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Advanced Reservoir Engineering

Advanced Reservoir Engineering

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Advanced Reservoir Engineering

Textbooks and references 

(A) Dake , L.P., Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, revised edition, Elsevier Scientific B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2001. (B) Ahmed, T., and McKinney, P., Advanced Reservoir Engineering, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, 2004 (B) Craft, B.C., and Hawkins, M.F. , Revised by Terry, R.E. , Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Second edition., Prentice Hall , Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.  

Advanced Reservoir Engineering by Ahmed, T., and McKinney, P 
    

Well testing analysis Water influx Unconventional gas reservoir Performance of oil reservoir Predicting oil reservoir Introduction to oil fieldeconomics
3 

Introduction to reservoir engineering - Gas reservoir - PVT analysis for oil - Material balance applied to oil The flow equations of single-phase and two-phase flow of hydrocarbon in singletwoporous media - Darcy¶s law and applications - The basic differential equation in a porous medium Solutions to the flow equations of hydrocarbon in porous media - Steady and semi-steady states semi- Unsteady state Pressure drawdown and buildup analysis for oil and gas wells Decline curve analysis Case study     

Part 1 Introduction to Reservoir Engineering 

The primary functions of a reservoir engineer: 
 

the estimation of hydrocarbon in place the calculation of a recovery factor , and the attachment of a time scale to the recovery 

Note: pressure/flow rate information parameters/future flow rate/future pressure

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering  

  

(1) Introduction
Petrophysical properties ( Rock properties) Fluid properties (gas, water, crude properties) Calculations of hydrocarbon volumes Fluid pressure regimes  

   

(2) Gas reservoirs
Calculating gas in place by the volumetric method Calculating gas recovery factor Material balance calculation (Depletion & Water drive) Hydrocarbon phase behavior (gas condensate phase behavior) The gas equivalent of produced condensate and water  



(3) PVT analysis for oil
Definition of the basic PVT parameters Determination of the basic PVT parameters in the lab. And conversion for field operating conditions.

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering ± cont. 

(4) Material balance applied to oil reservoirs  

  

General form of the material balance equation for a hydrocarbon reservoir (Undersaturated and Saturated reservoir) Reservoir drive mechanisms Solution gas drive Gas cap drive Natural water drive 

(5) Darcy¶s law and applications

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering ± cont. 

(6) The basic differential equation for radial flow in a porous medium 
 

Derivation of the basic radial flow equation Conditions of solution Linearization of radial flow equation 

(7) Well inflow equations for stabilized flow conditions 
 

Semi steady state solution Steady state solution Generalized form of inflow equation (for semi steady state)

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering ± cont. 

(8) The constant terminal rate solution of the radial diffusivity equation and its application to oil well testing 
       

Constant terminal rate solution General Transient flow Semi steady state flow Superposition theorem; general theory of well testing The Matthews, Brons, Hazebroek pressure buildup theory Pressure buildup analysis techniques MultiMulti-rate drawdown testing The effects of partial well completion AfterAfter-flow analysis

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering ± cont. 
 

   

   

(9) Gas well testing - Linearization and solution of the basic differential equation for the radial flow of a real gas - The Russell, Goodrich, et al. Solution technique - The Al-Hussainy, Ramey, Crawford solution technique Al- Pressure squared and pseudo pressure solution technique - Non-Darcy flow & determination of the non-darcy Nonnoncoefficient - The constant terminal rate solution for the flow of a real gas - General theory of gas well testing - Multi-rate testing of gas well Multi- Pressure building testing of gas wells - Pressure building analysis in solution gas drive reservoirs

Outlines of Reservoir Engineering ± cont. 
      

(10) Natural water influx - Steady state model - Unsteady state model - The van Everdingen and Hurst edge-water drive edgemodel - Bottom ± water drive model - Pseudo steady state model (Fetkovich model) - Predicting the amount of water influx

Fluid Pressure Regimes The total pressure at any depth = weight of the formation rock + weight of fluids (oil, gas or water) [=] 1 psi/ft * depth(ft)

Fluid Pressure Regimes 

Density of sandstone
gm 2.2lbm (0.3048 v 100cm) 3 ! 2.7 3 v cm 1000 gm (1 ft ) 3
! 168.202
lbm 1slug v 3 ft 32.7lbm

slug ! 5.22 3 ft

Pressure gradient for sandstone 

Pressure gradient for sandstone
p ! p D ! V gD V g
lbf ft 3

! 5.22 v 32.2 ! 168.084

lbf 1 ft 2 lbf ! 168.084 2 ! 1.16 2 2 ft ™ ft 144in in ™ ft ! 1.16( psi / ft )

Overburden pressure 

Overburden pressure (OP) = Fluid pressure (FP) + Grain or matrix pressure (GP) OP=FP + GP In non-isolated reservoir nonPW (wellbore pressure) = FP In isolated reservoir PW (wellbore pressure) = FP + GP¶ where GP¶<=GP   

Normal hydrostatic pressure 
   

In a perfectly normal case , the water pressure at any depth Assume :(1) Continuity of water pressure to the surface (2) Salinity of water does not vary with depth.
P[ ! ( dP ) water v D  14.7 dD

[=] psia psi/ft for pure water 

  

dP ( ) water ! 0 .4335 dD

dP ( ) water " 0.4335 dD

psi/ft for saline water

Abnormal hydrostatic pressure ( No continuity of water to the surface) 

dP P[ ! ( ) water v D  14 .7  C dD
Normal hydrostatic pressure c=0

[=] psia   

Abnormal (hydrostatic) pressure c > 0 Overpressure (Abnormal high pressure) c < 0 Underpressure (Abnormal low pressure)

Conditions causing abnormal fluid pressures
Conditions causing abnormal fluid pressures in enclosed water bearing sands include   



Temperature change T = +1 P = +125 psi in a sealed fresh water system Geological changes ± uplifting; surface erosion Osmosis between waters having different salinity, the sealing shale acting as the semi permeable membrane in this ionic exchange; if the water within the seal is more saline than the surrounding water the osmosis will cause the abnormal high pressure and vice versa.

Are the water bearing sands abnormally pressured ? 

If so, what effect does this have on the extent of any hydrocarbon accumulations?

Hydrocarbon pressure regimes 

In hydrocarbon pressure regimes
dP ( ) water $ 0.45 dD 

psi/ft psi/ft psi/ft 

dP ( ) oil $ 0.35 dD
dP ( ) gas $ 0.08 dD 

Pressure Kick
5 0 0 0 x 0 .4 5 + 1 5

2 2 6 5 P si

2 3 6 9 P si

P
5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 GAS P g = P 0 = 2 3 8 5 P si GOC O IL OW C P g = P w = 2 4 9 0 P si W ater OW C (5 5 0 0 ft) GOC (5 2 0 0 ft)

D
5 5 0 0 x 0 .4 5 + 1 5 

  

Assumes a normal hydrostatic pressure regime P = 0.45 × D + 15 In water zone at 5000 ft P (at5000) = 5000 × 0.45 + 15 = 2265 psia at OWC (5500 ft) P (at OWC) = 5500 × 0.45 + 15 = 2490 psia

Pressure Kick
5 0 00 x 0 . 5 + 15 4

2 2 6 5P si

2 3 6 9P si

P
50 0 0 51 0 0 52 0 0 53 0 0 54 0 0 55 0 0 GAS P g= P 0 = 2 3 85 P si GOC O IL OW C P g= P w = 2 4 90 P si W ater O W C (5 50 0 ft) GOC (5 20 0 ft)

D
5 5 0 0x 0 . 5 + 15 4 

   

In oil zone Po = 0.35 x D + C at D = 5500 ft , Po = 2490 psi C = 2490 ± 0.35 × 5500 = 565 psia Po = 0.35 × D + 565 at GOC (5200 ft) Po (at GOC) = 0.35 × 5200 + 565 = 2385 psia

Pressure Kick 



In gas zone Pg = 0.08 D + 1969 (psia) at 5000 ft Pg = 0.08 × 5000 + 1969 = 2369 psia

Pressure Kick
2450Psa i

2265Psi a

P
5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 GAS hydr atc ost i pr essur e OI L OW C P0=Pw =2490Psi a W at er GOC

P
5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 esur Gaspr s e gr ent adi

GAS

GW C Pg=Pw=2490Psa i W at er

D

D 

     

In gas zone Pg = 0.08 D + C At D = 5500 ft, Pg = P = 2490 psia 2490 = 0.08 × 5500 + C C = 2050 psia Pg = 0.08 × D + 2050 At D = 5000 ft Pg = 2450 psia

GWC error from pressure measurement 
        

Pressure = 2500 psia at D = 5000 ft in gas-water reservoir gasGWC = ? Sol. Pg = 0.08 D + C C = 2500 ± 0.08 × 5000 = 2100 psia Pg = 0.08 D + 2100

Pressure = 2450 psia at D = 5000 ft in gas-water reservoir gasGWC = ? Sol. Pg = 0.08 D + C C = 2450 ± 0.08 × 5000 = 2050 psia Pg = 0.08 D + 2050
Water pressure P = 0.45 D + 15

Water pressure P = 0.45 D + 15 

 

At GWC Pg = P 0.08 D + 2100 = 0.45 D + 15 D = 5635 ft (GWC)

At GWC Pg = P 0.08 D + 2050 = 0.45 D + 15 D = 5500 ft (GWC)

Results from Errors in GWC or GOC or OWC 

GWC or GOC or OWC location affecting volume of hydrocarbon OOIP affecting OOIP or OGIP affecting development plans

Volumetric Gas Reservoir Engineering 

Gas is one of a few substances whose state, as defined by pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) One other such substance is saturated steam. 

The equation of state for an ideal gas

pV ! nRT . . . . . (1.13)
(Field units used in the industry) p [=] psia; V[=] ft3; T [=] OR absolute temperature n [=] lbm moles; n=the number of lb moles, one lb mole is the molecular weight of the gas expressed in pounds. R = the universal gas constant [=] 10.732 psia· ft3 / (lbmmole·0R) Eq (1.13) results form the combined efforts of Boyle, Charles, Avogadro and Gay Lussac.

The equation of state for real gas 

The equation of Van der Waals (for one lb mole of gas

a ( p  2 )(V  b) ! RT . . . . (1.14) V 


where a and b are dependent on the nature of the gas. The principal drawback in attempting to use eq. (1.14) to describe the behavior of real gases encountered in reservoirs is that the maximum pressure for which the equation is applicable is still far below the normal range of reservoir pressures

The equation of state for real gas 
 

the Beattie-Bridgeman equation Beattiethe Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation Benedict-Webbthe non-ideal gas law non-

NonNon-ideal gas law

pV ! nzRT . . . . (1.15)  

Where z = z-factor =gas deviation factor z=supercompressibility factor
gas at T and P gas at T and P 

V Actual volume of n moles of z! a ! V Ideal volume of n moles of i

z ! f ( P, T , compositio n)
compositio n  K g ! specific gravity (air ! 1)

Determination of z-factor z

There are three ways to determination z-factor : z- 

(a)Experimental determination (b)The z-factor correlation of standing and zkatz (c)Direct calculation of z-factor z-  

(a) Experimental determination 

n mole s of gas 

p=1atm; T=reservoir temperature; => V=V0 pV=nzRT z=1 for p=1 atm =>14.7 V0=nRT n mole of gas p>1atm; T=reservoir temperature; pV=nzRT pV=z(14.7 V0) pV => V=V 

    

  



p scV0 pV pV !  z! z sc T zT p scV0 14.7V0 By varying p and measuring V, the isothermal z(p) function can be readily by obtained.

z!

(b)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz z   

 

Requirement: Knowledge of gas composition or gas gravity Naturally occurring hydrocarbons: primarily paraffin series CnH2n+2 NonNon-hydrocarbon impurities: CO2, N2 and H2 Gas reservoir: lighter members of the paraffin series, C1 and C2 > 90% of the volume.

The Standing-Katz Correlation Standing     

knowing Gas composition (ni) Critical pressure (Pci) Critical temperature (Tci) of each component ( Table (1.1) and P.16 ) Pseudo critical pressure (Ppc) Pseudo critical temperature (Tpc) for the mixture
Ppc ! § ni Pci
i 

T pc ! § ni Tci 
  
i

Pseudo reduced pressure (Ppr) Pseudo reduced temperature (Tpr)

P Ppr ! Ppc
T pr ! T ! const.(Isothermal ) T pc 

Fig.1.6; p.17

z-factor

(b¶)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz z 

 

For the gas composition is not available and the gas gravity (air=1) is available. The gas gravity (air=1) ( K g) fig.1.7 , p18 



Pseudo critical pressure (Ppc) Pseudo critical temperature (Tpc)

(b¶)The z-factor correlation of standing and katz zP Ppr ! Ppc
T pr ! T ! const.(Isothermal ) T pc 

Pseudo reduced pressure (Ppr) Pseudo reduced temperature (Tpr)  

Fig1.6 p.17 z-factor
The above procedure is valided only if impunity (CO2,N2 and H2S) is less then 5% volume.  

(c) Direct calculation of z-factor z

The Hall-Yarborough equations, developed using the Starling-Carnahan HallStarlingequation of state, are
z! 0.06125Ppr te 1.2 (1t ) y
2

. . . . (1.20) 

 

where Ppr= the pseudo reduced pressure t=1/Tpr Tpr=the pseudo reduced temperature y=the ³reduced´ density which can be obtained as the solution of the equation as followed: 
0.06125Ppr te 
1.2 (1t ) 2

y  y2  y3  y4   (14.76t  9.76t 2  4.58t 3 ) y 2 3 (1  y ) 

(90.7t  242.2t 2  42.4t 3 ) y ( 2.18 2.82t ) ! 0. . . . (1.21)
This non-linear equation can be conveniently solved for y using the simple nonNewtonNewton-Raphson iterative technique.

(c) Direct calculation of z-factor z 

The steps involved in applying thus are:  make an initial estimate of yk, where k is an iteration counter (which in this case is unity, e.q. y1=0.001  substitute this value in Eq. (1.21);unless the correct value of y has been initially selected, Eq. (1.21) will have some small, non-zero value Fk. non(3) using the first order Taylor series expansion, a better estimate of y can be determined as
y
k 1 

where

Fk . . . . (1.22) !y  dF k dy
k

dF k 1  4 y  4 y 2  4 y 3  y 4  (29.52t  19.52t 2  9.16t 3 ) y ! 4 dy (1  y ) 

( 2.18  2.82t )(90.7t  242.2t 2  42.4t 3 ) y (1.18 2.82 t ) . . . . (1.23)  

(4) iterate, using eq. (1.21) and eq. (1.22), until satisfactory convergence is obtained(5) substitution of the correct value of y in eq.(1.20)will give the z-factor. z(5) substitution of the correct value of y in eq.(1.20)will give the z-factor. z-

Application of the real gas equation of state Equation of state of a real gas p ! nz T . . . .  This is a PVT relationship to relate surface to reservoir volumes of hydrocarbon. (1) the gas expansion factor E, 

(1.15)

E! 


sc

!

volume of n moles of gas at s tan dard conditions volume of n moles of gas at reservoir conditions

Real gas equation for n moles of gas at standard conditions nz T p sc sc ! nz sc Tsc ! sc sc sc p sc Real gas equation for n moles of gas at reservoir conditions 



p
> >
E!

! nz T
V sc ! V nz sc Tsc nz T p sc p
!

V !

nz T p
( note : z sc ! 1) 

nz sc Tsc p Tsc p 519.6 v V ! ! nz Tp sc zTp sc zT ™ 14.7 



surface volume/reservoir volume p E ! 35.35 [ !] [=] SCF/ft3 or STB/bbl zT

Example 

Reservoir condition: P=2000psia; T=1800F=(180+459.6)=639.60R; z=0.865 > 2000 E ! 35.35 ! 127.8 surface volume/reservoir 0.865 v 639.6 or SCF/ft3 or STB/bbl 

OGIP ! VJ (1  S wi ) Ei

(2) Real gas density 

m nM m ! VV V! ! V V where n=moles; M=molecular weight)
nM V! nzRT MP ! zRT

p

V gas !

M gas P z gas RT 



at any p and T For gas For air

V gas !
V air
M gas p

M gas P z gas RT 

M air p ! z air RT
M gas z gas RT ! Z gas M air Z air 

V gas V air

!Kg !

M gas p z air RT

( M ) gas z Kg ! ( M ) air Z

(2) Real gas density
K !

( (

z Z

) )

gas air

g 

At standard conditions zair = zgas = 1
V gas V air !Kg ! M gas M air ! M gas 28.97 . . . . (1.28) 

in general

K g } 0 .6 ~ 0 .8
M gas ! K g ™ 28.97 

(a) If K is known, then g

or ,

V gas ! K g ™ V air
M gas ! § ni M i
i

(b) If the gas composition is known, then
Kg !
gas

28.97

V gas ! K g ™ V air
ft 3

where

( V air ) sc ! 0.0763 lbm

(3)Isothermal compressibility of a real gas

pV ! nz T

V !

nz T ! n Tzp 1 p

(note : z ! f ( p ))

xV xz ! n Tz[ p  2 ]  n Tp 1 xp xp xV nz T 1 1 xz 1 1 xz ! (  ) ! V (  ) xp p p z xp p z xp !

xV nzRT nRT xz !  2 xp p xp p

g

1 xV 1 1 1 xz !  [V (  )] V xp V p z xp

1 1 xz Cg !  p z xp
C } 1 p

g

since

1 1 xz "" p z xp

p.24, fig.1.9

Exercise 1.1 - Problem   

Exercise1.1 Gas pressure gradient in the reservoir (1) Calculate the density of the gas, at standard conditions, whose composition is listed in the table 1-1. 1(2) what is the gas pressure gradient in the reservoir at 2000psia and 1800F(z=0.865)

Exercise 1.1 -- solution -1 

(1) Molecular weight of the gas
gas

! § ni
i

i

! 19.91
  V gas ! K g ™ V air

Kg !

M gas 28.97

!

19.91 ! 0.687 28.97

since

Kg !

V gas V air

  V gas ! 0.687 ™ 0.0763(lbm ft 3 ) ! 0.0524(lbm ft 3 ) 

or from

pV ! nzRT
! n zRT

pV

! mzRT
Psc 14.7 v 19.91 ! ! 0.0524(lbm ft 3 ) z sc RTsc 1 v 10.73 v 519.6

m p V! ! V zRT 

At standard condition

V gas !

Exercise 1.1 -- solution -2 

(2) gas in the reservoir conditions

pV ! nzRT

pVM ! nMzRT

! mzRT

2000 v 19.91 m p V! ! ! ! 6.707(lbm ft 3 ) V z T 0.865 v 10.73 v ( 459.6  180) 

Exercise 1.1 -- solution -3

p ! VgD
dp dD ! V g

dp ! VgdD
! (6.707

lbm 1slug )32.2 ft 2 s ft 3 32.2lbm

slug ! 6 . 707 ft 3
! 6 . 707

ft s2
f 3

lb ft

lbf 1 1 ft 2 ! 6.707 2 ft ft 144in 2 

lb f 1 ! 0.0465 2 in ft

! 0 . 0465 psi

ft

Gas Material Balance: Recovery Factor 


Material balance

Production = OGIP (GIIP) - Unproduced gas  (SC) (SC) (SC)  Case 1 no water influx (volumetric  depletion reservoirs)  Case 2 water influx (water drive reservoirs)

Volumetric depletion reservoirs -- 1  

 

No water influx into the reservoir from the adjoining aquifer. Gas initially in place (GIIP) or Initial gas in place IGIP G Original gas in place OGIP [=] Standard Condition Volume

  G ! VJ (1  s wc ) Ei where 
 
i

[!] SCF pi ! 35.37 z i Ti [!] SCF / ft 3

Material Balance at standard conditions Production GIIP Unproduced gas SC SC SC
¨G Gp ! G  © ©E ª i ¸ ¹v ¹ º

E . . . . (1 .33 ) 

Where G/Ei = GIIP in reservoir volume or reservoir volume filled with gas HCPV

Volumetric depletion reservoirs -- 2
G   G
p

! 1

E . . . . (1 . 34 ) Ei

sin ce

p E ! 35 . 37 zT
35.37 p z pi zi

?! A

SCF ft 3

p Gp zT ! 1    ! 1 p G 35.37 i z i Ti

note :T ! Ti ! const.

Gp ¸ pi ¨ p ©1  ¹ . . . . (1 . 35 )   ! © z zi ª G ¹ º
where Gp G ! the fractional gas re cov ery at any stage during depletion ! Gas re cov ery factor 

¨ pi 1 ¸ pi p   ! © © z ™ G ¹G ¹ z zi ª i º

p

In Eq. 1.33 


HCPV !

G ! const . Ei

?

HCPVconst. HCPV because: 1. the connate water in reservoir will expand 2. the grain pressure increases as gas (or fluid) pressure declines 



OP ! FP  GP . . . . (1 . 3 ) d ( FP ) !  d ( GP )   d ( HCPV ) ! d (G / Ei ) !  dVw  dV f . . . . (1.36) 

p .3

p .4

where

V w ! initial (connate water volume) V f ! initial pore volume negative sign ""   exp ansion of water leads to a reduction in HCPV

1 xV f cf !  V f x GP 1 xV f   cf !  V f (xp) 1 xV f   cf ! V f xp
GP

GP

GP

pore vol.

Vf
GP

  dV f ! c f ™ V f ™ dp

Vw

1 xVw 1 dVw cw !  ! Vw d FP Vw dp   dVw ! c w ™ Vw ™ dp
FP

FP

Vf
FP

FP

FP=gas pressure
FP

FP

Vw
FP

FP

FP=gas pressure

¨G d© ©E ª i

¸ ¹ ! d HCPV ! c wVw dp  c f V f dp ¹ º Since V f ! PV ! HCPV G ! 1  S wc Ei 1  S wc HCPV G S wc S wc ! Ei  S wc 1 1  S wc

Vw ! PV v S wc ! ¨G   d© ©E ª i ¨G  © ©E ª i ¨G  © ©E ª i ¨G  © ©E ª i

¸ G G S wc ¹ ! cw dp dp  c f ¹ Ei  S wc Ei  S wc 1 1 º

¸ ¨G¸ ¨G¸ « S wc 1 » ¹ cw © ¹ ! © ¹  cf ¬ ¼ (p ¹ ©E ¹ ©E ¹ 1 1  S wc ½ º initial ª i º t ª i º initial ­  S wc cw S wc  c f (p ¸ ¨G¸ ¨G¸ ¹ !© ¹ © ¹ ¹ ©E ¹ © ¹ 1  S wc º t ª i º initial ª E i º initial c ( ¸ ¨G¸ « w S wc  c f p » ¹ !© ¹ ¬1  ¹ ©E ¹ 1  S wc ¼ º t ª i º initial ­ ½

G Gp ! G  E. . . . (1.33) Ei

c ( G « wSwc  c f p »  Gp ! G  ¬1 ¼E  Swc ½ Ei ­ 1 Gp

« cwSwc  cf » E   !1 ¬1 ¼ G 1 Swc ½ Ei ­ For cw ! 3v106 psi1; c f !10v106 psi1  1
Gp cwSwc  c f 1 Swc

and

Swc ! 0.2

!1 0.013! 0.987
computing with Gp E !1 G Ei

E   !1 0.987 G Ei

  1.3% difference

p/z plot 

From Eq. (1.35) such as
p pi ¨ G p ¸ ¹ . . . . (1.35) ©1  ! © z zi ª G ¹ º pi p pi   !  Gp z zi zi G
In p/z

Abandon pressure pab 0 Gp G

p v.s Gp z
Y=a+mx
p z x ! Gp y !

plot
p/z 

pi A straight line in p/z v.s Gp plot means that the reservoir is m !  z i G a depletion type pi a ! zi

0

Gp/G=RF 1.0

Water drive reservoirs  

     

  

If the reduction in reservoir pressure leads to an expansion of adjacent aquifer water, and consequent influx into the reservoir, the material balance equation must then be modified as: Production = GIIP Unproduced gas SC SC SC Gp G HCPVHCPV-We E Or Gp G G/Ei We E where We= the cumulative amount of water influx resulting from the pressure drop. Assumptions: No difference between surface and reservoir volumes of water influx Neglect the effects of connate water expansion and pore volume reduction. No water production

Water drive reservoirs

With water production
«¨ G ¸» ¹ G p ! G  ¬©  e  W p ™ Bw ¼ E W ©E ¹ ª i º½ ­
¨ Gp ©1  © G p ª   ! WE z 1 e i G pi zi ¸ ¹ ¹ º . . . . (1.41) 

where We*Ei /G represents the fraction of the initial hydrocarbon pore volume flooded by water and is, therefore, always less then unity.

Water drive reservoirs
¨ Gp ¸ ©1  ¹ © G ¹ p ª º . . . . (1.41) ! z ¨ We E i ¸ ¹ ©1  G º ª

pi zi 

since

¨ We E i ¸ ¹ 1 ©1  G º ª

p pi ¨ G p ©1    " z zi © G ª
Comparing

¸ ¹ ¹ º

in water flux reservoirs

p pi ¨ G p ! ©1  z zi © G ª

¸ ¹ ¹ º

in depletion type reservoir

Water drive reservoirs
¨ Gp ¸ ©1  ¹ © G ¹ p ª º . . . . (1.41) ! z ¨ We E i ¸ ¹ ©1  G º ª

pi zi  



In eq.(1.41) the following two parameters to be determined G; We History matching or ³aquifer fitting´ to find We Aquifer modelfor an aquifer whose dimensions are of the same order of magnitude as the reservoir itself.

We ! cW(p 

Where W=the total volume of water and depends primary on the geometry of the aquifer. P=the pressure drop at the original reservoir ±aquifer boundary

Water drive reservoirs  

The material balance in such a case would be as shown by plot A in fig1.11, which is not significantly different from the depletion line For case B & C in fig 1.11 p.30 =>Chapter 9

Bruns et. al method 


This method is to estimate GIIP in a water drive reservoir From Eq. (1.40) such as
¨G ¸ G p ! G  ©  We ¹ E . . . . (1.40) ©E ¹ ª i º GE   Gp ! G   We E Ei ¨ E¸   G p ! G ©1  ¹  We E © Ei ¹ ª º ¨ E¸   G © 1  ¹ ! G p  We E © Ei ¹ º ª Gp We E   G! ¨ E¸ ¨ E¸ ©1  ¹ ©1  ¹ © Ei ¹ © Ei ¹ º º ª ª Gp We E !G or ¨ ¨ E¸ E ©1  ¹ ©1  © © Ei ¹ Ei ª º ª We E or Ga ! G  ¨ E¸ ©1  ¹ © Ei ¹ ª º

Gp
¸ ¹ ¹ º

¨ E¸ ©1  ¹ © Ei ¹ ª º

(or G a )

is plot as function of ¨

We E

E¸ ©1  ¹ © E ¹ i º ª

Bruns et. al method
Gp
¨ E¸ ©1  ¹ © E ¹ i º ª 

(or Ga )

is plot as function of

We E ¨ E¸ ©1  ¹ © E ¹ i º ª 

 

The result should be a straight line, provided the correct aquifer model has been selected. The ultimate gas recovery depends both on (1) the nature of the aquifer ,and (2) the abandonment pressure. The principal parameters in gas reservoir engineering: (1) the GIIP (2) the aquifer model (3) abandonment pressure (4) the number of producing wells and their mechanical define 

   

Hydrocarbon phase behavior

Hydrocarbon phase behavior

Hydrocarbon phase behavior
C--------D-------------- E

Residual saturation (flow ceases) Liquid H.C deposited in the reservoir Retrograde liquid Condensate
E--------------F

Re-vaporization of the liquid condensate ? NO! Because H.C remaining in the reservoir increase Composition of gas reservoir changed Phase envelope shift SE direction Thus, inhibiting re-vaporization.

Condensate reservoir, pt. c,

producing

Wet gas (at scf) Dry gas injection displace the wet gas

until dry gas break through occurs in the producing wells

Keep p above dew pt.

p small

Equivalent gas volume 

The material balance equation of eq(1.35) such as
Gp pi ¨ p ©1  ! z zi © G ª
¸ ¹ ¹ º 

Assume that a volume of gas in the reservoir was produced as gas at the surface. If, due to surface separation, small amounts of liquid hydrocarbon are produced, the cumulative liquid volume must be converted into an equivalent gas volume and added to the cumulative gas production to give the correct value of Gp for use in the material balance equation. 

Equivalent gas volume 

If n lbm ±mole of liquid have been produced, of molecular weight M, then the total mass of liquid is

nM ! K o V w ™ liquid volume 


where

0

= oil gravity (water =1) density of water =62.43 lbm/ft3 w

¨ lbm ¸ K 0 62 .4 © 3 ¹ ™ V 0 ft 3 © ft ¹ K o V w ™Vo 62 . 4K 0V 0 º ª n! ! ! M M lbm / lbm  mole M

62.4K 0V0 bbls 5.61458 ft 3 n! M 1 bbl
  n ! 350.5 K0Np

M

where N p [ !]bbls

V sc !

K 0 N p RTsc K 0 N p ™ 10.73 v 520 nRT ! 350.5 ! 350 .5 p sc M p sc M ™ 14.7 K 0N p

  Vsc ! 1.33 v 10 5

N p ?! A bbls

Equivalent gas volume

Condensate Reservoir 

The dry gas material balance equations can also be applied to gas condensate reservoir, if the single phase z-factor is replaced by the ,so-called ,two phase z,soz-factor. This must be experimentally determined in the laboratory by performing a constant volume depletion experiment. Volume of gas G scf , as charge to a PVT cell P Pi initial pressure above dew point T Tr reservoir temperature 

 

Condensate Reservoir 


p decrease by withdraw gas from the cell, and measure gas Gp¶ Until the pressure has dropped to the dew point
Z 2  phase ! p G p'¸ pi ¨ ©1  ¹ © zi ª G ¹ º . . . . (1 . 46 )

G '¸ pi ¨ p © 1  p ¹ . . . . . . . (1 . 35 ) ! z zi © G ¹ ª º p   z ! G p'¸ pi ¨ ©1  ¹ © zi ª G ¹ º

The latter experiment, for determining the single phase z-factor, implicitly zassumes that a volume of reservoir fluids, below dew point pressure, is produced in its entirety to the surface.

Condensate Reservoir 

In the constant volume depletion experiment, however, allowance is made for the fact that some of the fluid remains behind in the reservoir as liquid condensate, this volume being also recorded as a function of pressure during the experiment. As a result, if a gas condensate sample is analyzed using both experimental techniques, the two phase z-factor determined zduring the constant volume depletion will be lower than the single phase zzfactor. This is because the retrograde liquid condensate is not included in the cumulative gas production Gp¶ in equation 1.46 , which is therefore lower than it would be assuming that all fluids are produced to the surface, as in the single phase experiment. 

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