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NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation Job Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent

decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and

driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others’ feelings. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds, window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL

The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization

the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. They seldom leave the company. (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. At the same time. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. absenteeism. There is greater stability. scraps and damage. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Employees become efficient after undergoing training.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. This is particularly true when . and meeting future employee needs. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. making employees stay long. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future.(1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Training and development programmes. and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. help remove performance deficiencies in employee. Ultimately. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered. Flexibility is therefore ensured. flexibility. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. and capacity for growth in an organization. They are absorbed after course completion. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. as was pointed out earlier. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Further. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. All rounders can be transferred to any job. Even dissatisfaction. Growth indicates prosperity. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: . Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. complaints. minimized accidents.

responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress. personnel. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills. thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. better attitudes. e. communication skills and attitudes . frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership. etc. loyalty.g.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. tension. growth. achievement. communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict. motivational variables of recognition. production. openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas. motivation. knowledge. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: • • • • • Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth. administration.

growth. . Makes organizational policies. Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: • • • • • • • • • • Improves communication between groups and individuals: Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills. Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning. rules and regulations viable. also writing skills when exercises are required.• • • • • • Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations. and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process.

Needs assessment Organizational support Organizational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis Instructional Objective Selection and design of instructional programs Developm ent of criteria Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorgani zational validity Interorgani zational validity Training Use of evaluation models The Training Process NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Before committing such huge resources. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. . that is.g. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards. compensation package. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e. organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees. Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. For example. selection.

Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. Jobs have disappeared as technology. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. foreign competition. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or Knowledge Other Causes Training Non-training Measures Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. For example. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. . job redesign. Transfer. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills. sell and service the new products. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary. or discharge will solve the problem. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Faulty selection. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Deputation to a parttime MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees.when there is performance deficiency. they do not necessarily require training efforts. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. improving quality of supervision. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Recently however. poor job design.

Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization. Although training is not all. As shown in the below table. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life. the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. which seeks to examine . individual or group. the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis. Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. or other problems are diagnosed. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment Table #2 Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Group or organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objective Personnel/skill invention Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Customer survey/satisfaction data Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment. should consider several issues as shown in Fig. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce. Obviously. disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur.low morale and motivation.

Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • • Loss of business Constraints on business development . Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment. A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. Should this happen. the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme. Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. 3. knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive. Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis. domestically and internationally? • Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people. and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities. which training seeks to fill.the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term). Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. Also. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills. 2. There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1.

• After training. • After training. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? For more Notes. overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment costs.blogspot.com mbafin. including advertising.blogspot. time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover.com .• • • • • • • • • • • Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay.com hrmba. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. part time working. grading structures. the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate. shift working. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives. Presentations. job sharing. payment system and career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time. the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise. Project Reports visit a2zmba.blogspot. etc. Pressure on job-evaluation schemes.

. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. 6. Specialists in other parts of the company. rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. including the following: 1. depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. and 7. elements useful in quality circle projects. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the workplace. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces. Members of the personnel staff. As can be seen from Table #2. 2. training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) offthe-job methods. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. For example. many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. 5. Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Immediate supervisors. training? Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people. often. Co-workers.What methods Who are the Who are training Programme Fig #3 Steps inthe and trainees? trainers? techniques? Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination. interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. In addition. Faculty members at universities. Bringing several What should be What principles of Where to such as target audience together can also facilitate group processes conduct problem the level of learning? the programme? solving and decision making. Outside consultants. programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put. On the other hand. while the employee is actually working. 4. as in buddy systems. Who among these are selected to teach. Whatever is the basis. For example. Industry associations. 3.

Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used Orienting New Sales. Off the Job Methods Vestibule Lecture Special Study Films Televisions Conference or Discussion Case Study Role Playing Simulation Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N . films. Safety Technical & Introducing. Creative.Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness. audio cassettes. the more effective the technique is. On the Job Training Orientation Y N N N N Training Job Y Y N N N instruction training Apprentice Y Y N N N training Internships & N y N Y Y Assistantship Job Rotation Y N N N Y Coaching N Y Y Y Y B. training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. Employees. video-tapes and simulations. Obviously. Skills Supervisory & Education Professional Innovations Training Managerial Education In Products Education & Services 1 2 3 4 5 A. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank). role playing. Special Administrative. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. case studies.

the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group. it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. There is no feedback from the audience. programmed instruction. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. To break the boredom. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience. audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no . videotypes and films. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. N-No Y N Y N Y 3 Y 3 3 N At this point. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. But.. on-the-job training. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups. the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training. though its application is restricted in training factory employees. and hence the cost per trainee is low. It constitutes a one-way communication. Further. We explain the following-lectures. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes. simulation and sensitivity training. (See Table #3) Table #4 Training Method Case study Conference Lecture Business games Films Programmed Instruction Role Playing Sensitivity Training Television Lecture The Relative Effectiveness of training Methods Knowledge Acquisition Rank 2 3 9 6 4 1 7 8 5 Changing Problem Interpersonal Participant Knowledge Attitudes Solving Skills Acceptance retention Rank Skills Rank Rank Rank 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 4 9 2 7 6 3 5 8 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 6 9 2 5 8 6 7 1 4 3 9 Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities. jokes and other attention-getters. However.Programmed Instructions Laboratory training Y=Yes. computer aided instruction. audio-visuals. overheads. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time.

An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job. Cost of preparing books. OJT has advantages. programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. If not. The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. Further. 2. making him or her highly competent. The training programme itself is not systematically organized. The scope for learning is less. either in a book of thought a teaching machine. It is. Further.scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. Thus. Material is also structured and self-contained. 3. In addition. he or she repeats the same. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. compared to other methods of training. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Often. Presenting questions. Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. After reading each block of material. a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. the learner proceeds to the next block. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. result in damaged products or materials. facts. Finally. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience. the learner must answer a question about it. much time. 4. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit . The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-jobtraining type. and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. it is informal. informal. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. manuals and machinery is considerably high. the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom. or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct. to create safety hazards. offering much scope for practice. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed.

but repeated use may justify the cost. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs . Third. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. Simulation then. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. the need to decide what is going on. in at least three respects. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee.greater utilization of basic PI concept. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. For example. Second. select the best one. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study. this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. as in case study. Then. develop alternative solutions. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. these cases represent to describe. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games. real problems that managers have faced. Attitude change is another result of role playing. a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. and implement it. and thus get training when they prefer. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. as accurately as possible. and what can and should be done. Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes. the learner's response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. For example. complete with audio instruction displays. in the reader. analyses causes. For example. and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost. is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor. activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation. role playing and vestibu1 training. First. what the situation really is or what the problems are. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems.

the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process.9 shows some more techniques of training. and enroll for the courses electronically. A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options available. the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs. are held away from workplaces. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions. Meeting have no agenda. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training. Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy In today’s electronic world. encounter groups.Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. improved listening skills. a modem and a web browser. Table 9. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. usually fewer than 12 in a Group. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees. how they perceive one another. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. Using a PC. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others.groups (training groups). Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other. or T. He or she can then receive a. increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. course work online and even take tests and advance to the next level-all from his or her own house. without disrupting ongoing operations. training takes place away from the work environment. The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do. Of course. . However. Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. The internet and intranet are changing the face of training and learning. the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive. greater openness. it has become possible to learn online. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over. and increased understanding of group’s processes. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process.

Web servers. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference . It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. Motorola and Ford are only the two. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared learning via teleconferencing. The firm's satellite broadcast links employees in countries all over the world. England. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the seven seas. roleplaying exercises.000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite broadcast technology.Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning. Australia. There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time. France. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent Learning through the web can be very convenient for' employees. till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. Japan. or while traveling to work. One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices in US. and India. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart soft-skills like performance management. Face to face. Employees of Motorola have access of self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm's Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses. Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training system. The learners do not have to depend on the trainer's availability. coaching. to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate intranet across the globe. and personnel computers are the basic requisites. It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically. This can be avoided in a virtual-learning setting. has a virtual university. laptops. But these facilities will payoff in the long-run. in the evening when one is at leisure. mostly in information technology. ISDN lines. IBM Global Campus. Japan. For example. Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time. Virtual learning presents its own challenges. Employees have the facility to get training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting for trainees. role-playing exercises were added for the human touch. IBM. One can attend the course at home. may call for sharing personal information with strangers. Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22. including Germany. There are others too. and interviewing skills. for example. Italy. and Western Europe. where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications.

The online training was supplemented with small-group work with a site facilitator. the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge. selection and evaluation of a problem Cross-Cultural Training Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning.rooms as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums.34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. concepts and relationships involved in it. Table #5 Techniques of Training Technique Description Ice Breakers Games to get team members know each other Leading Games Exercise to each different styles of leadership Skill Games Test to develop analytical skills Communication Games Exercise to build bias free listening and talking Strategic planners Games to test ability to plan ahead Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative effort Role reversal Exercise to teach plurality of view Doubling Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed Tag Teams One role played alternately by two participant Mirroring Training with external perspective Monodrama Insight into a given interaction Shifting physical position highlighting of communication problems Structured role playing Role play with predetermined objective Multiple role playing Providing a common focus of discussion Built-in-tension Teaching the importance of resolving matter Shadowing Working under a senior to watch and learn Outward bound training Adventure sports for teams 9 + 1 + 23 Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills Lateral Thinking Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas Morphological Analysis Listing of alternative solution to problems Gordon Technique Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions Attribute Listening Isolation. The goal of the next level is skills development. . How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language. As was pointed out earlier. workbook exercises. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. In addition. the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education. and the like. skills. At the lowest level. The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency. there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught. and audio interaction with instructors. presentations via satellite from Boeing experts.

6. 9. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. The individual must have the ability to learn. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and. Reinforcement. Goals Schedules of learning. Meaning of material. Motivation alone is not enough. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. contingent upon behavior. Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. For example. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss. Practice opportunities. assuming this as an unpleasant experience. Knowledge of results (feedback). Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. when presented. . the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. Recognition of individual differences. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. and Transfer of learning. the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. In more general terms. Thus. 5. 2.Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. 3. Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. 8. The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. 7. tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. In negative reinforcement. 4. Employee motivation.

Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. On site but not the job-for example. or a conference centres Typically. Actually. such as in a university or college classroom. would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions. and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. and (ill) positioning of rest pauses. (ii) duration of rest sessions. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. Off the site. the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. A crane operator. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. Goal setting can also accelerate learning. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. the better is the learning process. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process.There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. Often. but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. At the job itself 2. hotel. All the three must be carefully planned and executed.37 further. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. basic skills are taught at the job. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones. for example. in a training room in the company 3. The more meaningful the material. Implementation of the Training Programme: . Though. a resort. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee's supervisor.

their practices. the trainers must know the company's philosophy. any other personnel specialty. 2. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. In the first place. 5. Conducting the programme 4. Scheduling the training programme 3. 3. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than. its objectives. it needs to be implemented. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. availability of trainers is a problem. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. Evaluation must be continuous. Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. A sense of urgency must be developed. 4. how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme.Once the training programme has been designed. In addition to possessing communication skills. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 6. 2. Implementation is beset with certain problems. that are. perhaps. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. its formal and informal organizations. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. however. should finally. Evaluation must be specific. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation . Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. correcting performance deficiencies. Secondly. #1). and their products. and the goals of the training programme. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period. Monitoring the progress of trainees. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. In practice. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process.

In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training. Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees. Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2. Each group is randomly selected. has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. 9.g. salaries of training department staff.Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. for which the training programme was developed. quality pieces produced per hour. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e. wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups.1 contains a number of potential goals 1. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group. then the training may be taken as successful. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost. Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth. Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training. One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done. purchase of . To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable. a control group may be included. words typed per minute. the training programme is labeled as successful. Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis. but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. Their opinions could through interviews. This is a difficult task.

Take Wipro. for example. and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1. rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9. Obviously. their behavioral change. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees. E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. Pune and Delhi. it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process provides for continual modification of the programme. handouts). Today. 2. videos. even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives. E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training. a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. In addition. For example. Similarly. Hyderabad. The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. evaluation costs. firms are introducing soft skill modules as well. including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. out of its 17. Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. who need training.000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore. . the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process. programme development costs. an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned.500 are on site and 15. In other instances. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. In fact. The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees' performance. e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. Chennai. there are always developments that can affect the programme. trainers' costs.000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training.equipment (computers.500 employees.

tutoring and team-work can go on-line. as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and Internet. cultural appropriate feedback change) • Incorporates built-in guidance • Requires significant upfront 'cost and helps for trainees to use when and investment needed • It is relatively easy for trainers to • No significantly greater learning update content evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance • Requires significant top instructor-led training management support to be successful . though it might also stay in the classroom. tapping multiple • Not all trainees may be ready for trainee senses e-Learning • Allows for consistency in the • Not all trainees may have easy delivery of training and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of • Not appropriate for all training services/assessments and content (e. leadership. • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning. There are problems nevertheless. safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website.g. Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Advantages Disadvantages • It is self paced. Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantages more comprehensively. E-Learning tends to cause trainee anxiety. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced. Learning that requires discussion. Trainees can • May cause trainee anxiety proceed on their own time • It is interactive. • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized.Routine training such as orientation.

facilitators. In an increasingly competitive environment. Those that do. however. for. and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. tend to concentrate on managers. • E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such as classroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities. where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another company's employees. particularly at the middle level. insist on employees to sign 'bonds of tenure' before sending them for training. there is no such system in our country. . Unlike Germany. need to be retrained in team-playing skills. This must change. Companies in our country. • A range of people with different skills are involved. as a result of rapid technological change. • E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business. technicians and professionals. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in great demand. budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. • E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketed effectively throughout the organization. including expert trainers. Following are the major hindrances: Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do not spend money on training. the ability to implement rapid changes in products and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. (ii) the ability to maintain it. Worse still. • Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other way around. Managers. entrepreneurship skills. combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management. workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology.Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learning exhibit a number of common success factors: • Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happens and is delivered. particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. champions of e-Learning and specialist web and graphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective.

Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. operational and individual training needs. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. or about 2. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation.No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. wage revision. in the US invests about $ 300 million annually. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers.OC: workers. They have little time in imparting training to their members. This must change.5 per cent of its revenue on training.) . Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such bonus. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seen as: responding to Labour-market demands. 5. For example. 2. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. 3. Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87. This is what high-performing organizations do. 6. Businessmen must sit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. settlement of disputes. Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role in imparting training workers. Similarly. Xerox Corporation. Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B Schools. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. and the like. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. 4.

office of TCS in Mumbai. Andheri . is occupied these days with . to find how they are powering their growth Training fires the corporate engine At the SEEPZ.Newspaper Article on Training & Development On August 4th 2006 Finance and marketing are passé -the function that really rocks India Inc is training. 56. Dilip Kumar Mohapatra. Corporate Dossier takes you deep inside the massive in-house training departments created by knowledge corporates. global head for learning and development .

and will familiarise TCS inductees around the world — Buffalo.500 new people being recruited every month. Wipro. in fact. It is even held accountable for output measures of its trainees. rejection rates. BPO player IBM Daksh is taking training equally seriously — its training group is christened the Talent Transformation Business Unit (TTBU. cost of delivery and customer satisfaction metrics. Genpact and ICICI Bank. While TCS and IBM Daksh are not the only ones — others like Infosys. and is run like a separate business with its own finance controller .” says Mohapatra.” says Pavan Vaish. “We believe that training is the most important lever to deliver high quality talent. and a dedicated HR representative. face similar challenges of hiring and training people on a large scale — they are perfect examples of how the in-house training department has become crucial. Infosys has a staggering $125 million annual outlay for training and development. And it shows in the investments being made by these companies into training infrastructure and resources. And with 2. “The challenge is to get everyone on to the common global TCS culture.200 people from 53 nationalities. quality head. an administration and transport wing.something very unusual for people his age — computer games. Need of the Hour . Up north in Gurgaon. Mohapatra’s team is actually developing an online game that will be part of the induction kit for new hires. To get a sense of this challenge. IBM Daksh. Okay. with a direct impact on client satisfaction. consider that the software major’s workforce across 34 countries adds up to 71. core to the growth and success of India’s new age behemoths. COO. while TCS too invests a comparable figure on training. such as voice quality. training has to find creative ways to keep pace. That explains our disproportionate focus on this function. Accenture’s global spends on training and development has been $546 million (for September-August 2005). China — with the culture of the company. New York to Hangzhou. we’re exaggerating.

To deliver this training on this scale and frequency. “The responsibility of gaining competency has been shifted to the learner. Infosys. chat and online self-tutorials have ensured that most of the learning for employees takes place at the place. Companies looking to operate and compete in a global market need to constantly skill and reskill their people. clients are paranoid about the quality of people we employ. “Technology has made training asynchronous. companies have managed to put the some of the onus of learning onto employees. VP. cutting across geographies and time restrictions. since competencies are now closely aligned with appraisals.” says MP Ravindra. “For us the classroom is the most inefficient way (to train).” says TV Mohandas Pai. director HR. What’s interesting is that by bringing in the convenience of anytime. . and training is becoming a 24/7/365 affair. and to pass they had to score 18 out of 20 points. technology is key — media-rich content. anywhere learning. “40% of our recruits are fresh graduates. This is further re-inforced by linking training hours completed. have put greater pressure on training departments to bring employees up to speed on the latest rules and regulations in their clients’ industries. there’s an ongoing need to equip them with the necessary soft and specialized skills. Calapa recalls that OneSource associates were once required to write two tests for a UK-based client — one on the data protection act and other on the money laundering act. it’s no longer enough to put your employees through the occasional training module a few times a year.In the knowledge economy. to the individual’s overall performance score. Says Aashu Calapa. But nowhere does training assume greater importance than in the BPO industry. whose training team conducts 190 e-learning programmes annually.800 employees — a bulk of them at the operational level — e-learning is a way of life when it comes to skill up gradation. video-on-demand. and with most jobs being customer-facing ones.” Periodic and. of their convenience. frequent changes in the global business environment. executive VP.Education & Research. and time. HR at ICICI One-Source.” says HR head K Ramkumar. For ICICI Bank’s 27. and Infosys. often. With thousands of fresh graduates handling customer queries. where 30% of training is now IT enabled.

Lyndon J D’Silva . understanding your own as well as your clients’ organization. others believe in growing them internally. Talent Transformation Business Unit. “Traditional training was just about behavioral and technical training. Genpact spent close to $8 million on training. since the best . it includes cultural and value training. with BPO companies looking to move up the value chain. and in capabilities. “Our supply chain is mission critical to us. Monitoring of training quality is just as important.” And it shows — last year.000-strong workforce across the world. IBM Daksh. training is faced with a talent shortage.Also. of course. It’s being tested and will be rolled out later this year. people need to be coached in new skills. D’Silva believes technology will increasingly be training’s best bet.” It also has eight people dedicated to R&D in training. training has moved on to becoming an independent entity within the organization. as well as the industry in which one is working. a performance evaluation grid that assesses voice quality and generates a statistical score. There is also a need to get people ready for potential jobs that we may want them to take up. head HR (India). VP. says.” says Piyush Mehta. and has 313 trainers along with 70 part-time specialists who also conduct domain-specific training for its 25. With scalability becoming an problem.” says Rahul Varma. who conduct research and refine training methods. “Trainers are definitely scarce — in numbers. To give it the importance of an independent function. IBM Daksh has been working with IBM’s research labs to develop a tool called Sensei. While many companies are outsourcing part of their requirement of trainers. is that from being a HR support function. “Now. Genpact. it gets buried.” Changing From the Inside-Out The really big shift. Accenture. “We believe the only way to produce quality output is to quantify it. “When you keep training as part of HR. and like most other business functions. after feedback from trainers and business units. Rapid scaling up in IT and ITES companies is also putting pressure on the training machinery. we treat it as one.” says Varma. senior VPHR .

wherein its own faculty teaches at academic institutes. and this helps in better branding for the company. “Expanding the talent pool. Runaway Train Accenture follows what it calls a ‘leaders teaching leaders’ approach for technical training. The existing model of training also needs to adapt with changing business needs from time to time.” says Ravindra. “This way. who’re in the retail banking and finance business. For others like ICICI Bank. TCS rotates its training faculty between the Indian and overseas locations. Building external partnerships with educational institutions is another — so companies like TCS. Mohapatra lists globalization and M&As as the two biggest tests of his training department’s effectiveness in the future — in terms of integrating a globally diverse workforce into a single platform.trainers are line managers and executives who have spent time and understand the business first hand. Expanding internal resources is one way. investment in training infrastructure is a priority for most HR heads and CEOs. TCS runs an Academic Interface initiative. and Accenture have been developing joint programmes for training people at these institutions before they join the company. Having a global presence helps in leveraging training resources and sharing expertise across continents. Infosys links training to individuals’ performance. managing incidental changes in the training modules and scalability are the challenges the training department faces today.” says Mohapatra. and ensuring a seamless merger of cultures during acquisitions . . as well. and coping with scale is a big issue. At ICICI Bank. and this helps decide whether they get on the ‘Leadership Talent List’ of potential fast trackers. while cross-cultural and communication training is outsourced to vendors. Trainers are also required to keep updating their skills and knowledge. New Challenges It’s clear that the quality of the internal training capability will be among a key driver of business success in the future. TCS’s Learning & Development group is currently working on a project (codenamed Pygmalion) to develop training programmes and tools for a new cadre of people that the company has never hired before — plain graduates. Infosys. Not surprisingly. and most companies have structured ‘train-the-trainers’ programmes in place. senior executives are required to spend time training others. the challenge is in extending the in-house training capabilities to a larger pool of Direct Sales Associates (DSAs) outside the company and make them compatible with the company culture. and even brings down people from other countries here. Ramkumar says work is on for a certification process whereby outside partners will be remunerated according to their assessment scores after training. cross-culturalisation happens better. For instance.

the NASDAQ-listed firm planned to set up a new 9. An additional 7.” says Calapa. On July 31st 2006 Infosys plans largest training centre… Infosys to set up world's largest training hub… MYSORE: Software major Infosys plans to invest Rs.BPO firms like ICICI One-Source have mooted the National Assessment of Competence (NAC) programme. they said.000seat training facility here. "When fully completed it will house five food courts. company executives said. this initiative could enable training departments to focus on building higher end competencies in fresh inductees from day one.809 crores ($176 million) on expanding its global education centre in the next one year. If it works. “We’re clear that training is one of the pillars that we’re going to build our future on. one multimedia centre making it undoubtedly the largest training facility in the world.000 rooms. one employee care centre. making it a total of 10." an official said.500 individuals in a single sitting. . Over the next one year. which would enable training of 13. a joint certification and assesment programme with Nasscom to expand the employable talent base for the industry.750 hostel rooms were under construction.

The company's Mysore campus is spread over 335 acres and it currently has 6. modify and deploy the elearning content is the key parameters for improving quality of the employee talent. and work is in progress to build another 3. Now. set up with an investment of Rs. With more projects on hand and hiring in thousands. software companies are looking at innovative ways to maximize the productivity of their employees and ensure faster deployment.500 people. Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia on Monday inaugurated the company's fourth software development block here. business development.85 crores.378 employees. Daily News & Analysis Online learning gets a thumbs-up from corporates On August 16th 2006 BANGALORE: Indian software service firms spend six to eight weeks in training fresh recruits before deploying them on projects. It has three million square feet of built up area. online learning companies are focusing on building content that aims to help IT firms save training time and costs on employees.” Sanjeev Fadnavis. . associate vice-president. It can seat 2. at Harbinger Knowledge Products told DNA Money.2 million square feet. “The speed at which technology firms can develop.

which provides competitive and business advantage. The learning should be constant. “It is important for knowledge-driven companies to develop and protect intellectual property. planning and buying. unlike the traditional theory-based tests. the Indian corporate e-learning market is estimated at $10-20 million with a potential to grow at 150%. Bangalore-based Liqwid Krystal.” Brain League chief knowledge officer Kalyan C Kankanala said. In order to capture this huge segment. which involves understanding the media business.” Nasscom has said. and help develop work and soft skills.” informs Rashmi Deshpande of Group M. for example. It should not be chosen because it is fashionable. The technology sector has been among the early adopters of online education. To be successful. Liqwid Krystal has tied up with Viswesvaraya Technical University in Karnataka and Andhra University in the neighboring state to train over 90. “Our training programmes encompass strategizing. GroupM has an internal training department called Aspire MGuruKool. which prepares modules to hone functional and managerial skills. On August 9th 2006 Most agencies have developed their own training methods tailored to suit the nature of their work. “The proficiency of the candidate on various programmes could be assessed better. online learning has to have the right fit with the organization. it is a means to an end.000 engineering students through the module. It is not a panacea. “E-learning can also be a disaster if it is not managed correctly. Brainleague and Edutech have joined hands to provide e-learning on intellectual property rights with a focus on research units across the country. has designed a solution that allows aspirants for software jobs to write a programme in an online test and assess their capability of building codes. with its focus on constant training of employees and using learning as a retention tool. several players are building specialized tailor-made e-learning courses for tech firms in the country. including in business and soft skills. But there is a word of caution for firms that adopt e-learning without a clear focus on their business. .” Liqwid Krystal CEO Anand Adkoli said.According to analysts. in addition to competency-based training.

allowed to work with bigger clients and groomed to take on additional responsibilities. we may call someone from HLL. “We are getting the best practices when required. while for soft skills we may bring someone from IIM – Bangalore. work on projects together and develop a sense of belonging. train others to bring about a cascading effect. JWT nominates its top-level staff (those identified to head offices) for its international programme ‘Sam Meek’. brainstorming and a time-bound deliverable action plan. which is held thrice a year across different Asia-Pacific centres. typically one planner and one creative or servicing person. GroupM has a programme called Fast Trackers for young achievers. where youngsters are put through a lot more grind in terms of opportunities. and introduced a top achiever’s programme in December 2005. Lintas. These 25 people will. O&M has an HR and Training leadership group in Asia Pacific that plans regional programmes and oversees training plans. We sometimes adapt and sometimes share best practices with others.” says Bhasin. role etc.” says Deshpande. “Most faculties are specialized and bring to the table expertise in a particular area. in turn. Ashish Bhasin informs that a team of four from the US and the UK recently trained 25 people in Lintas India on the Worldwide Planning Tool Kit. for its ‘global young achiever’ forum.” For its part. . meanwhile. So. Lowe sends two people. Some of these programmes are often modeled on those developed by parent companies. “These workshops see lectures. High fliers and the crème de la crème of the talent pool can also look forward to attending special workshops. level-wise workshops to upgrade skills and middle-management workshops. content. design. which is held once a year.” says Sapna Srivastava. The programme is intended to help youngsters build networks across different regions. Says Deshpande: “All media companies under WPP exchange training programmes on modules. A lot of fresh knowledge is created in India in areas like rural marketing. etc that we are ready to export. JWT conducts functional workshops for senior-level staff. and at the same time exporting knowledge. has set up its own North-point Centre of learning to empower managers with updated knowledge and decision-making skills. for planning and strategizing. sent to different regions. O&M nominates those who have worked for 3-4 years for the regional programme ‘Adopt a Country’. A buddy is chosen and the two buddies get an opportunity to visit each other’s country. Young talent is given more opportunity to grow as well.Agencies generally rope in internal and external faculties (from India and abroad) for training.

such as reduced travel costs. However. the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was ranked fourth by the Training magazine on it’s “The 2002 Training Top 100”. IBM reportedly spent about $1 billion for training its employees. And Lowe has introduced programmes like ‘media training for non-media’. After considerable research. in 1999. IBM undertook a cost cutting drive. in the late 1990s. Initially. and started looking for ways to train its employees effectively at lower Costs. ‘IMAG Training for non-IMAG’ and ‘advertising workshop for non-advertising’. e-Learning was used to train IBM's newly recruited managers." Rebecca Wettemann.O&M sends its senior staff for the regional senior management development programme (SMDP). and second-tier benefits. such as increased employee performance that directly impacts profitability. a five-module programme spread over 15 months. During the mid 1990s. The magazine ranked companies based on their commitment towards workforce development and training imparted to employees even during periods of financial uncertainty. Since its inception. IBM decided to use e-Learning to train its employees. research director for Nucleus Research In 2002. Case Study: Article Training Employees of IBM through E-Learning “E-learning is a technology area that often has both first-tier benefits. IBM had been focusing on human resources development: The company concentrated on the education and training of its employees as an integral part of their development. .

and were retrained for careers in sales. director of IBM Mindspan Solutions." The HR policies at IBM were employee-friendly. The five steps included 'Read. explained the benefits of e-learning to IBM." By 2002. The company followed a 'no layoffs' policy. (Watson Sr. the construction of the 'IBM Schoolhouse' to offer education and training for employees." Though there were varied opinions about the effectiveness of e-Learning as a training tool for employees.6 billion in 2005 representing a 100 percent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR). IBM reported a return on investment (ROI)’s of 2284 percent from its Basic Blue e-Learning program. its top management laid great emphasis on respecting every employee. Thomas J. a section of analysts and some managers at IBM felt that e-Learning would never be able to' replace the traditional modes of training completely. Even during financially troubled periods. Observe and Think. . It felt that every employee's contribution was important for the organization. ELearning also created a better learning environment for the company's employees. IBM had emerged as the company with the largest number of employee's who have enrolled into e-Learning courses. It's saving money and delivering more effective training.' Managers were trained at the school at regular intervals.IBM saved millions of dollars by training employees through e-learning.' while at the same time providing five times more content than before. Analysts estimated that the market for e-Learning programs would grow from $2. During this year. The figure rose to $350 million in 2001. "All measures of effectiveness went up. in terms of wages. field administration and programming.is important for the group to be together to take advantage of the equipment. IBM had emphasized on training its employees from the very beginning. the father of modern IBM had once said. BACKGROUND NOTE Since the inception of IBM. "The classroom is still the best in a high-technology environment. which requires hands-on laboratories and teaming.). the company would certainly profit.'s 'Five Steps of Knowledge' carved on the front entrance. Discuss. said. customer engineering. The company reportedly saved about $166 million within one year of implementing the elearning program for training its employees all over the world. Rick Horton. Andrew Sadler. was completed. or a situation where it . general manager of learning services at IBM. The building had Watson Sr. However. labs and headquarters.1 billion in 2001 to $33. compared to the traditional training methods. Employees were compensated well as they were paid above the industry average. "By the simple belief that if we respected our people and helped them respect themselves. Listen. IBM saw it as a major business opportunity and started offering e-learning products to other organizations as well. In 1933 (after 15 years of its inception). This was mainly due to the significant reduction in the company's training costs and positive results reaped from e-learning. Watson Sr. employees were relocated from the plants.

organized at the Brookings Institutions this program typically covered a broad range of subjects including. Those who excelled in these programs were sent to the Advanced Managers School. conducted a research to identify the unique characteristics of best executives and managers. during the initial weeks at the job. The company felt that the training process had to be continuous and not a one-time event. the employees did not possess the knowledge of critical aspects like team building. After conducting a research. Gerstner adopted a coaching methodology of Sir John Whitmore. after some time. in most of the cases. international and domestic. The research revealed that the ability to train employees was an essential skill. The company planned to utilize the services of IBM Mindspan .To widen their knowledge base and broaden their perspectives. these workshops were not 'just-in-time. Louis Gerstner (Gerstner). Gerstner thus started looking for new ways of training managers. Gerstner aimed at improving the managers' training skills. IBM's highest-ranking executives were sent to executive seminars. Moreover. IBM felt that online training would be an ideal solution to this problem. In 1997. Therefore. managers were also sent for educational programs to Harvard. Therefore. Georgia and Indiana. a program offered in about forty colleges including some in Harvard. However. which was taught to the managers through training workshops. Virginia. political and econQll1ic affairs. which differentiated best executives and managers.' Managers had to wait for months before their turn of attending the work shops came. However. the London School of Economics. the five-day program turned out to be insufficient for the managers to train them effectively. Columbia. There was a five-day training program for all the new managers. without the costs and time associated with bringing together 5000 managers from all over the world. MIT and Stanford. IBM trained about 5000 new managers in a year. IBM executives were exposed to topical events with a special emphasis on their implications for the company. where they were familiarized with the basic culture. The company specifically wanted its management training initiatives to address the following issues: • Management of people across geographic borders • Management of remote and mobile employees • Digital collaboration issues • Reductions in management development resources • Limited management time for training and development • Management's low comfort level in accessing and searching online HR resources The company required a continuous training program. Gerstner realized that the training workshops were not enough. strategy and management of IBM. as the jobs became more complex. the then CEO of IBM.

Customer-Room and Lotus Learning Space. In the third tier. and team rooms including IBM e-Learning products like the Team-Room. IBM believed that its managers should be aware of practices and policies followed in different countries. the groups were foremen virtually by videoconferencing with team members from all over the world. It imparted 75 percent of the training online and the remaining 25 percent through the traditional classroom mode. Going Global offered as many as 300 interactive scenarios on culture clashes. A manager who faced a problem could either access the relevant topic directly. employees could interact online with the instructors as well as with peers in their groups. Using these tools. This was IBM's first e-learning project on international training. simulations. Senior managers trained the managers online.Tier' blended learning model'. the members of the group started interacting with each other online. The simulations enabled the managers to learn about employee skill-building. Hence. not a one-time event. The first three tiers were delivered online and the fourth tier included oneweek long traditional classroom training. and conflict resolution and so on. IBM Management Development's web site. the members of the group had to solve problems as a team by forming virtual . This tier used IBM's collaboration tools such as chats. which managers came across. This information addressed the issues like evaluation. Basic Blue was an in-house management training program for new managers. In this tier. retention. answers and sample scenarios called Manager QuickViews. live virtual classrooms and interactive presentation: on the web. job aids and short courses.Solutions to design and support the company's manager training program." In the second tier. which was fully deployed in 2000. multicultural issues. or find the relevant information using a search engine." Basic Blue was based on a '4. decision points and branching results. The managers were provided access to a lot of information including a database of questions. work/life balance. compensation and benefits. The founding principle of Basic Blue was that 'learning is an extended process. the managers were provided with simulated situations. The material also highlighted other important web sites to be browsed for further information.issues and business conduct in an interactive manner. Some of the content for [his tier was offered by Harvard Business School and the simulations were created by Cognitive Arts of Chicago. IBM launched the pilot Basic Blue management training program. He/she had direct access to materials on the computer’s desktop for online reading. This tier also used virtual team exercises and included advanced technologies like application sharing. The program offered basic skills and knowledge to managers so that they can become effective leaders and peopleoriented managers. ONLINE TRAINING @ IBM In 1999. The e-Learning part included articles. The online Coaching Simulator offered eight scenarios with 5000 scenes of action.

Sales Compass also trained the sales personnel on skills like negotiating and selling services. the fourth tier comprised a classroom training program. government. and the managers had to learn by doing and by coordinating directly with others in the classroom. insurance etc) in a much better manner. in most of the cases these methods proved too expensive.' Prior to the implementation of the Sales Compass e-Learning program. own as 'Learning Lab. ineffective and time-consuming. industry trends. Therefore. Sales Compass provided critical information to the sales personnel helping them to understand various industries (including automotive. The sales personnel of IBM across the globe could use the information from their desktops using a web browser. and so on. The content of the new Sales Compass was divided into five categories including Solutions (13 courses). personal skills (2 courses). market segmentation. Moreover. It also enabled the sales people to sell certain IBM products designed for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Business Intelligence (BI). and tools and job aid (4 aids).' and the one for the experienced managers. The information offered included industry snapshot. Apart from this. IBM could not afford to keep its sales team away from work for weeks together.' By the time the managers reached this tire. the sales personnel underwent live training at the company's headquarters and training campuses. The e-Learning program for the sales personnel was known as 'Sales Compass. in a highly competitive market. Hence. as the sales team was spread across the world. it-was not implemented on a large scale. Though training through e-Learning was very successful. before entering the fourth tier. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). key processes. the managers had to master the information acquired in the above three tiers and develop a deeper understanding and a broader skills set. Sales Compass also had simulations for selling products to a specific . as 'Managing@ IBM. national sales conferences and other traditional methods of training. The tremendous success of the Basic Blue initiative encouraged IBM to extend training through e-Learning to its-sales personnel and experienced managers as well. But with the success of Basic Blue. In the fourth tier. Managers had to pass an online test on the content provided in the above three tiers. positioning and selling industry solutions and identifying resources. There were no lectures in these sessions. IBM believed that classroom training was also essential to develop people skills. using these products. coordination problems also cropped up. Sales Compass was developed further. Like the Basic Blue program. They also attended field training program. they all reached a similar level of knowledge by mastering the content in the first three tiers. banking. this tier focused more on developing the collaborative skills of the learners. Though Sales Compass was originally started in 1997 on a trial basis to help the sales team in selling business intelligence solutions to the retail and manufacturing industries. industries (23 courses).groups. selling skills (11 courses). However.

E-learning also resulted in a deeper understanding of the learning content by the managers. In 2000. The simulation modules and collaboration techniques created a richer learning environment. in late 2001. IBM’s cost savings through E-Learning Program Saving in 2000 (in US $million) Basic Blue 16. and enabled the managers to meet their specific needs. a sophisticated Intelligent Web Agent. The program included the face-to-face Learning Lab." IBM also launched an e-Learning program called 'Managing @ IBM' for its experienced managers. e-learning. The program provided content related to leadership and people management skills. IBM saved $200 million and its cost of training per-employee reduced significantly . sales specialists. Basic Blue saved $16 million while Sales Compass saved $21 million. as compared to the traditional training methods used earlier. territory representatives. advice on how to sell specific solutions. The e-learning projects also enabled the company to leverage corporate internal knowledge as most of the content they carried came from the internal content experts. IBM Sales Compass provides industry-specific knowledge. global skills and learning leader for IBM offices across the world. Brenda Toan (Toan). just-enough sales support information site. Edvisor offered three tracks offering various types of information.0 E-LEARNING AT IBM . By implementing the above programs. and selling tools that support our signature selling methodology. and so on. and service professionals at IBM. said. In 2001. "Sales Compass is a just-in-time.0 Going global 0. client relationship representatives. Most of our users are mobile. unable to get into a branch office and obtain information on a specific industry or solution. about how to close a deal. and Edvisor.industry like banking.8 Manager Quick-Views 6. this program enabled managers to choose information based on their requirements.6 Customer-Room 0. most of the times. It also allowed its users to ask questions and had links to information on other IBM sites and related websites. IBM was able to reduce its training budget as well as improve employee productivity significantly. Unlike the Basic Blue program.from $400 to $135. which is convenient for these users.6 Coaching simulators 0.000 sales representatives. It also enabled the managers to complete their classroom training modules in lesser time. Sales Compass was offered to 20. So they are.5 Sales Compass 21.FUTURE PLANS .

IBM used e-Learning not only to train its employees.000 flight attendants by November 2002. such as cost. It was also included among the ten best 'world-class implementations of corporate learning' initiatives by the "E-Learning across the Enterprise: The Benchmarking Study of Best Practices" (Brandon Hall) in September 2000. flash animation. graphics. but also in other HR activities. and so on. These programs were appreciated by HR experts of IDM. IBM continued its efforts to improve the visual information in all its e-Learning programs to make them more effective. commented. at any time. American Airlines (AA) used IBM's eLearning package. The employees could learn about the merits of various benefits and the criteria for availing these benefits. AA's manager for line training and special projects. deductions in their salaries. The Basic Blue program bagged three awards of 'Excellence in Practice' from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in March 2000. Apart from this. In November 2001. which enabled its flight attendants to log on to AA's website and complete the 'safety and security training' from any place. This made the airlines annual safety training certification program guides more effective. Shanta Hudson-Fields. and other companies. customer service or performance using an Intranet tool called 'Path Finder. In early 2002. coverage. Pathfinder took information from the employees and returned a preferred plan with ranks and graphs. This obviously. career changes and more. "The full service package that IBM offers has allowed us to develop an effective online course for our large group of busy attendants. its sales force and other employees. The content included instruction clips." The company had trained 24. IBM used to take ten days to find a temporary engineer or consultant. The company also automated its hiring process. This application enabled employees to see and manage their benefits.' This tool also enabled the employees to know about the various health plans offered by IBM. using feedback from its new and experienced managers. . In addition to providing a flexible training certification experience for our attendants. Initially. IBM employees received the benefits enrollment material online. IBM leveraged many new communication channels for offering its courses to employees.The e-Learning projects of IBM had been successful right from the initial stages of their implementation. increased employee satisfaction. m-Learning was the next ideal step (after eLearning). The company also encouraged its other employees to attend these e-learning programs. The new tool on the company's intranet was capable of carrying out most of the employee hiring processes. IBM also started offering the courses to its customers and to the general public. IBM planned to update these programs on a continuous basis. American has also brought efficiency and cost savings to our training processes using IBM's e-Learning solution. Now. IBM also started exploring the evolving area of 'mobile learning' Analysts felt that for mobile sales force of IBM. the company was able to find such an employee in three days. Besides.

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