nuclear physics centers around two main problems. First, one hopes to understand the properties of the force which holds the nucleus together. Second, one attempts to describe the behavior of systems of many particles, such as nuclei are. These problems are related, since the properties of a system of many particles are to a large extent determined by the force that binds the particles together. But other aspects of such a system come about simply because many particles are interacting.
1
2
BASIC NUCLEAR CONCEPTS
Physicists can discuss manyparticle systems only within certain approximations, which are determined by the particular experimental fact they wish to explain. For example, it is often sufficient to discuss the behavior of a certain amount of gas in terms of the gas laws (Boyle's law, Charles' law); but this omits details of molecular motion which one needs to describe in order to understand the heat conductivity of a gas. In the case of nuclei, the approximate descriptions are called models. Much of the discussion in this book is based on such models, each one suited only for a limited range of experimental situations. Although the historical development of nuclear physics will not be followed, a few of the highlights are presented in Table II.
TABLE II
Some of the highlights in the development of nuclear
physics Discovery of radioactivity (Becquerel) Rutherford's atomic model Discovery of isotopes (J. 1. Thomson) Induced nuclear transmutation (Rutherford) Application of quantum mechanics to radioactivity: Alpha decay (Garnow, Gurney, and Condon) Beta decay (Fermi) Discovery of neutron (Chadwick) 1896 1911 1912 1919 1928 1934 1932 1932 1932 1935 1936 1946 1956
np hypothesis (Heisenberg)
Discovery of positron (Anderson) Role of mesons in nuclear forces (Yukawa) Discovery of Discovery of
f.l
TT
meson (Anderson and Neddermeyer) meson (Powell)
Nonconservation of parity in beta decay (Lee and Yang)
Becquerel (l896} is generally credited with the discovery of radioactivity. This occurred when he noticed the accidental blackening of a photographic plate adjacent to a certain mineral. Pierre and Marie Curie (1898) succeeded in chemically separating the radioactive material (radium) from the ore. The greatest understanding of radioactivity was achieved by Rutherford and collaborators. They proposed that radioactivity should produce a change in the chemical species (1903) and investigated in detail the nature of the radiations. Three types of radiation were discovered, called alpha, beta and gamma. Once it was shown that alpha radiation consists of ionized helium atoms, the stage was set for Rutherford's interpretation of the alphaparticle scattering experiments of Geiger and Marsden (1909). Rutherford (1911) demonstrated that the
1
References to original papers can be found in the bibliography at the end of this book.
12
BASIC NUCLEAR PROPERTIES
3
scattering experiments could be explained only by assuming an atom consists of a massive, positively charged nucleus, of diameter (:=;" 1012 em) much smaller than the atomic diameter (~1O8 em), surrounded by electrons. (In a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of positive charges carried by the nucleus.) The first consistent model of the motion of the atomic electrons was accomplished by Bohr (1913). Details of the nuclear constitution became clearer once the neutron had been discovered by Chadwick (1932), leading to Heisenberg's hypothesis (1932) that nuclei consist of protons and neutrons. At that time, too, attempts were made to understand the nuclear force. Experimentally, the force was found to be much stronger than any force then known, such as the electrical or gravitational force, and it also had a much shorter range. Taking up a suggestion by Heisenberg that the nuclear force is caused by an exchange of particles between nuclear constituents, Yukawa (l935) showed that if the exchanged particles are heavy enough the main features of the force could be explained. These particles, now called mesons, were later discovered in cosmic radiation.' At present the main problems of nuclear physics, mentioned at the beginning of this section, are solved in broad outline, although not in detail. We know what properties the nuclear force possessesit turns out to be a very complicated force. We also have learned how to relate the important features of nuclear models to the force. Yet many theoretical problems remain open. Experimentally, unexpected aspects of nuclei are discovered as the tools of research become more refined. 12 BASIC NUCLEAR PROPERTIES Nuclei have certain timeindependent properties such as mass, size, charge, intrinsic angular momentum (often called nuclear spin), and certain timedependent properties such as radioactive decay and artificial transmutations (nuclear reactions). The nuclei also have excited states, whose energy is usually treated under the first class of properties, but whose decay is one of the types of radioactive decay. For an overall view of the field, each of the properties will be examined briefly. In later chapters more details will be given. 12a Nuclear mass and charge. Early chemical methods of mass comparison had already brought out the following approximate relation (Prout, 1815): M:=;" integer
X MH
(II)
where M = mass of a specific atom Mu = mass of a hydrogen atom The integer is now called mass number and will be denoted by the symbol A. It was shown by xray scattering (Barkla, 1911) that the number Z of atomic electrons, and hence the number of positive nuclear charges, was not equal to
1 A more extensive historical account of the development of nuclear physics can be found in Burcham, 1963, sec. 1·1.
4
BASIC NUCLEAR
CONCEPTS
the mass number A. This made plausible the first hypothesis of nuclear structure, that nuclei consist of A protons and A Z bound electrons. As mentioned above, though, the discovery of the neutron (Chadwick, 1932) led Heisenberg (1932) to suggest that protons and neutrons are the fundamental constituents of all nuclei. The evidence for this is now beyond doubt, but can be understood only on the basis of quantum mechanics. One decisive example will be mentioned below. With the neutronproton hypothesis we expect the mass of an atom to be ( 12) M ::::::ZMH 1 NMn where Z = num ber of protons in nucleus (atomic number) N = number of neutrons in nucleus (neutron number) M n = mass of a neutron The discovery by Thomson (1912) of atomic species with identical chemical properties but different masses (called isotopes) stimulated the development of precise determinations of atomic or nuclear masses. This specialized branch of nuclear physics, pioneered by Aston (1919), is known as mass spectrometry. Its importance lies in the fact that a considerable amount of information about nuclear forces and nuclear structure can be obtained from precise .,,~j~ measurements. This will be discussed in Chap. 2. We will see that there is a difference between the left and right sides of Eq. (12), which represents the nuclear binding energy.
12b Nuclear size. The first detailed model of an atom, going beyond the kinetic theory (solid sphere) model, was proposed by J. J. Thomson (ca. 1900) soon after his discovery of atomic electrons. The electrons were assumed to float among massive positive charges of atomic dimensions ("" 106 ern). According to this model any highspeed particle could penetrate solid matter only by a diffusion process. On the other hand, scattering experiments of alpha particles by gold foils (Geiger and Marsden, 1909) showed a much larger amount of back scattering than a diffusion process would allow. Rutherford noticed that this implied the existence of a very small 108 cm) atomic nucleus, exerting a simple electrical (coulomb) force on the alpha particle. He deduced the law of scattering 1 Later measurements showed that this law is not obeyed if:
«{
)'1
l2
The alphaparticle The atomic number
kinetic energy is too high.
01
the scatterer is too low.
The critical energy T, and corresponding atomic number Z, at which the scattering law breaks down, allow a rough estimate of the nuclear radius of the scatterer. We have to assume, if the distance of separation between the alpha particle and the center of the scatterer becomes smaller than this radius, nuclear forces come into play which are much stronger than the coulomb force used to derive the scattering law.
1
A brief derivation is given in Sec. S4c.
12
BASIC
;;r;CLEAR
PROPlRTIES
5
When In alpha particle is very distant from a given nucleus, it has only kinetic energy T,. It COI11C~ closest to the nucleus in a headon collision. At that point, the alpha particle has only potential energy if the recoil of the nucleus is neglected. Hence, by conservation of energy, T~ = 2eZe
D
(in electrostatic
units)
X
(13)
where 2(' = charge of the alpha particle (e = 4.80 Ze = charge of the scattering nucleus D = distance of closest approach 2Ze2 D~T~
1010 esu)!
04)
For example, alpha particles show deviations from pure coulomb scattering on uranium beyond 25 Mev 0 Mev = 1.60 X 106 ergs).2 In that case
D =0
25,/ 1.6 .< 10= R:::
2 X 92 / (4.8 x 10 10)2 1012 em 10 F (I F = I fermi
=
101., ern)
More refined experiments, using the scattering of other nuclear particles and of electrons, have shown that the radius at which nuclear effects occur can be written approximately R RoA 1/3 (15)
c_c
where Ro is called the radius constant and has the values R
R:::
o
1.4 F {1.2 F
for nuclear particle scattering for electron scattering
on nuclei
on nuclei
(16)
The difference between these two values comes about JS follows: In electron scattering we determine the location of the positive (point) charges associated with the protons in the nucleus. J n nuclearparticle scattering we determine the size of the nuclearforeeproducing region affecting the particle. ft turns out that the nuclear force extends beyond the region with which charge (or mass) are associated, making the nucleus appear larger than it actually is. The force extension beyond nuclear matter is about 1 F and is determined by the range of the n uclear force. The simple form of Eq. (15) would be obtained if the nucleus were a spherical assembly of A hard particles. In that case, the volume of the nucleus would be proportional to A and the radius proportional to Alia. This simple model, though correct in some respects, is oversimplified. Refilled electron scattering experiments (Hofstadter et al., 1953) show that the nuclear density distribution
\ For accurate values of certain physical constants, see Appendix D. Accurate values of certain conversion factors are listed in Appendix D.
l
6
BASIC NUCLEAR
CONCEPTS
does not have a sharp cutoff at the radius R, but has roughly the shape given in Fig. II. Nevertheless the concept of nuclear radius is often useful. Equation (15) applied to U238 gives R = 9 F which compares favorably with the estimate provided by D from expression 04).
FIGURE 11
Density distribution of nuclear matter in a nucleus.
Distance from center of nucleus
I2e Intrinsic angular momentum of a nucleus. The angular momentum' of a nucleus is an important quantity because, as we will see, it restricts the structure of complex nuclei and affects all dynamical nuclear properties. Only a few details of the angular momentum of a system of particles will be discussed in this section. It is found experimentally and incorporated in the laws of quantum mechanics that neutrons and protons have an intrinsic angular momentum iii, like electrons. (Ii is Planck's constant h divided by 21T.) Since angular momentum is a vector, the total angular momentum of a nucleus is the vector sum of the angular momenta of its constituents. We find, experimentally, that complex nuclei have angular momenta equal to Iii, where For evenA nuclei: I is an integer (including zero) For oddA nuclei: I is an integer (including zero) plus onehalf For example, the nucleus of deuterium HZ has I = I and the nucleus of Li7 has I=~ 2 • According to the quantum mechanical laws of addition of angular momenta, any system of P particles can have an angular momentum (about its center of mass) equal to an integer x Ii if P is even, and an integer plus onehalf x Ii if P is odd. This applies to atomic electrons as well as to nuclear constituents. Therefore, if the nucleus HZ were made up of two protons plus one electron (to give Z = I), we would expect 1= i or ]. If, on the other hand, it consists of one proton and one neutron, we expect 1= 0 or I. The latter value is in accord with experiment. The same reasoning extended to other nuclei shows that Angular momentum is defined in footnote 2 at the end of Sec. 22a. The nuclear angular momentum is often called nuclear spin. even though it has orbital, as well as intrinsic spin, contributions.
I
12
BASIC
NUCLEAR
PROPERTIES
7
nuclei cannot consist of protons and electrons but must consist of protons and neutrons.' We have not indicated how I is measured. Both atomic and molecular spectra are slightly influenced by magnetic effects due to the nuclear angular momentum, and the value of I can often be inferred." Nuclear transmutations also are strongly affected by the angular momenta of the initial and final systems because they have to satisfy the law of conservation of angular momentum. This allows a determination of I in certain cases. 12d Dynamic properties of nuclei. Nuclei, like atoms, can be in excited states of definite energies. Transitions between excited states occur by emission of electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays) completely analogous to light emission from atoms. The main difference is that, whereas atomic states are separated by energies of the order of an electron volt, the separations between nuclear states are about 104 to 106 ev. Just as a study of atomic spectra allows a reconstruction of atomic energy levels, which in turn has led to atomic models, a study of gammaray spectra leads to nuclear energy states and nuclear models. Nuclei can also be transformed into each other. Some of the transformations occur spontaneously by the emission of positive or negative electrons (beta rays) or alpha particles. Other transformations can be induced by nuclear bombardments. In all cases the total number of nucleons is conserved. Furthermore, there are overall conservation of mass and energy, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of angular momentum. No contradictions to these conservation laws have been found. They play an important role in most aspects of nuclear physics. 12e Nomenclature. As in any specialized field, a certain nomenclature has developed based on convenience and tradition. The important terms are given below. Nuclide Isotopes Iso tones Isobars Isomer Nucleon Mesons A specific nuclear species, with a given proton neutron number N Nuclides of same Z and different N Nuclides of same N and different Z Nuclides of same mass number A (A Neutron or proton number Z and
=Z
+ N)
halflife _
Nuclide in an excited state with a measurable
m4.V,tcJ1
L
Particles of mass between the electron mass (mo) and the proton mass (M ll)' The bestknown mesons are 7T mesons C~270mo), which play an important role in nuclear forces, and fI. mesons (207mo) which are important in cosmicray phenomena.
hypothesis, see Burcham,
For a summary of other arguments in favor of the protonneutron 1963, sec. 91. 2 Burcham, 1963, chap. 4.
1
8
Positron Photon Positively charged electron of mass mo Quantum of electromagnetic light, x ray, or gamma ray radiation;
BASIC NUCLEAR
CONCEPTS
commonly
apparent
as
A given nuclide is specified by a symbol like Li", aLi?, or 3Li~. The letters denote the element. The right superscript gives the mass number A. The left subscript gives the atomic number Z, the right subscript the neutron number N. By recent convention the mass number is often given as the left superscript, making the symbol ?Li, ;Li, or iLi4' In this book a nucleus in an excited state is denoted by the symbol with a right superscript star, e.g., Li7*. PROBLEMS
11
(a) An alpha particle of kinetic energy T~makes a headon collision with a nucleus of atomic number Z and mass number A. Calculate the distance of closest approach, taking into account the recoil of the nucleus. (b) An 0.2Mev proton makes a headon collision with an alpha particle at rest. What is the distance of closest approach (in F)? (c) If an alpha particle makes a headon collision with a proton at rest, what must be its kinetic energy so that the distance of closest approach is identical to case (b)?
12 (a) A nucleus of mass number A makes a transition from an excited state to the ground state by emission of a gamma ray. What is the difference between the excitation energy E and the gammaray energy E; due to the fact that the nucleus recoils? [The momentum of a photon is given by pr = Ei]«: See Eqs. (21) and (23).1 (b) If the above gamma ray is absorbed by a second nucleus of mass number A, to what energy can it excite the second nucleus? (c) Apply your results to the case of the Feo7 nucleus which emits a 14kev gamma ray. 13 If the radius of a nucleus is given by Eq. (15) with Ro = 1.2 F, what is the density of the nuclear matter (a) in g/cma, (b) in nucleons/F"?
14
Suppose that the density of nucleons
p
in a nucleus varies with a radial distance
r from the center of the nucleus as shown in the figure below. What fraction of the nucleons lie in the surface region in the nuclei AP', Te12s, and P021S if o« = 0.17 Fe, c = l.1 A1/3F, a = 3.0 F? (This problem can be solved without
evaluating any complicated integrals.) Surface region Ia I
rI
()
(Jl1
"2
0
Po
r
I I I I I
I I
r
PROBLEMS
9
15 For the discussion of certain nuclear properties, it is convenient to define a rootmeansquare radius by ,
Rrms =
(I" pr4dr/IX>
prZdr)'
(a) Evaluate this for a nucleus of uniform density and for a nucleus whose density is given by the figure of Prob. 1.4. (b) Apply your result to the nucleus Tel2~. 16 In Appendix AI, it is nucleus has a radical where K1 = 4.3 F. (a) definition given in Prob. shown that the density of nucleons in a deuterium dependence approximately given by p = po,ze2•r, Evaluate the rms radius of the deuteron, using the 15. (b) Evaluate po
21 INTRODUCTION Before discussing the structure of nuclei, we point out certain similarities and differences with the electronic structure of atoms. Atomic electrons are arranged in orbits, more accurately termed energy states, subject to the laws of quantum mechanics. In each atom the electrons are distributed over several states as a result of the socalled Pauli exclusion principle. Atomic electrons can be excited into normally unoccupied states, or can be removed completely from the atom. From such phenomena we are able to deduce the electronic structure of atoms.
11
12
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
In nuclei there are two groups of like particles: protons, and neutrons. Evidence will be presented showing that each of these groups is separately distributed over certain energy states subject to the restrictions of the Pauli exclusion pr inciple.! Nuclei have excited states, and nucleons can be removed from, or added to, nuclei. Much information about nuclear structure can be obtained from a study of these phenomena. Electrons and nucleons have intrinsic angular momenta, called intrinsic spins. The total angular momentum of a system of interacting particles reflects details of the forces between the particles. For example, from the (vector) addition, or coupling, of electron angular momenta in atoms we can infer the existence of a force connecting the spin and the orbital motion of an electron in the electric field of the nucleus (spinorbit coupling) In nuclei, there is also a correlation between the orbital motion of each nucleon and its intrinsic spin. but not of the same origin as for an atomic electron. In addition, the nuclear force between two nucleons depends strongly on the relative orientation of their spins. The structure of nuclei is more complex than that of atoms. In an atom the nucleus provides a common center of attraction for the electrons. whereas interelectronic forces generally play a secondary role. Furthermore, the predominant (coulomb) force is well understood. In nuclei there is no center of attraction; the nucleons are held together by their mutual interactions which turn out to be very complicated in detail. Nevertheless, as we will see, the short range of nuclear forces and the Pauli exclusion principle conspire to provide an effective overall force center for each nucleon. Also, atomic electrons represent one group of like particles, whereas in nuclei there are two different groups of like particles. This allows a richer variety of structures: there are about 100 types of atoms, but to date well over 1,000 different nuclides have been found. 22 ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS2
Neither atomic nor nuclear structure can be understood without the concepts of quantum mechanics. The continuity of presentation will, therefore, be interrupted to present some consequences of Schrodinger's equation which replaces the classical equation of motion. The solutions of this equation for two simple situations illustrate the physical basis for many aspects of nuclear structure. Because the main idea of quantum mechanics is brought out by the de Broglie wave, a brief review of this concept will be given first. 22a de Broglie waves. In the years 1900 to 1930 several decisive experiments were performed which demonstrated that classical mechanics, based on Newton's law of motion, and classical electromagnetism, based on Maxwell's equations.
1 2
See Sec. 25. The reader who is familiar with quantum mechanics may wish to proceed directly of this section.
to
the end
22
ELEMENTS
OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
13
fail to describe the behavior of atomic and subatomic particles. For example, experiments on the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation showed that the energy ET of the radiation could be emitted (Planck, 1901) and absorbed (Einstein. 1905) only in bundles of energy, called quanta, rather than in a continuous manner as implied by Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field. Each quantum has the value (21) where h = Planck's constant (11 = 6.62 x 1027 ergsec) v = frequency of electromagnetic radiation The quantum energy is conveniently related to the wavelength magnetic radiation by the relation . 1,240 E. (in Mev) = A (in F)
A of electro(22)
The scattering of x rays by atomic electrons (Compton, 1923) provided evidence that the linear momentum P. of each quantum of electromagnetic radiation is given by h (23) Pr =~ Therefore it is convenient to think of electromagnetic radiation as consisting of photons with particlelike mechanical properties. De Broglie (1924) proposed that, conversely, particles should have wavelike properties. Assuming that this de Broglie wave is sinusoidal, the frequency and wavelength were to be given by the inverse relations to (21) and (23) W
Vd= 
h
(24) (25)
Ad =
h
p
where W is identified with the relativistic total energy! of the particle W=mc2 (26) (27) and
p is the linear momentum p
=
m»
(28)
For an elementary treatment of relativistic effects in mechanics, see Kittell, Knight, and Ruderman, 1965. vol. I, Chaps. 1012. The phrase "total energy" is used with two different meanings in this book. The relativistic total energy is the sum of the rest energy. the kinetic energy, and the potential energy (if present). The nonrelativistic total energy is the sum of the kinetic and the potential energies.
1
14
In these relations
m rno r c F or later discussions
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
=
total mass of particle
= rest mass of particle = speed of particle
=
speed of light
we note that (29)
where T is the kinetic energy of the particle. For!' Also. we can show from Eqs, (26) to (28) that
<' c,
T
R::
!lnor2
=~p2/InO'
(210)
which, for Ino = 0, includes the relation between ET and PT obtained from Eqs. (21) and (23). For a neutron or proton, we find from Eq. (25) for v c that the de Broglie wavelength is related to the kinetic energy T by A. d (In F)
=
28.6 [T (in Mevr]!
(211)
Electron scattering experiments on nickel crystals (Davisson and Germer, 1927) gave conclusive evidence that the de Broglie hypothesis (25) indeed has a basis in reality; but already in 1926 Schrodinger had proposed a differential equation for more general de Broglie waves than sinusoidal ones. With the Planck hypothesis (21) and an essentially ad hoc assumption that the orbital angular momentum L of atomic electrons is quantizedL
=
integer
x
Ii
(212)
Bohr (1913) proposed a model for the hydrogen atom which explained the optical emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The Schrodinger equation allows a reinterpretation of Bohr's model and provides a satisfactory basis for relation (212).
L In this book we will distinguish carefully between velocity v, which is a vector quantity, and speed t', which is the magnitude of velocity. ~ In classical mechanics, the orbital angular momentum of a particle of mass Ino rnming about a fixed origin at a constant radial distance r with a speed 1: is equal to m.,er. More generally, the orbital angular momentum is a vector, given by
L
=
r X mv = r X p
(2·13)
for any radius vector r and velocity v. For a system of particles, the total orbital angular momentum is the oector slim of the individual momenta, It can be shown for a system not subject to an external torque (If v d' c) that the total orbital angular momentum either about a fixed origin or about the center of mass of the system is a constant vector, i.e., constant in length, direction, and sense.
22
ELEMENTS
OF
QUANTUM
MECHANICS
15
22b Schrodinger
equation. The de Broglie wave can be considered as a mathematical wave glliding the motion of a particle (Born, 1926). Its amplitude 'F is a function of space and time. Although it is not possible to derive the equation governing the wave, various plausible arguments can be used to relate it to familiar concepts such as conserva tion of energy. In this connection, we note that in classical mechanics Newton's laws of motion also cannot be derived, but are descriptions of experimental facts. Schrodinger's equation is
~where, in Cartesian
112 y2o/ 2mo
...L
I
VT'
= ill ~t
i]T'
u
(214)
coordinates,
=
'F
'F(x,y,z,f) 02'f'
=
ware function 02,¥
OZ2
of particle (215)
\,z,¥=_+_+_
i]2T' oy2'
ih2
V and i
=
V(x,y,z,t)
=
potential
energy of particle
1
= \/=1
If V is independent setting" Substituting
of the time, we can separate \1" ~= 7p(X,y,Z)T(t)
space and time variables by (216)
into Eq. (214) and dividing by
1f'T
we find
+ 2mo tp
112 "il21f'
v=dt
T
iii dr
(217)
Since the lefthand side of this equation depends only on space variables and the righthand side only on the time, the equation cannot be satisfied for all points in space at all times unless each side has the same constant value. Call this constant E. (We will see below that this is the nonrelativistic total energy of the systern.) From the righthand side of Eq. (217) we then obtain
'T'
=
Cei{EI~)t
(218) C equal to unity. The left
For convenience we will set the arbitrary hand side of Eq. (217) can be written
constant
'.
(219)
As in classical mechanics. the potential energy is defined only within an arbitrary constant. For the purposes of this book we wili usually define V so that it is zero for x, y, I  CO, i This is a general technique for solving certain types of partial differential equarions.
1
16
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
This is called the timeindependent Schrodinger equation. It is an equation to which we will refer often. To interpret the equation, assume that the wave function W depends only on one coordinate, say x 1jJ = W(x) (220) This can occur only if V is a function of x alone. Then,
V2!p
=
d21jJ
dx2
(221)
and Eq. (219) can be put into the form
d21j.'
_
dx2
= _k21p
(222)
where k (called lrare number) is defined by
fj2k2
2mo

= £ Vex)
(223) of x, Eq. equation (224)
If V happens to be independent of x so that k is also independent (222) is mathematically equivalent to a simpleharmonicoscillator with the solution The arbitrary constants a and b are determined special form of Eq. (224) is the sine function by boundary
conditions.
One (225) k is
w
= A sin kx
which is the de Broglie wave mentioned in Sec. 22a. The wave number therefore related to the de Broglie wavelength by 27T k=Ad and hence to the momentum p of the particle by
(226)
(227) accord ing to Eq. (25). The plausibility of Eq. (227) is enhanced if we su bstitute it into Eq. (223) to find the classical law of conservation of energy
P +
2mo
z
V=E
(228)
We note that this law is obtained in classical mechanics if the forces acting on the particle are conservative or, in other words, if the particle has a potential
22
ELEME:;TS 01
QLJ.,\~Tl:\l
V1HHA"ICS
17
ertergy which does not depend directly on time. Exactly the same ~h,umrtinll was made in expression (216) from which all subsequent equations followed. We can therefore think of Eq. (219) as the quanturn mechanical equivalent of the law of conservation of energy. We can go one step further and note from Eq. (21 X) that the angular frequency 0) (= 27T~)of the (oscillating) wave function is given by E
(1)=
Ii
(229) reason E rather than TV the quantum mechanical mechanical replacement was discovered by Dirac Sec. 34d.
This corresponds 10 the de Broglie relation (24). The occurs in Eq. (228) is that the Schrodinger equation is analog of the nonrelativistic energy law. The quantum for the relativistic energy expression is also known and (1928). Some of its consequences will be mentioned in
22c Interpretation
of T. Boundary conditions. The simple solution (224) can serve to illustrate the two types of waves which Schrodinger 's equation (214) can generate when V is independent of t: standing wares and traveling II'QL'es. To obtain the former. we write Eq, (216) with the help of (218) and (229) in the form (230)
This is reminiscent of a standing equilibrium is given by
wave on a string, whose deflection y from
y=
(a sin k x
+ b cos
kx) sin wI
(231)
To obtain traveling waves, we write (232) which recalls a sine wave traveling in the
+x
direction rut) (233)
y y
=
a sin (kx 
and a wave traveling in the x direction
= bsin(kx
i 0Jt)
(234)
For future purposes it is useful to note that we can always recognize from the sign of E whether a general wave function IF will be a standing or traveling wave. To show this, assume a onedimensional situation and let thc forces on the particle extend only over a finite region of space so that
Vex)  0
as
[x] 
00
(235)
From Eq , (223) it follows that as [x] ....... 00 (236)
18
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
If E> 0, k will be a real quantity. The solutions of Eq. (222) can then be written in the form (232) at large distance from the origin, so that \{"is a traveling wave solution. If E < 0, Eq. (236) shows that k is pure imaginary far from the origin, that is k + i«, where K is a real quantity. From Eq. (224) it then follows that (237) where Substituting into Eq. (216) (239) where 1p(x) is a real function. This has the mathematical form of a standing wave. Therefore, positive E means that at a large distance from the force center 'Y is a traveling wave and negative E means that it is a standing wave. In accordance with the physical conditions on \{'.)given below, we must set b = or a = in Eq. (237) as x + O'J or  O'J respectively. Since far from the force center 'F becomes infinitesimally small, Eq. (239) tells us that a standing wave solution represents a localized oscillating disturbance. The corresponding state of the particle is therefore called a bound state. A traveling wave, on the other hand, represents a disturbance coming towards a force center or traveling away from it, such as occurs in the scattering of a particle or the diffraction of a light wave by a slit. After considering various scattering processes on the basis of Schrodinger's equation, Born (1926) suggested that'll (x.y.z.r ) should be regarded as a "ghost wave" guiding the motion of a particle. He found that the expression'
K=
C~2IElt
(238)
°
°
+
'Y*'Y dx
dy
dz
= 1'Y12 dx
dy dz
(240)
represents the probability of finding the particle in a particular volume element dx dy dz. The quantity 1'Y(x,y,z,t)12, itself, is the probability per unit volume of finding the particle near the point x, y, z. A connection with the classical probability will be made in Sec. 22f. From Eq. (216) and from the form (218) of T, we see that for timeindependent potentials (241) W(x,y,z,t)12 = 11p(x,y,z)lZ Hence 1'Y12 is independent of time in that case. Since 1'Y/2 is a physical probability, \{" has the following properties: 1 It must be single valued and continuous 2 everywhere. All first partial derivatives of 'Y, which turn out to be related to the current density or flux of particles (number of particles per unit time per unit crosssectional area), must also be continuous.
I
A superscript star denotes the complex conjugate of the quantity in question. Bars denote the absolute magnitude. Note that (a + ib)*(a + ib) = (a  ib)(a + ib) = a' i b' = ia or ibl'.
22
ELEMENTS
OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
19
3 'Y must never be infinite. 4 If v.__.. (1), 'Y + 0, since each term in Eq. (219) must remain finite.
Furthermore, for one particle localized in a certain region of space, such as an atomic electron in a H atom,
J
IVil2 dx dy dz = 1
(242)
(242) is called the Twoparticle
all space
so that as r _
C(),
tJ; _
0 for any bound state. Equation
normalization condition.
FIGURE 2{ Spherical coordinates. (a) Oneparticle system. The center of mass is denoted by C. z system.
(b)
x (a) (b)
,
m, 1
_J_y
______
..._ .J .......
:
22d Scbrodinger equation in spherical coordinates. Many physical potentials, such as the coulomb potential, have spherical symmetry. In this case, one can show' that the general wave function can be separated in spherical coordinates r, 6, and C/>, illustrated in Fig. 21a.
1jJ(r,O,~)
=
R(r)8(O)<II(~)
(243)
Imposition of the conditions that 1jJmust be singlevalued and finite everywhere restricts and <II to the form
e
8(0) = Plm)(cos 0) $(~)
= e,mq,
(244) (245)
where Pim) = associated Legendre polynomial" but I positive only
of the order I in cos
(j
I, m = integers (including zero) with Iml <;:./, and m positive or negative,
Schiff, 1955, "Quantum Mechanics," sec. 14. See also Prob. 27 at the end of this chapter. 'The lowestorder associated Legendre polynomials are J'{gl = 1; P(~l = cos 8; P(t1) = (1  coslll)t = sin 8.
I
20
""UCLL\lt
STRUCTURE
One can show that the integers I and m are related to the orbital angular momentum L of the particle (about the origin). The magnitude of Lis L
=
[/(1
+ l)]ZIi
(246)
and its z component is equal to mh, The radial junction R(r) in Eq. (243) is given by
  dr2 + ~ 2mo
where the substitution
1i2 d2u
[/(1
u
I)1i2 2 2mor
"r '
+ VCr) ] u
= Eu
(247)
=
rR(r)
(248)
has been made to simplify the equation. The general form of the equation can be appreciated on the basis of classical concepts. Consider the motion of a particle in a central force field.' The particle will move in a plane. Decompose
y 22 Classical motion of a panicle in a central force field. The plane shown is the plane in which the trajectory of the particle lies. FIGURE
its instantaneous velocity" into components v, and v, which, respectively, are radial and tangential to the instantaneous radius vector r of the particle, as shown in Fig. 22. Conservation of energy gives tmo(V,2
+v
2 t)
"
V(r,O)
=E
(249)
where V(r,e) is the potential associated with the central force field. Since there can be no torque exerted on the particle by a central force, the orbital angular momentum L of the particle (250) is a constant obtain of the motion. Eliminating t, between Eqs. (249) and (250) we (251 ) This equation has the same relation to Eq. (247) as Eq. (228) has to Eq. (219).
I In classical mechanics, the spherically symmetric type of potential considered in this section would be a special case of a central force field.
22
ELEMENTS
OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
21
mechanics makes plausi(252)
We see that the transition ble the substitution
from classical to quantum
v 1(1 +
l)Jjz
in agreement with relation (246) which can be derived directly. The substitution (252) will be used several times in this book. Some characteristics of the radial solutions [Eq. (247)] will be discussed in Sec. 25b. Here it is of interest only to point out that the equation for the case I = 0 (or L = 0, i.e., zero orbital angular momentum)
  dr" + 2mo
fj2
cPu
V(r)u
=
Eu
(253)
has a mathematical form which is identical to the onedimensional equation (222). This identity will be helpful later on. We should note, though, that the definition (248) of u requires always
u=0
at
r
=0
(254) 3 of the boundary
because R(r) must remain finite everywhere. conditions in Sec. 22c.)
(See condition
22e Wave equation for two particles under mutual forces. In nuclear physics problems, the motion of two particles subject only to mutual forces is very common. It is, therefore, worthwhile to compare the classical method of separating the motion of the center of mass and the motion about the center of mass with the quantum mechanical separation. If two particles of mass m, and mz move under mutual forces Fl and F2, the classical equations of motion of either particle with respect to a fixed origin are
Fl F2 where Defining the coordinate Fl
= =
d2rl
ml
dt2
m2
d2r2
dt2
(255)
= ~F2
rlml
(256)
of the center of mass by
rc=
m1
+ r'J!1l2 +m
2
(257)
the motion of each particle can be expressed of the system. Under condition (256) the m, + m2 is zero and therefore the center of velocity. With respect to the center of mass,
with respect to the center of mass total force F, + F2 on the system mass moves with constant (vector) particle 1 has the radius vector (258)
22
and particle 2 the radius vector rm1/(m1
m2). Here
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
(259) refers to the relative separation of the particles. The equation of motion can be derived by substituting in Eq. (255) for r1 the expression r1 =rc r+ m, + m2 we find of r
m2
(260)
Since drc/dt
= constant,
Fl ~ Mo2
dt where Mo = m1m2
m1
d2r
(26 i) (262)
+ m«
is the reduced mass of the system. A separation of the motion similar to the classical one can be made for Schrodinger's equation. For this purpose we note that for two particles Eq.
,,.., ..0\ 1..,...."....no\O
\"'.1 __
Vi
.....
...' ..... ._)
(263) The wave function 1./' depends on '1 and 12, but for mutual forces V depends only on '1  '2 = ,. Using Cartesian coordinates, \1121./' represents (264) and similarly for \l /"p. Since relations (257) and (259)
Xl
and
X2
are funcuons
of
Xc
and
X
as given by
alp
aX1
a,p
=
ax
ax
aXl
+
alp
aXe
OXe aXl
(265)
and
(266)
Similarly
(267)
22
ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
23
Eq. (263) can now be written
_ 2 ~ (. a 1f' 2Mo ax2
_!_
2 a tp ay2
+ a2tp)
az2
_
/i 2(ml : m2) only on (269)
2
where Mo is the reduced mass defined by Eq. (262). Since V depends x, y, Z, we can separate variables in this equation by the substitution
This yields, after division by
tpotpc,
(270) Dividing the total energy E into the energy E« of the centerofmass (c.m.) motion and the energy Eo with respect to the center of mass, the separate coordinate dependence of the two bracketed quantities requires

/i2
2Mo
y2tpO
+
Vtpo = Eotpo
(271)
and
2(ml
::,
/i2
+ 1fl2)
y2tpc
=
Ectpc
(272)
The first of these equations resembles in all respects Eq. (219) for a single particle, and is the quantummechanical analog of the energy equation corresponding to Eq. (261). The second equation represents the c.m. motion with constant velocity; this can be seen from the discussion following Eq. (223) with V set equal to zero. In future expressions for a twoparticle system, the subscript zero will be dropped. We should always remember, though, that in the radial equation (247), corresponding to Eq. (271), the orbital angular momentum expression [/(/+ 1)]1/i now refers to the sum of the orbital angular momenta of both particles about the center of mass.
22f Particle in a closed cubical box. We now apply the Schrodinger equation (219) to two simple problems which give us some insight into the properties of a quantum mechanical system such as a nucleus. The first of these, a particle in a closed box, simulates a situation in which a particle is in a bound state, such as an electron in an atom or a nucleon in a nucleus. The second problem is concerned with a beam of particles A closed box must be represented by a potential which is infinitely high at the position of the walls, since the particle cannot be outside the box and hence tp must be zero everywhere outside the box (see condition 4 of the boundary
24
NUCLEAR STRUCIURE
conditions in Sec. 22c). For convenience we can put V = 0 inside the box.' as indicated in Fig. 23b. Substituting this into Eq, (219) and setting
tp(x,y,z)
= X(x)Y(y)Z(z)
(273)
it is easy to separate variables and to obtain
1d 1d __ x + __
2 2
Y
X dx2
Y dy2
1d + __ Z
2
Z
=_k2
dz"
(274)
FIGURE 23 Particle in a closed cubical box. (a) Location of box. (b) Potential shape. E is the total energy of the particle. (c) Shape of a typical wave function along x direction (n" = 4). (d) Shape of the probability density corresponding to (c). The classical probability density is indicated by a dashed line.
00
v
E
o
(a)
~~x
L
(h)
x
(c)
(d)
where k2 is defined in terms of the (constant) energy E and mass mo of the particle by (275) Each of the three terms on the lefthand side of Eq. (274) depends on a different, independent, coordinate. Since the sum of the three terms is equal to a constant, each of the terms must be equal to a constant. For example, we can set (276)
1
There is no particular meaning attached to V
=
O. See footnote following Eq. (215).
22
ELEMENTS
OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
25
so that the separate constants are
and similarly related by
for the other two equations,
(277) Eq uation (276) is identical to Eq. (222) and its solution is (278) The arbitrary of Sec. 22c: Recalling requires that constants
0",
and b", are determined X(O)
by the boundary
condition
4
=
0
X(L)
=
0
(279)
eis = cos s
+ j sin s,
we see that the first of these conditions (280) restricts k" to the (281)
X= A"sink~
where A", is an arbitrary values constant, and the second condition k=
fI,,'tT
'" L
with n" equal to an integer. It is important to note for later work that only positive integers are of interest. A change of sign of fI", is equivalent to a sign change of the arbitrary constant A~ in Eq. (280) and therefore does not produce a new wave function. The value fI~ = 0 is excluded, because in that case 'P = 0 throughout the box; Eq, (242) shows that there could then be no particle in the box. Proceeding similarly for the y and z solutions we find
y= A" sink"y
where Summarizing
(282) and wave function is (284) (285) (283)
k
II
= fI"tr
L
Eqs. (280) and (282), thecomplete 'IfJ
=
A sin kxx sin kwY sin
kIt
where
Each component of this function is a simple de Broglie wave. For example, the wavelength in the x direction is equal to (286) This is just the condition for producing the walls. a standing wave in the box with nodes at
26
The ccnstant condition (242). I = A2 A in Eq. (284) can be determined
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
by the. normalization
L n TTX JL n 7Ty sin" _,,_ dx sin2 _11_ dy Jo L 0 L
II,
0
sin _'_ L
n
tt
z
dz (287)
= A2(lL)3
(Each of the integrals is equal to Lj2 by inspection, since the average value of the sinesquare function is equal to i over any number of complete halfperiods.) Choosing the positive sign for convenience, A yields the complete normalized "P
=
=
(2jL)~
(288)
. (2)! . n,,7Tx sin n,,7TY . L L L
SID
solution
n.7TZ
SIO
L
(289)
Let us compare the probability density 1"P12 ith its classical value. From w the point of view of Newtonian mechanics, we are treating the problem of a particle bouncing around inside a closed box in a perfectly elastic manner, free from any external forces. Such a particle has a constant speed wherever it is within the box and, therefore, its probability density is equal to IjV. But this is exactly the value toward which 1"P12 ill tend if nx, n1l, n, ~ co, for then each w sinesquare function can be replaced by its average value t (see Fig. 23c). This is an illustration of the correspondence principle (Bohr, 1923) according to which quantum mechanics can be approximated by classical mechanics whenever the quantum numbers of the system, here n", Ily, and n" become very large. The boundary conditions (279) and similar equations for Y and Z restrict not only the form of the wave function but also the energy E of the system. Su bstitution of Eqs. (281) and (283) into (277) and (275) gives (290) The boundary conditions on "P, therefore, cause the quantization of the energy. Similarly, the finiteness and singlevaluedness of"P (conditions I and 3 of Sec. 22c) cause the quantization of the orbital angular momentum (Sec. 22d). Although this way of explaining quantization may seem unsatisfactory to the reader, it is not possible to give a better understanding by any analogies or concepts based on classical physics. In Table 21 and Fig. 24, we show the lowest energy levels of the system in units of n2/i2j(2moV). As mentioned above, no quantum number can have the value zero and only positive quantum numbers are considered. The lowest energy state, therefore, cannot be zero. We will show that this is in accord with the uncertainty principle (Heisenberg, 1927). In the lowest state, the x component
22
ELEMENTS
OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
27
TABLE 21 Quantum numbers and energy levels of a particle in a closed cubical box
n;r nv
I I I
n. 1
2 2 3 2 3
(n;r2
+ n,} + n.2)t
3
Number of levels 1
3: 3 3 I
1
2 I 2 2 2
6
9 II 12
14
1
I 2 I 2
6 3
3
17
t
t The three levels correspond to n:
This is the energy E in units of .,.,2h'!(2moL'). See Eq. (290). = 2, n; = 2 and n, = 2, respectively. All three levels have the same energy but different wave functions. They are called degenerate. A similar situation can occur for the other cases.
of linear momentum
is uncertain
by the approximate Ilpz ~ 2pz
amount (291)
because the direction of travel of the particle cannot be determined from its wave function. The corresponding uncertainty in position is roughly equal to Ilx ~ L Since the wave function is just a halfsine wave with zeros at x
=
(292) 0 and x = L,
E
FIGURE 24 Energy levels of a particle in a closed cubical box. Note that the lowest energy state is not at zero energy.
17 rt 14r~
12~_
11 ri 9rt 6~t 3~I
o 
28
l"nJCLEAR
STRUCTURE
we cannot really locate the particle within a distance of the order of L. Recalling: P« = hk ; [Eq. (227)] and using Eq. (281), we obtain within a factor of 2 (293) This is one expression of [he uncertainty principle. It is instructive to compute the magnitude of the characteristic energy step n2/i2/(2moP) which occurs in expression (290). For an electron in an atom, mo = 9.1 ;< lO28 g, L ~ 108 cm
n2/i2 n2( 1.05 "/ lO27)2 ~~
2moLa
2
x 9.1 ,; 1028 x 1016
ev
~ 0.5 ;< 1010 ergs ~ 30 For a nucleon in a typical nucleus, mo
=
(294) 1013 em (295)
1.6 >~
1024
g, L ~ 5 ;/
~ 6 Mev 2moL2
n2/i2
These values are of the correct order of magnitude and allow us to appreciate the enormous difference between atomic and nuclear energies.
FIGURE 2S A simple potential barrier in one dimension. The particles originating at x =  en, and those traveling to the right and left are indicated by their wave functions with arrows. In each case, 'F = 'Pe~'''' '.
v
II III
E
¥,

~~~~x o L
22g Barrier penetration of a particle. The second problem to which we apply Schrodinger 's equation (219) is the onedimensional penetration of a potential barrier by a beam of particles. A classical analog of this situation would be a stream of marbles rolling normally up an incline. It is clear that if the (nonrelativistic) total energy E of a marble does not exceed the maximum gravitational potential energy Vb corresponding to the top of the incline, the marble will always roll back, i.c., it will be reflected by the potential barrier. On the other hand, for E > Vb the marble will always go over the top. I n a system in which quantum effects are important, these results are strongly modified. Figure 25 shows a simple potential barrier in one dimension. A stream of particles is supposed to originate at x =  co and to travel toward the barrier,
22
ELEMENTS
Of
QUANTUM
MECHANICS
29
i.e., towards the right. Assume that each particle has a total energy E. For convenience divide space into three regions I, II, and III, and set VI = 0, VlI = Vb' VIlI = O. Because E > V for regions I and III, the particles in these regions are represented by the traveling wave solution (232) of Eq. (222). In region I, particles can be reflected by the barrier towards the left, but in region HI, particles cannot tra vel towards the left because the source of particles is at x =  00 and nothing in region III can reflect the particles back to the left. The solutions of Eq. (222) in regions I and III are therefore
= "PUI =
"'PI
aIeib
+ b1eikz = "'PI + "'PI_
(296) (297)
aUIeik" = "'PUI
where k2 = 2moE/1i2. In region II the equation
to be solved is d "Pii _
2
dx2
2 K

"'PI!
(298) (299) (2100) through the
where The solution is
K2
= 2mO(Vb =
aue
KX

E)/1i2
Kz
"'PU
+ bIIe
which is a standingwavetype solution of the form (239).1 The probability P of transmission of the flux of particles barrier in the present case is equal t02 2 P = I"'PIII~12V = laml l"'Pr_12v jarl2
(2101)
where v is the speed of the particles. To evaluate this expression we note that the (complex) coefficients a and b are determined by assuring that "'P and d"'P/dx are continuous at x = 0 and L. For example, at x = 0, "Prand at x
+ V'I+
= "'PII
leads to
leads to
aI
+ hI
=
a[[
+ bu
(2102) (2103)
=
L
"'Pu
= "PIlr ...
Similar equations
are obtained
for the derivatives.
, From a classicalmechanics point of view, it IS of course puzzling that particles can be within the barrier region II at ali, because their kinetic energy would be negative there. Ho .... ver, an e application of the uncertainty principle 10 this problem shows that if we wished to find out whether a particle is really localized within the barrier we would have to give it momentum sufficient to make its kinetic energy positive. 'In classical terms, a beam of particles traveling with a velocity v has a current density nv, where n is the number of panicles per unit volume in the beam. Current density is equal to the number of part ides traversing unit area perpendicular to y in unit time. Flux is equal to the number of particles traversing, in any direction, unit area in unit time. For a beam of particles, current density or flux can be used interchangeably, if we remember to place the unit area perpendicular to the velocity vector. The correct quantum mechanical expression for current density is given in Schiff, 1955, sec. 7. For plane waves, it reduces to I'PI" v.
30
Solving the preceding equations P which for KL
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
for am and a1 we find after some algebrab _
=
V [1
+ 4E(Vv
2 E) sinh KL Jl
2
(2104)
» I,
i.e., sinh" KL ~
p:::::;
!e+2KL, becomes
Vb Vb (2 1OS)
16~(I _ .£)eZKL
1.05 x 1027
The important factor in most physical cases is the exponential. For example, for a SMev proton and Vb = 10 Mev, L = 1012 cm, Eq. (299) gives
K=
[2 x 1.6 x 1024 x (10  5) x 1.6 x 10611
X
:::::; 5 Therefore and
1012 cm' eZKL
= e10
=
0.5
x 104
X
P = (16 x 0.5 x 0.5) x 0.5 x 104 = 2
104
Usually the term in front of the exponential
is ignored and we write (2106)
where y = 2KL = 2[2moeVb  E)1tL/li. If V is not a constant, but varies with x, We can show" that the same expression for P holds approximately but with
y =~
L:"
{2mo[V(x)

En!
dx
(2107)
where Xl and X2 are the classical turning points, i.e., the points at which E = Vex) as shown in Fig. 26.
V 26 A general potential barrier in one dimension. The classical turning points Xl and X2 are indicated. FlGURE
In Sec. 22d, We mentioned that for a problem with spherical symmetry and zero angular momentum, the same mathematical expressions are obtained as
I
Evans, 1955, app. C. , Schiff, 1955, sec. 28. Note that if the barrier is broken up between XL and x, into n adjacent barriers of thickness .:lx, so that x,  XL = II tox, the total penetrability can be written in terms of the individual penetrabilities as P '"' p,P •... P. = e'fl +y, +"'Y" As n ~ co and ~x ~ dx ~ 0, expression (2107) is obtained.
22
ELEMENTS
OF QUANTUM
MECHANICS
31
for the onedimensional
equation.
y
=
2
Jr,
r1
Hence, in this case also, P :::::; with e? {2mo[ V(r)  E]}! dr (2108)
Ii
This expression will be useful in the discussion of alpha decay. If the potential is due to the mutual influence of two particles, mo represents the reduced mass [see Eq. (262)J. Figure 27 illustrates the shape of the wave function which would be obtained if the constants a, b determined by the boundary conditions were substituted into Eqs. (296), (297), and (2100). Note that in our example the energy of the particle is not changed and hence the wavelength of the wave function is identical on both sides of the barrier.
FIGURE 27
Illustration of the wave function for the barrier shown in Fig. 25. The source of particles is located at x =  00. '..y12
22h Parity.
We can see by inspection of Eqs. (215) and (219) that the substitution x ~ x, y ~ y and z ~ z (abbreviated by r ~ r below) will not alter the solutions of Schrodinger's equation if V( x,y,z)
=
V(x,y,z)
(2109)
The substitution r ~ r is called the parity operation and a potential which has the property expressed in Eq. (2109) is said to be conservative under the parity operation, or to "conserve parity." It turns out that practically all physical potentials, including those generated by nuclear forces, possess this property. For a potential of the form (2109) the wave function f in Eq. (219) must have the property' (2110) f( r) = +f(rO) or f(r)
= f(r)
(2111 )
Further, if any system, however complicated, has a wave function of a given type it can never change over to a wave function of the other type (as long as the interactions in the system remain parityconserving). The wave function
1
Schiff, 1955, sec. 23.
32
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
(2110) is said to possess even parity, or, briefly, is even; the other wave function is odd. The conservation of parity in nuclear interactions places important restrictions on the dynamic nuclear processes (decays and reactions). Therefore it is important to determine the parity of nuclear states by experimental or theoretical means. The parity of a (standing) wave function can usually be recognized from the quantum numbers, as we now show in a special case. In the example of the particle in a closed cubical box, the parity of the wave function (289) is not a definite quantity [since 1p = 0 outside the box, it is easy to see that 1p(x) 'P( x) for 0 < [x] < L]. This occurs because the location of the box with respect to the origin (see Fig. 23a) causes V not to have the property (2109). If the origin is moved to the center of the box, V will have the property (2109) and the wave function then has the form
*
1p =
(2)" L
sm (no;TTx 
l
L
+ nzTT). sm (nyTTyl 2
L
+ nVTT)' Sill 2
(n.TTz L
l
+ n.TT) 2
(2112)
where x', y', z' are the coordinates measured with respect to the center of the box (x' = x  L12, etc.). For any odd value of n", the first sine function becomes (2113) which has even parity. For any even value of nz, the first sine function becomes (2114)
. n",TTX
±Slll~
I
which has odd parity. Hence the overall parity of the above wave function is even or odd depending on whether or not (no; + n. + n.) is an odd or even integer. We can also show! that the wave function (243), applicable to spherical potentials, has the parity (_1)1, where / is the orbital quantum number which determines the orbital angular momentum [let + I)]ili of the system. Having now completed the discussion of those concepts of quantum mechanics which we need for an understanding of nuclear structure, we can return to the subject of nuclear physics. 23 NUCLEAR DINDING ENERGY
Every nucleus has a state of lowest energy, the ground state, and higher energy states, called excited states. Much can be learned about nuclear forces from a consideration of nuclei in their ground state, independently of whether these nuclei happen to be stable or have the possibility to decay radioactively. Systematic overall trends can be found in mass, radius, charge, abundance, etc. On closer examination certain periodicities become apparent also. Nuclear models which have been developed to explain these properties can be divided
1
Schiff, 1955, sec. 14.
23
NUCLEAR
BINDING
ENERGY
33
roughly into semiclassical (particle) models, which allow a general understanding of systematic trends and quantum (Ilm'e) mechanical models which alone give insight into the periodicities. The liquiddrop model and the shell model are the outstanding representatives of each class and will be described below. 23a Definitions. One of the most important quantities to be considered is the nuclear mass. I t is usually expressed in mass units, abbreviated by u, so defined that the mass of one atom of C12 is equal to exactly 12.00 ... u.' Masses of stable nuclides are listed in App, C. The difference between the actual nuclear mass and the mass of all the individual nucleons is called the total binding energy Btot(A,Z). It represents the work necessary to dissociate the nucleus into separate nucleons or, conversely, the energy which would be released if the separated nucleons were assembled into a nucleus. For convenience, the masses of atoms rather than the masses of nuclei are used in all calculations. This causes no difficulty, except that the binding energy of the atomic electrons should also be considered." For simplicity, though, we will usually omit it. We can therefore write
Btot(A,Z)
= [ZMH
+ NM"
=

M(A,Z)]c2
(2115)
where the definitions of the quantities are identical to those of Eqs, (11) and (12). The average binding energy per nucleon is given by
B ave (A Z) , Btot(A,Z)
A
(2116) we will not use (2117) (2118)
The following quantities are sometimes convenient, although them (except in App. C) Mass excess = M  A Packing fraction
=
MA A
The work necessary to separate a proton, neutron, deuteron, or alpha particle from a nucleus is called the separation energy S. Conversely, this energy is released when such a particle is captured by a nucleus. For a neutron
Sn = [M(A 
1, Z)
+ M"

M(A,Z))c2
(2119)
All separation energies can be expressed in terms of the total binding energies of the nuclei involved by substituting the expression for the mass, obtained from Eq. (2115), into expressions similar to (2119). We then find, for example,
S;
= S~ =
Btot(A,Z) Btot(A,Z)

Btot(A

I, Z) 4, Z  2)  B101(4,2)
(2120) (2121)
B101(A 
, Before 1960 it was common to set the mass of one atom of 0'0 equal to exactly 16.00 ... atomic mass units (arnu). This physical scale of atomic masses is not to be confused with the chemical scale in which the average mass of one atom of oxygen in the natural isotopic mixture is set equal to 16.00 .... , Evans, 1955, chap. 3, sec. 2. See also Prob, 215.
34
23b Average binding energy per nucleon. Saturation
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
and short range of nuclear forces.
Experimentally, Blot can be determined from an accurate measurement of AI by mass spectrometry or from a determination of S by nuclear reaction studies. The overall trends for Bave are summarized in Fig. 28.
FIGURE 2·8
Average binding energy per nucleon versus mass number for the naturally occurring nuclides (and Be8). Note the scale change on the abscissa at A = 30. (By permission from Evans, 1955.)
Mass number
A
The most striking feature of Bave is its approximate independence of A, except for the lightest nuclei. Suppose that the binding energy (bonding energy in chemical terms) of every nucleon to every other nucleon in the nucleus is roughly equal to a constant C. In a nucleus with A nucleons there would then be !A(A.  1) bonds and hence Btot so that
.",=,
lCA(A

I)
(2122) (2123)
Bave ~
K(A  1)
in complete contradiction to Fig. 28. The approximate constancy of Bave indicates that each nucleon is not bonded equally to every other nucleon, but rather that nuclear forces between nucleons do not extend to more than a few nucleons. Either the forces must have a very short range of the order of the "diameter" of one nucleon, or they saturate, like chemical bonds. Saturation
23
NUCLEAR
BINDING
ENERGY
35
means that the binding, or bonding, energy between one nucleon and the rest of the nucleus reaches a limit once a certain total number of nucleons has been assembled. From Fig. 28 it appears that with four nucleons, or more, saturation has set in. We can find out which of the aforementioned effects is of importance by the following argument. The range of nuclear forces can be inferred from a study of the scattering of two nucleons (p,p or n,p) and from the binding energy of the deuteron.' We find that the range is of the order of 2 F, which is comparable to the diameter of a nucleon. This in itself might lead to a constant Bave. if each nucleon were bonded only to its nearest neighbors. But the volume of a nucleus would not vary proportional to A, that is R RoA! in contradiction to Eq. (15). The reason for this is that the nucleons in a given nucleus arrange themselves in such a way as to produce a system of minimum total energy. With the above attractive nuclear force, the lowest potential energy is reached if all nucleons crowd into a region so that each one is within about 2 F of the others. The lowest kinetic energy is obtained if each nucleon moves in the largest possible nuclear volurne.! Since the potential energy turns out to be dominant," the nucleus would collapse! to a radius of the order of 2 F. Evidently some other effect besides a short force range must occur. Recent theories of nuclear structure trace saturation to two effects. First, it has been established experimentally that at distances of the order of t F the force between nucleons becomes strongly repulsive. We can say tha t nucleons have a hard core. Although this alone would give an At dependence for the nuclear radius, the calculated constant Ro in Eq. (15) comes out too small. Second, the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids two nucleons of the same kind, e.g., two protons, to occupy states with identical quantum numbers, produces effects which keep nucleons apart from each other.! In summary, a rough consideration of the nuclear binding energy and of the nuclear volume already provides important clues about the nuclear force. Before proceeding to more details, it is instructive to mention another physical system in which the average binding energy per particle is a constant, namely a solid or a liquid. The heat of vaporization Q is the total work necessary to dissociate m grams of the substance into n separated molecules, at a constant temperature. If Mo is the mass of one molecule
*
m =nMo
1
(2124)
See Appendix A. , Compare E'i; (290) for one particle. Note that the kinetic energy decreases as L increases. 3 For a detailed derivation see Blatt and We isskopf, 1952, pp. 121ff. • Nucleons cannot be regarded as hard spheres with definite diameters. Rather we must consider them as forceexerting entities, which can overlap in accordance with the concepts of quantum mechanics. s For a pictorial and detailed presentation of these points, see Gomez, Walecka, and Weisskopf,
1958.
36
The average binding energy per molecule is equal to
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
Q
n
QMo m
(2125)
Experimentally it is found that Q""" m, and Q/m is called the latent heat of vaporization. For water at 100°C
=
m
Mo 
Q
540 cal/g 18
X
=
23 
2.26 x 1010 ergs/g _
_
60 .2
10
2.99 x 10
23
g
Hence
 = 6.75
n
Q
X
1013 ergs
=
0.42 ev
Comparing this with Eave we see again that atomic and nuclear energies are of the order of ev and Mev, respectively, as indicated at the end of Sec. 22f [Eqs. (294) and (295)] in another connection. Figure 28 shows that in the case of the lightest nuclei, those with a nucleon constitution equal to an integral number of alpha particles have particularly high binding energies per nucleon. This can be understood only on the basis of a quantum mechanical model of nuclear structure in which the dependence of the nuclear force on the intrinsic spin of nucleons is considered. We can appreciate, though, that it is tempting to propose an alphaparticle model for these nuclei, in which the alpha particles are coherent entities and the bonding occurs between them rather than between individual nucleons. Such a model has met with limited success.' The other feature of Fig. 28 which we should note is the decrease of Eave toward higher A. This is caused by the increasing influence of the coulomb force, as we will see below. 23c Separation energy systematics. Typical regularities in the neutron separation energies S~ are evident from Fig. 29. For a given Z, S n is larger for nuclei with even N than with odd N. Similarly, for a given N, S" is larger for even Z than odd Z. The effect is caused by a property of the nuclear force producing extra binding between pairs of identical nucleons in the same state, which have opposite directed (total) angular momenta. This is also the cause of the exceptional stability of the alpha particle structure, mentioned above. In later sections, more evidence for such pairing will be given. The difference Sn(A, Z, even N) 1
Sn(A 
I, Z, N 
I)
(2126)
Blall and Weisskopf, 1952, pp. 292ff.
23
NUCLEAR
BINDING
E:<ERGY
37
is called the neutron pairing energy and varies from approximately 4 to 2 Mev with increasing A. Similar values are obtained for protons. Pairing causes ecenecen nuclei (Z even, N even) to be more stable than evenodd or oddeven nuclei, and these in turn to be more tightly bound than oddodd nuclei. This is also apparent from the abundance systematics of stable nuclides. FIGURE 29 Neutron separation energies of lead isotopes as a function of neutron number. (Data from H. T. Tu, "Chart of Mass Differences," Nuclear Data Sheets, vol. S, set 3, 1963.)
>,
OJ,
Neutron number N 23d Abundance systematics of stable nuclides. The nuclides found on the earth are either stable or are radioactive with halflives longer than approximately 109 years.' since they were produced at least 5 X 109 years ago, according to current theories. Figure 210 presents an N, Z plot for the known stable nuclides," divided into odd and even isobars. For light nuclides, the average line of stability clusters around N = Z; for heavier ones, it deviates from this because of the increasing importance of the coulomb force. For odd A, only one stable
1 Decay products of longlived nuclides are also found. See Sec, 4.2. • See Appendix C.
38
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
isobar exists (exceptions A = 113,123). For even A, only eveneven nuclides exist (exceptions A = 2, 6, 10, 14). A summary of the frequency of occurrence is given in Table 22.
FIGURE 210
Neutron number versus proton number for stable nuclides. Odd isobars are plotted on the left side and even isobars on the right side. Arrows point along the "magic number" values of Nand Z: 20, 28, 50, 82, 126. The oddodd isobars with A = 2,6, 10, and 14 are also shown.
120
OJJ A
...","
.."
EVCIlA
I()O
... ....
/
/ ...
"
I
'7
" '\"
(h
"Q;
<:
s:
~ .,.. s
c;
110
.\ ...
v , )"
..
,. ...
f
3
:::> ._,
6()
",\
:
Z
/
+0
••/ 1
/
,..; I
/
+Ll
60
Atomic number 7
+0
80
Eveneven nuclides occur most frequently. If stable nuclei were formed by a process in which increased binding energy produced increased abundance, we could deduce that eveneven nuclei are the most stable type of nuclei. i.e., we could equate abundance with stability. This would agree with the conclusions drawn from separation energy systematics. The process of element formation probably was complex, but in one possible formation process, supernova explosions, the binding energy of nuclei does playa dominant role in governing abundance. The belief now is that most nuclides (although not the most abundant) were indeed formed in this process.'
1
For more details of the process of element formation see Smith, 1965, chap. 22, and references
given there.
2J
NUCLEAR
BlNDING
ENERGY
39
TABLE 22
Frequency of occurrence of stable nuclides
N Z
even even
160
odd even
53
even odd 49
odd odd 4
Number of nuclides
The relative abundance of isotopes and the cosmic abundance of nuclides also possess interesting regularities. As an ilJustration, Fig. 211 gives the relative isotopic abundance of the element tin (Z = 50). The lower relative abundance of the isotopes with odd N is quite apparent. It is again connected with the fact that the process of nuclide formation favored nuclides with higher binding energy. Detailed studies of cosmic abundance lead to the same conclusions. Particularly high stability and high abundance with respect to neighboring nuclides is associated with nuclides for which Nor Z is eq ual to 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. Some influence of these magic numbers can be noticed by close inspection of Fig. 210; other evidence for their existence will be presented later. The magic numbers reflect effects in nuclei very similar to the closing or electronic shells in atoms. There are good reasons why the numbers do not all agree with
FIGURE 211
Relative abundances of the tin isotopes as a function of neutron number. The isotopes with N = 63, 71, 73 are not stable.
30
OIJ
..J
o
• I
I
I 0.3
I
I 62
64
66
68
Neutron number N
40
the periods of the periodic table 2, 8, 18, 32, .... Before discussing this shell model of nuclei, the liquiddrop model will be reviewed because it is easy to understand and It explains most of the experimental data mentioned so far. 24 LIQUIDDROP MODEL. SEMIEMPIRICAL MASS FORMULA A detailed theory of nuclear binding, based on highly sophisticated mathematical techniques and physical concepts, has been developed by Brueckner and coworkers (l9541961) .. A much cruder model exists in which the finer features of nuclear forces are ignored, but the strong internucleon attraction is stressed. It was derived by von Weizsacker (1935) on the basis of the liquiddrop analogy for nuclear matter, suggested by Bohr. The essential assumptions are (see Sec. 23a):
1 The nucleus consists of incompressible
2 3
matter so that R ,..._, Ai. does
The nuclear force is identical for every nucleon and in particular not depend on whether it is a neutron or a proton. The nuclear force saturates.
Coulomb and quantum mechanical effects are considered separately. From assumptions 2 and 3, in an "infinitely" large nucleus of A nucleons the main binding energy is proportional to A. Actual nuclei are finiteusually a spherical shape is assumed as in Fig. 212hence nucleons on the surface are not attracted
FIGURE 212
A spherical nucleus in infinite nuclear matter.
as much as just estimated. A term proportional to the number of nucleons in the surface or proportional to the surface area must be subtracted from the infinite nucleus estimate. Also, the binding: will be decreased because the coulomb . repulsion acts between all pairs of protons. (Coulomb forces are long range and do not saturate.) Tn addition, a term must be introduced which tends to give largest binding to nuclei with N = Z. This term is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical behavior of neutrons and protons. Finally, correction terms must be added which give largest binding to eveneven nuclei and least binding to oddodd nuclei and which reflect the shell effects discussed above.
24
LIQUIDDROP
MODEL.
SE~lIEMPIRICAL
MASS FORMULA
41
The importance of the model lies in the fact that it explains the empirical features of nuclear mass data. This tell s us that the main binding energy term, proportional to A, must be correct. Since this term depends among other things on the assumption of charge independence of nuclear forces, we can conclude that nn, pp, and pn nuclear interactions are identical. This important clue about nuclear forces will be supported further. Keeping in mind expression (2115), we can write the total binding energy of a nucleus
where
avA asA!
= =
volume term
e> surface area 47TR2 pairing energy term,' chosen to be zero for oddA nuclides; for eveneven nuclides the + sign is used, for oddodd nuclides the  sign applies shell term, positive if N or Z approaches a magic number
±o
= surface term
7)
=
The other two terms, coulomb
FIGURE 213
and asymmetry
energy, are discussed below.
dr
Coulomb energy of a uniformly charged sphere. (a) Actual charge distribution; a layer of thickness dr is added to a sphere of radius r, (b) Equivalent charge distribution for purpose of potential energy calculation. The density of charge is called p.
~
Charg
4ITrd, p
R
I f
\
\
",..... _(a)
./ /
Charge "13 rrr'p
(b)
24a Coulomb energy of a spherical nucleus. Although coulomb forces act between pairs of protons, it is sufficient for the present purpose to consider the nucleus as a uniformly charged sphere of charge Ze and charge density
p
=
3
4.
Ze R3 7T
(2128)
We can compute the coulomb energy in the following way. Assume a charged sphere of radius r has been built up, as shown in Fig. 213a. The additional work required to add a layer of thickness dr to the sphere can be calculated by assuming the charge t7Tr3p of the original sphere is concentrated at the center
1
The magnitude of ~ is approximately equal to onehalf of expression (2126) as can be seen by substituting Eq. (2120) for each term and then applying Eq. (2127).
42
of the shell (see Fig. 213b). The electrical potential therefore
NUCLEAR STRUcrURE
energy of the nucleus is
5R using Eq. (2128). Since, in agreement with a wave function picture, assumed the charge of each proton to be "smeared" over the entire expression (2129) contains a spurious "selfenergy" term 3e2/(SR) proton (found by setting Z = 1). Subtracting this term for Z protons correct interaction energy between all pairs of protons V Comparison Eq. (2127) _ 3 Z(Z coulomb 
(2129) we have nucleus, for each gives the
'5
R
1)e2
(2130)
ac in
with Eqs. (15) and (16) allows us to evaluate the constant
3 e2 ac=5 s,
=
0.62 or 0.72 Mev
for Ro
=
1.4 or 1.2 F
(2131) the
The coulomb term in Eq. (2127) occurs with a negative sign because positive coulomb energy decreases the nuclear binding energy.
24b Asymmetry
energy. A very simple model suffices to demonstrate the form of the asymmetry term in Eq. (2127). Since neutrons and protons obey the laws of quantum mechanics, they must be in definite energy states, similar to those of a closed box (Sec. 22f). For ease of calculation, assume that the levels are equidistant with spacing 8 and that as a result of the Pauli exclusion principle there is only one identical nucleon per level. Under the assumption that forces between neutrons are identical to forces between protons except for coulomb effects (see Sec. 24), the energy states of neutrons and of protons are expected to be identical. The asymmetry energy is the difference in nuclear energy of a nucleus with neutron and protons numbers Nand Z and that of the isobar with neutron and proton numbers both equal to A12. If, to make the former nucleus from the latter, v protons have to be transformed into neutrons, i.e.,
N
= tA +v
Z
= lA 
v
or
)1=
HNZ)
an amount of work equal to (2132)
24
LIQUIDDROP
MODEL.
SEMI EMPIRICAL
MASS FORMULA
43
will have to be expended. This can be seen from Fig, 214. Note that each of the }J protons will have to be raised in energy by an amount y~. Since expression (2'132) is always positive, the binding energy of a nucleus will always be less for a nucleus with N # Z compared to one with N = Z. We can also show that 1j A by computing the energy Em a x to which the levels of the nucleus have to be filled to accommodate N neutrons and then setting ~ ~ Em a "jN.
~ ..J
FIGURE 214
Model for the asymmetry term. Neutrons and protons are assumed [0 have equidistant states of spacing ~. Crosses represent originally occupied states. In the transfer of three protons to neutron states an energy 3 x 3 ~ wiU have to be expended.
E
Neutron states
Proton states
24c Mass parabolas. Stability line. With a little rearrangement of Eq. (2127), we can write the mass of a nucleus [see Eq. (2115)] in the following way M(A,Z)cZ where
=
xA
+ yZ + ZZ2 =r=
2 
b  1J
(2133)
x = M nC Y = 4a
4aB.
Z=
av
as + aB. + At
~
a
(Mn  Mu)c2
ac
4aB.
A + At
For A = constant, Eq. (2133) is the equation of a parabola. The minimum mass occurs for Z = ZA (usually not an integer). The plot of ZA versus A or N gives the line of greatest nuclear stability. Setting o(Mc2)joZ = 0 yields
Z..:1=
y
2z (2134)
This follows exactly the shape of the empirical stability line in Fig. 210. By fitting the data we find Hac/aa) = 0.0078, so that with Eq. (2131) the expected value of a a is (2135) as. ~ 20 to 23 Mev From expression (2134), we can recognize that the deviati~:Jn of the stability line from N = Z or Z = A/2 is caused by the competition be..tlve.en.the C.OulOIDQ
.,.__~~.~ .~
44
energy, which favors Z.1 b
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
<
AI2,
and
the
asymmetry
energy
which
favors which is
ZJ';'· AIL For oddA isobars, shown in Fig. 2ISa
=
0, and Eq. (2133) give's a single parabola, case. We will see later (Sec. 46b)
for a typical
that if
M(A,Z) M(A,Z)
>
M(A, Z
+
I)
beta (electron)
> M(A,
Z ~ I)
Z to Z I electron capture and perhaps positron decay' takes place from Z to Z 
+
decay
takes
place from (2136)
1
FIGURE 215 Mass parabola for isobars. (a) Odd A nuclei. (b) Even A nuclei. Full circles represent stable nuclides and open circles radioactive nuclides. Along the ordinate, one division is' approximately equal to 1 Mev. (By permission from Evans, 1955.) OdJ A A = 135 EvenA A = lD2
~
'J
\
>
\
\Odd Z, odd :\ Z,ewn IV
'\
I
~
\
\\Ewil
IJ,
~j\
\
(3
\
\
~1
'\
Te 52
'~~p
....
,
(a)
I
!.EJI
.il a
I
(31
\
\,
"\/13 _,/
I II
.op
Z
VI "ZIt'
,11
44 t45
ZI
/j
/Ji'j
+
J
I Xe
1
I
Y ii la Ie
z, = 55.7
I Nb Mo Tc Ru IRh Pd
I
I
43
1
r
C1d 48
z
53
54 55 !56 57 58
46 47
= 44.7 (b)
It is clear from Fig. 215a that for oddA nuclides there can be only one (stable) isobar for which hath these conditions do not occur. Figure 210 shows this is indeed found. Two exceptions, at A = 113 and 123, are no doubt due to the fact that in each case one of the isobars has an excepuonally long halfMe ( 10 yearS"j, an exper rrnental lower limit) because the mass differences happen to be
i •
exceptionally
L
small.
.> M(A, Z 
Positron decay can take place only if M(A,Z) mass of an electron. See Eq. (4122).
1)
+
2mo, where
1110
is the rest
24
LIQUIDDROP
MODEL
SEM[EMPIR1CAL
MASS FORMULA
45
For evenA isobars, two parabolas are generated by Eq. (2133), differing in mass by 215. A typical case is given in Fig. 215b. Depending on the curvature of the parabolas and the separation 2c5, there can be several stable eveneven isobars. Three is the largest number found in nature (see Fig. 210). There should be no stable oddodd nuclides. The exceptional cases H2, LiB, B1O, and N14 are caused by rapid variations of the nuclear binding energy (Fig. 28) for very light nuclides, because of nuclear structure effects which are not included in the liquiddrop model. Figure 21 5b shows that for certain oddodd nuclides both conditions (2136) are met so that electron and positron decay from the identical nuclide are possible and do indeed occur (see Fig. 428, CUM). Summary of liquiddrop model treatment of average binding energy. (By permission from Evans, 1955.)
FIGURE 2·16
30
60
90 120 150 180 210 240 270 Mass number A
24d Summary. Shell effects. The constants of the semiempirical mass formula (2127) can be determined by comparison with available data. The "fit" is never perfect, and hence several sets of coefficients have been used. Two such sets are (in Mev; 1 u = 931 Mev) av = 14 ac ac
=
0.60
aa. aa.
a;
=
16
= 0,72
= 19 = 23.5
0= 34/Ai 0= ll/A!
(2137 )
The pairing term 0 should be roughly equal to onehalf of the pairing energy (2126); the expressions given have some theoretical justification. The contribution of the various terms to Eave is shown in Fig. 216. If we use Eq. (2127) without the shell model term r; to predict neutron separation energies [Eq. (2120)], we discover interesting regularities in a: cornparison with experimental data. Figure 2·17 shows the quantity
46
The increasing binding on approach is striking.
FIGURE 217
NUCLEAR STRUcrURE
of the magic numbers (28), 50, 82, and 126
Comparison of observed and calculated neutron separation energies. The effect of shell closures on the neutron separation energy is apparent. (By permission from Evans, 1955.)
'" ~ ~
v
;>
+3
~
Co
+1 0 1 2 3 20
Neutron number N
~
II
.
U
..50 82
....126
120 140
<l
~
Although we have applied the liquiddrop model only to ground states of nuclei, it can also be used for excited states. These would be produced by oscillations of the nuclear "drop" or by ripples traveling over its surface. This idea has been particularly successful in explaining certain features of nuclear fission, which we will mention in Sec. 5.7. The liquiddrop model stresses cooperative effects between many nucleons in the nucleus and is the forerunner of the collective models of nuclear structure. Implicit in it is a rapid sharing of energy between nucleons, which forms the basis of Bohr's theory of the compound nucleus formation in nuclear reactions. 25 SHELL MODEL The periodic table of the elements is based on regularities in the chemical and physical properties of atoms (valence, types of optical spectra, ionization potential, etc.). The periodicity results from the regular filling of the electronic levels in order of increasing energy, su bject to the Pauli exclusion principle which restricts the number of electrons in each sublevel to two. If interelectronic forces are represented approximately by an effective central field, each sublevel is specified by three quantum numbers: the total or principal quantum number ntot> the orbital or azimuthal quantum number I, and the magnetic quantum number m. The latter two have been mentioned in Eqs. (244) and (245). The total quantum number is given by
ntot
=n
+I
(2139)
25
SHELL
MODEL
47
where the radial quantum Humber n is equal to the number of zeros (including the one at r = 0) of the radial function LI(r) defined in Eq. (248). Ifa su blevel is fined with two electrons, their intrinsic spin directions must have opposite sense in order not to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was proposed that periodicities should also exist in nuclear properties (Bartlett, Guggenheimer, Elsasser, and others, approx. 1933). Regularities were found in abundances and in alphadecay energies, which implied regularities in nuclear binding energies. It was noted that nucleon numbers 2, 8, and 20 were associated with particular stability. Since these num bers corresponded exactly to the first few periodicity numbers for atomic electrons, a shell structure of nuclei seemed to be indicated. On the whole, though, not much experimental evidence was available to the early shellmodel advocates. Also, starting around 1935, successful applications of the liquiddrop model of nuclei and of the compound nucleus model of nuclear reactions suggested that the interaction between nucleons in a nucleus should be so strong as to inhibit any noticeable shell structure. We can appreciate the preceding statement if we use the form of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle which says that in any experiment of duration 1 the energy of any system can never be determined more accurately than within an uncertainty r where! rl ;::::; h (2140) Suppose nucleons interact strongly in nuclei and that the mean time between collisions is I. If we would try to determine the energy which a nucleon has in between two collisions, Eq. (2140) predicts that the result will be uncertain by hit. The longest time t between collisions that would be reasonable for a nucleus of radius R is of the order of the traversal time
I~
R
v
(2l41) to Eq. (227) (2142) R, a relation (2143)
where v is the speed of the nucleon within the nucleus. According
v=~=~
mo Since the nucleon is confined si milar to (281) should hold
P
kll m.,
to a region of linear dimension
k=so that (omitting numerical factors)
7T
R
(2144)
This form of the uncertainty principle is derived in another context in Sec. 4.3.
1
48
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
Since t is the longest time between collisions, the minimum energy uncertainty of one nucleon will be (2145) But this is exactly of the same order of magnitude as the spacing of nuclear energy levels [see expression (290) and its evaluation, Eq. (295)J. Nuclear energy states must therefore be so "smeared out" in energy that no welldefined shell structure should occur. The fallacy in the above argument was recognized by Weisskopf (1951). He pointed out that the Pauli exclusion principle severely restricts the possibility of collisions between nucleons so that times between collisions are much longer than estimated by Eq. (2141). Consequently, level widths are much smaller than implied by Eq. (2145). E
c
FIGURE 218 Restriction of nucleonnucleon collisions within a nucleus. (a) The indicated collision of particles A and B is not allowed, even though it conserves energy, because the final states are already occupied. (b) Possible collisions are those involving exchange of energy levels or excited particles such as C.
(a)
(b)
We can follow Weisskopf's argument by referring to Fig. 218a. For simplicity we assume equidistant nuclear levels, each occupied by one nucleon. Consider collisions between particles A and B. In most twobody collisions, the individual kinetic energies are altered even if there is an overall conservation of energy. If, now, the two particles are initially in filled energy states as shown schematically in Fig. 218a, they cannot collide because the energy states into which they would have to move are already occupied and therefore not available. The only possible collisions are those in which the particles exchange places or in which excited particles, such as C in Fig. 218b, participate. These are relatively rare. Strong interaction between nucleons is therefore not in contradiction with the existence of shell model effects (i.e., long times between collisions). 2Sa Experimental basis of the shell model. To date an impressive body of experimental material has been accumulated in which the regularities of nuclear properties are apparent. These point to shell closures at the magic numbers 2,
25
SHELL
MODEL
49
8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126, mentioned in Sec. 23d. Before describing the shell model, we present some of the experimental evidence. More details will be given subsequently. One set of regularities involves nuclear energies directly or, as in abundance data, indirectly (Fig. 210). The abundance data are replotted in Fig. 219 to bring out the magic numbers more clearly. We can see that the number of isotones (see Sec. 12e for definition) is particularly high when N is magic.
FIGURE 219
Number of stable isotones as a function of the neutron number. [By permission from B. H. Flowers, Progr. Nucl. Phys. 2~ 235 (1952).]
I I I
9
CJ>
,g
...
.... '" ...
'" = 0
8
7
~
~I
~
l?f
::0 6
~5
.D
,
,
4
83 ;::l Z 2
'HI
10
m 11I1 II I J If 'ill IIIII I 40 II
20 30
11
50
rr Ir
11 60
70
II 1 IW1111 n
80
111 , 11111 f 100 90
Neutron number N In connection with Fig. 217 we mentioned already that a high neutron separation energy is associated with nuclei for which N = (magic number) (see also Fig. 29). In addition, Fig. 220 shows that for N = (magic number) 1 the neutron separation energy is particularly low. Note that on the abscissa of Fig. 220 the neutron number of the final nucleus is plotted. A similar phenomenon is observed in the ionization potential of atoms, which is high for the rare gases and low for the alkalis. Discontinuities are also present in alpha and betadecay energies, which reflect discontinuities in nuclear binding energies.' Magic nuclei, being more tightly bound, require more energy to be excited than nonrnagic nuclei. This is brought out in Fig. 221 in which the excitation energies of the first excited states of eveneven nuclei are plotted versus Nand Z. The effect of magic numbers extends also to higher excited states; in other words, thespacing between levels is larger for magic nuclei than for other nuclei at comparable excitation energies. Among other things, this results in smaller
+
1
This will be discussed further in Sec. 45a, See, e.g., Fig. 412.
50
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
FIGURE 220 Separation energy of the last neutron in the nucleus (Z, N + I) for Z = N (even), as a function of the neutron number N of the final nucleus. For N = 2, 8, 20, and 28 the separation energy is particularly low. (After M. G.
Mayer and J. H. D. Jensen, "Elementary Theory of Nuclear Shell Structure," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955.)
12
10
~
Crj. >, <l.l
;> <l.l
~
C
<l.l
8
C
.~
6
'S!' "
c
<U
0.
2 ;;
Z
4
2~~~~~~L~~~~~L~~~~~
2 4 6 8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
28 30
Neutron number N of final nucleus fastneutron capture cross sections (Fig. 222). A cross section is a quantity proportional to the probability that a nuclear reaction takes place.' Crudely speaking, in order for neutron capture to be possible, a neutron of a given kinetic energy must find an empty nuclear level at the correct energy. The further spaced the levels are, therefore, the smaller is the probability of capture. Regularities are also found in nuclear properties which depend on the total angular momentum and parity of a nucleus, either in the ground state or in an excited state. We will return to this topic at the end of Sec. 25c. Finally, we note that the values of nuclear moments which express fine details of the distribution
1
See Sec. 54a.
25
SHELL
MODEL
51
FIGURE 221 Energies of the first excited states of eveneven nuclei. [By permission from K. Alder, A. Bohr, T. Huus, B. Mottelson, and A. Winther, Rev. Mod. Phys. 28: 432 (1956).]
Proton number
Neutron number N
•
.c.
•
0
•
• •••
0 0
100
E
~ u
<l.l
c:
. ,"
.1
.
1
I
I
o·
'"
OJ:
u c:
::l OJ
'" 2
10
"I I I
t
0
""
lJ·
• ,
1
1 1
I I
!::
0
u,
.z c:
co
.
1 1
I
1
I 1 I
1
I
I·
•
I
I
• I
I
1 1
I
i
I I
82t
1
I
126
FIGURE 222 Capture cross sections for lMev neutrons. (By permission from D. J. Hughes, "Pile Neutron Research," AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, Mass., .1953.)
I 50 t
I
tI
10 20 30 40 50 60
70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Neutron number N
52
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
of electric charge and of magnetic dipole strength in a nucleus show regular features. A consideration of these effects is beyond the scope of our treatment, although some mention will be made of them later on. 25b Singleparticle shell model. The basic assumption of any shell model is that despite the strong overall attraction between nucleons which provides the binding energy considered in Sec. 24, the motion of each nucleon is practically independent of that of any other nucleon. As mentioned in Sec. 25, this apparent contradiction is resolved by effects of the Pauli exclusion principle. If all internucleon couplings (called residual interactions) are ignored, we call the model the singleparticle shell model. In terms of Schrodinger's equation (219), each nucleon is then assumed to move in the same potential. The potential is spherical in the simplest case, but there is good evidence that for nucleon numbers far from closed shells the potential should have an ellipsoidal shape. This condition will be considered later. For any spherical potential, Schrcdinger's equation can be separated as shown in Eq. (243), with the angular solutions (244) and (245). The shape of the potential affects only the radial solution R(r), or more conveniently
u(r)
=
rR(r):
(2146) The boundary conditions on u, in particular as r + 00, cause 1/ to be a finite polynomial. The polynomial depends on two quantum numbers, the radial quantum number n and the orbital quantum number I. As mentioned at the beginning of Sec. 25, n is equal to the number of nodes of u. Solutions of Eq. (2146) exist only for definite values of E which also depend on n and I. This situation is quite analogous to the problem of a particle in a closed box. There, too, the boundary conditions determined the quantum numbers of the wave function [Eq. (289)] and caused quantization of the energy [Eq. (290)]. A common notation for describing the energy states is similar to that used in atomic physics. Whereas in atomic physics each state is specified by the total quantum number nlol [see Eq., (2139)] and I, in nuclear physics each state is specified by n and I. Also for I = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, we use the spectroscopic letters s, P» d, J, g, h, respectively. A state denoted by 2p therefore means that n = 2,
1=1.
The simplest radius R useful potentials are an infinite square well potential of
. V={:
r «; R r= R
(2147)
or a harmonic oscillator potential
V = tmow2r2
(2148)
/
25
SHELL
MODEL
53
where w is the frequency of oscillation of the particle of mass mo· More realistic potentials are a finite square well potential
V= { o
or a rounded well potential density shown in Fig. II.
Yo
r:;;.R r>R
(2149) falloff of the nucleon
which reflects the gradual
FIGURE 223 Energy levels of nucleons (a) in an infinite spherical squarewell potential (R = 8 F), (b) in a harmonic oscillator potential. The spectroscopic notation (n, I) and the total occupation number up to any particular level are given. The oscillator
number
v,
Eq. 2:.150, is also shown. (By permission from Burcham. 1963.)
I I
: li2g3d4s Ih2f3p
168:
v=6
5
40
3p li
138 132
112
70
2/
>''
Ig2d3s
92 itz» 68 58 ld2s
4
3 2
~
10
3s
;;., Oil ,_
''
2d
Ih
40 20
Ig
~
20
2p
If
40
34 20 18 8 2
2s
Id Ip Is
o
(a)
(b)
The energy levels obtained for the potentials (2147) and (2148) are presented in Fig. 223a and b, respectively. The spectroscopic notation is given on the left side. Just as in the case of a closed cubical box, the energy of the lowest states does not correspond to zero kinetic energy, and for the same reason. There is no simple mathematical expression for the levels of an infinite square well, but there is 011': for the harmonic oscillator potential: E
=
= (v + 1)1i(1)
(n~ + n~ + n.
+ 1)liw
(2150)
where n"" ny, n. are three integral, positive, quantum numbers, which may also have the value zero. The energy levels are equally spaced. As shown in Fig. 223b, several levels are degenerate, i.e., the same energy is obtained for more than one
54
NUCLEAR STRUcrURE
set of quantum numbers. The number JI is called the oscillator quantum number. It is also interesting to consider the radial wave function. For the s states (/ = 0) the mathematical identity of Eqs. (253) and (222) allows us to write down wave functions for the infinite square well asu
= rR(r) = C sin If
+
nnr
(2151) functions are co) has the (2152). for the
where C is a normalizing constant. For / # 0 more complicated obtainedP For any finite well for which VCr + co) + 0, u(r following form for a bound state (£ < 0)
2
where K.. is defined by 1h"K /m" = lEI. A few radial wave functions finite square well are sketched in Fig. 224.
FIGURE 224 Schematic radial wave functions for a finite square well. For r + 0, R(r) ~ rl and for r + 00, R(r) '" r=e:«, where ~1i2/(2/mo = lEI, the energy of the level below VCr __,. 00) = O. See problem 213.
R(r)
R~ " R
~~.J
.
RK"
~,.
~"
~
~
~
0i., ~
+t
or
~
In accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle each level can be filled with identical nucleons such that no two nucleons have the same set of quantum numbers n m (2153) / where m. =
1
t
is a quantum
number
=
specifying the direction
of the
See Eqs. (2·80) and (2·81), but note that u(O) the form of VCr). • The first few functions are
u(l = 1) = (sin p)/p u(l
0, because R(O) must be finite independent of

cos p
I] sin p 
=
2)
=
[(3/ pO) 
(3/ p) cos p
where p = f(n)TTr/R, fen) = numerical factor depending on n. It can also be shown that for r ...... R(r) '" rl. See Schiff, 1955, sec. 15. 0,
25
SHELL MODEL
55
intrinsic nucleon spin. For example, if 1= 3 the possible values of mare 3,  2, 1,0, 1,2,3 and in each magnetic subleoel two nucleons may be placed with mB = +! and t respectively. The maximum occupation number in this case is therefore 2 X 7 = 14; in general it is equal to 2 x (21 + I). Figure 223 gives the total occupation number up to any particular level for the two potentials shown. We would expect that whenever an (n,/) level is completely filled that the nucleus should have particularly high stability, because the number of nucleons is even and the maximum pairing effect comes into play. Also, if the gap' to the next (unfilled) energy state is large, a larger energy would be required to excite the nucleus than if the gap is small. Therefore, magicnumber effects should occur at the major shell gaps. Although the magic numbers 2, 8, and 20 are easily reproduced (see Fig. 223), the others (28, 50, 82, 126) are not apparent. Even if the more realistic potential (2149) or a rounded well potential is used, this difficulty cannot be overcome. Since all the early shell models used these types of potential, they were unable to fit the magic numbers and were thought to be of limited usefulness. 2Sc Spinorbit coupling model. It is to the credit of Mayer and of Haxel, Jensen, and Suess (1949) that they recognized independently the missing ingredient in the shell model presented so far. They proposed that a strong interaction should exist between the orbital angular momentum and the intrinsic spin angular momentum of each nucleon. According to the quantummechanical coupling rules for angular momenta, the total angular momentum jli formed by the vector addition of the orbital angular momentum Iii and the intrinsic spin sli must be such that j is restricted to the values'
j=I+!
or
j=I!
(2]54)
If a strong spinorbit interaction exists, a different energy is associated with each of these two values of j, giving rise to a spinorbit splitting of the levels. In the spectroscopic notation, the) value is placed as a subscript to the (nl) symbol. For example, in the case of the Ip sheI1, we obtain a splitting between the IPi and IPi levels. It was found empirically that in nuclei the ener&y level with the larger j value always lies below that with the smaller j value. Figure 225 shows the effect of spinorbit splitting on the energy levels of a finite, roundedwell potential. The maximum occupation number for each level (n,l)j is given by 2) + I since according to the rules of quantum mechanics each vector angular momentum vii can have the projections m.1i along any given axis where m, = )I, " + I, )I + 2, ... ,,,  2,)1  1,,, (2] 55) and
1 )I
is an integer or halfinteger.
,
Actually each angular momentum vector of the form Wr has a magnitude [I'(v + J)llli. but value of the vector component along any given direction. Therefore. we often call vii, or even v, the angular momentum.
vii is the maximum
56
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
We can see from Fig: 225 that if the magnitude of the spinorbit splitting is properly adjusted, the major shell breaks occur at [he experimentally determined magic numbers. Furthermore, if we assume that the angular momentum of oddA nuclei is determined solely by the oddnucleon number, a remarkable agreement is obtained between the ground state spins (and parities) of these nuclei and the predictions of the spinorbit coupling model. This agreement is
40
FIGlJRE 225 Energy levels in a rounded
potential well induding a strong spinorbit splitting. [By permission from R. J. BtinStoyle, Contemp . Phys.
1: 17 (1959).]
_10
2()
shown in Fig. 226a and b for oddN and oddZ nuclei. Considering also the empirical finding [hat all eveneven nuclei have zero groundstate spins, it follows reasonably that in the ground state of any nucleus the net angular momentum associated with an even Nor Z is equal to zero. A natural consequence of the spinorbit shell model is that, close to the major shell breaks, levels of large spin difference lie close together. If, for example, near nucleon number 50 a nucleon occupies a 2Pt level, we expect an excited Ig~ state nearby. This gives rise to numerous isomeric slates! near the shell breaks (see Fig. 226c). The order of the levels is sometimes reversed by small binding energy effects.
1 These longlived states are caused by large angular momentum differences and small energy differences with respect to the ground state. This will be discussed further in Sec. 44.
25
SHELL MODEL
57
2511Other nuclear models. Although the spinorbit shell model has had one of the most stimulating effects on nuclear structure physics, the simple form given above cannot be sufficient. For example, the model cannot explain why eveneven nuclei always have a zero groundstate spin, or more generally, why any even number of identical nucleons couples to zero groundstate spin. Evidently there is a (residual) nucleonnucleon interaction which favors the
FIGURE 226 (a, b) Angular momentum quantum number I for the ground states of oddA nuclei, plotted versus the oddnucleon number Nor Z. (e) Number of cases of isomerism in oddA nuclei versus the oddnucleon number. Dashed vertical lines on the abscissa indicate the magic numbers 2, 8,20, 28, 50, 82 and 126, predicted by the shell model of Mayer and Haxel, Jensen and Suess. The detailed spectroscopic assignments (see Sec. 25c) are also given.
I
912 .....
!i
I \
I I I
I
712
E 5h '" i5 3h d.I E 0 E
'<
I I 1
I I I I I I I
I
I
I,
I
I
I I
I
I
I
(a)
I I \
I
I
I
,
,
I I I I I I
I
\ I I
I I I I I
I I
I! II
1 I
j
I I
I
I
112
~'" 912 s::
=' z
Ii I
I
1
I
III
IIIIIII
(b)
1 I I I I
'" '" U
'< d.I
7/2 5h
r!
fI
I
1 1 I
,
I I I
I II I
II
I I
IN
H
I
I 1
I
I :
I
I
1
312 i
1/2
.!!;
L.<
i
:
I
,
1 1
I
I I I
. I:
I
E
d.I
,
I
II
1
,
I
1
I:
Z
i
1
0 .:!l
0
;,
...
" U
<;l
E
6 4 2
I I I
I
r:
(el
I
I I I
I
I
1 I I 1 I I I I I
Ii
I I
I:
:1
I
01
I
I I'
I
til .r r40 20
I I
I I 1
Ii
I
60
If
2d",
80
I
J
rnl fl. 100
f.
IIT..J
NorZ
I I
120
140
I
.s,.,:lp~.d~,ld",:
IIp,':
ll,~ : 2p1\ 2py,
:
1 I I I I
I r
I
Igll 2dy, lh,,,
3sll : 21'h1h", li,¥, 3p'(, :
I
2s..,
.,~,
Ig"
28
I I , I I
I I I 1 I
I I I
I
20 28
50
82
126
58
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
pairing of nucleons with opposing angular momenta. An attractive interaction between nucleons must therefore be added to the single nucleon spinorbit interaction, which gives rise to the pairing energy already encountered in Sec. 23c. From detailed theoretical considerations, it appears likely that the magnitude of the pairing energy increases with the I value of the pair and that for this reason the highspin states (h¥,i1_.~) predicted by the spinorbit model (Fig. 225) are not found in oddA groundstate spins. For example, the energy of the state consisting of six nucleons filling the 2d'l shell plus one lh',' nucleon is higher than the energy of five 2dt nucleons plus two paired Ill'} nucleons, even though the 2dt level lies below the IhV level. The properties of the pairing interaction can be made plausible by a semiclassical argument. Assume there is an attractive residual force between two like nucleons, i.e., a force beyond that already taken into account in the shellmodel potential. If the force is of short range and attractive, the total energy of the nucleus will be lowered if the two like nucleons are as close together as possible. In classical language, the two nucleons should collide as often as possible in their orbits. In quantum language, the wave functions should overlap as much as possible. This situation is obtained if (I) the two particles are in the same (n,!) state and (2) their orbital angular momenta I/i and Ii? are oppositely directed, as shown in Fig. 227b. The particles will then collide most often, or more specifically, their wave functions overlap best.' In
FIGURE 227 Distorting effect of extra nucleons on a closed shell nucleus. (a) One extra nucleon. (b) Two extra nucleons with opposite orbital angular momenta.
UJ
(aJ
(b) If the pairing forces were not of very short range, but extended perhaps over the entire nucleus, there would be no energetic favoring of close distances between the two interacting nucleons, because their interaction energy would be approximately independent of their separation. In quantum language. the exact overlap of the wave functions would not be so important in that case and there would be no reason why states with 11 ~ 12 = 0 should be favored over other orientations of the angular momentum vectors. Since, experimentally, states
1
Since the intrinsic spin of the particles has been ignored in this argument, the Pauli exclusion principle forbids the two like particles in the same (n,l) state 10 have the same m quantum numbers. Therefore the angular momentum vectors are not allowed 10 be parallel, even though this would give equally good overlap of the wave functions.
25
SHELL
MODEL
59
with 11 + 12 = 0 are favored, we can reverse this argument and conclude that the pairing force is of short range compared to the nuclear radius. Another feature not included in the simple shell model is a distorting effect of the "outermost" nucleons on the other nucleons in a nucleus. Assume that we add a single nucleon to a closed shell nucleus. This nucleon will usually have a high I value (Fig. 225) and therefore its wave function will peak close to the nuclear radius (Fig. 224). In terms of a classical picture we can say that the nucleon circles around the closedshell "core" of nucleons as shown in Fig. 227a. The strong attraction between the nucleon and the core will distort the core. The core exerts a centripetal force on the nucleon and the reaction to this force, the centrifugal force, acts on the core. If two nucleons are outside the core, they will run in the same orbits (but in opposite sense, because of the pairing effect). Therefore, the distortion of the core will increase. If more and more nucleons are added outside of the closedshell core, a point will be reached at which the core is permanently deformed, with an accompanying effect on the orbits. Although a detailed consideration is beyond our treatment, one consequence may be noted. A quantummechanical body which has an axis of symmetry such as an ellipsoid of revolution can undergo rotations about an axis perpendicular to the symmetry axis. The energy level spectrum of such a "rotator" is quite characteristic. It is a remarkable fact that there are many cases of eveneven nuclei in which this spectrum has been found. This leads us to the conclusion that permanently deformed nuclei indeed exist, as suggested above. The energy spectrum can be "derived" by a semiclassical argument. The classical kinetic energy of a rotating body is equal to (2156) where ~ is the moment of inertia of the body about the axis of rotation and w is the angular frequency of rotation. In terms of the angular momentum L = J en LI E=(2157)
2~
Proceeding from a classical to a quantum mechanical model, we must replace V by I(l + 1)/i2 [see Eq. (252)] where, for eveneven nuclei, I is an even integer with the lowest value zero: E
= 1(1 + I)/il
_;_=2~='
(2158)
In Fig. 228 we compare this simple expression with a typical experimental spectrum. The discrepancies at higher excitation energies can be understood. Because the classical rotation frequency increases with increasing I value, the nucleus will be slightly deformed by the larger centrifugal force and its moment
60
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
of inertia will become larger. According to Eq. (2158), the excitation will decrease, exactly as found (Fig. 228). FIGURE 228 Energy spectrum of a nucleus. (a) Theoretical spectrum of a 1098 mechanical rotator. (b) The spectrum of permission from F. S. Stephens, Phys. Rev. 435 (1959) and Burcham, 1963.] kev
energy
1112'
deformed quantumU238• [By Letters 3:
1110
1I8~
l
I
Experimental.
787
523 309 148 45
116+ 114+
t
\
==:::j2+
or
(b)
0
Collective rotation
U'"
(a)
From the foregoing discussion it appears that the singleparticle shell model is valid particularly near the closed shells. As the nucleon numbers deviate more and more from the magic numbers, cooperative effects appear between nucleons. These are most easily incorporated into collective models, in which rotational motion, discussed above, and vibrational motion are built in from the start. Theoretical advances have shown, though, that collective effects can also be obtained by modifications of the shell model. It is then necessary to include in the shell model potential the following terms; A dominant spherical potential A spinorbit interaction An interaction of rather short range, which tends to make the nucleus spherical and tends to pair up nucleons A longrange term which tends to distort the nucleus Any theory of nuclear forces must include these features. It is our hope that the meson theory of nuclear forces (Chap. 6) will be able to explain more and more of these properties. 26 ENERGY LEVELS OF NUCLEI In any finite potential well, such as that shown in Figs. 225 or 229, there are bound energy levels, corresponding to state, of energy! E < 0, and unbound or virtual levels corresponding to states of energy E> 0 (see Sec. 22c). Virtual
1
As previously, we assume V(r
_,.
co) = o.
26
ENERGY LEVELS OF NUCLEI
61
states cannot be understood on any classical model. They result from the fact that the de Broglie wave of a nucleon is reflected at the edge of the potential well even though its total energy exceeds the potential energy everywhere. If the de Broglie wavelength happens to be such that approximately standing waves are formed within the potential well, the amplitude of the wave function can be very large within the well, and a virtual state occurs. This means there is a large probability for a nucleon of quite welldefined energy to be found within the nucleus. FIGURE 229 Schematic representation of nuclear levels. (By permission from Burcham, 1963.) Particle emission  .....,Virtual levels Bound levels (unoccupied)
~~°..2.!.:!!~~ "",_"",·Ir __
S" 8Mev
_
1
 === ~ Radiative transitions
Bound levels (full or partially occupied)

The reflection coefficient of a potential step may be derived using the method illustrated in Sec. 22g. In Fig. 25, let L .. co and assume E > Vb. Then
'!pI '!prr
= =
'!pI+ '!pn+
+ '!pI_
=
=
aIe
iU
+ bIeit:.
k
=
(2159) (2160) (2161)
aueit':!:
where
k,
=
(
2mo
_E_Vb
/i.2
)!
=
and 0 yields from
C~~Ey
d'!pn
Applying boundary
conditions
aI
at x
au
+
br = bI
'!pI = '!pn d'!pl
ar 
= au
k'
k
from
=
dx
dx
From these two equations, is equal to
we find immediately
that the reflection coefficient (2162)
IbI12 la112
=
(1 1
+ k'/kJ
k'/k1
62
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
For k'/k ~ 1, this is approximately equal to I ~ 4k'/k. If E/V" = 1.01, the reflection coefficient is about 0.7. We will show later on (see Sec. 43), in connection with the dynamic nuclear properties, that the nucleon leaves the virtual state after some mean life T, causing it to have a width for particle emission given by!
r·=~
Ii
T
(2163)
As indicated in Fig. 229, a virtual state can also decay to a lower state by gamma emission," analogous to the emission of light by excited atoms. Bound levels can decay only by gamma emission. According to the singleparticle shell model, a given nucleus (Z,N) consists of Z protons and N neutrons normally placed into bound levels (protons and neutrons each into their own potential well) in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. In the ground state of the nucleus, all nucleons are in their lowest energy states. The simplest excited states of the nucleus are then formed by promoting the outermost (or least bound) nucleon to a higher state. The corresponding excitation spectrum of the nucleus is called the singleparticle level spectrum, with levels as shown in Fig. 225. An actual level spectrum is shown in Fig. 230. Even though it is practically certain that not all levels have as yet been found, we can See that there are already many more levels than expected from the singleparticle spectrum of Fig. 225. Present theories indicate that the singleparticle spectrum is actually dissolved among many levels each of which consists of complicated excitations of more than one particle. The distribution of the singleparticle levels is indicated schematically in Fig. 230. Figure 230 also shows that the de nsity of energy states (number of states per unit energy interval) increases with increasing excitation energy. This occurs because a given excitation energy can be reached by a greater variety of excitations of nucleons as the energy increases. 3 Incomplete theoretical arguments are available to predict the energy variation of level density, yielding! (2164) where P = level density !:.I. = spacing between levels Po ~ I to 0.01 (Mev):", for A = 20 to 200 a ~ 1 to 7 (Mev)!, for A = 20 to 200
I Compare Eq. (2140). Equation (2163) will be derived in Sec. 43. • For unusual exceptions, see Sec. 44e. • The density of singlepanicle levels also increases with excitation energy, but tilis plays a relatively minor role in the increase of actual level density. 4 Burcham, 1963, sec. \5.3.4; Blatt and Weisskopf, 1952, chap. 8, sec. 6.
26
ENERGY
LEVELS
OF
NUCLEI
63
FIGURE
2·3{) Level spectrum of Sc41. Note the change in energy scale between 4 and 5 Mev. The angular momentum I tl of the last odd proton is shown. The splitting up of the single particle structure into the actual levels is also indicated. [Adapted from K. Way, A. Artna, and N. B. Gave, (eds.), "Reprint of Nuclear Data Sheets, 19591965," Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1966.]
I 2
6.95
6]§
6.58
5.33 5.\S 5.05
4.79 4.51
0==1 0
rn
4.02
3.96
>
~ ~
OJ
0
'.26
>.
OJ
~o ...
.g
c:: OJ c::
2.96
~ 'u ~ ~
P'h,
L:
1
2.28 2.07
I.g6
t,
0
fl11
J
0
t,
2I
SC"
64
NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
Although, with a very few exceptions, highly excited states of nuclei cannot be described in detail, definite regularities have been observed for lowlying states. For oddA nuclei, lowlying states can be related to the shell model, especially if the nucleon numbers are close to magic numbers. Not only energy values, but also spins and parities can be explained. For nucleon numbers between magic values, it is generally more profitable to describe the states in terms of a collective modeL For eveneven nuclei, excited states can only be produced by breaking up a pair of nucleons. This requires so much (pairing) energy that even the lowest excited states consist of complicated excitations, which usually are more easily described by the concepts of oibrations and rotations of the nucleus than in shell model terms. The regular pattern of the first excited states of these nuclei is apparent from Fig. 221. Such a simple pattern is not found for oddA nuclei. For oddodd nuclei the lowest excited states can be explained by assuming that the odd protons couple to an angular momentum I ~Ii and the odd neutrons to 1,,1i. The angular momentum Iii of the njzcleus is then given by I=I~+I" (2165) where the quantum mechanical addition rules obtain, i.e., I = II"  Inl, ... II" Inl in integral steps. The ground state is usually formed if the intrinsic spin of the last odd neutron is parallel to the intrinsic spin of the last odd proton. The lowest excited states consist of other orientations of I" and In' A study of the level structure of oddodd nuclei requires, therefore, that the nuclear force described at the end of Sec. 25d must contain yet another term, which tends to align the intrinsic spins of nucleons. The simplest oddodd nucleus is H2. It has I" = t and In = t. In its ground state I = I, and in its (virtual) first excited state 1= O. The energy difference between these states is 2.3 Mev, which gives the order of magnitude of the spinspin interaction. We must not confuse the latter with the pairing interaction, which tends to align the orbital angular momenta of two identical nucleons so that the total angular momentum is zero.
+
27
CHARGE SYMMETRY AND CHARGE INDEPENDENCE OF NUCLEAR FORCES
The derivation of the semiempirical mass formula assumed that the main binding energy between nucleons is independent of their nature, i.e., that pop, nn, and np nuclear forces are identical. Since the serniernpirical mass formula is not accurate, it is of interest to present more direct evidence for this charge independence of nuclear forces. Pairs of nuclei for which ZI = n, NI = n'; and Z2 = n'; Nz ~~ n (where n and n' are integers) are called mirror nuclei. The most common ones have n' = n  I or n' ~~ n  2. Figure 231 compares the level spectra of such a pair, LF (Z = 3, N = 4) and Be? (Z = 4, N = 3). Not only energies of the
27
CHARGE
SYMMETRY
AND
CHARGE
INDEPENDENCE
OF
NUCLEAR
FORCES
65
states, but also the angular momenta and parities, agree closely. We can infer from this that nuclear forces are charge symmetric, i.e., pp and nn forces are identical. Consider the schematic presentation of Li7 and Be7 shown in Fig. 232. In each nucleus, the nuclear bonds are identical except for those of the (last) odd nucleon. Therefore, if the excitation spectra of these nuclei are identical, we can state (2166) where E represents the bondenergy difference between the excited and the ground
231 Comparison of the energy levels of LF and Be 7. Uncertain levels are shown in dashed lines. Corresponding levels are connected by dotted lines. Measured spins and parities are given. [Adapted from T. Lauritsen and F. AjzenbergSelove, Nucl, Phys. 78: 1 (1966).] FIGURE
r;.
(IJ
15
~ ~
(IJ
~
;.,
....
OJ)
.g
'u x
JJJ
.:: (IJ .::
10
~~(%)
~+~
11
(')0;,)
(",)
.::l
1+r++I
~, I L"'
5
FIGURE 232 Comparison in LF and Be7.
of the oddnucleon
bonds Li' Be"
66
states. Hence
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
(2167)
It is obviously tempting to conclude that the bond energies themselves are also equaL That this is so can be shown from the masses of the mirror nuclei in their ground state. If, indeed, nuclear forces are charge symmetric, we can see
FIGURE 233
Mass difference between mirror nuclei versus (Zl  l)Air, according to Eq. (2]68). (Data from C. E. Gleit, C. W. Tang, and C. D. Coryell, "BetaDecay Transition Probabilities," Nuclear Data Sheets, vol. 5, set 5, ] 963.)
8.......
•
::2
;_,
c.>
:
~''
~'"
I
~ ~
I
"
" N
~
2
27
CHARGE
SYMMETRY
AND
CHARGE
INDEPENDENCE
OF NUCLEAR
FORCES
67
from Fig. 232 or from the semiernpirical mass formula [Eq. (2127)] that the mass difference between two mirror nuclei with Z1 = Z2 + I is
(2168)
The lefthand side of this equation can be determined either directly or from the positron decay energy between the two isobars (see Sec. 46b). The righthand side can be calculated from Eq. (15) and agrees with the left side, so that the assumed charge symmetry of nuclear forces is indeed valid. Figure 233 summarizes the results of many measurements. A plot of the mass difference, corrected for (MH  M ,,)c2 (= 0.78 Mev), versus (Z,  1)/A! should pass through the origin if charge symmetry is valid. 1 The deviation apparent on Fig. 233 results from shellmodel effects, which give slightly different effective radii to the nuclei (Zl,A) and (Z2,A) because the wave functions of the protons are different. Interesting similarities between levels are also found if we compare masses of mirror triads
(Z1
= n  1, N1 = n
+
1)
(Z,
=
n
+
1, Na
=
n
1)
in their ground and excited states. Figure 234 gives the states of the triad Be1O,B1O,C10 for which n = 5, after correcting each mass for the coulomb energy. Again we see that the levels of the mirror nuclei BelOand CIo are practically identical," but only certain levels in B10correspond to these states. If we analyze this by considering the bonds involved, as in Fig. 235a, we find that for the identical levels in Be", BIO,and C10,pp, non and np forces must be identical, but also there are many more levels in B10 than in Be10and CIO. This is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. To gain some understanding, let us consider the simplest mirror triad, n'l., H2, He2. (Although n2 and He2 are not stable structures, the argument given is correct.) In the lowest states, which are Is states, the Pauli exclusion principle requires opposing intrinsic spins in n2 and He2, but not in H2. Therefore, the np system has more states than the nn or pp system. It is also suggestive from this example that charge independence ofnuc1ear forces holds only if the nucleons are in identical states as far as their angular momenta (orbital and intrinsic spin) are concerned. This is confirmed by a detailed analysis of np and pp scattering" and is a further important feature of the nuclear force.
1
2
The plot also allows a determination of the radius constant Ro [Eq. (15)J. See Prob. 226. Probably, not all lowlying levels of C'" have been found. S See Appendix A, Sees. A3 to As.
68
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
FIGURE 234 Comparison of the mirror triad Be10, WO, and ClO. Each mass has been corrected for the coulomb energy, and the neutronproton mass difference. Uncertain levels are shown in dashed lines. Corresponding levels are connected by dotted Jines. Measured spins and parities are given. [Adapted from T. Lauritsen and F. AjzenbergSe!ove, Nucl. Phys. 78: 1 (1966).]
1
11
n '
~~:'IO
B'" "C'I)
)
,Be'·
FIGURE 235 (a) Comparison of n2, H2, He2•
Illl Il [i
of bonds in Be10, WO, CIO.
(b) Comparison
of states
PP
Il 11 /I
!'
P
[J
~~~
,Be'·
(a)
(b)
PROBLEMS
69
PROBLEMS
21 22 Prove that a particle of rest mass mo and kinetic energy T always has more momentum than a photon of energy hv = T, independent of the value of T. It is desired to use the nonrelativistic expression for kinetic energy in order to calculate the speed of a particle of mass mo. What is the highest allowed energy of the particle (in units of moc;2) so that the calculated speed is correct within 1 percent? What is the speed of a particle whose kinetic energy is equal to its rest energy? alpha Calculate the de Broglie wavelengths of a 10ev electron, a lOMev particle, and a 10g bullet moving with a speed of 1,000 m/sec. At what rate (in g/sec) is matter converted produces 2 megawatts of power?
23 24 25 26
into energy in a nuclear reactor which
(3) A discus thrower spins a disc weighing 3 kg in a radius of 0.5 m at 1 rps. What is the angular momentum of the disc in units of Ii? (b) If a neutron were to move inside of a nucleus in a 5 F radius with 3 units of orbital angular momentum, what would its speed be? (This classical picture of nuclear motion is incorrect and must be replaced by the wavefunction concept.) In spherical coordinates the expression
1' 
27
\P1p in Eq. (219) is
SIn
I <3 (' r 2 01p) r2 ar dr
r2 sin 0 ao
1

<3 (.
0 01p)
ao
+  1 2
21p (<3 ) r2 sin 0 a'P~
(a) Show that a substitution of the form (243) separates the variables. (b) Show that the radial equation can be put into the form (247) by appropriate definition of the separation constant. (c) Give the equation for the 'P variable and show that it has the solution (245) if the separation constant is appropriately defined. 28 A particle of mass III" is just being bound by a onedimensional potential well of width 2a and depth  V". What is the minimum value of V" ='= O? (Hint: This problem can be solved with the simple de Broglie wave concept, but this must be justified. Otherwise. the more tedious way of using boundary conditions at x = a and x = a must be used. In either case ask yourself what the condition of "just being bound" implies.)
V
___,ui;;;tro
x
29
A parallel beam of particles of kinetic energy To is sent over a potential drop as shown in the figure on p. 70. Calculate the reflection coefficient of the particles at the potential step as a function of To and Yo.
70
Direction of incident beam
V
NUCLEAR STRUcrURE
o v,..__210
(a) Calculate the energies of the lowest two I = 0 states of a particle (mass rno) in a closed spherical box of radius R and give the normalized wave functions for these states. (b) Calculate the energies in Mev if rno = mass of a neutron, R = 5 F.
211 Suppose N identical particles are placed into a closed cubical box so that only one particle is in one state and that the states are filled in order of increasing energy. (a) Establish a relation between Nand (n.? + ni + n.2)max. (Hint: Each set of integral numbers nx, nv, n. represents one state. Hence, if one plots the occupied states as points in a Cartesian coordinate system with axes along nx, nil' n. the volume of the occupied space is just equal to the total number of occupied states.) (b) What is the maximum energy to which the states are filled? (This entire problem is difficult.)
212
A beam of particles of rest mass rno and kinetic energy Tencounters a potential step of height Vo (> T) as shown. Calculate (a) The wave function for x > O. (b) The reflection coefficient at the potential step. (Answer without calculation, if you wish.) (c) Is the wave function for x > 0 changed if the potential step is decreased to zero at x > L? (d) Does the reflection coefficient at x = 0 change under this condition?
V
Vol
~~x o L
213
(a) Show that for a spherical potential VCr) such that VCr  CQ) = 0, the radial solution of Schrodinger's equation, Eq. (247), for a bound state has the asymptotic solution where is given by
!}j2 K2/mo =
K
lEI
(b) Also show that Eq. (247) is satisfied for r __,. by the solution 0 R(r  0) ,._ rl 214
(a) Use Fig. 28 to estimate the overall energy (in Mev) which is released if U238
PROBLEMS
71
fissions spontaneously into two equal fragments with the release of four neutrons, and if the fission products decay to stable endproduct nuclei (to which Fig. 28 applies). (b) What fraction of the U2J8 mass is converted into energy? 215 Refer to Appendix C. (2.) What is the total binding energy of Ca40 in Mev and what is the average binding energy per nucleon? (b) The total electronic binding energy of an atom of atomic number Z is approximately given by 15.73 zt ev. What corrections (in percent) must be made to the answers of part (a), if we wish to compute the purely nuclear total and average binding energies? 216 217 Calculate, from the semiempirical mass formula, the binding energies of the last neutron in Pb207 and Pb208. Use any set of consistent energy parameters. Use the semiempirical mass formula to determine which isobars with A = 102 should be stable and compute the most stable Z [Eq. (2134)]. Use any consistent set of energy parameters. See Appendix C for the actual stable isobars.
2~CU64
218 219
Use the semiempirical mass formula to compute and JOZnBl.(Compare with Fig. 428.)
the mass difference
between
(a) Use the semiempirical mass formula to compute the decay energy in alpha decay. (The alphadecay energy is equal to the negative of the alpha separation energy.) (b) Apply your equation to the decay of 84P0212 to 82Pb20Busing any consistent set of energy parameters. (Compare with Fig. 417.) Use the empirical value of 28.3 Mev for the binding energy of the alpha particle. (a) Use the serniernpirical mass formula to compute, for a given A, the relation between Z and N for a nucleus which has zero proton separation energy. (b) Compute N / Z for the case A = 100, using a consistent set of energy parameters. (See Fig. 411.) Use the semiempirical mass formula to calculate the percentage contribution to the average binding energy per nucleon of the volume energy, the surface energy, the coulomb energy, and the asymmetry energy for A = 60 and 240. (See Fig. 216.) On the basis of the singleparticle shell model, including spinorbit coupling, what would be the expected groundstate spectroscopic configurations of the following nuclei:
220
221
222
The measured
spins are, respectively,
If you firtd any discrepancy give some explanation. 223
between
your expectations
and experiment,
try to
In oddodd nuclei, an interaction between the last odd neutron and the last odd proton must be taken into account in order to explain ground state spins. The coupling favors parallel intrinsic spins of the odd proton and odd neutron. (This is not to be confused with the pairing coupling for identical nucleons which favors antiparallel orbital angular momenta.) On this basis give the expected
72
groundstate spins and parities for the following nuclei: NIt, K40, y90, Bi206 The measured spins are, respectively, 1,4,2,6
NUCLEAR
STRUCTURE
224 The energies (in Mev) and spins of the lowest excited states of Ta182 are Energy, Mev 0.100 0.329 0.680 Spin 2 4 6
(a) Do these values agree with the rotational model for permanently deformed nuclei? (b) What is the moment of inertia of the nucleus (in gcm) about the axis of rotation? 225 Use Fig. 2·30 to compute the density of levels of Seu as a function of excitation energy. Break up the excitationenergy scale into lMev intervals and compute the number of levels per Mev. By making a plot on semilog paper, check whether Eq. (2.164) is approximately satisfied. If so, compute the constants Po and Q. The following mirror nuclei decay by emitting positrons whose maximum energy in Mev is listed: p29 ell 0.97 3.95 N13 S31 4.40 1.18 A3:i 4.96 016 1.73 Ca39 F17 1.75 5.49 &;41 5.95 MgZ3 3.09 A12.'i 3.24 Make a plot similar to Fig. 233 and determine the radius constant Ro assuming each nucleus is a uniformly charged sphere. [See Eq. (4122) for the relation between positron decay energy and mass difference.]
226
INTERACTIONS ,~,~.~.~.~.~.~.~ OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS ~'~'~'~'~'~'~'~'~'~' WITH MATTER
3
31 INTRODUCTION The chapters following the present one will deal with the dynamic properties of nuclei: radioactive decay and nuclear reactions. The present chapter is concerned with the experimental investigation of these properties. This always requires the detection of nuclear particles or electromagnetic radiation, briefly called nuclear radiations. Usually the intensity (number of detected events per unit time) and the (kinetic) energy of the radiation are determined. Most intensity measurements rely on ionization produced when the radiations pass through matter. The energy measurement either involves ionization or atomic excitation, or the deflection of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. For lowenergy neutrons and gamma rays, crystal diffraction also gives a very precise energy determination.
73
74
INTERACTIONS
OF NUCLEAR
RADIATIONS
WITH MATTER
Strictly speaking, these subjects lie outside the field of nuclear physics. Yet they are so basic to nuclear investigations that we must mention at least the most important concepts. For more extensive discussions the reader is referred to other books.' The passage through matter of charged particles, neutrons and gamma radiation, will be treated separately because they each involve different characteristic processes. 32 INTERACTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES WITH MATIER A charged particle passing through neutral atoms interacts mainly by means of the coulomb force with the electrons in the atoms. Even though in each encounter the particle loses on the average not more than a few electron volts of kinetic energy, ionization and excitation of atoms give the greatest energy loss per unit path length of the particle. The loss of kinetic energy in a nuclear encounter would be much larger, but such collisions are extremely rare compared to atomic encounters, roughly in proportion to the area of cross section of a nucleus compared to that of an atom, i.e., 10H cm2/10l6 ern" = 10B. Hence, they do not contribute appreciably to the overall energy loss. For kinetic energies larger than about Afoc2, where Mo is the rest mass of the particle, energy loss by emission of electromagnetic radiation becomes increasingly important. The radiation is called bremsstrahlung (decelerating radiation). It is caused by the same mechanism as the emission of continuous x rays. The basic process can be understood classically. According to Maxwell's equations, any accelerated charge radiates electromagnetic radiation (see Sec. 44b). If a charged particle passes close to a nucleus, its velocity vector will be rapidly changed (at least in direction if not in magnitude), so that the particle undergoes an acceleration and hence it radiates. A crude idea of the important concepts of the energy loss process by collision (i.e., excitation and ionization of atoms) can be obtained by assuming that the charged particle is heavy and that it collides with a free electron. The loss of kinetic energy of the heavy particle must then be equal to the gain of kinetic energy of the electron. The latter can be estimated from the impact given to the electron as the charged particle passes by. If x and y coordinates are chosen as shown on Fig. 31, the impact equations for the electron are
J J
F" dt ~ 0
=
(31)
FI/ dt
P.
(32)
where F t
= Fa: + FlI = coulomb force exerted on the electron
=
P.
1
=
time momentum
imparted to electron (only the y component
is nonzero)
Burcham, 1963, chaps. 58; or Evans, 1955, chaps. 1828.
32
INTERACTION
OF CHARGED
PARTlCLES
WITH
MATTER
75
Equation (31) is a good approximation because the velocity of the heavy particle is practically unaffected by the encounter. If the impact parameter: of the collision is b, the integral in Eq. (32) can be estimated from the time of the impact b 6.1 ~ (33) v where v is the speed of the heavy particle, during that time and the average magnitude of FIJ (34) where ze is the charge of the heavy particle. Hence from Eq. (32) (35)
FIGURE 31 Encounter between a heavy charged particle of mass Me and a free electron of mass mo. The impact parameter b is indicated. y
dx
A much cleaner estimate of the momentum imparted to the electron (35)] can be obtained by an application of Gauss' law of electrostatics
[Eq.
J
E· dS
=
41Tq
(in electrostatic
units)
(36)
where E is the electric field at the surface of any closed volume surrounding a charge q, and dS is an element of surface. Applying this theorem in a system of reference in which the heavy particle is at rest to an infinite cylinder of radius b, as shown in Fig. 31, we find
J ; 21Tb dx
1
Fy
=
41TZe
(37)
The impact parameter in a collision between two particles is the smallest distance at which the centers of the particles would pass each other, if there were no force between the particles.
76
INTERACTIONS OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS WITH MATIER
With respect to the heavy particle, the electron along the cylinder surface in a time dt so that
travels a distance
dx
= v dt
= P»
in accordance with Eq. (32). This yields the more correct estimate of P. P.
(38)
=
2 bv
ze2
(39)
so that the kinetic energy gained by the electron (mass mo) and lost by the heavy particle IS (310) If there are n atoms per unit volume, each with Z electrons, length dx there will be n'Z> 27Tbdb . dx then in a path (311)
electrons within a distance b to b db from the path of the heavy particle. To each of these electrons, the particle loses an amount of energy given by expression (310) so that the total energy loss per unit path is
+
dT  =
dx
=
i
bmn
nZ27Tbdb
bmin
2z2e4 mob2v2 (312)
47Te4z2nZ In bmllox mov2 bmin
This expression is approximate, because for nearly headon collisions Eq. (310) is not valid.' Nevertheless, it suffices for the present purpose. In reality the electrons in the stopping material are not free but bound to atoms (or to the solid if the material is in solid form). Since each atom has electronic energy levels the particle cannot transfer any energy to the atom unless it excites the atom at least to its first excited state. In classical terms, we can argue that the time of impact [Eq. (33)] must not be longer than the period of rotation of a typical electron in its orbit in order that energy will be transferred to the electron in the atom. 1 (313) L'ltmllox ~ v A complete derivation can be found in Evans, 1955, chap. 18.
1
32
INTERACTION
OF CHARGED
PARTICLES
WITH
MATTER
77
where ~'is the frequency of rotation.
Using Eq. (33) this gives bmax
~
v
v
(314)
The nurumum impact parameter is limited by the uncertainty principle, because the e1ectron cannot be located with respect to the heavy particle more closely than its de Broglie wavelength. If Eq. (293) is applied in the relative coordinate system of the electron and the particle, we see that (315) Therefore, we obtain (316) where hv has been replaced by a mean ionization and excitation potential lave of the atoms in the stopping material! and a factor 2 has been added in the logarithm term in accord with an exact quantum mechanical calculation.P The other symbols in this equation are, as previously, ze
=
charge of heavy particle speed of heavy particle number of electrons per unit volume in stopping material
mo = mass of electron
!' =
nZ
=
Experimentally, the energy loss is determined by the number of ion pairs formed along the path of the particle. By ion pair, we describe the positive and negative constituents which result from an ionizing encounter. If on the average, an energy VI' has to be lost by the heavy particle in order to produce one ion pair, the number of ion pairs i per unit path is given by
=wi dx
dT
(317)
The quantity IV is the result of complicated processes: (I) there is atomic excitation as well as ionization, (2) an ejected electron can have sufficient energy [see Eq. (310)] to produce secondary ionization in turn." Empirically, in a given
1 Theorerically and experimentally, lave ~ Z, approximately (Bloch, 1933). The proportionality constant is about 13 ev for most substances, except H~ and He, for which it is 19 and 22 ev, respectively (Stern heimer, 1961). • For v"'" c, the terms In (1  v'Jc·)  v'Je' have to be added to the logarithm term in Eq. (316). 3 This can be seen quite clearly on Fig. 35a. See also Prob. 36. The ejected electrons are often called della rays.
78
INTERACTIONS
OF NUCLEAR
RADIATIONS
WITH MATTER
material, w is. fortuitously, practically independent of the kinetic energy or of the nature of the particle. For air, it has the value 35.0 ev for 5,kev electrons, 35.2 ev for 5.3Mev alpha particles, and 33.3 ev for 340,Mev protons. Before comparing expression (3, l6) with experiment, it is convenient to introduce the concept of mean range R, which is the average distance traveled
FIGURE 3,2
Empirical energy loss curve for protons in air. (a) Low energy portion. Eq. (316) follows this curve down to T 0.3 Mev with lave = 80 ev. Below this energy, capture and loss of electrons reduces the average value of z (see Fig. 33). (b) High energy portion. The minimum energy loss occurs at T ~ 1500 Mev. (By permission from H. A. Bethe and J. Ashkin, in E. Segre, (ed.), "Experimental Nuclear Physics," vol. I, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1953, as adapted by Burcham, 1963.)
f>j
700
N
I
... '"
E u E CIQ
600 500 400
'" '" ..9 (a)
OJ
;..,
CIQ C
...
W
8. >
:2
&.I~ ~c..
I
OJ
200 100 0
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 T,Mev
.=
'i
7 6
'"
(b)
.2
._
'"
>, OIl
E u E CIQ
w
~
8.
::E
I > u
4 3
&./{1 ~ c..
2 1 10' 10' Proton energy T, Mev 10'
32
INTERACTION
OF CHARGED
PARTICLES
WITH
MAlTER
79
(in a given direction)
before the particle loses its kinetic energy To completely:
R=
=
. J TO(
o
f
Ii.
o
dx =
_
j
'0
d
T.
_!_ dT dT
(318) of v (319)
dT)l dT
dx
If the logarithm
term in Eq (316) were independent
R "'' LTC> T dT "'' To2
but actually no such simple range curve is found. (See Figs. 39 and 310.) The range of a single particle may be slightly larger or smaller than expression (318) because there are statistical variations in the amount of energy lost per unit path length and in the total number of ions pairs formed. This is called straggling. Figure 32 gives an experimentally determined energy loss curve for protons in air. Since the number of atoms per unit volume n is related to density of the material p, Avogadro's number A'~, nd the atomic weight d by a
n=
..Yp
d
(320)
the energy loss is often given as dT/(p dx) because it is then independent of the physical constitution of the stopping material. Curve (a) of Fig. 32 shows that at very low energies the energy loss of the proton decreases rather than increases as might be expected from the l/v2 dependence of Eq. (316). This results from intermittent capture and subsequent loss of electrons by the proton, which decreases the average value of z in Eq. (316) with decreasing speed v of the proton (Fig. 33). As the proton slows down, the probability of electron capture predominates over the loss until the proton finally becomes a hydrogen atom. It can then lose energy only by elastic collisions. The number of ion pairs per unit path towards the end of the particle's track shows this same reduction caused by the capture and loss process (Fig. 34). The cloudchamber photographs shown in Fig. 35 illustrate these effects \ery clearly (for an alpha particle). In a cloud chamber supersaturated vapor, usually water. is artificially generated. The ion pairs produced by a charged particle serve as condensation centers for the vapor. By proper timing and illumination, it is possible to photograph tracks whose droplet density is directly proportional to i [Eq. (317)J.l In Fig. 350 the ionization produced by the ejected electrons, called delta rays, can be seen. As the alpha particle loses energy the delta rays become less energetic. Towards the end of the range (Fig. 35d) the ionization first increases noticeably, as shown in Fig. 33, and then
1
For more details on cloud chambers, see Burcham, 1963, sec. 62.
80
INTERACTIONS OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS WITH MATIER
FIGURE 33 Mean charge z of slow protons and alpha particles as a function of their speed D. (By permission from Evans, 1955.) 2.0 1.8
1.6 1.4
1.2
g:~ /,/,'
0.2 ,
0.8
1.0
/Vp:Otons
"

L
1.0
r, = 0.5 Mev
1.2
1.4 1.6
O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~L~~
o
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.8 2.0
Speed v, 10·cm/sec FlGURE 34 Number of ion pairs per unit path for a single proton and a single alpha particle as a function of residual range. The residual range is the distance left to travel until the particle comes to rest. The horizontal scale is such that on the left part of the diagram both particles have similar speeds. The proton range then is 0.2 airem shorter than the alphaparticle range. (By permission from Evans, 1955.) 3.0 2.0 1.0 0
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
Residual range (ex particie ) , em air falls off as the mean charge of the alpha particle decreases. At the same time, the kinks in the alphaparticle tracks show the occurrence of atomic collisions with the cloudchamber gas. The energy loss of fast electrons in matter is caused by the same mechanisms as for heavy charged particles, and the energy loss formula is practically identical to Eq. (316). The following differences, however, should be noted: (1) Because the incident electron and the electron in the stopping material have the same mass, there is much more scattering of the incident electron (in fact we cannot tell which one was the incident electron). Hence, the path length in the stopping material can be considerably longer than the straight line distance or range in the material. Figure 36 illustrates this situation.' (2) As the charge z of Note [hat immediately after collision, the angle between the electrons is 900• This is a consequence of the nonrelativistic laws of energy and momentum conservation [see Eq, (329) l, applicable here because the incident electron has only 56kev energy.
I
32
INTERACTION
OF CHt\RGED
PARTICLES
WITH
MATTER
81
the incident particle never changes. the energy loss of electrons by ionization is appreciable down to energies in the cv range. This causes the blobs at the end of the electron tracks in Fig. 36. (3) For a given kinetic energy, electrons have higher speeds than heavy particles. Therefore, the energy loss by radiation for electrons is important at much lower energies than for protons, for example. This is shown in Fig. 37.
FIGURE 35 Alphaparticle tracks in a cloud chamber. On each figure the initial energy and the equivalent path length in air at 1 atm and 15°C is shown. Note the more energetic delta rays at the higher energies. [By permission from T. Alper, On Delta Rays and the Relation between Range and Velocity of Slow Electrons, Z. Physik, 76: 172 (1932), J. Springer, Publishers, Berlin. Reproduced from W. Gentner, H. MaierLeibnitz, and W. Bothe, "An Atlas of Typical Expansion Chamber Photographs," Pergamon Press, London, 1954.]
(a)
7.7Mev
(b)
5.3Mev
(c)
2.6Mev
(d)
:::::O.lMev
82
INTERACTIONS
OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS
WITH MATTEiI
FIGURE 36 Track of a 56kev electron in a cloud chamber. The arrow points to the start of the electron track. In this picture, 59kev xrays were used to release the initial electron causing the small blob at the beginning of the track because of an Auger effect. This is further described at end of Sec. 34c. [By permission from L. H. Martin, J. C. Bower, and T. H. Laby, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) AVIS: 40 (1935). Reproduced from W. Gentner, H. MaierLeibnitz, and W. Bothe, "An Atlas of Typical Expansion Chamber Photographs," Pergamon Press, London, 1954.1
..0
0
~
I
15
8 v
ell
<,
>
10 Lead 5
FIGURE 37 Energy loss of electrons and protons in lead. (From W. Heitler, 1954, as adapted by Burcham, 1963, by permission.)
OJ
:::E
f"" ~~
I
I"
'" ..2
II>
on
~
.:: W
>.
0
0.005 0.05
0.5
5
50
500
Particle energy T, Mev
32
INTERACT[oN
Of
CHARGED
PARTlCLES
WITH
MATTER
83
A typical experimental arrangement for the detection of charged particles is presented in Fig. 38a. In a goodgeometry situation, collimators are used which prevent particles, scattered by the absorber, from reaching the detector. Curves (b), (c), and (d) give a schematic representation of the absorption curves for heavy charged particles, monoenergetic electrons, and beta rays, respectively. Beta rays have a distribution of initial energies (see Sec. 46d) and hence have a particularly complicated absorption curve.' FIGURE 38 Schematic absorption curves for charged particles emitted by a radioactive source. (a) Experimental arrangement. (b) Absorption curve for heavy particles. (c) Absorption curve for monoenergetic electrons. Cd) Absorption curve for beta rays. Collimator Source Absorber Collimator Detector :::J
*
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The range of charged particles, as determined by an absorption curve, or in a cloud chamber or photographic emulsion.! is a convenient but not very precise method of determining the energy of a charged particle. The method is limited because of straggling to an accuracy between 1 and 5 percent. Figure 39 shows a rangeenergy curve for protons in air at atmospheric pressure; in Empirically it is found that the initial part of the absorption curve follows approximately where I is the thickness of the absorber and the constant depends on the betaray endpoint energy. 'In a photographic emulsion, the passage of ionizing radiation through the silver halide crystals causes developable grains to be formed. For details see Powell, Fowler, and Perkins,
1 ercODO(.nl)',
1959.
FIGURE 39
Rangeenergy relationship for protons in air at 1 atm and 15°C.
The relationship of Eq. (319) is shown in dotted lines. (Adapted from H. A. Bethe and J. Ashkin, Passage of Radiations through Matter, in E. Segre (ed.), "Experimental Nuclear Physics," vol, 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1953.) 10' 5
1/
2 10' 5
1/
/
II
2
§
/
/
U o
I£l
'"
10"
50 R ~ Tf, 20 10 5
~
c::.::
E u
c '" '" c
,.
II
11 1
.::
OIl
v/
II
j
'" ~ if
2 6'..
o. 5
1/
/
,/
o. 2vo. I
0.1 0.2 0.5 2 5 10 20 50 100
Proton energy Tp, Mev
84
33
I;'>;TERACTION
OF
NEUTRONS
WITH
MATTER
85
aluminum, a similar curve is obtained with the range decreased by a factor of approximately! 1/1600. A rangeenergy curve for electrons is given in Fig. 310. Neither curve has the simple energy dependence of Eq. (319). More accurate methods of energy determination consist in measuring electronically the total number of ion pairs formed in the stopping material (ionization chamber, gas proportional counter, solidstate proportional counter) or in detecting the total light emitted in the ionizationexcitation process (scintillation counter)." In all these cases one relies on (he approximate constancy of w in Eq. (317). The detectors must always be calibrated with particles of known energy. The energy of charged particles can be determined absolutely from their path in known electric or magnetic fields (in an evacuated space, to avoid scattering). In the simplest of such instruments, called spectrometers," the charged particles are deflected into a circular path of radius r by a uniform magnetic field of induction B. The momentum p of the particle is then given by
p
=
eBr
(321)
(all electromagnetic or MKS units) and the kinetic energy can be determined from Eqs. (29) and (210) or from tpZ(mo in the nonrelativistic situation. 33 INTERACTION OF NEUTRONS WITH MATTER
The interaction of neutrons with matter is not only of experimental or theoretical interest but has important practical applications, particularly in the operation of reactors.' The present discussion will be restricted to the energy loss of neutrons by elastic collisions. 33a Energy loss of neutrons. Because neutrons are neutral, they cannot lose energy by ionization. Nuclear encounters, though rare, are the only possible means of energy loss. Most of these collisions are elastic; that is, the struck nucleus is not excited, but in some cases the inelastic excitation can contribute to the energy loss. In any collision, momentum is conserved, and if the collision is elastic, kinetic energy is conserved also. We will neglect relativistic effects, i.e., our derivation will not be applicable to neutrons of energy above 200 Mev," It is convenient to consider the collision both in the laboratory (lab.) and in the centerofmass (c.m.) coordinate systems (Fig. 311). Before collision, particle 1 of mass M; and speed Vl collides with particle 2
Evans, 1955, chap. 22, sec. 3e. For details see Burcham, 1963, sec. 61. 3 For details see Burcham, 1963, sec. 72. , Kaplan, 1962, chap. 18; Segre, 1964, chap. 12. , The derivation is also applicable [0 elastic collisions of electrons of energy below about 100 kev, as in Fig. 3·6. For the relativistic case, see Segre, 1964, app. G.
1 2
FIGURE 310 Rangeenergy relationship for electrons in aluminum. To obtain the range in em, divide the range in mg/cm" by the density of AI, 2700 rug/ern". The relationship of Eq. (319) is shown in dotted lines. [Empirical relationship of L. Katz and A. S. Penfold, Rev. Mod. Phvs. 24: 28 (1952) as shown by J. B. Marion, Nucl. Data Tables, U.S. At. Energy Comm. 1960, part 3, available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.1 10'
.J
L'
.r
L.
2 10' 5
II
,/
/
L
,
2
~a
<,
''
102 50
V
R
11
00
a
:l
S '8
''
("j
::: 20 10 5
T;
" I,'
1111
j)
" .=
p::
:::
.3
00
r/
,
I~
2
'I
I
v
0.5
J
II
I
IL
I I
0.2 f
(1.
1 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0
2.0
5.0
10
20
Electron energy
t., Mev
86
33
INTERACTION
OF NEUTRONS
WITH
MATTER
87
of mass M2, which is at rest. After the collision, the particles move with speeds li~ and respectively, at angles 81 and 82 in the lab. system (Fig. 3lla). The coIlision takes place in a plane because initially there is no momentum perpendicular to the velocity VI' The center of mass of the system moves with a speed
v;,
Vo=
Ml

Mivi
in the direction
of
+ M2
(a) Laboratory system.
(322)
VI'
FIGURE 311 Elastic collision of two particles. of mass system. (c) Laboratory system.
Before collision
(b) Center
After collision
c
..._
MI
VI

If .Vo
M,
(a)
Lab. system
v;
M,
=
V, 
Vo
x _
C
V, ==
ti~
M,
(b)
Cm. system
(c)
Lab. system
If the vector Vo is subtracted from all velocity vectors, the center of mass evidently is at rest, so that the c.m. system is obtained by this procedure (Fig. 311 b). In this system both particles ha ve identical and opposing vector momenta, both before and after collision. In addition, conservation of kinetic energy requires that each particle retain its speed during the collision.' Hence, if VI and
I
See Prob. 314.
88
INTERACTIONS OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS WITH MATTER
V2 are the c.m. speeds of the two particles before collision,
we have (323) (324)
M1V1
=
M2V2
and VI and V2 are also the speeds after the collision. Furthermore
V2
=
Vo
by construction of the c.m. system. The angle of collision 0 in the c.m. system depends on the details of the collision. To return to the lab. system, the velocity Vo has to be added to all velocity vectors in the c.rn. system (Fig. 311c). All relations concerning speeds and angles can now be read off the figure immediately. For example, the energy of particle 1 in the lab. system after collision is
T; =
tMIV~2
= tM1(V12
(T;)ma~
+ vo + 2
2
VIVO
cos 0)
=
(325) 180°, respectively: (326)
This has maximum and minimum values at 0
=
0° and 0
= TI
VO)2
2VO)2
(TDmln = tMI( VI =
tMI(V1 
(327)
T;
= T1(1
+ cos
=
0l
Vo
0)/2,
it is easy to show that
2
(328)
and from the fact that VI for any collision.
= V2
+O
= 90°
(329)
33h Energy distribution of neutrons after collision. For neutrons up to several Mev kinetic energy, it is approximately correct to assume in a collision with a nucleus the distribution of the scattered neutrons is isotropic in the c.m. system.' Under these conditions the number of neutrons scattered into a given solid angle dO. in the c.m. system is proportional to di): The probability of scattering into dD is thus df.2 P(dD.) = 41T 21T sin 0 d0 41T
= ~sin
1
8
de
(330)
This is another way of stating that the neutron elastic scattering cross section in the c.m. system is isotropic. See Sec. 54d and Appendix A2.
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