THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN 2007

Women and Children
The Double Dividend of Gender Equality

THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN 2007

UNICEF NY (3 UN Plaza. New York. 3 UN Plaza.© The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Fax: 212-303-7985.unicef. NY. Others will be requestedto pay a small fee.org Cover photo: © UNICEF/HQ95-0980/Shehzad Noorani . Please contact the Editorial. Tel: 212-326-7434 or 7286. Email: nyhqdoc. UNICEF House.org.permit@unicef. Permission will be freely granted to educational or non-profit organizations.org Website: www. Commentaries represent the personal views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect UNICEF positions. USA Email: pubdoc@unicef. NY 10017) USA. NY 10017. Division of Communication. 2006 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication is required. ISBN-13: 978-92-806-3998-8 ISBN-10: 92-806-3998-6 UNICEF. Design and Publications Section.

Afshan Khan. Mahesh Patel. Senior Policy Advisor. Priscilla Akwara. Christian Schneider. Gustav Ranis BACKGROUND PAPERS Lori Beaman. Jodi Liss. Emily Goodman. Catherine Langevin-Falcon. Mary Mahy. Joyce Malombe. China. Mozambique. Global Policy Section. King. Islamic Republic of Iran. Elizabeth M. Karam. Office of UN Affairs and External Relations. Ngagne Diakhate. Erma Manoncourt. Susana Sottoli. David Parker. Pamela Knight. Agnes Quisumbing. Division of Policy and Planning. Rouslan Karimov. Input was also received from Programme Division. Najwa Mekki. Rohini Pande and Petia Topalova. Sincere thanks to Casimira Rodríguez Romero. Amy Lai. Paulina Gruszczynski. Minister of Justice. Khin Wityee Oo. Raluca Eddon. Susan Markisz DESIGN AND PRE-PRESS PRODUCTION Prographics. Peter Mason. Marie-Pierre Poirier. Annalisa Orlandi. Important contributions were received from the following UNICEF field offices: Bangladesh. Uganda. Laura Laski. the Gambia. Sir Richard Jolly. Carolyn Miller. Eva Jespersen. Production Officer. Bolivia. Allyson Alert. Sidya Ould El-Hadj. Editor. Tajikistan. Elizabeth Powley. Elias Salem STATISTICAL TABLES Tessa Wardlaw. Edmund Fitzgerald. Lorna O’Hanlon. Kareen Jabre. both in and outside of UNICEF. Susan Bissell. Edward Ying.. Geeta Rao Gupta. Hirut Gebre-Egziabher. Kate Rogers PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Jaclyn Tierney. Esther Duflo. Chair. Samuel Bickel. Jr. Leslie A. Eki Kairupan. Maryanne Neill. Edilberto Loaiza. Global Policy Section. Sylvia Chant. Sri Lanka. Jamaica. Farid Rashid. India. David Anthony. Gordon Alexander. Christine Dinsmore. Papua New Guinea. Ticiana Maloney. Nepal. Claudia Cappa. Bolivia. Alexandre Zouev EXTERNAL ADVISORY PANEL Anne Marie Goetz. Wivina Belmonte. Friedrich Huebler. Emily White Johansson TRANSLATION French edition: Marc Chalamet Spanish edition: Carlos Perellón PHOTO RESEARCH Allison Scott. for her special contribution. Fabio Sabatini. Gabriele Koehler. Montenegro.Acknowledgements This report was made possible with the advice and contributions of many people. David Stewart. Serbia. PRINTING Gist and Herlin Press STEERING COMMITTEE Rima Salah. Statistical Information Section. Chief. EDITORIAL Patricia Moccia. Acting Chief. Catherine Rutgers RESEARCH AND POLICY GUIDANCE Elizabeth Gibbons. Editor-in-Chief. Maie Ayoub von Kohl. and Division of Communication at New York Headquarters. Schwindt-Bayer . Division of Policy and Planning. Germain Ake. Dorothy Rozga. Madagascar. Uzbekistan and Zimbabwe. Nicaragua. Liza Barrie. Brazil. UNICEF regional offices and the Innocenti Research Centre. Chris Brazier. Mark Hereward. Yves Willemot. Nyein Nyein Lwin. Tamar Hahn. Division of Policy and Planning. Inc. Jordan. Azza M.

........................51 Chapter 5 ...............16 Panels Domestic violence against children........8 Grandmothers and HIV/AIDS..........11 1...23 2.........2 Many husbands are making the decisions alone on daily household expenditure............3 In sub-Saharan Africa................138 Index.................................. young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection but have less comprehensive knowledge about HIV than young men........ Veneman Executive Director........27 iv .................................1 Chapter 2 .............................................................20 2..............3 1...........................137 Table 10: The Rate of Progress ........2 Men’s discriminatory attitudes towards women vary across regions but are significant everywhere ............................4 More than 1 out of every 4 births to an adolescent mother (aged 15–19) occurs in the least developed countries ............................... women’s literacy rates are generally lower than men’s ................34 1 A call for equality Summary ......6 1...........99 Under-five mortality rankings ............. girls are more likely than boys to miss out on a secondary education......viii Panels Gender discrimination across the life cycle ...........1 Many husbands are making the decisions alone on their wife’s health.................CONTENTS Forewords Kofi A..................88 Statistical Tables ..98 General note on the data .........................................13 1....136 Measuring human development......................................18 2.............................................................5 High rates of maternal death are associated with limited access to health-care services for expectant mothers ......118 Table 6: Demographic Indicators..17 Chapter 3 ...147 UNICEF Offices ........................................................102 Table 2: Nutrition ...5 Despite recent improvements..148 Gender discrimination and inequalities across regions .........126 Table 8: Women ..............................69 References .........................................101 Table 1: Basic Indicators ...........................122 Table 7: Economic Indicators................vii Chapter 1 ...............142 Glossary .........................24 Figures 1...114 Table 5: Education .......4 Underweight prevalence among children under five in the developing regions.19 2.....37 Chapter 4 ........1 In many developing regions..............................................106 Table 3: Health .14 Figures 2..........................................134 Summary Indicators...............................110 Table 4: HIV/AIDS .............130 Table 9: Child Protection ...........................................................4 2 Equality in the household Summary .........3 Many husbands are making the decisions alone on visits to friends and relatives ....... Annan Secretary-General of the United Nations ..........................................30 Mother Centres in Central and Eastern Europe and the Gambia...............vi Ann M....... UNICEF .

.................................................................42 3........1 The majority of countries with the most women in parliament use political quotas....79 Women’s participation in community-based initiatives across the developing world .................................2 Countries with the most women in parliament are also the most likely to use quotas.................66 5 Reaping the of double dividend gender equality Summary .........................................54 Women’s groups: A force for political change .............4 Women in governance...56 4.85 v ..........55 4.......76 Quotas: One size does not fit all ..............5 Many women across the developing world work in the informal sector............38 3.....41 The impact of family-friendly workplaces in industrialized countries.........3 In many countries sexdisaggregated data are not available for key indicators..................................84 Partnering to provide improved estimates of maternal mortality...................59 Women and the Darfur Peace Agreement ....................82 Program H: Challenging gender stereotypes and changing attitudes in Brazil and other countries.....68 Panels Partnerships for girls’ education..........................................78 5................1 Women are working longer hours than men across the developing world.........................62 Women as mediators and peacekeepers ....70 Monitoring governments’ commitments to women’s empowerment through genderresponsive budgets...............................................74 Partnering to promote child rights and gender equality in political agendas ...............50 Panels Women and politics: Realities and myths.........44 Figures 4........................................4 Significant male-female gaps in land ownership in Latin America............................2 Nominal wages for women are significantly lower than for men .........48 in 4 Equalityand politics government Summary .2 In most of the countries surveyed.....................................58 Figures 5.....3 Estimated earnings for women are substantially lower than for men...........40 3.THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN 2007 Women and Children The Double Dividend of Gender Equality 3 Equality in employment Summary ........... by Casimira Rodríguez Romero..80 5................. a majority of the public agrees or strongly agrees that men make better political leaders than women..86 Figures 3.........46 Child labour: Are girls affected differently from boys?................53 4.......3 Women’s participation in national parliaments across regions...............63 The hope of justice for Bolivia’s women and children.....41 3............36 Panels Do girls risk missing out on school when women work?.....1 Bill sponsorship in Argentina and New Zealand ..

Until there is gender equality. That is why discrimination against women of all ages deprives the world’s children – all of them. much has been done to advance the progress of women. there can be no sustainable development. No other policy is as likely to raise economic productivity or to reduce child and maternal mortality. When women are healthy. © UN/DPI/Sergey Bormeniev Kofi A. including the prevention of HIV/AIDS. children thrive and countries flourish. As study after study has taught us.Message Message from the Nation from the United Secretary-General of the United Nations Secretary-General Eliminating gender discrimination and empowering women are among the paramount challenges facing the world today. This is an issue that goes to the heart of UNICEF’s mission: protecting the rights of all children. Among the many issues UNICEF has addressed over the past decade. No other policy is as sure to improve nutrition and promote health. none is more central to its mandate than the rights of women. I have been proud to add my voice to UNICEF’s in calling on the world to pay more attention to children’s lives. not just the half who are girls – of the chance to reach their potential. needs and rights. reaping a double dividend for women and children. educated and free to take the opportunities life affords them. In my 10 years as Secretary-General. there is no tool for development more effective than the empowerment of women. In the 27 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. But we have fallen far short of what we need to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. It is impossible to realize our goals while discriminating against half the human race. Annan Secretary-General of the United Nations vi . No other policy is as powerful in increasing the chances of education for the next generation.

to participate in government. When women are empowered to live full and productive lives. from reducing poverty and hunger to saving children’s lives. combating HIV/AIDS. ensuring universal education. Declarations. Despite the international community’s commitment to gender equality. UNICEF’s experience also shows the opposite: When women are denied equal opportunity within a society. This report illustrates the many challenges that remain. to achieve economic self-sufficiency and to be secure from gender violence and discrimination will be the day when the promise of gender equality is fulfilled and UNICEF’s mission of a world fit for children can be realized. and developing new and innovative partnerships for development. malaria and other diseases. Around the world. disempowerment and poverty. women earn less than men for equal work. children suffer. conventions and goals are not enough. Working within countries to achieve Millennium Development Goal 3 – promoting gender equality and empowering women – will reap the double dividend of bettering the lives of both women and children. Many girls are forced into child marriages. millions of women and girls suffer from physical and sexual violence. children prosper. the lives of millions of women and girls throughout the world are plagued by discrimination. © UNICEF/HQ05-2284/Christine Johnston Ann M. As these pages will make clear. with little recourse to justice and protection. Maternal mortality figures remain indefensibly high in many countries. Veneman Executive Director United Nations Children’s Fund vii .Foreword The State of the World’s Children 2007 reports on the lives of women around the world for a simple reason: Gender equality and the well-being of children go hand in hand. improving maternal health. In most places. It is imperative that we move resolutely from the realm of words to the realm of concrete action. some before they are 15 years old. It will also contribute to achieving all the other goals. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by the AIDS pandemic. the day when women and girls have equal opportunities to be educated. ensuring environmental sustainability.

limited opportunities in education and work for girls and women. A change for the better in any one of these realms influences women’s equality in the others and has a profound and positive impact on children everywhere. legislation. financing. Without it. When seen in this light. forms of gender discrimination can be equally destructive. tolerance and shared responsibility – a world that is fit for children. communities and countries. But the benefits of gender equality go beyond their direct impact on children. It appears in the preference for sons over daughters. Gender equality will not only empower women to overcome poverty. . educated and empowered women have healthy. gender equality is not only morally right – it is pivotal to human progress and sustainable development. less obvious. especially children. Other. as gender stereotypes remain widely accepted and go unchallenged. educated and confident daughters and sons. and at the heart of the United Nations itself. women empowering women and improved research and data. which risks failure without the full participation of all members of society. legislative quotas. This report intends to provide a road map to accelerate progess towards gender equality and empowering women through education. but also their children. require special care and attention. the workplace and the political sphere. Moreover. Cultural traditions can perpetuate social exclusion and discrimination from generation to generation. and outright gender-based violence in the forms of physical and sexual violence. Healthy. is the acknowledgement that the vulnerable. Within the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. despite substantial gains in women’s empowerment since the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979. The amount of influence women have over the decisions in the household has been shown to positively impact the nutrition. engaging men and boys. gender equality produces a double dividend: It benefits both women and children. families. gender discrimination remains pervasive in every region of the world.SUMMARY Gender equality is central to realizing the Millennium agenda. health care and education of their children. Eliminating gender discrimination and empowering women will require enhancing women’s influence in the key decisions that shape their lives and those of children in three distinct arenas: the household. Yet. Institutional discrimination is harder to identify and rectify. it will be impossible to create a world of equity.

The rights of women and children are mutually reinforcing A logical question that arises from the topic of this report is. The State of the World’s Children 2007 examines the discrimination and disempowerment women face throughout their lives – and outlines what must be done to eliminate gender discrimination and empower women and girls. Sex is biological: Females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y chromosome. and other related proclamations. “Why does UNICEF.” These words link equality to human development. the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979. where abundance ruled and every man. in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small. World leaders know that human development is stunted by entrenched discrimination and injustice. was adopted a decade later. The negative consequences of women’s inequality reverberate throughout society. adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948. More than 60 years ago. global leaders envisioned a world where all people shared equally in rights. The call for equal rights evolved into a quest for gender equality when a distinction was made between gender and sex. was tasked with preparing an internationally binding instrument that would protect human rights and fundamental freedoms for women. on the other hand. an 1 .T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 A call for equality 1 E © UNICEF/SW2K00161/Giacomo Pirozzi quality between men and women has been a goal of the United Nations since its inception. recognizing that both women and men are essential for the social and economic progress of nations. woman and child was free from despair and inequity. the UN Commission on the Status of Women. It begins by examining the status of women today. Then. The 1945 Preamble to the UN Charter notes its objective “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights. in the dignity and worth of the human person. the cause of women’s rights did not take its rightful place in the international agenda until 1974. is a social construct that describes what is feminine and what is masculine. Despite calls for gender equality in such documents as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yet although 27 years have elapsed since CEDAW was adopted – and despite the fact that the convention has received 184 ratifications. proponents of gender equality challenged the stereotypes and pervasive discrimination that kept women and girls socially and economically disadvantaged. and then discusses how gender equality will move all the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) forward. The result of its work. Gender. and how investment in women’s rights will ultimately produce a double dividend: advancing the rights of both women and children. which focuses on the inalienable rights of children. resources and opportunities. which had been established in 1946 and already succeeded in having sev- eral legal instruments adopted. voiceless and without rights. accessions and successions by States parties – millions of women and girls throughout the world remain powerless. Recognizing that gender roles are not inborn but rather learned.1 The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).

especially children. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms © UNICEF/HQ04-1287/Giacomo Pirozzi organization that advocates for children. But gender equality. societies also protect girl children and female adolescents. Evidence has shown that women whose rights are fulfilled are more likely to ensure that girls have access to adequate nutrition. education and opportunities. The Millennium Declaration specifically calls for the full implementation of both the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. First. also correlate with improved outcomes for children’s survival and development. is associated with improved child nutrition (see Chapter 2. defined as the ability to control their own lives and to participate in making decisions that affect them and their families. They acknowledged that gender equality will empower women to overcome poverty. These goals. women’s well-being contributes to the well-being of their offspring. gender equality is essential to creating the world envisioned in the Millennium Declaration. tolerance. Other aspects of gender equality. educated and empowered women are more likely to have healthy. security. with multiple benefits for their families. as this report demonstrates. World leaders at the UN Millennium Summit in 2000 understood this. Women’s autonomy. Nothing less than the full participation of all members of society is needed to ensure sufficient human progress to meet the Millennium Agenda.2 By upholding women’s rights.have equal access to food. health care. communities and countries. This is the world that the international community has pledged to strive for – a world fit for both women and children. is not simply a method for accelerating human development: It is also morally right. educated and confident daughters and sons. pages 24). education and protection from harm. Complementarities and tensions between the two conventions Since the status of women and the well-being of children are deeply intertwined. such as education levels among women. equity. Gender equality means that girls and boys 2 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . the conventions are identified as key human rights standards for meeting the Millennium Development Goals. in which special care and attention is given to the most vulnerable people. monitor women’s rights?” The answer is twofold. The Millennium agenda reflects this recognition of the centrality of gender equality to human development. gender equality furthers the cause of child survival and development. advocates for children would be remiss if they failed to champion the cause of gender equality. Because women are the primary caregivers for children. Second. Healthy. a world of peace. the international community’s guides to sustainable development. according to the Millennium agenda. health care. respect for the environment and shared responsibility. set time-sensitive benchmarks for promoting gender equality and empowering women. freedom.

overlapping in their call for precise rights and responsibilities and filling in crucial gaps that may exist when either stands alone. Both conventions demand freedom from violence and abuse and are based on principles of non-discrimination. Sources: Gross secondary enrolment ratio: UNESCO Institute of Statistics. neither Figure 1. economic class or nationality. participation and accountability. many of the signatures were submitted with reservations to specific articles. The treaties are not perfectly harmonious: There are areas of tension. protecting maternity (article 4). some supporters of gender equality believe that the CRC stereotypes women as mothers. including equality (articles 2 and 15). 1996–2005* Per cent Per cent 30 20 10 0 Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific** Latin America and Caribbean Notes: Gross secondary enrolment ratio refers to the number of children enrolled in secondary school. girls are more likely than boys to miss out on a secondary education Gross secondary school enrolment ratio. A CALL FOR EQUALITY 3 . Some nations that readily accept the concept that children have rights are less willing to concede that women also have rights. 2000–2005* 100 80 60 40 20 0 Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia Latin CEE/CIS and America Pacific and Caribbean Male Female 60 50 40 Net secondary school attendance ratio. Some child rights advocates think that CEDAW focuses too much on a woman’s right to self-actualization and may unintentionally subvert the importance of motherhood. regardless of age. The underlying data can be found in the Statistical Tables of this report. ** Excludes China. Several articles of CEDAW address rights pertinent to children. Net secondary school attendance ratio refers to the number of children attending secondary school who are of official secondary school age. The two treaties are complementary. old and young – are respected. Despite these differences. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official secondary school age. The CRC calls for equal access for girls and boys to education and health care. page 98. limiting their life options. And while 184 countries are parties to CEDAW. Each delineates specific entitlements that cannot be abrogated due to age. underscoring worldwide resistance to women’s rights. CEDAW contains among the highest number of reservations of any United Nations treaty. These data come from national household surveys.of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) are sister treaties – inexorably linked in moving communities towards full human rights. The rights of women are less widely accepted than those of children Although both treaties have gained widespread endorsement. however. Net secondary school attendance ratio: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. CEDAW has had the tougher road to acceptance and ratification. * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. In practice. For instance. gender. the two conventions hold more in common than in opposition – they set the standards for an equitable world in which the rights of every human being – female and male. In fact.1 In many developing regions. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official secondary school age. adequate health care (article 12) and shared parental responsibility (article 16).3 Rhetorical support for CEDAW and the CRC has been strong.

An estimated 14 million adolescents between 15 and 19 give birth each year. Girls under 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy and childbirth than women in their twenties. nonmedical reasons. most commonly in South Asia and subSaharan Africa. If a mother is under 18. birth histories and census data reveal an unusually high proportion of male births and male children under five in Asia. exploitation and violence.Gender discrimination across the life cycle Foeticide and infanticide Gender discrimination begins early. increased susceptibility to HIV infection. The practice of FGM/C mainly occurs in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. the misuse of these techniques can facilitate female foeticide. including the failure to heal. Child marriage and premature parenthood Child or early marriage refers to marriages and unions where one or both partners are under the age of 18. Child marriage is a long-standing tradition in areas where it is practised. the Middle East 4 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . extend girls’ childbearing years or ensure obedience to their husband’s household. and the lack of vital knowledge about sexual and reproductive health. FGM/C can have grave health consequences. suggesting sexselective foeticide and infanticide in the world’s two most populous countries – despite initiatives to eradicate these practices in both countries. It is singularly effective in delaying the age at which a young woman first gives birth and it can enhance freedom of movement and maternal health. female genitalia for cultural. It is estimated that more than 130 million women and girls alive today have been subjected to FGM/C. Secondary education Recent UNICEF estimates indicate that an average of only 43 per cent of girls of the appropriate age in the developing world attend secondary school. It also strengthens women’s bargaining power within households (see Chapter 2). Even if the child survives. With a few exceptions. Evidence indicates that the underfive mortality rate falls by about half for mothers with primary school education. he or she is more likely to suffer from low birthweight. A girl’s parents may conclude that they cannot afford secondary education or may take the traditional view that marriage should be the limit of her ambitions. There are multiple reasons for this: There may simply be no secondary school for girls to attend – many developing countries and donors have traditionally focused on offering universal primary education and neglected to allocate the resources to increase enrolment and attendance in secondary education. and completion of. inflammatory diseases and urinary incontinence. 36 per cent of women aged 20–24 were married or in union before they reached their 18th birthday. or other injuries to. Secondary education has multiple benefits for women and children. notably in China and India. Though the gender gap has been closing steadily over the past few decades. Severe bleeding and infection can lead to death. including HIV/AIDS. it is mostly girls who suffer from educational disadvantage. Primary education For every 100 boys out of school. Adolescence Among the greatest threats to adolescent development are abuse. her baby’s chance of dying in the first year of life is 60 per cent greater than that of a baby born to a mother older than 19. making protest sometimes barely possible. and North Africa and some parts of South-East Asia. nearly 1 of every 5 girls who enrols in primary school in developing countries does not complete a primary education. Modern diagnostic tools for pregnancy have made it possible to determine a child’s sex in the earliest phase. there are 115 girls in the same situation. Missing out on a primary education deprives a girl of the opportunity to develop to her full potential. Research has shown that educated women are less likely to die in childbirth and are more likely to send their children to school. Although there is no conclusive evidence to confirm such illegal misuse. childbirth complications. undernutrition and late physical and cognitive development. Where there is a clear economic or cultural preference for sons. The middle years A principal focus of the middle years of childhood and adolescence is ensuring access to. Female genital mutilation/cutting Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) involves partial or total removal of. or because they believe marriage will protect girls from sexual assault and pregnancy outside marriage. Parents may consent to child marriages out of economic necessity. quality primary and secondary education. and is a crucial factor in providing opportunities for women’s economic and political participation (see Chapters 3 and 4). Premature pregnancy and motherhood are an inevitable consequence of child marriage. Globally.

whether they are sold into sexual slavery by desperately poor families or abducted and trafficked into brothels or other exploitative environments. Many are forced into it. One important explanation is physiological – women are at least twice as likely as men to become infected with HIV during sex. and largely reversible. Nonetheless. Motherhood and old age Two key periods in many women’s lives when the pernicious effects of both poverty and inequality can combine are motherhood and old age. knowledge of sexual and reproductive health is essential for the safety of young people. African women will die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth. An estimated 1. India alone accounted for one quarter of all maternal deaths. 150 million girls and 73 million boys under the age of 18 experienced forced sexual intercourse or other forms of physical and sexual violence in 2002. they are a mainstay of childcare for working parents. but it is certainly a first step. According to a World Health Organization study. A survey of 24 sub-Saharan African countries reveals that two thirds or more of young women lack comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission. One out of every 16 sub-Saharan HIV/AIDS By 2005. adolescents around the world continue to have limited knowledge of reproductive health issues and the risks they face. In 2005. Only a few developing countries have safety nets for older people in the form of non-contributory or meanstested pensions. Moreover. Women in old age Elderly women may face double discrimination on the basis of both gender and age.Sexual abuse. may lack control of family resources and can face discrimination from inheritance and property laws. compared to just 1 out of every 4. Children exploited in the commercial sex industry are subjected to neglect. A CALL FOR EQUALITY 5 . Grandmothers in particular possess a great deal of knowledge and experience related to all aspects of maternal and child health and care. motherless newborns are between 3 and 10 times more likely to die than newborns whose mothers survive. nearly half of the 39 million people living with HIV were women. In parts of Africa and the Caribbean. Experience has shown that children’s rights are advanced when programmes that seek to benefit children and families also include elderly women. Women See References. including HIV. factor is social – gender discrimination denies women the negotiating power they need to reduce their risk of infection. with over 90 per cent of those in Africa and Asia. page 88.8 million children are involved in commercial sex work. Sexual and reproductive health Because unprotected sex carries the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Many older women are plunged into poverty at a time of life when they are very vulnerable. exploitation and trafficking The younger girls are when they first have sex. including skilled attendants at all births and emergency obstetric care for women who develop complications. sexual violence and physical and psychological abuse. childbirth or breastfeeding. Two thirds of maternal deaths in 2000 occurred in 13 of the world’s poorest countries. Infants become infected through their mothers during pregnancy. The other crucial. Maternal mortality It is estimated that each year more than half a million women – roughly one woman every minute – die as a result of pregnancy complications and childbirth. The dramatic increase in infection among women heightens the risk of infection among children. more than 2 million children aged 14 years or younger were living with HIV. Many of these women’s lives could be saved if they had access to basic health care services. Women tend to live longer than men. the more likely it is that intercourse has been imposed on them. In many families. The same year. The absence of a minimum age for sexual consent and marriage exposes children to partner violence in some countries. Information alone cannot provide protection.000 in industrialized countries. are at greater risk of contracting HIV than men. young women (aged 15–24) are up to six times more likely to be infected than young men their age. High rates of illiteracy among women prevent them from knowing about the risks of HIV infection and possible protection strategies. Some 99 per cent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries.

Enforcement of international conventions and national laws pertaining to women and children falls mainly to governments. limited personal and professional choices for girls and women. families and communities has also waylaid gender equality and children’s rights. Canada. Turkey. Viet Nam. Singapore. can leave them last in line for food. Malta. Countries in transition: Albania. Belgium. Estonia. While the degrees and forms of inequality may vary. Luxembourg. Morocco. South Asia: Bangladesh. must be dismantled so that development can move forward. Mexico. But resistance by individuals. Ireland. Greece. Islamic Republic of Iran. Figure 1. Philippines. opportunities and political power in every region of the world. and they must be ultimately held accountable for the slow pace of progress. Iraq. Too often. Bulgaria. Latvia. Czech Republic. regardless of origin. Uganda. Pakistan. The pernicious nature of gender inequality Gender discrimination is pervasive. The oppression of girls and women can include the preference for sons over daughters. Bosnia and Herzegovina. The following countries and territories are included in the regional aggregates cited: Middle East and North Africa: Algeria. Croatia. 6 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Netherlands. women and girls are deprived of equal access to resources. legal and economic fabric of nations. Indonesia. education and economic opportunity. Latin America and Caribbean: Argentina. Sweden. Kyrgyzstan. Hungary. Belarus. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Lithuania. accessed June 2006. India. attitudes and beliefs.convention has been fully implemented. civil society organizations and the media also shirk their responsibilities when they fail to monitor. Saudi Arabia. Serbia. Republic of Korea. Republic of Moldova. Failure to secure equality for all has deleterious consequences for the moral.2 Men’s discriminatory attitudes towards women vary across regions but are significant everywhere 100 Proportion of male respondents who: Agree or strongly agree that “men make better political leaders than women do” Agree or strongly agree that “when jobs are scarce men should have more right to a job than a woman” 80 Per cent 60 Agree or strongly agree that “university is more important for a boy than a girl” 40 20 0 7 countries in Middle East and North Africa 3 countries in South Asia 4 countries in sub-Saharan Africa 6 countries in East Asia and Pacific 22 countries in transition 5 countries in Latin America and Caribbean 19 industrialized countries UNICEF calculations are based on data derived from the World Values Survey. Spain. Chile. the denial of basic human rights and outright gender-based violence. Japan. Egypt. France. health care. Poland. governments often fail to invest often limited public resources in women and children or to challenge discriminatory customs. Industrialized countries: Austria. South Africa. Jordan. or the belief that girls and women must be submissive. Russian Federation.org>. Male privilege. While giving lip service to equality.worldvaluessurvey. Iceland. United Kingdom. Montenegro. Sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria. Slovenia. publicly scrutinize or hold officials accountable for unfulfilled promises. page 88. <www. East Asia and Pacific: China. its pernicious effects reverberate across societies. United States. legal watchdogs. Portugal. Although women and girls are most directly harmed by gender inequality. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Ukraine. Denmark. Romania. Source: World Values Survey. Peru. Notes on the methodology employed can be found in the References section. Finland. United Republic of Tanzania. Slovakia. Italy. Data for each country and territory in the regional aggregates are for the latest year available in the period specified. Round 4 (1999–2004). All obstacles to gender equality.

5 Domestic violence is the most common form of violence perpetrated against women. Violence against women and girls Girls and women are frequently victims of physical and sexual violence inside and outside the home. women and girls are at increased risk of violence. prevalent in parts of South and East Asia.4 Despite overall growth in educational enrolment. more than 115 million children of primary school age do not receive an elementary education.6 During armed conflict.Inequality is always tragic and sometimes fatal. Prenatal sex selection and infanticide. insidious gender inequality may be equally destructive. rape and sexual assault are often used as weapons of war. child marriage or sexual harassment and violence. Insidious forms of gender inequality As despicable as deliberate negligence or brutal violence can be. a lack of school sanitation. © UNICEF/HQ06-0510/Indrias Getachew A CALL FOR EQUALITY 7 . exploitation and abuse – sometimes from the very security personnel or other persons charged with their protection and safety. a paucity of female role models. Girls who do enrol in school often drop out when they reach puberty for many reasons – the demands of household responsibilities. a recent multi-country study by the World Health Organization revealed that between 15 per cent and 71 per cent of women had experienced physical or sexual assault from an intimate partner. girls are more likely than boys to be missing from classrooms across the developing world. With few exceptions. among others. When complex emergencies force people to be displaced from their homes. show the low value placed on the lives of girls and women and have led to unbalanced populations where men outnumber women. Although such assaults are underreported because of the stigma of the crime.

the percentage of women working in senior positions and the percentage of women in parliament. which assesses gender equality in key areas of economic and political participation in decisionmaking. often hold power in the household allocation of resources for vital services such as education and health care – believe that university education is more important for a boy than for a girl (see Figure 1. but still significant. while more than half of respondents in that country. In other regions. the proportion of men holding these views is lower. Gender empowerment as measured by GEM is lowest in countries in the Middle East and North Africa and South Asia. Mexico and Uganda. Islamic Republic of Iran and Uganda. While poorer countries tend to have lower levels of gender empowerment. and in neighbouring Argentina. 8 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . they cannot show the true extent of gender discrimination. More than 80 per cent of men in seven countries surveyed in the Middle East and North Africa believe that when jobs are scarce. although there is wide variation across regions. men have more right to work than women. opinion polls and case studies provide a good indication of the prevalence of gender discrimination in many countries. such indicators are relatively scarce. page 6 ). as this report will show. Although these results are drawn from a small sample.Gender discrimination and inequalities across regions Attitudes. Quantifiable indicators are needed in order to gain a clearer picture of the inequalities and inequities produced by gender discrimination against women and girls. low income need not be a barrier to higher levels of gender empowerment. among others. their choices and values are very different. consider that women and men do not enjoy equal job opportunities. The measure includes estimated earned income (a crucial determinant of a family member’s influence on household decisions). In Brazil. Surveys. and in many instances closely associated with cultural. men’s opinions on this particular issue were less discriminatory. A surprisingly large number of women respondents from the survey agreed or strongly agreed with the statement that men make better political leaders than women – including over half of women respondents from Bangladesh. if not quite as extreme. This underlines the fact that discriminatory attitudes towards women and girls are not simply held by men. These views on education are largely mirrored in attitudes to women’s work and participation in politics. The World Values Survey reveals that an alarmingly large number of men – who. Colombia. over one third from Albania and Mexico. and one out of every five from the United States. such as access to education and income-generating opportunities for women. and that they make better political leaders than women. While such opinion polls and surveys offer a window into the views of societies. social and religious norms. there is no clear evidence that gender inequalities automatically diminish at higher levels of income. Nonetheless. but also reflect norms and perceptions that may be shared by the entire society. Around two thirds of male respondents in Bangladesh indicate that university education for boys should be prioritized over that of girls – an opinion echoed by around one third or more of male respondents from the Islamic Republic of Iran. The survey revealed that women’s views can also be equally discriminatory towards their own sex. beliefs and practices that serve to exclude women are often deeply entrenched. the data available point to a clear conclusion: gender inequalities remain stubbornly entrenched in all regions of the world.2. A Gallup Poll conducted in five Latin American countries (Argentina. page 88. Accordingly. See References. An attempt to capture gender discrimination in a single indicator is the United Nations Development Programme Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). and highest in industrialized countries. In some countries. But as many national and international surveys and censuses are often not disaggregated by sex. Brazil. believe that society treats both sexes equally. China. they may well be indicative of a broader recognition of gender discrimination in society. Examining social attitudes on specific issues. both men and women. Research has shown that when women set aside these norms and the pressure to conform is relaxed. El Salvador and Mexico) found that half of the respondents believed society favours men over women. only 20 per cent of respondents. with only 1 out of every 10 male respondents in China and less than 1 out of every 13 male respondents in the United States holding the same view. reveals even more clearly the extent of gender discrimination and how it compares across countries.

An increased awareness of discriminatory practices and outcomes – including physical and sexual violence. among others – has fostered greater demand for change. are examples of more subtle forms of inequality. Cultural traditions can perpetuate inequality and discrimination from generation to generation. such as requiring girls and women to trek many kilometres to fetch water and firewood. These ingrained forms of discrimination often keep individuals. such as giving women and girls less food or medical care. political and social development. proponents of gender equality have begun to reshape the social and political A CALL FOR EQUALITY 9 . the status of women has improved in the past three decades. religion or cultural tradition can justify inequality and disempowerment. legacy. No history. families and societies trapped in poverty and undermine economic. By promoting legal and social reforms.© UNICEF/HQ05-1568/Giacomo Pirozzi Institutional discrimination is harder to identify and rectify. disproportionate numbers affected by HIV/AIDS and female illiteracy. customs and values that are detrimental to women and girls must be confronted. then gender inequality must first be eliminated. If poverty is to become history. as gender stereotypes remain accepted and unchallenged. Attitudes. The unequal division of household labour. or the uneven allocation of household resources. female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). The double dividend of gender equality Despite ingrained gender inequality. Bold initiatives and unflinching determination are required to end individual and institutional gender discrimination.

8 Gains in gender equality not withstanding.landscape. religious or ethnic composition. Today.9 comprise nearly two thirds of the people who are illiterate. Chile and Jamaica elected women for the first time as their heads of government. considering that there are 192 UN Member States. account for 80 per cent of civilian casualties during armed conflict. for instance. women and girls have access to opportunities that were previously restricted. And women’s political representation is increasing in many parts of the world. And while gender continues to influence people’s choices and challenges.7 While that number is miniscule. spoke with one voice when the UN pledged to make the world fit for children at the General Assembly Special Session on Children in May 2002. Primary school enrolment rates for girls have jumped and the educational gender gap is narrowing. along with children. inequality and violence. Women are entering the labour force in greater numbers. 10 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 © UNICEF/HQ05-1597/Giacomo Pirozzi . in many parts of the world a girl born in 2007 will probably have a brighter future than a girl born when CEDAW was adopted in 1979. is also head of state. female government leadership was unheard of less than 50 years ago. In 2006. far too many women and girls have been left behind and remain voiceless and powerless. bringing the total number of female heads of state or government in the world to 14. regardless of their political. (Chile’s president. Michelle Bachelet.) In addition.11 All Member States of the United Nations.10 and. It is widely estimated that women make up the majority of the world’s poor. Women are disproportionately affected by poverty. the Republic of Korea appointed its first woman prime minister in April 2006.

Figure 1. United Rep. 2006. 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Congo Chad Cameroon Burkina Faso Botswana Benin 0 5 10 Per cent 15 20 A CALL FOR EQUALITY 11 . * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. Geneva. 1999–2005* Female Male Zambia Uganda Tanzania. Reproductive Health Surveys. Source: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Sources: Demographic and Health Surveys. Behavioural Surveillance Surveys. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. United Rep. The underlying data can be found in the Statistical Tables of this report. young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection but have less comprehensive knowledge about HIV than young men Young people (aged 15–24) in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV. and HIV/AIDS Survey Indicators Database. Kenya Ghana Gabon Congo Chad Cameroon Burkina Faso Botswana Benin 0 10 20 30 Per cent 40 50 60 HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15–24) in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. UNAIDS.3 In sub-Saharan Africa. page 98. of Rwanda Nigeria Namibia Mozambique Mali Malawi Madagascar Lesotho Note: Countries selected on the basis of data availability for HIV prevalence and comprehensive knowledge of HIV for both male and female young people. of Rwanda Nigeria Namibia Mozambique Mali Malawi Madagascar Lesotho Kenya Ghana Gabon Note: Countries selected on the basis of data availability for HIV prevalence and comprehensive knowledge of HIV for both male and female young people. 2005 Female Male Zambia Uganda Tanzania. The underlying data can be found in the Statistical Tables of this report. page 98.

Equality in the household (Chapter 2) Women’s access to power at the household level has the most direct impact on families and children. The intergenerational dividends of gender equality Women are the primary caregivers for children and thus ultimately shape children’s lives. educated. The cycle of poverty and despair is passed from generation to generation. Conversely. A change for the better in any one of these realms influences women’s equality in the others.But rallying around the cause of children without championing gender equality is like stocking a sports team with players but failing to teach them how to play the game. What is good for women is good for children with few. countries reap double dividends when gender equality is promoted and ultimately attained. Anything less than unqualified support for gender equality in all three areas will sabotage meaningful progress towards fulfilling the MDGs. Nations bear the consequences when women are disempowered and deprived of human rights. productive and able to help their children survive and thrive. The well-being of women and children is inseparable. To maximize gender equality’s impact on poverty reduction. Here is where decisions are 12 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 © Arege Douglas Mogeni/2006 . This is especially true in the most traditional. Women become healthy. education and sustainable development. These benefits are bequeathed to current and future generations. But halfway measures towards human rights are unacceptable. if any. women must have influence in decision-making in three distinct areas: the household. exceptions. the workplace and the political sphere. patriarchal societies where roles and responsibilities are strictly delineated by gender.

women are often victimized by discrimination.un. They become able to make choices not only for themselves.Figure 1. she is more likely to be included in decisions on how the resources will be distributed.org/unpp/>. leading children out of poverty. Empowering women in the political arena can help change societies. ‘World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision Database’. Ending the wage gap. health care. which keeps them out of the paid labour force or school. Equality in government and politics (Chapter 4) Increasing women’s political participation is an MDG objective in its own right (MDG 3. their spheres of influence increase. at times in oppressive. 2005 14% 62% Source: United Nations Population Division. receive adequate medical care. are delegated to mothers and daughters. such as fetching water. A CALL FOR EQUALITY 13 . Historically. aged 15–19. and to be denied essential health services and education. they see to it that their children eat well. they and their children are more likely to receive less food. As women become economically productive. Household chores.esa. opening higher-paying fields to women and allowing female workers more decision-making power will greatly benefit children. When women share equally in household decisions. page 88. Equality in the workplace (Chapter 3) At work. Target 4. they tend to provide more adequately and fairly for their children. when women hold decision-making power. Women who have access to meaningful. dangerous conditions. When a woman brings income or assets into the household. but also for their children. gathering firewood or caring for the young or infirm. They may be excluded from more highly remunerated occupations and are frequently paid less than men for the same work. 2000–2005 1% 28% 6% 65% More developed regions Less developed regions excluding the least developed countries Least developed countries China 12% 12% Global population of female adolescents.4 More than 1 out of every 4 births to an adolescent mother (aged 15–19) occurs in the least developed countries Global births by mothers aged 15–19. schooling and other family necessities. Women and girls are often recruited into domestic work outside their own homes and may be forced to live away from their families. Indicator 12). accessed September 2006. finish school and have time for recreation and play. income-producing work are more likely to increase their families’ standards of living. Destitute women and girls may find the sex trade their only option for employment when all other economic doors have been shut. <www. Note: The country composition of each regional group can be found in References. made about the allocation of resources for food. When women are locked out of decisions regarding household income and other resources.

nurses or midwives). * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.000 Note: The lifetime risk of maternal death takes into account both the probability of becoming pregnant and the probability of dying as a result of that pregnancy. page 98.5 High rates of maternal death are associated with limited access to health-care services for expectant mothers Health-care services for expectant mothers. The underlying data can be found in the Statistical Tables of this report. 2000 1 in: Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa South Asia Middle East and North Africa Latin America and Caribbean East Asia and Pacific CEE/CIS Industrialized countries 15 16 43 100 160 360 770 4. Skilled attendant at delivery refers to the percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel (doctors. Lifetime risk of maternal death. 1997–2005* Antenatal care coverage Skilled attendant at delivery 100 80 Per cent 60 40 20 0 Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/ CIS Industrialized countries Note: Antenatal care coverage refers to the percentage of women aged 15–24 attended at least once during pregnancy by a skilled attendant (doctor. 14 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Sources: Demographic and Health Surveys.Figure 1. page 98. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. accumulated across a women's reproductive years. Source: World Health Organization and UNICEF. nurse or midwife). World Health Organization and UNICEF. Data on antenatal care coverage are not available for industrialized countries. The underlying data can be found in the Statistical Tables of this report.

then nations will thrive. qualitative evidence and women’s reporting on their experiences are also needed to promote gender equality. educational enrolment and completion. It has been nearly 30 years since CEDAW was adopted by the United Nations.Their involvement in governing bodies. poverty reduction and sustainable development.12 Women can play key roles in securing peace. and improved research and data. can disprove the claim that women’s rights are good for children and ultimately good for the world. Female representation in peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction is vital to ensuring the safety and protection of children and other vulnerable populations. the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children in May 2002 linked economic development to the creation of a world fit for children. Women and girls must have the means and support to fulfil their potential and fully enjoy their rights. For only when equality is achieved will women be empowered. and only then will they and their children thrive. If all citizens are allowed the opportunity to reach their potential. As a Chinese adage says. They are inseparable and indivisible – one cannot exist without the other. A CALL FOR EQUALITY 15 . the Inter-Parliamentary Union found that about nine-tenths believe they have a responsibility to represent women’s interests and advocate for other members of society. as well as other quantifiable statistics. women empowering women. Empowering women and girls The status of women is a crucial element for accurately gauging the state of the world’s children and assessing what the future holds for them. No argument against gender equality. consequently. security and prosperity. engaging men and boys. Lofty ambitions.” The next generation cannot wait another three decades for its rights. legislative quotas. gender equality and children are required. are necessary to assess progress towards the MDGs. The road to sustainable development cannot be paved with half measures. children and families. One can only imagine what the lives of girls born in 1979 would have been like had the convention been fully supported and implemented. infant and under-five mortality. leads to policies and legislation that focus on women. Women’s direct influence on politics and public policy bodes well for peace. Disaggregated data on life expectancy. cultural beliefs and ingrained bigotry are difficult to quantify. A generation of empowered women would have made a world of difference. customs or outright bigotry. legislation. The following chapters will analyse both quantitative indicators and qualitative evidence about the status of women and its relationship to child survival and development. A world fit for women is a world fit for children Two years after the Millennium Summit. “Women hold up half the sky. financing. whether based on traditions. Sound investments and a resolute commitment to justice. good intentions and catchy slogans will not produce human progress. whether local or national. In a survey of 187 women who hold public office in 65 countries. The final chapter of the report intends to provide a road map for maximizing gender equality through seven key modes: education. But attitudes. A world fit for children is also a world fit for women.

• Men play a vital role in promoting egalitarian decision-making.SUMMARY For children. including those regarding major household spending. children with uneducated mothers are at least twice as likely to be out of school than children whose mothers attended primary school. in sub-Saharan Africa. Women generally place a higher premium on welfarerelated goals and are more likely to use their influence and the resources they control to promote the needs of families. By challenging and defying discriminatory attitudes in their communities. particularly girls. • The consequences of women’s exclusion from household decisions can be as dire for children as they are for women themselves. their own health care and their visits with friends or relatives outside the home. Factors underlying women’s influence in decision-making processes include control of income and assets. • A woman’s empowerment within the household increases the likelihood that her children. the incidence of underweight children under three years old in South Asia would fall by up to 13 percentage points. According to a study conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute. such as sharing responsibility for household chores and childcare. • A growing body of evidence indicates that household decisions are often made through a bargaining process that is more likely to favour men than women. A UNICEF survey of selected countries across the developing world found that. the most important actors in the world are not political leaders and heads of development agencies.4 million fewer undernourished children in the region. men can help combat gender discrimination in households and communities. in only 10 out of the 30 developing countries surveyed did half or more of women participate in all household decisions. but the parents and caregivers who make crucial household decisions each day. Through simple and direct strategies. an additional 1.7 million children would be adequately nourished. • According to data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. resulting in 13. particularly children. age at marriage and level of education. women’s groups can advance the rights of girls and women for generations to come. • Women themselves are the most important catalysts for change. . will attend school. on average. Evidence suggests that men and women frequently have very different roles and priorities when it comes to household decision-making. if men and women had equal influence in decision-making.

statements by international organizations and world leaders on major initiatives and positions. major household purchases. Evidence suggests that men and women frequently have very different roles and priorities when it comes to household decision-making. Decisions are often made through a bargaining process in which household members each attempt to use the resources they control for their own priorities. Overall.1 17 Household decisions: More bargaining than cooperation Every family is unique. How members of the household use their collective resources determines the levels of nutrition. closer to home. individual household members do not always share the same priorities or preferences. Much of the study of household dynamics is predicated on the assumption that households function as a unit in which family members pool their time and resources to achieve a common set of goals (the unitary model). the data paint a picture of extreme gender inequality. health care. There is no doubting the importance of these negotiations in determining development outcomes. Questions from the surveys. . and there is no simple set of rules that can explain the dynamic of decision-making processes. Studies that examine the dynamics of family decision-making often focus on the household. and their visits with family or relatives outside of the household. daily household spending.T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 Equality in the household 2 E © UNICEF/HQ98--0609/Alejandro Balaguer veryone interested in development and the progress of the world’s children waits on the ‘big’ decisions: the conclusions of the G8 on aid and debt. Inequalities in household decision-making The factors that determine which family member will have the strongest say in household decisions vary among households and across cultures. but the parents and caregivers who make these crucial household decisions on a daily basis. were aggregated by the research team to examine regional patterns of gender influence in household decisionmaking. But there are other decisions. While many households are characterized by such cooperation and act as a redistributive or sharing unit. While this focus does not necessarily represent all interactions among family members. The Demographic and Health Surveys provide one of the most direct sources of information on household decisionmaking dynamics. the most important actors in the world are not political leaders and heads of development agencies. that can have a larger and more direct impact on children’s lives: How will scarce food be divided among parents and siblings? Who will go to school and who will work in the field? Is a child’s temperature high enough to warrant a costly and distant trip to the doctor’s office? For children. the outcome of the Doha Round of trade negotiations. education and protection that each family member receives. which asked women in developing countries to specify their level of influence in household decisions. including those taken in regard to their own health care. In only 10 of the 30 countries surveyed did 50 per cent or more of women participate in all household decisions. it does provide a practical means of understanding and analysing everyday family dynamics.

5 11.2 Latin America and Caribbean Haiti Peru Nicaragua Bolivia Colombia South Asia Nepal Bangladesh Middle East and North Africa Egypt Morocco Jordan 11.4 32.5 46.9 47. of) Uganda Ghana Mozambique Zimbabwe Madagascar Eritrea East Asia and Pacific Indonesia Philippines CEE/CIS Armenia Turkmenistan 9.5 37.5 57.7 21. 2000-2004* 0 Sub-Saharan Africa Burkina Faso Mali Nigeria Malawi Benin Cameroon Rwanda Zambia Kenya Tanzania (United Rep.9 12.1 73.3 4.7 33.6 74.4 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 20.8 70.8 34. 18 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .3 51 41.6 60.1 *Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.1 8.9 38.3 12. page 88.3 10.4 15.1 31.1 48. Notes on the methodology employed can be found in the References section. The data were accessed from the DHS Statcompiler in June 2006.6 42.7 9. Source: UNICEF calculations based on the data derived from Demographic and Health Surveys.1 Many husbands are making the decisions alone on their wife’s health Percentage of women who say their husbands alone make the decisions regarding their health.9 74. All countries with available data are presented in the chart.Figure 2.

2 34.3 45.9 18 Latin America and Caribbean Colombia Peru Haiti Bolivia 6. Source: UNICEF calculations based on the data derived from Demographic and Health Surveys.5 63. page 88.8 32. 2000-2004* 0 Sub-Saharan Africa Malawi Nigeria Mali Burkina Faso Uganda Tanzania (United Rep.1 52.2 27 31.8 16.4 9 CEE/CIS Armenia Turkmenistan 10.7 64. All countries with available data are presented in the chart.9 43. Notes on the methodology employed can be found in the References section. of) Rwanda Cameroon Kenya Mozambique Benin Ghana Eritrea Zimbabwe Madagascar 5.3 39 37.2 Middle East and North Africa Morocco Jordan Egypt 24.8 10 13.Figure 2.7 South Asia Bangladesh Nepal 30.9 10 20 30 40 50 60 65.4 *Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. The data were accessed from the DHS Statcompiler in June 2006. EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 19 .5 55.3 31.8 35.4 70 80 East Asia and Pacific Philippines Indonesia 2.3 34.2 Many husbands are making the decisions alone on daily household expenditure Percentage of women who say their husbands alone make the decisions on daily household expenditure.7 10.

8 7 8.1 61.5 12. All countries with available data are presented in the chart.Figure 2.8 41.2 33. 2000-2004* 0 Sub-Saharan Africa Mali Burkina Faso Nigeria Zambia Tanzania (United Rep.3 56.7 39.7 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 16.8 29.6 61.8 *Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.4 45 43.7 47.2 Latin America and Caribbean Nicaragua Peru Bolivia Colombia Haiti South Asia Bangladesh Nepal Middle East and North Africa Morocco Egypt Jordan 16. Notes on the methodology employed can be found in the References section.8 25.8 19. The data were accessed from the DHS Statcompiler in June 2006.4 35.4 18. 20 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .7 12.3 Many husbands are making the decisions alone on visits to friends and relatives Percentage of women who say their husbands alone make the decisions regarding visits to friends and relatives. Source: UNICEF calculations based on the data derived from Demographic and Health Surveys.2 32.9 33.1 36.4 10. of) Benin Cameroon Uganda Kenya Malawi Ghana Mozambique Rwanda Zimbabwe Eritrea Madagascar East Asia and Pacific Indonesia Philippines CEE/CIS Armenia Turkmenistan 10.7 28.5 59. page 88.8 10 9.2 20.

• Lack of control over health-care needs: Decisions on women’s health care are vital to the health and well-being of both women and children. Mali and Nigeria. particularly children. In Nigeria. 78 per cent of women indicated that their husbands have exclusive control over large purchases. while in those countries surveyed CEE/CIS. education and. In Burkina Faso and Mali. However. men have a firm upper hand in decisions on household expenditures. approximately 60 per cent of women reported that husbands alone decide when wives can visit with family or relatives. One third of Bangladeshi husbands control their wives’ mobility outside of the home.2 Factors underlying household decision-making processes Household assessments such as Demographic and Health Surveys can provide a good indication of which family members are likely to participate in household decisions. particularly. such as medicine. East Asia and Pacific and Latin America and Caribbean. Money spent on large purchases may be regarded as a wise long-term investment. almost 75 per cent of women reported that husbands alone make decisions about women’s health care. the short-term cost of acquiring these assets can consume a large share of household income that might otherwise be used for more immediate household needs. • Exclusion from decisions on major household purchases: Household decisions on large expenditures such as land. notably in those countries examined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. cars and livestock can be crucial for families. for example. This exclusion compromises the health and well-being of all family members. more than 40 per cent of women indicated that their husbands had exclusive control over daily household expenditures. in the two countries surveyed in South Asia. Gender discrimination in household decisionmaking is often rooted in patriarchal attitudes EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 21 . In Latin America and the Caribbean. their health. In many households. for example. but they cannot explain why certain individuals in each household are able to dominate decision-making processes. Indonesia and the Philippines. approximately 30 per cent of women felt excluded from decisions on household purchases. it is useful to consider the factors that determine the structure of the family unit. To understand the dynamics that influence household decision-making processes. In 7 of the 15 countries surveyed in sub-Saharan Africa. This contrasts with attitudes in the two countries surveyed in East Asia and Pacific. Bangladesh and Nepal. Survey data suggest a high degree of male control over women’s mobility in each of the regions surveyed. where fewer than 18 per cent of women in both countries felt that they had no say in such matters. this ratio was around 50 per cent. • Restricted mobility and freedom: Household decisions regarding women’s mobility directly affect their ability to provide for their own needs as well as the needs of their children. women reported having a greater degree of control over these decisions. Approximately 60 per cent of women in Egypt and over a third of women in Bangladesh and Nepal felt excluded from such decisions. data from Nicaragua show that 18 per cent of women require a man’s permission before leaving home to visit friends and family. Whether a family decides to spend its financial resources on the needs of children or the personal preferences of adults often depends on which family members are involved in the decision-making process. In the countries examined in the Middle East and North Africa and South Asia. In many households across the developing world. In Burkina Faso. school supplies and food. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys suggest that men generally decide how much the household will allocate towards major expenditures. as well as each family member’s role within the household. 16 per cent of Armenian women need to first secure their husbands’ permission. in CEE/CIS. • Limited management of daily household expenditure: Household decisions on daily expenditure have a decisive impact on children’s well-being. women have little influence in health-related decisions.

women continue to lag behind men in terms of income-earning opportunities and ownership and management of assets. self-confidence and assertiveness. age differences are far greater. and access to and level of education. major determinants of influence in household decision-making include control of income and assets.3 According to a study based on household decisions and gender.© UNICEF/HQ94-1532/Rasheedun Nabi that value the social status of men over women. for example. factors. The ability of family members to impose their own preferences in household decisions (bargaining power) is influenced by social attitudes and other. Evidence from around the world shows that the age gap between husbands and wives can vary enormously among households.5 As the next chapter will illustrate. Levels of education: In addition to increased levels of knowledge. In developing countries. The average age at first marriage in Western Europe is estimated to be 27 for women and 30 for men. when the age gap between spouses is most extreme. the burden of domestic work and childcare severely constrains the life choices available to married girls and child mothers. age.7 This. Age gaps: The distribution of household bargaining power is also influenced by a woman’s age at marriage and the age difference between a woman and her husband. husbands are approximately five years older than their wives. in both industrialized and developing countries. more tangible. education confers social status and increases income-earning potential. in turn. In South Asia. affects the power that women have over household decisions. the gap rises to six years in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding southern Africa). But the extent to which individual households conform to ‘traditional’ ideas about the roles of men and women varies. As with age gaps between married couples.4 Control of income and assets: The family member who controls the greatest share of household income and assets often has the strongest say in deciding whether those resources will be used to meet household needs.6 In cases of child marriage (defined as customary or statutory union where one or both of the partners is under the age of 18 years old). Examining these factors across a wide range of countries offers insights into the distribution of bargaining power in individual households. the levels of education of spouses vary among 22 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .

4 million Middle East and North Africa.15 Where women have a fair say. and are more likely to experience domestic violence than women who marry at an older age. there is substantial evidence to suggest that such acts are mainly perpetrated by adult men against women and girls. In Kenya. for example. 36 per cent of women who were married before the age of 18 believe that a man is sometimes justified in beating his wife. 16 million South Asia. page 2. Arguably of equal importance is the threat of domestic violence. EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 23 . The findings of a study undertaken in 40 developing countries indicate that. Progress for Children: A report card on nutrition. compared to 20 per cent of those who were married as adults. the proportion of resources devoted to children is far greater than in those in which women have a less decisive role.4 Underweight prevalence among children under five in the developing regions* Latin America and Caribbean. 17 million East Asia and Pacific. A UNICEF study indicates that women who marry at a young age are more likely to believe that it is sometimes acceptable for a husband to beat his wife. In families in which women are key decision-makers. Domestic violence Levels of education. New York.3 years in sub-Saharan Africa.12 A landmark World Health Organization multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women reveals that of those interviewed. children benefit The consequences of women’s exclusion from household decisions can be as dire for children as they are for women themselves.9 Domestic violence threatens the physical health and emotional well-being of its victims and often forces them to endure subordinate positions and economic insecurity within their households. and 1 year in Latin America and the Caribbean. the World report on violence and health. declining to 1. Number 4. This is because women generally place a higher premium than men on Figure 2.households. wealth and religion. 22 million *UNICEF analysis is based on estimates of underweight prevalence in developing countries (1996-2005). 37 per cent of women in a Brazilian province.11 Violence against women and girls crosses the boundaries of race. The education gap is widest in South Asia.5 years more in school than women.13 The pattern is broadly similar for industrialized countries. studies show that 40 per cent to 70 per cent of female murder victims in Australia. on average.8 Disparate levels of education between men and women may reinforce household gender inequalities. South Africa and the United States were killed by their husbands or boyfriends – often within the context of an ongoing abusive relationship. 56 per cent of women in a province in the United Republic of Tanzania. 1 million West and Central Africa. Canada. While physical and sexual violence and other forms of abuse occur in different domestic environments and in different guises. Israel. and 62 per cent of women in a province in Bangladesh reported having experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner. UNICEF. According to another key report from the same organization. 40 per cent of female homicide victims are killed by their intimate partners. Every year. Source: United Nations Children’s Fund.10 Household gender inequalities foster a permissive context for abusive relationships. culture.14 In the United Kingdom. men tend to spend more time in education than women. 78 million CEE/CIS. May 2006. earnings and asset ownership and age gaps are key in determining bargaining power between men and women within the household. where men on average spend 2. ensuring that women remain disadvantaged. thousands of women are maimed or killed by rejected suitors in many countries. 8 million Eastern and Southern Africa.

and makes it difficult for them to perform well in school and develop close and positive friendships. Undernourished children who survive the early years of childhood often have low levels of iodine. protein and energy. gastrointestinal problems.18 Among developing regions. Although they often lack the means to protect themselves. Sexual and gender-based violence is prevalent in schools and colleges. Mexico.20 According to a study of three regions – Latin America and the Caribbean. Unlike other forms of domestic violence. Children who are exposed to violence often suffer symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. The consequences of domestic violence can span generations. India. Educating women also results in multiple benefits for children. The effects of violent behaviour tend to stay with children long after they leave the childhood home. improving their survival rates.welfare-related goals and are more likely to use their influence and the resources they control to promote the needs of children in particular and of the family in general. abused women 24 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . and impaired social and cognitive development.17 Women prioritize nutrition Throughout the developing world. stunting or reduced height for age. exploitation and sexual abuse. The behavioural and psychological consequences of growing up in a violent home can be just as devastating for children who are not directly abused themselves. Egypt. Studies from some of the largest countries in the developing world. Working in someone’s home can also entail the risk of violence. Colombia. nutritional status and school attendance. iron. The incidence of sexual violence in domestic settings is well known. sub-Saharan Africa. one out of every four children – roughly 146 million chil- dren – under the age of five is underweight. Recent studies indicate high levels of sexual violence in childhood – up to 21 per cent according to a multi-country study conducted by the World Health Organization – with girls far more likely to be abused than boys. such as bed-wetting or nightmares. South Asia and Domestic violence against children Every year. girls who witness their mothers being abused are more likely to accept violence in a marriage than girls who come from non-violent homes. Child domestic workers – often girls under 16 – have indicated severe abuse at the hands of their employers. indicate a strong correlation between violence against women and violence against children.19 For children whose nutritional status is deficient. The perpetrators may include parents and other close family members. including China. as many as 275 million children worldwide become caught in the crossfire of domestic violence and suffer the full consequences of a turbulent home life. Children who grow up in a violent home are more likely to suffer abuse compared to children who have a peaceful home life. to a lesser extent. Primaryschool-age children who are exposed to domestic violence may have more trouble with schoolwork and show poor concentration and focus. including physical punishment. depression and anxiety.16 Case studies conducted in the developing world indicate that women who have greater influence in household decisions can significantly improve their children’s nutritional status. neglect or negligent treatment. much of the humiliation and physical punishment is perpetrated by women. the Philippines and South Africa. sexual harassment and humiliation. Violence against children involves physical and psychological abuse and injury. and are at greater risk than their peers of suffering from allergies. which can contribute to chronic sickness. asthma. Furthermore. child undernutrition is most severe in South Asia and. although girls in particular are also vulnerable to sexual violence from men living in the household. They are also more likely to attempt suicide and abuse drugs and alcohol. Children who survive abuse often suffer long-term physical and psychological damage that impairs their ability to learn and socialize. Boys who are exposed to their parents’ domestic violence are twice as likely to become abusive men as are the sons of non-violent parents. common childhood ailments such as diarrhoea and respiratory infections can be fatal. with much of the violence directed towards girls.

The report’s six guiding principles – quoted at right – are clear. the World Health Organization and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. States must invest in evidence-based policies and programmes to address factors that give rise to violence against children. because of gender. ethnic origin. in care and justice systems. in conjunction with UNICEF. • The vulnerability of children to violence is linked to their age and evolving capacity. and the creation of a UN inter-agency group on violence against children. EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 25 . Shattering the silence that surrounds domestic violence is key to ending violent behaviour in the home. and to support families’ capacity to provide children with care in a safe environment. disability or social status. It would reduce often provide protection for children who are exposed to domestic violence. and to have these views taken into account in the implementation of polices and programmes. in the workplace and community. in schools and other educational settings. The Report of the Independent Expert for the United Nations Study on Violence against Children represents a crucial step towards unmasking the issue of violence against children. are particularly vulnerable.4 million fewer undernourished children. But without the legal or economic resources to prosecute abusive spouses. they are more likely to be undernourished themselves and less likely to have access to resources that they can direct towards children’s nutrition. • States have the primary responsibility to uphold children’s rights to protection and access to services.22 approximately 45 per cent of children were born with low birthweight in 2005 – the highest incidence of underweight births in the world. there is a clear link between regional differences in children’s nutritional status and women’s decision-making power. resulting in 13. These measures also include advising governments to establish an ombudsperson or commission for children’s rights in accordance with the ‘Paris Principles’. with overarching precepts complemented by specific measures to combat violence against children in the home and family. none more so than the first: No violence against children is justifiable. race. • All violence against children is preventable. Government-led efforts to create protective policies for victims of domestic violence require a parallel effort to change social attitudes that condone such violence. See References. where between 40 per cent and 60 per cent of women are underweight. Where women have low status and are denied a voice in household decisions.25 In sub-Saharan Africa. including abuses perpetrated in the household.24 the incidence of underweight children under three years old in South Asia could fall by up to 13 percentage points. Its recommendations are comprehensive. • States have the obligation to ensure accountability in every case of violence. where one in every six women and around one third of children under the age of five are underweight. Some children. page 88.sub-Saharan Africa – conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute. with representation from NGOs and children themselves. • Children have the right to express their views. a leading global research organization on hunger and nutrition. The report advocates for the establishment of a Special Representative to the Secretary-General on Violence against Children to advocate at the interna- tional level. The guiding principles of the Report of the Independent Expert for the United Nations Study on Violence against Children • No violence against children is justifiable. countless women and children remain trapped in harmful situations.23 The same study concluded that if men and women had equal influence in decisionmaking. Children should never receive less protection than adults.26 increasing gender equality would have smaller but still significant benefits for children’s nutritional status.21 In South Asia.

Survey results from Cameroon show that incomeearning women typically spend 74 per cent of their funds to supplement the family food supply. and ensure that a further 1. In Burkina Faso. for example.30 Increasing women’s access to the means of agricultural production. but rarely own the land on which crops are grown and lack control over the distribution of food and profits (see Chapter 3. India. how much money will be spent on medication and the type of care they themselves will receive during pregnancy. As evidence from Nepal and India shows.33 Research from Ghana indicates that gender bias in household decisions can influence the quality of medical treatment that sick children receive. For vegetable crops. while men spend only an estimated 22 per cent of their income on food.27 A growing body of evidence. gender discrimination reduces the quantity of food available for children. labour and fertilizer results in women farmers having lower crop yields than their male counterparts. Whereas an increase in women’s income led to additional household spending on food. such as surplus rainfall or drought. women play an important role in planting and harvesting crops. such as farming land or fertilizers. women generally prioritize the nutrition of family members above other personal and household issues. women tend to be the first to recognize and seek treatment for children’s illnesses. many women around the world are denied a say in even the most basic decisions on family health. typically the household decision-makers in rural villages. credit and education is therefore crucial to guaranteeing food security and improving the nutritional status of children. suggests that when resources are scarce. Those women who lacked economic support from relatives or disagreed with their hus- 26 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . tend to treat malaria in children with local herbal remedies and generally regard formal medical treatment as a last resort. in contrast. Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa indicates that strengthening women’s control over these inputs can increase agricultural output by an average rate of 10 per cent. as the findings of the Demographic and Health Surveys cited earlier confirm. evidence shows that. where members of the household simultaneously cultivate the same crop on different plots of similar size. A study conducted in the Volta region found that men.31 Women prioritize family health care As the primary caregivers for children. Women. principally from West and Central Africa. an increase in men’s income had no significant impact. yields are about 18 per cent lower on women’s plots compared to men’s plots. Yet. even after accounting for differences in education and wealth among the households surveyed. which are often located in neighbouring towns and therefore entail travel expenditures in addition to the costs of health care. a study from Gujarat.29 Throughout much of the developing world. prefer to treat children immediately with antimalarial drugs from formal medical clinics. on average.28 Research from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana demonstrates that in the event of an external shock. such as whether a child will be taken to the doctor. in which women tend to specialize.the incidence of underweight children under three from 30 per cent to 27. reports that approximately 50 per cent of women interviewed felt unable to take a sick child to the doctor without the approval of their husband or parent-in-law. pages 41-42). women’s participation in household decisions decreases stunting among children and reduces child mortality. income received from the cultivation of crops tends to be spent differently by men and women.32 Women who have greater influence in decision-making can promote better healthcare practices for the family. Unequal access to education. where women generally retain a portion of what they produce.7 million children are adequately nourished. In households where women are routinely denied these rights. the husband – or his mother in some cases – determines when and how to seek health care for family members. For instance. the decline in yields is about 20 per cent. Even on subsistence plots.2 per cent. farm labour.

the local remedies preferred by men tended to prevail over formal medical treatment.35 Women prioritize education Empirical research on the links between women’s decision-making power in the household and children’s education is in its infancy. children with a formally educated primary caregiver are less likely to repeat a grade or leave school early. particularly girls. 2000-2004* Notes: Adult literacy rate refers to the percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write. social norms often discourage or restrict women’s mobility outside of the home.34 Even when women can influence household decisions on medical care. Guyana. Eritrea. Recent studies have found that where gender influences outcomes for children.37 The importance of mothers’ education is supported by a separate study of children aged 7 to 14 years in 18 sub-Saharan African countries. children with uneducated mothers are at least twice as likely to be out of primary school than children whose mothers attended primary school. * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. A UNICEF survey of selected countries across Latin America and the Caribbean. they may still need the help of family members.bands or family elders about how the children should be treated struggled to obtain appropriate treatment for their ailing children. the study found that 73 per cent of children with educated mothers were in school. Restrictions on women’s movement can compromise children’s access to emergency health care by preventing women from travelling independently to shops. to carry out their decision. EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 27 . In Bangladesh. will attend school. As a result. often to the sick children’s detriment. Côte d’Ivoire. Yet the evidence available indicates that women’s empowerment within the household increases the likelihood that children. Guinea-Bissau. compared with only 51 per cent of children whose mothers lacked schooling. South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa – including Cameroon. women’s literacy rates are generally lower than men’s Least developed countries Developing countries CEE/CIS Latin America and Caribbean East Asia and Pacific South Asia Middle East and North Africa West and Central Africa Eastern and Southern Africa 0 20 40 60 80 63 85 100 64 77 92 71 85 97 99 Adult literacy rate: females as a percentage of males. for example. India and Suriname – finds that on average.39 Figure 2. particularly husbands or mothers-in-laws. and limiting women’s direct contact with unrelated males. it tends to be related to the gender of the parent who controls the distribution of resources. A study of poor Brazilian households reveals that girls living with mothers who are educated and decisionmakers are more likely to be enrolled in school and kept out of the informal labour market. page 98. including doctors. pharmacies or hospitals. Egypt and India.38 Moreover.5 Despite recent improvements. The underlying data can be found in the Statistical Tables of this report. Source: UNESCO Institute of Statistics.36 Empowering women to prioritize girls’ education generates positive outcomes that span generations.

40 Based on this estimate. is far less conclusive. or she may have chosen to leave her partner. The factors that motivate or force women to head households independently may determine a household’s economic status. For instance. It is often assumed that households headed by women represent the poorest of the poor.© UNICEF/HQ05-1159/Roger LeMoyne Female-headed households: Proving that empowered women benefit children The impact of women’s decision-making on children’s development is keenly evident in female-headed households. however.5 per cent. female-headed households account for 24 per cent of all households in Latin America. or married women who become de facto household heads when their partners are migrant workers. and 13 per cent in the Middle East and North Africa. She may head the household due to personal or economic circumstances that are beyond her control. a 2005 study from rural Bangladesh shows that the proportion of female-headed households compared to male-headed households was highest among the poorest quintile (5. or have more income earners than their male equivalents due to more effective use of household labour. abandoned wives. 22 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa. one should be wary of labelling them and children who live in these households as the ‘poorest of the poor’.41 The evidence.3 per cent to 4. Even among female heads of households who did not consciously choose to live without a partner. This belief is grounded in the reality that in many countries and societies.43 A woman may have decided not to marry at all.44 28 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . men enjoy superior social status and earning power.2 per cent) and the wealthiest quintile (7. as is the case for many widows. It was estimated in 1998 that roughly 20 per cent of households worldwide are headed by women. while the intermediate quintiles had lower proportions ranging from 3. Research on Latin America has shown that female-headed households may even generate higher earnings.4 per cent).42 Female-headed households do not fit neatly into any one social category or income bracket. 16 per cent in Asia.

despite the numerous challenges they face. and around 8 per cent worked outside the home.Extended family members and community support systems can result in female-headed households being less disadvantaged in practice than they are often believed to be in principle. levels of child work and labour are not significantly higher in female-headed households. land holdings and social services. Even though female household heads faced restricted access to employment opportunities.49 Furthermore.46 Furthermore.50 Men must play a crucial role in the lives of children The interests of children are best served when the dynamic between men and women in the household is based on mutual respect and EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD © UNICEF/HQ04-0489/Louise Gubb 29 . suggesting different priorities in household management that helped to achieve better nutritional outcomes. more than half of femaleheaded households are extended families compared with just over one quarter of male-headed units. especially micronutrient and proteinrich foods that provide the necessary nutrients for the growth and mental development of young children. Children living in female-headed households consume a more diverse diet than those in male-headed households. 14 per cent worked on a family farm or business.47 Children may benefit from the fact that a female household head has full control over the allocation of household income. In both male. the proportion of mothers with at least one year of secondary education in female-headed households is greater across all quintiles than in male headed households.and female-headed households. for instance. Among poor neighbourhoods in urban Mexico. across all income quintiles they spent relatively more on food and healthcare services. which may contribute to the better nutritional status of children observed in the former group.48 Evidence from rural Bangladesh indicates that the prevalence of undernutrition in children under five in female-headed households compared with male-headed households was significantly lower across income quintiles. approximately 5 per cent of children reported helping with domestic work.45 A study based on data from 17 developing countries in which at least 15 per cent of children lived in female-headed households reveals that single mothers manage to raise their children with outcomes similar to those of two-parent families.

by extension. which have among the highest dependency ratios. However.shared responsibilities. a study by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization found that widows were working two to four hours more each day to make up for reduced income following their husbands’ deaths. Mozambique. over 50 per cent of children in each of the seven countries assessed did so. elderly women are among the most vulnerable and marginalized members of society. Household studies conducted in Côte d’Ivoire found that families where one member was living with HIV/AIDS had roughly double the health spending but only half the income of households in a control group where no one was living with HIV/AIDS. they can help fight gender discrimination in their families and communities. While there is no conclusive evidence to suggest 30 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . The absence of fathers from the lives of their children can affect children’s emotional. Kenya. Cameroon. physical. Funerals can absorb a large share of income. Following the deaths of husbands. A study in Dar es Salaam. Ghana. a study showed that households with an AIDS-related death in the previous year spent an average of one third of their annual income on funerals. more than 50 per cent in Kenya and around 60 per cent in Namibia and Zimbabwe. the demands of caring for any additional orphans undermine their food security and. irrespective of whether they have lost their mothers. in Uganda. Elderly women who assume responsibility for family members affected by HIV/AIDS are often forced to work longer hours and sell personal possessions and household assets in order to pay for medicines. The strain of caring for orphans is telling on female-headed households. HIV/AIDS is straining elderly people already struggling to make ends meet. Nigeria and the United Republic of Tanzania) with recent data reveals the enormous burden that orphaning is exerting on the extended family in general and grandparents – often grandmothers – in particular. Research from 10 sub-Saharan African countries has found a strong positive correlation between school enrolment and biological ties between the child and the head of household. Children who have lost their fathers (paternal orphans) usually stay with their mothers. Women are therefore more likely to take care of orphaned children. For instance. and both mother and father are involved in the care. The financial burden of caring for orphans can threaten household food security. fewer than half of the children who lost their mothers (maternal orphans) continued to live with their fathers. In Malawi. From the decisions they make about resource allocation to the care and support they give to women and children. Evidence shows that poverty rates in households with elderly people are up to 29 per cent higher than in households without. The latter study has suggested that although extended family members may be able to care for one orphan. In many poor countries. Unequal employment opportunities and discriminatory inheritance and property laws force many women to continue working well into old age. Many of these households are headed by elderly women.51 Men play a pivotal role in promoting egalitarian decision-making. fathers or both parents. many elderly women subsist on low wages earned in physically arduous jobs in the informal sector. and Grandmothers and HIV/AIDS One of the rarely told stories from sub-Saharan Africa is that of the grandparents who care for children orphaned by AIDS. Against the odds. 12 million children across sub-Saharan Africa had been orphaned by AIDS. in four provinces in South Africa. But the financial strain may prove too great if the household has to accommodate more than one orphan. moderate to severe hunger is also more prevalent among households with more than one orphan. grandparents and single mothers make enormous efforts to send children to school. who step in to raise orphans and vulnerable children when their own children sicken and die. Grandparents – particularly grandmothers – care for around 40 per cent of all orphans in the United Republic of Tanzania. nurture and support of their children. United Republic of Tanzania. Research in seven countries (Burkina Faso. health care and funeral costs. found that orphans are more likely to go to bed hungry than non-orphans. the nutritional well-being of all children in the household. 45 per cent in Uganda. By the end of 2005. often grandmothers.

Disaggregated data provide an even bleaker panorama: Roughly one in every five children aged 12–17. girls living in households with older women in receipt of a pension have • Ensure that governments protect the most vulnerable children through improved policy and legislation and by channelling resources to families and communities. At that point. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. around 12 per cent of all children in subSaharan African countries will be orphans due to all causes. Despite these efforts. research from Uganda suggests that double-orphans – children who have lost both parents – are most likely to miss out on an education. Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS. page 88.52 Researchers estimate that one in three children living in the US – numbering roughly 24 million – live in homes without their biological fathers. endorsed by international agencies and non-governmental organization partners in 2004. Despite these successes.53 Evidence shows that children can suffer emotionally and psychologically if they feel that they are not part of a family that conforms to what is considered ‘normal’ in their community. • Raise awareness at all levels through advocacy and social mobilization to create a supportive environment for children and families affected by HIV and AIDS. been found to be 3–4 centimetres taller than girls in households with older women who do not receive a pension. Swaziland and the United Republic of Tanzania. • Ensure access for orphans and vulnerable children to essential See References. Addressing the crisis facing orphans and elderly women in sub-Saharan Africa.7 million by 2010. Unite against AIDS.intellectual development. This framework. initiatives are transforming the five principles into action. At the same time. Across sub-Saharan Africa. • Mobilize and support communitybased responses. and in other regions. community-level interventions to support households in Malawi. Rwanda. and improved data collection through large population-based surveys. EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 31 . psychosocial and other support. With research revealing the disproportionate burden on femaleheaded households. and one in every six children aged 6–11 were orphans in 2005. In South Africa. there is an urgent need to provide them with assistance as part of broader actions to support orphans and vulnerable children and their families. Protection. requires a long-term strategy aimed at reversing the discriminatory social attitudes and customs that keep women and children mired in poverty. is based on five key principles: • Strengthen the capacity of families to protect and care for orphans and vulnerable children by prolonging the lives of parents and providing economic. the number of widows is rising. and elsewhere. Programmes designed to provide cash and other forms of assistance to elderly household heads can help ease the burden of caring for young orphans. however. most of whom are women. a pilot cash transfer scheme for older people caring for orphans has resulted in improved school attendance rates among children. A deepening crisis for orphans and caregivers UNICEF predicts that the number of children who have lost one or both parents due to AIDS will rise to 15. including health care and birth registration. these programmes represent a shortterm solution at best. coverage remains limited in all areas. UNICEF is providing support and advocacy through the Global Campaign on Children and AIDS – Unite for Children. These include abolishing school fees in Kenya and Uganda. are developing national plans to address these challenges based on the five core principles of The Framework for the services. In Zambia. HelpAge International estimates that the highest growth rate of any age group will be among those aged 80 and over.54 A recent study examining the issue of family life from a male perspective revealed that most men aspire to be good fathers and to care for that orphaning per se increases the risk of children missing school. with one quarter of these orphaned by AIDS.

divorce rates among women aged 40 to 49 who have been married at least once range from 25 per cent to nearly 50 per cent. who cares for children while women are at work. Moreover.61 These trends are not unique to Saudi Arabia. The most important catalysts for change are women themselves.55 But fathers often receive mixed messages regarding their rights and responsibilities as parents.56 Existing social and cultural norms can have a strong influence on parents’ levels of involvement with their children. albeit slowly. studies indicate a significant change in household power dynamics. women enter the workforce on account of personal preference rather than financial necessity. economic and political rights. with the median having nearly doubled between the mid-1980s and late 1990s. Saudi wives who share the responsibility for family expenses have a greater say in household decisions.59 In many parts of the world.64 By publicly denouncing discrimination and motivating other women to claim their social. In the El Mashrek region of Morocco. women’s groups can set in motion a process of broad social change that promotes the rights of girls and women for generations to come.63 their children.57 Conventional notions about the roles of men and women in families are changing. Women who come together to challenge and defy discriminatory attitudes can have a dramatic impact on their communities. The message that some men internalize is that it is not a father’s place to become heavily involved in the lives of young children. it was closer to 50 per cent. and collectively decide how those resources will be used or invested. One reason is the high rate of divorce in many regions. while in the Scandinavian countries. it is the father. both formal and informal. Evidence drawn from Demographic and Health Surveys suggests that in some developing countries much of the impact of women’s overall decision-making power is concentrated at the community level.65 Where women’s access to community resources is severely restricted by physical impediments or 32 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Social networks increase women’s influence at the community level Social groups and networks encourage and support women’s participation in decisionmaking at the community level.62 and are less inclined to resign from their jobs after having children. Through social groups and networks. more than any other Women’s participation in the community Social attitudes towards gender can and do change. women interact with each other. recent research shows a shift in attitudes: Saudi men now report that they value wives who can assist with the high costs of urban living.58 In Latin America and the Caribbean. Evidence from the United Kingdom shows that in 36 per cent of two-income families. rising living costs and the growing number of dual-income households are also transforming family dynamics. Whereas the 1980s saw university-educated Saudi men shy away from the prospect of marrying university-educated women. the United Kingdom and the United States. Data from 2002 show the divorce rate in Western Europe at approximately 30 per cent.© UNICEF/2005/Warpinski individual.60 In families throughout the Middle East and North Africa. pool their economic and human resources.

medicines and labour for farming – often beyond the purview of the men who control the formal decision-making processes. women have successfully per- suaded community elders to refrain from criticizing and ridiculing those women who work outside the home.71 While some women’s groups have been instrumental in lobbying policymakers through formal political channels. Women’s groups throughout sub-Saharan Africa are mounting similar challenges to male dominance in community decision-making. EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD © UNICEF/HQ06-0088/Shehzad Noorani 33 . through collective action. For example. water.67 But the impact of women’s networks goes beyond merely helping their own members: By challenging the status quo. for instance.66 Community-based social networks can also provide women with an important source of moral support. these networks and organizations are also proving to be powerful agents of social change. BRAC has strengthened women’s bargaining power in their households and communities. These efforts are helping to turn the tide of gender discrimination in formal political processes (see Chapter 4). If.70 Another example can be found in Angola. where the Angolan Association for Women’s Lawyers led a national campaign for legal reforms to protect women’s rights. a woman is denied a say in household decisions but is linked to a strong social network that promotes women’s empowerment. other groups have successfully mobilized constituency-level support for female legislators.69 This social sanctioning of women’s work empowers women who wish to pursue employment opportunities and increases the economic incentives for girls’ education. childcare. women’s organizations are fighting discrimination by contesting the 1997 Land Law that denies them the right to own and sell land independently. a non-governmental organization in Bangladesh that provides credit and employment opportunities for women. peer support may persuade her to make independent decisions on issues such as children’s health care. women collaborate to help provide each other and children with food. One such initiative is BRAC. In Mozambique.gender discrimination.68 South Asia provides numerous examples of such efforts.

Mothers Clubs provide a unique platform for women to raise financial and moral support for girls’ education. the Czech Republic. The success of the movement has inspired other women to replicate the model. Interviews with those involved testify to the positive impact that the centres are having on women and families: 58 per cent of women said they learned how to participate and speak up. poverty. where most families eke out a living from subsistence farming. Through advocacy and fund-raising campaigns. Since the transition of the early 1990s. the Mother Centres movement has spread to Bosnia and Herzegovina. where women are banding together to promote girls’ education at the community level. Mother Centres provide women with a vehicle for forging social networks and organizing community activities that support women in their roles as mothers and caregivers. This dramatic growth illustrates the powerful impact that women can have when they mobilize. soap and pomade manufacturing. Mothers Clubs have also invested their profits in providing interest-free loans to other disadvantaged women so that they can initiate their own income-generating activities. The centres help address the financial needs of families through services such as second-hand shops. and job retraining programmes. Since the programme’s inception. toy libraries. The movement is having a visible impact on girls’ education. By empowering women to enhance their quality of life. Girls’ The Gambia A similar initiative is operating in the Gambia. making batik. and few can support the cost of educating all 34 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Advocacy campaigns organized by women promote access to education for girls. high unemployment. and has provided milling machines that give families an additional source of food and income and release women and girls from the burden of daily milling. sewing and language classes. women are expanding the educational opportunities available to girls and asserting the right to have their voices heard in their communities. and focus attention on the retention and performance of girls in schools. writing materials and school lunches.Mother Centres in Central and Eastern Europe and the Gambia Mothers in Central and Eastern Europe are leading the way in empowering women in their communities. A survey of men who participated in some of the events revealed that 67 per cent had a positive view towards family responsibilities. including gardening. uniforms and shoes for girls in the community. Mother Centres arose in response to a perceived lack of support for mothers in their communities. Women are among the most vocal advocates of gender parity in schools. tie-dye. In 46 per cent of cases. Owing to a range of economic. meals. while 55 per cent felt that their confidence had increased since joining the centres. girls account for only 19 per cent of students in primary school in some poor communities. poultry farming and crop cultivation. Income generated from these entrepreneurial initiatives is used to pay for school fees. UNICEF has provided the Mothers Clubs with seed money for income-generating activities. Bulgaria. most parents prioritize boys’ education. Georgia and the Russian Federation. and there are now 750 centres worldwide. can make education costs prohibitive. Neighbourhood Mother Centres reach between 50 and 500 families and have helped transform the lives of thousands of women in the region. In the Gambia. Mother Centres are helping to revitalize neighbourhoods and fostering a new sense of hope among women and families. UNICEF and the Forum for African Women Educationalists are supporting women in their roles as community advocates. Although primary education is free in the Gambia. social and cultural factors. the tradition of community networks was dismantled under socialist rule. Mother Centres offer women and families an opportunity to access practical resources and social support. of their children. It demonstrates women’s tremendous capacity to lead the way in empowering themselves and those around them. other hidden expenses. women have established 65 Mothers Clubs in three regions of the Gambia. Mothers Clubs operate in some of the Gambia’s most impoverished regions. Mother Centres are represented in municipal councils. such as uniforms. In many Central and Eastern European countries. political instability and a decrease in public childcare and support services have compounded the sense of social isolation experienced by many mothers and children. Initiated in Germany in the 1980s.

Ensuring that women have opportunities to earn income. By providing women with the skills and resources needed to generate their own sources of income. education and shelter help improve the standard of living for women. While international agencies. • Supporting women’s organizations: One of the most important and effective avenues for women’s empowerment is the dynamic of cooperation among women. Women’s organizatioins can also be catalysts for change in the political arena (see Chapter 4). men are partnering with women to combat gender discrimination in households and communities. civil society organizations and women themselves have made significant progress in promoting a more egalitarian dynamic. acquire land. Informal women’s collectives that organize around issues such as nutrition. their families and communities. By creating specific roles for men in advocacy programmes. Chapter 3 discusses in more detail initiatives that can increase women’s employment and incomeearning opportunities. an achievement that will benefit current and future generations of women and girls. much remains to be done. Ensuring that women have a greater voice in household and community decisions is critical to fulfilling their rights as well as the rights of children.Including women in decision-making enrolment rates increased on average by 34 per cent. See References. page 88. schools and the workplace (see Chapter 5). EQUALITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 35 . governments. direct and effective strategies. Some key areas that urgently require attention include: • Increasing women’s employment and income-earning opportunities: Ownership or control of household assets and income is an important determinant of household bargaining power. in addition to girls. Moreover. food distribution. and the incidence of girls withdrawing from school due to early marriage has diminished sharply. a house and other property can help to strengthen women’s bargaining power and influence in household decisions. by persuasively arguing the case for girls’ education. Mothers Clubs are helping to empower women in their communities. such as persuading other men to contribute to domestic chores. governments and development agencies can also promote men’s involvement in child-friendly initiatives in parliament. Mothers Clubs are creating new opportunities for women. Through simple. women are challenging gender discrimination and highlighting the importance of women’s involvement in community decision-making processes. • Involving men: Persuading individuals to change their attitudes and behaviour is a slow and complex process.

and providing support for childcare. children’s rights are more likely to be fulfilled when women fully enjoy their social and economic rights. Ensuring that women and men have equal opportunities to generate and manage income is an important step towards realizing women’s rights. financial and administrative measures to create a strong and enabling environment for women’s entrepreneurship and participation in the labour market. the most important strategies for ensuring that girls and boys will have equal income-earning opportunities as adults is to give them equal access to education. . the conditions under which they are employed and who controls the income they generate determine how the work undertaken by women in the labour market affects their own well-being and that of children. Factors such as the amount of time women spend working outside the household. They are also more likely to work in more precarious forms of employment with low earnings. Even when they participate in the labour market for paid employment. • In many countries. there has been considerably less advance on improving the conditions under which they work. women still undertake the majority of the housework. with much less time spent in remunerative employment. Smaller salaries and less control over household income constrain their ability to accumulate capital. on average. recognizing their unpaid work. they earn. unpaid work in and for the household takes up the majority of their working hours. For children. Governments should undertake legislative. • Challenging attitudes towards women at work requires a multifaceted approach. far less than men. • When women work outside the household. • For many women. Social policies should be promoted to tackle discrimination in the workplace and to enable women and men to reconcile their work and family responsibilities. Moreover. high-quality childcare remains prohibitively expensive for low-income families in the absence of state provision or subsidies. eliminating discriminatory practices and laws related to property and inheritance rights.SUMMARY While there has been great progress in recent decades in engaging women in the labour force. Gender biases in property and inheritance laws and in other channels of acquiring assets also leave women and children at greater risk of poverty. often at the expense of children’s education. • Women not only earn less than men but also tend to own fewer assets. Parents often rely on extended family members or older children – most often girls – to provide childcare while they work. little financial security and few or no social benefits. • Paid employment for women does not automatically lead to better outcomes for children.

For many women. women still undertake the majority of work in the home. men’s contribution to domestic chores amounts to just 6 hours per week.1. for example. page 38). In Mexico. Policymakers are becoming attuned to the reality that women have an important economic role in addressing the poverty experienced by children. often by a wide margin3 (see Figure 3. women work longer hours than men. the livelihoods of households are already often sustained and enhanced by women who work outside the home – from those who cultivate subsistence crops or work on large farms where they oversee the output and marketing of produce. It is not that women do not work – they often work longer hours than men – but they almost invariably earn less income as a result of their labours and own less property. an increasing number of countries are channelling provisions to fulfil children’s rights – such as cash transfers contingent on sending children to school – directly to mothers.2 and time-use surveys reveal that across a selection of developing countries in Asia. women in paid employment also perform household tasks that absorb 33 hours of their time each week. in rural or urban settings. the corresponding ratio for men is 1 in every 200. Here again. children’s rights are more likely to be realized when women fully enjoy their social and economic rights.4 Even when they participate in the labour market for paid employment. recognizing their unpaid work. eliminating discriminatory practices and laws related to property and inheritance rights and providing childcare support. there has been considerably less advance on improving the conditions under which they work. surveys conducted in recent years confirm the validity of this assertion across developing countries. While data on the way men and women use their time are sparse. Oxfam estimates that women work around 60 to 90 hours per week. women produce about 80 per cent of household food consumed.5 37 . with much less time spent in remunerative employment. self-esteem and influence both within the household and in society. Data from urban areas in 15 Latin American countries reveal that unpaid household work is the principal activity for 1 in every 4 women. this finding is substantiated by research in countries across developing regions. all too often unfulfilled. Across the world. While there has been progress in recent decades in engaging women in the global labour force. Furthermore.T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 Equality in employment 3 T © UNICEF/HQ05-2192/Giacomo Pirozzi he story of women’s economic empowerment is an account of great potential. unpaid chores in and for the household take up the majority of their working hours. in contrast. Ensuring that women and men have equal opportunities to generate and manage income is an important step towards realizing women’s rights under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and enhancing their development. Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. in general. In both the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. to those labouring in factories and offices. for example.1 Women are working more but earning less than men Whether they live in industrialized or developing countries. women’s working hours exceed those of men.

poverty and the global water crisis. of Korea (1999) Madagascar (2001) Mongolia (2000) Mauritius (2003) Average for 8 developing countries 2 hours 25 minutes more 1 hour 45 minutes more 1 hour 6 minutes more 59 minutes more 58 minutes more 51 minutes more 44 minutes more 24 minutes more 1 hour 9 minutes more 0 2 4 6 8 10 Number of hours worked each day Number of hours worked each day by both women and men Additional number of hours a day women work *It is important to note that the data represent averages across each country that reflect high levels of underemployment. Although gender disparities in the overall work burden are less marked than in developing countries. Source: UNICEF calculations based on data derived from United Nations Development Programme. 2006. the sick and elderly. Oxford University Press for UNDP. page 379. Human Development Report 2006. women in the more affluent nations still spend a far greater proportion of working hours than men in unpaid work.6 The division of household labour is not dissimilar in industrialized countries.7 Despite the limited time that many women spend in paid employment and their pivotal Figure 3.© UNICEF/HQ05-1679/Josh Estey Time-use surveys in six states in India reveal that women typically spend 35 hours per week on household tasks and caring for children.1 Women are working longer hours than men across the developing world* How much longer do women work than men each day? Benin (1998) Mexico (2002) India (2000) South Africa (2000) Rep. 38 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . women are working more than 12 hours a day. Beyond Scarcity: Power. New York. In some settings. against 4 hours per week for men.

In Brazil. the available evidence shows that. women accounted for roughly 40 per cent of the world’s economically active population. Although disaggregated data on nominal wages are scarce. subSaharan Africa and the member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Latin America.10 A more revealing statistic of the regional variation in women’s relative economic activity outside the household is the gender parity activity index (defined here as the female economic activity rate as a percentage of the male rate). sub-Saharan Africa (62.8 These attitudes have. women’s nominal wages are roughly 20 per cent lower than men’s. when they work outside the household their average income is also far lower. and under one half in Latin America and South Asia are economically active. across regions. however. the parity index exceeds 70 per cent. a clear majority of respondents agreed – around 90 per cent on average in countries surveyed in East Asia and Pacific. contributed to the steady increase in women entering the labour force over the past two decades. CEE/CIS.contribution to the functioning of the household.12 Because much of the work women do is underpaid and because they often perform low-status jobs and earn less than men. In the least developed countries. By 2005.9 per cent). EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT © UNICEF/HQ05-1269/Roger LeMoyne 39 .11 The wage and earnings gap Women not only spend significantly less time in paid employment than men.3 per cent) and CEE/CIS (57. it drops to 52 per cent in Latin America and South Asia and below 50 per cent in the Arab States. East Asia and Pacific. with much greater female economic activity rates in East Asia and Pacific (68. for example. However.5 per cent) than elsewhere. Just over one third of women in the Arab States. While the data show that gender wage gaps exist across countries. there is a widespread view that women as well as men should contribute to household income. these can vary significantly and can even be inverted. Findings from the World Values Survey reveal that when asked whether husbands and wives should both contribute to household income. sub-Saharan Africa and transition economies. and more than two thirds in the Middle East and South Asia.9 Trends in participation rates vary widely across regions. perhaps. women under the age of 25 earn a higher average hourly wage than their male counterparts.

Republic of Korea. Denmark. Switzerland. But these are not the only reasons. page 41). Costa Rica. Occupied Palestinian Territory. Latvia. <http://laborsta. Sweden. Romania. Hungary. adequate nutrition and education. 40 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Japan. Ireland.16 Figure 3. Sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana. Thailand.13 As Chapter 2 shows. Philippines. United Kingdom. Jordan. whether or not they work outside the home (see Panel. care and protection are also at risk. Greece. Austria. Norway. especially girls. particularly when a marriage breaks down or a husband dies. Myanmar. are easily pushed into the margins of society. New Zealand.3. around 40 per cent in Latin America and South Asia. Industrialized countries: Australia. Finland. looking after the home and taking care of siblings – often at the expense of their education. Latin America and Caribbean: Brazil. Belgium. Germany. children. further exacerbating the struggle to achieve health and well-being for themselves and their children. accessed March 2006. Eritrea. Middle East and North Africa: Bahrain. Panama.15 The consequences of being excluded from owning property or assets can be even more direct. Countries in transition: Bulgaria.women’s per capita average earned income – measured by applying women’s share of nonagricultural wages to gross domestic product – is far lower than men’s (see Figure 3. France. LABORSTA database. they also tend to own fewer assets. Source: International Labour Organization. Czech Republic. Egypt. One example of this negative externality is the mother-daughter substitute effect. and in the absence of adequate social support systems.org>. Colombia. income in the hands of women can reap benefits for children. such as health care. Croatia. Smaller salaries and less control over household income constrain their ability to accumulate capital. can decrease or limit the resources available to meet children’s rights.2 Nominal wages for women are significantly lower than for men* 4 countries in the Middle East and North Africa 6 countries in East Asia and Pacific 22 industrialized countries 10 countries in transition 8 countries in Latin America and Caribbean 4 countries in sub-Saharan Africa 81 80 80 76 73 70 0 20 40 60 80 100 Proportion of women’s wages to men’s wages outside of agriculture * UNICEF calculations for Developing countries include countries and territories in the following regional groups. Singapore. East Asia and industrialized countries. Luxembourg. Gender biases in property and inheritance laws and in other channels of acquiring assets – even state land distribution programmes – leave women and children at greater risk of poverty.14 This highlights the importance of the role played by both parents in caring for children. The asset gap Women not only earn less than men. assume the domestic responsibilities. page 41). Lithuania. East Asia and Pacific: Malaysia. Turkey. 50 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa and around 60 per cent in CEE/CIS. Gender gaps in earnings. Mexico. Estimates based on wage differentials and participation in the labour force suggest that women’s estimated earned income is around 30 per cent of men’s in the countries surveyed in the Middle East and North Africa. Kazakhstan.ilo. With both parents working outside the home. or divorced women who are driven from the husband’s home. Swaziland. Cyprus. Paraguay. Netherlands. Peru. El Salvador. Georgia. therefore. children’s rights to education. Ukraine. rest and leisure. Widows who upon their husband’s death lose the right to their ownership of the family home or land. Iceland. Portugal. Malta. As mothers take on paid work outside the home. Kenya.

women face similar inequalities. their expanded participation is not always matched by an improvement in children’s welfare. the evidence available suggests that the pattern of discrimination is broadly similar across the developing world. The universally recognized rights of children to play. with negative implications for their well-being and future economic status. New York.4. Increasing female employment in Peru has resulted in children. Oxford University Press for UNDP. particularly girls. as more mothers work outside the home.Do girls risk missing out on school when women work? Although increasing numbers of women are entering the workforce. For example. Table 25. in Cameroon. See References. aunts and grandmothers. dedicating more time to household activities. Source: United Nations Development Programme. who often become the primary caregivers of young children in rural areas. The need for substitute caregivers while mothers are at work places many children – most often girls – at risk of being kept out of or dropping out of school in order to care for younger siblings or perform household work. Human Development Report 2005: International cooperation at a cross roads: Aid. pages 299-302. measured in thousands of US dollars at 2003 prices adjusted for purchasing power parity 57% of men’s earnings 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Women’s estimated earned income Men’s estimated earned income 59% of men’s earnings 40% of men’s earnings 62% of men’s earnings 28% of men’s earnings 39% of men’s earnings Industrialized countries CEE/CIS Latin America and Caribbean East Asia and Pacific Middle East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa *Estimated earnings are defined as gross domestic product per capita (measured in US dollars at 2003 prices adjusted for purchasing power parity) adjusted for wage disparities between men and women. Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania indicates that a lack of childcare facilities forces parents to take their children to work or pass on childcare responsibilities to their elder siblings. page 88. while Figure 3. trade and security in an unequal world. the increased need for childcare is met by older children. Similarly. Although there are even fewer statistics on gender asset gaps than on wage disparities. to receive an education and to be cared for by both parents are at risk. 2005. A study covering five Latin American countries indicates that women own only a fraction of the land compared with men (see Figure 3. or both. page 42). A recent survey in Nepal shows that eldest daughters tend to be at greatest risk of being withdrawn from school to help their working mothers take care of younger siblings and to assume household responsibilities. in countries in South-East Asia. Evidence of these trends is consistent across many developing countries.3 Estimated earnings* for women are substantially lower than for men 40 Estimated earnings each year. EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT 51% of men’s earnings 41 .17 In other regions where data are available.

enhances their political awareness and reduces instances of domestic violence. showing that providing women with specific resources such as high-yielding vegetable seeds and polyculture fish technology in fish ponds leased to groups of low-income women has a greater impact on poverty reduction than untargeted technology dissemination.20 The benefits of ownership can also extend beyond household bargaining dynamics.Taking Action: Achieving gender equality and empowering women. Caren. London/Virginia.21 An earlier study on women farmers in Kenya revealed that crop yields could be increased by 24 per cent if all women farmers were to receive a primary education. A study by the International Food Policy Research Institute suggests that if gender inequalities were reduced in Burkina Faso.23 Empowering women through other types of investment can also have positive effects on economic growth and poverty reduction.24 Where women work matters for children Female participation in the workforce can be beneficial to children. Research indicates that providing women with skills training and access to new technologies gives them greater mobility and increases their control over resources. when women’s shares of pre-wedding assets are higher than their husbands’. 2005. despite having the right to inherit land in most villages. in rural Bangladeshi households. because it often results Figure 3. Totals may not add up to 100 per cent due to rounding. Geeta Rao Gupta and Aslihan Kes. Nigeria. page 78. Comparable disparities have been identified in Kenya. Giving women greater control over land and farm planning and management can enhance agricultural productivity. Earthscan. their influence in household decisions is greater and levels of sickness among their daughters decrease.women undertake more than 75 per cent of agricultural work they own less than 10 per cent of the land.22 Another study in Bangladesh reached a similar conclusion. research reveals that women owned less than 3 per cent of plots in sampled villages. agricultural pro- ductivity could rise by as much as 20 per cent. which is more likely to benefit men and more affluent households.19 Where women own assets they have more control over household decision-making. with positive implications for productivity and growth. particularly in agriculture.4 Significant male-female gaps in land ownership in Latin America 100 89 80 78 81 Land owned by women Land owned by men Land jointly titled between women and men 74 70 Per cent 60 40 27 16 4 0 Brazil (2000) Mexico (2002) Nicaragua (1995) 20 11 22 13 3 Paraguay (2001) Peru (2000) 13 Note: No data were available for land jointly titled between women and men in Brazil and Mexico. Source: Grown. 42 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . and men and women farmers given equal access to quality agricultural inputs and education. For example. UN Millennium Project Taskforce on Education and Gender Equality. the United Republic of Tanzania and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa.18 In Pakistan.

the conditions under which they are employed and who controls the income they generate determine how their employment affects their own well-being and that of their children. long hours and unscheduled overtime. the majority of women workers outside agriculture are concentrated in the informal sector. The lack of job security and benefits such as paid sick leave and childcare provisions can leave women and their children at a higher risk of poverty. economic resources. underpaid and inflexible informal work. there has been a parallel increase in informal and non-standard forms of employment. Women are less likely than men to enjoy job security. engaged in time-intensive. where women’s participation in the informal sector is 43 per cent. sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of informally employed women (84 per cent). But paid employment for women does not automatically lead to better outcomes for children.5.25 By its very nature. non-formal organizational structures and diverse modes of operation involved. industrial outworkers or unpaid workers in family enterprises. working in positions with low earnings. Factors such as the amount of time women spend working outside the household. Of the developing regions. and control of.27 Individual developing countries show wide variation across regions (see Figure 3. and have little control over their earnings and few alternative caregivers. informal work is less visible in national statistics due to the lack of system- atic reporting. children are significantly more at risk of poor health and growth. As growing numbers of women join the labour force. 60 per cent or more of women engaged in non-agricultural work activities are in informal employment. little financial security and few or no social benefits.in women gaining greater access to. Collecting accurate and comprehensive information on the informal sector remains problematic because of the wide-ranging nature of activities. The exception is North Africa. page 44). In developing countries. domestic workers. They are more likely than men to be own-account workers.28 When mothers are poor. Women’s informal employment and its impact on children The increased participation of women in the labour force has not always been matched by an equivalent improvement in their working conditions or job security. Women working in the informal sector often face difficult working conditions.26 In nearly all developing regions.29 Such conditions are prevalent in many areas of both informal employment and low-income EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT © UNICEF/HQ05-1213/Roger LeMoyne 43 .

a new model is prevalent in many countries. in 52 per cent of households in which there are young children. such as the high-income OECD countries. 44 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . all adults between the ages of 25 and 55 are working.work in the formal sector. 2002. for example. Geneva. around half of working mothers with a child aged six or younger work part-time. One particular area that has received increasing scrutiny in recent years is domestic service. Many women in high.37 Figure 3. Source: Employment Sector. most of them informally employed. Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A statistical picture.36 These temporary absences from full-time employment can result in lower pay or fewer promotions.32 In the Russian Federation. two out of every three families are currently double-income families.31 In the United Kingdom and the United States. where both men and women engage in paid employment. in general women are still expected to take on the majority of the housework and childcare. When mothers who work in domestic service take on childcare responsibilities for the employer’s family. and in the absence of greater participation by men in both domestic chores and childcare. International Labour Office. positions that require long working hours.35 In the European Union. 1994–2000* (%) 100 86 80 83 77 69 60 67 58 55 40 39 20 0 India Kenya Indonesia El Salvador Brazil South Africa Mexico Tunisia * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. page 19. Women make up the majority of domestic workers.30 A childcare crisis in the formal sector The increasing participation of women in the labour force is challenging the traditional breadwinner-homemaker model of paid work by men and unpaid work by women. travel or even relocation may be less of an option for mothers in paid employment because of their family commitments. As a result. International Labour Organization. In its place. this often results in a conundrum: The day-to-day security of the employer’s children is dependent on an employee who has to be away from her own children in order to work. The corresponding figure for Viet Nam is 88 per cent.34 Women working in the formal sector are more likely to have shorter careers than men of equivalent age because there may be periods during their careers when they are unable to engage in full-time employment. In addition. it is becoming increasingly difficult for working mothers to reconcile work and family responsibilities.and middle-income countries tend either to leave their jobs or work parttime to raise children – typically between the ages of 25 and 35 – and return to full-time employment at a later stage. transition economies and the rapidly growing nations of East Asia.33 But even as this new model of household income generation steadily takes root.5 Many women across the developing world work in the informal sector Women’s informal employment as a percentage of women’s non-agricultural employment.

cognitive skills and alertness and exhibit fewer behavioural problems than children who receive low-quality care. show that grandmothers. quality. one child could lead to a ‘penalty’ of 6 per cent to 7 per cent of earnings for women. Working parents and employers agree that work-schedule flexibility reduces the conflict between work and family life. Research indicates that mothers in paid employment tend to earn even less than other women.41 More than two thirds of the low-income parents interviewed in a recent study in the United States reported having at least one child with either a chronic health issue or a special learning need. where subsidized out-of-home childcare raises maternal and household incomes and brings mothers into the labour market. This also holds true for the Russian Federation. where municipalities provide public childcare nurseries and centres. page 8) – have managed to attain and sustain elevated levels of high-quality. Employers are required to contribute one sixth of the cost of childcare per employee. in full. childbearing and childcare can interrupt women’s careers and permanently constrain their earning power. maternity benefits.48 In many industrialized countries. One example is Sweden. Brazil. The demands of work also often leave parents with less time to spend with their children. In others. as well as publicly paid and regulated care for children in private homes and subsidized private childcare centres with fees based on income.39 working families are often struggling to balance the demands of work and childcare. and that they were often unable to devote quality time to their children without jeopardizing their ability to support their families. In Kenya.46 Some countries – notably those Scandinavian nations with high levels of gender equality as measured by the GEM (see Chapter 1.50 EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT 45 .47 In the Netherlands. Indonesia. childcare arrangements and work-share schemes (see Panel. quality childcare outside the home increases the probability that mothers will enter the labour force. yet many employers do not regard work-schedule flexibility to be an option for low-wage workers. The government provides subsidies directly to parents. affordable childcare. the reduction of childcare costs has been shown to have a positive correlation with higher wages for working mothers.42 These difficulties are exacerbated by a lack of affordable. career breaks. employers and the government.38 Although research shows that quality parental care is an essential component of child development and that the early experiences of children have a significant impact on their future welfare. A study from the United Kingdom shows that parents there are working longer hours or are increasingly focused on work activities. the absence of state provisions or subsidies results in high-quality childcare remaining prohibitively expensive for low-income families.or part-time employment. who choose the day-care centre for their children. stable and stimulating environment and fosters their learning skills demonstrate stronger mathematical ability. flexible hours. Studies conducted in China and in West Java. large companies have introduced family-friendly initiatives including parental leave. access to public childcare facilities enables mothers to work outside the home. the penalty for two children can be as high as 13 per cent.45 The availability of affordable. for example.43 In many countries.40 Working long hours can be problematic for lower-income families.44 Parents often rely on extended family members to care for their children while they work. play an active role in childcare when mothers are away at work. the Childcare Act (which entered into force in January 2005) places responsibility for the cost of childcare jointly on parents. page 46). in particular. quality childcare is expensive even for middle-income families.49 Such initiatives can have substantial benefits for employers as well as employees. According to recent research in several industrialized countries. giving parents the opportunity to attend to their children’s health and educational needs. Children who receive high-quality childcare that provides a safe. In poor areas in Rio de Janeiro. while the local government monitors quality and regulates operators. childcare facilities.In the absence of policies to support working mothers.

allocates funds for the family-related needs of its employees. Aided by the right to reduce their working hours until children go to school. The lack of systematic reporting hampers measurement of the effectiveness of family-friendly policies (i. Finland. it also engenders new vulnerabilities for individuals and families. These include flexible working hours. a leading Australian wealth-management corporation. in others paid leave is restricted to the periods immediately before and after childbirth. working mothers continue to be the primary caregivers for their children. In Sweden.. 35 per cent of labour agreements in large firms and 8 per cent in small firms include at least one familyfriendly policy. almost half the mothers in dual-earner families in Sweden work less than 35 hours per week. parental leave. Some companies have begun implementing family-friendly initiatives.e. and have increased the likelihood that mothers return to work after maternity leave. such as purchase of baby carriages. are composed of a broad range of initiatives. in the absence of such support. mainly through increasing staff return after maternity leave. of whom roughly half are women. Family-friendly initiatives can be beneficial to both businesses and employees. While in some countries parents may take up to three years of leave with some financial compensation. page 88. children’s clothing or hearing aids for elderly relatives. and typically benefits higher-paid workers. Sweden and the United Kingdom shows that companies that have introduced family-friendly measures experience significant reductions in staff turnover. Family-friendly provisions are by no means uniform across industrialized countries. In Scandinavian countries. further research shows that family-friendly policies are more likely to offer parental leave or childcare subsidies. and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing the following year. AMP. The rationale for this increasing interest was the recognition that dual-working parents require special support and that. telecommuting or working at home. While seemingly positive. Research conducted in Canada. out of the labour force. or both. to highly paid employees rather than those with lower salaries. recruitment and training costs and absenteeism. However. Yet. two challenges remain even in the presence of family-friendly workplaces. working mothers in particular. as migration sometimes forces parents to leave their chil- The impact of family-friendly workplaces in industrialized countries Following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. It is estimated that companies can generate a return of around 8 per cent by adopting family-friendly policies. working families are allowed 12 months of paid parental leave. for example. the German automobile manufacturer. experience career interruptions and suffer from the double burden of working within and outside the household throughout their lives. In several industrialized countries. In Australia. BMW. how well they achieve a balance between work and family life). 46 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . medical care for sick children and childcare provisions. in particular for working women with young children. In the absence of childcare provisions. while some countries encourage fathers to take temporary leave to care for their newborns. to be divided between parents as they desire. state and private support for working families. gender equality in the workplace cannot be achieved. the family-friendly policy model frequently excludes lowskilled and low-wage workers. part-time work may also help reconcile work and family life. estimates that making its workplace more family-friendly has achieved as much as a 400 per cent return on investment.51 While women’s migration could potentially be beneficial.The impact on children of women migrating for work Around the world there are between 185 million and 192 million migrants living outside their country of birth. most countries continue to accept a traditional gender division of labour in which women stay at home. the ensuing decade saw the launch of many family-related initiatives focusing on gender equality and work-family reconciliation. First. Second. low compensation and a lack of childcare facilities. The company also provides facilities and financial support for childcare. provided that only one parent is on leave at any given time. in addition to flexible working hours.52 One such risk is separation. Such policies are particularly needed by low-wage working mothers who struggle with poor working conditions. See References. employment-protected leave with relatively high compensation rates is an integral part of a family-friendly policy model.

may be reluctant to register their children for fear of deportation. for example. physical or sexual abuse. Refugee and internally displaced children face particular threats.65 When migrants have children in foreign countries they may also face discrimination in passing their nationality on to their children.68 While all but a handful of countries have endorsed CEDAW – albeit some with reservations – much more can be done to ensure discrimination does not exclude women from opportunities to work productively. Mexico and the Philippines suggests that children whose parents have migrated can suffer negative psychological effects. In the Philippines.67 However. compared with non-migrants. health. the Jordanian Government endorsed the Special Unified Working Contract for non-Jordanian domestic workers. lose their homes and find themselves living in poor conditions with grave risks to their health and education.62 They may be separated from their families. suggests that. the children of migrants might not be a particularly disadvantaged group in terms of income or access to basic services such as health care and education. With a greater likelihood of entering into low-status jobs. the significant implications for children still receive little focus and research.55 Migration may improve women’s self-esteem and status as they are able to assume a key role as providers by sending remittances home to their families and communities. This is because migration is generally an effective way for households to alleviate poverty. marriage and the family. such as domestic service. employment. the migration of one or both parents can have negative effects on children. migrant women often face human rights violations. lonely and afraid.59 In the Philippines. the risks of abuse and trafficking increase when relatives and friends gain custody of children left behind – risks particularly emphasized in studies conducted in Albania and the Republic of Moldova.56 Several academic studies have found an increase in school attendance and an improvement in children’s access to health-care services in households with parents working abroad. the children of migrant mothers reported feeling angry.61 ‘Involuntary migration’ also poses especially high risks to children. as required by article 18 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.63 Migrant women and girls are uniquely vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. an estimated 3 million to 6 million children (10 per cent to 20 per cent of all under-18s) have been left by parents working overseas. The Philippines and Sri Lanka require that departing workers register with the government. Italy’s immigration law provides a number of protections for migrants and their families.66 A number of countries have made positive efforts to address migration and its effects on women and their families.57 Although remittances sent by migrant workers can bolster household income.54 Remittances sent by parents who have migrated are often an important source of income for the families left behind. The workplace must be transformed to recognize the role that both parents play in child rearing. while migration is moving up the development agenda. or. Challenging attitudes towards women and work The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women guarantees women’s equality before the law and establishes specific measures to eradicate discrimination against women in all areas of their lives. including those related to education. Social policies and programmes should be promoted to enable women and men to reconcile their work and EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT 47 . if they are undocumented.58 Research from Ecuador. along with research on Indonesia and Thailand. jeopardizing their development and well-being. and because extended families help fill the gap left by absent parents.53 Evidence from the Philippines.60 In other countries. In 2003.64 An International Labour Organization study reports that half of foreign female domestic workers interviewed said they were or had been victims of verbal.dren behind.

abuse and exploitation. Working in the privacy of individual homes. at ages eight or nine. including the right to an education. In Egypt. addressing underlying factors including sectoral and occupational segregation. for example. Several strategies have proved to be effective in increasing girls’ school enrolment in primary and secondary school. girls are expected to do the majority of work in the home. child and adult domestic workers are often invisible to the outside world and thus particularly vulnerable to violence. page 88. There is a close correlation between gender and the reasons for trafficking. Gender-sensitive programmes and policies that combat and prevent child labour are essential to fulfilling the rights of boys and girls. As a result. paid or unpaid. As a result of adherence to traditional gender roles. and lack of education and training. programmes and policies. with more girls employed in this sector than in any other form of work. In some countries. especially in the rural areas where most working children are found. However. In India. The vital role of education: One of the most important strategies for ensuring that boys and girls will have equal income-earning opportunities as adults is to give them equal access to education. many girls are denied their right to an education or may suffer the triple burden of housework. many mothers encourage their daughters to start working as domestics. In Ghana. parents send their daughters to work in domestic service because they see it as good preparation for marriage.family responsibilities and encourage men to take on an equal share of domestic chores and childcare. Domestic work is among the least regulated of all occupations. Research indicates that worldwide. exploitation and abuse. a healthy childhood. more than 90 per cent of child domestic workers are girls. including the elimination of school fees. Governments. almost twice as many girls as boys perform domestic chores. for example. domestic service is the main economic activity for girls younger than 16. See References. In the Dominican Republic. the situation is reversed. In many countries in East and SouthEast Asia. parents and inter- Child labour: Are girls affected differently from boys? Gender is a crucial determinant of whether a child engages in labour. Domestic labour becomes even more hazardous when children are trafficked into another town or country to take up service. girls are expected to care for their siblings as well as complete household tasks. The majority of the children engaged in domestic service – over 90 per cent according to studies conducted in the 1990s – are girls. A brief synopsis of some of these measures is presented below. Paid domestic service is often seen as a particularly suitable form of employment for girls. especially when they do not speak the local language. for example. 48 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . while twice as many boys as girls are engaged in child labour.69 It is also important to implement policies aimed at altering stereotypical attitudes towards women at work. eliminating school fees is only one of several measures required to ensure gender parity in education. Parents are often reluctant to send their girl children to school because educating them is not viewed as a good investment as they will soon marry and leave home. in Nepal. While child labour is an infringement of the rights of all children – boys and girls alike – girls often start working at an earlier age than boys. This is particularly true in Latin America. the majority of child domestic workers are boys. The different experiences of girls and boys make it important to integrate gender concerns into child labour research. with girls being trafficked mainly for domestic service and commercial sexual exploitation. Girls also tend to do more work in the home than boys. and rest and recreation. advocacy. schoolwork and work outside the home.70 Chapter 5 addresses the concrete actions and initiatives required to help eradicate gender discrimination in employment. where girls are traditionally seen as homemakers. young girls will often accompany their mothers as they undertake domestic work and. In Guatemala. be hired as domestic workers themselves. Research that reflects gender disparities will provide a more solid basis for actions aimed at reducing child labour. protection from violence.

Budget initiatives aimed at eliminating gender disparities focus on national. • Ensuring that schools have separate latrines for girls. it helps governments decide how policies should be adjusted.72 The role of government in supporting working families: Governments should undertake legislative. • Encouraging parents and community leaders to be actively involved in school management. This mechanism analyses the impact of government expenditure and revenue on women and girls compared to men and boys. administrative and financial measures to create a strong and enabling environment for women’s entrepreneurship and participation in the labour market. It neither requires separate budgets for women.national donors must work together to ensure that schools are ‘girl-friendly’ through several measures: • Encouraging local school authorities and teachers to adopt flexible scheduling. high-quality childcare arrangements. including: • Improved employment conditions. and where resources need to be reallocated to address poverty and gender inequalities.71 In addition. EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT 49 .73 A further step towards ensuring women’s rights. provincial and municipal processes and may cover the overall budget or only selected parts of it.74 The need for better data and analysis: Although there are sufficient data to show that women tend to work more and earn less than men. Eliminating gender disparities in legislation: Critical measures to eliminate gender discrimination in women’s land and property rights must include. it is important to emphasize that school curricula help students understand the importance of gender equality. Instead. families and entire economies. • Providing safe. • Building schools close to girls’ homes. affordable. • Allowing married adolescents and unmarried parents to attend classes. • Reforming land and property rights to eliminate discrimination against women. page 74). • Creating career development opportunities. children. • Eliminating pay gaps based solely on gender. They can be carried out within government by the Ministry of Finance in conjunction with the Ministry of Women’s Affairs or other branches of government related to social welfare. • Involving international agencies and nongovernmental organizations in efforts to track and expose violations of women’s property rights and in monitoring government compliance with international human rights treaties. greater public transparency and economic efficiency is the increasing use of gender-responsive budgets (see Chapter 5. or by non-governmental organizations and independent researchers. nor does it aim to solely increase spending on women-specific programmes. but should not be limited to: • Bringing national legislation in line with international human rights standards. Better data on employment and income disaggregated by sex could significantly improve the analysis underlying policies and programmes – with benefits to women. a lack of sex-disaggregated labour statistics precludes a more detailed analysis of the disparities. • Making school facilities safe from genderbased violence.

Many of the pernicious effects of gender discrimination. Their influence is not just being felt in stronger legislation for children and women. While governments and other political actors appear content to encourage engagement between women’s groups that often cut across conflict lines. children and families. . Gender initiatives also need the involvement and support of men. empower women and fulfil children’s rights. Their involvement in governing bodies at the national and local levels leads to policies and legislation that are focused on women. continue to hinder their participation in politics. sponsoring legislation and fostering tangible changes in policy outcomes that reflect the rights. • Increasing women’s participation in politics is vital to promote gender equality. • A growing body of evidence suggests that women in politics have been especially effective advocates for children at all levels. from lower levels of education to prevailing social attitudes that challenge women’s competence as decision makers. at best. experiences and contributions of women. Empowering women in the political arena has the potential to change societies. especially male parliamentarians and political leaders. and women encouraged and supported by political parties to stand for office. and in some countries. Yet women’s role in most peace processes remains. particularly in the distribution of community resources and in promoting provisions for childcare. priorities. The remaining formal entry barriers must be dismantled. children and families. women rarely make it to peace table. they remain underrepresented in almost all national legislatures – accounting for just under 17 per cent of parliamentarians worldwide. as well as women’s greater work burden. • Though women’s parliamentary representation has steadily increased in the past decade. women in politics and government are helping change the political environment.SUMMARY Women’s political participation is a Millennium objective in its own right. Better data and research are required to fully assess the impact of women legislators on policies related to children. Legislative quotas are also gaining increasing recognition as a potentially effective vehicle for bolstering women’s representation in local government. • Women’s participation in peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction is vital to ensure the safety and protection of children and other vulnerable populations. • Despite limited participation in national and local politics and in post-conflict reconstruction. informal. they are also helping decision-making bodies become more democratic and gender-sensitive. • The participation of women in local politics can have an immediate impact on outcomes for women and children. at the national level as well.

Third. and on child-related outcomes in particular. Evidence from India shows that women’s participation in local politics can significantly tilt the distribution of community resources in favour of women and children. A growing body of evidence suggests that women in politics have been especially effective advocates for children at the national and local levels. There is an increasing recognition that 51 . powerful advocates for children remain unheard.1 Advocating for women. those cases where there is both a significant level of female political representation and a sufficient amount of data to assess its impact point to an unequivocal conclusion: Women in politics are making a difference in at least three important arenas – national legislatures. local government and post-conflict reconstruction. children and families. Second. As this chapter will attest. their involvement in politics also fosters direct and tangible changes in policy outcomes that reflect the priorities. A better representation of women in parliament can make legislatures more gender. however. At current annual rates of growth in the proportion of women members of national parliaments – about 0. and they have been in public life for too short a time. The presence of women leaders in local politics often serves to focus greater attention on issues related to women and children. experiences and contributions of women. development and protection.2 • Peace processes and post-conflict reconstruction. assessing the impact of women’s participation in politics in general. Women’s participation in politics. gender parity in politics at all levels is still a long way off. • Local politics. The advocates who speak on their behalf – if there is anyone at all to do so – can make a vast difference to the fulfilment of children’s rights to survival. Although women’s parliamentary representation has steadily increased over the past decade. Despite these constraints.and child-sensitive and can influence legislation and policies that address the rights of both groups. they represent relative rather than absolute measures of influence. They are equally powerful advocates when represented in peace processes and postconflict reconstruction. but they have little power to shape them. there is the challenge of indicators: What is an adequate measure to gauge a legislator’s impact? While bill sponsorship. in many countries there are still far too few women in politics. When women lack a voice in politics.T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 Equality in politics and government 4 C © UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras hildren have a powerful stake in political outcomes. voting patterns and political seniority are all significant.5 per cent worldwide – gender parity in national legislatures will not be achieved until 2068. children and families For several reasons. is a complex and challenging task. Unable to vote or directly represent their own interests in governing bodies. the behaviour of all parliamentarians is still an emerging area of investigation in political science. Women’s participation in politics can significantly transform the governance of a country by making it more receptive to the concerns of all of its citizens. remains limited. their ability to influence policy is limited. First. for their impact to be meaningfully assessed. • National politics.

A pioneering study of women legislators in Latin America found that in the 1993–1994 parliament.7 Other Latin American countries display similar tendencies. together with reforms of the national penal code that toughened penalties for those convicted of sexual assault against children and the disabled. despite representing only 14 per cent of deputies. A recent examination of New Zealand’s parliamentary debates on childcare and parental leave over a 25-year period (1975–1999) revealed similar tendencies on the part of women legislators (see Figure 4.3 Case studies examining lawmakers’ patterns of bill sponsorship and legislative outcomes across a range of industrialized countries confirm a strong commitment by women legislators to issues related to children. Women in national politics Promoting the interests of children and women Research on the priorities of women parliamentarians comes mostly from industrialized countries. women legislators helped pass the Law on the Integral Protection of the Rights of Children and Adolescents. is that many of the issues of particular relevance and importance to women and children might not reach parliamentary agendas without the strong backing of women legislators. In 1999.6 Recent evidence suggests that this pattern of behaviour held true over the subsequent decade. some certainly do not. and incorporate genderequitable policies at all levels of the State. page 53). the Russian Federation and Rwanda. Argentina’s women parliamentarians introduced no fewer than 78 per cent of the bills related to women’s rights. an examination of the role of women legislators in the 1995–1999 Duma (parliament) shows that they were able to set aside ideological and party differences to promote legislation benefiting children and families. where there has been greater scrutiny of legislative behaviour than in developing countries. Sweden.5 per cent more likely to sponsor children and family bills than their male counterparts. women legislators in Argentina played a critical role in ensuring the passage of a law that modified the country’s penal code to explicitly define sexual crimes against women and children and toughened the penalties for such egregious acts. in the 2004–2005 parliament.5 Furthermore.11 In the case of the Russian Federation. In 2003. South Africa.10 Parliamentary advocacy on behalf of children and families can also bridge party and ideological lines. The laws carry wide-ranging provisions to promote and guarantee the rights of girls and women. women and families. In 1999. This commitment translates into both active sponsorship of legislation in these areas and to ensuring that the bills become law. What the following studies indicate.8 This pattern of advocacy by women legislators on behalf of women and children is also found in industrialized countries. A number of studies have expanded this area of enquiry to developing countries. years later. the Netherlands. France. Several 52 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . remove obstacles to the exercise of their rights.the contribution of women is critical both to the long-term success of peace processes and to post-conflict stability. women deputies in Argentina were 9. women senators in Colombia helped promote groundbreaking equal opportunity legislation. The proposed measures favoured childcare and child support. benefits to citizens with children. women deputies in Costa Rica initiated and helped pass the Law against Sexual Exploitation of Minors. however. with similar findings. a forthcoming analysis of more than 3 million words of text from the plenary debates of the National Assembly of Wales also finds important differences between the willingness of female and male legislators to engage in debate about childcare.1. Countries where cross-party alliances of women parliamentarians have successfully advanced the cause of women and children include Egypt.9 In the United Kingdom.4 It would be a mistake to assume on the basis of these results that every woman legislator actively advocates on behalf of women and children.

which provides protection against rape to young girls and boys.12 Initiatives to promote children’s rights often accompany efforts to advance the rights of women. women lawmakers supported groundbreaking legislation dealing with domestic and sexual violence. 1997. One such example occurred in Rwanda. 4. not allowing women to own land had a negative impact on such issues as food production and security. p. but part of a trend that has been apparent in other countries in the region for several years.14 In neighbouring Namibia. Parliamentary Affairs. 25. The new legislation established women’s right to inherit land for the first time. penalties for domestic violence. no. settlement patterns and the livelihood of families and children left behind.1 Bill sponsorship in Argentina and New Zealand Women in parliament were more likely to support children’s and women’s rights Argentina: Introducing bills related to women’s rights. the data were for the period 1987-1992. In 2006. In South Africa. Mark P. 6. In addition to being a violation of their rights. 55. Sandra. the exclusion of women from land ownership became a critical issue. 1.13 This activism on the part of women legislators in Rwanda is not an isolated phenomenon. Women legislators in Rwanda also actively advocated for increased spending on health and education. where in 1999 women parliamentarians played a critical role in the passage of a law strengthening women’s rights.15 Changing the face of politics Women in parliament are not only having an impact on legislation. defines the different forms of domestic violence and explains how children can get a protection order against their abusers. the environment. such as the Combating of Rape Act of 2000. vol. women parliamentarians provided significant support for the 1998 Domestic Violence Act. The proposed legislation will define gender-based violence and address crimes committed during the genocide as well as ongoing violations.. 1993–1994 100 90 80 70 78 66 New Zealand: Initiating debates on childcare and parental leave. pages 613-629. a cross-party cau- cus formed in 2003. vol. Policy Studies Journal. The act makes specific references to children. worked on and supported a bill to combat gender-based violence. Their influence extends beyond their immediate actions and is encour- Figure 4. EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 53 .pregnancy benefits and leave. and the Domestic Violence Act of 2003. ‘Legislator Gender and Legislator Policy Priorities in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies and the United States House of Representatives’. and for special support for children with disabilities. the Forum of Women Parliamentarians. ‘Does Size Matter? Critical mass and New Zealand’s women MPs’. 1987–1992 Per cent 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 14 15 % of women in parliament % of bills initiated by women legislators related to women’s rights % of women in parliament % of debates initiated by women legislators on childcare and parental leave Source: UNICEF calculations for women’s parliamentary representation and patterns of bill sponsorship in Argentina are based on Jones. reduced taxes for families with many children. In the wake of the Rwandan genocide. which destroyed and scattered families. no. UNICEF calculations for women’s parliamentary representation and patterns of bill sponsorship in New Zealand are based on Grey. and equal rights for men and women with families. Although the study covered the period 1975-1999. January 2002.

• Higher participation in education: Those women who run for office successfully. A study of legislators in the United States. their interest in running for office increases. or to have discussed running with potential donors. and almost 9 out of every 10 considered that women’s participation in the political process significantly changed political outcomes. as opposed to the more ‘conventional’ path of party politics often embraced by men. in most countries. the respondents consistently portrayed women as having different priorities from men. especially in developing countries. More than 90 per cent agreed that women’s greater participation would bring about change. such as drinking. In the United States. both political and financial networks are controlled by men. Women face an uphill struggle to win over public opinion. This finding accurately reflects a wellestablished tendency among women to engage in civil society as a way of promoting projects that support household survival. almost one third of women who vote thought a woman would better represent their interests. women’s work burdens are generally much heavier than men’s. 54 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . • Double burden of public and private responsibilities: As the preceding chapters have shown. found that women feel a special responsibility to represent other women and consider themselves more capable of representing their interests. Four out of every five respondents believed that women held conceptually different ideas about society and politics. In Northern Ireland. In the IPU survey. While important changes have been taking place over the past few decades. including children and the elderly. • A culture of exclusion: In many countries. leaving less time and energy for involvement in political life. 40 per cent of the respondents stated that they had entered politics as a result of their interests in social work and 34 per cent through non-governmental organizations. Women are unlikely to run for political office. for example. both in order to retain a structure they are familiar with and because they are more likely to know the male candidates personally. evidence shows that as women’s responsibilities for household tasks and caregiving decrease. An alternative perspective In an extensive survey of 187 women parliamentarians from 65 countries conducted by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in 1999. for example. A study in Thailand found that men typically dominate recruitment committees and tend to bypass women candidates. for example. societies and communities. There are very few statistics about how many women run but fail to get elected. men are at least 50 per cent more likely to have investigated how to place their name on the ballot. women still bear the main caregiving responsibilities for their families. Women are more likely to see themselves as representatives of women. tend to be educated to tertiary level at least. In the United States. party or community leaders. But several common threads are outlined below. Three reasons women politicians are likely to approach politics differently Women’s motivation for entering politics is often different from that of men. are key stepping stones on the path to political office.Women and politics: Realities and myths Should one expect the involvement of women parliamentarians to lead to different policy outcomes? The reasons one can assume women might act from a different perspective than their male counterparts are practical rather than theoretical. Cultural practices that serve to nurture and consolidate bonds of male solidarity within these networks. Out of the 187 women from 65 countries surveyed by the IPU in 1999. Women are often exposed to different patterns of socialization and Why are there still so few women in politics? Given their potential contribution to the political process. and to focus their energies at the local level. 73 per cent held an undergraduate degree and 14 per cent also held graduate degrees. family members or friends. existing studies indicate that women are less likely than men to run for office. an obvious question arises: Why then are there still so few women participating in politics? The answer is multifaceted and differs across countries. The lack of women educated to tertiary levels in many countries can therefore act as a barrier to their participation in politics and government. have different life experiences than men and are likely to bring their experience and expertise to bear on their political decisions. While exact numbers are difficult to come by. smoking or golfing.

org>. There is little data available on whether women leave office more than men due to voter hostility or outright violence sometimes directed against women who are in office (or try to run for office). Perhaps unsurprisingly. women and families. accessed June 2006. Myth 1: Every woman will make a difference for women and for children. United Republic of Tanzania. 77 59 58 60 80 100 Voter perceptions. On average. abound. Because such myths rely on unrealistic assumptions about women and politics. Women leave politics. for example. India. with three quarters sharing that view in the Middle East and North Africa. in some instances. In Afghanistan. villagers were not only less satisfied with their leadership but also blamed them for the inadequate quality of services outside of their jurisdiction. women candidates in the 2005 election were subject to violence and. Egypt. Republic of Korea. about half of the pradhans said they would not run again. Women legislators are accountable to constituencies that represent a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. Sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria. See References. respectively).5 per cent and 1 per cent. however. on the whole. revealed that even though women delivered an amount of public goods to their villages that was equal to or higher than that of their male counterparts. class or other differences. Nonetheless.2 In most of the countries surveyed.worldvaluessurvey. they are members of political parties and sometimes have to follow party discipline at the expense of their own policy preferences. and may often find themselves divided by ideological. Pakistan. South Africa. South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa agreed or strongly agreed that men make better political leaders than women. However. youth and social affairs or women’s affairs and education. children. both positive and negative. East Asia and Pacific: China. Source: World Values Survey. can offer an instructive indication. Women pradhans (leaders) in West Bengal. more than half the people surveyed in East Asia and the Pacific. South Asia: Bangladesh. Two such myths are discussed below. a majority of the public agrees or strongly agrees that men make better political leaders than women 7 countries in the Middle East and North Africa 4 countries in sub-Saharan Africa 3 countries in South Asia 6 countries in East Asia and Pacific 5 countries in Latin America and Caribbean 0 20 55 35 40 Per cent UNICEF calculations are based on data derived from the World Values Survey. evidence strongly suggests that.Figure 4. The following countries and territories are included in the regional aggregates cited: Middle East and North Africa: Algeria. they can easily perpetuate stereotypes and discrimination. the evidence is more positive. Islamic Republic of Iran. Round 4 (1991-2004). Data for each country and territory in the regional aggregates are for the latest year available in the period specified. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Morocco. is striking. regional. Myths about women in politics Myths about women in politics. Peru. Furthermore. page 88. and over 80 per cent in Thailand think that a woman could be a good prime minister. Saudi Arabia. A 2005 IPU tally of ministerial portfolios held by women counted 858 women ministers in 183 countries. Just because a legislator is a woman does not mean she will automatically promote legislation that advances the interests of women and children. Chile. Viet Nam. <www. Philippines. India. Notes on the methodology employed can be found in the References section. Women in politics are individuals who can fall anywhere on a wide spectrum of personality and ideology. Mexico. page 88. women accounted for only 13 ministers of defence and 9 ministers of the economy worldwide (or 1. Uganda. While almost a third of all ministerial jobs held by women fell in the area of family. in other parts of the world. women parliamentarians are more likely than their male counterparts to use their political leverage to effect change in support of children. EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 55 . Iraq. Indonesia. Singapore. Jordan. The distribution of portfolios. Latin America and Caribbean: Argentina. death threats. however. Myth 2: Women are unsuited to the ‘hard’ jobs. Far fewer respondents share this view in Latin America and the Caribbean.

htm> accessed June 2006. are important partners in promoting gender equality. in many cases. Women are under-represented in all national parliaments and in July 2006 accounted for just under 17 per cent of parliamentarians worldwide. Research suggests that male legislators today are increasingly aware of the importance of issues related to women and families. based on interviews with parliamentarians.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif. but signs of progress Despite the fact that women are often among the most active political advocates for children. in the three Latin American countries cited above (Argentina. qualitative research. women and families. suggests that men’s interests in these issues are on the rise.16 Changes in legislative priorities have been accompanied by subtle but significant transformations of the parliamentary environment. the number of women in national parliaments remains low. and in more than 40 others women account for less than 10 per cent of legislators.aging changes in the priorities and policies of national legislators. parliaments in several countries – including South Africa and the United Kingdom – have amended their sitting hours to accommodate the schedules of women with family responsibilities.20 Figure 4. <http://www. 56 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . As a direct result of women entering legislatures in greater numbers. with women representing around 40 per cent of parliamentarians in the combined upper and lower chambers. Sweden’s parliament has established a day-care centre for legislators. and that increasing their participation in parliament is a key objective of the Millennium Development Goals (specifically MDG 3).17 In northern Europe.18 while in Scotland’s National Assembly. For example. Ten countries have no women parliamentarians. there is strong support among male legislators for both women’s issues (68 per cent) and family and children’s issues (66 per cent). with a regional average of less than 8 per cent. Two examples of such changes relate to parliamentary schedules and the availability of childcare facilities in national legislatures. Nordic countries have the highest rates of participation.”19 Few women in parliament. Colombia and Costa Rica). Arab States rank lowest. Although these figures are below the corresponding indicators among women legislators (94 per cent for women’s issues and 79 per cent for family and children issues).3 Women’s participation in national parliaments across regions Women parliamentarians as a percentage of all parliamentarians (%) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Nordic countries Americas Sub-Saharan Europe Africa (excluding Nordic countries) Asia Pacific Arab States 13 14 10 21 19 36 40 January 1997 May 2006 17 13 16 10 12 8 3 Source: Data are drawn from the Inter-Parliamentary Union database on ‘Women in National Parliaments’. a crèche was put in place for visiting constituents to “ensure that those with childcare responsibilities (usually women) can seek out and meet their representatives. and. including their male colleagues.

and among those governments that did include women. Women are heads of government in Bangladesh.21 The election of Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf as president of Liberia in 2005 and of Michelle Bachelet to the presidency of Chile in early 2006 marked important moments in the history of women’s political leadership in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. even where successful. women are less well represented than they are in parliament. has shown that changed gender attitudes. accounting for only 14. Spain and Sweden – had achieved gender parity in ministerial portfolios. to a large extent due to the introduction of quotas in an increasing number of countries. while in the latter the president is both chief of state and head of government). Finland. Mozambique. Germany.3 per cent of legislators. most had a token presence of around one to three women ministers. In Eastern Europe. respectively. encouraging trends. Beyond the numbers Women’s representation in national parliaments is certainly a critical measure of their political empowerment and of a country’s commitment to ensuring that powerful advocates for children can be heard. women held 858 portfolios in 183 countries. must be accompanied by adequate resources as well as the requisite skills.24 EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 57 . The levels of women’s representation in all three countries are examples of the successful introduction of quotas during their political transitions.3 per cent. As of January 2005.5 per cent and 25. only three countries – Chile. however. But numbers are merely a necessary benchmark and not a sufficient condition of women’s empowerment. Latvia became the first former Soviet Republic to choose a female president as chief of state in 1999. Burundi and Timor-Leste are also examples of post-conflict countries where women now account for a sizeable number of parliamentarians (30.23 Nineteen governments had no women ministers at all. Netherlands Antilles and the Republic of Korea. such as Afghanistan where women were once excluded from politics but now account for 27.There are. Ireland and the Philippines also currently have women presidents (in the first two countries the president is the chief of state. Jamaica. © UNICEF/HQ05-2038/Robert Grossman As of March 2006. Some of the most dramatic changes in women’s political representation have occurred in countries formerly ravaged by conflict. New Zealand.22 At the ministerial level. An extensive analysis of gender budgets in developing countries. undertaken by the Commonwealth Secretariat. respectively). The number of parliaments where women account for 30 per cent or more of the legislature – the critical yardstick of women’s parliamentary participation recognized by the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action – has increased fourfold in the past 10 years.3 per cent of government ministers worldwide.

Data on women heads of government are derived from official websites of national governments. Moreover. children’s issues.org/wmn-e/classif. A recent study. Drawing on examples from 36 countries.htm>. develop and sustain the legislative initiatives and accountability mechanisms that can advance the rights of women and children (see Panel. Finland and Denmark – sometimes lagged in their anti-violence policies behind such countries as Australia and Israel where the presence of women in the legislature was far weaker. are one of the most frequently cited reasons for women entering local politics. A comprehensive study of governments’ responsiveness to violence against women between 1974 and 1994.ipu. especially girls.27 In the United States.25 Political parties and women’s groups are central to the advancement of women’s participation in politics. have a vital role in ensuring women’s empowerment.4 Women in governance 30 World averages 20 Per cent 17 14 10 6 0 Women in parliament Women ministers Women heads of government Source: Data on women in parliament and women ministers are drawn from the Inter-Parliamentary Union database on ‘Women in National Parliaments’. tracking data as far back as 1975. accessed June 2006.28 Another Figure 4. the study revealed that governments with a high representation of women in parliament – such as Sweden. Women in local politics Prioritizing investments that benefit women and girls The participation of women in local politics can have an even more immediate and direct impact on outcomes for women and children than national legislation or policies.Governments. shows that during the first year when women were around some 30 per cent of local council members. 58 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . They do so by promoting gender-sensitivity among officials or establishing comprehensive women’s policy forums.800 bills introduced in three states over a two-year period found that women legislators were twice as likely as their male counterparts to sponsor child health bills. for example. a number of studies from both industrialized and developing countries indicate that women in local government tend to prioritize social issues. Of equal importance are institutional mechanisms. with direct benefits for women and children. Parties have a critical function in recruiting and endorsing candidates for elections and putting their weight behind specific items in parliamentary agendas.26 Women’s groups often provide the civil society impetus and expertise that are required to promote. In Norway. and the strength and coherence of women’s organizations. in conjunction with women’s organizations and political parties. Although evidence about the behaviour of local politicians is limited. The study concluded that what matters most in terms of a government’s response to the needs and interests of women is not simply the number of women in parliament. a 1994 analysis of more than 9. <http://www. found no linear relationship between the number of women in parliament and policy initiatives aimed at reducing violence against women. and particularly the lack of childcare spaces. in one important documented case in the developing world (India). such as support from political parties for women’s rights. page 59). such as women’s ministries and equal opportunity bureaus. The most significant finding of the Norway study is that women in local government have the greatest policy impact early on in their careers because they bring a new set of concerns to the political agenda. women’s increasing participation in local politics has led to a more equitable distribution of community resources. the number of children receiving benefits increased.

along with other groups in civil society. protect children’s rights and safeguard men’s dignity.100 participants. which is currently pending approval by the president. and eventually succeeded in obtaining the cooperation of local authorities.29 In developing countries. small business loans provided by rural banks and the creation of a commission to lobby on behalf of vulnerable young people. these groups often provide support to women who have been elected to political office. but the League organized 32 workshops across the country for more than 1. They have also organized workshops for women refugees in order to expand their awareness of their rights. women’s groups and networks are providing examples of how grass-roots mobilization can advance human rights. Furthermore. The most comprehensive findings currently available come from India. especially for the most vulnerable. investment in drinking-water facilities was double that of villages without quotas and that the roads were almost twice as likely to be in good condition. ministries and other national institutions. Afghanistan: Women’s groups have provided significant support in mobilizing women to participate in the presidential and parliamentary elections and in monitoring the electoral process. and promote reproductive health care. which examined women’s political representation. research on the impact of women in local government is an emerging area of enquiry. The study found that in villages with reservation policies. showed that US states with a high percentage of women in the legislature are likely to be more supportive of efforts to address violence against women. Across the world.30 An extensive research project examining the impact of the reservation policy initially surveyed 165 village councils in the state of West Bengal. major roadways were 20 per cent more likely to have been recently repaired. The study examined the level of public goods provision in councils that had reservation policies compared to those without such quotas. Second. new biogas (a substitute for cooking fuel and electricity) projects were introduced in 26 per cent of the villages with reservation policies (compared to 6 per cent in the villages without quotas). First. the advocacy and awareness-raising efforts of women’s rights activists associated with the organization Printemps de l’Egalité (Spring of Equality) helped persuade government leaders to support a landmark family law that is meant to address women’s inequality. where in 1998 one third of all leadership positions in village councils were reserved for women. women parliamentarians and community leaders collaborated during the drafting of a national convention to support women’s educational opportunities. increase child support. Rwanda: In 2002.Women’s groups: A force for political change There are at least two ways in which women’s groups can be an important force for political change. Australia: Women’s groups. and with parental consent from 14 years to 16 years. the number of visits by health workers in the six months covered by the study was significantly higher. and. See References. They have lobbied for changes in domestic law and social policy and for improved services to enhance the ability of refugee families to rebuild their lives. Tajikistan: The Tajikistan League of Women Lawyers drafted a national law on violence. due to active monitoring. page 88. Morocco: In 2004. they conduct their own advocacy efforts on behalf of women. law enforcement and judicial bodies. These improvements were highly beneficial to EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 59 . Mozambique: A campaign against child marriage by several local women’s groups contributed to the passage of a new family law in 2004 that raised the legal age of marriage without parental consent from 16 years to 18 years. provide women with more extensive employment and unemployment benefits. played an important role as advocates for the rights of children in immigration detention. children and families. The drafting of the law was a difficult task. study.

will not guarantee their effectiveness as advocates for the interests and rights of children. who bear the primary responsibility for collecting fuel and water and looking after family health-care needs. women and fami- lies. Local government tends to be easier for women to fit into their lives along with family and work responsibilities. as with their colleagues in parliament. In a survey covering 100 villages in Rajasthan.33 60 © UNICEF/HQ05-1609/Giacomo Pirozzi T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . with more positions available and less competition than for parliamentary seats. immunization surveys were administered to 30 households in each village. and the extent of political parties’ commitment to gender equality.31 Simply having a greater number of women in local government.women and girls. It also tends to be more accessible to them. The findings indicated that a child between the age of one and five years old residing in a village reserved for a woman pradhan (leader) has a slightly higher probability of having completed all vaccinations.32 Catalysts of change According to a comparative analysis of women in local government in 13 countries in East Asia and the Pacific. Building on these initial results. women have enjoyed more success at gaining access to decision-making positions in local government than at the national level. an analysis of the problems and opportunities faced by women in local government revealed that. These included cultural norms and expectations of women’s roles. Moreover. the abilities and attributes of individual councillors. for example. women’s decisionmaking roles in city and community government may be more easily accepted because they are seen as an extension of women’s involvement in their communities. particularly those of children. however. local hierarchies. the research project was expanded to examine the impact of the reservation policies on child immunization and schooling. The surveys collected information on the immunization record of every child under the age of five. In South Africa. their effectiveness was largely determined by factors other than their numerical presence. The impact of the women leaders on the school attendance of girls is even more significant: The study revealed that the presence of a woman pradhan reduces the gender gap in school attendance by 13 percentage points.

According to United Cities and Local Governments. However. in October 2000 the UN Security Council unanimously passed EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 61 . Rwanda and Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. page 8). by an inequitable division of labour within households. While governments and other political actors appear content to encourage engagement with women’s groups that often cut across the lines of conflict. over the past few years there has been an increasing recognition that in conflict situations characterized by instability and weak application of the rule of law. is predicated on the existence of democratic institutions and a stable political environment. Guatemala. Ethiopia. few if any provisions that related specifically or even indirectly to women – an omission reflective of the overwhelming gender imbalance among the negotiators. in part because women adopt a more inclusive approach towards security and address key social and economic issues that might otherwise be ignored. On the few occasions that they do. preventing domestic Women. as more women are elected to local government. Bosnia and Herzegovina.37 Preliminary research and case studies suggest that peace agreements.40 Would women at the peace table make a difference? The success of women’s participation in other political arenas (as discussed earlier in this chapter) suggests that there is every reason to believe that the presence of women at the peace table would make an important difference for women and children. half of the agreements signed since its adoption have omitted references to the needs of women and a gender perspective. In the words of a former international mediator. “the talks tend to adopt a more inclusive view of security and address issues related to the reintegration of children and women. El Salvador. Liberia. and women’s contributions to conflict resolution and sustainable peace. Bougainville (Pacific Islands). concluded that “there is no peace agreement that provides an overall model for appropriate provisions for ensuring that the needs of women are served alongside those of men. in fact.Yet in many countries. A recent report examining 13 peace agreements reached between 1991 and 2001 that put an end to conflicts in Afghanistan. an organization that has been collecting data on women in local decision-making since 1998. the presence of women leaders at village meetings encouraged additional political interest and activism by other women. as illustrated by the case studies above. when women are present. and by deeply entrenched cultural attitudes about gender roles and the suitability of women for decision-making positions34 (also see Chapter 1. Kosovo.9 per cent to 9. which specifically addresses the impact of war on women. Women’s exclusion from peace negotiations means that their rights and views – as citizens. India. In the previously cited example of villages with a reservation policy in West Bengal. their voices are rarely heard.38 Recognizing the unique contribution that women can make to peace processes. While resolution 1325 has brought attention to the critical importance of including women in peace negotiations. women’s participation in peace processes is essential to ensure their long-term success. women rarely make it to the peace table. Eritrea.”39 These agreements included. as former combatants and as victims – are not fully represented in post-conflict reconstruction processes. Cambodia. they are increasingly becoming important agents of change. war and peace Women’s ability to actively shape political processes at the national and local levels. women account for just over 9 per cent of mayors worldwide and almost 21 per cent of local councillors. The attendance of women at village council meetings grew by a considerable margin – from 6. Yet women’s role in peace processes remains.35 In spite of these obstacles. at best. among others. informal. women’s participation in local politics is often undermined by gender inequality within families. post-conflict reconstruction and governance have a better chance of success when women are involved.36 resolution 1325.9 per cent – when the chair was a woman pradhan.

the involvement of women increases the likelihood of issues critical to the rights and well-being of children. worked as a crosscommunity party to promote civil. The movement. Most famously. Although they were not chief negotiators.46 In Sierra Leone. women have held influential positions in formal peace processes and have pushed for cooperation across party and religious lines in the interests of peace. the first femaledominated political party. This notion is borne out by experiences in several countries across the world. the participation of women in the formal peace process of 1996 led to a national health programme for women and girls and a programme to reunite families and locate missing or separated children and orphans. • Provision of secondary education in the camps for refugees and internally displaced persons. reconstruction and development programmes. contains a number of key provisions related to women and children. a key article of the final agreement calls for special attention to be paid to victimized women and girls in formulating and implementing rehabilitation. Even establishing this type of track Women and the Darfur Peace Agreement In 2005. representatives of over 200 women’s organizations met in 1996 to create the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition. and their achievements included the creation of a Ministry of Women’s Affairs. and ensuring postconflict accountability for human rights abuses against children and women. including: • Specific protections for women and children in conflict situations. • Priority treatment for women and children in assessments related to compensation/reparations for damages and destruction caused by the war.45 In the Philippines. • An appeal to the government to pay particular attention to the education of women and children as a means of ensuring security. 62 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . among other priorities. a Gender Experts Support Team. • A call to the international community to focus on the education needs of refugee girls. psychological counselling and other relevant services to women and children. composed of 20 women members and backed by the governments of Canada. two women were involved in the Lome peace process. women have made a critical contribution to the Darfur peace talks (see Panel at left). The outcome document. the US senator who mediated the Northern Ireland peace talks. The Bonn talks on Afghanistan in late 2001 included 5 women out of approximately 60 delegates and advisers.47 More recently. calls for the participation of women in decision-making bodies and in peace-building. which included members from both Protestant and Catholic communities. with helping to achieve an agreement in those negotiations. • The creation of an institution to provide legal support. they were able to negotiate for the inclusion of an impressive number of their priorities in the final agreement.43 Women’s participation in conflict resolution processes Across the world.42 The coalition was eventually credited by George Mitchell. During the negotiations.violence when ex-combatants return to their homes. ‘Women’s Priorities in the Peace Process and Reconstruction in Darfur’. During the three short weeks that women were allowed to participate in the talks. women have become increasingly involved in conflict resolution processes.”41 In other words. human and workers’ rights. These experiences notwithstanding. women and families being included in negotiations. in most conflicts women are either entirely excluded from peace negotiations or relegated to a ‘parallel’ track. page 88. getting landmines out of the ground to allow women and girls to gather firewood and water more safely. the women representatives fought hard for women’s rights. The team gathered women from a variety of tribal and ethnic backgrounds in Darfur to create a unified platform of women’s priorities and gender issues. Norway and Sweden and by the UN Development Fund for Women was invited to participate in the seventh and decisive round of the Darfur Peace Agreement negotiations. See References.44 In Guatemala. The accord includes language that is gender-sensitive and.

psychosocial. “Local women [and girls] have difficulty in talking freely to uniformed men. respectively – active steps taken by the department in recent years have increased the number of civilian positions held by women.” The UN is fully aware of this fact. A recent assessment of women’s participation in peace processes as ‘track one’ mediators – those involved in official negotiations through formal channels rather than unofficial contacts (‘track two’ mediators) – found that women remain largely excluded from conflict mediation and resolution processes. especially where there is endemic violence. while the European Union counts no women at all among its current and former high-level mediators. such as male military observers. See References.” At the behest of the UN General Assembly. especially young girls. Examples of such parallel tracks include: • Burundi: In 2000. At the United Nations. proposes a comprehensive approach to victim support. women overcame the resistance of the Burundian parties and were included as informal observers in peace talks held in Arusha. Similarly.48 • Liberia: Even though the Liberian Women’s Initiative was unable to become an official participant in the regional peace talks of 1994. particularly of the local population. and often brings only modest success.5 per cent of senior peace-related positions. mediators who represent the international community can act as ‘tipping points’ to help women secure representation in peace processes and post-conflict reconstruction. in exceptional cases. United Republic of Tanzania. and where the United Nations or the European Union is not taking the lead role. Among the key findings of an investigation initiated by the UN Secretary-General into such cases was the recognition that “the presence of more women in a mission. Building on this policy. This policy. and can reduce the possibility that peacekeepers engage in acts of sexual exploitation and abuse against the very populations they are mandated to protect. page 88. 92 women delegates to the Somali National Peace Conference presented themselves as a ‘sixth clan’ for peace (Somalia has several major ethnic EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 63 . is a challenge that requires women to fight hard to gain even limited representation. among other critical actors. the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the United Nations Development Programme are organizing a highlevel meeting to further address sexual exploitation and abuse in a comprehensive manner. despite Africa’s deserved reputation of having strong female role models. its leaders proved to be highly influential consultants during the process. which UNICEF helped formulate. While the number of women among the uniformed personnel (military and police forces) deployed by DPKO remains miniscule – at 4 per cent and 1 per cent. especially at senior levels. DPKO. would greatly enhance women’s contributions to conflict resolution and post-conflict rehabilitation. In conflicts where pre-agreement peace processes are ongoing. as well as the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. women hold only 6. women are entirely absent from the driving seat of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union. legal and administrative assistance for all victims and. in June 2006 the UN Secretary-General issued a comprehensive strategy for assistance to victims of sexual abuse by UN personnel. These steps reflect a growing recognition that the presence of women among peacekeeping forces is critical to the success of their missions. In many cases. In addition to peacekeepers. only Uganda stands out for the presence of a lone female mediator.Women as mediators and peacekeepers An increased presence of women among peace negotiators and peacekeeping forces. including basic health. As a District Officer from the Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo explained in a report to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). especially about sensitive issues such as sexual violence and abuse….49 • Somalia: In May 2000. local women [and girls] prefer to speak to a woman peacekeeper because they fear further violence. will help to promote an environment that discourages sexual exploitation and abuse. UNICEF. stalled or forthcoming. financial assistance. including from male peacekeepers.

51 Conflict as an opportunity for change The recognition that women are not merely victims of conflict. with each side appointing five women to focus on the gender dimension of post-conflict reconstruction. UN discussions on aspects of security and defence almost never referred to women. Despite resistance from some of their male colleagues.50 • Sri Lanka: In December 2002.”52 It is therefore perhaps unsurprising that. all of which were represented by men). While the male participants travelled on officially sponsored planes for less than one hour. Development and the United Nations. Sometimes simple things are needed to get women to peace negotiations. which enabled them to get to the peace talks in Arusha. it took the women two days to get to Arusha – but they eventually arrived. in the post-war conventions. with a mandate to identify issues of concern to women and include them in the agenda of the peace process. educational structures and gender bias. United Republic of Tanzania. the group helped draft a national charter that guaranteed women 25 seats in the 245-member Transitional National Assembly. and violence against women and girls. but critical actors whose contribution is essential to the success of peace processes and to long-term political stability is strikingly recent. The committee included 10 members. Although their participation did not 64 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Liberia and Somalia demonstrate. “Until 1975. As groundbreaking efforts by the UN Development Fund for Women to support the participation of women in peace processes in such countries as Burundi. As the renowned Indian economist Devaki Jain writes in Women.© UNICEF/HQ04-1224/Giacomo Pirozzi clans. male nouns and pronouns were used to represent both men and women. the women’s participation hinged on obtaining funding for two taxis. In the case of Burundi. the inclusion of women in peace processes requires far more than increasing their numbers and often depends on the active support of the international community. it takes many years of struggle and overcoming setbacks for these efforts to come to fruition. as with other levels of political decisionmaking. a Subcommittee on Gender Issues was established. Among the top priorities of the committee were the equal representation of women in politics.

local government and peace processes are not only transforming the politics of the present – it is also altering its future.result in a formal mechanism for women’s political participation. especially male parliamentarians and political leaders. new associations are strengthened by elected women representatives.54 This correlation does not prove that the presence of women in politics is shifting public opinion towards greater gender equality.55 In India. discourages and prevents women from entering politics and leaves them less time and energy for public life. She is deprived of the opportunity to develop to her full potential in every area of life. this has been insufficient to address gender imbalances in governance. as well as women’s significantly greater work burden.58 While formal barriers to entering national and local parliaments have been eliminated in virtually every country. The introduction of quotas has led to dramatic changes in women’s political Empowering women to participate in politics Increasing women’s participation in politics is vital to promoting gender equality and EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 65 . today. The situation is equally unbalanced at the local level where. In Rwanda.53 Inspiring the next generation Women’s participation in national legislatures. As previous chapters have underscored. Each of these issues needs to be addressed in its own right.56 These two countries represent just a sample of the growing involvement of women in politics across the world. Even when political spaces and processes have opened up. we are still more than 60 years away from a world where women have an equal say in national parliaments. women in politics advocate more often and more strongly for the rights of women. at current rates of progress. they are also helping decision-making bodies become more democratic and gender sensitive. as women in politics are changing prevailing attitudes towards women and girls in decision-making roles. as well as women who were previously elected but who no longer formally participate in local councils. which ranges from lower levels of education to prevailing social attitudes doubting their competence as decision-makers. for example. but explored in greater detail in Chapter 5 – to ensure that women participate fully in politics include: • Education. women’s role in the transition to peace and democracy has paved the way for future generations of girls to assume public roles that would have been inconceivable only a generation ago. Despite discrimination and setbacks. children and families. the two tenets of Millennium Development Goal 3. • Quotas. Their influence is not just being felt in stronger legislation for children and women. As this chapter has shown. While patterns of causality are difficult to define across countries and societies. This discrimination. women account for less than 1 in 10 of the world’s mayors. the number of women in decisionmaking positions has not automatically increased. young women and men who enter politics enter a world significantly transformed by the presence of women. While women’s presence and active participation in politics is critical to advancing gender equality. Key measures – summarized below. Beginning in childhood women face discrimination. including the right to political participation.57 empowering women. Yet. But it does show a strong link between the public’s confidence in women’s leadership abilities and its growing expectation of seeing women in office. a girl who is denied the right to go to school is denied much more than the knowledge she would have gained in the classroom. gender initiatives require the involvement and support of men. recent research suggests a strong relationship between the number of women in office and positive public attitudes towards women political leaders. • The involvement and support of men (in voting and in parliament). the group’s influence did lead to the adoption of a number of gender-specific measures in the agreements in 2000.

The hope of justice for Bolivia’s women and children
by Casimira Rodríguez Romero, Minister of Justice, Bolivia
Learning to survive
I remember that when I was six, my family was regularly hungry because of a drought. We didn’t have enough to eat even twice a day, so my siblings and I were sent to another community where my grandparents grew some crops and had some goats and cows. All the same, my mom always wanted her kids, both boys and girls, to learn to read and write, so that’s why she sent us to the mining town of Quioma in Mizque. There they rented a room for us. When I got ready for school, I didn’t have anyone to comb out my long braids. My brothers tried to brush them every day, but it was a disaster. The miners’ kids at the school weren’t used to being around indigenous girls like me. I’d never fought with anybody before, but they pulled my braids, treated me badly, and that’s when I started to live with violence and discrimination. I could only speak Quechua, and it was really hard to study in Spanish. After school every day, my siblings and I went out and gathered firewood and swapped things with the local women. They gave us sugar, noodles and bread. We missed our folks terribly, but we learned to fight, earn money and survive. and giving me an extra month’s pay at Christmas and other bonuses. But there was still a lot of discrimination: They gave me day-old bread to eat and food that had gone bad. My boss was a bit more humane, but when he died, I stayed on with his wife and she was like an evil stepmother: To her, I wasn’t even a person. I worked for them as a housemaid for nine years, but it was so hard.

From exploitation to discrimination
At age 13, I went to live in the city of Cochabamba. With promises of earning some money, I took a job working for a merchant family for two years. The exploitation was terrible: I worked 18 hours a day looking after 15 people. I was under a lot of psychological pressure, out of touch with my family and working without pay. Eventually, even my new clothes wore out. And since I was always helping the boss’s kids with their homework, I started to really want to go to school again, but it was impossible. Luckily, my mom turned up again and I went back to my hometown. From there, I went back to Cochabamba and worked for another family. I got paid there. They were always good about paying on time

Consciousness and organization
A fighting spirit awoke in me when some other friends and I founded the Cochabamba Home Worker’s Union in 1987. When we saw all the inequalities in the law, we realized that we only had half of our rights. We held meetings with domestic workers in La Paz, with women who were real fighters and with mining union leaders. We held national meetings and started to consolidate our group. For the next six years, we worked on the draft law, although lots of details were taken out. The first draft was pretty protectionist, but the process took on more of a

participation throughout the world. Though no such quotas exist for peace processes, their use is gaining increasing recognition as a potentially effective vehicle for ensuring women’s representation at the peace table. • Party politics. Political parties remain the gatekeepers to the advancement of women in politics. Within the context of party politics, however, the sanctions for noncompliance are particularly important. While it may seem impressive for a party

to commit to a 40 per cent quota for women representatives, for example, that commitment can be rendered meaningless if the candidacies of women are not actively promoted. • Participation in peace negotiations. Over the past five years, active steps have been taken, particularly by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, to ensure that UN Member States, and other political actors adhere to resolution 1325. Nonetheless, efforts to include women in

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rights focus. We were able to turn our fears into courage and make the authorities listen to us. At first, our friends and even our own brothers and sisters didn’t want to have anything to do with us, saying we were city folk now. But we took heart and started to hold demonstrations in order to open doors. Convinced that what we were doing was right, we started to break down the walls of discrimination – and, by insisting so much, we managed to gather support and seats on the councils of rural women’s organizations. We made alliances with our peasant brothers, workers, miners, coca-leaf growers, indigenous groups and other sectors. It was a very interesting process that truly bore fruit.

decision! You have your (personal) plans, your family…but I put it all aside. We’re going through a historic process that I just couldn’t say no to. There was no way to talk it over with my colleagues. If I said no, they would have never let me live it down. So I accepted, knowing it would be hard, but it was all about recognizing that this was the next step in everything we’d been doing so far. At first I was very worried – soon I’d be entering a very different world. In our organizations, we always just worked around other women. The world of politics is a man’s world and full of professionals with different types of education and experiences; I entered into this realm very carefully. When you are a leader, you have the freedom to say what you like, but now I have to be careful about what I say, and at the same time I have to leave something behind for other women and our compañeros (comrades). There’s still a long way to go. In this post, I want to meet the expectations

of my brothers and sisters who have different kinds of problems. I want to fulfil the people’s hopes for justice. The boys and girls of Bolivia are living in difficult circumstances. There are huge inequalities. There are still lots of children who are going through what I did as a girl – not being able to go to school, not having safe food to eat. Our wawas (children) are the first ones to suffer from abuse, violence and rape. I would like to see a day when Bolivia’s wawas can grow up enjoying the love of their parents without going hungry. It is a huge challenge. We have to make an effort to make everyone’s dream of having a good life come true.

The male world of politics
Along the way, we started to get support from Evo Morales’s movement; as leaders, we started meeting here and there, coordinating national activities and international events. When they offered me the post of Minister of Justice, I didn’t know what to do – I had to make a quick

Casimira Rodríguez Romero, the current Minister of Justice in Bolivia, was born in a Quechua community in the valley of Mizque, Cochabamba. She is the fourth of 10 brothers and sisters. Her life was marked by poverty and discrimination, and her presence in Bolivia’s cabinet represents the historically marginalized indigenous woman.

peace processes and post-conflict resolution remain confined to a handful of examples. • Better data and research. Research on the impact of women on legislation and policy related to children remains limited, even in the industrialized countries. While UNICEF can and must play a critical role in child advocacy at all levels of government, this effort needs to be supported by better research on, and analysis of, the broader dynamic of decision-making and policy

outcomes, with a particular focus on women and girls. • Creating an environment where women can make a difference. The presence of women in politics is a necessary but not sufficient condition for their political empowerment. Women’s ministries and other women’s political forums, as well as the commitment of governments to greater participation of women in parliament, are equally important factors in advancing gender equality.

EQUALITY IN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

67

SUMMARY

The final chapter of the report provides a road map for maximizing gender equality through seven key modes: education, financing, legislation, legislative quotas, women empowering women, engaging men and boys, and improved research and data. • Education: Ensuring that girls and boys have equal educational opportunities is one of the most powerful steps towards combating gender discrimination. Key actions include abolishing school fees, encouraging parents and communities to invest in girls’ education, and creating girl-friendly schools that are safe and without bias. • Focusing additional resources on achieving gender equality: Far too little recognition has been given to the resources required to meet the goal of gender equality and women’s empowerment. • Levelling the playing field in national legislation: Legislative reform can be a powerful strategy of empowerment

for women and girls and for the safeguarding of their rights. • Quotas can encourage women’s participation in politics: Quotas are a proven method of ensuring women break through the political glass ceiling. To be truly effective, however, quotas must to be supported by political parties and electoral systems that are committed to encouraging women’s participation in politics and government. • Women empowering women: Grass-roots women’s movements have been the most vocal champions of women’s equality and empowerment, but they are sometimes overlooked by national governments and international agencies. Involving women in the early stages of policy formulation helps ensure that programmes are designed with the needs of women and children in mind. • Engaging men and boys. Men can be powerful allies in the struggle for women’s equality. Advocacy initia-

tives designed to educate both women and men on the benefits of gender equality and joint decisionmaking can help nurture a more cooperative relationship between them. • Research and data on the situation of women and girls are sorely lacking: An overwhelming lack of sexdisaggregated statistics often results in scant or weak quantitative evidence on the issues that affect women and, in turn, children. Better and more extensive data and analysis are urgently required. Eliminating gender discrimination will produce a double dividend, fulfilling the rights of women and going a long way towards realizing those of children as well. Effective partnerships, involving governments, donors and international agencies, can support this process through the design and implementation of human rights-based development strategies. For women, men, and for children, the time to refocus our efforts is now.

the promises have not materialized. through focused campaigns and discussion forums. the goal of gender equality calls for a change in social attitudes and institutions 69 . legislative quotas. But despite these gains and commitments. From children excluded from education because of their gender.2 Discriminatory attitudes towards women and girls have been changing. gender discrimination leads to rights violations that reverberate throughout the life cycle (see Chapter 1. to adolescent girls who may die from problems related to pregnancy and childbirth or face violence and sexual abuse. such change is essential. Measures include education. These actions will make an unprecedented difference to the lives of women and children and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. the goal of reducing gender discrimination has steadily grown in importance on the international agenda.T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 Reaping the double dividend of gender equality © UNICEF/HQ05-1566/Giacomo Pirozzi 5 F or children to achieve their fullest potential and to grow up in families and societies where they can thrive. women empowering other women. but also in some cases. A world free of discrimination may seem like an impossible dream. and research and data. In recent decades. and more than 90 developing countries are on course to achieve the goal of gender parity in primary education. culminating in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in 1995. Progress is reflected in statistical outcomes and in the underlying social and political processes that have resulted in a strong international consensus in support of gender equality and the rights of girls and women. for many women. Since 1945.1 Girls’ education has increased dramatically in many regions.3 Throughout the preceding chapters of this report. This final chapter brings together a number of concrete and achievable cross-cutting actions in several critical areas that can address this challenge. the proportion of women in parliament has increased more than fivefold. At its core. but it is a dream within our reach. Corresponding successes in empowering women and girls have become increasingly apparent. and several world conferences on women. engaging men and boys. which is already 10 years later than the original deadline set by the international community. it has been clear that great change in favour of women and girls is possible and that for all children. The ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women by 184 countries by September 2006. not only over the course of generations. albeit only by 2015. page 4). adolescent girls and girl children. have established in ever more concrete terms the challenges faced and actions required to empower women. gender discrimination must be banished once and for all. These recommendations are less about radical new ideas than they are about a firm commitment to and focus on what has proven to work and what needs to be done – as well as an equally firm commitment to working together in order to achieve gender equality and women’s empowerment. legislation. in a matter of months. financing for development.

is a partnership between UN agencies and a broad spectrum of partners dedicated to achieving gender equality in education. donor countries. Partners focus on influencing policy. The Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE). Other partnerships are also working towards the same objective. which details the process for evaluating gender responsiveness in national education action plans and provides guidance on gender mainstreaming. communities and others to promote gender equity in education. religious and civic leaders. which currently operates programmes in Ghana. The partnership’s achievements include the publication of the ABC of Gender Responsive Education Policies: Guidelines for analysis and planning. donors. Since 1993. While across the international community partnerships are being recognized as the most effective means to bring about real and lasting change. indeed. CAMFED’s community approach includes establishing district committees to raise and distribute resources. UNGEI facilitates the coordination of girls' education strategies and interventions at the country level through partnerships with governments. Achieving social change at the local level. requires concerted and deliberate action by a broad array of actors. that is based on the principles of equality and respect for human rights. teachers. husbands and fathers. building community confidence through dialogue and addressing threats to girls’ health and safety. 70 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . civil society. by working with a wide range of partners. with 98 per cent graduating to secondary schools. non-governmental organizations. The ‘virtuous cycle of girls’ education’ means that the young women who benefit from these interventions subsequently support them by contributing their insights and perspectives to local authorities and children in their communities. non-governmental organizations. the media. practical interventions and mainstreaming best practices.000 girls to remain in primary school. launched in 2001. women and girls themselves. perspectives and affiliations is an objective not without problems or costs. local authorities and patriarchal chiefs. a report issued by the GCE entitled A Fair Chance identifies key actions to eliminate gender disparities in education. the private sector and. CAMFED reports having enabled more than 56. Reaching girls in rural areas of sub-Saharan African is the focus of the Campaign for Female Education (CAMFED). which have a pivotal role in the design and implementation of appropriate legislation and programmes that protect and advance the rights of women and girls. based in Kenya. The United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative (UNGEI). Based on research in nine African and Asian countries. Establishing effective partnerships that bring together diverse actors with different agendas. In 1999. Effective partnerships are essential to accelerating progress in all of the areas cited. Each of the seven recommendations will focus on the role of partnerships in tackling gender discrimination. So far. their role in tackling gender discrimination – an issue that cuts across all aspects of development – is of especially critical importance. Education International. Zambia and Zimbabwe. including parents. the private sector. universities. Actions taken at the local level need to be encouraged and reinforced by governments and international donors. and the Global March against Child Labour – established the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) to work towards elimination of gender disparities in education by 2015. voters. including men and boys. communities and families. FAWE has worked with governments. ActionAid International. and partnerships at all levels are increasingly recognized as the conduit to reaching this objective. increasing public awareness. page 88. four international civil society organizations – Oxfam International. See References. FAWE has analysed and influenced action plans in 17 countries. in communities and households. is a non-governmental organization made up of cabinet ministers and other high-level educators from sub-Saharan African.Partnerships for girls’ education Gender parity in primary and secondary education is a central tenet of the Millennium agenda.

As a result. the time to act is now. ensuring that girls and boys have equal educational opportunities is one of the most important and powerful steps towards combating gender discrimination and advancing children’s rights. But for women and children.© UNICEF/Gva06/smse-219/Rolando Chews Some of the following actions can reap quick rewards.5 Recent trends in girls’ education provide grounds for some optimism. their children have higher survival rates and tend to be healthier and better nourished. in many countries. others may take longer. gross primary enrolment rates for girls in low-income countries have risen from 52 per cent to over 90 per cent.6 But gender disparities remain. Every girl and boy is entitled to education. Women with some formal education are more likely to delay marriage and childbirth. be better informed about their own and their children’s nutritional requirements and adopt improved birth spacing practices. each additional year of formal education completed by a mother translates into her children remaining in school up to one half year longer than would otherwise be the case. Over the past 30 years. for this and for future generations. Furthermore. Enabling girls to access the intellectual and social benefits of basic education ensures that their rights are protected and fulfilled and greatly enhances the range of life choices available to them as women. but also in tertiary education. ensure their children are immunized. where a mere 5 per cent to 10 per cent of students in low-income countries are female.7 REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 71 . regardless of their social or economic status.4 Moreover. Education: Attacking gender discrimination at its root As this report has shown. for example. not only at the primary and secondary levels. girls’ education has profound and long-lasting benefits for families and entire communities.

are often encouraged to be subservient and to sit close to the back of the classroom. the perceived and real opportunity costs asso- ciated with sending children to school can discourage parents from supporting girls’ education. and address male bias in the classroom. In 2005. ensure that schools have separate hygiene and sanitation facilities for girls. The picture is different in the developing world.Abolishing school fees In many developing countries. girls are assigned janitorial work in schools while the boys play in the schoolyard. In some communities. in contrast. the direct and indirect costs of schooling represent one of the most significant barriers to education for both girls and boys. particularly those from poor families living in rural areas.11 Parents may object to sending their daughters to school because they feel the facility is unsafe. Mozambique. which aims to increase access to basic education and scale up progress to meet the MDGs and the Education for All targets in the next decade.10 Encouraging poor families to invest in their daughters’ education may require such incentives as conditional cash transfers. the importance of gender equality. Malawi. Ghana. Kenya.8 Abolishing school fees is one of the most effective policy measures for accelerating progress in this area.12 Governments. and build schools close to their homes. The school curriculum must impress upon teachers.9 Encouraging parents and communities to invest in girls’ education Even where schools fees are not an issue. increase the safety of school facilities. however. or that the long journey to school exposes girls to risk of sexual assault or other forms of violence. Conditional cash transfers provide families with food and compensate parents for the opportunity costs associated with child labour on the condition that parents send their children to school and take them to health clinics for regular vaccinations and check-ups. subsidies and other types of income support. parents and international donors must work together to promote flexible scheduling. Girls. A recent survey of francophone Africa and Eastern and Southern Africa shows that boys are outperforming girls in all of the low-income countries surveyed in the assessment. Girl-friendly schools: Safe and without bias Children who are not in school tend to come from the poorest and most marginalized households and often live in remote rural areas. as well as students. Male students receive preferential treatment and are given time to learn and play at school. where boys tend to achieve higher results on school exams than girls. the elimination of school fees is making it possible for girls from disadvantaged backgrounds to enrol in primary education. UNICEF and the World Bank launched the School Fee Abolition Initiative (SFAI). In Ethiopia. the United Republic of Tanzania and other countries participating in the SFAI (Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are planning to abolish fees shortly). Studies show that teachers who perceive girls to be less intelligent than boys tend to treat boys and girls differently.14 © UNICEF/HQ00-0623/Roger LeMoyne 72 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .13 Girls outperform boys throughout much of the industrialized world. meals.

© UNICEF/HQ05-0391/Palani Mohan One way to help eliminate bias is to increase the number of female teachers in the classroom. as well as capital and recurrent costs. strong legislation and better research will mean little. Equitable and efficient social investment to eliminate gender discrimination is a key strategy for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women. services and infrastructure required. Without financial resources to incorporate new laws and policies. but much more needs to be done to turn theory into practice. The UN Millennium Project has taken the lead in assessing how much it will cost to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. robust research and bold policies. Uncertainty arises from the inability to know how the Millennium Declaration is being implemented in specific communities and countries. such as those that portray women cleaning and cooking while men are shown as professional engineers and doctors. In addition. assessing the cost of achieving MDG 3 – promoting gender Focusing more resources on achieving gender equality In addition to sound legislation. A great deal of knowledge exists about the policies and actions required to address gender inequality. As intensive and detailed as these projections are. Perhaps because gender discrimination is so often viewed as the result of social attitudes REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 73 . they are unable to specify with precision the final cost of meeting the MDGs. textbooks and related school materials should avoid replicating gender stereotypes. far too little consideration has been given to the financial resources required to achieve the goal of gender equality and women’s empowerment.17 Because gender equality cuts across all of the Goals.16 Detailed country assessments focus on the goods.15 alone. achieving gender equality and fulfilling women’s and children’s rights also requires resources. as well as the variable costs associated with each of the eight MDGs.

Gender-responsive budgets are proving to be effective in focusing attention on where financial resources are required to promote gender equality and empower women. UNIFEM has supported gender-responsive budget initiatives in Bolivia. female parliamentarians have taken a leading role in raising gender-based budgeting initiatives at the parliamentary level. 18 departments were directed to submit budgets showing resource allocations and expenditures benefiting women. Colombia. which are also gaining increasing recognition as effective advocacy and policy instruments. including education.” According to a report by the Commonwealth Secretariat. UNIFEM has strongly promoted gender-responsive budgets. Ecuador. they are practical tools to show whether sufficient resources are being dedicated to realize the rights of women and children. The annex assesses the implications that the national budget has for gender equality and outlines specific gender targets. See References. Such analyses have become codified in the formal budgeting process in Chile. provincial and municipal levels. health. and advocacy initiatives with civil society and public sector organizations. • Strengthen civil society’s participation in economic policymaking. and enacting measures to ensure women’s participation in these processes. It is an immensely useful tool not only to highlight the links between social investment and the realization of women’s rights. 74 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . page 88. agriculture and rural development. technical support to budget planning institutions. Chile. In India. finance. where gender is one of six mandatory areas on which government ministries must report. which are currently being applied in over 50 countries. Brazil. Other interventions in the region have also included genderbased budget analyses at national. Rwanda’s budget currently prioritizes gender equality. Mexico and Peru. Gender-responsive budget analysis can provide a clear picture of the ways in which the distribution. but also to hold governments accountable for their commitments to gender equality and women’s empowerment. and all of the country’s sectoral budgets are prepared with the participation of that country’s Ministry of Gender. Some states have gone even further by legislating for people’s audits of local planning and spending. Key ministries. use and generation of public resources affect women and men differently. participated in the preparation of the annex. the 2006 budget contained an annex on gender equity priorities. The United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) defines genderresponsive budgeting as “the analysis of actual government expenditures and revenue on women and girls as compared to men and boys. A government budget that can be broken down according to its impact on women and men is considered ‘gender-responsive’. • Support gender mainstreaming in macroeconomics. In Morocco. Along with child budgets. For the 2005/6 fiscal year. This unprecedented development followed four years of collaboration between UNICEF and the Ministry of Finance in Morocco.Monitoring governments’ commitments to women’s empowerment through gender-responsive budgets Budgets reflect the social and economic priorities of governments. and • Track public expenditure against gender and development commitments and contribute to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. the aim of gender budgets is fourfold: • Improve the allocation of resources to women. In Latin America. South Africa was among the first to implement gender-responsive budgeting in 1995.

The MDG 3 specific interventions represent only 6-10 per cent of the total cost of interventions required to achieve the MDGs.27 It knows no boundaries of REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 75 . Ghana. the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda that has subsequently been extended to cover all low-income countries. which entered into force in November 2005.23 pushed for legislation that would criminalize domestic violence in Tajikistan. Levelling the playing field in national legislation Legislative reform can be a powerful strategy for empowering women and girls and safeguarding their rights. Cambodia.24 called for the greater inclusion of gender concerns in peace-agreement and postconflict processes in Somalia. it was estimated that between US$37 and US$57 per capita (measured in constant 2003 US dollars) was needed annually for supplies and services in girls’ education. women still lack equal access to justice and legal protection.21 How much additional financing in total is required to meet MDG 3 depends on how government resources change between now and 2015. • Eliminate gender inequality in employment by decreasing women’s reliance on informal employment. • Guarantee women’s and girls’ property and inheritance rights.20 which. closing gender gaps in earnings and reducing occupational segregation.19 Estimating costs requires outlining concrete areas where investments are needed.equality and empowering women – has proved especially difficult. • Combat violence against girls and women. Many exercises estimating the cost of MDG 3 have focused solely on eliminating gender disparity in education. The road to gender equality can be long and complex. low-income countries would need an additional US$28 billion (measured in constant 2003 US dollars) in 2006 from donor countries. powerful legal obstacles continue to undermine their rights in key areas. • Increase women’s share of seats in national parliaments and local government bodies. Domestic violence and gender-based violence in conflict Violence against women and children has devastating consequences.22 Getting the financing right is only the first step. In the initial group of five countries studied. Over the past year alone. women’s health and other areas. Money must be put to the right use.18 The initial estimates come from a detailed analysis of Bangladesh. It fills their lives with pain and terror. Available estimates suggest.26 Nevertheless. is only part of the puzzle. A more complete cost estimation focuses on the seven strategic priorities identified in the Millennium Project task force report on gender equality and achieving the Millennium Development Goals: • Strengthen opportunities for post-primary education for girls while meeting commitments to universal primary education. but without sufficient resources the destination will be impossible to reach. rising to US$73 billion in 2015. from which some may never recover.25 and were a driving force behind the ratification of the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa. and it must be integrated within existing government budgets and plans. as well as aligned with poverty reduction strategy papers and other planning processes in which all stakeholders participate. that governments currently target fewer resources to gender equality than other MDG areas. and how much of those resources are dedicated to gender equality and women’s empowerment. in many countries. • Guarantee sexual and reproductive health and rights. According to a realistic scenario. and in some countries. women obtained the right to vote and to stand for election in Kuwait. The UN Millennium Project has taken steps to modify its methodology in the hope of distilling more accurate estimates of the costs involved in meeting MDG 3. however vital. • Invest in infrastructure to reduce women’s and girls’ time burdens. however.

geography. which addressed the issue of commercial sexual exploitation. IPU jointly organized with UNICEF the Parliamentary Forum on Children during the UN Special Session on Children in May 2002. as first-hand witnesses to the devastating impact that violence has on the family and household. culture or wealth. and important regional differences prevail. UNICEF and IPU organized a regional conference in Dakar. exploitation. See References. the panel addressed the issue of violence against women and children in situations of armed conflict. in some cases. Since then. and numerous countries have amended criminal laws to include domestic violence. Some of the key joint actions have included: • Child protection handbook for parliamentarians: Child Protection: A Handbook for Parliamentarians.28 Children suffer both directly. More recently. The first panel. to ensure that perpetrators are prosecuted and that victims receive the full support they need to rebuild their lives. in December 2005 on parliamentary action to put an end to FGM/C. children and war. page 88. The conference brought together members of Parliament from 21 countries. included parliamentarians from 13 countries. female genital mutilation/cutting. In 2006. Anti-violence measures often require specific legislation. at least 45 countries have specific legislation against domestic violence. providing concrete examples of ways to build a protective environment for children and parliamentarians’ responses to the challenges of child protection. confirms a widely held perception that domestic violence has incalculable consequences for children. One such partnership is the collaboration between Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and UNICEF. covers a wide range of themes related to child protection. as well as a strong commitment by policymakers. including trafficking of children. the sexual exploitation of children. took place at the 2004 IPU Assembly in Mexico. and indirectly. which dates back over a decade and a half beginning with IPU’s support for the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Combating Child Trafficking served as a tool for a regional parliamentary seminar. in February 2006. especially in the area of child protection and the promotion of gender equality. It aimed at strengthening their action by familiarizing them with the experience of TOSTAN – a nongovernmental organization based in Senegal whose Community Empowerment Programme has been successful in discouraging the practice of FGM/C – and similar successful initiatives to combat protection abuses against children. the panel – which also featured the collaboration of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) – examined the impact of HIV/AIDS on children. the international community. • High-level panels on gender equality and child protection: In recent years. the judiciary and law enforcement officials. Worldwide.Partnering to promote child rights and gender equality in political agendas Partnerships between parliamentarians and advocates for women and children are also helping to focus greater attention on gender equality and protection against harm. and. and juvenile justice. The handbook serves as a catalyst for action. • Regional forums: On the recommendation of the IPU Task Force of Parliamentarians against female genital mutilation. held in Hanoi at the invitation of the Vietnamese National Assembly. as targets of violence. the African Parliamentary Union. The seminar. While more than 80 per cent 76 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . abuse and violence. violence against children. the two organizations have held a series of panels at the annual IPU assemblies to focus attention on gender equality and child protection. a strong partnership has developed between the two organizations. launched in 2004. ‘Developing a Protective Framework for Children: The role of parliaments’. • Child trafficking handbook: This jointly produced handbook by IPU and UNICEF was launched in 2005 at the IPU Assembly. released in August 2006. The Report of the Independent Expert for the United Nations Study on Violence against Children.29 But the gap between the laws on the books and their implementation often remains as wide as it is deadly. 21 others are drafting more laws. The following year.

national laws based on human REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 77 . as well as to achieve wider military objectives. For legal reform to change the lives of women and children. including ethnic cleansing and political terror.31 Rape has also been perpetrated by those with a mandate to protect. rape is employed as a strategic method of warfare in order to humiliate. including encouraging governments to codify rape and other forms of sexual violence as crimes in their national laws. adopted by the UN Security Council in 2000. In some cases. The increased lawlessness that accompanies the breakdown of social institutions and structures in times of conflict can contribute to a high incidence of sexual violence. exploitation and abuse. holding states accountable for the actions of fighting forces. and increasing the numbers of women at all stages of peace-building. long-standing gender inequality and a lack of empowerment of women and girls.”33 Much more remains to be done.32 Since all such acts of sexual exploitation and abuse take place within a broader context of violence. took an important step forward by calling on “all parties to armed conflict to take special measures to protect women and girls from gender-based violence. strategies to address gender-based violence must address these underlying causes. particularly rape and other forms of sexual abuse. comprehensive mechanisms are needed to prevent and respond to genderbased violence in conflict.© UNICEF/HQ06-0321/Giacomo Pirozzi of Latin American countries have specific legislation against domestic violence. including United Nations staff and peacekeeping personnel. and all other forms of violence. forced to provide sexual services to armed forces or groups.30 Similarly. Resolution 1325. War exacerbates the violence that girls and women live with in times of peace. Africa and East Asia and the Pacific. this is true of less than 5 per cent of countries in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.34 Property and inheritance rights Equal land and property rights would represent a significant step towards eliminating gender discrimination at the household level. however. degrade and displace communities. Many women and girls become victims of sexual slavery during conflict.

8 34. whether women are transforming political processes.6 37. see Panel.ipu.Figure 5. In other countries.8 45.9 36.5 36.0 35. page 79. after a ruling in 1996 on joint titling. Similarly.3 3 3 3 * There are several types of quotas.9 33. including (1) constitutional quotas.36 However. and (3) political party quotas for electoral candidates.org/country. With Kuwait granting women the right to vote and stand for election in May 2005. land titled jointly to couples made up 60 per cent of land adjudications.0 34. <http://www.org/wmn-e/classif.7 36. efforts at harmonizing these codes with statutory law cannot be conducted at the expense of the rights and well-being of women and girls.8 Does the country have a quota? Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Types of quota* 1 3 2.37 But while the legal barriers to entry into politics and government for women have been removed.3 3 3 3 3 1. women represented 45 per cent of landtitled beneficiaries between 1990 and 1992. while understanding that customary law and religious codes are important. in Colombia. rights laws and principles must necessarily be upheld over male-biased customary laws and traditional practices.3 32.cfm>. also accessed May 2006.38 78 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . compared to 18 per cent in 1995.1 The majority of countries with the most women in parliament use political quotas Lower or single house of parliament Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Country Rwanda Sweden Costa Rica Norway Finland Denmark Netherlands Cuba Spain Argentina Mozambique Belgium Austria Iceland South Africa Date of elections September 2003 September 2002 February 2006 September 2005 March 2003 February 2005 January 2003 January 2003 March 2004 October 2005 December 2004 May 2003 November 2003 May 2003 April 2004 % of women in parliament 48. National legal reforms in property law and inheritance rights represent one of the most direct strategies for increasing women’s access to land and property. For definitions. directly representing the interests of women and children. In the wake of land reform in Costa Rica. The fulfilment of the rights of women and girls in one country may be contingent upon the abolition or amendment of discriminatory legislation. equal access to justice and legal protection may require the enactment of new laws or specific mechanisms that neutralize the power of other legal structures – such as customary laws and religious codes – which often discriminate against women.35 No compromise on protecting women and girls Legislative reform is likely to require different actions in different legal contexts. 3 3 2.htm>.9 37.7 33.3 38. there are now very few countries with elected parliaments where women do not have the right to vote and stand for public office. Quotas can encourage women’s participation in politics Chapter 4 showed that. for example. 2.0 36. Sources: Data are drawn from the Inter-Parliamentary Union database on ‘Women in National Parliaments’. compared with only 12 per cent before the reform. (2) election law quotas. accessed May 2006. <http://www. women still account for only one out of every six national parliamentarians in the world. The figures for those legislatures using quotas are derived from the Global Database of Quotas for Women. or inspiring the next generation of girls. the political participation of women is vital for children.quotaproject.

This has been used in countries with plurality-majority electoral systems. page 88.Quotas: One size does not fit all Quotas have proved effective in increasing the participation of women in politics in countries across the world. for example. Serbia and Sudan). of the 20 countries in the world with the most women in parliament. Quotas can make an important difference. • Voluntary party quotas are decided by one or more political parties in a country. • Gender quota systems aim to ensure that women constitute at least a ‘critical minority’ of 20. usually electoral (as in many parts of Latin America and. only one or two parties have opted to use quotas. • At the nomination stage. 30. where a certain percentage or number among those elected must be women. 17 (or 85 per cent) are using some form of quota system (see Figures 5. such as the African National Congress in South Africa. This implies that a rule (legal or voluntary) requires that. Most of the world’s political parties. either by a primary or by the nominations committee and other parts of the party organization. the following definitions and associated terms are presented. quotas are applied as ‘reserved seats’. like the controversial ‘women’s short lists’ in the United Kingdom.2. for instance 20. until the barriers to women’s entry into politics are removed. as classified by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. • At the electoral stage. considered for nomination. do not employ any kind of quota at all. Bosnia and Herzegovina. If the leading party in a country uses a quota. Burundi. In some countries quotas are applied as a temporary measure. gender quotas are being introduced using reserved seat systems. in Belgium.39 Similar statistics hold true for countries as diverse as Argentina. for example. the Philippines and Uganda) or by law. Ecuador. Germany. While quotas are most widely used to increase the political representation of women in national REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 79 . Most countries with quotas. however. or a true gender balance of 50 per cent. In many others. or those willing to be See References. Mozambique and South Africa. while Costa Rica advanced from 25th in 1994 to 3rd place in 2006. Iraq. Legal quotas can be mandated in a country’s constitution (as in Burkina Faso.40 Overall. In some countries. • Legal quotas regulate the proceedings of all political parties in a country and may also prescribe sanctions in case of non-compliance. previously unranked as women were denied the right to vote under the Taliban regime. Norway and Sweden. however. pages 78 and 80). Quotas can target different parts of the selection and nomination process • The first stage involves finding aspirants. quotas are applied to the nomination of candidates to be placed on the party ballot. now stands in the 25th position. jumped from 24th place in 1995 to 1st place in 2003 in terms of women’s representation in parliament. Gender quotas at this stage are rules that demand that a certain number or percentage of women or either sex be represented in the pool of potential candidates. including Argentina. Whether legally mandated through constitutional or electoral law – often but not always the most effective approach – or based on voluntary actions by political leaders. As a means to understanding the concept of quotas. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Bolivia. Nepal.1 and 5. an intergovernmental organization whose mandate is to support sustainable democracy worldwide. The mechanisms by which they apply vary widely and have differing effects in each country. 40 or even 50 per cent of the candidates must be women. Rwanda. as a result of the introduction of quotas. that is to say. have not limited their use over time. 30 or 40 per cent of legislators. Increasingly. Afghanistan. this can have a significant impact on the overall rate of female representation. quotas have led to dramatic changes in women’s political participation throughout the world. Italy. several political parties have some type of quota.

the results have been dramatic. education and shelter. and unless commitments are reinforced by a political system in which rules matter and failure to comply carries consequences.43 Neither of these examples. <www.. unless they do.46 Women’s groups need to be recognized as important agents of empowerment and development. which reserved a third of the seats in local and regional peace reconciliation meetings for women. also accessed May 2006. <http://www.2 Countries with the most women in parliament are also the most likely to use quotas 100 80 Number of countries with.cfm>. At present. accessed May 2006. food distribution. 80 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . To be effective. in South Africa.45 But even though women’s social networks tend to be wider than those of men.org/wmn-e/classif. however. to date there are 30 countries that have constitutional or statutory quotas at the subnational level.quotaproject.41 Quotas are also gaining increasing recognition as a potentially effective vehicle for ensuring women’s representation at the peace table. 40 20 0 20 Percentage of 40 countries using 60 quotas 80 100 85% 60% 28% 55% 60 More than 30% women MPs 20 Between 20% and 30% women MPs 35 Between 10% and 20% women MPs 67 Less than 10% women MPs 60 Note: Quotas include constitutional quotas. By working with women’s organizations at the community level and channelling development resources through them. contributing to an improved standard of living for women. election law quotas and political party quotas for electoral candidates.42 Similarly. no examples of such quotas exist.ipu. Sources: Women in parliament from the Inter-Parliamentary Union database on ‘Women in National Parliaments’. quotas are no panacea. where women account for less than 10 per cent of all parliamentarians. Governments and development agencies must include them in poverty reduction strategies and nurture long-term partnerships. they tend to command fewer economic resources. the role of quotas is merely symbolic. While they can be effective.parliaments. for example. for example. the United Nations Development Fund for Women partnered with a local organization on the ‘People to People’ peace process. quotas have to match the electoral system of a country. involves formal peace processes. This stands in contrast to the national parliament. international development agencies can help increase the likelihood that resources will reach the most vulnerable members of poor communities – Figure 5. In India. The figures for those legislatures using quotas are derived from the Global Database of Quotas for Women.. as one third of seats in all local legislatures are reserved for women by a constitutional amendment.htm>.44 Women empowering women One of the most important and effective avenues for women’s empowerment is the dynamic of cooperation among women. Informal women’s collectives organize around such issues as nutrition. however.org/country. In 1999. 41 per cent of the commissioners of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission were women. their families and communities. after women were key participants in helping settle hostilities in southern Sudan.

economies and governments. when they have support for active involvement in their children’s lives from family and friends. Evidence shows that men are more likely to be active. REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 81 . men’s participation in initiatives to promote gender mainstreaming and gender equality remains low. Programmes that Engaging men and boys Men can make a crucial contribution to ending gender discrimination. researchers discovered that advocacy campaigns on nutrition were targeted to women. even though approximately 20 per cent of fathers made the decisions regarding children’s nutrition.© UNICEF/HQ00-0016/Giacomo Pirozzi women and children. for instance. men continue to dominate decision-making processes in households. yet they tend to be overlooked by programmes that improve conditions for women and children. Grass-roots women’s movements are vocal and active champions of women’s equality and empowerment and have campaigned successfully for CEDAW and other conventions mandated to improve the situation of women and girls at the international level. and when they are in employment. In addition. Involving women in the early stages of policy development help ensure that programmes will be designed with the needs of women and children in mind.48 In one Indian state. Globally. men can be powerful allies in the struggle for women’s equality. handson fathers when they feel positive about themselves and their relationship with the child’s mother. Such initiatives may be perceived as a threat to their status and power. The benefit of women’s groups is even more evident at the local level. where they are working to improve the quality of life for their families. By making child-friendly choices and supporting women in their capacities as decisionmakers.49 UNICEF’s experience shows that programmes that focus on males provide ways to promote positive gender socialization.47 Involving men Men are often the dominant household decision-makers.

One example is the Food for Education (FFE) programme in Bangladesh. the Centre for the Development of Women’s Resources has been a leader in the movement to end violence against women. Families with working mothers in need of childcare were the focus of Programa de Hogares Comunitarios. were applied in a follow-up project by the World Bank. Under this government-sponsored initiative. which ran from 1993 to 2002. at over 40 per cent. Nepal. for example. 20 per cent more energy. the increase for girls was even more remarkable. there is some evidence that the programme also enabled girls to stay in school longer. page 88. Uzbekistan. a group of parents was given the opportunity to designate a woman from their community as their childcare provider. Indonesia. India. which began in 1991. whether through programmes led by governments. In Uganda and Zimbabwe. In Uzbekistan. primarily wheat. the Sunday School Programme provides an educational environment for children who are excluded from traditional classrooms. In Viet Nam. often have a positive influence on the lives of other women. The centre trains communitybased groups on women’s issues. Developed by women in the community who wanted to improve the social services available to the families of disabled children. on average. male and female activists are campaigning against genderbased violence. which focused on femaleheaded households. the organization’s campaign and training has increased the number of women requesting legal assistance from the Indonesia Women’s Association for Justice. the programme caters to the emotional and practical needs of families. While boys’ school enrolment increased by nearly 30 per cent. The groups are then equipped with modules to conduct succession training until the information reaches village level. who consumed. promoted school attendance and reduced drop-out rates. Non-governmental organizations are actively involved in the campaign for women’s rights in Indonesia. the women of Angren City Municipality have given young disabled children and their mothers a new source of hope. UNICEF programmes are attempting to foster the socialization of girls and boys as a means of stemming the spread of HIV/AIDS.2 million students enrolled in schools with FFE received food grains. See References. non-governmental organizations or those driven by the community. studies show that women’s participation in community initiatives can have longlasting benefits for women and children. thus delaying marriage and improving their income-earning potential. The success of the programme. Programme evaluations also revealed that mothers involved were more likely to receive work-related social and medical benefits than other non-participating working mothers. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Bangladesh. Women who are empowered to take action. The programme successfully increased primary school enrolment.Women’s participation in community-based initiatives across the developing world Across the developing world. organizing the programmes and encouraging mothers.50 82 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . About 40 per cent of the 5. According to the Asian Development Bank. Women play a crucial role in the school’s success. Throughout Afghanistan. Bangladesh. was reinforced by the positive outcomes for the children. UNICEF has mobilized men to promote the use of oral rehydration salts to treat diarrhoea and to increase immunization coverage. Lessons learned from the FFE programme. Guatemala. proteins and iron and 50 per cent more vitamin A than children in the control group. many of whom rarely participate in social events outside of the household. to enrol their children. Since 1986. in Guatemala. encourage the participation of both men and women can help to increase communication between the sexes and encourage a more even division of childcare responsibilities. In addition. including survival strategies and skills for building support networks to cope with violence against women. By providing a safe and supportive environment in which disabled children and their parents can learn and socialize. another leading non-governmental organization.

52 Research and data on the situation of women and girls There is broad recognition of the impact that discrimination has on the lives of women. Evidence shows that fathers are more likely to stop abusive treatment towards mothers if they have been exposed to information on how gender-based violence adversely affects their children. But an overwhelming lack of sex-disaggregated statistics often results in scant or weak quantitative research on the issues that affect women and. This report has shown that there is sufficient data and research on women and girls to outline where their rights are violated and illustrate the negative impacts these violations can have on children.© UNICEF/HQ06-0656/Josh Estey Another strategy for increasing men’s support for gender equality involves policies that aim to redistribute benefits to men and women more equitably. In Sweden. Evidence from the ‘Nordic experiment’ illustrates how this works. In Scandinavian countries.51 Challenging gender stereotypes and changing attitudes Advocacy initiatives designed to educate men and women on the benefits of gender equality and joint decision-making can help nurture a more cooperative relationship between men and women. a combination of government and non-government initiatives contributed to a dramatic increase in the availability of paternity leave for men. Research and data are sorely lacking in several key areas listed below. REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 83 . in turn. for 62 countries no recent national data were available and estimates therefore had to be based on models. Nonetheless. • Maternal mortality: While 111 countries produced data based on registration systems and other surveys. for instance. thanks in large part to the growing popularity of paternal leave. children. fathers now assume responsibility for 45 per cent of childcare responsibilities. much more needs to be known about many of the most important aspects of women’s lives and the impact discrimination has on those around them.

The success of the Program H initiative in Brazil has inspired similar programmes in other countries in the region. is implementing one such gendersensitive programme. with only 105 providing data on occupational segregation by sex. 67 countries or areas have conducted time use surveys. the belief that childcare is a woman’s job and that there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten). See References. men and children. A Brazilian non-governmental organization. Program H (the H refers to homens. Europe and Asia account for almost three quarters of these countries.58 • Unpaid work and time use: Since 1995. The number of young male participants (aged 15 to 28) who supported the statement that “a woman’s most important role is to take care of the home and cook” declined from 41 per cent in the pretest to 29 per cent after completion of the programme. or men in Portuguese) encourages young men to respect their partners. and yet just under half (52) of the 108 countries or territories that reported wage data were also able to provide disaggregation by sex. sub-Saharan Africa and the United States. A further 30 countries have surveys completed that cover parts of the country. Efforts to compile and release sex-disaggregated data on female completion rates at the primary.53 • Violence against women: Only 38 countries in the world have conducted at least one national survey on violence against women since 1995. only 60 countries have produced data on informal employment. UNICEF has joined with other UN agencies and institutions to create a partnership dedicated to producing more comprehensive and accurate data. and to take precautions to avoid HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.55 • Labour force.56 • Wage statistics: This is a vital area where discrimination affects women and their children. with again the vast majority in CEE/CIS and South and East Asia. show that men who complete the programme are less likely to support traditional gender norms (for example. Evaluations of the group meetings. Instituto Promundo. where young men discuss the consequences of high-risk lifestyle choices. secondary and tertiary levels of education must also be strengthened. preliminary findings suggest that men’s attitudes towards women have changed. billboards and dances.57 • Informal employment: Even with an internationally agreed-upon definition of informal employment. respectively. for example. to avoid using violence against women. page 88.59 84 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . sex-disaggregated data on literacy and school attendance are available for only 112 and 96 countries. Promundo challenges traditional male attitudes by promoting the idea that it is ‘cool and hip’ to be a more gender-equitable man. In India. unemployment and occupational distribution: Just over half the world’s 204 countries and territories provided sex- disaggregated data on these fundamental areas of work. and in many cases these statistics are not fully comparable. school attendance and literacy: While there are significant data disaggregated by sex on school enrolment. Only seven countries in Africa and three in South America have collected such data. where programmes modelled on the Program H approach have been adopted. as well as in Asia. Through a creative blend of radio announcements.Program H: Challenging gender stereotypes and changing attitudes in Brazil and other countries Advocacy initiatives designed to educate men and women on the benefits of gender equality and joint decision-making can help nurture a more cooperative relationship between them.54 • Enrolment. with positive results for women.

Note: ‘Countries with data’ includes only countries where data are based on censuses. The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. but rather the significant discrepancy between the resources invested in the excellent and careful collection of data in some areas. 2006. although United Cities and Local Governments has collected data in more than 70 countries. Source: United Nations. for example.60 Data on women’s participation in local government are relatively scarce. The World’s Women 2005: Progress in statistics. REAPING THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY 85 . United Nations.• Women’s participation in national and local governments: The Inter-Parliamentary Union collects data on the number of women in parliaments and how the numbers have changed over time. In other words. let alone in areas such as informal employment. even if difficult to collect. time use and wages. however. An additional 30 countries have surveys covering part of the country. are not easy to collect as they require detailed and rapidly updated economic information. Collecting data on violence and trafficking. However. In some areas. and lack of data in others. not countries where data are derived from modelled estimates. a Data from censuses only. Financial statistics such as inflation. New York. collection of data is much more difficult than in others.61 • Women in peace negotiations and peacebuilding: No systematic data are available on women participating as parties to peace negotiations. 1995–2003* Occupational distribution Literacya Women’s participation in local government Unpaid work and time use Informal employment Wage statistics School attendance a 187 111 108 81 70 67 60 52 41 38 0 50 100 150 62 17 96 123 134 137 144 152 163 166 200 250 Violence against womenb Number of countries *Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. With the exception of the statistics made available by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. yet they are available almost universally – even in the poorest countries. poses more methodological problems than data on women in national parliaments. they are there. it is not only a question of capacity but also one of political will to invest in data collection.3 In many countries sex-disaggregated data are not available for key indicators Countries with data Countries without data Primary school enrolment Maternal mortality Indicators. for example. a household survey programme developed by UNICEF to Figure 5. While country-led censuses and surveys are the centrepiece of statistical collection. When statistics are a priority. no systematic data are available about women involved in different dimensions of peace-building. other approaches can rapidly produce data even where statistical capacity is limited. the lack of data in many key areas reflects not the difficulties of data collection. But many countries. b Includes only data from national surveys. do not currently have the statistical capacity to regularly collect the most basic disaggregated statistical series. Department of Social and Economic Affairs. surveys or other sources. particularly poorer ones.

Partnering to provide improved estimates of maternal mortality
Each year, over 500,000 women die as a result of pregnancy-related causes, and many others suffer lifelong health complications. Reducing maternal mortality is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals, but it is also among the most difficult to monitor owing to difficulties in measuring maternal mortality. In some cases, measurement is complicated by a lack of data; maternal deaths often go unrecorded in countries that lack reliable civil registration of births and deaths, or where the cause of death is not adequately classified or reported. Even in those countries with robust civil registration systems, maternal deaths are often misclassified or attributed to other causes – particularly if the pregnancy status of the woman is not known or recorded. UNICEF is collaborating with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to improve the information base on maternal mortality. Building on more than a decade of inter-agency collaboration and cooperation, UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA are pooling their expertise to pioneer a new approach to estimating the number of women dying from causes related to or aggravated by pregnancy. The methodology developed for the project will correct existing data discrepancies and generate estimates for countries that currently lack data. The group’s joint work will also enhance data collection and dissemination by compiling and reviewing country concerns to ensure widespread acceptance of final estimates on maternal mortality, obtaining the most recently reported national data from their country and regional offices and organizing interregional consultations to discuss underlying statistical issues.

See References, page 88.

assist countries in filling data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women, is capable of producing statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of key indicators. One of the three questionnaires focuses on women aged 15–49 and currently includes questions on assets and security of tenure. Another valuable source of household data is the Demographic and Health Surveys, which include 200 surveys in 75 countries. Surveys such as these provide effective vehicles for getting in-depth information on the economic situation of women, as well as the prevalence of domestic violence and other forms of gender discrimination at the household level.

showing how far we have come, the assessment of this report underlines how far there is to go. Eliminating gender discrimination will produce a double dividend, fulfilling the rights of women and going a long way towards realizing those of children as well. With concerted efforts, real progress, based on respect, universal human rights and equal opportunities for women and men alike, can be made towards transforming discriminatory attitudes behaviours, customs, laws, institutions and practices in society. Effective partnerships involving governments, donors and international agencies, can support this process through the design and implementation of human-rightsbased development strategies. Tackling gender discrimination requires a different approach to policymaking. Generally, the key actors in policy decisions are governments. In areas such as debt or trade, for example, economists, members of the public and business leaders may be influential, but the decision to act rests with the governing authorities. Although governments and donors

The time is now
The progress that has been made fighting gender discrimination is positive: girls are catching up with boys in school attendance and performance, and in a few developing countries and regions have surpassed them; more women are economically active and in higher level positions than ever before; and the number of women in parliament is increasing year after year. But, in addition to

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have a key role in addressing gender discrimination and inequality through legislation, policies and funding for key programmes, the core agents of change are an altogether more diverse group that includes all members of society, and women and girls themselves. These are the individuals and groups who hold the power to eliminate gender discrimination and inequalities through everyday attitudes, behaviours and practices. The challenge to achieve such change is as exhilarating as it is daunting. It is not simply a question of producing a big decision by an important body, which would be in many ways a simpler task to conceptualize and approach. It requires societies to examine openly and honestly the extent of gender discrimination and rights violations suffered by women and girls, and commit themselves to eliminating its root causes. Although challenging at times, this process will be worth the

reward. Every person who argues that women have an equal place in decision-making forums, every community that demands girls go to school, and every government committed to ensuring that violence, abuse, exploitation and discrimination against women have no place in society brings the double dividend of gender equality a step closer for this and future generations of women and children.

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REFERENCES
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Gender discrimination across the life cycle Information derived from: Gorman, Mark, Age and Security: How social pensions can deliver effective aid to poor older people and their families, HelpAge International, London, 2004, p. 5.

Preparation of the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women began in 1976. King, Elizabeth M., and Andrew D. Mason, ‘Engendering Development Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice’, World Bank and Oxford University Press, Washington, D.C., January 2001, pp. 78-83. Information derived from United Nations, ‘Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General’, <http://untreaty.un.org/ English/Bible/englishinternetbible/partI/chapterIV/ treaty10.asp>, accessed September 2006. Lawn, Joy E., Simon Cousens and Jelka Zupan, ‘4 Million Neonatal Deaths: When? Where? Why?, Series on Neonatal Survival 1, The Lancet.com, March 2005, p. 5. Information on population by sex in Asia derived from United Nations Population Division, ‘World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision Database’, <http://esa.un.org/unpp>, accessed September 2006. World Health Organization, WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women: Initial results of prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses, Summmary Report, WHO, Geneva, 2005, p. xiii. United Nations Population Fund, The State of the World’s Population, UNFPA, New York, 2005, p. 66. Derived from websites of national governments and from Inter-Parliamentary Union, ‘Women in Politics: 60 years in retrospect’, IPU, Geneva, February 2006, Data Sheet No. 4. Note: The figure for total women Heads of State and Government in 2006 includes of the Government of the Netherlands Antilles, which is an autonomous country within the Netherlands. Queens and Governor Generals are not included in the figure cited. Information derived from Inter-Parliamentary Union, ‘Women in Politics: 60 years in retrospect’, op. cit. United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, ‘Beijing at 10: Putting policy into practice’, in Women and Poverty: New challenge, INSTRAW, <www.un-instraw.org/en/images/ stories/Beijing/womenandpoverty.pdf>. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, ‘Literacy Estimates, International Literacy Day 2005, <www.uis.unesco.org>. Otunnu, Olara A., ‘Special Comment’ on Children and Security, Disarmament Forum, No. 3, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, Geneva, 2002, pp. 3-4. Waring, Marilyn, et al., Politics: Women’s insights, Inter-Parliamentary Union, Geneva, 2000, p. 134.

Gupta, Neeru, and Mary Mahy, Adolescent ChildBearing in Sub-Saharan Africa: Can increased schooling alone raise ages at first birth?’, Demographic Research, vol. 8, 14 February 2003. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS, Geneva, 2006, pp. 505-506. Based on 2005 estimates. Islamic Republic of Iran (2000), Iraq (2004), Jordan (2001), Morocco (2001), Saudi Arabia (2003). East Asia and Pacific: China (2001), Indonesia (2001), Philippines (2001), Republic of Korea (2001), Singapore (2002), Viet Nam (2001). Sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria (2000), South Africa (2001), Uganda (2001), United Republic of Tanzania (2001). Higher income countires: Austria (1999), Belgium (1999), Canada (2000), Denmark (1999), Finland (2000), France (1999), Greece (1999), Iceland (1999), Ireland (1999), Israel (2001), Italy (1999), Japan (2000), Luxembourg (1999), Malta (1999), Netherlands (1999), Portugal (1999), Spain (2000), Sweden (1999), United Kingdom (1999), United States (1999). Countries in transition: Albania (2002), Belarus (2000), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001), Bulgaria (1999), Croatia (1999), Czech Republic (1999), Estonia (1999), Hungary (1999), Kyrgyzstan (2003), Latvia (1999), Lithuania (1999), Montenegro (2001), Poland (1999), Republic of Moldova (2002), Romania (1999), Russian Federation (1999), Serbia (2001), Slovakia (1999), Slovenia (1999), The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (2001). The percentages refer to the proportion of respondents who agreed or strongly agreed with the following statements: • “University is more important for a boy than for a girl.” • “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than a woman.” • “Husbands and wives should both contribute to income.” • “Men make better political leaders than women do.” Figure 1.4 More than 1 our of every 4 births to an adolescent mother (aged 15-19) occurs in the least developed countries Country composition of regional groups: More developed regions comprise all regions of Europe plus Northern America, Australia/New Zealand and Japan. Less developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin America and the Caribbean plus Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. The list of least developed countries can be found in Summary indicators, p. 136. These countries are also included in the less developed regions. For the full breakdown of these regions, see United Nations Population Division, ‘ World Population Prospects; The 2004 Revision Database’, <http://esa.un.org/unpp>.

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Figure 1.2 Men’s discriminatory attitudes towards women vary across regions but are significant everywhere Technical note: Methodology used to derive regional and country aggregates from the World Values Survey The World Values Survey <www.worldvalues survey.org> is a worldwide investigation of sociocultural and political change. It is conducted by a network of social scientists at leading universities around the world. Interviews have been carried out with nationally representative samples of the public in more than 80 societies on all six inhabited continents. A total of four waves have been carried out since 1981, with the latest wave being carried out between 1999 and 2004. All the data used in this Report come from the latest wave (1999–2004). Data for key questions regarding attitudes towards gender relations used for the report were accessed on 1 June 2006 for all countries with available data in the latest phase <www.worldvaluessurvey.org/services/index.html>. The data were then extracted using the World Values Survey data extraction tool (cross-tabs) and aggregated. In cases of countries with two surveys, the most recent survey was used. In the rare case of countries with two surveys for the same dates, an average of the two surveys was used. Data were compiled for a series of questions relevant to the Report. For each question the World Values Survey provides data for ‘Men’, ‘Women’ and ‘Total’. The data used in the Report vary according to the context, but are clearly labelled in each case. In some figures and occasions in the text, data from countries within the same regional group were compiled as averages. Regions are based on UNICEF classification with the exceptions of clustering ‘countries in transition’ and ‘highincome countries’ separately, in order to separate opinions from these groupings of countries. In each case in the text or figure, the full list of countries used from each region is listed. Countries with data from the World Values Survey (year of survey indicated in parentheses): South Asia: Bangladesh (2002), India (2001), Pakistan (2001). Latin America and the Caribbean: Argentina (1999), Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (2000), Chile (2000), Mexico (2000), Peru (2001). Middle East and North Africa: Algeria (2002), Egypt (2000),

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women’s influence is measured by the differences between men’s and women’s ages. Nutrition. cit. International Food Policy Research Institute. and Andrew D. Elizabeth M. 2004. Washington. Lisa C. Malhotra. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates developed by WHO. United Nations Children’s Fund. op. 1-6. p. 2005.C. Data refer to women who do not participate in all four areas of household decision-making assessed from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Lisa C. UNICEF. Geneva. et al. et al. World Health Organization.org/unpp>. Elizabeth. Lisa C. 127-128. p. The Importance of Women’s Status for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries.. Florence.. Agnes. et al. op. Ibid. cit. 78-83. Smith. United Nations Population Fund and University of Aberdeen. 2006. Eritrea. November 2000.. pp. United Nations Children’s Fund. Nazek. health outcomes and women’s responses. New York. 2001. The State of World Population 2005. International Food Policy Research Institute. 3. 21. Colombia. New York. Adrienne Kols and Noureddine Abderrahim. Chapter 1 in Agnes Quisumbing. Washington D. 29-36. cit. ‘Latin American Women Leadership Study: A look at changing attitudes of Latin Americans toward gender and women’s leadership capabilities’. Quisumbing. Impact of Investments in Female Education on Gender Equality. in Sunitor Kishor. op. 126-131. 2003. ‘What Have We Learned from Research on Intrahousehold Allocation?’. Anju. 2006. D... The World Report on Violence and Health.. Madagascar. New York. May 2006. and Kiersten Johnson. cit. World Health Organization. The Importance of Women’s Status for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries. and United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. p. accessed September 2006. op. Smith.C. 189. pp. 13 14 15 16 2 17 3 18 4 19 20 21 5 22 23 6 24 7 Gallup Poll. United Nations Development Programme. Gender discrimination and inequalities across regions For the methodology and questions used to derive the aggregates from the World Values Survey. Smith. 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Population Council. Gender and Development: A synthesis of recent research. International Food Policy Research Institute. C. Ibid. Ministry of Finance and Privatization. <www. United Cities and Local Government statistics. accessed September 2006. pp. WHO. February 2004. Leadbetter.org>. United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Population Fund. Drude. 57. pp.55 56 57 58 59 60 Ibid. pp. 561-573. 13. Direction of Studies and Financial Preview. 2006. accessed September 2006. and Petia Topalova.org>. and International Information derived from: Dahlerup. in Linking Research and Action: Strengthening food assistance and food policy research.. Oxford. Policy Research Division Woking Papers No. and Family Policies in Latin America’. accessed September 2006. 25-26. and Earnings: Findings from the urban slums of Guatemala City’.html>. 2005. Population Council. 49-65 and 131-143. IPU/UNICEF. ‘Women Politicians. Inter-Parliamentary Union and United Nations Children’s Fund. January 2006. and Rome. Asian Development Bank. 202-203. Routledge Research in Comparative Politics Series. Global Campaign for Education. Quotas and Politics. Research Report 131. pp.100/ gender/working/ino002. ‘The Importance of Women’s Status for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries’. The ABC of Gender Responsive Education Policies: Guidelines for developing Education for All policies. p. World Health Organization. Women Waging Peace. Monitoring government’s commitments to women’s empowerment through gender-responsive budgets Information derived from: Budlender. 55. Ibid. Washington. p. et al. Esther Duflo. pp. March 2005. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates developed by WHO. Leslie Schwindt-Bayer.org/uclg/ index. 2002. Stockholm. University of Mississippi. 3-4.ca/gender-budgets/ ev-66716-201-1-DO_TOPIC. Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country studies and good practice. Kelly. 2004. ‘Social Safety Nets in Banglandesh: An assessment’. New York. A Fair Chance: Attaining gender equality in basic education by 2005. <www. United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative. Children. Gender Budget Initiatives. eds. International Monetary Fund. and Carlo del Ninno. April 2006. ‘Food for Education in Bangladesh’. ed. Information on the Sunday school programme is derived from UNICEF Uzbekistan. Akhter U. <www. pp. REFERENCES 97 . 36. 2004. no.org/content/aboutfawe.htm>. London.. Women in Parliament: Beyond the numbers.C. ‘Gender Budgeting’. 1. pp.html>.. 64.. 2006. Akhter U..C.camfed. ‘Increasing Women’s Political Representation: New trends in gender quotas’. Washington. Kingdom of Morocco. International Food Policy Research Institute. Elizabeth Powley. 84-97 and 117-132.ungei. Workshop on Violence against Women for Grassroots Women’s Groups. 2006. 2006. 1-10.. p. Inter-Parliamentary Union database. London. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.idrc. Washington. April 2003. Smith. Child Protection: A handbook for parliamentarians. June 2001. Helen. ‘Childcare. <www.asp&type= &L=EN&pon=1>. Issue Number 4. Nairobi. and Tessa Wardlaw. 2002. ADB Review. <www. p. Population Council/Horizons. Dhaka. Sylvia Chant. ‘Female Legislators and the Promotion of Women.org>. ‘Comparing Food and Cash for Schooling in Bangladesh’. <www. Gender Bias. <www. <www. Geneva. Hallman. eds. Swainson.. ‘Ending Violence Against Women’. D.. et al.C. UNIFEM (New York). ‘Maternal Mortality at the End of the Decade: Sign of progress?’. Forum for African Women Educationalists. World Bank Office.idrc.62. Lisa C. D. Washington D. 61 CHAPTER 5 PANELS Partnerships for girls’ education Information derived from: Campaign for Female Education. 2005. Horizons Research Update. Partnering to promote child rights and gender equality in political agendas Information derived from: Inter-Parliamentary Union and United Nations Children’s Fund. 21-22.org/wmn-e/classif. World Bank. Asian Development Bank. 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STATISTICAL TABLES
Economic and social statistics on the countries and territories of the world, with particular reference to children’s well-being.

General note on the data........................................................................................page 99 Explanation of symbols........................................................................................page 100 Under-five mortality rankings..............................................................................page 101 Summary indicators ..............................................................................................page 136 Measuring human development: An introduction to Table 10................................................................................page 137

TABLES

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Basic indicators............................................................................page 102 Nutrition ......................................................................................page 106 Health ..........................................................................................page 110 HIV/AIDS ......................................................................................page 114 Education ....................................................................................page 118 Demographic indicators ............................................................page 122 Economic indicators ..................................................................page 126 Women ........................................................................................page 130 Child protection ..........................................................................page 134 The rate of progress ..................................................................page 138

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STATISTICAL TABLES

Economic and social statistics on the countries and territories of the world, with particular reference to children’s well-being.

General note on the data
The data presented in the following statistical tables are accompanied by definitions, sources and explanations of symbols. Data from the responsible United Nations organization have been used wherever possible. Where such internationally standardized estimates do not exist, the tables draw on other sources, particularly data received from the appropriate UNICEF field office. Wherever possible, only comprehensive or representative national data have been used. More detailed information on methodology and sources of the data presented are available at <www.childinfo.org>. Data quality is likely to be adversely affected for countries that have recently suffered from human-caused or natural disasters. This is particularly true where basic country infrastructure has been fragmented or major population movements have occurred. Several of the indicators, such as the data for life expectancy, total fertility rates and crude birth and death rates, are part of the regular work on estimates and projections undertaken by the United Nations Population Division. These and other internationally produced estimates are revised periodically, which explains why some data will differ from earlier UNICEF publications.

Revisions
Several statistical tables have been revised this year. Table 1. Basic Indicators: A new indicator – neonatal mortality rate – has been added to the Basic Indicators table. Estimates for this indicator are presented for the year 2000. Table 3. Health: There are three major changes in this year’s child health indicators. • Improved drinking water and adequate sanitation: Data have been updated to include the latest estimates from the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation, which now refer to the year 2004. • Immunization: Coverage estimates, specifically for hepatitis B (HepB) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), are now also presented for countries where these vaccines have been dispensed in only parts of the country (such as India). In previous reports, no values were provided for countries with only partial coverage from these vaccines. • Suspected pneumonia: The term ‘suspected pneumonia’ is employed in place of ‘acute respiratory infections (ARI)’, which was used in previous editions. However, the data collection methodology has not changed, and estimates presented in previous reports are comparable to those in this year’s edition. The change in terminology was initially proposed and supported at an inter-agency meeting in 2004. The term ‘suspected pneumonia’ is a more accurate description of the data collected, as these data refer to children under five with cough and fast or difficult breathing, which are the key symptoms of pneumonia. ‘Acute respiratory infections’ is a more general term and refers to infections of either the upper or lower respiratory tract. Pneumonia is a severe infection of the lungs that accounts for a significant proportion of the ARI disease burden. Table 4. HIV/AIDS: Estimates of adults, children and women living with HIV have changed due to revisions by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to the estimates of HIV prevalence. These revisions are based on better and more precise information newly available from countries on the number of infections. UNAIDS also adjusted its reporting on the estimated

Mortality estimates
Each year, UNICEF includes in The State of the World’s Children mortality estimates, such as the infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, under-five deaths and, beginning this year, neonatal mortality rate, for at least two reference years. These figures represent the best estimates available at the time the report is produced and are based on the work of the Interagency Group for Mortality Estimation, which includes UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the UN Population Division. This Group updates these estimates every year, undertaking a detailed review of all newly available data points. At times, this review will result in adjustments to previously reported estimates. Therefore, estimates published in consecutive editions of The State of the World’s Children may not be comparable and should not be used for analyzing mortality trends over time. It is important to note that comparable under-five mortality estimates for the period 1970 to present are available for all countries at <www.childinfo.org>, and that this time series is based on the most recent estimates produced by the Interagency Group for Mortality Estimation.

S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S

99

STATISTICAL TABLES

Economic and social statistics on the countries and territories of the world, with particular reference to children’s well-being.

General note on the data (continued)
number of adults infected with HIV from 15–49 to 15+. This was done to reflect the increasing number of older adults who are infected. The changes in HIV prevalence, and to some extent changes in adult mortality estimates from the UN Population Division, have also affected the estimates of the numbers of orphans due to AIDS and to all causes. In addition, there have been changes to the organization of Table 4 in this year’s report. The columns have been reordered to reflect the priorities of the global campaign Unite for Children. Unite against AIDS, which focuses on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevention among young people, paediatric HIV, and protection and support for children affected by AIDS (the ‘Four Ps’). An additional indicator was included in the table that reports HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15–24). Finally, the ‘comprehensive knowledge of HIV’ indicator was changed to exclude two components previously included.

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)
UNICEF supports countries in collecting statistically robust and internationally comparable data through the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). MICS are a major data source for monitoring important international goals and targets, such as the Millennium Development Goals, ‘A World Fit for Children’ Plan of Action, the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS targets and the Abuja targets for malaria. Around 50 countries conducted MICS in 2005–2006. However, while these surveys were conducted in 2005-2006, the results were not available in time for inclusion in this edition of The State of the World’s Children. These data will be included in the next edition, and will also be published at <www.childinfo.org>.

Explanation of symbols
Because the aim of these statistical tables is to provide a broad picture of the situation of children and women worldwide, detailed data qualifications and footnotes are seen as more appropriate for inclusion elsewhere. The following symbols are common across all tables; symbols specific to a particular table are included in the table footnotes. x y * ‡ Data are not available. Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country. Such data are not included in the regional averages or totals. Data differ from the standard definition or refer to only part of a country but are included in the calculation of regional and global averages. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006, disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession. Includes territories within each country category or regional group. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136.

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disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 101 .Under-five mortality rankings The following list ranks countries and territories in descending order of their estimated 2005 under-five mortality rate (U5MR). Countries and territories are listed alphabetically in the tables that follow. Democratic Republic of the Equatorial Guinea Rwanda Guinea-Bissau Côte d’Ivoire Nigeria Central African Republic Burkina Faso Burundi Zambia Ethiopia Swaziland Benin Guinea Cameroon Mozambique Cambodia Togo Gambia Senegal Uganda Djibouti Lesotho Zimbabwe Iraq Malawi Mauritania Tanzania. Republic of Bahamas Bosnia and Herzegovina 63 62 61 58 55 49 45 43 42 42 40 40 39 39 38 38 37 36 36 35 33 33 33 31 30 30 29 29 29 29 27 27 27 27 26 26 25 24 24 24 23 23 21 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 17 17 17 16 15 15 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 76 76 78 78 80 80 82 83 83 85 86 86 86 89 90 90 92 92 92 92 96 96 96 96 100 100 102 103 103 103 106 106 108 108 108 108 108 113 113 113 113 117 117 117 117 121 121 121 121 125 125 125 128 129 129 Bulgaria Dominica Mauritius Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession)‡ Syrian Arab Republic Uruguay Saint Lucia Sri Lanka Seychelles Antigua and Barbuda Barbados Belarus Costa Rica Malaysia Oman Bahrain Kuwait Latvia Palau Chile Brunei Darussalam Lithuania United Arab Emirates Hungary Slovakia Croatia Cuba Estonia Poland United States Australia Canada Ireland Israel Malta New Zealand United Kingdom Austria Belgium Cyprus Denmark France Germany Greece Korea. Republic of Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands Portugal Spain Switzerland Czech Republic Finland Italy Japan Liechtenstein Norway Slovenia Sweden Andorra Iceland San Marino Singapore Holy See Niue Under-5 mortality rate (2005) Value Rank 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 10 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 129 129 129 129 129 129 137 137 139 140 140 140 140 140 140 146 146 146 146 150 151 151 151 154 154 156 156 156 156 156 161 161 161 161 161 161 161 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 182 182 182 182 182 182 182 182 190 190 190 190 - ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. Under-5 mortality rate (2005) Value Rank Sierra Leone Angola Afghanistan Niger Liberia Somalia Mali Chad Congo. a critical indicator of the well-being of children. Democratic People’s Republic of Mongolia Georgia Guatemala Maldives Micronesia (Federated States of) Honduras Morocco Algeria Suriname Tuvalu Vanuatu Nicaragua Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Cape Verde Brazil Egypt Philippines Dominican Republic Lebanon Nauru Armenia Samoa Solomon Islands Turkey China El Salvador Mexico Peru Jordan Saudi Arabia Ecuador Panama Tonga Tunisia Occupied Palestinian Territory Paraguay Colombia Grenada Qatar Thailand Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Cook Islands Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Romania Trinidad and Tobago Viet Nam Albania Argentina Fiji Russian Federation Belize The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Ukraine Moldova. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession. United Republic of Botswana Haiti Kenya Madagascar Sao Tome and Principe Ghana Congo Myanmar Turkmenistan Yemen Pakistan Gabon Sudan Azerbaijan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Eritrea Bhutan India Nepal Papua New Guinea Bangladesh Kazakhstan Comoros Tajikistan South Africa Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Bolivia Kiribati 282 260 257 256 235 225 218 208 205 205 203 200 195 194 193 191 190 182 164 160 150 150 149 145 143 139 137 136 136 133 132 132 125 125 125 122 120 120 120 119 118 112 108 105 104 102 99 91 90 89 79 78 75 74 74 74 73 73 71 71 68 68 67 65 65 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 30 31 31 33 33 33 36 37 37 37 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 54 54 57 57 59 59 61 61 63 64 64 Under-5 mortality rate (2005) Value Rank Guyana Namibia Timor-Leste Marshall Islands Korea.

of under-5 deaths (thousands) 2005 Net primary Life Total school GNI expectancy adult enrolment/ per capita at birth literacy attendance (US$) (years) rate (%) 2005 2005 2000-2004* 2000-2005* % share of household income 1994-2004* lowest highest 40% 20% Countries and territories Under-5 mortality rank Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.TABLE 1. BASIC INDICATORS Under-5 mortality rate 1990 2005 Infant mortality rate (under 1) 1990 2005 Neonatal mortality rate 2000 Total population (thousands) 2005 Annual no. of births (thousands) 2005 Annual no. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia 3 121 78 190 2 140 121 92 161 168 50 129 146 57 140 140 168 125 21 53 64 129 37 86 151 129 16 17 25 23 161 85 15 8 150 96 108 59 43 9 113 140 13 156 156 168 182 168 30 129 89 102 86 96 9 52 156 19 121 182 168 48 27 260 45 69 260 29 54 10 10 105 29 19 149 17 19 10 42 185 166 125 22 58 60 11 18 210 190 115 139 8 60 168 201 21 49 35 120 110 205 32 18 157 12 13 12 13 9 175 17 65 57 104 60 170 147 16 204 22 7 9 92 151 257 18 39 3 260 12 18 29 6 5 89 15 11 73 12 12 5 17 150 75 65 15 120 33 9 15 191 190 143 149 6 35 193 208 10 27 21 71 108 205 20 12 195 7 7 5 4 5 133 15 31 25 33 27 205 78 7 164 18 4 5 91 137 168 37 54 154 26 46 8 8 84 22 15 100 15 16 8 34 111 107 89 18 45 50 10 15 113 114 80 85 7 45 102 120 18 38 26 88 83 129 26 16 103 11 11 10 11 8 116 15 50 43 76 47 103 88 12 131 19 6 7 60 103 165 16 34 3 154 11 15 26 5 4 74 13 9 54 11 10 4 15 89 65 52 13 87 31 8 12 96 114 98 87 5 26 115 124 8 23 17 53 81 129 17 11 118 6 6 4 3 4 88 13 26 22 28 23 123 50 6 109 16 3 4 60 97 60 12 20 4 54 8 10 17 3 3 36 10 11 36 8 5 3 18 38 38 27 11 40 15 4 8 36 41 40 40 4 10 48 45 6 21 14 29 32 47 12 7 65 5 4 4 2 4 38 7 19 16 21 16 40 25 6 51 9 2 3 31 46 29863 3130 32854 67 15941 81 38747 3016 20155 8189 8411 323 727 141822 270 9755 10419 270 8439 2163 9182 3907 1765 186405 374 7726 13228 7548 14071 16322 32268 507 4038 9749 16295 1315844 45600 798 3999 57549 18 4327 18154 4551 11269 835 10220 5431 793 79 8895 13228 74033 6881 504 4401 1330 77431 848 5249 60496 1384 1517 1441 53 684 1 767 2 687 34 250 74 134 6 13 3747 3 91 110 7 348 64 265 36 45 3726 8 67 617 347 429 563 327 15 150 471 249 17310 968 28 177 2873 0 79 665 41 134 10 91 62 27 2 211 295 1909 166 22 170 13 3104 19 55 742 42 52 370 1 27 0 199 0 12 1 2 0 12 0 0 274 0 1 1 0 52 5 17 1 5 123 0 1 118 66 61 84 2 1 29 98 2 467 20 2 19 589 0 1 130 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 7 7 63 4 5 13 0 509 0 0 4 4 7 250x 2580 2730 d 1350 10920 4470 1470 32220 36980 1240 14920x 10840x 470 9270x 2760 35700 3500 510 870 1010 2440 5180 3460 24100x 3450 400 100 380 1010 32600 1870 350 400 5870 1740 2290 640 950 120 4590 840 8060 1170x 17580x 10710 47390 1020 3790 2370 2630 1250 2450 c 220 9100 160 3280 37460 34810 5010 290 47 74 72 41 75 72 81 79 67 71 75 64 76 68 79 72 55 64 65 74 34 71 77 73 48 44 57 46 80 71 39 44 78 72 73 64 53 44 78 46 75 78 79 76 78 53 68 75 70 71 42 55 72 48 68 79 80 54 57 28 99 70 67 97 99 99 87 100 35 87 97 81 89 93 98 22 59 74 68 49 26 96 91 93 67 95 49 98 100 97 87 91 71 87 100 - 53s 52s 97 89 58s 99 94 96 91s 84 86s 84s 97 90 99 95 54s 70s.y 78s 93s 82 96s.y 95 32s 47s 65s 79s 99 92 43s 36s 99 91s 31s 52s 77 56 87 96 96 100 33 88 86 98 83s 92 61s 67s 94 31s 96 99 99 94s 53s 23 19 10 21 18 22 28 22 22 22 19 7 24 7x 9 22 18 15 18 15 20 7x 10 14 9 12 14 21 25 23 12 11 21 10 19 22 24 20 14 37 43 57 43 41 38 31 41 38 41 45 63 36 70x 62 38 47 48 48 51 40 65x 62 50 63 55 51 40 36 36 57 58 44 56 43 39 37 40 53 102 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .

…TABLE 1 Under-5 mortality rate 1990 2005 Infant mortality rate (under 1) 1990 2005 Neonatal mortality rate 2000 Total population (thousands) 2005 Annual no. of under-5 deaths (thousands) 2005 Net primary Life Total school GNI expectancy adult enrolment/ per capita at birth literacy attendance (US$) (years) rate (%) 2005 2005 2000-2004* 2000-2005* % share of household income 1994-2004* lowest highest 40% 20% Under-5 mortality rank Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. of births (thousands) 2005 Annual no. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal 72 168 42 168 108 73 21 12 66 37 76 154 190 54 83 83 33 161 161 182 113 182 100 57 37 64 70 168 146 63 51 146 90 31 5 117 182 151 168 40 33 140 74 7 161 69 33 129 96 74 128 168 71 76 24 44 67 90 54 47 9 122 11 37 82 240 253 88 150 59 17 7 123 91 72 50 10 12 9 20 6 40 63 97 88 55 9 16 80 163 18 37 101 235 41 10 13 10 168 221 22 111 250 11 92 133 23 46 58 35 9 108 89 235 130 86 145 45 5 112 5 21 43 150 200 63 120 40 8 3 74 36 36 125 6 6 4 20 4 26 73 120 65 55 5 11 67 79 11 30 132 235 19 4 9 5 119 125 12 42 218 6 58 125 15 27 42 16 5 49 40 145 105 62 30 74 43 7 75 10 30 60 145 153 64 102 44 15 6 84 60 54 40 8 10 9 17 5 33 53 64 65 42 8 14 68 120 14 32 81 157 35 9 10 7 103 131 16 79 140 9 63 85 21 37 45 29 7 78 69 158 91 60 100 41 4 68 4 17 32 98 124 47 84 31 7 2 56 28 31 102 5 5 4 17 3 22 63 79 48 42 5 9 58 62 9 27 102 157 18 3 7 4 74 79 10 33 120 5 51 78 13 22 34 14 4 39 36 100 75 46 25 56 25 3 27 4 13 19 48 48 25 34 18 6 2 43 18 22 63 4 4 3 10 2 17 32 29 27 22 3 6 31 35 7 20 28 66 11 5 4 33 40 5 37 55 5 26 70 12 15 12 16 3 26 21 48 40 25 14 40 4474 82689 22113 11120 103 12599 9402 1586 751 8528 1 7205 10098 295 1103371 222781 69515 28807 4148 6725 58093 2651 128085 5703 14825 34256 99 22488 47817 2687 5264 5924 2307 3577 1795 3283 5853 35 3431 465 18606 12884 25347 329 13518 402 62 3069 1245 107029 110 4206 35 2646 31478 19792 50519 2031 14 27133 49 679 683 101 2 437 387 79 15 255 0 206 94 4 25926 4495 1348 978 64 134 528 52 1162 150 237 1361 2 342 457 51 116 205 21 66 50 167 136 0 31 6 712 555 547 10 661 4 2 126 20 2172 3 43 0 58 717 773 976 56 0 787 2 3 76 1 0 19 58 16 1 31 8 1 0 1919 162 49 122 0 1 2 1 5 4 17 163 0 19 2 1 8 16 0 2 7 39 3 0 0 0 85 69 7 0 144 0 0 16 0 59 0 1 0 3 29 112 102 3 0 58 1350 34580 450 19670 3920 2400 370 180 1010 450 1190 10030 46320 720 1280 2770 2170x 40150 18620 30010 3400 38980 2500 2930 530 1390 a 15830 16340x 440 440 6760 6180 960 130 5530 d 7050 65630 290 160 4960 2390 380 13590 2930 560 5260 7310 2300 880 d 690 1730 310 220x 2990 270 71 79 57 78 68 54 45 64 52 68 73 81 64 68 71 60 78 80 80 71 82 72 64 48 64 78 77 67 55 72 72 34 42 74 73 79 56 40 74 67 48 79 53 73 76 68 69 65 70 42 61 46 62 58 96 69 29 80 61 90 77 74 97 98 80 90 100 74 93 99 69 100 82 100 71 64 89 96 19 88 51 84 91 98 98 52 90 85 49 93 65 99 84 93 57s 39s 97s 55s 91 89 99 76s 94 89 78s 96 98 99 91 100 99s 93 76 97x 99 86 90 62s 93 65s 66 88 89 91 76s 82s. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova.y 93 90 39s 94 90 44s 95 98 86 84 86 60s 84s 74 78 16 22 16 19 10 17 14x 9 11 23 21 20 15 20 16 19 17 25x 18 19 16 22 22 20 18 6 18 13 13 13 13 17 13 20 16 17 17 4x 15 46 37 47 42 60 47 53x 63 58 37 43 43 50 42 45 42 46 36x 46 42 49 38 39 43 45 67 43 54 56 54 56 46 55 41 51 47 47 79x 55 S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 103 .

United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine 168 161 82 4 14 182 106 140 47 146 103 54 106 96 86 156 168 108 117 121 11 113 137 113 92 190 41 100 28 139 1 190 154 182 92 6 61 168 137 49 78 20 182 168 129 59 36 108 125 68 26 103 117 103 92 45 80 28 125 9 11 68 320 230 9 40 32 130 21 34 94 41 78 62 18 14 26 31 27 173 36 21 25 50 14 118 44 148 19 302 9 14 10 38 225 60 9 32 120 48 110 7 9 39 115 161 37 38 177 152 32 33 52 82 97 54 160 26 5 6 37 256 194 4 23 12 99 11 24 74 23 27 33 7 5 21 19 18 203 20 14 20 29 3 118 26 136 13 282 3 8 4 29 225 68 5 14 90 39 160 4 5 15 71 122 21 17 61 139 24 19 24 29 104 38 136 17 7 8 52 191 120 7 34 25 100 18 27 69 33 58 41 19 11 21 27 21 103 30 20 22 40 13 75 35 90 17 175 7 12 8 31 133 45 8 26 74 35 78 6 7 31 91 102 31 33 133 88 26 28 41 67 80 42 93 19 4 5 30 150 100 3 21 10 79 10 19 55 20 23 25 6 4 18 16 14 118 18 12 17 24 3 75 21 77 12 165 3 7 3 24 133 55 4 12 62 30 110 3 4 14 59 76 18 15 52 78 20 17 20 26 81 31 79 13 4 4 18 43 53 13 3 6 57 14 11 32 16 16 15 6 3 5 9 9 45 12 10 11 13 2 38 12 31 9 56 1 5 4 12 49 21 3 11 29 18 38 2 3 9 38 43 13 9 40 40 10 13 14 22 35 22 32 9 16299 4028 5487 13957 131530 1 4620 3702 2567 157935 20 3232 5887 6158 27968 83054 38530 10495 813 21711 143202 9038 43 161 119 185 28 157 24573 11658 81 5525 4326 5401 1967 478 8228 47432 43064 20743 36233 449 1032 9041 7252 19043 6507 38329 64233 2034 947 6145 102 1305 10102 73193 4833 10 28816 46481 187 54 154 750 5377 0 54 138 64 4773 0 70 174 177 628 2018 365 111 14 211 1540 375 1 3 2 5 0 5 671 423 3 252 39 51 17 15 366 1082 454 329 1166 9 29 96 67 532 185 1408 1009 23 49 236 2 19 166 1500 108 0 1468 392 1 0 6 192 1043 0 3 1 473 0 2 13 4 17 67 3 1 0 4 28 76 0 0 0 0 0 1 17 58 0 71 0 0 0 0 82 74 2 5 105 0 5 0 0 8 13 172 21 0 3 33 0 0 4 44 11 0 200 7 36620 25960 910 240 560 59590 1110x 7830x 690 7630 4630 660 1280 2610 1300 7110 16170 12000x 3830 4460 230 8210 4800 3590 2090 d 390 11770 710 8290 220 27490 7950 17350 590 130x 4960 25360 1160 640 2540 2280 41060 54930 1380 330 340 2750 2830 750 350 2190 10440 2890 4710 1340x 280 1520 79 79 70 45 44 80 73 75 64 75 56 71 71 71 75 78 73 72 65 44 73 71 71 63 72 56 41 79 74 77 63 47 46 80 74 57 70 30 80 81 74 64 46 71 74 56 55 73 70 74 69 63 49 66 77 29 92 81 50 92 57 88 93 89 97 99 65 79 39 92 35 93 82 91 61 90 80 80 99 69 93 96 53 99 74 87 99 67 99 99 99 80s 30s 60 99x 99 92s.y 78 56s 96 98 96s 97 88s 97 99 95 92 91 73 94 98 94 90 84s 59 66 96 41s 98 80 12s 89 99 99 58s 92 77 99 94 95 89s 73s 92 75s. BASIC INDICATORS Under-5 mortality rate 1990 2005 Infant mortality rate (under 1) 1990 2005 Neonatal mortality rate 2000 Total population (thousands) 2005 Annual no.y 70s 91x 92 97 89 76s 87s 82 21 18 15 10 15 24 22 9 12 9 10 14 19 17 21 17 23x 17 3x 14 24 23 10 19 21 9 23 20 20 19 16 17 16x 16 15 16 16 23 39 44 49 53 49 37 40 60 57 61 59 52 42 46 39 47 39x 48 63x 49 35 36 62 42 42 64 37 41 41 42 49 46 46x 47 50 48 50 38 104 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .TABLE 1. of under-5 deaths (thousands) 2005 Net primary Life Total school GNI expectancy adult enrolment/ per capita at birth literacy attendance (US$) (years) rate (%) 2005 2005 2000-2004* 2000-2005* % share of household income 1994-2004* lowest highest 40% 20% Under-5 mortality rank Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania. of births (thousands) 2005 Annual no.

Income share – Percentage of income received by the 20 per cent of households with the highest income and by the 40 per cent of households with the lowest income. Under-five deaths – UNICEF. Adult literacy – United Nations Educational. GNI per capita in US dollars is converted using the World Bank Atlas method. x Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. of under-5 deaths (thousands) 2005 Net primary Life Total school GNI expectancy adult enrolment/ per capita at birth literacy attendance (US$) (years) rate (%) 2005 2005 2000-2004* 2000-2005* % share of household income 1994-2004* lowest highest 40% 20% Under-5 mortality rank United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 151 161 156 129 61 80 108 117 46 18 31 15 10 12 23 79 62 33 53 139 180 80 9 6 7 15 68 38 21 19 102 182 132 13 8 9 21 65 48 27 38 98 101 53 8 5 6 14 57 31 18 16 76 102 81 5 4 5 7 27 19 12 15 37 40 33 4496 59668 298213 3463 26593 211 26749 84238 20975 11668 13010 69 659 4165 57 615 6 593 1648 845 472 384 1 4 29 1 42 0 12 31 86 86 51 18060x 37600 43740 4360 510 1600 4810 620 600 490 340 79 79 78 76 67 69 73 71 62 38 37 74 93 90 68 - 71 99 92 95s 94 92 94 75 57s 82 18 16 14 23 14 19 20 16 13 44 46 51 36 49 45 41 49 56 MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 129 28 15 24 12 9 10503 121 2 3280 74 96 96 - SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 188 166 209 81 129 58 54 53 10 105 182 95 169 146 190 54 84 33 31 35 6 83 153 76 112 104 119 59 89 43 43 43 9 71 115 65 101 93 108 43 63 26 26 29 5 57 97 52 44 40 48 26 44 20 15 18 4 33 43 30 713457 356126 357331 378532 1483358 1952656 555853 404322 961191 5238533 759389 6449371 28715 13575 15140 9743 37077 29820 11651 5595 10848 120128 28258 133449 4853 1982 2877 526 3114 984 361 196 65 9971 4323 10142 764 1043 491 2627 691 2092 4078 3433 35410 1801 383 7002 46 46 46 69 64 71 72 67 79 65 53 68 62 73 49 72 59 91 90 97 79 60 80 61 66 56 80 74 96 94 90 96 81 62 82 11 10 14 16 22 17 13 22 21 17 11 20 59 61 51 47 41 48 53 39 40 48 57 42 ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.000 live births. GNI per capita – World Bank. c: Range upper-middle income ($3.465). DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Under-five mortality rate – Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1. s National household survey data. Net primary school enrolment/attendance ratios – Derived from net primary school enrolment rates as reported by UNESCO Institute for Statistics and from national household survey reports of attendance at primary school or higher. GNI per capita – Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers. differ from the standard definition. The net primary school attendance ratio is defined as the percentage of children in the age group that officially corresponds to primary schooling eligibility who attend primary school or higher.000 live births. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. Infant mortality rate – Probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1.726 or more). Adult literacy rate – Percentage of the population aged 15 and older who can read and write. Neonatal mortality rate – World Health Organization using vital registration systems and household surveys.466 to $10. . of births (thousands) 2005 Annual no. Life expectancy – United Nations Population Division.…TABLE 1 Under-5 mortality rate 1990 2005 Infant mortality rate (under 1) 1990 2005 Neonatal mortality rate 2000 Total population (thousands) 2005 Annual no. Life expectancy at birth – The number of years newborn children would live if subject to the mortality risks prevailing for their cross section of the population at the time of their birth.725). including the Education for All 2000 Assessment. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 105 . Neonatal mortality rate – Probability of dying during the first 28 completed days of life expressed per 1. World Health Organization. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. Births – United Nations Population Division. MAIN DATA SOURCES Under-five and infant mortality rates – UNICEF. but are included in the calculation of regional and global averages. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. Household income – World Bank. plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. United Nations Population Division and United Nations Statistics Division. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). or refer to only part of a country. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). Total population – United Nations Population Division. GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population. School enrolment/attendance – UIS. b: Range lower-middle income ($876 to $3.Data not available.000 live births. y Data differ from the standard definition or refer to only part of a country. NOTES a: Range low income ($875 or less). d: Range high income ($10.

k 5 23 41 10 35 38 24 24 52 49 47x.k - 29 24 38 77 57 39 65x 69 54 66 74 57 30 38 46 72 79 64 77 77 47 32 65 34 78 79 47x 73 42 41 70 67 76 43 54 - 54 6 22 37 15 16 41x 90 23 62 46 11 17 81 85 59 29 13 53 65 15 32 45 21 52 12x 38 9 16 25 37 43 62 86 - 39 14 10 31 4 4 7 9x 48 23 19 8 4 13 6 38 45 45 18 24 37 1 8 7 25 15 31 5 17 1 4 27 5 12 6 10 19 40 38 - 12 1 3 8 0 1 2x 13 5 3 1 1 2 1 14 13 13 4 6 14 1 3 9 0 5 0 8 1 1 1 4 12 11 - 7 11 8 6 1 5 2 5x 13 8 3 1 6 5 2 19 8 15 5 9 14 0 1 8 7 13 2 7 1 2 18 2 4 1 7 13 11 - 54 34 19 45 4 13 13 10x 43 31 40 27 10 23 11 39 57 45 32 39 41 1 14 12 44 26 38 6 21 1 5 23 9 26 18 19 39 38 47 - 96t 77 14 83t 94t 42 62w 95t 94 72t 81 79 84t 7 94 81t 60 50 52 - 28 62 69 35 90x 97 26 70 55 90x 72 95 90 62 66 88 98 45 96 14 88 0x 86 56 100 93 92x 82 72 97x 84 90 88 18 99 78 62 33 68 28 31x - 106 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . NUTRITION % of children (1996-2005*) who are: % of infants with low birthweight 1998-2005* exclusively breastfed (< 6 months) breastfed with complementary food (6-9 months) still breastfeeding (20-23 months) % of under-fives (1996-2005*) suffering from: underweight moderate & severe severe wasting moderate & severe stunting moderate & severe Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months) 2004 % of households consuming iodized salt 1998-2005* Countries and territories Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France 5 7 12 8 8 7 7 7 12 7 8 36 11 5 8x 6 16 15 7 4 10 8 10 10 19 16 11 13 6 13 14 22 6 4 9 25 12 3 7 17 6 5 7 5 16 11 11 16 12 7 13 14 4 15 10 4 7 6 13 11 33 7 34x.TABLE 2.k 36 24k 38 54 6 34 19 62 12 24 57k 17 2 63 51 47 21 19 24 19k 35x.

k 65 12k 24 23 27k 36 35 67 53 29k 10 25 63x. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.k 20 21k 60k 46 51 31 30 15k 19 62 37 12 62 67 41 36 42 73 61 44 75 51 70 73 84 31 26 77 10 35 79 70 78 78 85 32 78 66 55 66 80 66 57 9 54 12 67 47 71 67 31 30 34 66 59 0 27 12 17 57 37 9 21 47 11 60 45 23x 64 80 12 69 57 2 57 15 65 67 37 12 17 3 22 23 26 25 14 17 17 47 28 11 12 4 4 4 20 23 10 11 40 4 20 26 5x 42 22 11 30 33 32 15x 8 4 7 10 24 32 24 2 4 0 5 4 7 7 3 4 2 18 9 2 3 1 0 4 8 3 2 13 4 8 1x 11 5 1 7 11 10 2x 1 1 1 2 6 7 5 3 8 2 7 2 9 10 11 5 1 16 5 8 4 2 2 6 7 11 3 15 5 4 6 3x 13 5 13 11 13 14x 2 4 3 9 4 9 9 21 19 12 30 49 35 30 11 23 29 46 15 23 3 9 10 30 37 24 25 42 11 38 39 15x 48 48 25 38 35 10x 18 8 20 18 41 32 24 27 95 18w 95t 64 40 51w 73t 63 58 95t 95 48 71 95 89t 57 97 24 95t 74 93t 26 96t - 36 8 68 28 67 68 2 11 80 57 73 94 40 100 88 83 91 40 42 75 92 91 90x 75 49 44 74 2 0x 91 59 75 59 54 60 63 S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 107 .…TABLE 2 % of children (1996-2005*) who are: % of infants with low birthweight 1998-2005* exclusively breastfed (< 6 months) breastfed with complementary food (6-9 months) still breastfeeding (20-23 months) % of under-fives (1996-2005*) suffering from: underweight moderate & severe severe wasting moderate & severe stunting moderate & severe Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months) 2004 % of households consuming iodized salt 1998-2005* Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia 14 17 7 7 16 8 8 12 16 22 13 21 14 9 4 30 9 7x 15 6 8 6 10 8 12 8 10 5 7 4 7 7x 14 5 6 13 7x 4 8 17 16 9 22 23 6 12 14 8 18 5 7 15 15 15 14 6 26 18k 53 39k 51 27 37 11 24 35 37k 40 44 12 27 36 13 80x. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova.

NUTRITION % of children (1996-2005*) who are: % of infants with low birthweight 1998-2005* exclusively breastfed (< 6 months) breastfed with complementary food (6-9 months) still breastfeeding (20-23 months) % of under-fives (1996-2005*) suffering from: underweight moderate & severe severe wasting moderate & severe stunting moderate & severe Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months) 2004 % of households consuming iodized salt 1998-2005* Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania.k 59x.k 25x 59 22 64 34 12k 16 90 56k 56 31k 34 4 65k 9 7 53 16 9 24 81k 41 41 4x. United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu 21 6 12 13 14 0 5 9 8 19x 9 10 11x 9 11 20 6 8 10 8 6 9 9 10 10 4x 20 11x 18 23 8 7 6 13x 15 6x 22 31 13 9 4 6 6 15 10 9 6 12 18 0 23 7 16 6 5 68 31 1 17 29k 16x.TABLE 2.k 37 31 18 62k 2 47 21 13 - 66 68 56 64 78 92 31x 38x 74 60 81 58 48 41 69 53 60 61 51 13 46 47 25 60 50 91 91 71x 8 82 65 19 38 71 - 92 39 61 34 11 73 56x 21x 66 41 32 21 77 42 30 42 53 8 73 40 11 25 6 55 55 27x 10 35 65 10 22 24 27 - 48 10 40 29 5 18 38 8 5 8 28 6x 3 3x 23 13 14 17 27 3 26 12 29 41 13 10 7 22 18x 6 46 25 6 4 4 12 - 13 2 14 9 1 1 13 1 0 0 1x 4 2 3 3 9 0 7 2 15 2 2 1 4 2x 1 15 7 1 1 1 2 - 10 2 14 9 3 7 13 1 1 1 6 2x 2 4x 4 4 11 8 10 2 17 3 14 16 7 1 4 5 3 5x 4 12 12 4 2 1 6 - 51 20 40 38 10 10 37 18 14 24 30 8x 10 13x 45 29 20 16 34 2 23 25 14 43 10 30 18 36 38 13x 7 49 22 4 12 12 22 - 97t 98 85t 95w 95t 32 85t 95t 76t 95 95t 6 37 57w 70 86 98t 94t 43 95t - 63 83 97 15 97 64 61 17 95 88 91 56 53 35 90 100 74 41 23 62 94 1 59 79 28 43 63 94 72 67 1 97 64 100 - 108 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .

Identifies countries that have achieved a second round of vitamin A coverage greater than or equal to 70 per cent. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. Iodized salt consumption – Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt (15 ppm or more). Refers to exclusive breastfeeding for less than four months. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading.500 grams. MAIN DATA SOURCES Low birthweight – Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS).w 20 50 20 95 32 57 90 83 30 77 93 MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 4 11k 33 11 2 0 4 5 73 SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 14 13 15 15 29 7 9 9 7 16 19 15 30 40 20 30 38 43 22 36 34 36 67 69 65 59 47 43 49 47 52 64 52 55 63 48 24 69 27 26 28 46 65 46 28 27 28 16 45 15 7 5 27 35 25 8 7 9 4 16 1 1 10 10 9 9 7 10 8 14 2 3 10 10 9 37 40 35 24 44 19 15 14 31 42 30 73 60 85 62 81** 68** 75 68** 67 60 73 65 54 85 86 50 71 53 70 ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. Underweight. Identifies countries with vitamin A supplementation programmes that do not target children all the way up to 59 months of age. Excludes China.…TABLE 2 % of children (1996-2005*) who are: % of infants with low birthweight 1998-2005* exclusively breastfed (< 6 months) breastfed with complementary food (6-9 months) still breastfeeding (20-23 months) % of under-fives (1996-2005*) suffering from: underweight moderate & severe severe wasting moderate & severe stunting moderate & severe Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months) 2004 % of households consuming iodized salt 1998-2005* Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 12 5 15x 8 8 8 7 6 9 9 32x 12 11 63 22 34x. Vitamin A – Percentage of children aged 6-59 months who have received at least one high dose of vitamin A capsules in 2004. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Low birthweight – Infants who weigh less than 2. MICS. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 109 . Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). severe – below minus three standard deviations from median weight for age of reference population. or refer to only part of a country. wasting and stunting – DHS. Vitamin A – UNICEF and WHO. Wasting – Moderate and severe – below minus two standard deviations from median weight for height of reference population. Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. other national household surveys and data from routine reporting systems. DHS and UNICEF. MICS and UNICEF. Breastfeeding – DHS. Stunting – Moderate and severe – below minus two standard deviations from median height for age of reference population. NOTES x k * t ** w Data not available.k 19 50k 7k 15 12 40 33 75 52x 49 50 76 87 90 50 29x 45 31 26 58 35 23 1 14x 2 5x 8 5 27 46 20 17 5 0 3x 0 1x 2 1 4 15 3 4 0 15x 6 1x 7 4 8 12 6 5 39 3 17x 1 8x 21 13 31 53 50 26 68 86t 95t. Underweight – Moderate and severe – below minus two standard deviations from median weight for age of reference population. World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. differ from the standard definition. Salt iodization – MICS.

% underfives fives with sleeping fever under a receiving treated antimosquito malarial net drugs Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.taken to % fives with healthnewTB DPT Polio Measles HepB Hib suspected care borns protected pneumonia± provider± corresponding vaccines: against 1999-2005* BCG DPT1β DPT3β polio3 measles HepB3 Hib3 tetanus Immunization 2005λ % underfives with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding 1998-2005* Malaria 1999-2005* % underfives sleeping under a mosquito net % under. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France 39 96 85 100 53 91 96 92 100 100 77 97 74 100 100 91 67 62 85 97 95 90 99 61 79 41 66 100 80 75 42 95 77 93 86 58 46 94 97 84 100 91 100 100 100 73 97 95 94 98 84 43 60 100 22 47 100 100 63 99 88 100 75 95 98 99 100 100 95 98 100 82 100 100 100 100 78 86 95 99 100 96 100 94 92 64 86 100 86 93 41 100 93 99 92 84 82 98 100 97 100 95 100 100 100 76 100 97 97 99 94 45 74 100 81 43 100 100 31 94 80 100 40 89 80 80 100 100 59 86 72 100 100 82 57 60 68 96 90 57 97 54 77 35 44 99 73 61 43 58 67 71 82 27 29 88 92 74 100 78 100 100 100 59 90 91 89 97 70 42 57 99 11 51 100 100 34 91 92 100 31 95 91 83 100 100 54 100 39 100 84 47 33 70 46 95 42 75 99 13 36 17 51 100 43 27 9 91 44 86 33 27 30 100 92 37 100 98 100 98 82 84 78 89 70 62 53 9 97 13 72 100 - 49 99 99 100 56 98 92 96 100 100 73 100 100 51 99 93 71 59 65 60 99 57 83 100 42 47 53 58 100 61 47 24 95 69 96 41 28 42 100 89 46 100 99 100 99 88 86 81 94 86 77 60 32 97 44 87 100 - 29 84 82 100 16 94 83 61 100 100 36 100 35 100 61 25 11 70 22 92 25 37 96 6 35 8 43 99 19 12 4 62 28 54 29 25 25 100 97 29 100 95 100 97 50 75 73 82 58 39 46 3 96 7 55 100 - 0 80 100 50 100 100 35 100 100 100 100 16 94 100 100 47 0 40 80 100 100 100 100 100 70 7 34 100 80 0 78 100 100 100 15 70 0 11 100 53 100 99 25 100 100 85 70 65 100 100 100 100 0 0 100 - 73 98 98 61 99 94 98 99 99 96 99 99 93 95 99 99 96 98 99 84 87 77 78 70 40 95 86 87 90 84 99 88 98 99 99 52 98 99 99 98 84 73 91 99 67 90 98 84 88 98 94 98 62 99 90 96 97 91 95 99 99 96 97 99 98 97 99 97 94 95 98 96 99 97 99 86 85 85 97 75 65 45 92 95 95 85 73 82 99 89 71 96 99 99 98 93 73 98 92 99 98 89 65 91 99 78 80 99 98 76 98 88 98 47 99 92 90 92 86 93 93 98 88 92 99 97 96 93 95 81 93 97 96 99 96 96 74 82 80 94 73 40 20 91 87 87 80 65 73 99 91 56 96 99 98 97 93 71 98 77 94 98 89 33 83 96 69 75 97 98 76 97 88 98 46 98 92 92 92 86 97 93 98 88 91 98 97 96 93 95 79 95 97 98 99 97 94 64 82 79 89 72 40 36 92 87 87 85 65 73 99 91 56 96 99 98 96 93 71 98 73 93 98 89 39 83 96 66 80 97 98 64 97 83 94 45 99 99 94 94 75 98 85 99 81 93 99 88 95 85 93 64 90 90 99 97 96 84 75 79 68 94 65 35 23 90 86 89 80 56 70 99 89 51 96 98 86 97 95 65 98 99 93 98 99 51 84 96 59 70 97 87 98 83 79 99 87 91 94 86 96 93 98 62 92 99 78 97 92 95 81 93 85 92 99 96 74 79 69 84 87 80 99 90 56 99 99 88 99 77 94 98 89 83 95 75 29 97 99 92 94 86 93 98 92 95 96 35 81 50 96 99 74 83 91 87 89 96 94 58 97 93 77 94 89 37 75 98 87 55 75 89 69 75 45 53 65 56 39 65 65 66 73 80 48 45 - 19 1 9 8 8 3 21 12 22 2 40 24x 9 13 20 11 10 9 10 10 11 4 20 9 42 19 24 - 28 83 52 58 28 36 20 66 35 52 80 14 46x 36 40 37 40 32 12 57 49 36 38 63 73 62 44 16 - 48 51 32 48 40 52 42 54 23 7 28x 47 16 59 43 47 27 39 31 17 34 42 29 36 54 38 - 10 12 32 20 3 12 31 56 27 36 12 14 15 12 2 - 2 1 7 2 1 1 2 9 1 4 1 4 1 - 63 1 60 50 31 53 69 44 63 45 58 49 4 3 - 110 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .TABLE 3. HEALTH % of population using improved drinking water sources 2004 Countries and territories total urban rural % of population using adequate sanitation facilities 2004 total urban rural % of routine EPI vaccines financed by government 2005 total % underfives with suspected pneumonia 1-year-old children immunized against: % under.

% underfives fives with sleeping fever under a receiving treated antimosquito malarial net drugs Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea.taken to receiving % fives with healthoral rehynewTB DPT Polio Measles HepB Hib suspected dration and care borns protected pneumonia± provider± continued corresponding vaccines: feeding against β β 1999-2005* 1998-2005* BCG DPT1 DPT3 polio3 measles HepB3 Hib3 tetanus Immunization 2005λ Malaria 1999-2005* % underfives sleeping under a mosquito net % under. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia 88 82 82 100 75 95 95 50 59 83 54 87 99 100 86 77 94 81 100 93 100 97 86 61 65 100 92 77 51 99 100 79 61 100 50 73 99 83 50 100 87 53 100 97 94 92 100 62 81 43 78 87 95 95 96 100 88 97 99 78 79 83 52 95 100 100 95 87 99 97 100 100 98 100 99 97 83 77 100 97 98 79 100 100 92 72 100 77 98 100 98 78 100 82 59 100 100 95 97 100 87 99 72 80 98 47 77 67 100 64 93 92 35 49 83 56 81 98 100 83 69 84 50 100 88 100 91 73 46 53 100 71 66 43 96 100 76 52 100 35 68 96 76 36 100 96 44 100 87 94 88 30 56 26 77 81 36 53 94 100 18 96 86 18 35 70 30 69 95 100 33 55 79 80 100 93 72 43 40 59 59 30 78 98 37 27 97 34 61 94 59 46 82 34 94 79 28 68 100 59 73 32 77 25 37 30 72 46 96 91 100 100 27 11 96 97 90 82 31 11 57 23 86 60 57 14 87 54 100 85 100 100 59 22 73 40 95 48 100 91 69 100 100 94 87 87 52 46 41 59 22 58 75 67 82 100 61 49 97 48 62 95 100 59 100 93 49 95 91 61 86 100 75 88 53 88 50 60 51 20 71 87 32 7 96 26 61 93 42 39 58 8 94 41 14 52 37 52 19 72 13 100 60 20 55 100 100 10 0 60 10 100 99 100 100 100 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 80 100 0 100 100 30 0 100 100 9 0 100 100 100 29 20 85 100 71 60 100 100 100 0 86 26 100 47 0 100 89 89 95 99 88 96 90 80 96 71 91 99 75 82 99 93 93 61 95 89 69 85 94 94 97 96 65 99 96 82 99 99 72 99 99 82 93 87 99 99 70 97 90 99 95 87 76 95 69 94 94 96 88 96 93 93 90 86 93 76 97 99 95 81 88 97 93 96 98 97 91 99 98 99 85 75 83 98 99 98 68 99 98 95 92 98 98 99 71 99 90 99 95 94 89 85 99 99 97 98 99 97 99 88 76 93 38 88 84 90 84 88 99 81 69 80 93 43 91 99 95 59 70 95 81 90 95 96 88 99 95 98 76 62 79 96 99 98 49 99 92 83 87 98 94 99 61 93 90 98 85 92 77 71 97 98 94 98 99 99 98 72 73 86 31 90 84 94 85 87 99 81 70 80 93 43 91 99 95 58 70 95 87 90 93 97 83 97 95 99 70 61 97 96 99 98 50 99 92 80 77 98 93 99 63 94 90 98 84 94 88 71 97 98 94 98 99 99 98 70 73 86 55 84 92 93 83 88 99 77 59 80 92 54 92 99 90 58 72 94 90 84 95 87 84 99 95 99 69 56 96 99 99 99 41 95 96 85 94 97 97 95 59 82 90 97 86 86 86 61 98 96 96 97 99 99 97 77 72 73 55 88 74 84 84 88 99 27 93 91 8 70 94 81 95 96 87 95 94 76 67 92 99 99 97 49 98 88 83 97 95 95 61 93 90 98 85 78 89 42 97 98 91 99 99 98 96 72 62 - 88 92 84 88 99 27 93 91 99 95 90 96 95 89 95 76 99 94 92 61 98 93 90 3 83 69 98 74 99 28 - 60 84 76 54 52 80 70 70 72 30 72 45 75 34 70 85 - 13 8 4 10 18 15 10 5 39 19 8 24 7 3 6 3 18 12 4x 1 4 19 39 9 27 22 10 10 1 2 12 10 2 18 48 75 99 44 64 33 64 78 26 67 61 93 76 39 78 48 49 93 48x 36 74 54 70 48 27 22 36 41 78 78 38 54 66 53 44 38 40 22 44 23 40 41 22 56 54 21 44 22 33 16x 37 53 47 51 45 28 52 66 46 47 48 39 42 15 6 25 67 67 7 15 82 20 72 31 10 7 15 4 1 4 7 6 26 0 5 18 15 8 2 3 55 63 56 58 3 12 12 1 1 27 9 34 28 38 33 15 14 S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 111 .…TABLE 3 % of population using improved drinking water sources 2004 total urban rural % of population using adequate sanitation facilities 2004 total urban rural % of routine EPI vaccines financed by government 2005 total % under% underfives with suspected fives with pneumonia diarrhoea 1-year-old children immunized against: % under.

United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu 90 100 79 46 48 100 100 92 91 85 90 39 86 83 85 100 57 97 74 100 98 88 79 76 88 57 100 100 70 29 88 100 79 70 92 62 100 100 93 59 62 99 96 100 100 90 80 67 100 100 94 96 79 99 88 99 89 87 100 91 100 92 99 98 90 89 97 92 100 75 100 100 94 32 99 100 98 78 98 87 100 100 98 92 85 98 89 100 63 36 31 100 100 88 89 94 79 32 68 65 82 100 16 88 69 99 98 93 87 73 60 75 46 99 65 27 73 100 74 64 73 54 100 100 87 48 49 100 35 100 47 13 44 100 73 59 80 73 44 80 63 72 100 87 42 95 89 100 25 57 39 100 99 31 26 65 100 91 34 94 48 100 100 90 51 47 99 62 100 56 43 53 100 78 97 92 96 89 67 94 74 80 100 89 93 56 96 89 100 32 100 79 53 100 100 98 48 79 100 98 50 99 59 100 100 99 70 53 98 30 100 34 4 36 100 61 41 52 51 41 61 32 59 100 70 38 96 89 96 100 20 34 100 30 98 18 14 46 100 89 24 76 44 100 100 81 45 43 99 100 32 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 61 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 30 100 100 100 100 5 100 70 100 0 100 0 100 0 0 100 100 75 0 100 100 0 5 100 5 62 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 98 100 90 87 94 93 48 97 99 98 82 99 73 78 93 91 94 89 99 98 97 91 99 99 95 86 98 96 92 99 98 98 84 50 97 99 57 84 16 99 98 91 99 99 70 96 99 98 89 99 99 90 81 98 92 95 97 43 72 97 99 99 84 98 95 80 91 94 90 99 94 99 98 98 95 99 99 97 86 94 99 97 97 97 77 96 99 92 82 50 98 98 99 86 99 77 99 95 99 86 95 99 98 64 91 99 94 98 92 99 99 80 75 98 89 86 89 25 85 91 99 99 72 98 85 61 75 84 79 99 93 97 97 98 95 99 95 99 64 95 97 96 84 99 64 96 99 96 80 35 94 96 99 59 83 71 99 93 99 81 90 98 97 55 82 99 95 98 90 99 93 80 78 98 89 87 89 39 86 91 99 99 77 98 86 50 74 80 80 99 93 98 97 98 95 99 95 93 73 95 97 96 84 99 64 96 99 96 75 35 94 96 99 59 84 71 99 95 99 84 91 98 98 55 80 99 97 98 90 99 99 80 74 96 82 96 83 35 99 90 99 98 78 98 99 60 90 80 80 98 93 99 97 99 89 99 94 97 57 94 88 96 74 99 67 96 98 94 72 35 82 97 99 60 91 60 94 82 98 84 91 96 96 48 70 99 93 96 91 99 62 80 41 87 86 86 99 99 73 98 85 63 75 84 44 98 94 97 98 97 95 99 95 99 60 95 96 96 84 99 96 99 72 94 96 99 52 83 71 99 81 90 96 98 80 86 99 93 99 98 85 75 84 22 93 97 95 99 95 99 94 96 18 99 96 94 96 83 98 91 99 - 54 51 57 10 70 85 25 76 41 90 45 47 - 23 31 12 10 17 16x 13x 17x 17 10 12 5 7 9 19x 5 4 10 18 1 8 14 9 3 9 29 1 - 26 57 27 33 65 66x 75x 51x 68 55 20 47 27 50 75x 57 58 60 66 51 59 24 30 74 43 41 51 - 43 49 43 28 33x 57 76 16 44 33 39 37 38 43 24 29 53 25 31 19 - 17 6 6 52 14 15 23 77 0 6 31 56 - 6 1 5 14 2 0 3 0 2 16 54 - 2 48 34 13 61 29 61 50 26 69 58 19 60 - 58 77 56 52 80 36 100 100 100 91 92 88 93 99 82 96 98 93 72 93 54 100 94 92 36 66 33 35 71 15 96 98 96 100 100 100 85 96 65 88 96 72 62 77 50 90 93 84 53 99 99 95 95 97 80 85 99 79 - 112 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . HEALTH % of population using improved drinking water sources 2004 total urban rural % of population using adequate sanitation facilities 2004 total urban rural % of routine EPI vaccines financed by government 2005 total % under% underfives with suspected fives with pneumonia diarrhoea 1-year-old children immunized against: % under.TABLE 3.% underfives fives with sleeping fever under a receiving treated antimosquito malarial net drugs Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania.taken to receiving % fives with healthoral rehynewTB DPT Polio Measles HepB Hib suspected dration and care borns protected pneumonia± provider± continued corresponding vaccines: feeding against β β 1999-2005* 1998-2005* BCG DPT1 DPT3 polio3 measles HepB3 Hib3 tetanus Immunization 2005λ Malaria 1999-2005* % underfives sleeping under a mosquito net % under.

HepB3 – Percentage of infants who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. % under-fives with fever receiving antimalarial drugs – Percentage of children (0-4 years) who were ill with fever in the past two weeks and received any appropriate (locally defined) antimalarial drugs. and estimates presented here are comparable to those in previous reports.…TABLE 3 % of population using improved drinking water sources 2004 total urban rural % of population using adequate sanitation facilities 2004 total urban rural % of routine EPI vaccines financed by government 2005 total % under% underfives with suspected fives with pneumonia diarrhoea 1-year-old children immunized against: % under. specifically for hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). diphtheria. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) or yellow fever. against hepatitis B (HepB). EPI – Expanded Programme on Immunization: The immunizations in this programme include those against tuberculosis (TB). % under-fives with suspected pneumonia – Percentage of children (0-4 years) with suspected pneumonia in the past two weeks. DPT3 – Percentage of infants who received three doses of diphtheria. For a more detailed discussion regarding this update. Malaria – DHS and MICS.. differ from the standard definition. In this year’s report. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 113 .taken to receiving % fives with healthoral rehynewTB DPT Polio Measles HepB Hib suspected dration and care borns protected pneumonia± provider± continued corresponding vaccines: feeding against β β 1999-2005* 1998-2005* BCG DPT1 DPT3 polio3 measles HepB3 Hib3 tetanus Immunization 2005λ Malaria 1999-2005* % underfives sleeping under a mosquito net % under. immunization coverage estimates. MICS and other national household surveys. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus vaccine. NOTES x * ** β ± λ Data not available. Hib3 – Percentage of infants who received three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. UNICEF and WHO are working with national and territorial systems to eliminate these discrepancies. Acute respiratory infection – DHS. MAIN DATA SOURCES Use of improved drinking water sources and adequate sanitation facilities – UNICEF. as well as vaccination of pregnant women to protect babies against neonatal tetanus. World Health Organization (WHO). which was employed in previous editions. we use the term ‘suspected pneumonia’ instead of ‘acute respiratory infections (ARI)’. % under-fives with suspected pneumonia taken to health-care provider – Percentage of children (0-4 years) with suspected pneumonia in the past two weeks taken to an appropriate health-care provider. Discrepancies where DPT1 coverage is less than DPT3 reflect deficiencies in the data collection and reporting process. the data collection methodology has not changed. BCG – Percentage of infants who received bacille Calmette-Guérin (vaccine against tuberculosis). In this year’s report. Excludes China. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus vaccine. pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus (DPT). Oral rehydration – DHS and MICS. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Government funding of vaccines – Percentage of vaccines that are routinely administered in a country to protect children and are financed by the national government (including loans). Government funding of vaccines – UNICEF and WHO. or refer to only part of a country. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. However. please see the ‘General note on the data’ on page 99. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). may be included in the programme in some countries. % under-fives with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding – Percentage of children (0-4 years) with diarrhoea (in the two weeks preceding the survey) who received either oral rehydration therapy (oral rehydration solutions or recommended home-made fluids) or increased fluids and continued feeding. Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. % under-fives sleeping under a treated mosquito net – Percentage of children (0-4 years) who slept under an insecticide-treated mosquito net. Malaria: % under-fives sleeping under a mosquito net – Percentage of children (0-4 years) who slept under a mosquito net. are now also presented for countries where these immunizations have been only partially introduced (such as India). DPT1 – Percentage of infants who received their first dose of diphtheria.% underfives fives with sleeping fever under a receiving treated antimosquito malarial net drugs Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 60 96 100 100 100 100 82 60 83 85 67 58 81 87 99 100 100 100 100 95 86 85 99 71 90 98 56 91 100 100 100 100 75 52 70 80 65 40 72 43 54 41 96 98 93 98 98 95 100 100 100 100 100 99 67 78 61 50 78 42 68 71 48 61 92 50 43 86 28 55 59 52 53 63 47 9 100 100 100 56 100 64 100 100 70 13 10 1 92 96 98 99 93 65 95 95 66 94 98 94 95 97 97 99 99 99 75 98 94 99 94 95 84 96 94 91 96 96 99 66 87 95 86 80 - 83 95 94 91 92 96 99 56 81 94 87 80 90 86 96 92 82 93 95 99 70 76 95 76 84 85 84 97 92 92 96 99 56 88 94 86 80 90 84 94 91 94 96 87 57 80 - 56 24 98 - 22 0 9 20 24 15 16 67 57 72 71 47 69 50 29 33 51 39 23x 48 80 7 96 16 3 0 16 7 - 7 52 - MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 93 99 86 87 97 77 100 98 98 98 98 96 65 3 97 - SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 55 81 41 55 76 40 56 86 42 88 95 78 85 94 81 79 92 70 91 96 73 91 98 79 100 100 100 80 92 70 59 79 51 83 95 73 37 53 36 49 38 58 74 90 37 63 51 73 77 86 84 93 100 100 50 73 36 55 59 80 28 26 30 53 27 36 49 70 99 33 29 39 50 36 64 80 81 91 96 90 75 78 23 78 76 81 71 89 79 87 96 93 83 81 83 77 85 70 96 83 92 95 96 98 87 86 88 66 76 57 89 65 84 91 95 96 75 76 78 68 75 62 90 65 84 91 95 94 76 76 78 65 72 58 89 64 84 92 96 92 75 72 77 37 57 19 88 23 78 85 90 92 64 90 54 41 55 61 61 61 77 69 64 69 13 17 10 13 19 10** 15 16** 16 15** 39 43 35 66 59 62** 50 54** 37 54** 35 40 31 39 27 56** 25 35** 40 35** 14 11 17 19 4 5 4 5 37 27 44 12 36 - ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Immunization – UNICEF and WHO. polio and measles. Other vaccines. Coverage for DPT1 should be at least as high as DPT3. no values were provided for countries with only partial introductions of these vaccines. e.g. and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). In previous reports.

2 11 .3 .5 0.TABLE 4.6 <1.3 4.22 2.0 75 .0 1.3 3.1 78 .8 <0.1 80 79 59 290 9.180 74 .220 1.5 270 620 <0.1 2005 33.6 2.1 0.4 31 12 <1.3 2.0 3.1000 <1.8 <1.5 <0.5.1 2.5 <0.8 .8 1.95 4.3 <0.3 10.17 <1.0 .5 .9 59 10 <1.350 370 .2 3.7 2.390 88 .18 1. low high end-2005 estimate estimate .4 <0.1100 100 .1 0.estimate % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV.7 0.1 0.9 .9 16 12 5.1 <0.4 6.6 15 66 23 5.6 1. HIV/AIDS Mother-to-child transmission HIV prevalence rate in young pregnant Estimated women number of women (15+) (15-24 years) living with in capital city HIV.1 0.1 1.2.0 .6 2002 3.7 20 14 3.1 3.3 2.7 . causes.6 <0.7 87 <0.2 <0. 2005 (thousands) HIV prevalence among young people (15-24 years).9 1.7 2002 7.77 11 .1 2.9 3.0 1.1 0.0 2002 14.6 0.320 <1.3 .4 .5 2005 1.2.1 1.6 .1 1.4 <1. 1999-2005* % who used condom at last high-risk sex.0 6.9 <0.3 3.1 15.1 9.34 56 .1 3.1 0.0 6.3 0.5 7.2 5.3 8.6 2002 2.9 0.9.1 . 2005 male female Countries and territories Estimated Estimated number of people adult HIV (all ages) living with HIV.7 3.0 0.0 <0.0 2.4 7.0 9.3 <0.5 1.2 <1.160 560 .9 .4 .27 7.1300 0.5 1.0 5.0 260 .1 0.8 14 17 20 43 24 16 <0.5 0.5 <1.1500 3.2 5.74 2.4 2.2 .3 1.5 3.8 1.3 . prevalence 2005 (thousands) rate (15+ years).9 130 60 20 <2.6 130 90 7.1 <0.1 <0.210 460 .1 1. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia <0.1 0.450 80 .3 .1 5.1 0.4.3 7.6 5.190 130 .1 5.2 5.47 8.1 170 36 <1.8 2003 1.1 0.1 <0.33 <0.4 1.5 4.9 140 220 <0.0 45 33 11 2004 2.7 0.3 36 8.0 120 .1 15 120 74 1.4 5.1 1.7 0.8 .1 61 520 2.1 0.7 8 14 18 33 23 34 20 22 22 - 0 7 2 8 40 15 24 37 27 5 8 10 10 16 52 4 37 24 15 44 34 37 88 67 57 25 38 52 30 48 - 19 20 75 54 46 17 30 20 29 17 33 - 160 62 120 120 120 240 140 57 110 680 450 6 5 36 20 4 1600 1200 690 8 4400 3 5 370 78 310 150 3700 4 710 600 470 1000 330 600 200 20600 870 33 270 4200 44 1400 120 48 220 230 150 29 280 4800 25 65 64 90 99 109 70 71 99 91 105 59 72 83 96 95 83 60 98 85 114 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .8 9.0 2003 2002 2002 2003 3.2 2.9 .300 17 .7 57 .4 750 <0.5 0.1 2.3 1.9 2.3 1.5 1.5 0.2 3.72 110 .24 470 .8 .5 - 35 <0.4 <1.6 5.0 400 2.1 3.72 7.87 10 .56 390 .2.3 0.210 40 .3 <1.1 0.1 24.3 0.6 <1.0 2005 3.1 .6 180 45 <0. attendance 2005 2005 ratio estimate estimate (thousands) (thousands) male female male female 1999-2005* Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.0 19 320 130 2.1000 <0.1 <0. 2005 (thousands) year median Prevention among young people Paediatric infections Estimated number of children (0-14 years) living with HIV.8 <0.15 <1.4 1.0 45 <0.5 5.32 420 .5 150 150 130 510 60 250 180 28 650 160 <0.22 <2.1 0.0 3.3.8 0.4 1.5.3 0.6 3.8 2004 8.0 3.120 <2.2 0.2 0.0 <1.7 .7 0.17 3.560 48 . 1999-2005* Orphans Children (0-17 years) orphaned Orphan orphaned due to all school by AIDS.0 11 2.7 0.1 4.9 7.6 .20 2.5 120 1000 7.4 2.59 200 .11 33 .2 0.0 2.7 31 2.2 11.9 4.0 <1.4 0.8 1.0 9.13 22 .

10 <1.2 250 .9 1.29 <2.1 140 17 - 0.8 90 . prevalence 2005 (thousands) rate (15+ years).5 12 4.0 3400 .0 3.5 5.3 15.0 <1.2 0.5 14.4 2.8 . 2005 male female Estimated Estimated number of people adult HIV (all ages) living with HIV.7 0.1 180 29 <0.0 --12 .7 .estimate % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV.5 0.2 14.5 - 25 7.4 3.2 0.9 6.38 1400 .5 5.1 0.1 <0.3 .2 <1.3 1.9 270 3.4 3.4 .5 10.5 1.77 1100 .7 13.1 0.0 150 25 17 <1.5 5700 170 66 5.4 0. 1999-2005* % who used condom at last high-risk sex.2 <1.2 0.2 0.100 69 . attendance 2005 2005 ratio estimate estimate (thousands) (thousands) male female male female 1999-2005* Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea.50 4.3 9.1 2.1 4.9 0.6 1.0 49 940 69 130 <0.5 0.0 7.9 .2 0.13 99 .0 17 2.3 <1.2 0.8 50 6.0 2.9 .9 .3 1.15 37 .2 0.3 2.0 15 180 2.7 7. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal 0.160 3.1 0.13 1.2200 200 .0 13 500 17 66 6.0 16 .39 10 .0 5.6 0. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.81 270 .1 0.380 5.3 19.1 0.9 0.8 740 7.1500 7.8 2.570 110 . 2005 (thousands) year median Prevention among young people Paediatric infections Estimated number of children (0-14 years) living with HIV.17 1. causes.9.1 <0. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova.9 4.110 480 .5 19 1800 360 230 75 2.0 3.6 .0 2.4 - 1.1 6.1 0.5 1.2 0.8.3 <1.1 0.6 96 16 <1.3 <1.3 61 85 32 12 190 63 3.250 14 .6 4.0 42 16 <0.0 .4 - 44 28 17 47 18 16 36 15 33 41 - 38 8 36 15 21 7 34 26 19 24 9 19 32 12 20 31 - 52 32 30 59 65 47 48 12 47 30 63 33 69 - 33 17 19 51 32 25 50 5 35 14 44 29 48 - 170 28 11 1100 97 13 550 94 7 510 85 - 1000 370 370 100 26 490 180 25700 5300 1500 55 2300 450 290 150 250 900 950 480 710 170 23 1600 79 1500 1700 140 970 79p 98 113 103 87 82 95 95 76 93 104 80 92 - S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 115 . 2005 (thousands) HIV prevalence among young people (15-24 years).100 18 .8 0.0 150 <1.9400 100 .5 <0.4 <0.69 <2.220 96 .7 27.4 <1.1 1.1400 33 .23 120 .3 0.6 .4 0.6 49 320 9.180 <1.5.25 <2.2 3.5 150 18 1.18 29 .6 3.0 4.0 16 53 17 6.5 14.160 <1.0 4.2 .0 1.8 1.1 0.12 6.7 .0 <0.7 10 2.440 15 .1 16.99 1.360 41 .9 1.6 91 16 1. 1999-2005* Orphans Children (0-17 years) orphaned Orphan orphaned due to all school by AIDS.2 0.7 0.0 960 110 130 16 2003 2004 2000 2004 2001 2002 2002 2004 - 3.23 1.1 0.290 1.…TABLE 4 Mother-to-child transmission HIV prevalence rate in young pregnant Estimated women number of women (15+) (15-24 years) living with in capital city HIV.5 3.290 36 .2 0.1 1600 29 11 1.9 .6 0.1 . low high end-2005 estimate estimate .1 23.2 <0.9.1 0.9 9.270 35 .0 12 1300 13 <1.0 11 .

1 <0. prevalence 2005 (thousands) rate (15+ years).0 940 190 61 48 5.1 3.0 <0.22 560 .29 0.7 3.1 0.0 110 - 0.2 9.9 1.6 0.2 0.27 2.81 4900 .9 <0.100 --27 .2 - 8.6 14.9 240 27 5.9 18.2 0.0 350 5.4200 1.1 0.1 .7 1.8 .0 5.3 - 0.580 2.680 5.41 56 .5 <0.3 5.4 0.3 210 91 33 26 1.4 .9 3.0 180 1.4 <0.6 <0.5 7.4 0.6 1.1 0.0 23 .210 11 .1200 250 .13 9.9 1.4 0.920 <1.8 22.3 8.1 3.4 7.7 2.7 <2.9 0.8 0.4 <0.0 - 21 54 49 40 - 5 18 51 11 13 16 0 27 27 1 44 20 33 3 28 - 46 40 52 47 55 - 17 24 19 26 36 42 53 - 46 930 210 25 31 23 1200 63 1100 88 1000 - 130 800 8600 4400 53 350 150 660 2000 820 560 340 26 630 2500 310 1700 10 95 2400 1200 280 28 2300 - 64p 85p 82 74p 71 65 96 89 91 82 96 95 - 116 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .2 0.150 7.4 18 1.5 23 3100 32 <1.5 110 27 8.1 0. 2005 (thousands) HIV prevalence among young people (15-24 years).18 39 .8 2.1 0.4.1 0. 2005 male female Estimated Estimated number of people adult HIV (all ages) living with HIV.0 850 . 2005 (thousands) year median Prevention among young people Paediatric infections Estimated number of children (0-14 years) living with HIV.1 150 .0 <1.3 .0 .2 .2 220 8.9 1.1600 330 .4 7.2 4.2 25.4 0.5 5.5 85 17 60 13 93 12 25 32 7.8 0.5 <0.0 65 .1 <0. 1999-2005* Orphans Children (0-17 years) orphaned Orphan orphaned due to all school by AIDS.6 1.5 1000 410 11 .7 <1.9 1400 580 <0.8 0.3 170 .41 19 .34 32 . HIV/AIDS Mother-to-child transmission HIV prevalence rate in young pregnant Estimated women number of women (15+) (15-24 years) living with in capital city HIV.5 0.1 6.42 4.8 2.8 2.21 <5.140 6.3 0.2 2.5 44 5500 140 5.9 0.TABLE 4.1 0.4 .290 4.6 0.2 37.3 3.7 .3 79 2900 2.1600 180 .2 5.5 1. attendance 2005 2005 ratio estimate estimate (thousands) (thousands) male female male female 1999-2005* Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania. causes.5 26 3.9 33.53 3.130 1700 .3 34 3.2.3 <0.1 15 110 16 9.7 42 1600 <1. United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine 0.1 6.0 <1.20 15 .16 1300 .2 4. low high end-2005 estimate estimate .0 14 4.1 3.8 .5 .8.8 .0 17 4.1 1.73 3.160 15 .estimate % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV.9 .9 .6100 84 .5 710 220 61 15 1.8.230 3.9 520 200 2003 2005 2003 2004 2004 2003 2004 2005 - 10.2 0.5 1.2 1.1 1.4 120 2.210 29 .7 1.1 46 .14 <1.1 0. 1999-2005* % who used condom at last high-risk sex.4 0.6 <0.5 240 30 <0.

0 .measuredhs.27400 15800 . Comprehensive knowledge of HIV – Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). HIV prevalence rate in young pregnant women in capital city – Percentage of blood samples taken from pregnant women (15-24 years) who test positive for HIV during ‘unlinked anonymous’ sentinel surveillance at selected antenatal clinics.7 0. Africa’s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations: Children Affected by AIDS.6 31 110 260 1100 1700 41 .3200 1500 . Report on the global AIDS epidemic.8 4. HIV prevalence among young men and women – Percentage of young men and women 15-24 years living with HIV as of end-2005. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006.41900 10100 . Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136.17 2.5 4.1 2. 1999-2005* Orphans Children (0-17 years) orphaned Orphan orphaned due to all school by AIDS.estimate % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV.8 4.2 0. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV – Percentage of young men and women (15-24 years) who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful.8700 320 . Estimated number of women (15+ years) living with HIV – Estimated number of women living with HIV as of end-2005. and who know that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus.0 20. Reproductive Health Surveys (RHS) (1999-2005) and www.5 0.7 7 50 33 - 8 42 31 - 50 68 40 69 35 42 710 1100 55 480 1800 1200 1400 92 98 MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 0. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).30 15 .7 18. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). Children orphaned by AIDS – Estimated number of children (0-17 years) as of end-2005 who have lost one or both parents to AIDS.6 . of those who have had sex with such a partner in the past 12 months. Children orphaned due to all causes – UNICEF. Estimated number of women (15+ years) living with HIV – UNAIDS.46000 13200 9400 3700 210 1600 750 640 450 530 16400 6000 17300 9.7 0. 1999-2005* % who used condom at last high-risk sex.com/hivdata.5 0.13500 33400 .measuredhs. prevalence 2005 (thousands) rate (15+ years).com/hivdata.1200 1100 .2300 1400 .5 2. NOTES p * Data not available. non-cohabiting partner. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. and USAID. Orphan school attendance ratio – Percentage of children (10-14 years) who lost both biological parents and who are currently attending school as a percentage of non-orphaned children of the same age who live with at least one parent and who are attending school. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 117 . UNAIDS and USAID.6 3.1 0. DHS (1999-2005) and www. HIV prevalence rate in young pregnant women in capital city – UNAIDS.5 17.99 54 .1 68 1200 9. Estimated number of children (0-14 years) living with HIV – UNAIDS.1 2.3 4.5 31 40 24 17 23 31 18 21 43 41 46 59 29 30 27 51 12000 8700 3300 15200 46600 24300 22200 37500 34800 10700 132700 79 80 77 81 - ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. 2006.5 2000 1400 650 33 130 50 54 9 13 2300 1100 2300 1. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV – Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV as of end-2005. Report on the global AIDS epidemic.2 10 6. Condom use at last high-risk sex – Percentage of young men and women (15-24 years) who say they used a condom the last time they had sex with a non-marital.7 1. causes. attendance 2005 2005 ratio estimate estimate (thousands) (thousands) male female male female 1999-2005* United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 0. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Orphan school attendance ratio – MICS.2200 21 300 5.0 7. Proportion of orphans (10-14 years) attending school is based on 25-49 cases.com/hivdata. 2006. HIV prevalence among young men and women – UNAIDS.7 14.4 1.4 12. Africa’s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations: Children Affected by AIDS.2800 1000 . DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Estimated adult HIV prevalence rate – Percentage of adults (15-49 years) living with HIV as of end-2005.3000 30300 . 2005 (thousands) year median Prevention among young people Paediatric infections Estimated number of children (0-14 years) living with HIV.6 0. Behavioural Surveillance Surveys (BSS). and www. UNAIDS. Estimated number of people living with HIV – UNAIDS.6 0. 2006. who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission.430 1100 . Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Children orphaned by AIDS – UNICEF. Children orphaned due to all causes – Estimated number of children (0-17 years) as of end-2005 who have lost one or both parents due to any cause.830 3600 . MAIN DATA SOURCES Estimated adult HIV prevalence rate – Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).7 13. 2006.19200 5300 .0 - SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 6. BSS and RHS (1999-2005). Condom use at last high-risk sex – DHS. 2006.2 0.0 24500 17500 6900 510 5900 2300 1900 1500 2000 35100 11700 38600 21600 .2 0.6 130 160 3. 2006. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available.6 0.350 150 .3 6.9700 1800 . 2005 male female Estimated Estimated number of people adult HIV (all ages) living with HIV.110 720 . 2006.1 31 84 570 890 2004 2004 20.measuredhs.…TABLE 4 Mother-to-child transmission HIV prevalence rate in young pregnant Estimated women number of women (15+) (15-24 years) living with in capital city HIV. Estimated number of children (0-14 years) living with HIV – Estimated number of children 0-14 years living with HIV as of end-2005.1 8. low high end-2005 estimate estimate . uninfected partner). 2005 (thousands) HIV prevalence among young people (15-24 years). 2006. Report on the global AIDS epidemic.2000 4.2 0.

EDUCATION Number per 100 population 2002-2004* Primary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Primary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female % of primary school entrants reaching grade 5 Admin. data 2000-2004* Survey data 1997-2005* Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Secondary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female Countries and territories Adult literacy rate 2000-2004* phones Internet male female users Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.TABLE 5. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France 43 99 80 83 97 100 99 89 100 48 93 99 80 88 95 99 29 67 85 77 65 41 96 95 93 81 95 61 99 100 99 87 92 83 93 100 - 13 98 60 54 97 99 98 84 99 23 81 94 82 89 90 98 15 52 64 60 33 13 96 87 93 54 95 39 97 100 95 87 90 59 80 100 - 3 44 22 146 3 119 58 21 141 144 30 103 117 3 124 55 133 48 6 6 27 58 41 60 96 4 1 4 7 111 29 2 2 84 50 40 2 10 1 43x 53 9 106 7 131 139 160 7 88 39 39 24 41 9 1 130 1 26 141 130 0 2 3 16 1 26 16 4 65 48 5 29 21 0 55 25 40 13 1 3 4 6 4 12 15 16 0 0 0 1 62 5 0 0 28 7 9 1 1 0 20x 24 1 30 1 37 50 50 1 29 9 5 6 9 1 1 51 0 7 63 41 127 105 116 102 69x 113 99 103 106 98 93 104 107 108 103 104 126 111 114 105 145 109 106 59 87 142 126 100 113 76 86 106 118 112 91 92 51x 83 112 80 95 103 98 103 101 44 96 115 117 103 116 133 71 101 101 107 101 105 56 104 107 100 59x 112 103 103 106 96 93 104 111 106 99 104 123 86 113 104 137 109 104 47 73 131 107 100 108 52 56 101 117 111 80 85 46x 81 111 63 94 98 97 101 101 35 95 109 117 98 112 121 57 98 86 105 100 104 96 98 90 99 92 96 85 83 96 92 98 91 99 95 93 95 81 96 46 60 100 99 92 68 99 83 60 78 62 88 97 96 100 36 87 85 97 97 92 92 50 94 58 97 99 99 95 95 87 98 95 96 83 85 97 95 97 88 99 96 72 96 83 95 35 54 96 100 91 46 99 84 50 77 50 87 95 96 100 29 88 87 98 94 92 78 42 94 55 96 99 99 66 54 94 58 96 91 86 82 60 73y 78 93 83 96 35 50 66 80 47 41 90 31 55 62 84 84 61 69 33 - 40 50 93 59 97 91 87 86 47 67y 77 93 86 96 29 44 65 78 39 31 92 31 49 53 88 82 60 64 28 - 90y 96 84 86 98y 100 65 97 100y 91 69 91 86 91 84y 93 94y 76 63 60 64 91 46 99 99 77 63 66 92 88 100y 98 99 98 100 88 84 59 76 99 73 33 80 99 73y 99 100 98x 92 9 95 75 78 99 99 99 87y 92 50 99 96y 84x 93 80 92 96 70 64y 89 25 54 94 99 91 99 72y 82y 65 - 25 79 78 80 19 84 90 152 104 84 76 96 49 109 93 111 84 34 90 73 97 91 104 14 14 35 51 109 63 23 89 73 71 40 42 24 63 67 32 87 92 96 95 122 25 107 61 61 90 60 38 40 97 38 85 107 110 5 77 84 83 15 89 93 145 98 82 84 102 54 111 94 107 87 18 87 77 107 96 100 10 10 24 36 108 69 7 90 73 78 30 35 12 65 73 18 89 93 99 96 127 18 106 76 61 84 61 22 23 99 24 91 112 111 75 65 71 76 88 85 78 70 87 45 93 87 96 70 23 74 58 73 90 11 30 94x 52 16 52 55 26 84 86 92 91 22 89 45 52 81 47 30 31 89 34 80 94 95 73 68 72 82 90 86 76 78 93 51 98 88 97 73 11 73 64 78 87 8 22 94x 58 5 58 60 15 86 87 95 94 15 92 54 53 77 49 18 20 91 22 85 94 97 18 39 22 91 87 77 33 19 57 68 36 42 12 6 17 34 10 13 64 10 18 20 27 73 23 23 13 - 6 39 20 95 84 85 41 12 56 71 44 50 10 6 11 32 7 7 72 11 15 16 39 68 22 21 10 - 118 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .

data 2000-2004* Survey data 1997-2005* Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Secondary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female Adult literacy rate 2000-2004* phones Internet male female users Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova.y 74 80y 45 46 87 79 91 63 94 51 100y 60 76 54 36 97 57 72 95 91y 72 93y 99 99 79 95 60 97 69 53x.y 77 84y 33 42 87 80 87 57 69 98y 99y 63 79 78 82 64 97y 100 79 92 88 66x 100 100 96 90 99 100y 75 82 98 97y 96y 63 98y 98 63 99y 92 57 44 98 99y 79 99 82 99 93 90y 91y 76 49 91y 96 98 73y 94 85 97 87 95y 96y 88 92 99y 99 98 100 93 96 89 93 86 93 69y 99 95 86y 84 49 51 83 101 47 96 96 51 34 23 92 58 97 111 59 64 84 54 108 93 100 87 101 87 99 50 82 93 87 88 52 97 85 32 37 101 67 99 92 14x 32 71 68 28 109 85 22 89 77 81 84 52 13 42 43 82 99 40 97 105 46 17 13 95 73 96 118 47 64 79 36 116 93 98 89 102 88 97 46 100 93 93 88 39 96 93 41 27 107 74 98 98 14x 26 81 78 17 102 88 18 88 82 84 95 43 9 49 81 39 85 75 35 28 11 91 85 57 80 44 84 89 92 78 99 80 93 40 65 90 76 40 18 22 62 93 77 11x 27 71 48 85 72 16 82 63 76 77 38 5 41 81 35 88 82 32 14 6 90 88 57 76 31 89 89 93 81 100 82 92 40 76 91 80 34 28 12 69 93 82 11x 23 81 55 90 77 13 83 65 79 88 32 4 34 23 34 23 28 10 71 17 54 54 37 85 73 12 58 27 61 12 17 10 15 15 79 59 39 8 51 36 19 35 24 19 7 75 20 46 56 25 89 76 13 60 21 68 17 21 13 11 9 82 71 36 7 48 S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 119 .…TABLE 5 Number per 100 population 2002-2004* Primary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Primary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female % of primary school entrants reaching grade 5 Admin. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique 66 98 75 43 80 73 94 84 84 98 99 74 95 100 78 94 99 77 100 74 100 77 75 92 96 27 86 60 88 92 99 98 66 - 50 94 63 18 80 48 87 70 64 96 98 86 85 99 70 91 98 61 100 90 100 65 54 85 96 12 89 43 81 90 98 98 40 - 39 10 30 153 9 143 74 34 2 1 27 7 16 122 164 8 18 27 6 143 149 153 97 118 39 34 9 6 4 131 98 13 5 96 43 11 0x 16 131 123 199 2 3 75 44 4 128 9 19 70 54 22 39 149x 19 36 4 3 3 3 43 2 18 17 6 1 2 19 6 3 27 77 3 7 8 0 30 47 50 40 50 11 3 5 2 66 24 5 0 35 17 2 0x 4 64 28 59 1 0 39 6 0 75 4 0 15 13 11 10 49x 8 12 1 130 79 95 100 90 102 94 118 87 84 134 113 99 102 120 118 98 108 107 110 102 95 100 98 110 114 113 105 96 98 124 94 109 131 115 113 106 98 100 136 123 94 105 71 103 116 95 102 110 95 104 111 104 129 84 95 100 87 101 90 108 71 56 125 113 97 100 112 116 108 89 106 111 101 95 101 99 109 108 116 104 97 98 109 91 105 131 83 112 107 97 99 131 126 93 102 56 102 109 93 102 108 94 105 100 86 77 73 93 65 100 84 95 69 53 90 90 100 92 95 89 94 96 97 99 90 100 90 93 76 96x 100 85 90 87 94 83 74 87 90 91 89 93 93 89 50 94 90 75 94 98 86 84 89 75 77 77 92 65 99 84 91 58 37 92 88 98 87 93 88 81 96 98 99 91 100 92 92 77 98x 99 87 90 82 93 88 58 89 89 91 89 98 93 90 43 94 89 74 95 98 86 84 83 67 94 55 99y 62 80 60 42 96 52 79 94 94y 84 93y 99 98 79 95 65 97 62 59x. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

EDUCATION Number per 100 population 2002-2004* Primary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Primary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female % of primary school entrants reaching grade 5 Admin.TABLE 5. data 2000-2004* Survey data 1997-2005* Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Secondary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female Adult literacy rate 2000-2004* phones Internet male female users Myanmar 94 Namibia 87 Nauru Nepal 63 Netherlands 77 New Zealand Nicaragua Niger 43 Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory 97 Oman 87 Pakistan 63 Palau Panama 93 Papua New Guinea 63 Paraguay Peru 93 Philippines 93 Poland Portugal Qatar 89 Romania 98 Russian Federation 100 Rwanda 71 Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia 87 Senegal 51 Serbia‡ Seychelles 91 Sierra Leone 47 Singapore 97 Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa 84 Spain Sri Lanka 92 Sudan 71 Suriname 92 Swaziland 81 Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic 86 Tajikistan 100 Tanzania. United Republic of 78 Thailand 95 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 98 Timor-Leste Togo 69 Tonga 99 Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia 83 Turkey 95 Turkmenistan 99 Tuvalu - 86 83 35 77 15 88 74 36 91 51 82 93 89 96 99 60 69 29 92 24 89 81 89 52 87 78 74 99 62 91 94 38 99 65 80 98 - 1 21 29x 2 140 124 17 1 8 84x 151 36 43 6 39 1 35 22 44 77 139 92 67 79 2 70 41 75 13 140 8 52 13 87 2 133 103 128 2 6 47 131 16 6 67 13 180 156 27 4 3 55 62 6 15 74 48 74 8 - 0 4 3x 0 62 53 2 0 1 48x 39 4 10 1 9 3 2 12 5 23 28 22 21 11 0 21 37 7 3 56 12 6 5 25 0 56 42 48 1 0 8 33 1 3 7 3 75 47 4 0 1 11 8 4 3 12 8 14 1 30 99 100 84 118 109 102 113 52 107 80 99 93 88 95 111 114 80 108 114 113 99 119 102 107 123 118 98 108 109 100 134 69 78 109 169 100 123 121 107 109 102 64 118 103 99 103 126 102 108 100 98 110 118 104 112 96 95 101 102 83 108 106 102 111 37 91 95 99 93 87 69 91 111 70 104 114 111 99 114 101 106 123 120 105 103 103 100 132 66 74 110 122 98 122 117 103 107 101 56 121 98 99 102 120 97 104 95 98 92 112 101 108 90 102 89 71 83 99 99 89 46 64 99x 99 86 77 76 98 98 97 93 97 99 95 92 91 72 91 99 95 90 98 62 68 96 98 80 88 100 99 47 90 76 99 94 97 99 92 92 85 92x 92 97 92 - 91 76 73 98 99 87 32 57 98x 99 86 79 56 94 98 97 95 98 99 94 92 92 75 98 96 92 91 98 57 64 97 98 79 89 99 98 39 96 77 98 94 92 94 91 92 72 89x 92 98 87 - 83 78 80 77 36 66 91y 62 95 94 88 75 83 71 43 13 80 60 88 73 89 71 76y 75 96 95y 89 77 - 84 78 67 84 25 58 92y 51 96 94 89 75 85 67 39 11 83 57 91 72 88 75 74y 65 96 93y 88 75 - 70 88 31 61 100 59 74 36 100 98y 98 70 84 68 82 90 75 100 95y 46 87 90 88 94 66 94 78 99 98y 99y 84 92 77 92 99y 76 98y 76 92 100 97 95 70 100 95 92 63 89 97 99 90y 90x 95 93 78 69 93 93 68 98y 71 84 89 99 89y 88 98 92 97 100 - 41 54 46 49 120 110 59 9 38 100 114 91 88 31 101 68 29 62 91 82 96 92 98 85 93 15 111 77 79 76 39 72 22 98 14 94 100 33 87 116 82 34 63 42 101 97 65 89 6x 72 85 52 94 81 74 90 87 40 62 50 42 118 119 68 6 31 95 117 96 85 23 115 73 23 63 92 90 97 102 95 86 93 14 108 86 76 85 41 64 16 106 14 95 100 26 94 123 83 32 84 42 105 89 61 75 5x 74 83 26 102 86 80 68 81 38 32 89 93 38 8 30 91x 96 87 74 61 69 56 89 78 88 80 100 68 62 62 25 54 18 90 94 28 58 95 53 26 97 86 60 86 82 30 61 70 66 - 37 43 90 96 43 5 25 96x 97 92 75 67 69 67 92 87 86 82 97 74 63 70 27 51 13 96 95 24 65 99 74 32 100 80 56 73 80 14 75 74 69 - 29 35 35 6 38 80 81 23 70 55 7 38 16 14 1 41 19 40 24 88 7 27 69 49 85 14 40 27 47 6 33 83 80 18 70 70 7 39 10 12 0 48 20 47 33 72 8 18 76 36 85 15 120 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .

data 2000-2004* Survey data 1997-2005* Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Secondary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female Adult literacy rate 2000-2004* phones Internet male female users Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 77 100 93 94 76 - 58 99 93 87 60 - 5 54 112 159 123 49 8 8 45 18 9 5 6 1 8 32 63 63 21 3 4 9 7 1 2 7 118 95 85 107 100 110 100 120 106 101 102 101 97 117 95 82 107 98 108 99 116 104 94 72 97 95 82 72 99 94 95 92 97 87 80 81 82 70 99 90 93 92 91 63 80 82 87 95 91 97 68 55 85 87 94 93 96 41 58 87 64 95 88 96y 72x 91 87 73 98 70 89 89 96 96y 88y 88 94 18 94 65 103 94 100 96 44 67 75 64 29 38 14 92 68 106 95 116 93 38 77 72 31 23 35 14 83 61 93 89 42 57 46 27 35 12 84 64 97 91 36 66 21 21 33 86 30 59 35 17 44 - 85 43 57 13 19 41 - MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 99 94 91 19 98 98 96 96 98y 96y 96y 94 88 89 - SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 70 79 60 81 72 95 91 99 85 70 86 53 67 38 62 46 87 90 96 72 50 74 8 10 6 27 8 45 50 63 130 29 3 45 2 2 1 6 3 9 12 11 52 6 1 13 103 109 97 98 116 115 119 103 102 112 103 111 92 102 81 91 105 114 116 100 101 105 91 104 70 78 63 84 90 97 94 91 97 89 77 90 66 76 55 78 84 97 94 89 95 85 72 86 63 66 59 83 81 89 91 78 64 78 59 66 52 77 75 89 89 75 59 75 63 71 55 91 76 94 85 96 82 69 83 85 83 87 90 93 95 91 82 91 36 39 33 73 54 71 83 92 101 62 35 67 28 33 23 66 45 71 90 87 102 57 29 63 30 33 26 66 57** 66 84 91 52** 33 61** 24 29 20 61 58** 70 83 93 51** 29 60** 21 16 26 50 54 53** 44 46** 22 46** 20 17 22 44 48 55** 51 43** 20 43** ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. These data are from national household surveys. regardless of age. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official primary school age. or refer to only part of a country. Survey data: DHS and MICS. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official primary school age. Secondary school net enrolment ratio – The number of children enrolled in secondary school who are of official secondary school age. differ from the standard definition. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official secondary school age. Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official primary school age. but are included in the calculation of regional and global averages. MAIN DATA SOURCES Adult literacy – UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. Primary school entrants reaching grade five – Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade five. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). Primary school net attendance ratio – The number of children attending primary or secondary school who are of official primary school age. x S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 121 . differ from the standard definition. Secondary school gross enrolment ratio – The number of children enrolled in secondary school.…TABLE 5 Number per 100 population 2002-2004* Primary school enrolment ratio 2000-2005* gross male female male net female Primary school attendance ratio (1996-2005*) net male female % of primary school entrants reaching grade 5 Admin. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. Primary and secondary school attendance – Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). ** Excludes China. Primary and secondary school enrolment – UIS. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official secondary school age. y Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. NOTES Data not available. Primary school gross enrolment ratio – The number of children enrolled in primary school. regardless of age. Phone and Internet use – International Telecommunications Union (Geneva). and are not included in the calculation of regional and global averages. Reaching grade five – Administrative data: UIS. Primary school net enrolment ratio – The number of children enrolled in primary school who are of official primary school age. or refer to only part of a country. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. These data are from national household surveys. Secondary school net attendance ratio – The number of children attending secondary or tertiary school who are of official secondary school age. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official secondary school age. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Adult literacy rate – Percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write.

8 24 45 60 91 37 38 91 64 93 66 50 90 90 25 53 72 97 49 46 9 64 45 53 84 78 70 19 11 20 53 81 58 44 26 88 41 77 36 54 33 73 62 46 60 76 69 75 86 85 73 60 63 42 60 50 21 70 16 53 3.8 2.2 2.5 -1.3 3.2 2.4 0.7 2.6 4.5 4.0 2.6 2.8 2.2 1.4 0.0 2.4 6.7 3.4 4.2 1.1 1.1 3.1 2.4 0.4 -0.4 0.2 3.6 1.4 0.3 1. DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS Population (thousands) 2005 Countries and territories under 18 under 5 Population annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Crude death rate 1970 1990 2005 Crude birth rate 1970 1990 2005 Life expectancy 1970 1990 2005 Total fertility rate 2005 % of population urbanized 2005 Average annual growth rate of urban population (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.4 4.5 0.2 2.TABLE 6.3 1.4 1. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji 15849 1034 11983 12 8502 27 12277 819 4797 1552 2736 108 232 59402 63 1967 2120 117 4300 983 4090 807 800 62229 130 1366 7176 3969 6242 7881 6970 238 2021 5257 4945 352718 16755 387 2153 31071 7 1496 8908 873 2666 205 1882 1211 383 27 3481 5100 29691 2750 257 2266 265 39792 317 5535 253 3160 3 2974 8 3340 162 1253 384 602 30 65 17399 16 449 563 34 1441 293 1239 186 218 18024 40 335 2459 1326 1835 2453 1698 72 640 1867 1237 84483 4726 127 750 11209 2 393 2773 207 682 49 453 326 120 7 1003 1445 8933 805 88 759 64 13063 92 0.1 2.7 1.7 1.2 2.0 5.2.5 -0.5 3.3 1.8 1.3 3.8 2.7 1.1 2.5 3.5 3.8 5.4 0.3 -0.5 0.3 6.6 5.2 4.2 0.5 4.9 3.2.6 -0.4 5.1 5.1 1.5 7.7 .4 2.9 1.1 2.0 2.8 11.4 5.3 0.6 6.5 1.2 3.9 5.5 0.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 2.7 5.5 1.0 1.3 5.8 1.7 1.6 .6 1.2 7.4 2.4 2.8 2.7 3.1 3.8 4.3 1.6 1.4 1.8 4.4 1.1 4.5 2.4 5.3 4.8 0.8 1.2 1.4 3.8 -0.1 0.7 0.3 2.0 2.2 3.7 3.8 4.7 -0.0 3.0 1.6 -0.4 1.5 3.6 4.3 -1.9 2.1 0.1 1.3 1.2 1.3 0.4 4.7 0.0 -0.2 2.6 0.0 2.2 1.4 3.4 2.8 2.1 2.7 3.2 1.2 0.8 2.9 2.5 2.8 1.1 0.7 2.2 4.7 1.2 -1.3 1.1 6.2 2.7 1.8 .3 2.5 2.5 1.0 2.3 1.9 3.3 1.4 3.7 2.8 2.6 2.4 5.4 2.2 1.6 4.3 0.3 3.7 2.3 0.9 4.2 5.4 0.2 3.0 4.4 2.2 2.1 1.0 3.6 2.8 2.9 2.1 3.3 3.8 -0.4 2.9 2.5 6.6 2.4 2.4 1.0 4.6 1.0 3.7 122 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .7 2.4 1.8 4.9 1.4 5.5 1.1 2.4 3.1 0.3 0.3 2.3 2.8 1.4 .2 1.7 1.4 1.8 3.6 1.7 2.2 2.4 2.6 1.8 6.2 2.4 2.9 1.6 2.2.7 1.7 1.2 6.1 0.7 1.1 2.2 2.0 5.0 2.4 1.3 2.1 -0.8 -0.6 7.1 3.8 3.3 1.2 1.7 2.4 0.7 2.4 1.9 3.5 6.1 0.2 0.9 2.3 4.7 3.8 2.0 2.4 1.8 0.8 5.2 6.6 4.0 1.1 26 8 16 28 9 5 9 13 7 7 9 21 9 7 12 8 22 23 20 7 13 11 7 9 23 20 20 21 7 12 22 25 10 8 9 18 14 20 7 18 10 7 10 13 10 21 11 12 17 12 25 21 11 21 8 21 6 7 25 8 8 7 11 7 7 4 12 9 11 11 5 15 14 11 7 6 7 3 12 18 20 13 14 7 8 17 19 6 7 7 11 12 19 4 14 11 7 8 12 12 15 7 6 9 7 20 16 13 18 6 19 7 5 22 8 9 7 10 7 7 3 8 8 15 10 5 12 8 8 9 28 7 3 14 16 18 11 17 7 5 22 20 5 7 5 7 13 20 4 17 12 7 7 11 11 12 6 5 6 6 21 11 14 16 6 51 33 49 52 23 23 20 15 29 31 40 45 22 16 14 40 47 43 46 23 48 35 36 16 50 44 42 45 17 40 43 48 29 33 38 50 44 48 33 51 15 30 19 16 16 49 42 42 40 44 42 47 15 49 34 51 24 32 53 22 21 15 12 27 24 29 35 15 14 12 35 47 39 36 15 34 24 28 12 50 47 44 42 14 39 42 48 23 21 27 41 44 49 27 45 12 17 19 12 12 43 30 29 32 30 44 42 14 47 29 49 17 21 48 18 11 12 9 16 19 18 26 12 9 11 26 41 30 29 9 26 20 23 9 47 46 30 35 10 30 37 49 15 13 21 35 44 50 18 37 9 12 12 9 11 34 24 22 26 24 43 39 10 40 23 39 67 53 37 66 70 71 70 65 66 62 44 69 71 71 66 46 41 46 66 55 59 67 71 43 44 44 44 73 57 42 40 62 62 61 48 54 45 67 49 69 70 71 70 73 43 58 58 51 57 40 43 71 43 60 45 72 67 40 71 68 77 76 66 68 71 55 75 71 76 72 53 54 59 72 66 66 74 71 48 45 55 53 78 65 49 46 73 68 68 56 55 46 75 52 72 74 77 72 75 51 65 68 63 65 46 48 70 47 67 47 74 72 41 75 72 81 79 67 71 75 64 76 68 79 72 55 64 65 74 34 71 77 73 48 44 57 46 80 71 39 44 78 72 73 64 53 44 78 46 75 78 79 76 78 53 68 75 70 71 42 55 72 48 68 7.2 5.5 2.6.3 2.1 0.2 6.7 2.1 0.2 1.6 4.2 0.7 1.8 6.2 4.9 4.4 0.4 -1.3 2.6 1.

…TABLE 6
Population (thousands) 2005 under 18 under 5 Population annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Crude death rate 1970 1990 2005 Crude birth rate 1970 1990 2005 Life expectancy 1970 1990 2005 Total fertility rate 2005 % of population urbanized 2005 Average annual growth rate of urban population (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005

Finland 1100 279 France 13271 3727 Gabon 651 193 Gambia 704 231 Georgia 1080 242 Germany 14707 3545 Ghana 10159 3102 Greece 1944 514 Grenada 35 10 Guatemala 6297 2020 Guinea 4723 1590 Guinea-Bissau 856 310 Guyana 261 75 Haiti 3846 1147 Holy See Honduras 3317 979 Hungary 1965 477 Iceland 78 21 India 420678 120011 Indonesia 75641 21571 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 25243 6035 Iraq 13759 4322 Ireland 1007 303 Israel 2200 666 Italy 9837 2662 Jamaica 992 258 Japan 21770 5871 Jordan 2477 732 Kazakhstan 4394 1075 Kenya 17214 5736 Kiribati 39 12 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of 6756 1723 Korea, Republic of 10795 2412 Kuwait 764 241 Kyrgyzstan 2016 541 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2830 895 Latvia 448 101 Lebanon 1225 322 Lesotho 840 231 Liberia 1769 631 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2119 636 Liechtenstein 7 2 Lithuania 745 150 Luxembourg 104 29 Madagascar 9412 3106 Malawi 6945 2340 Malaysia 9603 2734 Maldives 158 46 Mali 7439 2602 Malta 88 20 Marshall Islands 24 7 Mauritania 1513 526 Mauritius 364 98 Mexico 39654 10857 Micronesia (Federated States of) 51 16 Moldova, Republic of 1009 207 Monaco 7 2 Mongolia 998 270 Montenegro‡ -

0.4 0.6 3.0 3.5 0.7 0.1 2.7 0.7 0.1 2.5 2.2 2.8 0.1 2.1 .3.2 0.0 1.1 2.1 2.1 3.4 3.0 0.9 2.2 0.3 1.2 0.8 3.5 1.1 3.7 2.5 1.6 1.5 5.3 2.0 2.1 0.7 0.7 2.2 2.2 3.9 1.5 0.8 0.5 2.8 3.7 2.5 2.9 2.5 0.9 4.2 2.4 1.2 2.6 2.2 1.0 1.2 2.8 .-

0.3 0.4 2.5 3.2 -1.3 0.3 2.4 0.6 0.4 2.3 2.8 3.0 0.2 1.4 .2.6 -0.2 1.0 1.7 1.4 1.4 2.9 1.1 2.7 0.2 0.7 0.2 3.7 -0.7 2.5 2.2 0.9 0.7 1.5 1.2 2.4 -1.1 1.8 0.8 2.9 2.0 1.2 -0.5 1.4 2.9 2.1 2.3 2.8 2.8 0.7 1.8 2.8 1.1 1.6 0.9 -0.2 1.0 1.2 .-

10 11 21 28 9 12 17 8 15 27 29 11 19 15 11 7 17 17 14 12 11 7 10 8 7 16 9 15 9 9 6 11 23 11 8 17 22 16 9 12 21 24 10 17 28 9 21 7 10 9 10 14 -

10 9 11 16 9 11 12 9 9 18 23 10 16 7 14 7 11 9 7 8 9 6 10 7 7 6 8 10 8 6 2 8 17 14 8 11 21 5 11 10 15 19 5 10 20 8 17 6 5 7 10 9 -

10 9 13 11 11 10 11 10 6 13 20 9 13 6 13 6 9 7 5 9 7 6 10 8 8 4 11 15 11 6 2 7 12 13 7 26 21 4 12 8 12 21 5 6 17 8 14 7 4 6 11 7 -

14 17 35 50 19 14 46 17 44 50 49 38 39 48 15 21 40 41 43 46 22 27 17 35 19 52 26 51 33 31 48 31 44 14 33 42 50 49 17 13 47 56 37 40 55 17 46 28 45 41 18 42 -

13 13 39 43 16 11 40 10 39 45 50 25 38 38 12 18 31 26 35 39 15 22 10 25 10 37 22 42 21 16 24 31 43 14 26 36 50 28 15 13 44 51 31 41 50 15 43 20 29 34 19 32 -

11 12 30 34 11 8 31 9 35 41 50 21 30 29 9 14 23 20 19 34 16 20 9 20 9 26 16 39 15 10 19 22 35 9 18 28 50 23 9 12 38 43 22 30 49 10 41 16 20 30 10 22 -

70 72 47 36 68 71 49 72 52 38 36 60 47 52 69 74 49 48 54 56 71 71 72 68 72 54 62 52 61 60 66 60 40 70 65 49 42 51 71 70 44 41 61 50 37 70 42 62 61 62 65 53 -

75 77 60 50 71 76 56 77 61 47 42 60 49 65 69 78 58 62 65 63 75 76 77 72 79 67 67 59 65 71 75 66 50 69 69 58 43 68 71 75 51 46 70 60 46 76 49 69 71 66 68 61 -

79 80 54 57 71 79 57 78 68 54 45 64 52 68 73 81 64 68 71 60 78 80 80 71 82 72 64 48 64 78 77 67 55 72 72 34 42 74 73 79 56 40 74 67 48 79 53 73 76 68 69 65 -

1.7 1.9 3.8 4.5 1.4 1.3 4.1 1.2 .4.4 5.7 7.1 2.2 3.8 .3.5 1.3 1.9 2.9 2.3 2.1 4.5 2.0 2.8 1.3 2.4 1.3 3.3 1.9 5.0 .2.0 1.2 2.3 2.6 4.6 1.3 2.2 3.4 6.8 2.9 .1.3 1.7 5.1 5.9 2.8 4.0 6.8 1.5 .5.6 2.0 2.3 4.3 1.2 .2.3 .-

61 77 85 26 51 88 46 61 42 47 36 36 38 39 100 46 66 93 29 48 68 67 60 92 68 52 66 79 56 42 50 62 81 96 34 22 66 88 18 48 87 22 67 92 27 17 65 30 34 92 67 64 44 76 30 46 100 57 -

1.4 0.8 6.9 6.0 1.5 0.4 3.9 1.3 0.1 3.2 5.2 5.0 0.7 4.1 .4.8 1.2 1.4 3.4 5.0 4.9 4.1 1.3 2.6 0.4 2.3 1.7 4.7 1.8 8.0 4.0 1.9 4.5 6.3 2.0 4.5 1.3 2.4 5.6 4.6 6.7 1.6 2.4 1.7 5.3 7.0 4.5 6.1 5.0 1.5 4.3 8.2 1.0 3.6 2.7 2.9 1.2 4.0 .-

0.3 0.7 3.9 3.6 -1.8 0.5 4.0 0.9 2.2 3.2 5.2 5.7 1.2 3.3 .3.6 0.2 1.1 2.5 4.4 2.6 2.7 1.5 2.8 0.2 0.8 0.5 4.4 -0.8 6.0 4.6 1.3 1.3 1.6 0.5 4.7 -1.5 2.2 1.2 3.7 2.6 1.5 -0.6 1.8 3.8 4.6 4.1 3.7 5.1 1.1 2.0 5.3 1.6 1.9 1.8 -0.3 1.0 1.2 .-

S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S

123

TABLE 6. DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS
Population (thousands) 2005 under 18 under 5 Population annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Crude death rate 1970 1990 2005 Crude birth rate 1970 1990 2005 Life expectancy 1970 1990 2005 Total fertility rate 2005 % of population urbanized 2005 Average annual growth rate of urban population (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005

Morocco 11743 Mozambique 10049 Myanmar 17962 Namibia 993 Nauru 5 Nepal 12395 Netherlands 3559 New Zealand 1048 Nicaragua 2526 Niger 7765 Nigeria 67371 Niue 1 Norway 1083 Occupied Palestinian Territory 1938 Oman 1054 Pakistan 71800 Palau 8 Panama 1163 Papua New Guinea 2751 Paraguay 2722 Peru 10722 Philippines 34622 Poland 7984 Portugal 2007 Qatar 204 Romania 4366 Russian Federation 28830 Rwanda 4658 Saint Kitts and Nevis 14 Saint Lucia 56 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 43 Samoa 88 San Marino 5 Sao Tome and Principe 73 Saudi Arabia 10690 Senegal 5804 Serbia‡ Seychelles 41 Sierra Leone 2722 Singapore 1023 Slovakia 1142 Slovenia 345 Solomon Islands 227 Somalia 4152 South Africa 18417 Spain 7457 Sri Lanka 6054 Sudan 16547 Suriname 161 Swaziland 514 Sweden 1943 Switzerland 1458 Syrian Arab Republic 8375 Tajikistan 3055 Tanzania, United Republic of 19070 Thailand 18522 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 494 Timor-Leste 463 Togo 3095

3378 3291 4657 268 2 3639 973 274 731 2851 22257 0 283 646 301 21115 2 343 815 825 2997 9863 1811 561 67 1054 7225 1500 4 14 12 26 1 23 3200 1845 14 958 216 255 86 72 1482 5223 2217 1628 5216 45 136 488 353 2526 834 6045 5012 117 179 1014

2.4 1.8 2.1 3.0 1.9 2.3 0.7 1.0 2.9 3.1 2.8 .0.4 3.4 4.5 3.1 1.5 2.4 2.4 2.9 2.5 2.6 0.8 0.7 7.2 0.7 0.6 3.2 -0.5 1.4 0.9 0.6 1.2 2.3 5.2 2.8 .1.4 2.1 1.9 0.7 0.7 3.4 3.1 2.4 0.8 1.7 2.9 0.4 3.2 0.3 0.5 3.5 2.9 3.3 2.1 1.0 1.0 3.1

1.6 2.6 1.4 2.5 2.4 2.3 0.6 1.1 2.2 3.3 2.5 .0.6 3.6 2.2 2.3 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.5 1.7 2.0 0.1 0.3 3.7 -0.4 -0.2 1.6 0.3 1.0 0.6 0.9 1.0 2.0 2.7 2.5 .0.8 2.0 2.4 0.2 0.1 2.7 1.4 1.7 0.6 1.0 2.2 0.7 1.2 0.4 0.4 2.6 1.4 2.5 1.1 0.4 1.6 2.9

17 24 18 15 21 8 9 14 28 22 10 19 17 16 8 19 9 14 11 8 11 13 9 9 21 8 11 10 13 18 25 29 5 10 10 10 25 14 9 9 21 8 18 10 9 13 10 17 9 8 22 18

8 21 12 9 13 9 8 7 26 18 11 7 4 11 5 13 6 7 7 10 10 3 11 12 33 7 7 7 10 5 14 26 5 10 10 9 22 8 9 6 14 7 10 11 9 5 8 13 6 8 18 12

6 20 9 16 8 9 7 5 20 19 9 4 3 8 5 10 5 6 5 10 11 3 12 16 18 7 7 6 8 4 11 23 5 10 10 7 17 19 9 6 11 7 30 10 9 3 7 17 7 9 12 12

47 48 41 43 42 17 22 48 58 47 17 50 50 43 38 42 37 42 40 17 21 34 21 15 53 41 40 39 47 48 49 48 23 19 17 46 51 38 20 31 47 37 50 14 16 47 40 48 37 24 46 48

29 44 31 42 39 13 17 38 57 47 14 46 38 41 26 38 35 30 33 15 12 23 14 13 48 26 25 34 37 36 44 48 18 15 11 38 46 29 10 21 39 24 41 14 12 36 39 44 21 17 40 44

23 39 19 27 29 11 14 28 54 41 12 37 25 30 22 30 29 22 24 9 11 18 10 11 41 19 20 27 33 27 36 46 9 9 9 32 44 23 11 16 32 20 29 11 9 28 28 37 16 11 51 38

52 40 48 53 43 74 71 54 38 42 74 54 50 51 65 44 65 53 57 70 67 61 68 70 44 64 61 55 56 52 39 35 69 70 69 54 40 53 72 62 44 63 48 74 73 55 60 48 60 66 40 48

64 43 56 62 54 77 75 64 40 47 77 69 70 60 72 52 68 65 65 71 74 69 69 69 32 71 69 65 62 68 53 39 75 72 73 61 42 62 77 71 53 68 58 78 78 68 63 54 68 71 45 58

70 42 61 46 62 79 79 70 45 44 80 73 75 64 75 56 71 71 71 75 78 73 72 65 44 73 71 71 63 72 56 41 79 74 77 63 47 46 80 74 57 70 30 80 81 74 64 46 71 74 56 55

2.7 5.3 2.2 3.7 .3.5 1.7 2.0 3.1 7.7 5.6 .1.8 5.3 3.4 4.0 .2.6 3.8 3.7 2.7 3.0 1.2 1.5 2.9 1.3 1.4 5.5 .2.2 2.2 4.2 .3.8 3.8 4.8 ..6.5 1.3 1.2 1.2 4.1 6.2 2.7 1.3 1.9 4.2 2.5 3.7 1.7 1.4 3.3 3.6 4.8 1.9 1.5 7.8 5.1

59 38 31 33 100 16 67 86 58 23 48 37 80 72 79 35 68 58 13 58 75 63 62 56 92 55 73 22 32 31 60 22 89 38 88 51 50 40 100 58 51 17 36 58 77 21 41 77 24 83 68 50 24 38 32 60 8 36

4.1 8.3 2.5 4.8 1.9 6.4 1.0 1.2 3.5 6.3 5.5 .0.9 4.4 13.0 4.2 2.4 3.0 3.9 4.3 3.4 4.5 1.5 3.6 7.5 2.1 1.5 5.7 -0.4 2.2 3.0 0.9 3.1 4.4 7.6 3.7 .4.6 4.8 1.9 2.3 2.3 5.5 4.4 2.5 1.4 1.5 5.3 2.1 7.5 0.4 1.6 4.1 2.2 9.2 3.8 2.0 0.1 7.0

2.9 6.5 2.8 4.0 2.4 6.1 1.3 1.2 2.8 5.8 4.6 .1.3 4.2 3.8 3.2 1.7 2.4 2.4 3.7 2.2 3.7 0.2 1.5 3.9 -0.3 -0.2 11.0 -0.2 2.1 3.2 1.2 0.9 2.2 3.5 4.1 .0.8 4.0 2.4 0.4 0.2 4.2 2.7 2.8 0.7 0.9 5.0 1.8 1.5 0.4 0.3 2.8 -0.4 6.2 1.7 0.6 1.6 4.5

124

T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7

…TABLE 6
Population (thousands) 2005 under 18 under 5 Population annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Crude death rate 1970 1990 2005 Crude birth rate 1970 1990 2005 Life expectancy 1970 1990 2005 Total fertility rate 2005 % of population urbanized 2005 Average annual growth rate of urban population (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005

Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

43 355 3259 25348 1882 4 16539 9084 1192 13117 74926 1001 10742 99 9988 30496 11252 6215 6256

12 90 806 7212 488 1 5970 1924 337 3367 20408 282 2841 30 2860 7969 3668 2011 1752

-0.2 1.1 2.4 2.3 2.6 1.3 3.2 0.5 10.6 0.2 1.0 0.5 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.2 3.2 3.3 3.5

0.5 0.5 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.7 3.2 -0.7 5.9 0.3 1.0 0.7 1.7 2.3 2.0 1.6 3.7 2.2 1.4

6 7 14 12 11 16 9 11 12 9 10 10 14 7 18 26 17 13

6 7 6 8 8 18 13 3 11 9 10 7 7 5 8 13 17 9

6 8 5 7 8 15 17 1 10 8 9 7 5 5 6 8 22 23

37 27 39 39 37 50 15 36 16 17 21 37 43 37 41 54 51 49

30 20 27 25 35 50 13 27 14 16 18 35 37 29 31 51 46 38

23 14 16 20 22 51 8 16 11 14 16 23 30 22 20 40 40 29

65 66 54 56 58 50 71 61 72 71 69 63 53 65 49 38 49 55

70 72 69 65 63 46 69 73 76 75 72 67 64 71 65 54 47 60

73 70 74 69 63 49 66 79 79 78 76 67 69 73 71 62 38 37

3.3 1.6 1.9 2.4 2.6 .7.1 1.1 2.4 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.9 2.6 2.2 5.9 5.4 3.4

34 76 64 67 46 57 12 67 85 89 81 93 36 24 88 27 26 37 36

1.6 1.6 3.7 4.5 2.3 4.6 4.9 1.5 10.7 0.9 1.1 0.9 3.1 4.5 3.9 2.7 5.6 4.7 6.1

1.1 1.1 2.1 2.5 1.9 2.9 3.9 -0.7 6.1 0.4 1.5 1.0 1.1 3.9 2.3 3.5 5.1 1.7 2.8

MEMORANDUM
Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 2376 608 0.8 0.2 9 10 11 19 15 12 68 72 74 1.6 52 2.1 0.4

SUMMARY INDICATORS
Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 361301 177395 183906 154130 587319 572465 199284 104278 204366 1928976 368348 2183143 119555 57670 61885 44711 169666 144948 56538 26562 54239 550130 119352 616219 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.2 1.8 2.2 1.0 0.7 2.1 2.5 1.8 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.1 1.9 1.1 1.6 0.2 0.6 1.6 2.5 1.4 20 19 22 16 17 10 11 9 10 13 21 12 16 15 18 8 11 7 7 11 9 9 16 10 17 17 18 6 9 7 6 12 9 9 14 9 48 47 48 45 40 35 37 21 17 38 47 32 45 43 47 35 33 22 27 18 13 29 43 26 40 38 42 26 25 15 21 14 11 23 37 21 45 47 43 52 49 59 60 67 71 55 44 59 50 51 48 63 58 66 68 68 76 62 50 65 46 46 46 69 64 71 72 67 79 65 53 68 5.4 5.0 5.7 3.1 3.1 1.9 2.5 1.7 1.6 2.8 4.9 2.6 37 31 42 58 29 43 77 63 77 43 28 49 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.4 3.7 3.9 3.3 2.0 1.1 3.8 4.9 2.7 4.3 4.2 4.4 2.9 2.8 3.4 2.2 0.2 0.9 3.0 4.4 2.2

‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006, disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136.

DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS
Life expectancy at birth – The number of years newborn children would live if subject to the mortality risks prevailing for the cross section of population at the time of their birth. Crude death rate – Annual number of deaths per 1,000 population. Crude birth rate – Annual number of births per 1,000 population. Total fertility rate – The number of children that would be born per woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates. Urban population – Percentage of population living in urban areas as defined according to the national definition used in the most recent population census.

MAIN DATA SOURCES
Child population – United Nations Population Division. Crude death and birth rates – United Nations Population Division. Life expectancy – United Nations Population Division. Fertility – United Nations Population Division. Urban population – United Nations Population Division.

NOTES

-

Data not available.

S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S

125

4x -1.8 -2.6 1.2 1.3 3.1 3.0 0.6 1.0 1.6 0.3x 0.6 2.TABLE 7.7 22 14 407 2 5 89 2 2 88 3x 2 4 3x 201 2 1 6 8 7 3x 8 90 61 4 12 3x 5x 2 4 3 6 7 5 16 4 7 447 14 6 41 4x 4x 8 2 3 2 11 4 7 5 17x 11x 28 4 3x 2 1 <2 <2 7 <2 <2 36 <2 31 23 24x 8 <2 27 55 34 17 67x <2 17 7 2 15 <2 <2 3 16 3 19 <2 23 - 4 4 6x 5 14 14 1 16 8 7 3 16 8 6x 8 10 5 6 12 7x 2 3 9 8x 14 0 9 4 0 21 4x 13 23x 6 17 1 10 11x 3 13 16 6 9 3 16x 2 24 15x 5 9 10 3 20 15 18 4 3 20 31x 13 22 26 6 5 17x 15 12 2 8x 18 2 20 4 0 22 21x 8 10x 12 10 12 13 18x 15 15 7 16 18 10 7x 4 17 34x 3 6 2 11 3 16 10 3 3 5 17x 0 6 8 3 6 14x 23 10 6 7 12 13 10 18 0 4x 4 4 5 5 4 13x 9 3 5 9 6 4 6x 2190 362 313 1144 2 91 254 176 104 1404 29 7 378 78 767 671 39 285 610 351 478 762 140 105 319 49 1661 509 25 116 1815 9 13 154 121 90 64 29 87 160 1458 211 30 260 1823 64 - 40 5 0 8 0 0 8 2 1 2 1 10 12 9 8 1 0 14 52 10 6 16 9 14 0 0 1 8 4 28 0 1 0 9 11 0 1 2 1 32 24 3 - 4x 62 7 30 17 14 5 7 5x 31 4 19 5x 6 41 18 5 8 2 20 10 39 2 32 5x 21 26 4 7 27 18 14 3 33 12 - 2x 19x 15 14 5 4 5 5 1 62 6x 5x 18 3 1x 40 15 10x 63x 0 11x 5x 12x 7x 24 3 32 3x 3x 0x 7 5 27 10 4x 13x 6 33 7 8 0x 13x 15 5 6x - 126 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .5x -0.9 1.9 0.3x 2.6 -0.9 1.6 16.0 3.7 1.4x 2.0 0.6 2.3 -0.5 1.6x 2.5x 1.5 1.7 1.7 2.5 3.8 8.1 8.3 -2. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France 250x 2580 2730 d 1350 10920 4470 1470 32220 36980 1240 14920x 10840x 470 9270x 2760 35700 3500 510 870 1010 2440 5180 3460 24100x 3450 400 100 380 1010 32600 1870 350 400 5870 1740 2290 640 950 120 4590 840 8060 1170x 17580x 10710 47390 1020 3790 2370 2630 1250 2450 c 220 9100 160 3280 37460 34810 1.5 1.1 1.1 4.7 2.4x 1.3 12.3 2.4 0.3 4.1x 3.0 6.7x 3.4 2.2 1.5 4.8 0.2 2.4 1.5 2.5 6.8 4.7x 1.7x 0.0 1.7x 2.5x 2.8 2. ECONOMIC INDICATORS GNI per capita (US$) 2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Average annual rate of inflation (%) 1990-2005 % of population below $1 a day 1994-2004* % of central government expenditure (1994-2004*) allocated to: health education defence ODA inflow in millions US$ 2004 ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI 2004 Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services 1990 2004 Countries and territories Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.4 1.2 1.3 1.8 -1.5x 0.1x 1.7 3.4 -0.9 6.3 3.3 -0.1 -2.8 1.6 1.3 -1.4 3.8 1.4 1.4 2.4 1.3 2.5 -1.1 1.4x 6.2 2.3 4.8 0.0 -1.9 1.7 -1.6 2.6 1.8 0.0 -5.6x -0.5 2.2 5.9 2.6x 0.

5 1.4 0.3 3.2 2.0x 1.0 2.2 -4.8x 2.9 3.7 -2.2 -6.3x 2.6 3.0 3.9 2.5 6.3 1.2 4.1 2.6 6.4 4.6 1.2 4.2 -5.7 1.8 1.5 3.0 2.4 3.3 0.4 2.5 -2.2 -2.7 2.5 0.1x 1.6 1.0 0.0 -0.4 0.5 0.2 1.6 -1.1 -3.8x 2.3 1.1 4.6x -1.2 2.2 2.7 -3. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.0 0.2x -2.8 3.4 5 7 134 1 26 7 2 9 6 18 9 19 15 15 4 6 16 24 4 7 3 17 -1 2 92 11x 3 4 3x 57 27 25 10 9 47 35 3 15 29 3 1x 5 3 5 7 6 15 2 63 34 2 22 24 9 59 7 45 14 <2 54 21 <2 35 8 <2 <2 <2 <2 23 <2 <2 27 <2 36 36 <2 61 42 <2 72 26 5 22 27 <2 38 35x 7x 5 19 7 7 10 11 3x 1x 10x 6 26 2 1 7 16 13 3 7 2 10 3 7 0 6 11 11 2 6 5x 15 13 8 7x 6 11 2x 12 4x 9 5 21 6 3 5x 5 10x 12x 5 0 22 11 17 17 11x 3x 19x 5 10 2 4 7 14 15 10 15 6 16 4 26 18 12 20 6 7 24 11x 7 10 13 12x 23 20 9x 13 23x 16 25 8 9 18 10x 15 22x 4x 5 4 5x 8 11 29x 4x 7x 3 0 13 7 14 3 18 3 2 4x 19 5 6 13 16 10 4 11 6 9x 5 0 5 5x 11 10 8x 2 1 3 1 9 13 35x 22 7x 38 63 315 1358 15 218 279 76 145 243 642 691 84 189 4658 75 581 265 635 17 196 258 270 265 102 210 1236 476 290 28 567 11x 51 180 38 121 86 118 262 706 1228 121 179 1 15 7 16 4 1 7 30 19 9 0 0 0 1 5 1 4 18 13 12 1 8 56 24 23 0 4 13 36 11 1 0 34 5 17 2 23 4 4 18 21 2 11 18 21 4 30 30 25 31 1 20 18 26 10x 8 1x 4 32 23 12 4 8 0x 24 6 16 18 21 17 - 11x 3x 8 5 18x 7 17 11x 5 3x 7 25 18x 20 4x 14 7 38 8 22x 10x 11 8x 18 63x 4 0x 13 6x 6x 8x 5 5x 3x 20x 6 23 10 2 14 4 3 - S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 127 .9 3.2 -0.0 -0. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia 5010 290 1350 34580 450 19670 3920 2400 370 180 1010 450 1190 10030 46320 720 1280 2770 2170x 40150 18620 30010 3400 38980 2500 2930 530 1390 a 15830 16340x 440 440 6760 6180 960 130 5530 d 7050 65630 290 160 4960 2390 380 13590 2930 560 5260 7310 2300 880 d 690 1730 310 220x 2990 0.1 1.6 2.6 5.0 -1.1 1.1 -1.1 -2.9 1.7 2.3 3.6 -0.4 -0.9 3.3 0.9 1.9 3.1 2.2 2.5 6.3 3.5x -4.5 -0.1 -4.8x 3.2 1.7 -2.8x 2.5x 1.5 -0.…TABLE 7 GNI per capita (US$) 2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Average annual rate of inflation (%) 1990-2005 % of population below $1 a day 1994-2004* % of central government expenditure (1994-2004*) allocated to: health education defence ODA inflow in millions US$ 2004 ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI 2004 Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services 1990 2004 Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea.5 -0.2 1.1 0.3x -0.3 1.6 2. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova.2 0.3 2.3 6.7 1.4 2.5 4.

5 0.6 0.0 0.3 3.9 0.3 3.2 2.5 1.0 2.8 -0.5 0.6 2.3x 5.2 0.1 1.9 1.3 -4. United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu 270 36620 25960 910 240 560 59590 1110x 7830x 690 7630 4630 660 1280 2610 1300 7110 16170 12000x 3830 4460 230 8210 4800 3590 2090 d 390 11770 710 8290 220 27490 7950 17350 590 130x 4960 25360 1160 640 2540 2280 41060 54930 1380 330 340 2750 2830 750 350 2190 10440 2890 4710 1340x - 1.1 1.8 1.3 3.4 1.2 -1.9 4.3 1.8 3.6 1.7x - 6 2 2 24 5 23 3 9x 1x 10 3x 3 8 11 15 7 15 4 67 85 10 3 2 3 7 34 3 4 2 21 0 8 18 8 9 4 9 40 59 12 2 1 7 121 16 3 38 5 4 5 4 61 329x - 24 45 61 71 17 7 16 13 16 <2 <2 <2 <2 52 22 57x <2 <2 11 6 8 7 58 <2 <2 12x <2 3 12 - 5 10 17 13 1x 16 7 1 18 7 7 13 2 11 16 14 1 5x 12 18 6x 3 6 10x 6 20 15 1x 15 6 1 8 3 0 2 2 6x 10 5x 7x 9 5 3 - 17 11 21 15 3x 6 15 2 16 22 22 7 19 12 16 7 3 26x 16 9 14x 14 10 13x 22 3 13 2x 2 10 8 20 6 4 9 4 8x 21 20x 13x 15 20 10 - 10 4 3 6 3x 5 33 20 0 4 11x 5 3 3 5 12 0 36x 7 4 10x 29 5 3 38x 4 18 28 8 5 6 24 9 16x 7 11x 2 5 8 - 14 427 1232 536 573 14 1136 55 1421 20 38 266 0 487 463 468 0 -22 10 31 33 32 1052 10 360 53x 122 191 617 519 882 24 117 110 241 1746 -2 248 153 61 19 -1 328 257 37 8 6 27 19 1 0 2 15 0 8 1 0 25 -3 2 9 55 0 15 1 32 46 0 3 5 2 6 0 14 15 0 5 30 3 10 0 1 0 - 12 2 12 22 12 16 3 37 12 6 23 4 0 10 3 2 3 5 28 14 8 8 10x 10 25x 10 4 6 20 25 14 8 2 18 22 27 - 5 5 6x 8 7 18 14 12x 13 16 20 34 16 9 11 34x 7x 7x 5x 31x 9x 8 10 13x 16x 7x 6 7 5 2 2 6 4 10 9 0x 2x 4x 13 28 30x - 128 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .6 0.3 -0.9 4.2 1.8 2.1 0.5 -0.3 1.7 2.3 1.2 1.2x 2.1 1.3 2.6 -6.7 3.5 2.9 - 1.1x -1.8 -0.8 -3.5 -0.4 5.0 1.0 0.6 -4.5 4.5 -1.TABLE 7.2 -2.9 -0.6 0.1 1.4 3.0 1.4 3.3x 3.9 1.5 -0.0x 1.7 2.4 3.4 -0.1 -2.1 0.9 2. ECONOMIC INDICATORS GNI per capita (US$) 2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Average annual rate of inflation (%) 1990-2005 % of population below $1 a day 1994-2004* % of central government expenditure (1994-2004*) allocated to: health education defence ODA inflow in millions US$ 2004 ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI 2004 Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services 1990 2004 Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania.7 2.5 0.8 2.5 1.8x 1.6 0.9 3.1 0.7 2.3 -0.3 2.7 -0.9 0.8 -2.9 1.2 1.7 2.6 -0.7 3.0 -0.1 0.2 6.

4 3.8 6.4 2.9 -0. NOTES a: Range: low income ($875 or less). ODA – Net official development assistance. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. Debt service – World Bank.6 -2.2 3.466 to $10.725). Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item).Data not available.4 -0. ODA – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).8 0. Expenditure on health.0 -0. GDP per capita – Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output.2 0.726 or more). GDP per capita – World Bank.465).08 a day at 1993 international prices (equivalent to $1 a day in 1985 prices. % of population below $1 a day – World Bank. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS GNI per capita – Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad.1 1.…TABLE 7 GNI per capita (US$) 2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Average annual rate of inflation (%) 1990-2005 % of population below $1 a day 1994-2004* % of central government expenditure (1994-2004*) allocated to: health education defence ODA inflow in millions US$ 2004 ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI 2004 Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services 1990 2004 Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 280 1520 18060x 37600 43740 4360 510 1600 4810 620 600 490 340 -4.1 2.8x 2. Growth is calculated from constant price GDP data in local currency. d: Range: high income ($10.4 1.9 2.3 36 36 34 11 7 6 37 81 2 18 59 8 46 40 54 4 32 14 9 4 22 41 21 5 2 1 7 4 16 4 5 13 14 4 8 16 6 4 10 15 6 17 14 12 4 9 12 10 13 12 22926 13111 9815 11133 6758 6565 5627 55058 24910 57748 6 5 7 1 1 0 0 1 11 0 17 14 19 21 21 16 20 19 12 18 7 7 8 8 7 24 15 13 7 14 ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.3 -0.6 1. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group.0 5.5x -1.2x 48x 1170 5 13x SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 764 1043 491 2627 691 2092 4078 3433 35410 1801 383 7002 2. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 129 . Rate of inflation – World Bank.4 2. MAIN DATA SOURCES GNI per capita – World Bank.1 1. education and defence – International Monetary Fund (IMF).1 0. c: Range: upper-middle income ($3. As a result of revisions in purchasing power parity exchange rates. x Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. adjusted for purchasing power parity).1 8 117 3x 3 2 21 129 3 37 10 17 37 63 85 <2 <2 17 8 <2 16 76 56 2x 4 7 15 24 7 8 4 4 13 8 15x 6 17 4 3 8 19 14 22 14 24 26x 4 30 7 20 4 4 19 4 7 1159 22 246 38 49 1830 252 1081 186 17 0 2 13 0 4 2 23 2 47 31 2 22 7x 4 13 19 5 10 22 21x 1x 16 3x 3 22x 6x MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 3280 5. GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population.0 2. GNI per capita in US dollars is converted using the World Bank Atlas method. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. % of population below $1 a day – Percentage of the population living on less than $1.9 4. b: Range: lower-middle income ($876 to $3. .1 5.7 1.4 2.0 2.5 1. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population.3 -2. * Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. Debt service – The sum of interest payments and repayments of principal on external public and publicly guaranteed long-term debts.4 -1.0x 2. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available.9 2.3 -1. differ from the standard definition or refer to only part of a country. poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in previous editions.2 2.3 3.2 -2.

WOMEN Maternal mortality ratio† Enrolment ratios: females as a % of males Life expectancy: females as a % of males 2005 Adult literacy rate: females as a % of males 2000-2004* primary school 2000-2005* gross net secondary school 2000-2005* gross net Contraceptive prevalence (%) 1997-2005* Antenatal care coverage (%) 1997-2005* Skilled attendant at delivery (%) 1997-2005* 2000 Lifetime risk of maternal death. 1 in: Countries and territories 1990-2005* reported adjusted Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.TABLE 8. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France 101 108 104 107 111 110 106 107 112 109 104 103 109 118 108 107 103 104 107 108 97 112 106 110 103 104 114 102 106 109 103 105 108 105 109 107 105 105 106 103 110 105 107 109 106 104 111 108 107 109 102 107 117 104 107 109 109 30 99 75 65 100 99 99 94 99 48 87 95 103 101 95 99 52 78 75 78 51 32 100 92 100 67 100 64 98 100 96 100 98 71 86 100 - 44 99 92 98 86x 99 104 100 100 98 100 100 104 98 96 100 98 77 99 99 94 100 98 80 84 92 85 100 96 68 65 95 99 99 88 92 90x 98 99 79 99 95 99 98 100 80 99 95 100 95 97 91 80 97 85 98 99 99 99 97 97 99 103 100 98 102 101 103 99 97 100 101 77 101 102 99 76 90 96 101 99 68 100 101 83 99 81 99 98 100 100 81 101 102 101 97 100 85 84 100 95 99 100 100 20 97 108 104 79 106 103 95 94 98 111 106 110 102 101 96 104 53 97 105 110 105 96 71 71 69 71 99 110 30 101 100 110 75 83 50 103 109 56 102 101 103 101 104 72 99 125 100 93 102 58 58 102 63 107 105 101 97 105 101 108 102 101 97 111 107 113 105 101 101 104 48 99 110 107 97 73 73 100x 112 31 112 109 58 102 101 103 103 68 103 120 102 95 104 60 65 102 65 106 100 102 10 75 57 6 53 53 51x 55 62x 58 55 50x 78x 56 19 31 58 48 48 77x 42 14 16 24 26 75x 53 28 3 56x 87 78 26 44 31 44 80 15 73 72 9 50 70 73 59 67 8 70x 15 44 75x 16 91 81 66 100 98 93 100x 100x 70 97x 49 100 100 96 81 51 79 99 97 97 100x 73 78 38 83 99 62 39 95x 90 94 74 88 68 92 88 100 99x 67 100 99 84 70 86 86 70 28 100x 99x 14 98 96 45 100 99 98 100 100x 88 99 98x 13 100 100 83 66 37 67 100 94 97 99 99 38 25 32 62 98 89 44 14 100 97 96 62 86 61 98 99 68 100 100 100 61 100 99 75 74 92 65 28 100 6 99 100 99x 1600 17 120 65 40 22 19 46 320 0 17 140 500 260 30 8 330 72 0 6 480 440 670 76 1100 1100 17 51 84 380 1300 6 36 600 8 37 0 4 10 74 67 180 80 84 170 1000 8 870 38 6 10 1900 55 140 1700 82 55 8 4 94 60 28 380 95 35 10 140 850 420 420 31 100 260 37 32 1000 1000 450 730 6 150 1100 1100 31 56 130 480 510 990 43 690 8 33 47 9 5 730 150 130 84 150 880 630 63 850 75 6 17 6 610 190 7 410 1200 5800 16000 520 580 1200 59 590 1800 5600 190 17 37 47 1900 200 140 830 2400 12 12 36 23 8700 160 15 11 1100 830 240 33 26 13 690 25 6100 1600 890 7700 9800 19 200 210 310 180 16 24 1100 14 360 8200 2700 130 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova. 1 in: 1990-2005* reported adjusted Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia 102 105 112 108 102 107 111 101 106 110 103 106 112 105 105 106 105 105 107 105 108 105 109 104 119 96 110 110 106 113 105 116 106 104 104 107 117 108 105 98 106 99 103 106 106 110 107 102 111 106 107 102 110 100 76 96 84 42 100 66 93 83 76 98 99 116 89 99 90 97 99 79 100 122 100 84 72 92 100 44 103 72 92 98 99 100 61 91 95 99 106 100 100 97 99 96 92 82 67 93 100 98 98 93 98 110 82 99 101 99 100 101 101 99 95 103 99 101 100 88 97 96 100 72 99 101 99 99 96 102 99 97 79 99 94 98 100 98 99 101 90 83 102 102 100 105 99 100 99 100 96 84 70 102 98 98 95 98 99 86 100 101 100 101 100 102 99 101 102x 99 102 100 94 99 106 78 102 99 100 100 105 100 101 86 100 99 99 101 100 100 100 93 89 102 107 86 84 99 98 85 101 109 90 50 57 103 126 99 106 80 100 94 67 107 100 98 102 101 101 98 92 122 100 107 100 75 99 109 128 73 106 110 99 107 100x 81 114 115 61 94 104 82 99 106 104 113 83 69 98 115 84 100 90 104 109 91 50 55 99 104 100 95 70 106 100 101 104 101 103 99 100 117 101 105 85 156 55 111 100 106 100x 85 114 115 106 107 81 101 103 104 114 84 80 97 134 33 18 47 75x 25 54 43 7 8 37 28 62 77x 47 57 74 44 60x 69 56 56 66 39 21 62x 81 50x 60 32 48x 58 37 10 45x 47x 27 33 55x 39 8 34 8 76 74 45 68 69 63 17 34 44 94 91 95 92 99 84 82 62 81 79 83 60 92 77 77 98 99 91 88 88x 95x 97 27 96 90 85 81x 80 92 74 81 57 64 86x 98 94 68 85 76 91 86 55 92 47 100 41 56 35 86 24 56 100 43 72 90 72 100 97 100x 100 99 42 85 97 100 98x 98 19 100 89x 55 51 94x 100 100 51 56 97 70 41 98x 95 57 98 83 88 100 97 63 48 57 76 520 730 52 8 210x 1 1 150 530 910 120 520 110 7 540 310 37 290 6 5 7 110 8 41 42 410 56 110 20 5 49 410 14 100x 760 580x 77 3 0 470 980 30 140 580 750 22 63 120 22 93 230 410 230 270 420 540 32 8 540 9 240 740 1100 170 680 110 16 0 540 230 76 250 5 17 5 87 10 41 210 1000 67 20 5 110 650 42 150 550 760 97 13 28 550 1800 41 110 1200 0 1000 24 83 36 110 220 1000 360 300 37 31 1700 8000 35 7100 74 18 13 200 29 190 4000 0 48 150 370 65 8300 1800 13900 380 6000 450 190 19 590 2800 6000 290 25 1800 240 32 16 240 4900 1700 26 7 660 140 10 0 14 1700 370 1500 300 120 14 75 54 S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 131 .…TABLE 8 Maternal mortality ratio† Enrolment ratios: females as a % of males Life expectancy: females as a % of males 2005 Adult literacy rate: females as a % of males 2000-2004* primary school 2000-2005* gross net secondary school 2000-2005* gross net Contraceptive prevalence (%) 1997-2005* Antenatal care coverage (%) 1997-2005* Skilled attendant at delivery (%) 1997-2005* 2000 Lifetime risk of maternal death.

WOMEN Maternal mortality ratio† Enrolment ratios: females as a % of males Life expectancy: females as a % of males 2005 Adult literacy rate: females as a % of males 2000-2004* primary school 2000-2005* gross net secondary school 2000-2005* gross net Contraceptive prevalence (%) 1997-2005* Antenatal care coverage (%) 1997-2005* Skilled attendant at delivery (%) 1997-2005* 2000 Lifetime risk of maternal death. United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu 101 107 106 107 100 101 106 104 104 101 107 102 107 108 106 111 109 107 110 122 107 104 108 109 103 106 105 107 105 111 110 102 105 103 110 107 105 110 98 106 107 105 109 101 111 107 104 107 104 108 106 107 115 - 56 100 35 91 85 57 98 81 88 100 100 98 99 85 79 57 101 51 92 96 97 73 95 96 86 99 79 96 96 55 100 78 84 99 - 99 92 97 100 98 71 85 119 100 100 99 73 82 97 88 96 100 98 100 96 99 99 100 102 107 95 94 100 99 96 95 101 72 98 99 97 96 98 99 88 103 95 100 99 95 95 96 95 100 84 95 97 96 94 107 88 99 100 98 70 89 99x 100 100 103 74 96 100 100 102 101 100 99 100 101 104 108 97 97 101 100 92 94 101 100 99 101 99 99 83 107 101 99 100 95 95 99 100 85 97x 100 101 95 - 109 86 98 108 115 67 82 95 103 105 97 74 114 107 79 102 101 110 101 111 97 101 100 93 97 112 96 112 105 89 73 108 100 101 100 79 108 106 101 94 133 100 104 92 94 84 83x 103 98 50 109 106 108 76 93 101 103 113 63 83 105x 101 106 101 110 100 120 103 112 98 103 97 109 102 113 108 94 72 107 101 86 112 104 140 123 103 93 93 85 98 47 123 106 105 - 38 79x 75x 69 14 13 51 32 28 17 26x 73 71 49 49x 43 70 17 41 47 58 30x 29 32x 12 4 62 74x 74x 11x 60 81x 70 7 42 48 82x 48 34 26 79 10 26 33 38 66 71 62 32 28 95x 86 41 58 96 100 36 72 78x 94 92 88 94 94 100 48 99 91 90x 79 68 98x 32 92 100 60 91 90 71 71 78 92 81 61 85 92 92 81 98 - 11 100 100x 67 16 35 100 97 95 31 100 93 41 77 73 60 100 100 99 99 99 39 100 99 100 100 76 91x 58 42 100 99 100 85 25 92 96 87 85 74 77x 71 43 99 99 18 61 95 96 90 83 97 100 540 7 15 83 590 6 23 530 0x 40 370x 180 190 170 4 8 10 17 32 1100 250 35 93 100 430 57 1800 6 4 17 550x 150 6 43 550x 150 230 5 5 65 37 580 24 21 480 45 69 130x 14 - 740 16 7 230 1600 800 16 100 87 500 160 300 170 410 200 13 5 140 49 67 1400 130 23 690 2000 30 3 17 130 1100 230 4 92 590 110 370 2 7 160 100 1500 44 23 660 570 160 120 70 31 - 24 3500 6000 88 7 18 2900 140 170 31 210 62 120 73 120 4600 11100 170 1300 1000 10 150 610 22 6 1700 19800 4100 120 10 120 17400 430 30 340 49 29800 7900 130 250 10 900 2100 30 26 330 320 480 790 - 132 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .TABLE 8. 1 in: 1990-2005* reported adjusted Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania.

Lifetime risk – WHO and UNICEF. The column with ‘adjusted’ estimates for the year 2000 reflects the most recent of these reviews. nurses or midwives). Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. Lifetime risk of maternal death – The lifetime risk of maternal death takes into account both the probability of becoming pregnant and the probability of dying as a result of that pregnancy accumulated across a woman’s reproductive years. Adult literacy rate – Percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write. MICS. MAIN DATA SOURCES Life expectancy – United Nations Population Division. 1 in: 1990-2005* reported adjusted Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 102 120 106 106 107 110 110 106 108 106 105 97 96 75 99 100 93 79 - 99 100 96 100 98 98 99 97 98 93 71 96 98 100 97 100 96 98 100 94 72 100 101 78 98 105 103 101 116 97 86 115 96 48 79 92 86 101 105 104 102 86 116 46 78 94 20 68 28x 84 76x 84 68 28 77 77 23 34 54 92 97x 94 97 94 86 41 93 93 39 100 99x 99 99 100 96 88 95 85 27 43 73 510 13 3 7 8 26 30 68 58 170 370 730 1100 880 35 54 13 17 27 24 130 96 130 570 750 1100 13 2000 500 3800 2500 1300 1300 140 300 270 19 19 16 MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 107 95 100 100 101 58 92 7 11 4500 SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 102 102 102 105 104 106 109 115 108 106 104 106 76 85 63 77 64 92 99 97 85 71 86 89 94 84 93 91 99 97 97 99 94 88 94 94 97 87 93 93 100 100 98 98 96 94 96 78 85 70 90 83 100 108 95 101 92 83 94 80 88 77 92 102** 106 99 102 98** 88 98** 24 30 18 53 46 79 71 65 59 29 60 68 71 66 70 53 88 93 87 71 59 71 43 39 45 76 37 87 87 93 99 60 35 63 940 980 900 220 560 110 190 64 13 440 890 400 16 15 16 100 43 360 160 770 4000 61 17 74 ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. The net enrolment ratio – The number of children enrolled in primary or secondary school who are of official primary or secondary school age. Contraceptive prevalence – Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Skilled attendant at delivery – DHS. Antenatal care – Percentage of women aged 15-49 attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel (doctors. regardless of age. WHO and UNFPA evaluate these data and make adjustments to account for the well-documented problems of under-reporting and misclassification of maternal deaths and to develop estimates for countries with no data. This ‘reported’ column shows country-reported figures that are not adjusted for under-reporting and misclassification. UNICEF. † The maternal mortality data in the column headed ‘reported’ are those reported by national authorities. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. Maternal mortality – WHO and UNICEF. World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. WHO and UNICEF. nurses or midwives). Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 133 . expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official primary or secondary school age. Adult literacy – United Nations Educational. NOTES x * ** Data not available.000 live births. MICS. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Life expectancy at birth – The number of years newborn children would live if subject to the mortality risks prevailing for the cross section of population at the time of their birth. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. School enrolment – UIS and UNESCO. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item). Skilled attendant at delivery – Percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel (doctors. The gross enrolment ratio – The number of children enrolled in primary or secondary school. Periodically. as a percentage. Enrolment ratios: females as a % of males – Girls’ (gross or net) enrolment ratio divided by that of boys’. Excludes China. differ from the standard definition or refer to only part of a country. United Nations Population Division and UNICEF. Contraceptive prevalence – Percentage of women in union aged 15-49 currently using contraception.…TABLE 8 Maternal mortality ratio† Enrolment ratios: females as a % of males Life expectancy: females as a % of males 2005 Adult literacy rate: females as a % of males 2000-2004* primary school 2000-2005* gross net secondary school 2000-2005* gross net Contraceptive prevalence (%) 1997-2005* Antenatal care coverage (%) 1997-2005* Skilled attendant at delivery (%) 1997-2005* 2000 Lifetime risk of maternal death. Antenatal care – DHS. Maternal mortality ratio – Annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100. expressed as a percentage of the total number of children of official primary or secondary school age.

Democratic Republic of the Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras India Indonesia Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea.TABLE 9.y 37 10 6y 8y 7y 30 43y 22 57y 24y 26 55 19 7y 14 4y 13 2 27 25 7 23 32 37y 35 4 16y 33 35 11 31 15 67 39y - 28 27 22 11 6 10 23y 22 12 8y 26 54 56 55 6 30 29 71x.y 38 7 4y 6y 30 37y 22 58y 25 55 17 4y 16 4y 12 1 27 26 6 21 29 35y 34 3 16y 33 36 9 33 11 65 - 43 19 69 37 26 10 24 52 17y 25 47 57 72 23 30 33 41 26y 17 27 47 49 34 28 34 65 24 46 24 11 14 25 21 11 23 39 39 49 65 37 28y 16 56 10 56 43 77 43 19 32 12 55 25 22 13 22 22 36y 19 35 54 65 19 23 24 37 21y 31 32 30 18 25 46 18 26 15 11 12 19 19 13 29 46 32 31y 12 41 9 34 36 46 27 21 31 74 45 37 9 30 62 17y 26 64 59 73 38 33 43 51 34y 60 53 49 39 44 75 31 55 33 12 17 27 22 26 42 74 42 21y 21 66 10 60 55 86 52 37 6 99 29 91y 97 97 7 70 82 98 58 84y 75 22 63 73 9 95y 90 83 34 72 100y 75 32 89 32 95 67y 67 42 97 70 35 55 98 90y 48y 99 59 26 75 73 47y 55 98 98 85 65y 71 34 81 46 30 98 - 12 99 34 100 98 9 78 83 98 66 71 30 78 88 36 97 87 30 88 100y 82 43 90 37 97 88 32 99 78 54 69 99 64y 99 71 39 87 84y 72 98 98 92 66y 82 37 90 85 53 98 - 4 99 19 94 96 7 66 79 99 52 75 21 51 63 3 77 83 36 60 100y 66 24 87 29 92 56 47 96 66 29 43 97 44y 99 56 24 72 34y 42 98 97 80 64y 64 34 73 40 20 97 - 17 77 1 36 45 45 98 96 89 74 5 96 32 92 71 5 19 - 13 75 1 29 47 39 98 92 86 69 4 94 21 90 65 2 28 - 20 77 2 41 44 48 100 98 91 76 7 96 36 93 77 5 14 - 6 32 1 21 24 28y 63 21 73 66 4 10 - 134 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Republic of Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Occupied Palestinian Territory Pakistan 31 23 24 11 5 7 26y 22 11 6y 57x. CHILD PROTECTION Female genital mutilation/cutting 1997-2005* Child labour (5-14 years) 1999-2005* Countries and territories total male female Child marriage 1987-2005* total urban rural Birth registration 1999-2005* total urban rural womena (15-49 years) total urban rural daughtersb total Afghanistan Albania Angola Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Chile Colombia Comoros Congo.y 35 12 9y 9y 29 47y 23 57y 27 55 21 9y 12 5y 14 3 28 24 8 25 36 39y 36 5 15y 32 35 13 30 18 70 - 34 19 25 11 3 4 29y 22 10 4y 24 54 59 52 4 31 34 29x.y 25 54 57 53 5 30 32 50x. Democratic People’s Republic of Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Maldives Mali Mauritania Mexico Moldova.

The numerator of this indicator includes children whose birth certificate was seen by the interviewer or whose mother or caretaker says the birth has been registered. during the week preceding the survey. thorns or other materials to narrow the vaginal opening.org). DHS. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136. excision and infibulation. or refer to only part of a country. urban or rural place of residence. Child marriage – Percentage of women 20-24 years of age who were married or in union before they were 18 years old. Child marriage – MICS. followed by joining together of the two sides of the labia minora using threads. DHS and other national surveys. did at least 14 hours of economic activity or at least 28 hours of domestic work. did at least one hour of economic activity or at least 28 hours of domestic work and. Data differ from the standard definition or refer to only part of a country but are included in the calculation of regional and global averages. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Child labour – Percentage of children aged 5-14 years involved in child labour at the moment of the survey. A child is considered to be involved in child labour under the following conditions: (a) children 5-11 years of age who. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading.org. Birth registration – Percentage of children less than five years of age who were registered at the moment of the survey. other national surveys and vital registration systems. MICS data refer to children alive at the time of the survey. during the week preceding the survey.…TABLE 9 Female genital mutilation/cutting 1997-2005* Child labour (5-14 years) 1999-2005* total male female Child marriage 1987-2005* total urban rural Birth registration 1999-2005* total urban rural womena (15-49 years) total urban rural daughtersb total Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania. Birth registration – MICS. poorest 20 per cent or richest 20 per cent of the population constructed from household assets (a more detailed description of the household wealth estimation procedure can be found at www. (b) Daughters – the percentage of women aged 15-49 with at least one mutilated/cut daughter. Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading.prb. Excision is the removal of the prepuce and clitoris along with all or part of the labia minora. Excludes China. Generally. A more detailed analysis of these data can also be found at www. Child labour background variables – Sex of the child. differ from the standard definition. Clitoridectomy is the removal of the prepuce with or without excision of all or part of the clitoris. Female genital mutilation/cutting – MICS.measuredhs.childinfo. there are three recognized types of FGM/C: clitoridectomy. Infibulation is the most severe form and consists of removal of all or part of the external genitalia.com and www. Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) involves the cutting or alteration of the female genitalia for social reasons. MAIN DATA SOURCES Child labour – Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). (b) children 12-14 years of age who. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 135 . Female genital mutilation/cutting – (a) Women – the percentage of women aged 15-49 years of age who have been mutilated/cut. United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine Uzbekistan Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 12y 12 1y 35 15 37 59 36 14 10 8y 10 36 4y 63 2 37 7 19 8 24 11 26y 16y 13 36 16 39 59 31 15 10 10y 9 37 4y 64 3 37 8 22 9 24 10 - 7y 11 35 14 36 59 41 13 10 6y 11 34 4y 62 2 36 7 17 6 24 11 - 24 17 14 20 36 8 12y 27y 13 41 21y 31 34y 10y 23 9 54 13 11 37 42 29 18 13 10 21 15 5 19y 23 13y 17 37y 7y 19 12 34 16 5 32 21 32 30 22 19 53 12 34y 49 23y 41 32y 14y 30 7 59 11 13 49 36 93 83 65 70 62 46 64 95 53 88 8 53y 82 95 4 100 92 72 10 42 93 87 61 73 82 66 82 94 72 85 22 93 11 100 92 16 56 92 78 66 67 51 40 46 94 50 90 4 78 3 100 68 6 35 28 90 15 23 1 - 22 92 7 26 1 - 35 88 18 22 1 - 58 4 20 - SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 37 34 42 10 14 11** 9 17** 29 38 36 41 12 12 11** 10 17** 30 37 32 42 9 15 10** 8 18** 28 40 36 44 48 20** 25 36** 51 25 21 28 28 12** 24 23** 35 48 43 56 55 25** 31 46** 57 40 33 44 32 65** 89 46** 32 54 44 59 47 77** 92 62** 44 32 28 34 25 56** 78 34** 28 36 28 29 29 40 29 16 16 - § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group. mother’s education reflecting mothers with and without some level of education. NOTES x y * ** Data not available. DHS and other national surveys.

Austria. Suriname. Cyprus. Azerbaijan. Bahamas. Burkina Faso. Viet Nam. Slovakia.Summary indicators Averages given at the end of each table are calculated using data from the countries and territories as grouped below. Bhutan. Ecuador. Malaysia. United Republic of. Oman. Grenada. Philippines. Poland. Panama. Singapore. Holy See. Burundi. the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Cook Islands. Burkina Faso. Korea. Tanzania. Saint Vincent/Grenadines. Cambodia. Malta. Kazakhstan. Turkmenistan. Malawi. India. Marshall Islands. Comoros. Nicaragua. Burkina Faso. Equatorial Guinea. Sri Lanka. Equatorial Guinea. Côte d’Ivoire. Kuwait. Namibia. Iran (Islamic Republic of). Zimbabwe Middle East and North Africa Algeria. Cambodia. Mauritius. Tuvalu. Philippines. Yemen. Rwanda. Kuwait. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Mexico. Comoros. Lesotho. Vanuatu. Canada. Samoa. Montenegro. Pakistan. Malawi. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Armenia. Honduras. Australia. Lesotho. Sierra Leone. Dominican Republic. Central African Republic. Swaziland. Saudi Arabia. Kyrgyzstan. Barbados. Niue. Guinea. Sudan. Zambia. Samoa. Swaziland. Sierra Leone. Oman. United Arab Emirates. Egypt. Mozambique. Yemen South Asia Afghanistan. Lesotho. Niger. Saint Lucia. Ethiopia. Uganda. Occupied Palestinian Territory. Democratic People’s Republic of. Gabon. Syrian Arab Republic. Uruguay. Cape Verde. Cameroon. Kyrgyzstan. Guinea. Croatia. United Arab Emirates. Norway. Colombia. Equatorial Guinea. Chile. Somalia. Zambia 136 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . Solomon Islands. Tuvalu. Iraq. Ukraine. Saint Kitts and Nevis. Mauritania. Qatar. Solomon Islands. Russian Federation. Israel. New Zealand. Ethiopia. India. United Republic of. Sao Tome and Principe. Indonesia. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Sudan. Tanzania. Kiribati. Togo. Ethiopia. Turkey. Bosnia and Herzegovina. United Republic of. Nigeria. Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of). Belize. GuineaBissau. Mauritania. Argentina. Democratic Republic of the. Myanmar. Brunei Darussalam. Vanuatu. Suriname. Luxembourg. Lebanon. Honduras. Indonesia. Eritrea. Singapore. Dominican Republic. Azerbaijan. Congo. Nepal. Myanmar. Palau. Portugal. Belize. Rwanda. Mozambique. Mauritania. Spain. Zimbabwe Least developed countries/territories Afghanistan. Congo. Hungary. Madagascar. Netherlands. Serbia. Tuvalu. Nauru. Lithuania. Greece. Democratic People’s Republic of. Georgia. Denmark. Angola. Sweden. El Salvador. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Kenya. Mauritius. Brazil. Israel. South Africa. Rwanda. Syrian Arab Republic. Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) CEE/CIS Albania. Jamaica. Moldova. Mexico. Panama. Uruguay. Dominica. Papua New Guinea. Uzbekistan Industrialized countries/territories Andorra. Micronesia (Federated States of). Vanuatu. Republic of. Chad. Samoa. Occupied Palestinian Territory. Bangladesh. Ireland. Korea. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Cambodia. Bahamas. Mali. Saint Lucia. Yemen. Peru. Kazakhstan. Japan. Benin. Micronesia (Federated States of). Niue. Morocco. Romania. Switzerland. Papua New Guinea. Sudan. Italy. Central African Republic. Sri Lanka East Asia and Pacific Brunei Darussalam. Marshall Islands. Djibouti. Angola. Peru. Senegal. Niger. Lebanon. China. Qatar. Bulgaria. Sao Tome and Principe. Somalia. Argentina. Viet Nam Latin America and Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda. Gambia. Slovenia. Djibouti. Senegal. Palau. Bahrain. Iceland. Benin. Senegal. Republic of. Mozambique. San Marino. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Comoros. Estonia. Gambia. Mali. Liberia. Timor-Leste. Nepal. Mongolia. Maldives. Paraguay. Iran (Islamic Republic of). Fiji. Somalia. Colombia. Jamaica. Jordan. Ecuador. Niger. El Salvador. Saint Kitts and Nevis. Cameroon. Malawi. Saudi Arabia. Korea. Guyana. Paraguay. Monaco. Burundi. South Africa. Togo. Maldives. United States Developing countries/territories Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Haiti. Sub-Saharan Africa Angola. United Kingdom. Czech Republic. Barbados. Tajikistan. Cape Verde. Solomon Islands. Mali. Finland. Germany. Jordan. Guatemala. Congo. Guinea. Latvia. Liechtenstein. Antigua and Barbuda. Botswana. Seychelles. Fiji. France. Iraq. Maldives. Guinea-Bissau. Nicaragua. Togo. Uganda. Thailand. Chad. Costa Rica. Tajikistan. Côte d’Ivoire. Nigeria. Congo. Djibouti. Kenya. Uganda. Thailand. Kiribati. Eritrea. Bangladesh. Armenia. Democratic Republic of the. Guinea-Bissau. Seychelles. Cuba. Liberia. Eritrea. Madagascar. Democratic Republic of the. Tanzania. Costa Rica. Turkmenistan. Algeria. Trinidad and Tobago. Bhutan. Morocco. Cyprus. Chile. Botswana. Belarus. Nauru. Liberia. Trinidad and Tobago. Guyana. Bolivia. Cook Islands. Grenada. Timor-Leste. Namibia. Mongolia. Cape Verde. Gambia. Kiribati. Sao Tome and Principe. Pakistan. Benin. Haiti. Brazil. Myanmar. Dominica. Turkey. Bhutan. Burundi. Congo. Sierra Leone. Tonga. Malaysia. Timor-Leste. Bahrain. Guatemala. Nepal. Egypt. Haiti. Cuba. Tunisia. Republic of. Gabon. Madagascar. Georgia. Korea. Tunisia. Ghana. Chad. Zambia. Bolivia. Tonga. China. Uzbekistan. Bangladesh. Ghana. Belgium.

and over any period of time. The AARR therefore shows a higher rate of progress for a 10-point reduction. there is a need for an agreed method of measuring the level of child well-being and its rate of change. In other words. When used in conjunction with gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates. there is no fixed relationship between the annual reduction rate of the U5MR and the annual rate of growth in per capita GDP. such as school enrolment level. Such comparisons help to shed light on the relationship between economic advance and human development. and the overall safety of the child’s environment.Measuring human development An introduction to Table 10 If development is to be measured by a comprehensive and inclusive assessment. if that reduction happens at a lower level of underfive mortality. territory or region. the level of immunization and oral rehydration therapy use. towards the satisfaction of some of the most essential of human needs. picture of the health status of the majority of children (and of society as a whole). The speed of progress in reducing the U5MR can be measured by calculating its average annual reduction rate (AARR). Finally. if far from perfect. Unlike the comparison of absolute changes. it is much more difficult for a wealthy minority to affect a nation’s U5MR. for example. for example. It is clear that many of the nations that have achieved significant reductions in their U5MR have also achieved significant reductions in fertility. per capita gross national income (GNI). the AARR reflects the fact that the lower limits to U5MR are approached only with increasing difficulty. whereas the same 10-point fall from 20 to 10 represents a reduction of 50 per cent. Third. the U5MR is chosen by UNICEF as its single most important indicator of the state of a nation’s children. Second. the U5MR is less susceptible to the fallacy of the average than. First. the availability of safe drinking water and basic sanitation. even if the man-made scale does permit them to have one thousand times as much income. As lower levels of under-five mortality are reached. A fall in the U5MR of 10 points from 100 to 90 represents a reduction of 10 per cent. per capita calorie availability or the number of doctors per thousand population – all of which are means to an end. the same absolute reduction obviously represents a greater percentage of reduction. income and food availability in the family. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 137 . it measures an end result of the development process rather than an ‘input’. For these reasons. As Table 10 shows. and it therefore presents a more accurate. the table gives the total fertility rate for each country and territory and the corresponding average annual rate of reduction. The U5MR has several advantages. the availability of maternal and child health services (including prenatal care). the U5MR and its reduction rate can therefore give a picture of the progress being made by any country. From UNICEF’s point of view. This is because the natural scale does not allow the children of the rich to be one thousand times as likely to survive. (A negative value for the percentage reduction indicates an increase in the U5MR over the period specified). then the need arises for a method of measuring human as well as economic progress. for example. the U5MR is known to be the result of a wide variety of inputs: the nutritional health and the health knowledge of mothers. The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is used in Table 10 (next page) as the principal indicator of such progress.

5 0.3 2.x 0.1 1.3 -2.8 2.9 0.8 0.5 6.x 1.5.6 5.6 1.2 3.6 1.1 2.0 6.3 3.9 1.4.0 -0.4 3.6 4.9 6.4 5.4 6.5 3.3 7.5 1.2 1.5 4.6 6.9 1.5 1.6 4.9 7.5 -0.9 3.9 1.2 0.7.4 2.8 1.0 3.6 4.0 2.4 1.0 -0.0 2.4 3.8 3.0 2.1 6.7 1.4 3.8 4.7 1.2 1.0 -5.3 0.8 -1.7 7.9 0.7 2.5 2.0 2.2 0.5.9 1.4 1.5.8 4.1 6.0 1.1 0.7 3.0 7.7 -1.3 6.0 -1.9 0.x 3.2 2.2 1.3 4.4 5.6 6.6 16.4 5.3 1.3 12.0 5.4 1.0 5.1 8.5 6.9 1.8 4.7 3.2 4.4 3.7 1.9 6.9 -0.6 1.9 3.6 2.8 1.6 2.6 2.x -0.6 7.9 6.0 1.9 3.1 0.4 2.7 5.6 0.7 1.4 7.4.3 3.5 8.8 0.7 3.3 1.3 1.x 3.4 138 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .0 -1.9 1 60 43 0 38 46 40 50 15 48 42 51 29 37 50 60 19 55 48 32 -107 45 18 17 9 0 -24 -7 25 42 -15 -3 52 45 40 41 2 0 38 33 -24 42 46 58 69 44 24 12 52 56 68 55 -21 47 56 20 18 43 44 1.7 4.8 2.0 5.7 6.1 6.0 1.3 0.5 3.2 2.7 6.1 3.7 1.0 2.3 2.4 1.9 1.3 1.4 5.x 0.4 -0.9 1.6.5 6.2 2.7 2.4 4.4 0.8 0.8 3.8 7.8 3.3 0.4 1.3 0.1 4.1 5.7.7 2.8 5.3 7.x 6.6 1.2 1.2 1. THE RATE OF PROGRESS Under-5 mortality rate 1970 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%)Θ 1970-1990 1990-2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 1970 Total fertility rate 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Countries and territories Under-5 mortality rank Reduction since 1990 (%)Θ Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo.6 2.3 3.x 0.2 4.3 1.2 6.4 0.8 1.0 3.3 2.0 1.7 6.7 1.5 2.6 2.1 7.8 0.7 2.5 4.3 3.1 2.0 4.1 9.1 6.8 5.0 0.6.5 1.7 4.0 1.1 -2.1 2.6 7.1 3.5 2.7 1.0 2.6 6.2 2.3 3.4 2.5 1.0 2.0 0.0 3. Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France 3 121 78 190 2 140 121 92 161 168 50 129 146 57 140 140 168 125 21 53 64 129 37 86 151 129 16 17 25 23 161 85 15 8 150 96 108 59 43 9 113 140 13 156 156 168 182 168 30 129 89 102 86 96 9 52 156 19 121 182 168 320 109 220 300 71 20 33 49 82 239 54 37 29 252 267 243 82 142 135 78 32 295 233 215 23 238 261 98 120 105 215 160 245 83 239 42 43 33 24 19 127 140 235 162 237 26 239 65 16 24 260 45 69 260 29 54 10 10 105 29 19 149 17 19 10 42 185 166 125 22 58 60 11 18 210 190 115 139 8 60 168 201 21 49 35 120 110 205 32 18 157 12 13 12 13 9 175 17 65 57 104 60 170 147 16 204 22 7 9 257 18 39 3 260 12 18 29 6 5 89 15 11 73 12 12 5 17 150 75 65 15 120 33 9 15 191 190 143 149 6 35 193 208 10 27 21 71 108 205 20 12 195 7 7 5 4 5 133 15 31 25 33 27 205 78 7 164 18 4 5 1.2 4.5 3.3 1.6.2 6.0 4.6 2.2 7.7 4.8 4.8 0.3 1.7 3.9 4.7 0.8 0.6 1.7 7.8 4.3 4.4 1.9 6.1 3.9 1.9 5.4 2.8 2.1 3.9 5.4 5.2 2.1 3.1 1.6 1.1 0.x 1.5 7.3 -1.8 1.0 0.6 -4.1 6.x 0.6 0.8 7.3 1.8 -2.4 1.6 -0.4 0.9 2.2 1.9 5.2 5.2 7.4 1.1 4.1 3.4 2.3 6.4 1.0 3.6 1.7 4.1 1.2 2.0 1.3 -0.4 5.6 4.7.0 0.9 1.7 2.6 5.0 1.4.4 3.8 5.9 1.6 2.5 1.1 0.2 1.2 1.9 4.7 1.6 2.1 6.5 6.2 1.4 0.1 4.3 2.7 0.3.x 2.5 4.5 0.8 0.6 2.7.7 2.5.7 2.0 2.5 2.8 5.2 0.1 2.4 3.x 2.8 0.2 1.5 2.7 5.2 1.4.7 2.3 3.5 1.8 1.2 4.5 2.9 6.3.2 1.3 -0.9 -0.8 1.0 1.1 5.5 1.6 4.0 1.2 0.0 2.3 1.0 2.6 6.3 6.5 5.7 5.9 2.6 1.4 2.5 3.4 0.6 1.6 0.x -1.3 0.8 3.5 0.2 0.1 1.0 5.x 2.6 4.7 1.7 2.3 -1.0 1.8 1.1 2.1 0.5 5.6 4.9 0.0 2.5 1.8 2.9 7.4 2.1 6.7 4.7 4.x -0.3 6.7 1.7 2.3 0.7 3.5 6.3 6.7 3.7 1.8 4.3 3.1.9 1.7 3.7 1.8 4.9 2.8 4.3 2.9 6.3 1.1.6 3.6 1.4 1.2 5.1 2.2 2.6 0.8 2.3 5.9 4.1 4.3 6.6 1.7 -0.9 1.7 1.1 -0.0 2.7 -0.6 -0.2 1.0 5.4 1.0 1.x 2.4 1.0 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.1 2.x 1.4 4.8 6.9 2.2 1.4 6.8 3.7 -1.4 2.3 3.7 2.0 -0.3 0.4 1.8 2.6 3.4 3.7 1.5 1.2 5.1 2.3 6.TABLE 10.7 2.0 0.3 2.3 4.7 1.9 0.4 3.1 3.4 1.2 4.5 3.7 6.8 3.2 3.0 0.3 0.8 2.7 2.0 5.5 -1.x 1.8 5.5 1.3 4.1 1.3 2.8 8.x 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.7 4.3 4.5 4.7 7.1 6.8 0.2 2.8 1.2 6.

3 3.5 2.5 0.7 5.2 5.x 2.4 1.9 3.6.1 0.8 1.4 1.0 2.7 2.9 6.0 5.1 -1.9 2.5 0.1 6.0 0.6 1.7 -2.1 1.2 5.8 2.9 2.5 3.0 6.1 6.6 1.5 2.0 4.2 3.1 0.1 2.9 2.2 -0.8 7.3 2.6 2.4 6.8 0.2 1 9 4 44 8 55 43 48 38 21 28 20 32 53 57 40 60 50 -150 40 50 56 0 33 35 -16 -24 26 0 44 31 16 52 39 19 -31 0 54 60 31 50 29 43 45 62 13 45 37 6 35 41 28 54 44 55 55 38 0.1 4.9 0.6 3.3 4.2 1.1 4.9 4.2 3.8 1.6 0.2 2.2 3.5 0.6 1.6 2.x 1.0 1.x -1.1 1.4 5.1 2. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.8 1.6 1.x 2.8 3.8 0.1 -2.8 6.5 0.5 2.4 4.4 6.5 0.3 2.9 7.3 4.5 3.4 1.9 2.7 -3.1 0.6 7.6 7.…TABLE 10 Under-5 mortality rate 1970 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%)Θ 1970-1990 1990-2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 1970 Total fertility rate 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Under-5 mortality rank Reduction since 1990 (%)Θ Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea.2 -2.x -4.x 2.2 3.0 2.3 3.2 4.1 5.3 1.4 1.0 1.7 2.7 0.6 3.4 4.2 3.3 0.7 1.6 5.9 1.3 3.6 2.6 -0.0 2.0 3.4 2.9 5. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova.6 5.4 7.5 2.8 0.4 1.0 2.6 3.1 2.1 5.3 3.5 6.6 5.5 1.0 1.8 0.x 1.7 -2.8 0. Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro‡ Morocco Mozambique 48 27 72 168 42 168 108 73 21 12 66 37 76 154 190 54 83 83 33 161 161 182 113 182 100 57 37 64 70 168 146 63 51 146 90 31 5 117 182 151 168 40 33 140 74 7 161 69 33 129 96 74 128 168 71 76 24 311 26 186 54 168 345 221 170 39 14 202 172 191 127 27 27 33 64 21 107 156 70 54 59 130 218 26 54 186 263 160 28 26 180 341 70 255 400 32 250 86 110 70 184 278 92 151 47 9 122 11 37 82 240 253 88 150 59 17 7 123 91 72 50 10 12 9 20 6 40 63 97 88 55 9 16 80 163 18 37 101 235 41 10 13 10 168 221 22 111 250 11 92 133 23 46 58 35 9 108 89 235 91 137 45 5 112 5 21 43 150 200 63 120 40 8 3 74 36 36 125 6 6 4 20 4 26 73 120 65 55 5 11 67 79 11 30 132 235 19 4 9 5 119 125 12 42 218 6 58 125 15 27 42 16 5 49 40 145 3.7 0.2 3.9 0.2 6.4 3.4 2.9 2.3 2.2 4.6 3.6 0.2 4.3 2.1 1.6 5.1 1.1 6.1 0.1 3.4 6.0 0.3 3.4 5.3 1.5 4.5 3.4 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.4 0.2 1.0 0.0 2.2 3.9 6.5 -0.8 6.1 1.4 5.5 2.8 1.6 4.4 2.7 6.4 5.8 1.1 8.x 2.8 3.5 1.4 5.3 2.5 2.5 1.3 1.2 4.1 1.8 2.4 2.8 1.9 3.4 1.6 3.1 0.4 3.6 4.8 4.3 2.4 0.6 1.6 2.1 4.2 -5.6 2.1 0.2 7.0 3.5 1.9 2.8 2.2 3.8 5.8 3.2 2.6 -1.9 6.6 5.4 5.0 3.5 2.9 1.0 3.6 1.3 1.2 1.5 6.x 3.3 1.8 4.8 4.2 2.9 2.8 3.5 7.0 2.8 0.0 6.5 4.7 2.x -0.6 2.9 5.4 3.5 3.4 -1.5 1.8.2 1.0 4.5 5.0 6.7 0.9 2.5 -0.6 5.1 -3.9 6.2 -0.1 6.0 2.3 4.1 1.x -2.2 0.3 2.9 5.0.6 5.0 6.6 1.8 1.7 5.9 3.5 0.7 6.6 6.0 1.7 1.2 3.4 3.8 0.0 5.0 3.0 1.7 1.7 2.6 -6.4 5.9 3.9 2.1 2.9 3.4 2.0 3.5 1.8 3.0 1.0 5.4 0.4 0.2 -6.1 4.8 4.3 1.1 1.1 2.0 3.3 1.8 2.7 1.7 7.2 9.8 2.2 -4.0 6.5 8.3 0.8.0 5.3 5.0 -1.4 1.9 5.0 2.1.1 4.8 0.1 1.3.4 5.9 4.5 7.6 0.3 2.8.2 2.1 3.1 6.9 3.1 1.1 3.3 1.3 3.6 0.9 3.3 2.9 1.3 3.8 6.5.2 2.4 2.9 -1.3 4.5 0.3 5.3 2.2 2.6 1.8 4.6 7.1 7.0 2.2 4.2 6.1 -4.5 2.5 -0.3 -0.0 -0.1 2.5.3 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.4 0.0 7.2.4 1.1 0.3 3.2 2.0 0.3 1.9 4.1 2.7 5.5 5.1 5.3 0.4 -0.6 6.6 2.8 2.7 2.0 3.5 3.3 3.4 4.5 1.9 2.2 2.4 6.9 0.3 4.9 1.0 6.6 2.6 2.9 3.3 0.3 3.6 4.8 6.3 6.5 2.2 0.4 1.2 1.2 4.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 2.8.2 1.9 2.0 -1.5 7.2 4.3 1.9 -0.3 3.8 7.6 2.6 5.9 0.3 1.6 5.6 5.8 5.1 2.2 2.3 2.0 3.1 1.5 2.0 2.2 1.2 4.4 0.1 1.8 1.5 0.2 S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 139 .9 0.2 1.0 5.6 6.1 3.0 2.0 -0.8 4.9 5.

3 0.5 3.1 1.2 2.x 1.5 -0.9 6.8 3.3 3.6 1.0 7.5 -0.3 5.8 -0.6 2.2 6.8 4.4 0.6 5.3 6.4 1.2 2.9 4.9 1.5 4.2 3.5 3.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.1 1.7 5.3 5.2 2.2 -1.8 3.4 4.9 2.3 1.6 1.0 0.8 4.3 0.0 3.3 4.9 0.8 3.1 1.3 7.3 -0.4 2.9 4.4 1.0 -0.9 0.5 6.5 4.8 0.4 -2.3 1.0 1.7 3.5 6.6 10.4 4.5 1.2 3.6 3.8 2.7 -0.3 2.0 2.0 1.4 2.9 2.5 5.2 6.9 6.3 4.9 1.1 0.0 1.6 1.5 2.x 3.3 6.0 5.6 1.5 3.0 2.4 3.3 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.2 1.6 5.TABLE 10.0 4.1 1.1.7 3.2 1.7 6.3 5.2 4.5 -2.5 3.5 3.7 3.3 2.7 6.4 1.7 2.4 2.5 7.1 3.1 3.5 -0.1 6.4 1.1 4.2 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.1 7.2 2.1 7.0 1.7 1.9 1.2 6.2 0.0 4.8 3.3.4 1.8 1.7 2. United Republic of Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago 44 67 90 54 168 161 82 4 14 182 106 140 47 146 103 54 106 96 86 156 168 108 117 121 11 113 137 113 92 190 41 100 28 139 1 190 154 182 92 6 61 168 137 49 78 20 182 168 129 59 36 108 125 68 26 103 117 179 135 250 15 20 165 330 265 15 200 181 68 158 78 174 90 36 62 65 57 36 209 101 185 279 59 363 27 29 29 97 34 100 172 196 15 18 123 140 218 102 119 216 50 57 130 86 145 9 11 68 320 230 9 40 32 130 21 34 94 41 78 62 18 14 26 31 27 173 36 21 25 50 14 118 44 148 19 302 9 14 10 38 225 60 9 32 120 48 110 7 9 39 115 161 37 38 177 152 32 33 105 62 30 74 5 6 37 256 194 4 23 12 99 11 24 74 23 27 33 7 5 21 19 18 203 20 14 20 29 3 118 26 136 13 282 3 8 4 29 225 68 5 14 90 39 160 4 5 15 71 122 21 17 61 139 24 19 1.9 2.8 3.7 1.8 0.0 0.7 5.9 4.3 2.9 0.9 4.6 1.4 3.6 2.2.8 3.0.3 2.1 0.2 6.5 5.7 19 28 49 44 45 46 20 16 56 43 63 24 48 29 21 44 65 47 61 64 19 39 33 -17 44 33 20 42 79 0 41 8 32 7 67 43 60 24 0 -13 44 56 25 19 -45 43 44 62 38 24 43 55 66 9 25 42 1.2 3.9 1.8 6.5 2.9 7.1 1.8 -2.7 3.4 2.8 5.7 6.9 2.0 2.7 1.5 1.0 6.0 2.0 0.1 2.3.1 5.6 2.6 2.7 1.6 0.4 0.4 7.7 2.4 -0.2 2.4 0.9 8.9 3.5 1.4 0.7 5.6 1.6 0.0 2.9 0.7 2.4 1.8 1.8 5.5 5.2 5.3 6.1 2.8 -3.5 3.5 2.3 6.1 0.0 2.4 3.7 3.5 6.5 4.6 5.5 3.4 3.6 1.6 3.5 2.3 1.2 0.4 2.7 1.8 5.3 1.7 4.9 6.0 1.5 2.5 3.3 -4.7 6.5 3.8 5.9 1.4 4.5 5.3 0.0 1.8 0.9 6.6 6.x 5.8 2.2 4.9 1.3 1.9 2.0 140 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 .1 6.9 3.1 4.1 6.2 3.2 2.1 2.8 2.9 2.9 7.6 2.6 1.5 7.4 0.x 1.9 1.8 2.3 3.6 0.8 -0.2 1.5 5.7 1.5 3.5 2.3 2.6 2.4 5.5 -1.4 6.7 3.0 8.3 3.2 2.3 -0.6 2.5 0.3 0.8 2.2 1.2 1.9 5.6 1.9 1.4 1.2 2.8 -0.x -1.1 0.0 1.6 -6.5 1.3.9 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.5 7.5 1.1 1.5 2.5 2.2 4.3 7.9 7.5 2.6 -3.3 2.7 2. THE RATE OF PROGRESS Under-5 mortality rate 1970 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%)Θ 1970-1990 1990-2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 1970 Total fertility rate 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Under-5 mortality rank Reduction since 1990 (%)Θ Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia‡ Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania.8 6.2 4.3 3.6 3.9 4.0 3.2 1.8 5.5 0.0 8.1 0.0 6.1 3.9 3.0 5.5 5.4 3.6 2.2 2.1 -2.0 0.0 1.0 2.5 7.1 0.8 3.9 0.3 6.5 2.4 3.3 2.4 1.6 4.7 2.9 2.0 1.6 3.4 3.7 -1.6 -0.5 1.0 3.8 1.0 5.x 1.4 3.3 1.5 4.9 4.0 6.8.2 6.9 -0.7 2.0 2.7 2.0 2.5 0.0 2.8 1.1 5.2 1.8 2.6 1.9 2.4 0.0 1.1 6.1 1.4 6.1 0.2 6.0 1.2 3.6 2.8 1.7 2.2 2.2 1.0 4.5 0.9 3.1 0.8 3.x 2.1 0.7 1.6 -0.6 6.9 1.4 2.7 0.2 1.0 0.4 1.1 4.6 0.9 4.5 0.2 4.6 3.0 1.3 1.6 3.9 3.5 1.5 7.1 0.9 3.1 1.5 1.2 3.1 0.9 7.5 7.4 5.7 3.1 1.2 3.2 6.0 1.0 -0.7 2.1 0.9 6.5 1.0 6.3 3.2 6.0 6.6 9.6 3.2 -2.6 2.4 0.9 5.

8 6.2 -2.0 2.4 7.5 10 12 9 33 35 43 43 34 40 21 16 20 2.3 1.9 3.7 2.2 0.2 3.0 1.4 2.4 1.4 0.2 1.8 2.2 8.0 2.5 2. Aggregated data presented are for Serbia and Montenegro pre-cession (see Memorandum item).3 6.7 0.0 5.0 6. differ from the standard definition or refer to only part of a country.1 1. and its subsequent admission to the UN on 28 June 2006.7 5.7 2.7 7.1 0.4 3. GDP per capita – World Bank.4 -1.5 2.9 0.0 1.2 2.0 0.5. The United Nations Millennium Declaration in 2000 established a goal of a twothirds (67 per cent) reduction in U5MR from 1990 to 2015.6 1.2 2.1 6.6 2.4 0.7 1.9 -0.4 2.6 2.3 2.9 2.8 0.4 2.0 2.1 2.6 5.7 4.9 5.4 ‡ Due to the cession in June 2006 of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.6 2.4 2.…TABLE 10 Under-5 mortality rate 1970 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%)Θ 1970-1990 1990-2005 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 1970 Total fertility rate 1990 2005 Average annual rate of reduction (%) 1970-1990 1990-2005 Under-5 mortality rank Reduction since 1990 (%)Θ Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 103 92 45 80 28 125 151 161 156 129 61 80 108 117 46 18 31 201 201 170 27 84 23 26 57 101 155 62 87 303 181 138 52 82 97 54 160 26 15 10 12 23 79 62 33 53 139 180 80 24 29 104 38 136 17 9 6 7 15 68 38 21 19 102 182 132 6.8 6.5 6.9 2.6 3.5 0.4 3.9 0.9 4. A negative value indicates an increase in the under-five mortality rate since 1990.1 2.0 3.3 6.4 3.1 3.7 5.8 4.5 3.5 1.7 6.5 4.1 6.8 2. DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS Under-five mortality rate – Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1.8 4. x 2.7 3.0 0. Fertility – United Nations Population Division..8 2.8 6.5 1.3 -2.0 3.0 2.7 1.2 1.8 6.x 3.7 3.0 1.4 1.3 2.9 1.5 5.5 1.6 2.3 5.8 2.2 4.2 2.0 6. Total fertility rate – The number of children that would be born per women if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.9 6. GDP per capita – Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output.4 3.1 -3.6 -2.1 1.4 0.5 1.8 4.0 0.0 3.6 5.2 0.5 7. NOTES x Θ Data not available.5 3.8 3.0 4.7 4. United Nations Population Division and United Nations Statistics Division. disaggregated data for Montenegro and Serbia as separate States are not yet available.0 2.0 5.8. S TAT I S T I C A L TA B L E S 141 .9 2.4 2.2x 2.8 SUMMARY INDICATORS Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern and Southern Africa West and Central Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean CEE/CIS Industrialized countries§ Developing countries§ Least developed countries§ World 244 219 266 195 206 122 123 88 27 167 245 148 188 166 209 81 129 58 54 53 10 105 182 95 169 146 190 54 84 33 31 35 6 83 153 76 1.7 3.3 1.3 3.1 1.3 7.1 1.3 3.9 0.0 0.6 1.1 2.3 1.5 1.5 6.4 3.2 1.6 0.0.3 4.3 0.9 2.9 3.8 1.3 0.3 2.2 0.2 2.1 1.7 1.7 2.6 -4.0 4.2 46 5.0 8. Reduction since 1990 (%) – Percentage reduction in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 1990 to 2005. Growth is calculated from constant price GDP data in local currency.2 4.2 2.2 5.3 -1.5 5. This indicator provides a current assessment of progress towards this goal. § Also includes territories within each country category or regional group.9 -4.3 54 65 -7 30 15 35 40 40 42 35 14 39 36 64 27 -1 -65 2.3 1.0 2.3 1.8 3.3 7.7 2.6 0.6 3.1 2.1 2.6 3.8 5.4 1.7.5 1.4 3.9 2.2 0.6 0.4 -0.8 MEMORANDUM Serbia and Montenegro (pre-cession) 129 71 28 15 4.0 -0.9 2.5 2.8 3.9 -0..2 4. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population.6 2.3 2.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 4.3 1. Data refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading.2 6.6 5.2 1.1 -0.1 3.7 1.4 1.x 2.3 3. MAIN DATA SOURCES Under-five mortality – UNICEF.3 -0.3 2.5 4.2 3.0 4.4 1.5 3.000 live births.6 4..0 6.6 3.5 0.8 5.8 2.4 5..0 1.2 5.7 8.9 3.8 1.0 1. x -1.6 7.6 1.8 6.6 2.8 3.4 2.4 1.2 1.1 1. Countries and territories in each country category or regional group are listed on page 136.0 2.4 0.2 2.5 2.1 1.3 3.7 4.1 5.3 5.

59 Austria. 76. 6. 138–141 Child Protection: A handbook for parliamentarians. 40 Burkina Faso. 37. 83. 61–65. 30. 20. 10. 8. 42. 49. 46. 78 commercial sexual exploitation. 79 Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS). 8. 50. 82 conflict resolution (also see armed conflict). 63. 27. 19. 39. 57 Bahrain. 13. 40 Bangladesh. 53. 55 Angola. 82 and education. 6. 44–45 family-friendly workplaces and. 77. 70 ActionAid International. 61 boys. 80. 75. 3. 55. 33 Brazil. 56 women’s work in. 61. 8. 50. 53 engaging. 26. 6. 79 Benin. 78 Basic indicators (table). 8. 76 Commonwealth Secretariat. 48. 48. 79 Burundi. 11. 75 Cameroon. 40. 45 lack of services/facilities for. 52. 70 Afghanistan. 70 maternal mortality in. 5 Bulgaria. 79 Botswana. 19. 36. 21. 20. 66. 34. 24. 74. 84 Chad. 84 breastfeeding. 8. 56. 2. 18. 4. 41. 26. 23 agriculture. 6. 20. 27. 18. 74. 39. 102–105 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995). 11. 11. 81 versus girls in child labour. 23. 40. 56. 21. 69 Belarus. 67. 56 men’s participation in. 77 Armenia. 15. 64. 19. 21 Asia (also see East Asia and Pacific. 46 grandmothers and. 40. 10. 62. 48. 4. 57 Argentina. 55. 36.85 Congo. 7. 6. 23. 52. 79 armed conflict. 61. Michelle. 18. 6. 6. 37. 45. 69. 74. 11 Cambodia. 18. 18. 59. 28 gender disparities in education in. 43. 82. 55. 79 Bosnia and Herzegovina. 15. 11. 19. 58. 70. 26. 42 AIDS (see HIV/AIDS) Albania. 66–67. 6. 57. 8. 86 and violence. 5 proportion of male births and under fives in. 40 Bougainville (Pacific Islands).INDEX ABC of Gender Responsive Education Policies: Guidelines for analysis and planning. 38 asset gap. 134–135 Chile. 72 child mortality. 34. 74. 5. 28. 24. 44. 45. 8. 34–35. 5. 82 child labour. 23. 57. 55. 26. 4 wage statistics in. 41–42 Campaign for Female Education (CAMFED). 71. 76 Child protection (table). 20. 20. 18. 37. 72. 19. 32–35. 6. 63. 6. 40. 78. 84 child immunization. 6. 74 China. 66–67. 57. 34. 62 Caribbean (see Latin America and the Caribbean) Bachelet. 33. 80–81. 82 142 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . 40. 38 Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (see Venezuela. vi Antilles. 47 Algeria. 61. 137 Rate of progression reducing (table). 46. 99. 20. women’s participation in. 48 BRAC. 58. 57. 22. 57. 84 women’s participation in parliament in. 82 legislative debates on. 33 Annan. 22. South Asia) female-headed households in. 19. 57. 60. 30. 19. 27. 3. 15. 13. and men. 22. 42. 48. 55 Colombia. 11 childcare (also see orphans). 10. 6 Belgium. 51–52. 5. 18. 40. 57. 68. 52. 78. 4. 40–41 (also see wage gap) Australia. 34. 3. 20. viii.. 67. 24. 82 age gap. 72. 40. 44. 79. 70 Canada. 82. 34. Kofi A. 7. 49. 16. 23. 42. Bolivarian Republic of) Bolivia. 82 crisis in the formal sector. 29. 74 community. 33. 45. 15. 21.

75–78 equality and role of men and boys. 46.10. 48. 24–25. 31 Darfur Peace Agreement. viii. 78 foeticide. 55 El Salvador. 6 Ethiopia 61. Unite against AIDS. 8. 78–80. 75 Global Campaign for Education (GCE). 10. 78 Czech Republic. 34–35 grass-roots movements and empowerment. 40. 7 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2–3. 1–16 Eritrea. 48. 42. 99 death. 57. 35. 5. 11. 31. 36. 60 initiatives. 74 equality (also see gender equality). 19. 30 Croatia. 32–33. 72 Europe (see Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS). 39. 42. 40 Education (table). 26. 62 data collection. 2–3. 40. 86–87. 8 Gambia. 40 Germany. children and. 70. 81–83 parity activity index. 67. 78. 83–84. 79 Education for All. 45 equality. 30–31. 44. 38. 67. 33. 52 funding. 126–129 Ecuador. 72 Demographic and Health Surveys. 40. 72 empowerment. 24. 52. 18. 40. 45. 44. 14. 40. 27. 43. 27. 33. 22. 40. 6. 9. 74. 71–73 equality and legislative reform. 11 Gallup Poll. 4. 4. 48. 82 gender gap in. 55. 31 France. 14. 47. 6. secondary education. 34. 54 employment. 63. 63 A Fair Chance. 37–49. 23. 48 domestic workers. and income-earning opportunities for women. 6–7. 21. 79 Côte d’Ivoire. 30 Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE). 34. 9. 61 Eastern and Southern Africa. 72 Economic indicators (table). 47. 6. 57. 40. 86 Demographic indicators (table). 14. 27. 20. 26. on gender discrimination. 70 Global Campaign on Children and AIDS – Unite for Children. 44. 8. 24. 46 INDEX 143 . 118–121 (also see primary education. 26–27. 81 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). 18. 76 female-headed households. 11. 48. 6. 8. 47. 29. 73–75. 75–77. 1 Georgia. 83–86. 1. 15. 61 Estonia. 75. 56. 85. 15. 6. 40. 30. 86 Democratic Republic of the Congo. 53. 13. 17–21. 6. 20. 21 women’s employment in. maternal. 72 Egypt. 47. for gender equity goals. 7. 4. 26. 16. 70. 65–67. 20. 40. Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS. 6. 5. 122–125 Denmark. 39 responsive budgets. 31. 2. 65–66. 19. 79 Ghana. 69. 73–75 Gabon. 70 Fourth World Conference on Women (1995). 34–35. 19. 74 versus sex. 76 Costa Rica. 33. 68. 72. 40 Cuba. 69–71. 70 family-friendly initiatives. 83–86 equality and education. 52. 70. 34. 61 elderly. 80–81 empowerment measure (GEM). 13. 6. 27. 4–5. 83 domestic work. 18. 56. Western Europe) European Union. 1. 15. tertiary education). 66–67 East Asia and Pacific women’s household decisionmaking in. 40. 81 gender and cooperation among women. 84 women in politics in. 34. 78 domestic violence (also see violence). 8. 37. 85 The Framework for the Protection. 58. 3. 44. 60. 58. 46 female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). 28–32 Finland.Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). 23.

30. 6. 56 Kazakhstan. 10. 6. 83–84. 78 Kyrgyzstan. 5. 54–55. 55 Iraq. 5 household decision-making. 5. 38. 41. 42 International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. 6. 43–44. 37. 84 Indonesia. 66. 20 Health (table). 68 literacy. 27. 9. 42. 6. 40 marriage. 6. 5. 40. 64 life cycle. 32 household power dynamics in. 27 female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in. 55 Mali. 61–63 men. child or early. 38 Malawi. 30–31. Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS. 6. 18. Ellen. (table) 114–117 children orphaned by. 55. 31 Global Campaign on (Unite for Children. 6. 4 Framework for the Protection. 35. 30. women in politics in. 75 HelpAge International. 45. 30. 58. 29. 47 involuntary migration. 20. Northern. 40. 84 people living with. 39. 21. 38. 79. 70 grandmothers (also see HIV/AIDS. 40. 31 grandmothers and. 60. 59–60. 8. 6. 47 Iran (Islamic Republic of). 28 women’s employment in. 47. 54. 30-31 knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and. 40 Madagascar. 85 International Conference on Population and Development (1994). 21. 7. 61. 55. 40 Luxembourg. 76 Jordan. Devaki . 76 Middle East and North Africa education in. 57. 16. 30-31 female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and. 16. 44. 23. 44. 45 Greece. 61 Kuwait. 59 maternal mortality. 55. 65. 10. 27 Guyana. 11. 5. 37. 32 women in politics in. 72 Korea. Unite against AIDS). 21. 56. 35. 63. 42 household labour. 23. 4. 18. 19. 55. 37–38 Hungary. 80. 42 household decision-making in. 5 informal work. 4. 24. 28. 85 Lithuania. 40 Johnson-Sirleaf. 84 Mexico. 85. 44. 29. 14. 11. 47. 19. 19. 82 land (see asset gap) 144 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . 57 Iceland. 26–27. 18. 6. 3. 57 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 18. 82. 40. 18. 22. 18. 6. 25. 4–5. 45. 31. 107-111 health care. 6. 8. 40 Jain. 6. 27 land ownership gaps in. 18. 31. 72 Malaysia. 19. gender discrimination across. 20. 57 Israel. 14. 5. 21. 48. 41 women in politics in. 40 Kenya. 20. 23. 7 Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU). 26. 75. 12–13. 62. 41. 47. 27 infanticide. 84. 79 International Labour Organization. 40. 54. 6. 21 Malta. 6. 79 Ireland. 40 Haiti. 76. 65. 44. 81. 61. 55. 22. 42. division of. 76. 6. 55. 85 institutional discrimination. 20. 25. 40. 38 mediators. 20.64 Jamaica. 11. 61. women as (also see conflict resolution). 8. 51. 27. 18. 4 household decision-making in. 11 Liberia. 58 Italy. 40 Guatemala. 20. 19. 6. 24. 20. 81-83. 56 Latvia. 48. 11. 39–40. 7 infants and HIV. Republic of (see Republic of Korea) Kosovo. 19. 19. 84 India. 6. 52. 29-32. motherhood). 79 Latin America and the Caribbean education in. 82 Guinea-Bissau. 46 International Food Policy Research Institute. 24. 6. 17–36. 35. 4. 23. 57 Japan. 62 Ireland. 31 HIV/AIDS. 8. 11. poverty). 74. 86 Mauritania. 8. 9. 57 Lesotho. 75. 47. 11. 8. 5.Global March against Child Labour. 78 income (also see employment. 84. 40. 4.

52. 40. 55. 6. 48. 34. 47. 30. 2. 79 nutrition. 4. 7. 75 Mitchell. 5. 20. 66–67 Russian Federation. 76 partnerships. 29. 11. (table) 106–109 INDEX 145 . 66. 75 property (see asset gap) Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa (amendment to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights). 13. 38 Montenegro. 40 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 6. 40. 55. 18. 86 Millennium Project. 50. 76. 59. 3. 78. 5. 40. 6. 42 Nigeria. 40 Occupied Palestinian Territory. 74. 78 New Zealand. 38. 70. 20. 78. 40 Paraguay. 19. 41. 56 Northern Ireland. 2. viii. 11. 19. 62 Norway. 9. 42 ‘Paris Principles’ (Principles relating to the status and functioning of national institutions for protection and promotion of human rights). 18. 65–67. 23. 48. 58. 68. 73 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 79 Saudi Arabia. 36. 79 Poland. 6 social networks (see women’s groups) Somalia. 15. 11. 66. 19. 19. 78. 18. 68. 39. 62 Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition. 41. 40. 4. 72 schools (see education) Scotland. 55 school fees. 61. 11. 6. 65. 21. 42 Moldova. 4. 34. 27. 14. 21. 65. sexual). 75. 75 Republic of Korea. 78. 80 pregnancy (also see motherhood). 69. 79. 47. 5. 42. 6. 7. 62 reproductive health (also see motherhood). 6. 74. 75 South Asia child marriage in. 42. 62 Oxfam International. 30. 20. 40. Republic of (see Republic of Moldova) Mongolia. 53. 15. 40. 85 Myanmar. 30–31. 23. 30. 6. 55. 8. 76 Serbia. viii. 46–47 Millennium Agenda. 57. 50. 66. 61 (also see East Asia and Pacific) Pakistan. 15. 3. 2. 6 Morales. 80. 62. 69. 42. 50. 72. 62 Singapore. 55. 47 Romero. 61–64. 57. 19. 34. 67. 86 peace processes. 65. 30. 52 Rwanda. Casimira Rodríguez. 49. 18. 55. 80 rape (also see violence. 30. 40. 34. 59. 47. 80. 74 Mother Centres/Clubs. 82 Netherlands. 74 Philippines. 18. 54. 6. 3–5. 72. 17.62. 35. 43. 48. 75 refugees. 42. 2. 52. 82 Panama. 45. 40. 60. 32. 14. 19. 37. 31. 26. 19. 69. 67. 13. 57. 4 education in. 4. 72. 59. 73. 2. 45 Mozambique. 55 Slovakia. 20. 80 Peru. 44 orphans. 71. 37. 24–26.migrant workers. viii. 29 Namibia. 53 Rate of progress (table). 61. 6. 6. 10. 40 poverty (also see income). 44. 67 Morocco. 3. 52. 86 primary education (also see education). 73. 79. 31. 1. 57 Nicaragua. 57. 79 politics. 53. 59. 6 Slovenia. 77 legislation against. 42. 6. 40. 11. 38. 25 Parliamentary Forum on Children. 15. Evo. 41 motherhood (also see grandmothers). 30. 18. 70 Millennium Declaration. 24. 57 Republic of Moldova. 4. viii. 18. 79 sexually transmitted infections. 21. 56. 56. 61. 50–52. 21. 62. 10. 34–35 mother-daughter substitute effect. 13. 63–64. 6. 45. 70. 12. 62 mobility. 138–141 Pacific. 69. 65. 52. 29. 31. 40. 11. 53. 32. 40. 6. 68. 61. 59. 81. 67 and resolution on impact of war on women. 41. 59. 5. 55 North Africa (see Middle East and North Africa) northern Europe. 20. 27. 20. 28. 42. 55. 84 Sierra Leone. 58. 68. 6 political parties. 72 School Fee Abolition Initiative (SFAI). 6. 70 quotas. 20. 33. 66. 21. George. 79 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. 25 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 57. 53 Nepal. 56 secondary education (also see education). 78. 71. 26. 79 Portugal. 20. 75. 12. 68. 18. 77 armed conflict and. 58. 84 Senegal. 55. 64. 5.

82 Veneman. 49.130–133 women’s groups. 41. 40 Tajikistan. 6 Timor-Leste. 11. 53. 45. 64. 47. 42. 70 Zimbabwe. 40 Sweden. 23. 6. 61. 40 women in politics in. 55. 82 World Bank. 39–40. 11. 76 Security Council resolution 1325. 58. 31. 77. 66. 33. 59 education in. 56. 16. 25. 14. 23. 76. 4. 19. 54. 4. 6. 82 household decision-making in. 16. 76 Millennium Summit. 57. 6. 70. 62. 44 Turkey. 1 Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). 55 South Asia. 23. 24–25. 30. 48. 20. 86 World Values Survey. 6. 27. 30. 7. 54–55 The former Yugoslav Repubic of Macedonia. 40. 75 Tanzania (see United Republic of Tanzania) tertiary education (also see education). 55 Zambia. 78. 18. 5. 55 Spain. 84 Uzbekistan. 30–31. 2. 76 Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI). 14. 77 World report on violence and health. 82 violence (also see armed conflict. 75 United States. 24–26 undernutrition (also see nutrition). 26 Western Europe. 44. 24. 14. 82 World Health Organization (WHO). 69. 86 Report of the Independent Expert for the United Nations Study on Violence against Children. 59. 57. 54. 26. 53. 24. 6. 52. 44. 60. 45. 8. 4. 19. 31. 38. 74. 21. 25. 46. 9. 8. 40 Turkmenistan. 66. 4. 45. 13. 71. 1 United Republic of Tanzania. 41. 39. 24–25. 55. 25. 61 TOSTAN. 22. 29 United Cities and Local Governments. 63. 30. 23. 33. 84 Thailand. 50. 39. 63. 4. 40. vi Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of). 72. 62. 59. 76 trafficking. of children. 8. 52. 34–35. 23. 6. Development and the United Nations. 72. 70 female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in. 19. 64 Women (table). 8. 80–81. 55. 32. 59. 9. 23. 13. 20. 79. 20. 20. 15. 11. 21. 63. Ann M. 31. 64. 40 Uganda. 39. 75. 44. 6. 6. 8. 11. 19. 3. 6. 30–31. 80 Swaziland. 85 United Kingdom. 11. 4. 3. 56. 16. 79. 55. 85 Tunisia. 16.household decision-making in. 57 Sudan. 78 Sri Lanka. 28 women in politics in. 58. 72. 40 under-five mortality. 82 Ukraine. 76. 23. 26. 5. 32. 27. 47. 1 Commission on the Status of Women. 6. 63. 5. 77 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 99. 40. 70 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 47. 76 sexual. 61. 18. 25. 41. 24–25 women’s empowerment in. 32 widows. 55 Viet Nam. 22. 16. 58. 25. 7. 75 war (see armed conflict) water. 24. 5. 30 General Assembly Special Session on Children (2002). 47. 28. 56. 61. 18. 23. 76 HIV/AIDS in. 101. 40. 31. domestic violence) Report of the Independent Expert for the United Nations Study on Violence against Children. 82 146 T H E S TAT E O F T H E W O R L D ’ S C H I L D R E N 2 0 0 7 . 18. 15. 85 Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 18. 21.. 62 West and Central Africa. 64–65. 79. 33. 6. 17. 79 United Nations (UN) Charter. 20 Women. 20. 8. 18. 82 sub-Saharan Africa child marriage in. 6. undernutrition). 57. 80 Development Programme (UNDP). 32–35. 15 Population Fund (UNFPA). 83 Switzerland. 137 underweight (also see nutrition. (table). 10. 23 wages (see income) wage gap. 46. 62. 63 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

United Nations Forum for African Women Educationalists Food for Education female genital mutilation/cutting Global Campaign for Education gross domestic product gender empowerment measure human immunodeficiency virus Inter-Parliamentary Union Millennium Development Goals Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development School Fee Abolition Initiative United Nations Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS United Nations Development Programme United Nations Educational.GLOSSARY AIDS CAMFED CEDAW CEE/CIS CRC DHS DPKO FAWE FFE FGM/C GCE GDP GEM HIV IPU MDGs MICS OECD SFAI UN UNAIDS UNDP UNESCO UNFPA UNGEI UNIFEM WHO acquired immune deficiency syndrome Campaign for Female Education Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States Convention on the Rights of the Child Demographic and Health Surveys Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Population Fund United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative United Nations Development Fund for Women World Health Organization GLOSSARY 147 .

UNICEF Offices UNICEF Headquarters UNICEF House 3 United Nations Plaza New York. Panama UNICEF East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office P. Box 44145-00100 Nairobi. Kenya UNICEF West and Central Africa Regional Office P. USA UNICEF Regional Office for Europe Palais des Nations CH-1211 Geneva 10. Thailand UNICEF Middle East and North Africa Regional Office P. Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Office Palais des Nations CH-1211 Geneva 10. Box 5815 Lekhnath Marg Kathmandu.O. Jordan UNICEF South Asia Regional Office P.O.org> 148 .O. Switzerland UNICEF Central and Eastern Europe. Box 2-154 19 Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200. Nepal Further information is available at our website <www. Box 1551 Amman 11821.O.unicef. Box 29720 Yoff Dakar.O. Senegal UNICEF The Americas and Caribbean Regional Office Avenida Morse Ciudad del Saber Clayton Edificio #131 Apartado 0843-03045 Panama City. Switzerland UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office P. NY 10017.

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THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN 2007 THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND OF GENDER EQUALITY United Nations Children’s Fund 3 United Nations Plaza New York. NY 10017.XX. USA pubdoc@unicef.: E.75 ISBN-13: 978-92-806-3998-8 ISBN-10: 92-806-3998-6 Sales no.org US $20.07.1 © The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) December 2006 .60 €15.00 UK £10.org www.unicef.

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