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muslim unity hanging by a thread
surkheel (abu aaliyah) sharif
Is using prayer, or dhikr beads (Ar. sub˙ah) allowed in Islam?
perfectly valid in Islam; having the support of the jurists along with their proof-texts. The paper will also discuss, albeit briefly, why the methodology which gives rise to such an anomalous view is itself an anomaly and highly questionable. It has been my experience that most people who have learnt, or been taught, that dhikr beads are bid‘ah tend to be very open and accepting of the counter argument and of the normative stance of past scholars when presented to them. It is only with a small clique of diehards who have chosen to be self-referential that any dogged determination to stick to one’s guns is seriously found. Thus, it is in appealing to the open-minded seeker that this article is written.
SHAWKANI AS STARTERS
The answer - which may come as a surprise (or even a shock) to some people - is a simple and straightforward “Yes!” Not only this, but it would seem that the position of classical jurists tends towards, if anything, actual unanimity in the matter. In recent years, and in stark contrast to the juristic norm, a rather odd opinion has circulated among many of the mutadayyin, or ‘practicing’ Muslims, which asserts that the use of dhikr beads has no sanction at all in Islam and is, in fact, a bid‘ah; a reprehensible innovation.1 Armed with this anomalous conviction, it has incited an untold number of people to adopt a disdainful attitude towards those who use or allow the use of dhikr beads. In some cases it has bred feelings of self-righteousness, causing such people to harbour deep misgivings against a large part of the ummah, its scholars, and its history. In other cases it has driven some to take on more animated acts: confiscating dhikr beads from others, or removing them from mosques and musallahs, or breaking them whenever possible. In a few cases it has led to the refusal of returning salams to those holding dhikr beads, or to not shaking their hand! In all, the belief that dhikr beads are a bid‘ah not only drives a wedge between Muslims and their unity, it also inverts the teaching of the religion on the actual issue. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate this exact point: that far from being a bid‘ah, the use of prayer beads is
A good, yet concise presentation of the issue is given by the eighteenth century Yemeni polymath and murajjih, Imam al-Shawkån•, as per his commentary upon Majd b. Taymiyyah’s Muntaqå al-Akhbår. His discussion commences with the following three hadiths:
1 - From Yusayrah, and she was of the Emigrants, who
related: Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, said to us: “Take to saying lå ilåha illa’Llåh, sub˙åna’Llåh and sub˙åna’l-maliki’l-qudd¥s, and be not negligent and so be deprived of divine mercy. Count on your fingers, for they shall be questioned and be made to speak.”2
2 - Sa‘d b. Ab• Waqqåß relates that he, along with Allah’s
Messenger, peace be upon him, visited a woman who had infront of her some datestones or pebbles on which she was counting the glorification of Allah. So he said
Creative Commons License, 2007
. It would then be taken away and be brought back to him after he had prayed. and likewise with dhikr beads .” The reason that the Prophet.. Glory be to Allah as many times as what He is creating. al-Mußannaf.that a mat would be spread for him and then a palm-leaved basket would be brought. counting tasb•˙ on his hand. the fingers will be questioned and be made to speak. Ab• Waqqåß would count tasb•˙ on pebbles. peace be upon him . Sulaymån. then There is no might nor power except Allah (lå ˙awla wa lå quwwata illa bi’Llåh) a like number of times. Imåm A˙mad recorded it in al-Zuhd . one by one.. “Ibn Sa’d further records in his Tabaqåt .”4 After stating that the above three hadiths are sound. Towards the end of it. sub˙åna’Llåh ‘adada khalqihi . upon one’s fingers. upon whom be peace.”9 Here he cites a number of reports from some of the Companions and Creative Commons License. “Ibn Sa‘d records. “The last two hadiths both indicate the permissibility of counting tasb•˙ on datestones or pebbles. This is because the Prophet. al-Daylam•. upon which he would count tasb•˙ till noon. filled with pebbles. or glorification. son of Imam A˙mad. So from this viewpoint counting tasb•˙ on one’s fingers is preferable than doing so using dhikr beads (sub˙ah) or datestones. being directed to what is preferable does not negate permissibility (wa’l-irshåd ilå må huwa af∂al lå yunåf• al-jawåz). demonstrating their use of pebbles or beads in making dhikr. al-Min˙ah fi’l-Sub˙ah . peace be upon him. daughter of al-Óusayn b. in his monumental treasury of hadiths and s a l a f -reports. Also. “In Zawå’id al-Zuhd. 2007 . who said it is ßa˙•˙ . he states: “It is not related from any of the Predecessors or Later-Comers that they forbade the allowance of dhikr beads.Íafiyyah relates: Allah’s Messenger. by way of al-Qasim b.”3 3 .”7 .. from Óak•m b. and count tasb•˙ on them until they were finished . Glory be to Allah as many times as what He created between them. Abu Dåw¥d and alNaså’• record . who grades it ˙asan. used to count tasb•˙ on a thread stringed with knots. that Sa’d b. then There is no deity worthy of worship save Allah (lå ilåha illa’Llåh) a like number of times.” Abu Dåw¥d and others add: “with his right hand. that Få†imah.. tacitly approved what the women were doing and did not censure them.. Glory be to Allah as many times as what He has created on earth. that Abu al-Dardå’ used to have a bag filled with datestones and that whenever he finished the noon prayer he would bring them out. ‘Al•.5 alShawkån• goes on to comment: “The first hadith proves it is prescribed to count tasb•˙. then Praise be to Allah (al˙amduli’Llåh) a similar number of times. by way of Mu‘tamar b. many of them used to count on it and did not view it as being disliked (makr¥h).. records that Abu Hurayrah had a string with a thousand knots in it.that ibn ‘Amr relates: “I saw Allah’s Messenger.since there is nothing to distinguish between them.which forms part of his collection of Legal Verdicts (fatåwå). ‘Abd al-Ra˙mån. He would then resume counting tasb•˙ until evening. Then Allah is greater (Allåhu akbar) a like number of times. has this chapter: “Those who disliked counting on prayer beads. He writes: “In Hilål al-Óaffår’s monograph. ‘Abd Allah. In other words. peace be upon him.JAWZIYYAH.Glory be to Allah as many times as what He has created. they shall bear witness. He said: “Do you count glorifications on these? Shall I not teach you what surpasses this?” I replied: Teach me.”8 OBJECTIONS NOTED him. visited me whilst I had infront of me four thousand datestones upon which I was counting glorifications.as do al-Tirmidh•. peace be upon WWW. about Abu Safiyyah .2 to her: “Shall I not inform you of something that would be easier or be better for you than this? Say: Glory be to Allah (sub˙åna’Llåh) as many times as what He created in the heavens. gave for this is in the hadith [at the beginning] of the chapter: i. “A˙mad records in al-Zuhd.. and that he would not go to sleep until he had counted tasb•h on them. He said: “Say. and al-Óåkim.COM PRACTICE OF SOME PREDECESSORS Al-Shawkån• continues his discussion by citing a number of reports about the Predecessors (athår al-salafiyyah).e.the freedman (mawlå) of the Prophet. “Al-Suyu†• cites all these reports in a monograph called.”6 Ibn Ab• Shaybah. Rather.
‘Abd Allah b. and would put his hand in his tunic to count tasb•˙ [on it]. Ibn Mas‘¥d. as is his wont whenever he deems any saying or action objectionable in his hagiographical treasure-trove. and he approved it tacitly. 2007 . Then there is the hadith recorded by alDaylam•: “What a wonderful reminder the dhikr beads are. A˙mad recorded. making them symbols (shi‘år) of faith and prayer. It is related of Abu Hurayrah that he too would count tasb•˙ on its like. and that he would not sleep until he had counted tasb•˙ on them. The Prophet. Al-Munåw• provides the following gloss to the hadith of Yusayrah: “This is the basis for the recommendation of the well-known sub˙ah. however. alDhahab• makes no pronouncement against the practice. The first case is forbidden. Another of Islam’s great hadith masters. would sit with a group after the ‘Ishå prayer.had the following stance in respect to dhikr beads.”16 Interestingly.10 With this being the case. “Whenever he. then it is something good and not disliked (fa huwa ˙asan ghayr makr¥h).” Some of them did.whose commentary of Ía˙•˙ al-Bukhår• ranks second to none. lesser in sin and revolves around being detested. He records that Ibn Ma‘•n said: “Ya˙yå used to carry dhikr beads with him. Ibn Taymiyyah had this to say: “Sometimes one of them may show-off by putting their prayer mat over their shoulder or dangling dhikr beads from their hand. peace be upon him. Instead they would count tasb•˙ on their fingers. or something similar to it. jurists have not understood from such reports.like hanging it around one’s neck or wearing it on one’s wrist . al-Dhahab• cites the practce of Ya˙yå b.. even if authentic. ever made such things into symbols. though. upon whom be peace. said to the women: “Count on your fingers.JAWZIYYAH. or doing so only to show-off to others . nor his Companions. His illustrious student. the distinguished hadith master and Shåfi‘• jurist. though it would be better if some other thread were used instead. and perhaps the most well-known. that Abu Hurayrah had a thread with a thousand knots on it. the second. may Allah have mercy upon him. upon whom be peace. But it is known from definitely-transmitted (mutawåtir) reports that neither the Prophet.. then this too is good. ˙åfiΩ Ibn Óajr al-‘Asqalån• .”12 FURTHER TESTIMONIES Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah states: “Counting tasb•˙ on one’s fingers is a Sunnah. while discussing the issue of turning things into religious symbols to show-off with. count on pebbles and datestones. for they will be questioned and be made to speak.”11 Elsewhere. related from Creative Commons License. Sa‘•d al-Qa††ån who. that using dhikr beads is a bid‘ah .then this is either ostentation (riyå’ li’lnås). Some of the Companions. These include the objections of ‘Umar. like Ibn Óajr above. If the intention in doing so is sound. for they will be questioned and be made to speak. To use them without a need.e. was leader of the believers in hadith (am•r al-mu’min•n fi’l-˙ad•th) of his age. he would carry a sub˙ah up his sleeve so that none could see it. there were some who held it was disliked. pebbles and the like. relates of him that.”13 In al-Wåbil al-Íayyib.” As for counting on datestones. some disliked it whereas others allowed it. “As for counting on a string of beads.”15 On a similar note. used to do this. which was familiar even in the age of the Companions. al-Suy¥†•]. or at any other time to teach. and others who held that it was not disliked. may Allah be pleased with them. may Allah be pleased with them all. But no one ever said that tasb•˙ using dhikr beads is preferable to using one’s fingers. once saw the Mother of the Believers [Safiyyah] counting tasb•h on pebbles.COM As for tasb•˙ on beads. IBN TAYMIYYAH ON PRAYER BEADS WWW.as the chapter heading itself suggests. Ibn al-Íalå˙.”14 The hadith of Yusayrah is then cited to substantiate this. and he would continuously count tasb•˙ or dhikr on it . al-Sakhåw•. ‘Å’ishah. or it is resembling those who habitually show-off. as per the hadith: “Count on your fingers. The Prophet.3 Successors of whom it is related that they disapproved of dhikr beads. Ibn al-Qayyim has a section that states: “Concerning Counting on One’s Fingers and that it is Preferable to Using Dhikr Beads.”17 The author [i. gave the following responsum when asked about the legality of using dhikr beads made of silk thread and also from thick thread: “It is not forbidden to use dhikr beads made of such threads. though. and who was the premiere hadith master of his age .
SUHBAH AND SAINTS WWW. as per Allah’s words: O you who believe! Remember Allah abundantly. and He is omnipotent over all things (lå ilåha ila’Llåhu wa˙dahu lå shar•ka lahu lahu’l-mulk wa lahu’l-˙amd wa huwa ‘alå kulli shay’in qad•r)’. is proven to be preferable .”18 Mullå ‘Al• al-Qår• said in his commentary to the Mishkåt. Abu Hurayrah used to have a thread with many knots in it. I saw a s u b ˙ a h in the hand of my teacher. when prayer beads remind one of Allah. Counting on one’s fingers.”26 Moreover. But counting in excess of one hundred becomes harder to keep track of. do you. As for the claim that it is a bid‘ah.”20 SUBHAH. to Him belongs the dominion and all praise.. except someone who said the same as it or more than it. 2007 . But this applies only if there is safety from error. Junayd.’ The standard ‘rebuttal’ to the above would be to say that although there is a general encouragement to engage in plentiful dhikr. the following hadith: “Whoever says a hundred times in the morning and the evening: ‘Glory be to Allah and all praise be to Him (sub˙åna’Llåhi wa bi ˙amdihi)’. from Sar• al-Saqa†•.some of whose practices have been cited above. Be that as it may. with your rank and excellence in devotional acts. save for a person who does more than it. from Ma‘r¥f al-Karkh•. who relates from some others. for instance. tongue and hand. Jalål al-Bulq•n•. hence the sub˙ah. al-Suy¥†• remarked: “And how could it be otherwise. let those who will compete. will have the reward of emancipating ten slaves.21 by way of Abu’lÓasan ‘Al• b. Take. And rarely will a person see prayer beads except that he remembers Allah: and this is among the greatest of its benefits. and none shall come with anything better than this. ‘using one’s fingers to count tasb•˙ or d h i k r .. he will be protected against the Devil all that day until the evening. this is unsound.”23 THE QUESTION OF “WHY?” Even after reading the aforementioned testimonies from our classical juristic heritage. from ‘Umar alMakk•. a hundred good deeds will be written for him. Exalted is He. some may still be left Creative Commons License..”22 Sub˙åna’Llåh! After narrating it. from Bishr al-Óåf•. if counting on the fingers is better? The standard reply has it that. though it is preferable to count tasb•˙ on one’s fingers. who saw al-Óasan al-Baßr• with a sub˙ah in his hand. I love to remember Allah with my heart.4 one of his contemporaries. Many of them have taken to employing the sub˙ah as a means to keep count of their glorifications.COM with the nagging question of why use dhikr beads in the first place. even now. and thus help them to focus on actually being present in their remembrance of Allah: So for this.” The chain continues in the exact same manner through Junayd. if it is less than a hundred repetitions. even now . otherwise using dhikr beads is preferable. alone.”25 Also: “Whoever says one hundred times in a day: ‘None deserves to be worshiped except Allah.JAWZIYYAH. use a s u b ˙ a h ?” He replied: “Similarly.24 yet the Sacred Law of Islam has not prescribed any specific dhikr with more than one hundred repetitions. none will come with anything better than him on the Day of Resurrection. there are. even now. that counting tasb•˙ on one’s fingers is preferable due to the explicit meaning of the hadith. though. So I said to him: O my teacher. do you. prolific repetition of various dhikr formulae has been the habit of many scholars (‘ulemå) and saints (awliyå) of this nation from as far back as the days of the early predecessors . a hundred bad deeds will be erased from him. hadiths which encourage or open the way for the repetition of certain dhikrs more than a hundred times. while discussing the above same hadith: “It contains an allowance for counting dhikr on the venerable sub˙ah. and yet do you. use a sub˙ah?” He said to me: “This is something we used at the outset [of the path] and which we are not about to forsake at its end. is fairly straightforward for most people.. nonetheless.27 Al-Suy¥†• records a musalsal report. upon which he would count tasb•˙. So I said: “O my teacher. He replied by stating: “Using the sub˙ah is allowed. without any partner. al-Qåßim al-Sufi who relates.”19 Shaykh ‘Uthaym•n was asked about the legality of using dhikr beads.. al-Óasan b. So he said to him: “O my teacher. I heard Abu’l-Óasan al-Målik• whom I saw with a sub˙ah in his hand. for it has a basis in the Sunnah ..
. the juristic community for the last thousand years or so. or even eccentric. discord and sectarianism. following paragraph: “We adhere to the Sunnah and the [vast] majority [of scholars]. ijmå‘.which many truly believe they are .COM Imam al-Ta˙åw•’s famous creedal statement contains the . the point was not really about the sub˙ah. all of us must engage in dhikr in a way that is best conducive to bring about presence of heart: with or without the use of the sub˙ah. and so have placed it under the same Quranic stricture: Whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has been conveyed to him.i. or for which there is no proof in the four sources . This may be gleaned from alTa˙åw•’s words: “. and the pure must now be separated from the putrefied: it is here that such isolated opinions are turned into benchmarks with which to ‘test’ who is guided aright and who steeped in bid‘ah. have not declared it to be so. but in questions wherein the overwhelming majority of scholars throughout the ages have adopted one particular view..is that which was not found in the first three generations. Silsilat al-A˙åd•th al-Îa‘•fah wa’l-Maw∂¥‘ah Creative Commons License.JAWZIYYAH. at the practical level. and sectarianism. since whatever opposes the overwhelming majority is anomalous (shådhdh). or hitherto veiled from. only for it to be discovered centuries later by an individual or two whose scholarship. it is inconceivable that such a huge number of jurists and verifying scholars would all have failed to discern the truth on that given point.”29 In a sense.e. precision and piety is hardly likely to compare to the lofty heights of Islam’s past masters. and a flawed conviction in their correctness built on little more than a spider’s web. and we avoid isolated opinions. then this is a travesty of nothing less than seismic proportions. odd. “for which the ruling is one of misguidance (∂alålah) . “In doing so. “lies safety for a person’s religion.for one valid reason or another .” For how often do such views create a pathology in the minds of those it takes hold of: a story that is. but have instead reiterated its legality. al-Albån•. that in matters of disputation one holds to the view of the overwhelming majority of scholars (jumh¥r al-‘ulemå). what the Sacred Law declares to be bid‘ah . and follows other than the believers’ path. Truth be told. those opinions which the vast majority of scholars have critically examined and have . The truth must now be salvaged.30 Here. 2007 . “other than the believers’ path” is whatever contravenes the ijmå‘ and the jumh¥r.. we avoid isolated opinions.” wrote Shaykh Muhammad b. 14-07-07 ◆ ◆ ◆ END NOTES 1. CONCLUSION The preceding pages have hopefully demonstrated that using dhikr beads can in no way be deemed a bid‘ah in the religion. Rather. With this being said. Aside from the problems at the knowledge-based level. yet it is happening. all must be re-evaluated through the vanguards’ lens.feel compelled to lay siege to normative Islamic scholarship with their divine mandate to command good and forbid evil. Cf. by now. Thus begins the dialectic of discord. Måni‘. therefore. holding to anomalies and isolated views has bitter fruits too. or prayer beads.”28 Isolated opinions (shudh¥dh) refer to those stances that are anomalous. All this may sound haunting.5 A STATEMENT ON DOCTRINE WWW. It is essential. jurists have likened this doctrinal position of the overwhelming majority to that of consensus. This is not to suggest that the majority is always right and the minority wrong. Seeing their ‘opponents’ confident in their views and content with traditional paradigms of knowledge tends to reinforce their belief in the jumh¥r’s fallibility. Fostering irreverance towards the bulk of past scholarship. as it was the psychology behind its non-acceptance. “The bid‘ah. We shall give him over to what he has chosen..chosen to ignore it due to its aberrant character. and expose him to Hell . If a person believes that a scholar or two in our current time has discovered a truth unbeknown to. such dissenting views should be treated as being anomalies and must not be given any more consideration than that. those from whom fatwas and rulings eminate and the religion preserved. Taking recourse to prayer beads and counting dhikr on it is not like that.31 Thus begins the plunge into sectarianism. disdain for much of the ummah and its alleged deviations.what an evil destination. these “vanguards of authenticity” .” wrote al-Luknaw•.”32 How can it be otherwise when the elite of this ummah. discord . tragically familiar.
1999). but that he considered all such proofs to be weak and unsound. Shaykh al-Albån• wrote . In contrast. 8. Fatåwå Arkån al-Islåm (Riyadh: Dår alThurayyah.. no. no. Mirqåt al-Mafåt•˙. and al-Dhahab• was of the same view. 18. Nuzhat al-Fikr.” this recurring in each level of the chain. 1:184-93. that it was narrated with a weak chain (bi sanadin ∂a‘•f). Nayl al-Awtår. Al-Tirmidh• said: “It is ghar•b.83. Creative Commons License. Also cf.. and al-Dhahab• concurred.” Nayl al-Awtår (Cairo: Dår al-Óad•th. He said: “As for the first hadith.1002). no. 55. ibid. al-Luknawª. 336. fabricated..” and that “If there were only one evil dhikr beads have. 27. A similar verdict is given in Í å l i ˙ al-Fawzån. 2. 26. no. 9. 1:184-93. Fay∂ al-Qad•r Shar˙ al-Jåmi‘ al-Íagh•r (Beirut: Dår alMa‘rifah. 9:322. Al-Daylam•. Al-Suy¥†•. 31. Mulakhkhaß al-Fiqh• (Jeddah: Dår Ibn al-Jawziyyah. for example. or series (3:48. Cited in Shams al-D•n al-Dhahab•. no. or: “I swear by Allah that so and so related to me . The first is by Bakr Abu Zayd.1500. Qur’an 83:26. 7.83. 31. no.d. Ibn ‘Uthaym•n. n. 33:35. though. let alone on dhikr beads . and runs in a similar vain to that of al-Albån•’s. A similar. The Creed of Imam al-Ta˙åw• (USA: Zaytuna Institute. ‘Uthmån. al-Albån• graded it maw∂¥‘. in Silsilat al-A˙åd•th al-Îa‘•fah. no. Måni‘ (Riyadh: A∂wå’ al-Salaf. Qur’an 33:41. Majm¥‘ Fatåwå (Riyadh: Dår ‘Ålam alKutub. graded the hadith ˙asan in Natå’ij al-Afkår. Two more monographs on the subject are also worth mentioning. As for a thorough analysis of their chains and authenticities (and of the salaf-reports which follow).JAWZIYYAH. Sunan..as cited in Bakr Abu Zayd. Muslim. 222. 9:180.6 (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma‘årif.after citing the authentic hadiths about counting on one’s fingers: “This is the Sunnah in counting the prescribed forms of dhikr: counting on the hand . 2:391. we do not know it except from the hadith of Hån• b.”. who declared it ghar•b. Al-Min˙ah fi’l-Sub˙ah. 1998). Al-Óåkim. it would suffice . or in some other manner. ibid. 2007 . or with pebbles. 28. Nayl al-Awtår. 21. Al-Sub˙ah: Tår•khuhå wa Óukmuhå (Riyadh: Dår al-‘Åßimah.. 1:79. it is musalsal. scholarly consensus (ijmå‘) and analogy (qiyåß).. Al-Suy¥†• declared the chain of this hadith to be ßa˙•˙. 2003). 1:1-5.2691. 13. analyzing the hadith: “What a wonderful reminder the dhikr beads are. al-Tirmidh•. Al-Mubårakp¥r•.and the right hand at that. 2:672-3. Another isolated view used in such a manner is the claim that twenty rak‘ats of taråw•˙ prayer is a bid‘ah. no. pt. who said it is ˙asan ghar•b. al-Albån•.3817.2692. 69. 1999). which adopts the classical stance in the issue.).7029. Counting on the left hand.260.” In the third volume of this Silsilat. 1990). 1:548. transmits the hadith by using the phrase: “So and so related to me while he was holding his beard . 1:400. 24. 70. Wuß¥l al-Tahån• f• Ithbåt Sunniyyat al-Sub˙ah wa’l-Radd ‘ala’l-Albån• (Cairo: Dår al-Imåm al-Tirmidh•.” 29. 17. Al-Qår• says.. 2001). no. al-Tirmidh•. in his magisterial Tu˙fat al-A˙wadh• bi Shar˙ Jåmi‘ al-Tirmidh• (Beirut: Dår alKutub al-’Ilmiyyah. Silsilat alA˙åd•th al-Îa‘•fah. endorses the exact same words of al-Shawkån•.). or with both hands. Al-‘Aq•dah al-Ta˙åwiyyah bi Óåshiyah Muhammad b. Musnad al-Firdaws. Musalsal: “continuous”. 6. no. it was also recorded by alÓåkim. cf. 1:112. Sunan. 1998).” In the course of his analysis he says that “dhikr beads are a bid‘ah.. 4:355. 6403.” This.3803. . . 32. In some books the name of Yusayrah is given as Busayrah. no. 105-8. 8:45.3789. Qur’an 4:115. n. saying: “If the narrators concur in their modes of expression.’ This musalsal report was also related via another route about which he made no comment. though more scathing critique of the exhibitionism that some intend in using dhikr beads is given in Ibn al-Óåj. Ía˙•˙.. 14. 19. 1:547. 2000).” Nukhbat al-Fikr (Cairo: Maktabah al-Ådåb. 20. in al-Óåw• li’l-Fatåw• (Beirut: Dår al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah. they are: the Qur’an. Ibn Óajr al-‘Asqalån• defines this type of report. 2:672. 22:187. 11 Ibn Taymiyyah. graded it as ßa˙•˙. Al-Wåbil al-Íayyib min al-Kalimi’l-Tayyib (Cairo: Dår alRayyån. Mirqåt al-Mafåt•˙ Shar˙ al-Mishkåt al-Maßåb•˙ (Buluchistan: Maktabah al-Rushdiyyah. 1:4-5. where he grades all such reports weak. Nuzhat al-Fikr. 1995).” 23. of course.7669. 1991). Al-Jawåhir wa’l-Durar f• Tarjumah Shaykh al-Islåm Ibn Óajr (Beirut: Dår Ibn Óazm. Nuzhat al-Fikr f• Sub˙ati’l-Dhikr (Amman: Dår al-Fat˙. Al-Tirmidh• declared it to be ˙asan. 1:171. Al-Óåkim deemed it ßa˙•˙ in al-Mustadrak. Abu Dåw¥d. 3. 1987).. The other. 1988). 1998). So if each narrator. 5. Fatåwå wa Maså’il Ibn al-Íalå˙ (Beirut: Dår al-Ma‘rifah. Ibn Måjah. 15. WWW. The Arabic states: “wa nattabi‘u’l-sunnah wa’ljamå‘ah wa najtanibu’l-shudh¥dh wa’l-khilåf wa’l-furqa. Ibn Óajr al-‘Asqalån•. and he has been accused of forgery. al-Madkhal. ibid. There is nothing authentically reported at all about [counting on] pebbles. 2:672. Abu Dåw¥d.. 30. 2000). then it is musalsal. where al-Luknaw• makes the following remark: “Al-Sakhåw• points to most of its routes of transmission. 7667 respectively. Al-Bukhår•. 3:42-3. 22:506. and Mamd¥˙’s rebuttal of this claim. the narrations of ‘Umar al-Makk• from al-Óasan al-Baßr• are problematic (mu‘∂al). The second hadith was also recorded by al-Naså’•. The third hadith is also recorded by al-Óåkim and graded ßa˙•˙ by al-Suy¥†•.d. Siyar A‘låm al-Nubalå (Beirut: Mu’assasah al-Risålah. 16. As for the four sources (al-adillah alarba‘ah).which is that they replace the Sunnah of counting with one’s fingers . Ibn Óibbån and al-Óåkim who deemed it ßa˙•˙. 1992). no. 2007).COM 12. Also. 1:5. AlSuy¥†• and al-Shawkån• seem not to have passed1 any judgement on its authenticity.92. 10. alSub˙ah. 25. does not mean that the Shaykh was oblivious of the proofs marshalled in support of the sub˙ah. 1986). the Sunnah. all of this contravenes the Sunnah. 40-2.. Al-Mußannaf (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Rushd. 22. 4. saying: ‘The narration revolves around Abu’l-Óasan al-Sufi. 7657. Muslim.1501. no. 1999). 3:214-5 . ‘Al-Min˙ah fi’l-Sub˙ah’. 5:227. 3:41. Al-Tirmidh•. no.
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