A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. It can mean the collection itself, the building or room that houses such a collection, or both. The term "library" has itself acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use." This sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics, statistics, electronics and biology. Today's libraries are repositories and access points for print, audio, and visual materials in numerous formats, including maps, prints, documents, microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, cds, cassettes, videotapes, dvds, video games, e-books, e-audiobooks and many other electronic resources. Libraries often provide public facilities to access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.

TYPES Libraries can be divided into categories by several methods: By the entity (institution. or corporate body) that supports or perpetuates them         academic libraries corporate libraries government libraries. municipality. such as national libraries historical society libraries private libraries public libraries school libraries special libraries By the type of documents or materials they hold       data libraries digital libraries map libraries or collections picture (photograph) libraries slide libraries tool libraries By the subject matter of documents they hold       architecture libraries fine arts libraries law libraries medical libraries aquatic science libraries theological libraries .

Many private businesses and public organizations. research laboratories. so that readers may use them at home over a period of days or weeks. libraries issue library cards to community members wishing to borrow books. Special libraries — All other libraries fall into this category. Some academic libraries.By the users they serve   military communities users who are blind or visually/physically handicapped (see National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped) By traditional professional divisions School library. and therefore maintain permanent collections and attempt to provide access to all necessary material. are accessible to members of the general public in whole or in part. law firms. Research libraries — These libraries are intended for supporting scholarly research.     . such as reading groups and toddler story time. museums. maintain their own libraries for the use of their employees in doing specialized research related to their work. Public libraries or public lending libraries — These libraries provide service to the general public and make at least some of their books available for borrowing. Typically. Many public libraries also serve as community organizations that provide free services and events to the public. School libraries — Most public and private primary and secondary schools have libraries designed to support the school's curriculum. but many large special libraries have research libraries within their special field and a very few of the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries. including hospitals.  Academic libraries — These libraries are located on the campuses of colleges and universities and serve primarily the students and faculty of that and other academic institutions. and many government departments and agencies. especially those at public institutions. Research libraries are most often academic libraries or national libraries.

on Public Libraries to consider the necessity of establishing libraries through the nation: In 1849 their report noted the poor condition of library service. The earliest example in England of a library to be endowed for the benefit of users who were not members of an institution such as a cathedral or college was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham. as they contain a general collection for circulation. which increased literacy. and similar material. more than 75 cities had established free libraries. manuscripts. thereby the demand for libraries.000 to levy taxes for the support of public libraries. it recommended the establishment of free public libraries all over the country. The beginning of the modern.K. as well as restricted to the library premises. The library still exists and can justifiably claim to be the forerunner of later public library systems. Special libraries are distinguished from special collections. or other libraries) and collecting libraries (where the materials are selected on a basis of their natures or subject matter). established in 1598. open access libraries really got its start in the U. Another important act was the 1870 Public School Law. Parliament appointed a committee. free. led by William Ewart. Many institutions make a distinction between circulating libraries (where materials are expected and intended to be loaned to patrons. in 1847. PUBLIC LIBRARIES A small branch library in the Seacroftarea of Leeds in England.Special libraries may or may not be accessible to some identified part of the general public. and a reference collection which is often more specialized. so by 1877. Lincolnshire. which allowed all cities with populations exceeding 10. institutions. which are branches or parts of a library intended for rare books. and it led to the Public Libraries Act in 1850. Many modern libraries are a mixture of both. and by . Branches of a large academic or research libraries dealing with particular subjects are also usually called "special libraries": they are generally associated with one or more academic departments.

This finally marks the start of the public library as we know it. Technical Services . A list of closed stack libraries is being aggregated on wikipedia. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request. and genealogy materials. ORGANIZATION Libraries usually contain long aisles with rows of books.  Stacks Maintenance .Handles user accounts and the loaning/returning and shelving of materials.Staffs a reference desk answering user questions (using structured reference interviews).Works behind the scenes cataloging and processing new materials and deaccessioning weeded materials. Larger libraries are often broken down into departments staffed by both paraprofessionals and professional librarians. where reference materials are stored.1900 the number had reached 300. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones.S. Reference . These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification system. instructing users. young adult literature.    Collection Development . so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently.  . Reference may be further broken down by user groups or materials. most notably the U. And these acts led to similar laws in other countries.Orders materials and maintains materials budgets.Re-shelves materials that have been returned to the library after patron use and shelves materials that have been processed by Technical Services. Circulation (or Access Services) ." which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks. and developing library programming. common collections are children's literature.

periodicals. The following is a partial list of some of them:[30]    ISO 2789:2006 Information and documentation — International library statistics ISO 11620:1998 Information and documentation — Library performance indicators ISO 11799:2003 Information and documentation — Document storage requirements for archive and library materials ISO 14416:2003 Information and documentation — Requirements for binding of books. and the development and implementation of outreach services and reading-enhancement services (such as adult literacy and children's programming). More long-term issues include the planning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to existing ones. museum documentation. [29] which is focused on "libraries. preservation of materials (especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts). archives. serials and other paper documents for archive and library use — Methods and materials  ISO/TR 20983:2003 Information and documentation — Performance indicators for electronic library services  LIBRARY USE . documentation and information centers. by purchase or otherwise). indexing and abstracting services. and developing and administering library computer systems. patron borrowing of materials. records management. and information science". MANAGEMENT Basic tasks in library management include the planning of acquisitions (which materials the library should acquire. [edit]Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published several standards regarding the management of libraries through its Technical Committee 46 (TC46).Stacks Maintenance also shelf reads the material in the stacks to ensure that it is in the correct library classification order. the deaccessioning of materials. publishing. library classification of acquired materials.

In a large library. This can be due to some individuals' unease in approaching a staff member. maps.The Vietnam Center and Archive. they must then use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically. Ways in which a library's content is displayed or accessed may have the most impact on use. beginning in the 19th century. Libraries inform their users of what materials are available in their collections and how to access that information. While libraries have been accused of precipitously throwing out valuable information in card catalogs. . with multiple rooms housing the resources across a series of shelves. An antiquated or clumsy search system. Before the computer age. In United States public libraries. which contains the largest collection of Vietnam Warrelated holdings outside the U. these problems drove the emergence of the library instruction movement. by writing directly on the cards. catalogs much of its material on the Internet. the card catalog often filled a large room. The basic form of library instruction is generally known as information literacy. Once a user has located a resource within the catalog. federal government. One of the early leaders was John Cotton Dana. that is lost in the electronic systems. a process that may be assisted through signage. Large libraries may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town. OPACs). Patrons may not know how to fully use the library's resources. This style of catalog maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries. will limit a library's usefulness. most modern ones have nonetheless made the move to electronic catalog databases. has led to the adoption of electronic catalog databases (often referred to as "webcats" or as online public access catalogs. GPS systems or RFID tagging. This argument is analogous to the debate over paper books and e-books. The emergence of the Internet. which allow users to search the library's holdings from any location with Internet access.S. which advocated library user education. each having multiple floors. such as digital libraries and distributed libraries. Electronic catalog databases are criticized by some who believe that the old card catalog system was both easier to navigate and allowed retention of information. this was accomplished by the card catalog — a cabinet containing many drawers filled with index cards that identified books and other materials. or staff unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons. however. as well as older libraries that have been retrofitted.

832.Shift to digital libraries In the past couple of years. but may not be as in depth as information from other resources such as the books available at a physical library. In 19992000. research has shown that undergraduates are most likely searching only . which is an increase of nearly $23 million from the previous year. 93% of undergraduate students claimed that finding information online makes more sense to them than going to the library. generating nearly $8 million in revenue.2%. 105 ARL university libraries spent almost $100 million on electronic resources.000 books to 3. the average American academic library saw its overall number of transactions decline approximately 2. more and more people are using the Internet to gather and retrieve data.[34] These facts might be a consequence of the increased availability of e-resources.377. For example.03% of the entire web. 75% of students surveyed claimed that they did not have enough time to go to the library and that they liked the convenience of the Internet. While the retrieving information from the Internet may be efficient and time saving than visiting a traditional library. Also. [35] A 2003 report by the Open Ebook Forum found that close to a million e-books had been sold in 2002.[33]Libraries are trying to keep up with the digital world and the new generation of students that are used to having information just one click away. The shift to digital libraries has greatly impacted the average person's use of physical libraries. Between 2002 and 2004. . There is no doubt that finding information by simply searching the Internet is much easier and faster than reading an entire book. As each generation becomes more in tune with the Internet. There have been claims that college undergraduates have become more used to retrieving information from the Internet than a traditional library.000 volumes in all — and switch over entirely to digital media resources.[37] One claim to why there is a decrease in the usage of libraries stems from the observation of the research habits of undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and universities. their desire to retrieve information as quickly and easily as possible has increased.[36] Another example of the shift to digital libraries can be seen in Cushing Academy’s decision to dispense with its library of printed books — more than 20. The University of California Library System saw a 54% decline in circulation between 1991 to 2001 of 8. In a survey conducted by NetLibrary.[38] The information that they are finding might be easy to retrieve and more readily available.000.

This numbering system is usually in addition to the library classification number (or alphanumeric code) . If an item is removed from the collection. its number is usually not reused for new items. or recording as it is entered in the catalog of a library. magazine subscription.WORKING OF LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The working of library management system as follows: ACCISSIONING OF BOOKS CLASSIFICATION OF BOOKS CATALOGUE CARDS ACCESSIONING An accession number is a sequential number given to each new book.

      Restrictions       Location       Total Size       General Description and Condition of Material       Specific Description of Material: Type Amount Type Audio Recordings __________ Photographs Bound Volumes __________ Microfilm Storage Boxes __________ Movie Film Newspapers __________ Scrapbooks Maps __________ Other ______________________________ Amount __________ __________ __________ __________ .SAMPLE ACCESSION FORM Date Received       Title       Creator       Donor Name/Address       Accession No.

audiovisual materials. serials. Books are place on library shelves according to a classification scheme. Name of the person . as well as the place they are located. binding of books can be done in the maintenance and archives department. pasting. Old newspapers and magazines are kept there. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime.Arrangement of Material: Alphabetic Topical (Subject) Approximate Inclusive Dates       Additional Comments       Chronologic Not Arranged Accessioned By       Numeric Other _______________ Date       CLASSIFICATION A library classification is a system of coding and organizing library materials (books. MAINTENANCE AND ARCHIVES An archive is a collection of historical records. It contains the following information:1. A basic familiarity with those systems is vital for the student so they can find materials efficiently within the collection CATALOGUES A library catalog (or library catalogue) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries. computer files) according to their subject and allocating a call number to that information resource. such as a network of libraries at several locations. Labeling. ENTRY AND EXIT A Proper record is maintained by doing entry in the register.

LOSS OF THE BOOK A person who lost the book shall give Same edition book OR Cost of book + 25% extra charges TIME RULES AND REGULATIONS As college get closed at 5:00 p. FINE If students return the book(s) after the due date then RS. NEWSPAPERS .m. But if they want it for home then they can issue them only for the weekends (i. Switch off the Mobile phones in the library premises.2. 2 per day will be charged from the student. Time of exit. 2. Class of the person 3. Signature of the person. . 5.e. LIBRARY INSTRUCTIONS 1.m so return and issue of books can be done only upto 4:30 p. magazines and journals only in the library. Place your personal belongings at the property counter. Saturday and Sunday) and they have to return them on Monday. Time of entry 4. MAGAZINES AND JOURNALS Teachers and students can read newspapers.

The reference material: journals/magazines etc. Any reader/user found doing this will be suspended forthwith and strict action will be taken against him or her by the authorities. 4. 6. 5. otherwise borrower is responsible. Eatables/drinks are not allowed inside the library. A mutilation of a book is strictly forbidden. are not allowed to be taken outside the library. .3. if it is torn or damaged this should be brought to the notice of library staff at the counter. Please check the book before borrowing.

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