Analog Modulation

What is Modulation?
Modulation the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with respect to a modulating signal. This is done in a similar fashion as a musician may modulate a tone (a periodic waveform) from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and pitch. The three key parameters of a periodic waveform are its amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency signal to obtain the modulated signal. Typically a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal, but a square wave pulse train may also occur. In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine waveform is used to transform a baseband message signal into a passband signal, for example lowfrequency audio signal into a radio-frequency signal (RF signal). In radio communications, cable TV systems or the public switched telephone network for instance, electrical signals can only be transferred over a limited passband frequency spectrum, with specific (non-zero) lower and upper cutoff frequencies. Modulating a sine-wave carrier makes it possible to keep the frequency content of the transferred signal as close as possible to the centre frequency (typically the carrier frequency) of the passband. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes detector or demod). A device that can do both operations is a modem (modulator–demodulator). Modulation is a process in which a modulator changes some attribute of a higher frequency carrier signal proportional to a lower frequency message signal. If the carrier is represented by the equation

Carrier Signal Equation

a change in the message signal will produce a corresponding change in either the amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier. A transmitter can then send this carrier signal through the communication medium more efficiently than the message signal alone. Finally, a receiver will demodulate the signal, recovering the original message.

Modulations are of Two Types:
1. Digital Modulation

Analog Modulation

Digital Modulation
Digital modulation is similar to analog modulation, but rather than being able to continuously change the amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier, there are only discrete values of these attributes that correspond to digital codes. There are several common digital modulation schemes, each varying separate sets of parameters. The simplest type is called On Off Keying (OOK) where the amplitude of the carrier corresponds to one of two digital states. A nonzero amplitude represents a digital one while a zero amplitude is a digital zero. A specific implementation of OOK is Morse Code. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), seen in Figure, is a form of frequency modulation where a certain frequency represents each binary value.

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

Finally, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) uses combinations of amplitudes and phases to represent more than 2 digital states, as many as 1024.

I and Q Data
I/Q data shows the changes in magnitude (or amplitude) and phase of a sine wave. If amplitude and phase changes are made in an orderly, predetermined fashion, one can use these amplitude and phase changes to encode information upon a sine wave; a process known as modulation. Modulation is the process of changing a higher frequency carrier signal in proportion to a lower frequency message, or information, signal. I/Q data is highly prevalent in RF communications systems, and more generally in signal modulation, because it is a convenient way to modulate signals. This discussion covers the theoretical background of I/Q data as well as practical considerations which make the use of I/Q data in communication so desirable.

Common Analog Modulation Techniques

Amplitude modulation (AM)

The amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)


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Double-sideband modulation (DSB)  Double-sideband modulation with carrier (DSB-WC) (used on the AM radio broadcasting band)  Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission (DSB-SC)  Double-sideband reduced carrier transmission (DSB-RC) Single-sideband modulation (SSB, or SSB-AM),  SSB with carrier (SSB-WC)  SSB suppressed carrier modulation (SSB-SC) Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB, or VSB-AM) Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier sinusoid based on the amplitude of the message signal. Frequency allocations vary depending on the medium of transmission.• Angle Modulation o o Frequency modulation (FM) (here the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal) Phase modulation (PM) (here the phase shift of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal) In Amplitude Modulation (AM). is much higher than the frequency of the message. Amplitude Modulation The message signal (red) rides on top of the carrier as the amplitudes of both vary with time. there is more freedom in the choice of carrier. where signals are sent through the air. This carrier frequency is the center of the 'channel. If the RF signal is transmitted over wire. Similarly. phase . In addition to amplitude modulation. pictured below. For broadcast transmissions. however.' or frequency allocation of this RF signal. such as in cable television. The frequency of the carrier. the government regulates frequency allocation. the amplitude of the carrier sinusoid changes based on the amplitude of the message.

use the available bandwidth more efficiently. AM radio stations transmit audio signals. Amplitude modulation (AM) is one form of analog modulation. using carrier waves that range from 500 kHz to 1.modulation changes the phase of the carrier in response to a change in amplitude of the message. If we were to transmit audio signals directly we would need an antenna that is around 10. Amplitude Modulation Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information.000 km! Modulation techniques can be broadly divided into analog modulation and digital modulation.7 MHz. which range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it. it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas. Basic Stages of AM . and are flexible enough to carry different types of data.

or baseband.Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine wave. or varied. The message signal can be represented by m(t) = Mb cos(2πfb + φ) and the carrier signal can be represented by c(t) = Ac cos(2πfc + φ) To make the equations simpler. assume that there is no phase difference between the carrier signal and the message signal and thus φ = 0. and phase φ. frequency fc. Carrier Wave The carrier signal is modulated by varying its amplitude in proportion to the message. and phase. to transmit information. A sine wave can be mathematically described by a sine or cosine function with amplitude Ac. signal. frequency. There are three parameters of a sine wave that can be varied: amplitude. Any of these can be modulated. .

DSB-SC) modulation. by removing one of the sidebands we lose some of the original power of the modulated signal. fc – fb). as shown below. fc – fb and fc + fb.The modulated signal can be represented by multiplying the carrier signal and the summation of 1 and the message signal. Types of AM Modulation As described in the previous section. the above waveform can be written as Ac cos(2πfc) + (Mb/2) cos(2π(fc – fb)) + (Mb/2) cos(2π(fc + fb)). This process is called single sideband/double sideband – suppressed carrier (SSB-SC. the modulated signal has waves at three frequencies: fc. To maximize the power transmitted. Use a highpass filter to remove the lower sideband signal. we can remove the carrier wave component from the signal before we transmit it. However. transmit both the lower and the upper sideband. Because the carrier wave does not have any information. Ac(1 + m(t)) cos(2πfc) With some basic trigonometric manipulation. The following figure illustrates DSB. Frequency Domain View of Double Sideband – Full Carrier One of the components of the modulated signal is the pure carrier wave. Figure 3. this process is single sideband (SSB) modulation. Transmitting at all three frequencies wastes power and bandwidth. . To avoid that problem use a filter to remove one of the sidebands (usually the lower sideband. This process is double sideband (DSB) modulation.

We can also use amplitude modulation to send digital data. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) uses four predetermined amplitude levels to determine digital bits. Special circuits can extract information about the carrier from one of the sidebands. so these two components of the sine wave equation can be collectively referred to as the phase angle.However. Frequency is simply the rate of change of phase of a sine wave (frequency is the first derivative of phase). The mathematical equation representing a sine wave is as follows: Figure 1: Equation of a Sine Wave If we think about possible sine wave parameters that we can manipulate. . Therefore. we need the carrier when demodulating the signal. we can represent the instantaneous state of a sine wave with a vector in the complex plane containing amplitude (magnitude) and phase coordinates in a polar coordinate system. the equation above makes it clear we are limited to making changes to the amplitude. and phase of a sine wave to encode information. frequency. Background on Signals Signal modulation involves changes made to sine waves in order to encode information. these circuits are used when demodulating SSB-SC or DSB-SC signals.

the distance from the origin to the point will remain fixed as long as the amplitude of the sine wave is not changing (modulating). imagine that the phase reference used is a sine wave of frequency equal to the sine wave that is being represented by the amplitude and phase points. the distance from the origin to the black point represents the amplitude (magnitude) of the sine wave. Up to this point. We will return to this point later. All the concepts discussed above apply to I/Q data. The phase of the point will change according to the current state of the sine wave.Polar Representation of a Sine Wave In the graphic above. Because phase is a relative measurement. the dot maps out a circle around the origin with radius equal to the amplitude along which the point will travel at a rate of one cycle per second. In this case. and in fact. then the rate of change that the phase of the two signals experience will be the same. a sine wave with a frequency of 1 Hz (2π radians/second) rotates counter-clockwise around the origin at a rate of one revolution per second. and the rotation of the sine wave around the origin will become stationary. Any phase rotation around the origin indicates a frequency difference between the reference sine wave and the sine wave being plotted. this tutorial has covered amplitude and phase data in a polar coordinate system. Thus. If the reference sine wave frequency and the plotted sine wave frequency are the same. For example. and the angle from the horizontal axis represents the phase. I/Q data is merely a translation of amplitude and phase data from a polar . a single amplitude/phase point can be used to represent a sine wave of frequency equal to the reference frequency. If the amplitude doesn't change during one revolution.

Y) coordinate system. Using trigonometry. just in different forms. I and Q Represented in Polar Form The figure below shows a Lab View example demonstrating the relationship between polar and cartesian coordinates. you can now convert the polar coordinate sine wave information into cartesian I/Q sine wave data.coordinate system to a cartesian (X. This equivalence is show in Figure. . These two representations are equivalent and contain the exact same information.

Both analog modulation and digital modulation are performed by changing the carrier wave amplitude. we have discussed technically what I/Q data is. the carrier sine wave amplitude is modulated according to the message signal. frequency modulation (FM). or phase (or combination of amplitude and phase simultaneously) according to the message data. frequency.I/Q Data in Lab I/Q Data in Communication Systems At this point. Signal modulation can be divided into two broad categories: analog modulation and digital modulation. With amplitude modulation. this is digital modulation because digital data is being encoded. The same idea holds true for frequency and phase modulation. Analog or digital refers to how the data is modulated onto a sine wave. If analog audio data is sampled by an analog to digital converter (ADC) with the resulting digital bits modulated onto a carrier sine wave. . or phase modulation (PM) are all examples of analog modulation. Amplitude modulation (AM). RF communication systems use advanced forms of modulation to increase the amount of data that can be transmitted in a given amount of frequency spectrum. then this is referred to as analog modulation. but to explain why I/Q data is used. we must first discuss modulation basics. If analog audio data is modulated onto a carrier sine wave.

FM. there would be a more gradual change in frequency. As the figure illustrates. the resulting carrier signal changes between two distinct frequency states. which would be more difficult to see. we should see changes in the I/Q plane only with respect to the distance from the origin to the I/Q points. Applying this to the earlier discussion. In the PM case. and PM Signals Above figure represents various analog techniques—AM. as is the case with AM modulation. In the FM case. the message data is the dashed square wave. notice the distinct phase change at the edges of the dashed square wave message signal. if only the carrier sine wave amplitude changes with respect to time (proportional to the message signal). Each of these frequency states represents the high and low state of the message signal.Time Domain of AM. This is evidenced by the following image: . FM. In the AM case. the message signal is the blue sine wave that forms the "envelope" of the higher frequency carrier sine wave. If the message signal were a sine wave in this case. and PM—applied to a carrier signal.

we can essentially see a representation of the message signal. with the phase fixed of 45 degrees.I/Q Data in the Complex Domain The preceding figure shows the I/Q data points vary in amplitude only. We cannot tell from Figure 6 the nature of the message signal—only that it is amplitude modulated. we can show the third axis of time to illustrate the message signal. Using Lab View’s 3D graph control. if we can see how the I/Q data points vary in magnitude with respect to time. However. .

The magnitude of the signal trace modulates in a sinusoidal pattern indicating that the message signal is a sine wave. representing the individual I and Q waveforms. while the red traces represent the projections of this waveform onto the I and Q axes. The green trace represents the amplitude and phase data in a polar coordinate system. Time The preceding figure shows the same data as the 2D I vs.Representation of Magnitude vs. An image of the same message signal sine wave using PM instead of AM is shown below. Q plot in Figure 6. . We can show the same type of example using PM.

we can tell that the message signal is phase modulated as the amplitude is constant but the phase is changing (modulating). We cannot tell what the shape of the message signal is with respect to time.Polar Representation of Phase vs. Once again. but we can tell the minimum and maximum signal levels of the message signal are represented by phase deviations of -45 degrees and +45 degrees respectively. Time Once again. the time axis can be used to better understand this concept. .

time for the AM sine wave. and this would not necessarily be the case for more complex digital modulation schemes where both amplitude and phase are modulated simultaneously. we would display the message signal. the I/Q data represents the message signal. compare the red I and Q traces on the 3D I vs. In essence. we would have a straight line. We would see sine waves for the I vs. Because the I/Q data waveforms are Cartesian translations of the polar amplitude and phase waveforms. but the scale would be off. shows the green trace varying in a sinusoidal fashion with respect to time. time and Q vs. it is not easy to visually tell what the nature of the message signal is from the I/Q data. If we plot amplitude vs. time for the AM sine wave. To illustrate this. Q plots in Figure 9 to the green trace in Figure 9. . time waveforms as well. If we plot the phase data vs.3D Representation of Phase Modulation The preceding figure shown in the LabVIEW 3D graph. The projections onto the I and Q axes represent the individual I and Q waveforms corresponding to the PM sine wave with fixed magnitude and oscillating phase.

and. To understand how we to avoid manipulating the phase of an RF carrier directly. The implications of this are very important. it would seem that we should use polar amplitude and phase data instead of cartesian I and Q data.So Why Use I/Q Data? Because amplitude and phase data seem more intuitive. we first return to trigonometry. What this essentially means is that we can control the amplitude. Mathematical Background of I/Q Modulation According to the trigonometric identity shown in the first line of Figure 10. not as flexible as a circuit that uses I and Q waveforms. Remember that the difference between a sine wave and a cosine wave of the same frequency is a 90-degree phase offset between them. However. as it turns out. practical hardware design concerns make I and Q data the better choice in this matter. . It is difficult to vary precisely the phase of a high-frequency carrier sine wave in a hardware circuit according to an input message signal. Then substitute I for A cos(φ) and Q for A sin(φ) to represent a sine wave with the equation shown on line 3. A hardware signal modulator that manipulates the amplitude and phase of a carrier sine wave would therefore be expensive and difficult to design and build. multiply both sides of the equation by A and substitute 2πfct in place of α and φ in place of β to arrive at the equation shown in line 2.

We can achieve the same effect by manipulating the amplitudes of input I and Q signals. and mixes the Q signal with the same RF carrier sine wave yet with a 90-degree phase offset. the 90-degree shift of the carrier is the source of the names for the I and Q data—I refers to in-phase data (because the carrier is in phase) and Q refers to quadrature data (because the carrier is offset by 90 degrees). This technique is known as quadrature upconversion and the same I/Q modulator can be used for any modulation scheme. we no longer have to directly vary the phase of an RF carrier sine wave. Hardware Diagram of an I/Q Modulator The preceding figure shows a block diagram of an I/Q modulator. The flexibility and simplicity (relative to other options) of the design of an I/Q modulator is the reason for its widespread use and popularity. but this is a much simpler design issue than the aforementioned direct phase manipulation. and I and Q data can be used to represent any changes in magnitude and phase of a message signal. The circles with an 'X' represent mixers—devices that perform frequency multiplication and either upconvert or downconvert signals (upconverting here). the second half of the equation is a sine wave and the first half is a cosine wave. .frequency. In fact. Of course. The I/Q modulator mixes the I waveform with the RF carrier sine wave. so we must include a device in the hardware circuit to induce a 90degree phase shift between the carrier signals used for the I and Q mixers. The Q signal is subtracted from the I signal (just as in the equation shown in line 3 in Figure 10) producing the final RF modulated waveform. and phase of a modulating RF carrier sine wave by simply manipulating the amplitudes of separate I and Q input signals! With this method. This is because the I/Q modulator is merely reacting to changes in I and Q waveform amplitudes.

but still at a significantly higher frequency than the message signal. The first method involves converting I and Q data into analog signals. an analog IF to RF upconverter uses several stages of mixing and filtering to shift the analog RF signal to the desired RF frequency. There. These digital sinusoids are of a lower frequency than the analog oscillators in the IQ modulation scheme. operating 90 degrees out of phase.IQ vs. and frequency. which operates at a much higher frequency than the DAC used in IQ modulation. converts the resulting digital waveform to low frequency analog RF. phase. IF Modulators After calculating digital I and Q data from the baseband message signal. . digital sinusoids with a phase difference of 90 degrees are scaled by the digital I and Q values. That is. IQ Modulation The next method of converting digital I and Q data to analog RF performs the oscillator scaling and summing in the digital domain. there are two methods of converting this data into an analog RF signal. resulting in an RF signal with the appropriate amplitude. they control the amplitudes of two oscillators. A digital to analog converter (DAC). Finally. then feeding them into a quadrature encoder. then added together. The output of these oscillators is summed.

IF Modulation Analog Modulation Methods In analog modulation. As the figure suggests. some categories of techniques include named special cases. A low-frequency message signal (top) may be carried by an AM or FM radio wave. . The following figure shows the modulation techniques that Communications Blockset supports for analog signals. the modulation is applied continuously in response to the analog information signal.

. The modulation and demodulation blocks also let you control such features as the initial phase of the modulated signal and post-demodulation filtering. not continuoustime. taking into account the signal bandwidth.For a given modulation technique. Specifically. The input and output of the analog modulator and demodulator are all real signals. the sample rate of the system must be greater than twice the sum of the carrier frequency and the signal bandwidth. output. Representing Signals for Analog Modulation Analog modulation blocks in this blockset process only sample-based scalar signals. All analog demodulators in this blockset produce discrete-time. This blockset supports passband simulation for analog modulation. two ways to simulate modulation techniques are called baseband and passband. Sampling Issues in Analog Modulation The proper simulation of analog modulation requires that the Nyquist criterion be satisfied.

Filter Design Issues After demodulating. If the cutoff frequency is too high. such as butter. gather and configure these blocks:  Signal Generator in the Simulink Sources library    Set Wave form to Sawtooth. cheby2. The following example modulates a sawtooth message signal. If the cutoff frequency is too low. those components may not be filtered out.01. you might want to filter out the carrier signal. The Butterworth filter is implemented within the SSB AM Demodulator Passband block. a suitable cutoff frequency is half the carrier frequency. Example: Varying the Filter's Cutoff Frequency In many situations. demodulates the resulting signal using a Butterworth filter.3. Different filtering methods have different properties. and ellip. and plots the original and recovered signals. Set Frequency to . Since the carrier frequency must be higher than the bandwidth of the message signal. can be selected on the mask of the demodulator block. and you might need to test your application with several filters before deciding which is most suitable. it might narrow the bandwidth of the message signal. a cutoff frequency chosen in this way properly filters out unwanted frequency components. The particular filter used.  Zero-Order Hold: in the Simulink Discrete library  . Set Amplitude to 4. To build the model. cheby1. Set Sample time to .

Set Hilbert transform filter order to 200. Set Initial phase to 0. Set Cutoff frequency to 30 Frequency Modulation In telecommunications and signal processing. Frequency-shift keying (digital FM) is widely used in data and fax modems. . In analog applications. In radio systems.  SSB AM Demodulator Passband: In the Analog Passband sublibrary of       the Modulation library Set Carrier frequency to 25. Set Lowpass filter design method to Butterworth. SSB AM Modulator Passband:In the Analog Passband sublibrary of     the Modulation library Set Carrier frequency to 25. and certain video transmission systems. FM is widely used for broadcasting of music and speech. Set Initial phase to 0. This is in contrast with amplitude modulation. Frequency modulation can be regarded as phase modulation where the carrier phase modulation is the time integral of the FM modulating signal. Set Filter order to 2. and in two-way radio systems. in magnetic tape recording systems. frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. the difference between the instantaneous and the base frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal amplitude. in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant. a technique known as frequency-shift keying. Set Sideband to modulate to Upper. frequency modulation with sufficient bandwidth provides an advantage in cancelling naturally-occurring noise. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier's frequency among a set of discrete values.

is the instantaneous frequency of the oscillator and is the frequency deviation. a baseband modulated signal may be approximated by a sinusoidal Continuous Wave signal with a frequency fm. in this specific case. where fc is the carrier's base frequency and Ac is the carrier's amplitude. Although it may seem that this limits the frequencies in use to fc ± fΔ. The frequency spectrum of an actual FM signal has components extending out to infinite frequency.Theory of Frequency Modulation Suppose the baseband data signal (the message) to be transmitted is xm(t) and the sinusoidal carrier is . Sinusoidal Base band signal: While it is an over-simplification. The integral of such a signal is Thus. assuming xm(t) is limited to the range ±1. The modulator combines the carrier with the baseband data signal to get the transmitted signal: In this equation. this neglects the distinction between instantaneous frequency and spectral frequency. equation (1) above simplifies to: . which represents the maximum shift away from fc in one direction. although they become negligibly small beyond a point.

where the amplitude of the modulating sinusoid. FM is considered an analog form of modulation because the baseband signal is typically an analog waveform without discrete. Analog television channels 0 through 72 utilize bandwidths between 54 MHz and 825 MHz. the FM band also includes FM radio. is represented by the peak deviation (see frequency deviation). which operates from 88 MHz to 108 MHz. Frequency Modulation (FM) is a form of modulation in which changes in the carrier wave frequency correspond directly to changes in the baseband signal.this provides a basis for a mathematical understanding of frequency modulation in the frequency domain. The harmonic distribution of a sine wave carrier modulated by such a sinusoidal signal can be represented with Bessel functions . Each radio station utilizes a 38 kHz frequency band to broadcast audio. . We represent this relationship in the graph below. FM Theory The basic principle behind FM is that the amplitude of an analog baseband signal can be represented by a slightly different frequency of the carrier. In addition. digital values. Common Applications Frequency modulation (FM) is most commonly used for radio and television broadcast. The FM band is divided between a variety of purposes.

θ(t).Frequency Modulation As this graph illustrates. the integration of a message signal results in an equation for phase with respect to time. This equation is defined by the following equation: . onto the carrier requires a two-step process. The actual mathematical process to modulate a baseband signal. First. we represent this by describing the equations which characterize FM. various amplitudes of the baseband signal (shown in white) relate to specific frequencies of the carrier signal (shown in red). FM Transmitter Block Diagram As the block diagram above illustrates. First. or baseband. Mathematically. This integration enables the modulation process because phase modulation is fairly straightforward with typical I/Q modulator circuitry. A block diagram description of an FM transmitter follows. we represent our message. m(t). the message signal must be integrated with respect to time to get an equation for phase with respect to time. we represent a sinusoidal carrier by the equation: xc(t) = Ac cos (2πfct). Second. signal by the simple designation m(t).

which involves changing the phase of the carrier over time. where m(τ) = M cos (2πfmτ). the resulting FM signal. This equation is shown below. the resulting modulation that must occur is phase modulation. we can also represent this equation as: . More simply. Again. shown below. now represents the frequency modulated signal. s(t).where kf is the frequency sensitivity. This process is fairly straightforward and requires a quadrature modulator. Quadrature Modulator As a result of phase modulation.

This index. the modulated signal will have instantaneous frequencies from 75 kHz to 925 kHz. We already have established that changes in amplitude of the baseband correspond to changes in carrier frequency. the ratio of ∆ƒ to the carrier frequency is the modulation index. which represents the maximum frequency difference between the instantaneous frequency and the carrier frequency. In fact. Mathematically. is thus defined by the equation The integrated message signal can be represented as: As a result. when the modulated frequency is very small. We can simplify this equation to the following: In the equation above. Below we illustrate an FM modulated signal in which the center frequency is 500 kHz. The wide range of frequencies is evident by observing the minimum amplitude of the baseband. β. the greater the instantaneous frequency can be from the carrier. As a result. the FM deviation has been selected as 425 kHz. The factor that determines exactly how much the carrier deviates from its center frequency is known as the modulation index. ∆ƒ is the frequency deviation. In the graph below. we have already identified our integrated baseband signal as the following equation. .Modulation Index One important aspect of frequency modulation is the modulation index. we can substitute this new representation of θ(t) into our original formula to represent the final modulated FM signal as the following equation: The modulation index affects the modulated sinusoid in that the larger the modulation index.

because they require nothing more than an I/Q modulator. we have chosen a 200 kHz FM deviation instead.FM Signal with 425 kHz FM Deviation Contrast the image above to an FM signal where the frequency deviation is smaller. As a result. and because of its simplicity. . As we have seen in this document. Below. FM Signal with 200 kHz FM Deviation Conclusions Frequency Modulation (FM) is an important modulation scheme both because of its widespread commercial use. we can generate frequency modulated signals with the National Instruments vector signal generator. frequency modulation can be simplified to angle modulation with a simple integrator.

5 MHz rate. too wide for equalizers to work with due to electronic noise below −60 dB. on demodulation. and therefore acts as a form of noise reduction. and a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.5 MHz. if added to the signal — as was done on V2000 and many Hi-band formats — can keep mechanical jitter under control and assist time base correction. The system must be designed so that this is at an acceptable level Sound . while the second sidebands are on 13 MHz and −1 MHz. to record both the luminance (black and white) and the chrominance portions of the video signal. and the FM capture effect removes print-through and pre-echo. by Bessel analysis the first sidebands are on 9.5 and 2. this results in an unwanted output at 6−1 = 5 MHz. FM is the only feasible method of recording video to and retrieving video from Magnetic tape without extreme distortion.000. as video signals have a very large range of frequency components — from a few hertz to several megahertz. A continuous pilot-tone. These FM systems are unusual in that they have a ratio of carrier to maximum modulation frequency of less than two. contrast this with FM audio broadcasting where the ratio is around 10. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level. The result is a sideband of reversed phase on +1 MHz. Consider for example a 6 MHz carrier modulated at a 3. including VHS.Applications Magnetic tape storage FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by all analog VCR systems.

the superheterodyne receiver in 1918 and the super-regenerative circuit in 1922. Radio Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890–1954) was an American electrical engineer who invented frequency modulation (FM) radio. such as: where the radio frequency (in Hz) is given by: . which first described FM radio Example of Double-sideband AM The (2-sided) spectrum of an AM signal. was popularized by early digital synthesizers and became a standard feature for several generations of personal computer sound cards. He presented his paper: "A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation". known as FM synthesis. He patented the regenerative circuit in 1914.FM is also used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. A carrier wave is modeled as a simple sine wave. This technique.

For this simple example. we must choose: Spectrum: . produce a y(t) depicted by the graph labelled "50% Modulation" in Figure 4. And let the constant M represent its largest magnitude. For instance: Thus. To generate double-sideband full carrier (A3E). Let m(t) represent an arbitrary waveform that is the message to be transmitted.5. but leaves the sidebands. and are introduced for generality. The values A=1. and M=0.The constants and represent the carrier amplitude and initial phase. a carrier wave and two sinusoidal waves (known as sidebands) whose frequencies are slightly above and below Also notice that the choice A=0 eliminates the carrier component. the message might be just a simple audio tone of frequency It is generally assumed that and that Then amplitude modulation is created by forming the product: represents the carrier amplitude which is a constant that we would choose to demonstrate the modulation index. their respective values can be set to 1 and 0. For simplicity however. the modulated signal has three components. That is the DSBSC transmission mode. y(t) can be trigonometrically manipulated into the following equivalent form: Therefore.

It has two groups of components: one at positive frequencies (centered on + ωc) and one at negative frequencies (centered on − ωc). Each group contains the two sidebands and a narrow component in between that represents the energy at the carrier frequency.For more general forms of m(t). We need only be concerned with the positive frequencies. of m(t). Therefore. but one of the simplest circuits uses anode or collector modulation applied via a transformer. we see that an AM signal's spectrum consists basically of its original (2-sided) spectrum shifted up to the carrier frequency. Figure 2 is a result of computing the Fourier transform of: using the following transform pairs: Amplitude Modulator Designs Circuits A wide range of different circuits have been used for AM. But if the top trace of Figure 2 depicts the frequency spectrum. valved . While it is perfectly possible to create good designs using solid-state electronics. then the bottom trace depicts the modulated carrier. trigonometry is not sufficient. The negative ones are a mathematical artifact that contains no additional information.

the output of this stage is then amplified using a linear RF amplifier. . To amplify it we use a wideband power amplifier at the output. both the input and outputs are tuned LC circuits which are tapped into by inductive coupling Modulation circuit designs can be broadly divided into low and high level. Anode modulation using a transformer. The resistor R1 sets the grid bias. Wideband power amplifiers are used to preserve the sidebands of the modulated waves. In general. The tetrode is supplied with an anode supply (and screen grid supply) which is modulated via the transformer. In this arrangement. modulation is done at low power. Low level Here a small audio stage is used to modulate a low power stage. valves are able to more easily yield RF powers.(vacuum tube) circuits are shown here. Many high-power broadcast stations still use valves. in excess of what can be easily achieved using solid-state transistors.

These class C stages will be able to generate the drive for the final stage for a smaller DC power input. This approach is widely used in practical medium power transmitters. and that all the earlier stages can be driven at a constant level. High level With high level modulation. An approach which marries the advantages of low-level modulation with the efficiency of a Class C power amplifier chain is to arrange a feedback system to compensate for the substantial distortion of the AM envelope. in many designs in . Disadvantages: The great disadvantage of this system is that the amplifier chain is less efficient. because it has to be linear to preserve the modulation. though the RF amplifier itself still retains the Class C efficiency. A simple detector at the transmitter output (which can be little more than a loosely coupled diode) recovers the audio signal. and this is used as negative feedback to the audio modulator stage. which only requires a small audio amplifier to drive the modulator. Hence Class C amplifiers cannot be employed. However. the modulation takes place at the final amplifier stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum Advantages: One advantage of using class C amplifiers in a broadcast AM transmitter is that only the final stage needs to be modulated. such as AM radiotelephones.Advantages: The advantage of using a linear RF amplifier is that the smaller early stages can be modulated. The overall chain then acts as a linear amplifier as far as the actual modulation is concerned.

as illustrated in figure 2-17. At this point the comparison of fm to pm may seem a little hazy. During the process of frequency modulation.order to obtain better quality AM the penultimate RF stages will need to be subject to modulation as well as the final stage. though this Phase modulation (PM) Phase modulation is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. . The amount of frequency change has nothing to do with the resultant modulated wave shape in pm. Notice that the time period of each successive cycle varies in the modulated wave according to the audio-wave variation. and this can be bulky. but in pm it is merely incidental. The frequency change in fm is vital. Since frequency is a function of time period per cycle. we can see that such a phase shift in the carrier will cause its frequency to change. . The resultant wave from the phase modulator shifts in phase. Just the opposite action takes place in phase modulation. Direct coupling from the audio amplifier is also possible (known as a cascode arrangement). This is actually an incidental phase shift that takes place along with the frequency shift in fm. Traditionally the modulation is applied using an audio transformer. Disadvantages: A large audio amplifier will be needed for the modulation stage. Frequency modulation requires the oscillator frequency to deviate both above and below the carrier frequency. but it will clear up as we progress. the peaks of each successive cycle in the modulated waveform occur at times other than they would if the carrier were unmodulated. at least equal to the power of the transmitter output itself. The af signal is applied to a PHASE MODULATOR in pm.

PM is not very widely used for radio transmissions. changing the rate at which the point moves around the circle. This changes the phase of the signal from what it would have been if no modulation was applied. even though these instruments are usually referred to as "FM" synthesizers (both modulation types sound very similar. PM is used. The instantaneous amplitude follows this curve moving positive and then negative. This can also be represented by the movement of a point around a circle. returning to the start point after one complete cycle . i. This is because it tends to require more complex receiving hardware and there can be ambiguity problems in determining whether. the phase at any given point being the angle between the start point and the point on the waveform as shown. however.e. Phase Modulation Basics Before looking at phase modulation it is first necessary to look at phase itself. the signal has changed phase by +180° or -180°. frequency modulation (FM). but PM is usually easier to implement in this area).Phase modulation Unlike its more popular follows the curve of the sine wave. for example. In other words . Phase modulation works by modulating the phase of the signal. in digital music synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7. A radio frequency signal consists of an oscillating carrier in the form of a sine wave is the basis of the signal.

Frequency modulation can be changed to phase modulation by simply adding a CR network to the modulating signal that integrates the modulating signal. .Phase Shift Keying BPSK . and there are many flavours of this. PSK. It is even possible to combine phase shift keying and amplitude keying in a form of modulation known as quadrature amplitude modulation. it is possible to change between the different types of modulation to best meet the prevailing conditions. bandwidth and the like also hold true for phase modulation as they do for frequency modulation. This is known as phase shift keying.Binary Phase Shift Keying QPSK . In other words when phase modulation is applied to a signal there are frequency changes and vice versa. it is far more widely used as a digital form of modulation where it switches between different phases.Minimum Shift Keying GMSK . Phase and frequency are inseparably linked as phase is the integral of frequency.Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying These are just some of the major forms of phase modulation that are widely used in radio communications applications today.16 Point Phase Shift Keying QAM . With today's highly software adaptable radio communications systems.the speed of rotation around the circle is modulated about the mean value. bearing in mind their relationship.64 Point Quadrature Amplitude Modulation MSK .Phase Modulation PSK .Quadrature Phase Shift Keying 8 PSK . QAM. The list below gives some of the forms of phase shift keying that are used: • • • • • • • • • • • PM .16 Point Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 64 QAM . As such the information regarding sidebands. To achieve this it is necessary to change the frequency of the signal for a short time.8 Point Phase Shift Keying 16 PSK . Forms of Phase Modulation Although phase modulation is used for some analogue transmissions.Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 16 QAM .

The bottom diagram shows the resulting phasemodulated signal. Suppose that the signal to be sent (called the modulating or message signal) is m(t) and the carrier onto which the signal is to be modulated is .Theory of Phase Modulation: An example of phase modulation. PM changes the phase angle of the complex envelope in direct proportion to the message signal. The top diagram shows the modulating signal superimposed on the carrier wave.

. radio broadcasting of digital audio and TV. PM. the greater the phase shift of the modulated signal at that point. PM is similar to amplitude modulation (AM) and exhibits its unfortunate doubling of baseband bandwidth and poor efficiency. PM is similar to FM.the greater m(t) is at a point in time. where fM = ωm / 2π and h is the modulation index defined below. and its bandwidth is approximately . It is used in all forms of radio communications from cellular technology to Wi-Fi. Overview of Phase Modulation: Phase modulation. and many more forms of transmission. This is also known as Carson's Rule for PM. It can also be viewed as a change of the frequency of the carrier signal. and phase modulation can thus be considered a special case of FM in which the carrier frequency modulation is given by the time derivative of the phase modulation.Annotated: carrier(time) = (carrier amplitude)*sin(carrier frequency*time + phase shift) This makes the modulated signal This shows how m(t) modulates the phase . but the mathematics reveals that there are two regions of particular interest: • • For small amplitude signals. WiMAX. The spectral behaviour of phase modulation is difficult to derive. with phase shift keying being widely used for digital modulation and data transmission. is widely used in today's radio communications scene. For a single large sinusoidal signal.

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