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9. Research Methodology - I

9. Research Methodology - I

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Published by Swathi Ravichandran

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Published by: Swathi Ravichandran on Feb 19, 2011
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Business Research Methods

William G. Zikmund

Chapter 9: Survey Research

Surveys ask respondents for information using verbal or written questioning

Respondents are a representative sample of people

Gathering Information via Surveys
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Quick Inexpensive Efficient Accurate Flexible

‡ Poor Design ‡ Improper Execution

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Random sampling error Total error

Systematic error (bias)

Random Sampling Error
‡ A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample

Systematic Error
‡ Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error

Systematic error (bias) Respondent error

Sample Bias
‡ Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Nonresponse error Respondent error Response bias

Respondent Error
‡ A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction ‡ Nonresponse bias ‡ Response bias

Nonresponse Error
‡ Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate ‡ Not-at-homes ‡ Self-selection bias
‡ Over-represents extreme positions ‡ Under-represents indifference

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Deliberate falsification Response bias Unconscious misrepresentation

Response Bias
‡ A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias

Auspices bias

Social desirability bias

Acquiescence Bias
‡ A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.

Extremity Bias
‡ A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.

Interviewer Bias
‡ A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.

Auspices Bias
‡ Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study.

Social Desirability Bias
‡ Bias in responses caused by respondents¶ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error

Systematic error (bias) Respondent error

Administrative Error
‡ Improper administration of the research task ‡ Blunders
‡ Confusion ‡ Neglect ‡ Omission

Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error

Interviewer cheating

Administrative Error
‡ Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers ‡ Data processing error - incorrect data entry, computer programming, or other procedural errors during the analysis stage. ‡ Sample selection error -improper sample design or sampling procedure execution. ‡ Interviewer error - field mistakes





Time Period for Surveys
‡ Cross-sectional ‡ Longitudinal

Cross-Sectional Study
‡ A study in which various segments of a population are sampled ‡ Data are collected at a single moment in time.

Longitudinal Study
‡ A survey of respondents at different times, thus allowing analysis of changes over time. ‡ Tracking study - compare trends and identify changes
± consumer satisfaction

Consumer Panel
‡ A longitudinal survey of the same sample of individuals or households to record (in a diary) their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits over time.

Total Quality Management and Customer Satisfaction Surveys
‡ Total quality management - A business philosophy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top organizational priority.

Stages in Tracking Quality Improvement

Commitment and Exploration


Initial quality improveimprovement

Continuous Quality Improvement

Commitment and Exploration Stage
‡ Management makes a commitment to total quality assurance ‡ Business researchers explore external customers¶ needs and problems. ‡ Business researchers explore internal customers¶ needs, beliefs, and motivations.

Benchmarking Stage
‡ Research establishes quantitative measures as benchmarks or points of comparison ‡ Overall satisfaction and quality ratings of specific attributes ‡ Employees actual performance and perceptions

Initial Quality Improvement Stage
‡ Tracking wave 1 measures trends ‡ Establishes a quality improvement process within the organization. ‡ Translate quality issues into the internal vocabulary of the organization. ‡ Establish performance standards and expectations for improvement.

Continuous Quality Improvement
‡ Consists of many consecutive waves with the same purpose²to improve over the previous period. ‡ Quality improvement management continues.

Determinants of the Quality of Goods
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Performance Features Conformance with specifications Reliability Durability Serviceability Aesthetic design

Determinants of Service Quality
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Access Communication Competence Courtesy Reliability Credibility

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