Contoh 1 PANDUAN ASAS MENYEDIAKAN LAPORAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN (MENGIKUT FORMAT EPRD
Bahagian Halaman Kandungaan Proses/Penerangan Ditulis dalam satu muka surat Contoh Penulisan Isi kandungan Muka surat Penghargaan Abstrak 1.0 Refleksi P & P yang lalu 1 2.0 Isu Keperihatinan 3.0 Objektif Kajian 3.1 Objektif Am 3.2 Objektif Khusus 4.0 Kumpulan Sasaran 5.0 Pelaksanaan Kajian 5.1 Tinjauan masalah 5.2 Analisis Tinjauan Masalah 5.3 Tindakan yang dijalankan 5.4 Pelaksanaan Tindakan Dan Pemerhatian 5.4.1 Pelaksanaan Aktiviti 1 5.4.2 Pelaksanaan Aktiviti 2 5.5 Refleksi Kajian 6.0 Cadangan Kajian Seterusnya Bibliografi Lampiran Penghargaan Pihak yang terlibat dengan kajian tindakan terutamanya di peringkat sekolah Hendaklah mengandungi : Tujuan Kumpulan sasaran Fokus kajian tindakan Tinjauan awal Perlaksanaan kajian Dapatan Ditulis dalam satu perenggan dan satu muka surat dan single spacing. Dicadangkan menggunakan Font 9/10 dan jenis tulisan Arial/Tahoma
Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan dan mengatasi masalah-masalah yang dihadapi oleh pelajar Tingkatan 4 semasa menyelesaikan persamaan serentak dalam dua anu (satu linear dan satu tak linear). Seramai 20 orang pelajar tingkatan 4 dan seorang guru terlibat dalam kajian ini. Perancangan tindakan difokuskan kepada penguasaan kemahiran penyusunan semula persamaan linear, permudahkan ungkapan algebra, penambahan dan penolakan pecahan algebra, pemfaktoran ungkapan kuadratik dan menyelesaikan persamaan kuadratik. Tinjauan awal telah dilaksanakan melalui semakan kerja rumah murid, ujian bulanan, peperiksaan penggal dan ujian pra. Hasil tinjauan menunjukkan murid tidak mahir dalam penyusunan semula persamaan linear, permudahkan ungkapan algebra, penambahan dan penolakan pecahan algebra, pemfaktoran ungkapan kuadratik dan menyelesaikan persamaan kuadratik. Lima sesi pengajaran dan pembelajaran (40-60 minit setiap sesi) telah dijalankan dalam tempoh 8 minggu iaitu pelajar belajar kemahiran yang tersebut di atas melalui model konkrit dan modul latihan berpandu secara kumpulan. Keputusan ujian pos telah menunjukkan peningkatan prestasi pelajar. Pelajar lebih berminat belajar kemahiran seperti pengembangan ungkapan algebra dan pemfaktoran dengan menggunakan model konkrit. Modul latihan berpandu telah membantu pelajar untuk mengatasi masalah mereka. Pengajaran dan pembelajaran kemahiran asas untuk menyelesaikan masalah persamaan serentak dalam dua anu
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
AKTIVITI 3 ( Ujian Cepat Kira Fakta Asas Darab .s 51 & 52 Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan
Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan
Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan
Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan
Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan 5.
Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan 5. melalui soal selidik atau ujian pra dan lain-lain Semua data yang terkumpul dimasukkan dalam jadual mengikut tajuk-tajuk yang ditetapkan tetapi bukan semua maklumat dapat diguna pakai dalam kajian. dalam m. sesi temu bual.
1. 4) Tempoh masa mereka habis menjawab direkodkan. Kumpulan Sasaran
Seperti di dalam kertas cadangan Spt. Refleksi Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Lalu 2. Objektif Am b Objektif Khusus 4. Maklumat mungkin telah diperoleh melalui pemerhatian dalam bilik darjah semasa murid/pelajar memberi respons kepada soalansoalan anda. murid-murid diberi aktiviti berbentuk individu. 3) Murid-murid dikehendaki menjawab soalan tersebut dalam masa 5 minit.5 minit ) 1) Aktiviti ini merupakan aktiviti bertulis. 3) Selepas menjalankan aktiviti ini. AKTIVITI 2 ( Ujian Cepat Kira Fakta Asas Darab . Tuliskan semua aktiviti.2
5. Isu /Keperihatinan /Masalah Kajian 3. bahan-bahan dan cara anda membuat pemerhatian untuk menguji keberkesanan tindakan/aktiviti yang anda telah jalankan ke arah meningkatkan kemahiran pelajar bagi menangani masalah yang anda sedang kaji. pemeriksaan buku latihan. Penggunaan model konkrit boleh membantu pelajar memahami konsep matematik ini. 2) Permainan ini dilaksanakan mengikut konsep permainan domino tetapi dalam permainan ini padanan adalah kepada soalan fakta asas darab dengan hasil darabnya atau sebaliknya.4 minit )
5.1 Aktiviti-aktiviti yang dijalankan Sebanyak empat aktiviti telah dirancang untuk membantu meningkatkan kemahiran mencongak fakta asas darab dalam kalangan murid-murid kumpulan sasaran saya.1 Pelaksanaan Kajian Tinjauan Masalah Huraikan secara terperinci cara-cara anda mengumpul maklumat.3.(satu linear dan satu tak linear) perlu diperkukuh pada peringkat sekolah menengah rendah. Objektif Kajian a. 5. Murid-murid diberi satu set soalan yang mengandungi 60 soalan.3
. 2) Soalan Cepat Kira Fakta Asas Darab ini diuji sehingga 9 x 9. Aktivitiaktiviti tersebut ialah: AKTIVITI 1 ( Permainan Domino Fakta Asas Darab ) 1) Aktiviti ini merupakan aktiviti berkumpulan yang melibatkan pendekatan dua dalam satu iaitu belajar dan bermain dalam satu masa.
dan perkara-perkara lain yang mungkin anda jangkakan. Refleksi b) Huraikan apa-apa yang difikirkan guru dari segi keberkesanan aktiviti atau kegagalan aktiviti 2 dan sebabsebab ini terjadi c) Huraian dalam bahagian ini bergantung kepada jumlah aktiviti yang telah dijalankan i.
Pelaksanaan Tindakan dan Pemerhatian / Penilaian
Huraikan cara pelaksanaannya
AKTIVITI 4 ( Ujian Cepat Kira Fakta Asas Darab . ii. Langkah-langkah hendaklah diterangkan secara terperinci
Pelaksanaan Aktiviti 1
Seperti yang terdapat di dalam kertas cadangan tetapi cara penulisan diubah dengan menggunakan ayat pelaporan.
Pelaksanaan Aktiviti 2
5. respons guru dan perkara-perkara lain yang mungkin anda jangkakan. 4) Tempoh masa mereka habis menjawab direkodkan. Refleksi Huraikan apa-apa yang difikirkan guru dari segi keberkesanan aktiviti 1 atau kegagalan aktiviti dan sebab-sebab keadaan ini terjadi i. Pemerhatian Sediakan jadual pemerhatian dan/atau huraikan apa-apa yang dapat dilihat dari segi perubahan sikap dan repons pelajar terhadap aktiviti 1. Refleksi Kajian Terhadap Pelajar
. Set soalan yang diberi kepada muridmurid Murid-murid dikehendaki menjawab semua soalan dalam masa 4 minit.2) 3)
1) Aktiviti ini sama seperti aktiviti 2. 3) Murid-murid dikehendaki menjawab semua soalan tersebut dalam masa 3 minit. Tempoh masa mereka habis menjawab direkodkan. Pemerhatian a) Anda boleh membuat jadual pemerhatian dan/atau huraikan apaapa yang dapat dilihat dari segi perubahan sikap (respons) pelajar terhadap aktiviti 2.3 minit ) 1) Aktiviti ini sama seperti aktiviti 2 dan 3. 2) Soalan-soalan yang sama diberikan kepada muridmurid.5 Refleksi Kajian
(1997) Michel Foucault and the Politics of Freedom. Cadangan Kajian Seterusnya
Kajian tindakan seterusnya yang akan saya jalankan ialah berkaitan dengan isu ……… Atau : Oleh sebab kajian yang telah saya jalankan tidak berjaya. Brown. Cadangkan isu seterusnya yang anda akan kaji.0 Tuliskan rumusan anda. University of Southampton Dunn.
Soal selidik atau bahanbahan sokongan yang digunakan dimasukkan di dalam ruangan ini. c) Terangkan perubahan emosi pelajar yang telah dikumpul melalui temu bual & soal selidik (sekiranya ada) ii. iii.0 Huraikan perasaan guru terhadap keberkesanan kajian yang telah dijalankan. T. Refleksi Kajian Terhadap Guru 1. PhD thesis. (1987) Language Interaction Patterns in Lessons Featuring Mathematical Investigations. T. Thousand Oaks. Ditulis dalam bentuk perenggan i. CA: Sage
Bahan rujukan yang anda gunakan hendaklah dicatatkan pada ruangan ini. maka saya akan menggunakan tindakan / aktiviti-aktiviti lain untuk menangani isu ini. Refleksi Tentang Proses P & P Yang Telah Dijalankan Secara Keseluruhan 2.
Rogayah Abdullah SMK Kempas. JB
.a ) Huraikan keberkesanan tindakan anda dengan menggunakan data/maklumat yang telah anda kumpulkan (seperti ujian pasca atau ujian-ujian lain) b) Terangkan perubahan tingkah laku pelajar melalui pemerhatian. Menyusun senarai bahan rujukan mengikut abjad.
Thus. By Hjh Hafiza Aini Bte Hj Hassan Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar Johor Bahru Abstract
This research was carried out to assist the students in enhancing their speaking skills in responding to Task A in their MUET Speaking Test by using the Genre Analysis approach. As part of MUET examination. Although it is a natural phenomenon to pause while verbally responding due to the thinking process indulged by the brain. Lessons via Genre Analysis approach should be carried out more often as it gives a clearer guideline to the students in mastering English Language as their second language in speaking and writing. They showed lack of confidence during speaking lessons. students are only given 2 minutes to perform Task A and the students need to be able to state and justify sufficient points of view within the time limit. Reflection on Previous Teaching and Learning I observed that the students were having difficulties in giving their opinions and giving reasons to support their opinions.
1. Early observations had been carried out through speaking exercises in classrooms. Through the observations. the students need to be able to have the skills of stating and justifying their points of view. Some of them even paused as long as 30 seconds during their responses.
2. Their passive responses were also lack of explanations to the justification that they produced.Task A (Individual Presentation) and Task B (Group Discussion). 62% of them responded below 40 seconds. Due to the predicament of giving even just one justification with no explanation. the students were unable to go beyond the first minute in presenting their responses. less than 5% of the students would go beyond stating the first justification to the tasks given despite frequent reminders and prompts during the activities. this research focuses on enhancing the students’ speaking skills in Task A. it was seen that the students were having difficulty in fulfilling the two tasks. 5 lessons were carried out by using the Genre Analysis approach. Students show their understanding and positive attitude towards participating in all the activities carried out in the lessons.Research Focus The research focused on the speaking skills which are crucial for the students to perform Task A in MUET Speaking Test. However. the students paused too long. The students’ limited experience to the patterns of similar responses in the target language worsen the scenario. In this task. Their responses would be clearer and thus help the students to be more focused in delivering their points of view.CONTOH LAPORAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN (DI HANTAR KE PPD – MENGIKUT FORMAT EPRD)
ENHANCING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS IN STATING AND JUSTIFYING POINTS OF VIEW BY GENRE ANALYSIS APPROACH. Basically. my students demonstrated their inability to perform the tasks well. the students are required to be able to present and justify their points of view formally. This research was essential as it would assist the students to be more confident in performing the task given. that is the Individual Presentation. Half of the class even paused too frequently when they responded. This caused them not to know the best way to present their responses to the tasks given. what more justifying their points of view. The time factor is crucial as in the actual MUET Speaking Test. This is a clear indication that the students were facing a serious problem in giving. That was why they resorted to just state one justification. they paused a lot during their responses. They showed difficulty even to come up with one justification to the topics given and could not reason out their answers. Not only that. There were 8 students who were involved.
Observation The reason for the observation was to see how keen the students were with speaking presentations. abiding the criteria set. General Objective To tailor a more effective lesson for oral communication by applying the Genre Analysis approach in instilling the oral skills of the genre of stating and justifying points of view in the learners’ response to the tasks similar to Task A in MUET Speaking Test. So. The students came into the room and were seated in fours. iii. Target Group For this action research. The actions were as below: c. Research Objectives a. the mediocre. Speaking presentations were done twice a month and the students’
. the students would experience intimidation in preparing and responding to the task. Observation The students seemed to shrink in anxiety when they heard from me that they would have to perform speaking presentations. b. They would just state what they had to quickly and be satisfied with that. d. 3. iii. To guide the students on exploring and identifying the structure of the genre of stating and justifying points of view with the guidance of the teacher. I carried out the observation and treatment on the students who were of the two criteria. The second test was a mock of MUET Speaking Test which was carried out exactly as how it would be carried out during the real test.With the anxiety that accompanies them throughout the MUET Speaking Test session. two tests were carried out. It would be impossible to see any one of them to volunteer to be their group’s spokesman. They were currently the students of Upper Six Form (2005) who would be sitting for MUET examination in July 2005. personally hand-picked. I used 2 approaches: ii. Since the students in the class were mostly of those who had achieved 7D – 9G. Specific Objectives This study was carried out to meet the following specific objectives: ii. Analysis of the Problem i. Each group was called into the room at different time and they were not able to hear other groups’ performance. Tests As it is only through tests that we are possible to see students’ real ability. 8 students were chosen and grouped into two different groups. the subjects were purposive. Action Implementation In order to overcome the problems faced by the students in responding to Task A. 5. iv. certain actions were taken. Problem Identification In collecting the data. The second group involved those with Low English Proficiency (LEP) who only managed to achieve 7D – 9G in their 1119 English Paper in SPM 2003. To make the students aware of the time limit of their responses – 2 minutes only. it was not their concern whether the listeners could either hear or understand them. This situation did not help the students in their performance at all. and only a small number with 3B – 6C in their 1119 English Paper in SPM 2003. equipping the students with speaking skills via Genre Analysis approach would help to minimize their nervousness as it prepares the students with the common structures used in their response. v. what more to go first during presentations. The first one was a speech presentation where the students were given two weeks to prepare a speech on a title of their own choice and present their piece within two minutes. To assist the students in producing three justifications for the opinion given. The first group. To highlight and assist the learners in acquiring the salient linguistic features involved in presenting their responses to the tasks similar to Task A in MUET Speaking Test. consisted of those who achieved 3B – 6C in their 1119 English Paper in SPM 2003. 4. During the presentations.
Five lessons were carried out and they were a. e.A digital audio recorder. to be aware of the required structure. They always answered the announcements of speaking assignments with groans. Tests In the individual speech. I used the Genre Analysis approach in order assist the students to respond to the task given better. c. the students just tend to go straight to the main issue being stated without dealing with the introduction and topic introduction. A few exceeded the two minutes while the rest did not even touch the first minute. they just gave one and were satisfied with it. b. Even with two weeks preparation time given. In individual presentations. although they knew that they should not have the same speaker as their spokesmen. Activity 1 – Investigating and identifying the structures of responding to Task A. In their mock test. Activity 2 – An Audio CD of 3 recorded sample answers for Task A. they did try to trick me in asking the same persons to represent their groups. Instruments used: a. e. Thus. f. Pre and post tests . ii. A post test was carried out to identify the effectiveness of the activities carried out in helping to enhance the students’ speaking skills in responding to Task A. Real Audio Player A computer b. Activity 4 . Their responses were also lack of the use of salient linguistic features thus decreased the impact of formality. An exercise for brainstorming of the justifications on various topics. Activity 5 – Practicing responding to Task A in groups of fours within the time limit of 2 minutes for the preparation. A list of transitional signals and a task sheet for categorising the signals based on their proper usage. the students did not present clearly. ii. iv. They were also unable to use the transitional signals correctly and with variety in their responses. iii.An exercise for practising the use of transitional signals. Activity 4 – Practicing on using correct transitional signals for the justifications on various topics. They also did not use up the whole two minutes provided and this shows that they had bad time management. Frequency Checklist c. d. some even said that they were not ready to perform their speech with the title of their own choice. Activity 3 – Power Point presentation of a sample dialogue. they were very reluctant to volunteer to perform first. Research Methodology Based on the observations and tests done. Activity 1 – An audio CD of a recorded sample answer for Task A.response were not encouraging. Genre Analysis approach was used in assisting the students: a. it was clear to me that the students were oblivious of the structure that they need to follow in order to present their responses. A pre-test was carried out in order to identify students’ initial level of competency and ability in responding to Task A. d. A mock MUET Speaking Test. Usually they were the ones identified as having the best speaking skills compared to the others in the group. b. Instead of giving three reasons to justify their views or opinions. e. Activity 3 – Going through various transitional signals and the correct usage. This could also be seen in their mock MUET Speaking Test. The transcriptions for the sample answers. The stages of the action research taken are as below: i. to understand the variety and correct usage of the transitional verbs. A sample answer. Activity 5 – A copy of a mock MUET Speaking Test. and two minutes of individual presentation. Activity 2 – Practicing brainstorming for 3 justifications on various topics within 2 minutes for each.
. They mumbled their words and were not interested to ensure that their listeners could understand them. For group presentations.
Graph 1: The Moves covered by each student . Implementation of Activity 1
. 2. Once the first group had finished with the task. about 59% had been neglected. 5. They were categorised into three different categories (the mediocre and the ones with low English proficiency). the record of their responses can be seen below:
Table 2: The Moves covered by each student. So. They were also recorded and evaluated.
f. They were given a set of test which allowed me to have a sampling of their spoken discourse. The matter became worse as they were also showing problems in constructing sentences and some were groping for words. I recorded their responses and evaluated them by using the six-band assessment criteria set by the Malaysian Examinations Council. Reflection From the assessment made. this highlights that the students did not have the skills to present their responses for the task well. Looking at the moves made. The students were put into 2 groups of fours. They were given the same task and followed the same procedure.
Students Moves 1 2 3 4 4. another group was called in. it was clear that all of the students were with low competency. Only one managed to be in the 2nd band.1a 4. They did not justify their reasons and those skills need to be highlighted to them. 3. all except one of them were in Band 1. This was to prevent the other group from preparing their responses beforehand.All instruments used were prepared by me and I personally graded the students myself. Observation The students’ evaluation can be seen in the table below:
Table 1: The bands achieved by the students.2
explanation of justification 1 justification 2
ii. Once the students were seated. Implementation of Action and Observation
i. I distributed the task. The students were seated with pairs facing each other. Each student was given two minutes to present their responses.
With reference to the Six-Band Assessment Criteria set by the Malaysian Examinations Council. I took the place as one of the assessors. The students were given 2 minutes to prepare their responses. that is the lowest. Implementation of Pre Test 1. 4. Each group was asked to enter the room in their respective groups without the presence of the other group.1 greeting state situation state role state opinion justification 1
ii. Looking at the moves carried out.
It was also interesting to see how the better one did not try to dominate the discussions. name the moves and compare the moves to the structure that they had brainstormed earlier. ii. the recording was played again. 1. This was the stage where Riggenbach’s (1999) six steps were integrated and adapted. 8. The better one got the discussion started and the weaker ones soon joined in. iii. They would refer to their friends who were more competent before they give their answers. 7. 5. I distributed a copy of the task which response they were going to listen to. The students were again asked to signal me to pause the playback and name the moves made. Observation
Graph 3: The number of responses each made by each student in Playback 2
Number of response given by the individual students: Playback 2
Graph 2: The number of responses made by student in Playback 1
Number of response given by the individual students: Playback 1
8 7 6
8 7 6
4 3 2 1 A
Graph 4: The number of responses made by 2 each student in Playback 3
1 B C D E F G H A B C D E F G H
Student 8 7 6
Number of response given by the individual students: Playback 3
5 4 3
2 1 A B C D E F G H
During the brainstorming session. The weaker ones also had the better one to refer to and that also helped in giving them more confidence to participate in the discussions. 6. Implementation of Activity 2
Number of response
4 3 Student
Number of response
Number of response
. However. I asked the students to signal me to stop for every move the speaker made. This was a crucial part as the subjects’ understanding of the structure of the target genre. I played the recording of a sample answer for the task and asked the students to just listen.This was the first stage of the lessons which was carried out with the subjects. I asked the students to brainstorm the structure of the response suitable for Task A in a MUET Speaking Test and listed the structure on the board. i. The students were encouraged to discuss the difference and determine the changes needed to be made to their former structure. After the students had agreed to the new structure. the better one had actually gave them the chance to respond. When the weaker ones gained more confidence in participating. 3. I marked the checklist in order to see the frequency. Reflection It was good for the students of mixed abilities to go through the sessions together. the weaker students were at first more to the quiet side and allowing the better ones to take charge (refer to Graph 2). Every time a student gave his or her response. 2. a few started to take part in signalling and naming the moves (refer to Graph 3 & 4). after the recording was played for a few times and they had familiarised themselves with the response. I played it again and asked them to compare their structure to the one on the CD. 4.
That was the phase when the students were able to enrich their knowledge on the genre being analysed. 5. the students used the knowledge gathered in the first stage and labelled the text types accordingly to the samples provided. After each topic was discussed. I listed their answers on the board. At this point. I went through the responses and asked the students to correct the responses if there were any grammatical errors. I distributed the transcription of the recordings played. I asked the students to identify and label the text types for the four transcripts given. Graph 5 above shows that even Group 2 could manage to identify most of the text types in the genre. 10. 4. 8. I kept the time. 9. they managed to label the text types. Exposing them to the recorded responses also made them realised that they needed to work on their speed and pronunciation too. I played a sample answer of the similar genre once. they were given stimuli to practice the language features that they had identified 1. 6.The second stage of the approach required me to expose more samples of the same genre to the students. The labelling of the text type also helped them to see the sequence of the responses that they needed to follow when they had to produce their responses later. Seeing the responses in written form helped them to see the distinction of the text types better. I listed their responses on the board. Reflection
. the students were exposed to more listening activities of the recorded responses. They were asked to attempt the topics one by one. When they were given the transcript of the recorded responses. 12. ii. Observation
Graph 5: The number of responses made by each student in Activity 2
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
In the second activity. I asked the students to recall and list the text types for the genre of stating and justifying points of view. I asked the students to listen to the recording once again. I asked the students to practice giving opinions by using the phrases which they had learnt earlier. I asked them to refer to the transcript again and looked at how the opinions were expressed. the students were able to share their responses. I discussed the labelling with the students. I did the same way for two more recordings. I asked the students to give other ways to state opinions and I wrote them on the board. i. 7. and signal the moves. 2. just giving them 2 minutes to prepare their answers before they were asked to give their responses. 11. I went through the list of samples on expressions used to state opinions with the students. Then. I asked them to check if all the moves they had mentioned were correct and in order. I distributed a handout on stating opinions. 3. This allowed them to be aware of the errors that they had done in their responses and at the same time.
Since the spoken discourse is dynamic and is more difficult for them to follow the flow of ideas. the students felt it was worth doing it as it made them understood the layout of the responses better.
2. I encouraged the peers to correct responses with errors with my guidance. 3. I timed them and instructed them to stop at the end of the second minute. Now the students need to put their knowledge into practice within the time limit of 2 minutes for each statement given. The students were more aware of the choices that they had. ii. Implementation of Activity 4 At this stage the students were already exposed to various ways in expressing opinions and reasons to justify the points of view. Observation
At this stage the students were exposed to various ways of using transitional signals in expressing opinions and reasons to justify the points of view. I called the students one by one to give their responses. I discussed the 5 categories with the students. 1. 3. intonations and thus had a good source for practice. 4. Implementation of Activity 3 After practicing the expressions for stating opinions. 6. After that. I called out the students to express their responses verbally one by one and allowed the peers to help. v. Then. I asked the students to refer to the following exercise on the use of transitional signals in supporting opinions. 7. iv. practice makes perfect. Although the process of identification took up a long time. I listed down the signals mentioned by the students. the students also benefited as they learnt the right pronunciations.
I distributed a handout on statements. 4. i. The students were more aware of the choices that they had. 5. I asked the students to look at the transcriptions again and look for the transitional signals that the speaker used in giving her reasons. and the exercise on the expressions and the application that they made in the exercises helped them to be more confident in using other expressions too. i. they needed more time to listen to the recording and identify the text types. They said that they always had the tendency to keep using the same expressions to state their opinions and reasons. with my careful guidance.
1. I asked the students to attempt one statement at a time. Observation
Graph 6: The number of responses made by each student in Activity 4
. I asked the students to use the transitional signals that they had discussed earlier to present their reasons which they had done in the previous activity. Having the printed transcript also helped the students to be aware of the salient linguistic features for the production of the genre. I distributed a handout on various transitional signals. 2. the students being average and weak ones really gained more confidence after umpteen practice of using transitional signal for various situations. I asked the students to classify the listed signals into 5 categories. Reflection As the saying goes. the third stage moved to the lesson on the use of transitional signals in stating reasons for opinions and justifications. Exposing the students to a native-like recording is essential as they did not have enough contacts with good samples of authentic answers by the native speakers. This also helped them to be aware of the different usage of transitional signals and the right way of using them. As the result. I listed their answers on the board.
6. I gave them their task and repeated the same procedure which I carried out with the first group. Reflection More practices would be a great help to the students. Then. vi. I asked the students to sit in their respective groups. The students worked on producing a complete response. the other group were asked to give their comments and I guided the discussion session. I recorded and timed each member’s response. After the discussion. and the exercise on the expressions helped them to be more aware of the 2 minutes and had to force themselves in presenting their answers within the time limit.
Table 2: The Moves covered by the students
Students Moves 1 2 greeting state situation
. ii. stage 5 where the students had to put into practice of what they had learnt in the exercise focusing on situations similar to Task A in MUET Speaking Test.At this stage. 4. 5. They said that they were able to vary their expressions in stating their opinions and reasons. based on the text types to which they were exposed to and the language features which they had observed and practised in the previous activities. Implementation of Activity 5 This was the last stage. 2. members of the group took turn to present their responses. Then. it would be a blessing in disguise as they would be accustomed to it. during the real test. Observation
Graph 7: The Moves covered by the students
3. Each group were given the chance to practice 2 sets each. I timed them 2 minutes for them to prepare their responses. I distributed SET 1 to group 1 and asked them to read the task. Though they were uneasy and felt disturbed for having to produce their responses within 2 minutes. Thus. i. it was the second group’s turn. they would be more aware of the 2 minutes provided. 1. the students were able to use their knowledge on the expressions and transitional signals in producing their responses. After the group presented their responses.
The research should focus on ways to highlight the essential features of managing discussions and the proper ways to carry them out. register and genre. with a lot of discussions and oral practices. and help the weak students to understand and be able to carry out discussions properly. Access date December 10. Malaysian Examinations Syndicate. but also in presenting them aloud in class. 2004 at: www. Even Group 2 would volunteered to give their answers first and this showed that they had gained their confidence not just in preparing the responses. Suggestion for Future Research This research only focused on the individual response to the speaking task. Selangor:Pustaka Sarjana Sdn Bhd.gov. Language Studies.ihworld.2005 at: http://www2.doc Smith. the students found that they were more confident in giving their answers.my/~lp/spm_lpm. Reflection Naturally. Access date: 9th January. H. Journal for College Teaching.moe.htm Ng. G. K. (2004) Study Skills for the Malaysian University English Test. 45. they had gained more confidence and thus. USA: University of Michigan Press.
. (1997) Learning to Speak and Speaking to Learn. Roberts. The Genre Analysis Approach has allowed the students to be aware of the text types and the salient linguistic features which becomes the crutch to these weak students to produce their responses to the task given. the students found it difficult to come up with enough opinions and reasons within the two minutes given. In: The International House Journal of Education and Development Issue 3 April 1997. Shah Alam: Federal Publications. J. J.I could see that at first the students were quite uncomfortable to give their responses with the other group watching and listening. ii. 6. (1997) Genre Analysis: A way out of the CUL-DE-SAC. that is Task B. However. (1999) Discourse Analysis in the Language Classroom. However. Martin. S. with persuasions and encouragements. helped them to produce their responses in better sentences. Reflection on the Research At first. after the feedback and discussion session. (2002) Malaysian University English Test (MUET) – Coursebook. I personally suggest that there should be another research in helping these weak students in the second task in the MUET Speaking Test. et al. I managed to highlight and facilitate the students to produce their responses in the correct text types and use the appropriate linguistic features. With the ample oral practices carried out by the students.K. the students were shy to be heard by their friends.
Bibliography Lim.com/ihjournal/genre_analysis_paul_roberts. In the second round responding to their second set. the students were more confident and could give better responses. Children Writing: Reader. Victoria: Deakin University. (1984) ‘Language. It is crucial especially for the weaker students in gaining the salient linguistic features. many were able to present their responses better. P.C. However.’ in ECT 418.:49+. g. In this task. Vol. Riggenbach. With that. Table 2 and Graph 7 show that they managed to take the exercise positively. the students are required to be able to manage discussions.
M.2005 at: www. Tan. Vale. and Ali. (1990) Genre Analysis – English in Academic and Research Settings. A. J. A Complete Guide.com Swales.questia. Selangor : Pearson Malaysia Sdn.M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Bhd. A.
.. (2004) Text MUET.Access date January 1.