5 Different Types of Waste Disposal Systems Explained One of the world's most pressing problems is waste disposal.

Every country on earth seems to have difficulty dealing with their municipal solid waste. At an individual level, this problem affects people everywhere, for everyone contributes their share of waste that ends up in landfills, incinerators, waste-to-energy plants or the recycling bin. Each homeowner has several options in disposing of waste. They range from simply throwing waste in the garbage to recycling to turning that waste into energy. The following 5 waste disposal systems are available to just about anyone given the right tools and space. 1. Simply Throwing Garbage away As common as throwing garbage away is, it is also highly problematic when it is taken as a whole. The U.S. commonly throws away 250 million tons or more of garbage annually, consuming more than 3,500 acres of land in the process. There is something very passive about throwing garbage away: put it in the basket and watch the truck haul it away. It is the 'don't ask, don't tell' solution to waste disposal. 2. Garbage Disposal Installation Having a home garbage disposal reduces landfill waste by pulverizing food waste and washing it down the drain. The food waste does not become liquid, but it is altered enough not to ruin sewer pipes. A garbage disposal is a step in the right direction, but it solves less than half of the problem. Plenty of waste gets thrown away even with a disposal. Not only that, but the material that can be put down a garbage disposal would be better used in a compost pile. 3. Composting Taking all of your organic food scraps, including coffee grounds and eggshells (excluding meat, bones, skin and lard) and throwing it in layers on a compost pile eventually breaks it down and becomes nutrient-rich fertilizer. You must keep the amounts in proportion and add grass clippings and other yard debris as well, but when done right you are helping to complete the cycle of life. This is one of the best ways to dispose of (food) waste. 4. Recycling Instead of simply throwing everything away in trash, get in the habit of recycling what can be reused or remade. Metal, paper products, certain plastics, motor oil, electronics, appliances, mattresses, wood, rubber, glass and other things can all be recycled. In some cases you have to pay to have it hauled away. Other things people will gladly remove from your recycling pile on the street. If everything that could be recycled was recycled across the board, the aggregate trash amount would be drastically reduced every year.

5. Incineration While this method is mainly used at the industrial level, residential incinerators are available to dispose of waste. There is the danger of releasing toxins from certain materials, though, so be sure you know the potential hazards. Rather than throwing everything away to go to the landfill, take the time to consider other waste disposal methods. In doing so, you'll cut down on the amount of trash you make, and with composting you may end up with something usable because of it.

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State of Waste Management in South East Asia

I INTRODUCTION
Human activities generate waste. In recent years the volume of waste has been increasing at an alarming rate, posing a formidable challenge to governments. A 1999 World Bank report predicted that the total volume of municipal solid waste alone that is generated in Asia and the Pacific will more than double by year 2025, greatly surpassing capacities of existing waste treatment facilities. The complexities and enormity of the challenges become evident when we consider other waste types to be managed. These include industrial solid waste, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, storm water and hazardous waste. This paper provides snapshots, or quick but comprehensive pictures, of what is happening in terms of waste generation, treatment, disposal and management within the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). We will also look at current approaches at sustainable integrated waste management. Urban population in ASEAN countries, except in Singapore, is expected to increase between 5.1 percent to 7.2 percent within this decade (Table 1). The volume of waste generated by human activities is expected to continue to increase accordingly.

Table 1: Urban Population Trends in Selected Countries of South East Asia 1980-2020
Country Urban population as a percentage Percentage change in of total population urban population territory 2010 2020 +6.4 +7.9 +6.2 0.0 +8.0 +7.7

Total Population 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 1990 1990 2000 2010 (million) Malaysia 15 34.6 43.0 51.2 58.4 64.8 +11.6 +18.2 +7.2 Myanmar 42 24.0 24.8 28.4 35.4 43.3 +0.8 +3.6 +7.1 Philippines 62 37.4 42.7 48.9 55.7 62.5 +5.3 +6.2 +6.8 Singapore 3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Thailand 55 17.1 22.2 28.9 36.7 44.7 +5.1 +6.7 +7.8 Vietnam 67 19.2 19.9 22.3 27.4 35.1 +0.7 +2.4 +5.1

Source: Compiled from United Nations (1993), World Urbanization Prospects: 1992 Revision, United Nations, New York.

At the same time issues of rapid urbanization continue to challenge ASEAN cities. There is a widening gap between society¶s rapidly changing demands for more urban services and the capacity of cities to meet these demands. This has led to significant environmental and health issues associated with wastes, such as water and soil

seas from wastewater. coupled with a lack of clear definition and delineation of the different waste types. Often. which will be discussed according to their specific natures. makes an assessment of current waste management practices in most ASEAN countries difficult.contamination from solid and liquid wastes. In the succeeding sections the waste-generating sectors are classified into six subsectors. This fragmented approach to waste management. lakes. as an initial attempt at sub-regional analysis. Be that as it may. and pollution of rivers. which will be presented in the subsequent discussions. different government agencies are mandated to manage different waste sectors. our discussion will focus on the following waste sub-sectors: y y y y y y Municipal solid waste Industrial solid waste Hazardous/toxic waste Municipal wastewater Industrial wastewater Storm water .

metal and glass. metals." MSW is thus seen as primarily coming from households but also includes wastes from offices. Residential Stores. rags. ashes. Among the data needed are: the sources of wastes. discarded medicines and automotive parts. consumer electronics. septic tank sludge and sludge from sewage treatment plants. Table 2: Sources and Types of Municipal Solid Waste Sources Typical waste generators Single and multifamily dwellings Types of solid waste Food wastes. the waste generators. glass. data collection and management should be an on-going exercise for monitoring purposes and to enable future and long-term planning and decision-making. oil. special wastes. Rio de Janeiro. plastics. cardboard. cardboard. office buildings Institutional Schools. paper. hotels. June 14. wood. In some countries the solid wastes management system also handles human wastes such as night-soil. If these wastes manifest hazardous characteristics they should be treated as hazardous wastes. schools. food wastes. the seasonal variations and future trends of generation. hotels. plastics. the quantities of waste generated. plastics. government . metals. 1992 Chapter 21 "Environmentally Sound Management of Solid Wastes and Sewage-related Issues") "Solid wastes«include all domestic refuse and non-hazardous wastes such as commercial and institutional wastes. wood. street sweepings and construction debris. Table 2 highlights the main sources of MSW. cardboard. markets. and from municipal services such as street cleaning and maintenance of recreational areas. and types of solid waste generated.3 of Agenda 21 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.I TYPES OF WASTES ± Sources & Composition The most fundamental step in waste management is quantifying and qualifying the different types of waste being generated. food wastes. The major types of MSW are food wastes. with some hazardous household wastes such as electric light bulbs. tires) and household hazardous wastes Paper. institutions. A. Such information forms the basis for the development of appropriate waste management strategies. In fact. textiles. glass. shopping complexes/shops. hazardous wastes Paper. batteries. paper. It is important to have a system for the collection and analysis of basic information about wastes. Municipal Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be defined using Chapter 21. ashes from incinerators. their composition and characteristics. Commercial restaurants. plastic. batteries. special wastes (bulky items.

Malaysia (population of 22 million) generated an estimated 5. Vietnam generates about 49.475. 0. In Lao PDR average urban waste production is 0. The quantity of waste produced by Thailand in 2001 was 14. general wastes from parks.e. This was comparable to Singapore¶s 5. Figure 1 gives the rates of waste generation for these ASEAN countries in 2001.1 million tons or 38. However. recreational areas glass.61 kg/capita/day). In the Philippines. prisons Municipal services Street cleaning.23 kg/capita/day). and other recreational areas Among the ASEAN countries there is a marked range of waste generation per capita. waste generation is an average of 36. . i.68 kg per capita/day in 2001. an increase of about 470 tons per day compared to year 2000.000 tons per year (about 0. parks. metals. This is about 0. hospitals.30 kg/capita/day (in rural areas). Singapore¶s per capita waste generation is much bigger because it has a population of only 4.700.center.50 tons per year.000 tons of solid waste. landscaping. special wastes. hazardous wastes Street sweepings. landscape and tree trimmings.75 kg per capita per day. beaches. beaches.50 kg/capita/day (in urban areas) and 0.415 tons of waste in the same year.172.640 tons per day (about 0.134.035.452.

29 percent batteries.75 percent glass. 15 percent paper. . While it had not been the original intention to include construction and demolition waste in this sector. 1.14 percent wood/trimmings.04 percent metal.23 liters/capita/day).92 percent organics. and 1. Figure 2 presents the general composition of typical MSW of selected cities in SEA. Vietnam¶s urban waste typically consists of 30 percent organics.9 percent plastic.15kg/capita/day) comprising of 33 percent paper. 1. For instance.44 percent mixed in organics. 25 percent food waste.963 m3 in 1998 (1.77 liters waste per capita per day broken down as follows: 73. 0. cans and other metals. Jakarta. 10.55 percent rubber/imitation leather. with about 10 to 24 percent made up of paper and cardboard waste. 14 percent metals. Mandalay City in Myanmar generates 10. Indonesia.86 percent others).18 percent paper.800 (2002 estimate) generates waste at a rate of 392 tons a day (1. 10. this type of waste has been included in the municipal solid waste category by the authorities concerned.526 tons per year. generates 2.57 percent textile. Cambodia. 0. consisting mostly of 47.86 percent plastic. 39. 2. 7. Phnom Penh. 16 percent plastic. The highly urbanized cities are shown to generate a high percentage of organic and mixed inorganic waste ± between 70 to 80 percent. 0. with a population of one million had a waste volume of 450.98 percent wood. Brunei with a population of 340. 5 percent glass and 7 percent others. 0. 30 percent plastic. 25 percent glass.Figure 1: Waste Generation in Selected ASEAN Countries (2001) Among the cities there are distinct variations in the proportions of waste constituents.02 percent organic.

Table 3: Types and Quantities of Solid Waste Generated Per Year in Singapore. 11-12 percent paper. considers construction and demolition waste as part of total municipal solid waste. 13-17 percent mixed plastics. 2001 .Figure 2: Approximate Composition of Municipal Solid Waste in Selected Cities of ASEAN Member Countries 2001 Bangkok's MSW composition in 2001 was organic waste 44-48 percent. Singapore. Note that paper and cardboard and metal wastes together constitute almost 50 percent of the total volume of solid waste. wood and textiles. A detailed breakdown of the types and quantities of solid waste generated in Singapore is given below in Table 3. 4-6 percent inorganic wastes including glass. Moisture content was about 50-60 percent showing little difference between the dry and wet seasons. and 2-3 percent metal and others. as with most other ASEAN countries.

B. solid waste is generated by both domestic as well as non-domestic. Industrial Solid Waste Industrial solid waste . So there is no differentiation during collection by public or private contractors. i. paper. wood wastes 5 percent. products which are off-specification and a variety of materials not officially specified as or are known to be hazardous/toxic. . The lack of information on industrial solid waste is lamentable because it can actually include a wide range of materials that may have different levels of impact on the environment.e. wood waste. commercial and industry.the non-toxic or non-hazardous waste generated by various industries is normally not identified as different from municipal solid waste coming from domestic and commercial activities. treatment and disposal. scrap materials 5 percent. plastics. straw. rubber. In most ASEAN countries. there is an absence of a systematic database on industrial solid waste and the exact rates of industrial waste generation are not known. commercial and/or industrial wastes. there is generally no system to identify and classify MSW into domestic. resins. In many ASEAN countries. which comprises packing paper 10 percent. housekeeping wastes.(bigger image) In Singapore. stones. In some countries waste collected is taken to a common processing center for separation. cloth. metal and plastic scraps. All types of solid waste are mixed together and not sorted at home or at other sources. scrap materials such as glass and ceramics. activities. food wastes. it has been included as part of municipal solid waste. Yangon City in Myanmar generates about 500 tons industrial solid waste a year. As a result. The types of industrial solid waste would include packaging materials.

Thus the variations from city to city. This would pose serious challenges to those ASEAN countries that do not have adequate collection. also in Myanmar.602 million tons in 2005 and 2010 respectively. The generation ratio of municipal waste to industrial solid waste is 1:3 for PR China.485 and 2. 2001.43 percent food. brick. In Malaysia non-scheduled wastes from industry are normally collected by either private or public contractors. ceramic ware. and marble factories. wood industry and chemical plants. with projected increase to 2. 0. processing and disposal systems for this type of wastes.37 percent plastic/rubber.09 tons of wastes from light industries (56. which are controlled and regulated by the Department of Industrial Works. 0.365 million tons in 2001.2 kg per US Dollar industrial production compared with approximately 2. generates 4. 1:8 for Japan.07 percent paper and 0. 38. glass 5 percent and others 40 percent from industries which include leather. It is estimated that Singapore has an industrial waste intensity of approximately 0.49 percent wood. industrial solid waste is collected and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner in licensed waste treatment facilities. It is reported in the Draft Final Report of the Study on the Master Plan for Bangkok and its vicinity in the Kingdom of Thailand. even within the same country can be very wide. In Bangkok.07 percent others). and likely to be lower for Singapore. there is likely to be substantial increase in industrial solid waste generation. that the generation of industrial solid waste in Bangkok and its vicinity was estimated at about 2. 4. It is surmised that as the ASEAN countries develop. Refer to Figure 3).37 percent mixed inorganic. cement.20 percent cloth/leather. . asbestos cement. since mid-1990s. Singapore uses only licensed contractors. Mandalay City.792. who are licensed by the local authorities.3 kg per US Dollar industrial production for People¶s Republic of China and 1 kg per US Dollar for Japan (ESCAP. 1997. cloth 5 percent. glass.straw 30 percent. 0.

most hazardous wastes are recognized as coming from industrial. agricultural and manufacturing processes. Nevertheless. as well as from hospital and health-care facilities.Figure 3: Waste Intensity of Industrial Production in Singapore Compared to PR China and Japan of Industrial Solid Waste in Member Countries C. Hazardous Waste As members of ASEAN continue to develop. it is expected that there will be increasing use of toxic chemicals and generation of hazardous wastes. The high . Different ways of classifying and defining hazardous wastes have led to some difficulties in forming a uniform database for hazardous waste in the region.

and 9. UNEP 1994. and Nelson 1997.550 tons of hazardous wastes classified as scheduled wastes for 2000.26 percent from the plastic/rubber industry.000 tons of hazardous/toxic waste were generated in 2001.2 percent alkaline wastes.215 2010 1.7 percent acid wastes. 6.000 377 115 28 460 882 Updated figures for Singapore are: 230.volume generators are the chemical. households (21 percent). This consisted mainly of 24. Of the total 33. These were broken down according to sources as follows: 1.95 percent from the chemical. 9.56 percent from the electronic industry. 15 percent acid-base contaminated with heavy metals.560 4. 11 percent putrescible organic wastes. Hazardous wastes generated by community activities came from: automobile shops (48 percent). It was further reported in the Draft Report of the State of Pollution of Thailand 2001 that hazardous wastes generated in 2001 were approximately 1. 8. Industrial hazardous waste consisted of 66 percent heavy metal sludge.0 percent biohazardous waste.0 percent oily sludge (mainly from tanker cleaning). and 4. gas stations (9 percent). 13 percent waste oils and 6 percent others.31 million tons (78 percent) from the industrial sector and 0.750 530 135 1.Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA) study. textiles and energy production industries. 2000 400 285 72 910 2.89 percent from small industries and 16.120 5.68 million tons. 4.8 percent Organic chemicals. pulp & paper. 5. a total of 278. Malaysia reported the generation of about 344. United Nations 1995. 4. The estimated annual production of hazardous waste from some selected ASEAN Countries is given in Table 4.1 percent Oil. petroleum. 23. wood treatment.000 23.393 tons of hazardous wastes were generated in 2000 as reported in the Environmental Management Board (EMB) .4 percent other wastes. out of which 88 percent was waste chemicals.67 percent from the gas industry. petrochemical.3 percent were from the metal industry. agriculture (9 percent). leather. Thousand Tons 1993 Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Socialist Republic of Vietnam Thailand Source: Hernandez 1993. In the Philippines.37 million tons (22 percent) from the community sector. .000 12.5 percent of inorganic chemical wastes. Table 4: Estimated Annual Production of Hazardous Waste in Selected Countries. 5. The rest were 8. and 11.3 percent reactive organic wastes.0 percent Plating wastes. metals.37 percent others. 20. 5.

Based on the population of each country in 1999 and using an average of 150 litres per capita per day for developing countries.500 tons in 2005 and 78. typical usage is 30 percent for toilet. the estimated volume of municipal wastewater in the ASEAN countries varies from 49. photo shops. and toxic heavy metals from dyeing. D. about 22.05 million m3/day in Indonesia.500 m3 in Brunei Darussalam to 31. kitchen. and others like ports. the requirement is about 160 to 200 liters/person/day. Vietnam. Hazardous wastes in Myanmar included metabolic wastes. 90 percent of which is in urban areas. organic compounds. In Hanoi.000 tons of hazardous wastes were generated in 1999. bath. Municipal Wastewater The volume of municipal wastewater generated depends on the supply and demand for water. while for developed countries it can be as high as 250 to 300 liters/person/day. In developing countries.500 tons by 2020. cleaners and laundries (8 percent). It is estimated that 60 percent of the total population of developing countries have access to water supply. The main uses of water would be for toilet. . 25 percent for bath. See Figure 4 below. laundry. 10 percent for kitchen and 20 percent for other uses. printing and finishing processes of the textiles and photoengraving industries. etc.hospital & laboratory (5 percent). A JICA study in 2000 anticipates a rise of hazardous waste generation to 38. 15 percent for laundry. Eighty-nine percent came from industry and 11 percent from hospitals. In Indonesia.

2 million m3 domestic sludge each year (Regional Institute of Environmental Technology.28 Nightsoil l/d/hh l/d/person 0. By 2005 this is expected to rise to 4. The relatively large difference in sludge collection per household could be attributed to the fact that several households share toilet facilities. Furthermore.48 0. Malaysia produces about 3. where Class I refers to bigger cities and Class III to smaller cities.Figure 4: Estimated Municipal Wastewater Generated by the ASEAN Countries. in the larger cities there are blocks of flats to be considered. Table 5: Quantities of Septic Sludge and Nightsoil Collection in Vietnam (1995) City Class I Septic tank sludge l/d/hh l/d/person 1.000 m3/year) is handled as municipal solid waste.27 0. In Malaysia sludge is handled separately from municipal and industrial solid wastes.11 . It is first treated with soil conditioner before being applied primarily for land reclamation.3 million m3 per year. Table 5 provides information about average quantities collected from each household in Vietnam according to each city classification. In Singapore sludge (500. 1999 (bigger image) Associated with municipal wastewater generation is domestic sludge generation. 2000).

Discharges from industries are extremely variable in quantity and characteristics. Malaysian Department of Environment Environmental Quality Report. and have been largely contributed to substantial deterioration of water quality in the rivers. it is fair to assume that there would be different sources of wastewater in the other ASEAN countries based on the types of industries present there. and the manufacturing industries. Unfortunately there are no databases provided in most of the developing nations for identifying the main industrial wastewater sources and quantities generated. Some countries include leachates from landfills as industrial wastewater.3 percent).4 percent).8 percent). Malaysia has identified 16 types of manufacturing processes that contribute to industrial wastewater discharge.61 0. crude palm oil mills (5.19 Source: Vietnam National Urban Wastewater and Sanitation Strategy Nov. chemical based industry (11. 1995 E.3 percent) and raw natural rubber factories (2 percent) (Ref. paper (8. The main polluting sources are the food and beverage industry (23. In the absence of available specific data.08 l/d/hh: litres per day per household l/d/person: litres per day per person 0. since there has been little or no treatment of the wastewater at all. textile (7.16 Class III 0.87 0.2 percent).11 0.4 percent). lakes and other receiving water bodies.7 percent). 2000). . In many of the ASEAN countries. This situation is affecting the availability of clean water supply whether from surface water or ground water.85 0. followed by electric and electronic industry (11.35 0. including animal farms.Class II 0. Industrial Wastewater The sources of industrial wastewater are mostly agro-based industries. metal finishing & electroplating (5. this industrial wastewater may include domestic sewage.

paved areas and roads. Poor drainage may result in flooding as well as cause stagnant pools of water both further contributing to health risks. Storm water drainage in most urban areas would generally consist of roadside drains leading ultimately to natural streams. Malaysia. and could carry solids depending on how much debris and pollutants lie in the path of the runoff. Mandalay in Burma experiences rainfall of from 661mm to 1024 mm annually. Storm Water Storm water quantities are generally estimated from the precipitation-evaporation rates of each country. However. Storm water could be collected from house roofs. From the precipitation-evaporation data of each country it will be possible to estimate the respective quantities of storm water runoffs. In most cases the pollutant load of storm water would be lower than that of other types of wastewater. Singapore has an estimated storm water runoff of 770 million cubic meters annually (1990-2000 data). Malaysia has a total estimated average runoff of 566.000 million m3 annually (1997). has an average annual rainfall of about 2500 mm.F. there can be wide variations depending on location. However. In Malaysia some of the problems encountered due to storm water runoffs include: y Construction cavities and mud flows . ASEAN countries lie in the tropics and generally experience high rainfall compared with other regions in the world. presenting direct health risks. Kuala Lumpur. rivers and other bodies of water. water in the drainage system may inevitably be contaminated with fecal matter from latrines and coliform septic tank effluent.

but with a growing trend for contracting or privatization as practiced in Singapore. Thailand. Municipal Solid Waste The cost for solid waste management are high and are mainly for collection and transport. collection services are not extended to the poor and informal settlements which do not pay or are inaccessible. In Indonesia. . which deposit their MSW at transfer or temporary storage facilities. requiring motorized fleets.Current Waste Management Practices A. Philippines and Indonesia.y y y y y y y Flash flood Water pollution and ecological damage Urban slope failures Traffic disruption and accidents Surcharges and overflows from wastewater facilities Garbage and floating litter Sediments These problems are particularly prevalent in major zones of urbanized and urbanizing centers and new socio-economic growth areas. collection rates have been improved through a pre-collection system at villages. Singapore has a collection rate of more than 90 percent while in Bangkok. Collection is either door-to-door or using containers and communal bins. which is borne by the public sector. III WASTE PROCESSING . Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur the rate is more than 80 percent. Malaysia. All medium and large cities would have administrative structures for providing collection services. Collection and transport are labor intensive as well as capital intensive. Unfortunately.

with few cities using compaction trucks and hauling trucks.Most of the cities in Thailand use non-compaction trucks for daily collection. b.4 percent of solid waste in Singapore was recycled. for instance. which are considered recyclables: y y y y y y y y y y y Ferrous and non-ferrous metals Construction debris Scrap tires Paper/cardboard Plastics Textiles (including cloth and leather) Glass Wood/timber Animal bones/feathers Waste oil and grease Cinders/ashes Varying percentages of municipal solid waste are collected for recycling. the increasing amounts of plastic waste is a big issue in most of the ASEAN countries. about 44. c. compared to about 1 percent in Malaysia. In Year 2001. Recycling/recovery MSW may contain the following materials. . Municipal waste management practices in the ASEAN region include the following: a. Of the above-listed materials. Recycling/recovery Composting Incineration Landfilling/open dumping 1. The collection and efficiency is improving with an average collection of 70 percent ± 80 percent of wastes generated. In the Philippines the percentage of recycling and reuse was 12 percent. d.

in Thailand. a few imported mechanical composting plants have been installed in Bangkok and Hanoi. there exists a long-standing practice of informal source separation and recycling of materials. in Bangkok and Manila. Incineration . they risk the danger of potential slides and fires. However. in Bangkok and Jakarta. including wastes from the restaurants. But these are either not working or are not operating at full capacity for a number of reasons. While waste picking means survival for waste pickers the methods of uncontrolled waste picking can reduce the efficiency of the formal collection system and can be detrimental to health due to exposure to biological pathogens. Composting Composting is not well practiced in ASEAN. since industries would only be interested to use recycled materials when they cost less than the virgin materials. e. such as: y y y y High operating and maintenance costs Poor maintenance and operation of facilities Incomplete separation of non-compostables. such as.to low-income cities of ASEAN. waste recovery and recycling activities at city the level are supported by the national ministries although many of these are family businesses. A high percentage of operators are women. e.In the middle. During collection ± when the collectors segregate recyclable materials during loading and store them inside the truck or on the sides of the vehicles. However. trading and reprocessing of materials. for instance. In most countries. However. However. 2. in places like Phnom Penh. Informal waste separation or waste picking takes place in three ways: a. This has led to the development of enterprises for the gathering. both in the streets and in the dumpsites. e. Cooperatives have been formed to assist and improve this informal sector. The disposal of those unselected recyclables remains a problem. are often collected for animal feed. waste pickers comprise a large percentage of children below 18 years of age (51 percent in 1998).g. c. during sorting when garbage bags get broken and produce spillage. plastics and glass High cost of compost compared to commercial fertilizers 3. as high as 50 percent as in Ho Chi Min City. the volume of both the formal and informal sources of separation and recycling of most non-organic wastes (manufactured materials) is significant. Household organic wastes. At source .g. e. Philippines and Vietnam. the practice of recycling is so market-driven that recycling has become selective. b. In Vietnam. Here waste pickers sort out the waste before the authorized collection vehicle arrives..this is in large urban areas.g.. At the disposal site ± where the waste pickers often live on or near the dumps. commercial areas or residential areas with apartments/high-rise buildings for high income earners.g.

Another waste treatment method that is practiced especially in Singapore is incineration where 90 percent of non-recyclable MSW is incinerated.g. which faces rising disposal costs due to exhaustion of traditional disposal sites. i. of which there are 95 currently operating and 36 more under construction. open dumping is the common practice. the development of Sri Petaling was on and around a filled former tin mine. And in the Philippines. stricter environmental controls and greater waste quantities. e. still prevalent. Local opposition to incineration. Landfilling Landfills are generally the cheapest and most common disposal method for MSW.e. Final disposal of waste is at landfills where 10 percent of non-recyclable MSW is deposited. However. Indonesia and Thailand also have one municipal waste incinerator in their capital cities. . In Thailand. not only in the rural areas where waste collection is rare but also in peri-urban and urban areas.. however. for example. An exception is a large city like Singapore. 4. Malaysia has one existing municipal incinerator in a local township and has plans to establish another in Kuala Lumpur due to an increasing solid waste generation but reducing availability of land for open dumping and landfilling. Singapore has four government-owned and operated incinerators for the disposal of solid waste that is not recycled. is growing. in Bangkok. In Kuala Lumpur. thus requiring other methods like incineration to reduce the volume of waste for final disposal. which are eventually reclaimed for development. In the other developing countries. the most preferred disposal method is through the sanitary landfill. incineration has been completely banned under the new law on solid waste management (RA 9003). The practice of informal incineration or open burning is. controversy remains over the soundness of incineration as a waste treatment technology because of greenhouse gas emissions from incinerators. MSW is dumped on swamplands and low-lying areas.

These are: lack of finance. While data is not fully available it is observable that some MSW is thrown directly into the waterways. Two out of four consortia are collecting solid waste in 26 out of 145 local authorities. treatment and disposal system is greater. Wastes are deposited in governmentowned landfills. treatment and disposal services have also been privatized but with Government supervision. especially in the rural areas. groundwater contamination and gas migration. There are a number of factors why countries do not have sanitary landfills. waste management is quite efficient because all waste collectors and recycling plants are licensed. The most prevalent method is open dumping.The problems associated with landfills. Where there are licensed contractors or licensed waste collectors. e.g. In places like Jayapura and Irian Jaya in Indonesia. municipal waste collection. include high water table. while the landfills are owned and operated by the government. in Singapore. Very often there is great difficulty in acquiring appropriate landfill sites because of the ³not-in-mybackyard´ or NIMBY syndrome and an unsuitable soil profile if the site happens to be near the urban center. Large amounts of MSW may be also found indiscriminately dumped by the roadside. in Jakarta and Bandung. Indonesia. insufficient collection and disposal fees and unqualified or non-licensed operators. in Bangkok and Manila. for example. the likelihood of a proper and adequate waste collection. Table 6: Disposal Methods for Municipal Solid Waste in Selected ASEAN Countries Country Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Disposal Methods (%) Composting Open dumping Landfilling Incineration 15 60 10 2 10 50 30 5 5 80 10 10 75 10 30 70 *(10 in 2002) *(90 in 2002) 10 65 5 5 Others 13 5 5 5 15 . burning or disposing to the sea. wastes are generally disposed of by open dumping. But there are well-designed and reasonably well-operated sanitary landfills. For instance. In many of the ASEAN countries collection of MSW is inadequate in varying degrees. In Malaysia. High percentages of organics and plastics have led to breakouts of fire due to methane gas generation. which are managed by a private consortium. But in the countrysides. even with those that are clay-lined. An overview of the disposal methods applied by selected ASEAN countries for municipal solid waste is given in Table 6. the amount of MSW dumped openly is not known. land acquisition problems.

the industrial solid wastes are often dumped on private land. Although hazardous waste incinerators have been developed in Singapore. Malaysia and Thailand. data is lacking on the quantities and characteristics of these wastes. Singapore uses off-site hazardous waste management facilities for recovery of 65 percent of the waste. one facility for treatment of metal finishing wastewater available on Cebu Island and an incineration plant for medical wastes is found in Laguna. e.g. including. which would comprise of open dumping.2544 (2001). However.**(0 in 2001) **(67 in 2001) **(32 in 2001) **(1 in 2001) **(0 in 2001) Vietnam 10 70 20 Source: ENV 1997 *Communication with National Environment Agency officials **Draft Annual Report. Industrial Solid Waste As mentioned earlier. However. C. Thailand B. Pollution Control Department 2002 B. Hazardous Waste Many ASEAN countries are in the early stages of industrialization and many of their industries lack the capital needed to invest in waste treatment systems or to replace old equipment with modern technologies. In the rest of the countries in the ASEAN region there is usually co-disposal of hazardous waste with municipal solid waste in open dumps. Vietnam¶s Law on Environmental Protection (1993). In most of the ASEAN countries. This means that the same methods are used. storage of toxic wastes in sealed containers. In order to save costs many industries import outdated second hand equipment despite government prohibitions and guidelines. treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes. In the case of the Philippines. and incineration. such as.A. in those countries where there are few waste management facilities. . the methods of handling. The most acceptable method of disposal for hazardous wastes is through the use of sanitary landfills as practiced in Malaysia. perhaps. except in the Philippines where a new law (R. which are collected and deposited in municipal landfills and open dumps. The State of Pollution. There are concerns that some hazardous waste may be disposed along with non-hazardous industrial solid wastes. However. most of the ASEAN countries handle and treat industrial solid waste together with municipal solid waste. E. there is no specific legislation requiring separate management of industrial waste from municipal solid waste. It sends 29 percent of the waste to an integrated hazardous waste management facility for treatment and disposal and exports 3 percent to Europe. which bans import of technology that does not meet environmental standards. a number of ASEAN countries have laws mandating various aspects of hazardous waste management. landfilling. 9003) was recently passes (2001). or buried within or close to the premises of the industrial facility where they have been generated.

000 tons of hazardous waste were treated in this plant. some 84. Organic wastes are burnt in the incineration plant.000-300. one solvent recovery plant with a total capacity of 15. stabilization and a secure landfill. Acidic and basic organic fluids are chemically treated to neutralize them. storage and processing methods used. one chemical and solution treatment plant having a capacity of 2. Companies are required by law to inform the authorities on the types and quantities of hazardous wastes they generate and associated collection. These consist of three secured landfills with a total capacity of 635. A hazardous waste treatment plant managed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand has been also established. Modeled after the Danish hazardous waste processing plant.000 tons annually of commercially viable waste along the Eastern Seaboard.500 tons per year. More than USD70 million has been invested in the facility.500 tons per year and one electronic recycle plant with a capacity of 20 tons per year. The owners of Kualiti Alam hold a concession for treatment of all hazardous wastes in Peninsula Malaysia for 15 years. the Bukit Nanas Integrated Waste Treatment Plant has facilities for hightemperature incineration.000 tons per year. Box 1 Integrated Hazardous Waste Treatment Plant at Kualiti Alam. which produce 250. In 2000. physical and chemical treatment. In Malaysia.73 million tons per year. Kommunekemi in Nyborg. The facility receives all types of hazardous wastes except hospital and radioactive wastes. it is the first integrated facility for the processing of hazardous wastes in Malaysia. In addition. In addition. . Thailand has five existing central facilities for industrial hazardous waste recovery and disposal that is licensed by the Department of Industrial Works. which should have capacity for waste residues storage of up to 20 years. two plants of secondary fuel and material recovery in cement kilns having a total capacity of 2. Malaysia The treatment facility was officially opened in November 1998. the companies have to pay for the services on the basis of the polluterpay-principle.Thailand has a hazardous waste management program for its petrochemical. one used/obsolete chemical and hazardous treatment plant with a capacity of 2. The residues from chemical treatment and other solid inorganic residues are bound with lime and cement before being disposed in a double membrane lined landfill.000 tons per year. chemical and non-ferrous industries.

poor design and construction. wastewater is channeled into treatment facilities before final discharge.8 tons in 1999. which leads to the trunk sewer. Tangeran and Bekasi. There is a wide variation of sewage systems among the ASEAN nations. Only 40% to 50% of municipal wastewater is treated. more often than not. There are countries that have high percentage of bucket latrines and communal septic tanks. has no public sewage disposal system.Indonesia has developed a centralized hazardous waste treatment facility in West Java to treat hazardous wastes from Jakarta. The quantities have ranged from 9. Wastewater from homes run through lateral pipes that are connected to the main sewer. On the . From the trunk sewer. municipal wastewater is generally discharged without treatment into rivers and lakes. as well as insufficient capacity. particularly in the rural areas. a central sewerage system is being built in Buon Thot province for the first time. D. Municipal Wastewater The more developed cities have a sewer and drainage system for municipal wastewater. In Vietnam. Most households in the urban areas have flush toilets but the septic tank effluents are discharged into streets. there is no system at all. In some countries. ditches and natural water bodies. Public storm water drainage systems are also used in some cities for municipal wastewater removal. In most towns and cities. for example. the existing systems are in poor condition due to lack of maintenance. Phuket Municipality.7 ± 29 tons (1994-1997) to 18. environmental management and control of wastewater from both the public and private sanitation facilities is still lacking. Bogor. However. Futhermore.

site Off. and desludge septic tanks regularly. Other systems used are Imhoff tanks (24 percent). .2 million septic tanks. oxidation plants (12 percent) and mechanical plants (11 percent).site Ventilated improved pit latrine (no water) Pour flush latrine/flush toilet with septic tank Soakway/soakage pits for septic tank effluent Communal/shared facilities for squatter areas Small-bore sewer Septage cartage and treatment in multi-stage lagoons Simplified condominial (low cost) local sewers Dry weather flow interceptors Conventional trunk sewers and pumping stations Treatment of collected/intercepted wastewater by low cost means including multi-stage lagoons/aquatic plants Basic primary treatment and disposal through marine outfalls with diffusers or directly onto the land Malaysia has about 1. On-site and off-site technologies for municipal wastewater treatment that are currently used in ASEAN countries in varying degrees are: On.other hand. which account for about 53 percent of all sewage treatment plants in Malaysia. the government awarded a 28-year national sewerage privatization concession to Indah Water Consortium to upgrade and manage 5.400 public sewage treatment plants. upkeep over 7.400 km of sewer pipes. 99 percent of the population of Singapore is serviced by a centralized treatment system. In 1993.

In some other countries (e. especially if nightsoil did not come from pre-treated wastewater. Vietnam has a wastewater treatment plant in Hanoi for tannery wastewater It is a UNDP demonstration project for training purposes. flush toilets are common. night soil is used by farmers as fertilizers. in the Philippines only 1 percent of 1500 cities/towns has domestic and industrial wastewater treatment facilities. increasing concern over groundwater being polluted with nitrates and micro-organisms in the leachate from industrial landfills or dumps. sludge is used to grow plants for municipal use. aerated lagoons. E.g. although most of the countries require that industrial wastewater should be treated before discharge. However. There is. Indonesia). Thailand has extensive treatment facilities and has a sewage plan for 2011.. These sewerage systems function well and are adequately operated and maintained. This plan includes construction of a mix of stabilization ponds. Cambodia. This happens because government monitoring. there is a high incidence of untreated industrial wastewater being discharged into sewers and natural water bodies. In Malaysia. with drying beds or dewatering units for sludge treatment. activated sludge systems and oxidation ditches. most industries discharging . But the factory is not in operation due to lack of raw materials. On the other hand. in Singapore. Vietnam.In the more developed countries. which could lead to problems of infestation from intestinal parasites. the sludge generated from the treatment plants is used for soil conditioning prior to land reclamation. Industrial Wastewater In Southeast Asia. In the countries where municipal wastewater is treated like in Singapore. therefore. control and enforcement of environmental regulations is either missing or inadequate. Laos.

acidity or alkalinity of the wastewater. the industrial wastewater is discharged into a holding tank or retention pond.g. Sedimentation/settling/clarifying systems . Singapore has in its records a total of 2. Neutralization systems ± adjustment of pH .g. The common treatment systems used for industrial wastewater in ASEAN countries include: y y y y y Oil interceptors ± physical systems to capture oily discharges. using coagulants/flocculants. cyanide) so that these can be removed from the treated wastewater. Depending on the hydraulic retention time and the raw wastewater characteristics. a heavy metal like copper) or cause destruction of the pollutant (e. Including its waterworks sludge treatment plants. this process is generally not viewed as sufficient to improve the quality of the wastewater to acceptable levels.438 industrial wastewater treatment plants. which allows some degree of sedimentation and initial surface oxidation activity to take place before the wastewater is finally discharged into the receiving waters. In many of the ASEAN countries. Balancing/equalization tanks ± to homogenize variations in wastewaters over time or from different sources. 40 percent of which are oil interceptors. to required levels for further treatment or discharge Chemical treatment systems ± chemical process to either precipitate out the polluting compound (e.physical systems to enable the separation and removal of settleable solids from the water. .wastewater have treatment facilities for pre-treatment before discharging wastewater into the combined sewer system. allowing separation of oil from water.

y y y y y Activated sludge systems ± a biological treatment system to reduce the organic pollutants in wastewater. normally complex compounds of heavy metals in wastewater. Depending on the characteristics of the wastewater stream. or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic). Other aerobic and anaerobic systems ± a large number of technologies are available in the form of biological systems. or b. Ion exchange systems ± used for removing inorganic pollutants. . such as color pigments and odor-causing organic pollutants. with aeration (aerobic). Biological filtration systems ± uses biological growth to reduce organic pollutants in wastewater being filtered.g. Activated carbon absorption ±used for reducing fine organic contaminants. various combinations of the above-cited systems may be employed by different industries in the ASEAN countries to enable the treated wastewater to: a. in Singapore). be released into the sewer for further treatment with municipal wastewater (e. be discharged into waterways but in compliance with regulated water discharge standards.

In the less urbanized areas. In Malaysia. Storm Water In most of the ASEAN countries. Because of a growing concern for potential environmental and health impacts from sludge. In many of the ASEAN countries. The problem is disposal of chemical or inorganic sludge. storm water is discharged into the nearest water course and not into the sanitation systems that are usually designed to receive runoff generated by tropical thunderstorms. . chemical sludge can be easily disposed of in landfills after fixation. local governments are looking at ways to improve the system of sludge management but are constrained by limited resources. Disposal of organic sludge is usually not regulated since it can be easily disposed of in the landfills or recycled in composting. sludge is considered scheduled (or hazardous) waste. sludge is not treated but simply disposed of in local landfills. In Singapore. storm water is allowed to seep into the ground and also discharged into the nearest watercourse. F. which has to be further treated before being approved for disposal.An associated issue in wastewater management is sludge management.

e.Surface storage .Diversion .Water tanks Erosion control .Mulching .All ASEAN countries Provision for .Evacuation aversion .Street sweeping .Vegetation .Most of the developing ASEAN countries Pollution Control .Emergency overflows .Retention storage .Countries with seasonal flood potential. retardation .Basin renewal .Flow control .Gravel surfaces . in Malaysia.Polluted water suppliers .Catchment sediment . quality and incidences are lacking in many of the ASEAN countries.Detritus .Data and records of storm water quantities.Contour ploughing .Retardation .Settling basins .High water levels .Flood warning flooding Catastrophe .Structural failure .Infiltration .Catching fines .g.Flood prediction .Removal of flow .Sandbagging . making it difficult to design the management of storm water.Catching solids .Flood routing storage .Refuse removal .Dangerous flood levels .Water flow control .Weir strengthening . Some current practices in storm water management in ASEAN are listed in Table 7 below Table 7: Current Storm Water Management Practices Purpose Peak flow attenuation Method Reason Countries .More developed ASEAN countries .Flow control .Street vacuuming .Rockfill . the Department of Irrigation and Drainage under the Ministry of Agriculture has resorted to the issuance of mandatory guidelines on urban storm water management for all local authorities.Sediment removal .All of the countries (street vacuuming only in countries like Singapore) .Avoidance of Runoff volume reduction . Malaysia .Storm monitoring .Screen .Evacuation or diversion .Soakaways .Stabilization.Detention/channel .Subtraction of flow . In the absence of the necessary information.The more developed ASEAN countries .

poison. Mixed waste is the result of lack of differentiation of the sources of wastes. which can be harmful to the environment and most of all to the workers and scavengers at the landfills and the residents in the vicinity. and for other purposes. 1978: Water Quality Management Program Clean Air Act 1999 (RA 8749) Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003).. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Waste Management (RA 6969) The Philippine Agenda 21 Box 2 Philippines Republic Act 9003: Year 2000. solvents. heavy metals.Summons or fines pollution . IV WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND STRATEGIES Country: Philippines y y y y y y y Integrated Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Management Policy 25 Presidential Decree 1586 The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System Presidential Decree 984 Pollution Control Law.g. Section 17. More often than not. mixed waste contains hazardous components. Mixed Waste In the developing countries of ASEAN where infrastructure and management accountability for waste management are lacking. the toxic substances could produce air pollutants that would adversely affect the air quality of the neighborhood. Mixed waste are breeding grounds of disease-carrying vectors like mosquitoes. e. the kind of waste that lands in municipal or public dumpsites and landfills is totally mixed waste. Approved in January 2001 An Act providing for an Ecological Solid Waste Management Program. creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives. They can contain toxic wastes. The Components of the Local Government Solid Waste Management Plan .Disincentive verges . appropriating funds therefore. scum G. And should a fire breakout in the landfill or dumpsite.Catching fines.Grass street . declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties. and other chemicals that could leach into the groundwater and contaminate major source of drinking water.

a majority of ASEAN countries suffer from lack of resources. Education and public information j. The Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003) was passed in 2000 and the National Commission for Solid Waste Management has been formed. Furthermore. Solid waste facility capacity and final disposal i. data collection has to be improved especially in terms of quantification and characterization of wastes and their impacts on environment and health. Collection and transfer d.includes. . but is not limited to: a. notably. City or Municipal Profile . Privatization of solid waste management projects m. Future Plans The Philippines has proposed an Urban Environment Management Framework. For instance. VI CONCLUSIONS There is a growing concern among the ASEAN countries on the increasing rate of waste generation as their populations grow. Source Reduction f. estimated solid waste generation. while Malaysia uses the same approach for industrial wastewater and hazardous waste. IWM is practiced to some extent and only in some waste sectors. which will incorporate the concept of integrated waste management. The institutional framework for waste management in most ASEAN countries is unclear. What is especially missing is legislation for storm water management.estimated population. There are a number of laws for waste management but in most countries these do not address waste management in its entirety. Processing e. by source. map of city/municipality. Singapore uses the IWM approach for municipal and industrial solid waste. Resource requirement and funding l. waste disposal inventory b. There is a significant variation of waste types and in percentages of waste generation due to varying income levels and extent of urbanization in the different countries. Incentive programs C. Generally. Composting h. Special waste k. Specific government agencies are mandated to manage different waste sectors but their roles and responsibilities are clearly defined. Waste characterization c. Recycling g.

capacity and skills for waste management.financing. However. technologies. if not all. participation from the private sector and the communities. Source: http://www.jp/ietc/publications/spc/State_of_waste_Management/13. by enabling the exchange of ideas and resources among member nations. all member countries of ASEAN aim to be able to apply IWM in some.asp . In summary. It is envisaged that a facility for regional cooperation would be able to assist in this respect.or. Table 9 provides an overview of the general waste management status in the ASEAN countries. and information system for waste management. which is reflected in terms of availability of formal policies. This facility would allow and prepare the region as a whole to be better equipped for managing wastes now and in the future on a more sustainable basis. of the waste sectors in the future. institutional and regulatory frameworks.unep. training programs. budget support.

United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology. Industry and Economics United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology. cono .

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