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Laplace transform - Wikipedia, the free…

Laplace transform

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In mathematics, the Laplace transform is a widely used integral transform. Denoted , it is a linear operator of a function f(t) with a real argument t (t ≥ 0) that transforms it to a function F(s) with a complex argument s. This transformation is essentially bijective for the majority of practical uses; the respective pairs of f(t) and F(s) are matched in tables. The Laplace transform has the useful property that many relationships and operations over the originals f(t) correspond to simpler relationships and operations over the images F(s).[1] The Laplace transform has many important applications throughout the sciences. It is named for Pierre-Simon Laplace who introduced the transform in his work on probability theory. The Laplace transform is related to the Fourier transform, but whereas the Fourier transform resolves a function or signal into its modes of vibration, the Laplace transform resolves a function into its moments. Like the Fourier transform, the Laplace transform is used for solving differential and integral equations. In physics and engineering, it is used for analysis of linear time-invariant systems such as electrical circuits, harmonic oscillators, optical devices, and mechanical systems. In this analysis, the Laplace transform is often interpreted as a transformation from the time-domain, in which inputs and outputs are functions of time, to the frequency-domain, where the same inputs and outputs are functions of complex angular frequency, in radians per unit time. Given a simple mathematical or functional description of an input or output to a system, the Laplace transform provides an alternative functional description that often simplifies the process of analyzing the behavior of the system, or in synthesizing a new system based on a set of specifications.

Contents

1 History 2 Formal definition 2.1 Probability theory 2.2 Bilateral Laplace transform 2.3 Inverse Laplace transform 3 Region of convergence 4 Properties and theorems 4.1 Proof of the Laplace transform of a function's derivative 4.2 Evaluating improper integrals 4.3 Relationship to other transforms 4.3.1 Laplace–Stieltjes transform 4.3.2 Fourier transform 4.3.3 Mellin transform 4.3.4 Z-transform 4.3.5 Borel transform 4.3.6 Fundamental relationships 5 Table of selected Laplace transforms 6 s-Domain equivalent circuits and impedances 7 Examples: How to apply the properties and theorems 7.1 Example #1: Solving a differential equation 7.2 Example #2: Deriving the complex impedance for a capacitor 7.3 Example #3: Method of partial fraction expansion 7.4 Example #4: Mixing sines, cosines, and exponentials 7.5 Example #5: Phase delay 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 10.1 Modern 10.2 Historical 11 External links

History

The Laplace transform is named in honor of mathematician and astronomer Pierre-Simon Laplace, who used the transform in his work on probability theory. From 1744, Leonhard Euler investigated integrals of the form

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laplace_transform

1/14

[5] However.Wikipedia. the free… as solutions of differential equations but did not pursue the matter very far. in order to look for solutions of the transformed equation.∞). Although with the Lebesgue integral. en. he started to apply the transforms in the sense that was later to become popular. beginning to appreciate its potential power.[3][4] These types of integrals seem first to have attracted Laplace's attention in 1782 where he was following in the spirit of Euler in using the integrals themselves as solutions of equations. The meaning of the integral depends on types of functions of interest. and renewal theory. the integral can be understood as a (proper) Lebesgue integral. it does appear more naturally in connection with the Laplace–Stieltjes transform. one often writes where the lower limit of 0− is short notation to mean This limit emphasizes that any point mass located at 0 is entirely captured by the Laplace transform. in his work on integrating probability density functions.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 2/14 . rather than just looking for a solution in the form of an integral. in 1785. defined for all real numbers t ≥ 0. the Laplace transform is defined by means of an expectation value. He used an integral of the form: akin to a Mellin transform. the integral can be understood in a weak sense. A necessary condition for existence of the integral is that ƒ must be locally integrable on [0. Probability theory In pure and applied probability. to avoid potential confusion. Laplace applied his transform to find solutions that diffused indefinitely in space. and this is dealt with below. Laplace took the critical step forward when. investigated expressions of the form which some modern historians have interpreted within modern Laplace transform theory. However. this is referred to as the Laplace transform of the random variable X itself. In that case. In 1809. For locally integrable functions that decay at infinity or are of exponential type. the Laplace transform of a measure is often treated as though the measure came from a distribution function ƒ. The Laplace transform has applications throughout probability theory. then the Laplace transform of ƒ is given by the expectation By abuse of language. even more specifically. including first passage times of stochastic processes such as Markov chains. defined by: The parameter s is a complex number: with real numbers σ and ω. to transform the whole of a difference equation. One can define the Laplace transform of a finite Borel measure µ by the Lebesgue integral[8] An important special case is where µ is a probability measure or. is the function F(s). In operational calculus. Replacing s by −t gives the moment generating function of X. for many applications it is necessary to regard it as a conditionally convergent improper integral at ∞. it is not necessary to take such a limit.wikipedia. the Dirac delta function. Still more generally. If X is a random variable with probability density function ƒ. He then went on to apply the Laplace transform in the same way and started to derive some of its properties.2011-02-19 Laplace transform .[2] Joseph Louis Lagrange was an admirer of Euler and.[6] Laplace also recognised that Joseph Fourier's method of Fourier series for solving the diffusion equation could only apply to a limited region of space as the solutions were periodic.[7] Formal definition The Laplace transform of a function f(t).

[9] Analogously. In engineering applications. If that is done the common unilateral transform simply becomes a special case of the bilateral transform where the definition of the function being transformed is multiplied by the Heaviside step function. In particular.) The constant a is known as the abscissa of absolute convergence. and Mellin's inverse formula): where γ is a real number so that the contour path of integration is in the region of convergence of F(s). en. then the Laplace transform F(s) of ƒ converges provided that the limit exists. the set of values for which F(s) converges (conditionally or absolutely) is known as the region of conditional convergence. If the Laplace transform converges (conditionally) at s = s0. the Laplace transform of ƒ can be expressed by integrating by parts as the integral That is. The bilateral Laplace transform is defined as follows: Inverse Laplace transform For more details on this topic.Wikipedia. The Laplace transform converges absolutely if the integral exists (as proper Lebesgue integral).2011-02-19 Laplace transform . in the region of convergence F(s) can effectively be expressed as the absolutely convergent Laplace transform of some other function. the FourierMellin integral. The Laplace transform can be alternatively defined as the bilateral Laplace transform or two-sided Laplace transform by extending the limits of integration to be the entire real axis. The inverse Laplace transform is given by the following complex integral. meaning that it converges in the former instead of the latter sense. Region of convergence If ƒ is a locally integrable function (or more generally a Borel measure locally of bounded variation). (This follows from the dominated convergence theorem. An alternative formula for the inverse Laplace transform is given by Post's inversion formula. Therefore the region of convergence is a half-plane of the form Re{s} > a. it is sometimes called the strip of absolute convergence. a function corresponding to a linear time-invariant (LTI) system is stable if every bounded input produces a bounded output. which is known by various names (the Bromwich integral. This is equivalent to the absolute convergence of the Laplace transform of the impulse response function in the region Re{s} ≥ 0. or simply the region of convergence (ROC). In the region of convergence Re{s} > Re{s0}. then it automatically converges for all s with Re{s} > Re{s0}.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 3/14 . where a is an extended real constant. it is analytic. The Laplace transform is usually understood as conditionally convergent. As a result. and possibly including the lines Re{s} = a or Re{s} = b. the two-sided transform converges absolutely in a strip of the form a < Re{s} < b. the free… Bilateral Laplace transform Main article: Two-sided Laplace transform When one says "the Laplace transform" without qualification. A variety of theorems. Similarly. The Laplace transform is analytic in the region of absolute convergence. exist concerning the relationship between the decay properties of ƒ and the properties of the Laplace transform within the region of convergence. possibly including some points of the boundary line Re{s} = a. In the two-sided case.wikipedia. LTI systems are stable provided the poles of the Laplace transform of the impulse response function have negative real part. the unilateral or one-sided transform is normally intended. in the form of Paley–Wiener theorems. see Inverse Laplace transform. and depends on the growth behavior of ƒ(t). −∞ ≤ a ≤ ∞. The set of values for which F(s) converges absolutely is either of the form Re{s} > a or else Re{s} ≥ a.[10] The subset of values of s for which the Laplace transform converges absolutely is called the region of absolute convergence or the domain of absolute convergence.

Scaling Frequency shifting Time shifting u(t) is the Heaviside step function the integration is done along the vertical line Re(σ) = c that lies entirely within the region of convergence of F.[12] ƒ(t) and g(t) are extended by zero for t < 0 in the definition of the convolution. The transform turns integral equations and differential equations to polynomial equations. This can then be obtained by integration by parts ƒ is assumed twice differentiable and the second derivative to be of exponential type. and their respective Laplace transforms F(s) and G(s): the following table is a list of properties of unilateral Laplace transform:[11] Properties of the unilateral Laplace transform Time domain Linearity Frequency differentiation Frequency differentiation 's' domain Comment Can be proved using basic rules of integration. is the first derivative of More general form.Wikipedia. . Note (u * f)(t) is the convolution of u(t) and f(t). which are much easier to solve. and its derivative is assumed to be of exponential type. Follows by applying the Differentiation property to . Once solved. with nth derivative of exponential type. where a is positive. by s (similarly to logarithms changing multiplication of numbers to addition of their logarithms). Differentiation Second Differentiation General Differentiation Frequency integration Integration u(t) is the Heaviside step function. Because of this property. use of the inverse Laplace transform reverts back to the time domain. the Laplace variable s is also known as operator variable in the L domain: either derivative operator or (for s−1) integration operator. Multiplication Convolution f(t) is a periodic function of period T so that en. Follow by mathematical induction.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 4/14 . the free… Properties and theorems The Laplace transform has a number of properties that make it useful for analyzing linear dynamical systems. ƒ is assumed to be a differentiable function.2011-02-19 Laplace transform . ƒ is assumed to be n-times differentiable. nth derivative of F(s). The most significant advantage is that differentiation and integration become multiplication and division. Given the functions f(t) and g(t). respectively.wikipedia.

Initial value theorem: Final value theorem: .wikipedia.g. t or ) the behaviour of this formula is undefined. The final value theorem is useful because it gives the long-term behaviour without having to perform partial fraction decompositions or other difficult algebra. This can be derived from the basic expression for a Laplace transform as follows: yielding and in the bilateral case. If a function's poles are in the right-hand plane (e.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 5/14 . Evaluating improper integrals Let .Wikipedia. en. e sin(t) Proof of the Laplace transform of a function's derivative It is often convenient to use the differentiation property of the Laplace transform to find the transform of a function's derivative.2011-02-19 Periodic Function Laplace transform . the free… . then (see the table above) or Let we get the identity For example. if all poles of sF(s) are in the left half-plane. The general result where f n is the n-th derivative of f. This is the result of the time shifting property and the geometric series. can then be established with an inductive argument.

Relationship to other transforms Laplace–Stieltjes transform The (unilateral) Laplace–Stieltjes transform of a function g : R → R is defined by the Lebesgue–Stieltjes integral The function g is assumed to be of bounded variation. σ = 0. So in practice. In general. the only distinction between the two transforms is that the Laplace transform is thought of as operating on the density function of the measure. Z-transform The unilateral or one-sided Z-transform is simply the Laplace transform of an ideally sampled signal with the substitution of en.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 6/14 . For instance. For example. a relation of the form holds under much weaker conditions. Therefore. the free… Another example is Dirichlet integral.[13] Fourier transform The continuous Fourier transform is equivalent to evaluating the bilateral Laplace transform with complex argument s = iω or s = 2πfi : This expression excludes the scaling factor . General conditions relating the limit of the Laplace transform of a function on the boundary to the Fourier transform take the form of Paley-Wiener theorems. the function f(t) = cos(ω 0t)u(t) has a Laplace transform F(s) = s/(s2 + ω 02) whose ROC is Re(s) > 0.2011-02-19 Laplace transform . However. This relationship between the Laplace and Fourier transforms is often used to determine the frequency spectrum of a signal or dynamical system. the Laplace–Stieltjes transform is the Laplace transform of the Stieltjes measure associated to g.Wikipedia.wikipedia. Mellin transform The Mellin transform and its inverse are related to the two-sided Laplace transform by a simple change of variables. If in the Mellin transform we set θ = e-t we get a two-sided Laplace transform. If g is the antiderivative of ƒ: then the Laplace–Stieltjes transform of g and the Laplace transform of ƒ coincide. substituting s = iω in F(s) does not yield the Fourier transform of f(t) = cos(ω 0t). this holds for the above example provided that the limit is understood as a weak limit of measures (see vague topology). which is often included in definitions of the Fourier transform. The above relation is valid as stated if and only if the region of convergence (ROC) of F(s) contains the imaginary axis. whereas the Laplace–Stieltjes transform is thought of as operating on its cumulative distribution function.

Nachbin's theorem gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the Borel transform to be well defined. we find the relationship between the unilateral Z-transform and the Laplace transform of the sampled signal: The similarity between the Z and Laplace transforms is expanded upon in the theory of time scale calculus. Fundamental relationships en.2011-02-19 Laplace transform . Comparing the last two equations. rather than the exponential function. seconds) and is the sampling rate (in samples per second or hertz) be a sampling impulse train (also called a Dirac comb) and be the continuous-time representation of the sampled are the discrete samples of The Laplace transform of the sampled signal is .Wikipedia. This is precisely the definition of the unilateral Z-transform of the discrete function with the substitution of .wikipedia.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 7/14 .. Borel transform The integral form of the Borel transform is a special case of the Laplace transform for ƒ an entire function of exponential type. The generalized Borel transform allows a different weighting function to be used.g. the free… where Let is the sampling period (in units of time e. to transform functions not of exponential type. meaning that for some constants A and B.

1 2a. Table of selected Laplace transforms The following table provides Laplace transforms for many common functions of a single variable. Because the Laplace transform is a linear operator: The Laplace transform of a sum is the sum of Laplace transforms of each term. ID 1 1a 2 2a 2a. Mellin-. which is why all of the time domain functions in the table below are multiples of the Heaviside step function. The Laplace transform of a multiple of a function. and Z-transforms are at bottom the same subject. The unilateral Laplace transform takes as input a function whose time domain is the non-negative reals. and since the two-sided transform can be written as the sum of two one-sided transforms. the theory of the Laplace-. u(t). the free… Since an ordinary Laplace transform can be written as a special case of a two-sided transform.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Laplace_transform . a different point of view and different characteristic problems are associated with each of these four major integral transforms.1 3 4 5 6 exponential decay exponential approach sine cosine hyperbolic sine 7 8 hyperbolic cosine Exponentially-decaying sine wave 8/14 en. For definitions and explanations. The entries of the table that involve a time delay τ are required to be causal (meaning that τ > 0). A causal system is a system where the impulse response h(t) is zero for all time t prior to t = 0. However. is that multiple times the Laplace transformation of that function. the region of convergence for causal systems is not the same as that of anticausal systems. In general.wikipedia. see the Explanatory Notes at the end of the table. Fourier-.2 2b 2c Function ideal delay unit impulse delayed nth power with frequency shift nth power ( for integer n ) qth power ( for complex q ) unit step delayed unit step ramp Time domain Laplace s-domain Region of convergence 1 2d nth power with frequency shift 2d.2011-02-19 Laplace transform .

and are real numbers. Here is a summary of equivalents: Note that the resistor is exactly the same in the time domain and the s-Domain.2011-02-19 Exponentially-decaying 9 cosine wave Laplace transform . if a capacitor has an initial voltage across it. and Re{s} is its real part. although it can represent any independent dimension. is the complex angular frequency. of order 0 Modified Bessel function of the second kind.wikipedia. Circuit elements can be transformed into impedances. en. of order n Modified Bessel function of the first kind. the sources inserted in the sDomain account for that. typically represents time. of order 0 Error function 12 13 14 15 16 Explanatory notes: represents the Heaviside step function. . represents the Gamma function. represents the Dirac delta function. is the Euler–Mascheroni constant. . .Wikipedia. the free… 10 11 nth root natural logarithm Bessel function of the first kind. For example. a real number. . s-Domain equivalent circuits and impedances The Laplace transform is often used in circuit analysis. or if the inductor has an initial current through it. and simple conversions to the s-Domain of circuit elements can be made. of order n Bessel function of the second kind. . very similar to phasor impedances.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 9/14 . is an integer. The sources are put in if there are initial conditions on the circuit elements.

the free… The equivalents for current and voltage sources are simply derived from the transformations in the table above. this is expressed by the differential equation where C is the capacitance (in farads) of the capacitor. although without using the Laplace transform. The Laplace transform reduces a linear differential equation to an algebraic equation. Symbolically. and v = v(t) is the voltage (in volts) across the terminals of the capacitor. we take the inverse Laplace transform to find the general solution which is indeed the correct form for radioactive decay. Taking the Laplace transform of this equation.wikipedia. The English electrical engineer Oliver Heaviside first proposed a similar scheme. Performing this calculation in Laplace space turns the convolution into a multiplication. Example #2: Deriving the complex impedance for a capacitor In the theory of electrical circuits. the current flow in a capacitor is proportional to the capacitance and rate of change in the electrical potential (in SI units).2011-02-19 Laplace transform . For more information. also as a function of time. we obtain en.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 10/14 . This leads to the first order linear differential equation where λ is the decay constant. The Laplace transform can be used to solve this equation. see control theory. we find Finally. Rearranging the equation to one side. and the resulting operational calculus is credited as the Heaviside calculus. we have Next. the following fundamental relationship governs radioactive decay: the number of radioactive atoms N in a sample of a radioactive isotope decays at a rate proportional to N. which can then be solved by the formal rules of algebra. The Laplace transform can also be used to solve differential equations and is used extensively in electrical engineering. Example #1: Solving a differential equation In nuclear physics. the latter being easier to solve because of its algebraic form.Wikipedia. Examples: How to apply the properties and theorems The Laplace transform is used frequently in engineering and physics. the output of a linear time invariant system can be calculated by convolving its unit impulse response with the input signal. we take the Laplace transform of both sides of the equation: where and Solving. The original differential equation can then be solved by applying the inverse Laplace transform. i = i(t) is the electric current (in amperes) through the capacitor as a function of time.

the residue R is given by Note that and so the substitution of R and P into the expanded expression for H(s) gives en. the free… and Solving for V(s) we have The definition of the complex impedance Z (in ohms) is the ratio of the complex voltage V divided by the complex current I while holding the initial state Vo at zero: Using this definition and the previous equation. Each residue represents the relative contribution of that singularity to the transfer function's overall shape.wikipedia. the contribution from R vanishes and all that is left is Similarly. we find: which is the correct expression for the complex impedance of a capacitor. we begin by expanding H(s) using the method of partial fraction expansion: The unknown constants P and R are the residues located at the corresponding poles of the transfer function. the inverse Laplace transform depends only upon the poles and their residues. To find the residue P. Example #3: Method of partial fraction expansion Consider a linear time-invariant system with transfer function The impulse response is simply the inverse Laplace transform of this transfer function: To evaluate this inverse transform.Wikipedia. we multiply both sides of the equation by s + α to get Then by letting s = −α. By the residue theorem.2011-02-19 where Laplace transform .org/wiki/Laplace_transform 11/14 .

cosines. above). and exponentials Time function Laplace transform Starting with the Laplace transform we find the inverse transform by first adding and subtracting the same constant α to the numerator: By the shift-in-frequency property. using the Laplace transforms for sine and cosine (see the table. we can take the inverse Laplace transform of H(s) to obtain: which is the impulse response of the system.Wikipedia. the free… Finally. we find the inverse by first rearranging terms in the fraction: en.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 12/14 .wikipedia. we have Finally. we have Example #5: Phase delay Time function Laplace transform Starting with the Laplace transform. using the linearity property and the known transform for exponential decay (see Item #3 in the Table of Laplace Transforms. above).2011-02-19 Laplace transform . Example #4: Mixing sines.

ISBN 3764365498. 6. (1967). Schwartz. Charles J. Chapter VI.1. 262–266 ^ Feller 1971. pp. 261–262 ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. T.1 ^ Euler 1744. A. §2 ^ (Korn & Korn 1967. ISBN 0-8493-2876-4. yielding: x(t) = sin(ωt + φ). 5.2011-02-19 Laplace transform . ISBN 0071160434. 10. Boston: McGraw-Hill.M.).A. Bracewell. McGraw-Hill Companies. William (1971). Chapter II. New York: Springer. ^ Korn & Korn 1967. Neubrander. (1998).Wikipedia.. ISBN 0-387-95314-0. N. Boca Raton: CRC Press. (1753) and (1769) ^ Lagrange 1773 ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. MR0270403 (http://www. 9. (2000). 432 References Modern Arendt.. Brian (2002). pp. New York: John Wiley & Sons. A. p. 8. Univ. "Transformation de Laplace des distributions".wikipedia. Matthias. §8. Lund [Medd.. Sém. p. 7.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 13/14 . II. Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed. 261 ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. the free… We are now able to take the inverse Laplace transform of our terms: This is just the sine of the sum of the arguments. 11. Korn. Vector-Valued Laplace Transforms and Cauchy Problems. Table 14. 4. Birkhäuser Basel. Batty.ams. Manzhirov. p. en.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=0270403) . Mat. ISBN 00703-5370-0. Laurent (1952). An introduction to probability theory and its applications..K. 226–227) ^ Bracewell 2000. We can apply similar logic to find that See also Pierre-Simon Laplace Laplace transform applied to differential equations Moment-generating function Z-transform (discrete equivalent of the Laplace transform) Fourier transform Sumudu transform or Laplace–Carson transform Analog signal processing Continuous-repayment mortgage Hardy–Littlewood tauberian theorem Bernstein's theorem Symbolic integration Notes 1. 260 ^ Grattan-Guinness 1997. Math. 2. Hieber. p. R. G. Second edition. Frank (2002).1 ^ Widder 1941. Handbook of Integral Equations. 3. Korn. §XIII. Integral transforms and their applications (Third ed.). Wolfgang. p. Polyanin. V. 385 ^ Feller 1971. D. 12. Feller. Comm. 13. Davies. The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (3rd ed. Vol. §1 ^ Widder 1941. Lunds Univ.).

html) Good explanations of the initial and final value theorems (http://fourier. M. MR0052555 (http://www.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=0005923) . C.org/stable/2305640) . MR0013447 (http://www.unice.org/stable/2305640. "Institutiones calculi integralis. 1st series 22: 181–213. ISBN 0-262-19229-2. See Terms of Use for details. Massachusetts: MIT Press. No.org/wiki/Laplace_transform" Categories: Integral transforms | Differential equations | Fourier analysis | Transforms This page was last modified on 12 February 2011 at 18:25. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Inc. J. (1753). "De constructione aequationum". Siebert.com/home/kmath508/kmath508. doi:10. Opera omnia.html) " from MathWorld.fullerton. 1st series 22: 150–161.2307%2F2305640) .htm) at MathPages Laplace and Heaviside (http://www. Historical Deakin. "Laplace Transform (http://mathworld.ams.. L. "The development of the Laplace transform". Laplace Transform Table and Examples (http://www. (1744). doi:10.en) of the transform or inverse transform.ipmnet. "Laplace's integral solutions to partial differential equations". External links Online Computation (http://wims.1007%2FBF01395660) Deakin. B.jstor..ams. L.com/Laplace/1a_lap_unitstepfns. I (1997).ru/en/auxiliary/aux-inttrans.doi. "The development of the Laplace transform". Weisstein. Œuvres de Lagrange. (1981). B.2011-02-19 Laplace transform . Euler.jstor. L. Pierre Simon Laplace 1749– 1827: A Life in Exact Science.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=0052555) . Princeton Mathematical Series. Princeton: Princeton University Press.com/Laplace. http://www. 1st series 12. 52.htm) at Vibrationdata.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=0013447) .wikipedia.edu/mathews/c2003/LaplaceTransformMod. Signals.php/PDE:Laplace_Transforms) of solving boundary value problems (PDEs) with Laplace Transforms Retrieved from "http://en. v. Euler. Eric W.fr/wims/wims.wikipedia. Widder.org/wiki/Laplace_transform 14/14 .] 1952: 196–206.com/LaplaceTransform. William McC.ams. Mathews (http://math.exampleproblems. Cambridge.unice. Princeton University Press.org/10. en. Widder. (1769). The Laplace Transform.2307/2305640 (http://dx. Opera omnia.cgi?lang=en&+module=tool%2Fanalysis%2Ffourierlaplace. Chapters 3–5. Grattan-Guinness. Laplace Transform Module by John H. L.intmath. Vol.1007/BF01395660 (http://dx. additional terms may apply.php) at Interactive maths.vibrationdata..eng.fr Tables of Integral Transforms (http://eqworld. C.Wikipedia.mathpages. A. wims. "What is the Laplace transform?" (http://www. The American Mathematical Monthly (The American Mathematical Monthly. (1986). Circuits. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. pp. "Methodus aequationes differentiales". ISBN 0-691-01185-0. (1773). Archive for the History of the Exact Sciences 26: 351–381 Euler. a non-profit organization. Mémoire sur l'utilité de la méthode. David Vernon (1945).org/10.hmc.worldcat. Volume 2". 8) 52 (8): 419–425. A. Archive for the History of the Exact Sciences 25: 343–390. Examples (http://www. 171–234.org/issn/0002-9890) . 6.doi.com/wiki/index. MR0005923 (http://www. M.wolfram. Opera omnia. David Vernon (1941).edu/e102/lectures/Laplace_Transform/) Laplace Transforms (http://www. the free… Sem. in Gillispie. Lagrange. and Systems. (1982).htm) at EqWorld: The World of Mathematical Equations. ISSN 0002-9890 (http://www. 2.

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