Business Research Methods

William G. Zikmund

Chapter 10: Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods

Surveys
Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning

Communicating with Respondents
‡ Personal interviews
‡ Door-to-door ‡ Shopping mall intercepts

‡ Telephone interviews ‡ Self-administered questionnaires

Personal Interviews

Good Afternoon, my name is _________. I am with _________ survey research company. We are conducting a survey on_________

Door-to-Door Personal Interview
‡ Speed of data collection
± Moderate to fast

‡ Geographical flexibility
± Limited to moderate

‡ Respondent cooperation
± Excellent

‡ Versatility of questioning
± Quite versatile

Door-to-Door Personal Interview
‡ Questionnaire length
± Long

‡ Item nonresponse
± Low

‡ Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
± Lowest

Door-to-Door Personal Interview
‡ Degree of interviewer influence of answer
± High

‡ Supervision of interviewers
± Moderate

‡ Anonymity of respondent
± Low

Door-to-Door Personal Interview
‡ Ease of call back or follow-up
± Difficult

‡ Cost
± Highest

‡ Special features
± Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible

Mall Intercept Personal Interview
‡ Speed of data collection
± Fast

‡ Geographical flexibility
± Confined, urban bias

‡ Respondent cooperation
± Moderate to low ± Versatility of questioning
‡ Extremely versatile

Mall Intercept Personal Interview
‡ Speed of Data Collection
± Fast

‡ Geographical Flexibility
± Confined, urban bias

‡ Respondent Cooperation
± Moderate to low ± Versatility of Questioning ± Extremely versatile

Mall Intercept Personal Interview
‡ Questionnaire length
± Moderate to long

‡ Item nonresponse
± Medium

‡ Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
± Lowest

Mall Intercept Personal Interview
‡ Degree of interviewer influence of answers
± Highest

‡ Supervision of interviewers
± Moderate to high

‡ Anonymity of respondent
± Low

Mall Intercept Personal Interview
‡ Ease of call back or follow-up
± Difficult

‡ Cost
± Moderate to high

‡ Special features
± Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible

Telephone Surveys

Telephone Surveys
‡ Speed of Data Collection
± Very fast

‡ Geographical Flexibility
± High

‡ Respondent Cooperation
± Good

‡ Versatility of Questioning
± Moderate

Telephone Surveys
‡ Questionnaire Length
± Moderate

‡ Item Nonresponse
± Medium

‡ Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding
± Average

‡ Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer
± Moderate

Telephone Surveys
‡ Supervision of interviewers
± High, especially with central location WATS interviewing

‡ Anonymity of respondent
± Moderate

‡ Ease of call back or follow-up
± Easy

Telephone Surveys
‡ Cost
± Low to moderate

‡ Special features
± Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology

Telephone Surveys
‡ Central location interviewing ‡ Computer-assisted telephone interviewing ‡ Computerized voice-activated interviews

Most Unlisted Markets
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Sacramento, CA Oakland, CA Fresno, CA Los Angles/Long Beach, CA

The Frame, November 2001 Published by Survey Sampling, Inc.

Self-Administered Questionnaires
SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES PAPER QUESTIONNAIRES ELECTRONIC QUESTIONNAIRES

MAIL

IN-PERSON DROP-OFF

INSERTS

FAX

E-MAIL

INTERNET WEB SITE

KIOSK

Mail Surveys

Mail Surveys
‡ Speed of data collection
± Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow

‡ Geographical flexibility
± High

‡ Respondent cooperation
± Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate

Mail Surveys
‡ Versatility of questioning
± Highly standardized format

‡ Questionnaire length
± Varies depending on incentive

‡ Item nonresponse
± High

Mail Surveys
‡ Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
± Highest--no interviewer present for clarification

‡ Degree of interviewer influence of answer
± None--interviewer absent

‡ Supervision of interviewers
± Not applicable

Mail Surveys
‡ Anonymity of respondent
± High

‡ Ease of call back or follow-up
± Easy, but takes time

‡ Cost
± Lowest

How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys
‡ Write a ³sales oriented´ cover letter ‡ Money helps - As a token of appreciation - For a charity ‡ Stimulate respondents¶ interest with interesting questions ‡ Follow Up - Keying questionnaires with codes ‡ Advanced notification ‡ Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution

Increasing Response Rates
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Effective cover letter Money helps Interesting questions Follow-ups Advanced notification Survey sponsorship Keying questionnaires

E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
‡ Speed of data collection
± Instantaneous

‡ Geographic flexibility
± worldwide

‡ Cheaper distribution and processing costs

E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
‡ Flexible, but
± Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents¶ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout

‡ E-mails are not secure and ³eavesdropping´ can possibly occur ‡ Respondent cooperation
± Varies depending if e-mail is seen as ³spam´

Internet Surveys
‡ A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site. ‡ Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer.

Internet Surveys
‡ Speed of data collection
± Instantaneous

‡ Cost effective ‡ Geographic flexibility
± worldwide

‡ Visual and interactive

Internet Surveys
‡ Respondent cooperation
± Varies depending on web site ± Varies depending on type of sample ± When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low. ± Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys - participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person.

Internet Surveys
‡ Versatility of questioning
± Extremely versatile

‡ Questionnaire length
± Individualized base on respondent answers ± Longer questionnaires with panel samples

‡ Item nonresponse
± Software can assure none

Internet Surveys
‡ Representative samples ‡ The quality of internet samples may vary substantially. ‡ A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error.

Internet Surveys
‡ 1) not all individuals in the general public have internet access ‡ 2) many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet ‡ 3) many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated.

Internet Surveys
‡ Possibility for respondent misunderstanding
± High

‡ Interviewer influence of answers
± None

‡ Supervision of interviewers not required

Internet Surveys
‡ Anonymity of Respondent
± Respondent can be anonymous or known

‡ Ease of Callback or Follow-up
± difficult unless e-mail address is known

‡ Special Features
± allows graphics and streaming media

Welcome Screen
‡ Welcome Screen like a cover letter ‡ It contains the name of the research company and how to contact the organization if there is a problem or concern. ‡ "If you have any concerns or questions about this survey, or if you experience any technical difficulties, please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATION).

Welcome Screen should ask for password and give instructions
‡ Please enter your personal password from your invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the survey or simply click on the right arrow at the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you have read the remaining instructions): ‡ During the survey, please do not use your browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons. ‡ Use the arrows on the lower right to move backward and forward through the survey.

There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages.

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique
‡ Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary? ‡ Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated? ‡ Will cooperation be easily attained?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique
‡ How quickly is the information needed? ‡ Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire? ‡ How large is the budget?

Pretesting
‡ A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design

³Practice is the best of all instructors.´ Publius Syrus

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