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[1915] Brothers, Minnie E. -Bread Making and Bread Baking

[1915] Brothers, Minnie E. -Bread Making and Bread Baking

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  • SLICED CUCUMBERS (German Style)

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Bread Maying AND Bread Baling Embracing Selections Jelly in 'Pastry. General Cooking. Pickling. Canning. Making and Candy Making JHCinnfe E. {Brothers MINNEAPOLIS 1915 . Preserving.

A420394 .•' Copyrighted 1915 By the Author JAN 18 1916 ©CI.£ .

that this book will be of some assistance. or the one Mho plies domestic science on a scientific principle. but in the main. The author contributes a few recipes that are original. is all that is claimed herein. Its aim is to help the one whose larder is not always provisioned with a great variety of fancy groceries. old recipes written anew. as well as. are nut intended for the graduate of culinary art.for this duty is unfortunately limited. improved upon and simplified. the cue whose training. This little book in its simple and unpretentious way is dedicated to the Housewife who is dealing with the perplexities of preparing the meals. It is hoped and believed. and lighten the burden of the one who makes the home the Faithful Household Cook. — .4 ace Prefi &fP* HE RECIPES tlL contained in this booklet.

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if Of food So. a simple lud unnoticed. without her ceaseless kindness Tray. By her duties every Though she does it in .ook. how long would you live? W e all would soon zee expire. raise my The blessed hat in honor of household c.A Tribute li'orld to the Worlds Heroine praising The All is- always folk the great The poets and The ministers sublime. day. of the timemusicians. Perhaps you think she isn't zvorth The praise that I would give. We hear a lot of lauding for The man zvho goes to war. at once — The household cook. quiet way. I lh lawyer and iuz'cnter. / ne'er partook. I But when I am an author. The poet and his lore. . She saves the lives of thousands. (In Farm and Home). and The author's famous book. The artist and the sculptor. write a shall surely book cook. JONES. But. But zee never hear a zeord about The blessed household cook. I'll tell you she blessed is. About The the queen of womankind — zeorthy household ALICE M. and But the earth's greatest heroine They never east a look.

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for further loosening the middlings from bran. . 1st break scalpel'. for separating other kinds of from wheat. 2nd break rolls. wheat. for packing bran for shipment. Wheat dryer. for sifting middlings through bolting break rolls. for cleaning and purifying middlings by air and sifting. for dusting low grade Hour from bran. final 3rd break scalper. for reserve supply of wheat mill requirements. for further separating foreign seeds from (5) Scourer. for (11) (12. Grading reel. Flour bin and packer. for separating Hour from purified middlings of second grading. (3) Storage bins. separation of middlings from (3'5) (16) (17) Bran duster. for packing flour for shipment.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING (1) (2) 9 Scales. for removing all round seeds. for further grinding of purified middlings. 2nd reduction rolls. for grinding purified middlings very tine to flour. for sifting fiour from purified middlings.seeds Receiving separator. (7) (8) (9) Wheat washer. Bran Inn. cloth to separate (13) 14) 3rd bread rolls. (20) (21) Flour bolter. (22) (23) (24 i Flour bolter. 1st for thoroughly cleansing the wheal. lor bran. for separating middlings by sifting through various silzes of bolting cloth. in advance of (A) Mill separator. enabling bran and germ to be separated from interior. (6) Cockle cylinder. for drying (10) wheat after washing. for removing dust from wheat kernels. for raising products to the various machines. Smooth rolls. Elevator. rupturing bran. for weighing wheat as it is received. from bran. 2nd break scalper for separating more middlings from bran. (1 Si (19) Dust collector and purifier. . for further loosening middlings From bran.

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also unleavened bread of the Jews used in the Passover. For a long time bread making has been considered an art. in the ns of the art of bread making. of the Greeks and bread and cakes Chaldean ruins well Avere who knew the Romans who had many and made in great variety. comes from China. fine we read: "Abraham hastened into the teni. by common consent.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 11 Bread Bread the staff of life. In Genesis 18:6 into Sarah. knead tells said. Perhaps the earliest record of the grinding of grain and The Chinese were bread made from it. Tlie scriptures in early Bible times frequently mention bread. it. by all peoples of the •ivilized and much of the uncivilized world. and it may be added that to make a good wholesome loaf of . and meal. "Make ready quickly three measures of and bake cakes upon the hearth. made by taking a small portion of dough away . as Sour dough - commonly called. The earliest built ovens. age. in all homes." Bread made in this way usually has a sour taste." ancient Egyptians. stones for reducing grain are found. "11 will leaven the whole lump.and putting it say three or four ounces from a baking until the next baking day. occupies first place as an article of food. and perfect grinding bread makers were the Lakedwellers that inhabited Switzerland in the StoneLoaves baked on hot stones were found. is the leavening used. bread makers 4500 years ago. Bread dates back before the beginning" of history. then mixing it with fresh dough. Judging from what we read of it the bread question is an old one. Leavened bread as far as the leavening is concerned is Fermented or the same to-day as it was in early times. History bakeries. it is is made sour dough.

plum]). Flour •>l this wheat is generally called "Hard Wheat Flour. Flour made from winter wheat is called "Soft Wheal Flour*' and is used in breads. made from spring wheat. This booklet does not treat on the chemistry of bread making. one must know fact. It is Northwestern States and Canada. The best Hour. <d course. in its bread making. . Ceresota. possible All meant.12 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING bread is the greatest of household arts. southern and eastern states. is now nearly three hundred years since yeast was first and while our ancestors made a good palatable bread it was not until recent years that the art of bread making attained any degree of perfection. by the modern method of milling wheat and making brands of patent process flour. perhaps in all the world. this." It i« rich in gluten and is the most perfect bread Hour. is of a It creamy color. that one who bakes understands something about flour as well as yeast. which indicates a poor flour. and Pillsibury's is By spring wheat chiefly grown in the Best. is standard and the best lor bread making. The leading brands are Occident. It used. but on the most simple. pastry. always challenges attention and is always admired. is made in Minneapolis. S. loaves of bread. Some authorities on domestic ar1 claim that to be successful in the chemistry of yeast and flour. and macaroni. successful it is home methods. wheat sown in the spring. desirable. but is rich in starch. though not necessary. practical. and is grown in all parts of the U. not white or grey in color. is largely made flour. Winter wheat is a soft wheat. bread making in all scientific principles. it contains less gluten. Gold Medal. and is shipped to all parts of America and many foreign countries. A baking of nicely browned. principally the western.

. cover and let stand until morning. begin mixing with a heavy spoon. Have prepared' two cups of finely mashed potatoes. put a teaspoon of sugar and one and a half cakes oi' yeast. or better. one half cup Lard. and will not lie When kneading is done there inclined to stick to the hands. and spongy. but if tin' kneading is done *>" hand. make a hatter. sift in one sifter of Hour. which under ordinary conditions will be light in one and ill now make a medium one half to two hours. To three stiff pints of stir in warm water. knead which is now done by hand. stir well and 1ft batter cool. then with table cloth. When in right of pan. beat well. Remove Knead for twenty minutes or more. set in a warm place out of draught to vise. A bread mixer may be used.tablespoon of flour.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 13 Bread-Making Dry Yeast. condition dough will be elastic. Cover first with bread pan cover. [nto a eup of hike warm water. or finish kneading in the bread pan Sift in flour gradually. a cloth for the purpose. add one cup of sugar. add enough flour to batter. Add eup of yeast. Cover. Stir and add flour gradually . and stir in a heaping. stir. should be no flour left in the pan. more flour and heaping tablespoon of salt. the yeast prepared the night before which v Beat thoroughly for five or six minutes. all particles of dough from sides ami bottom steadily. Remove to floured kneading board. Let soak at least one hour. Kneading.nitil dough becomes too stiff to use the spoon. Sponge. turn on them a half pint of boiling water.

Remove from pans. Baking. Temperature of room should he 72 to 80 degrees. place a sheet of brown or white paper over the browned over bread. to prevent scorching during the latter part of baking. and inclined to be sour. when double loaves are baked in a pan. 1 Under favorable conditions the bread its size. which will take fifteen minutes. Grease the baking pans well. then reduce the heat about one half. sometimes less.1 RHEA J ) MAKINGAND warm two BE K AD B AK I N G Set to rise in a It place. out of hot or cold draughts. Brush top with lard or butter and set to rise in even temperature. can be used in bread in place of lard or other shortening. it is much better use it h\ the same quantity or a Olive oil . Putting into loaves. as they are better bakers. Put the bread in a moderately hot oven. place on Brush lightly while hot with butter. use the sheet iron or iron enamel ware. . Mould each into shape and place in pan. little less. and about one and one half pounds. bake until nicely top. soggy. cool. in will be up and double three fourths of an hour. Bake one hour. cover with light cloth. For a single loaf. or tough. cloth to If bread raises too long it will be porous and dry. take about two pounds of dough. should be light in to three hours. If it is very slow in rising it will be dry.

Compressed Yeast. turn in yeast and stir in enoitgh flour to make a medium batter. elastic. kneading until dough is spongy and Let rise and finish in the usual way. half cup sugar. put this into bread pan and turn in one quart boiling water and beat up well. soak hour. adding flour as needed. cool add yeast. mix well and over night in a warm Sponge. . cakes dry yeast and 1 cup of mashed potastir toes. stirring briskly. cover to V/n <-ups sugar Va warm water and flour to and set away to rise. When cooled to luke warm. Add make add 1 to the yeast 1 quart of luke a sponge batter. rice or mash 3 or 4 medium sized boiled potatoes add heaping. 1 to iy cups 2 mil meats and knead as other bread. Nut bread fering in the is made much of the proportion ingredients. NUT BREAD. and more Hour. add 1 tablespoon of flour and cup of boiling water.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING BREAD. Yeast. Dough. one tablespoon salt stiff to stir with spoon. only difand the addition of nut meats. 1 To IV. let set and when place. When light cup lard or butter.tablespoon flour. beat briskly a few minutes and set away in Miid warm warm place to rise. When light add seme Hour. When too by hand. 15 Dissolve 2 cakes of compressed yeast in half cup of luke water. same as other bread. Place in 1 a cup of luke warm water 1 teaspoon of sugar. half cup finish lard.

beat briskly and raise. set to with 'heavy spoon.. Wholewheat Hour may be used instead BOSTON BROWN BREAD. using an extia conveniently by making more bread sponge. 2 of brown sugar. 2 cups corn meal a cup flour 2 teaspoons baking-powder 1 "I teaspoon salt shortening 3 tablespoons hot with raisins dredged Mix ingredients in order named. 1 heaping can be stirred sift in as long as the batter On baking day a few loaves of graham bread can be made and graham flour. flour and hot shortening i* aboul 4 hours. and when (15 light again baice m quick oven. V. up 1/2 brown sugar 1 cup molasses p-cr« 1 1 9 ips 2 CT_ sour ^ milk 1 1 cup corn meal cup graham or rye Cll P ft° Ur teaspoon baking-powder salt cl a teaspoon soda Steam ^ teaspoon to 4 hours BROWN BREAD STEAMED. . For graham bread take J yeast cake' and more moisture. \'. / cup quart of bread sponge.. reducing heat in 10 or minutes. . Turn in greased mold and steam last. cup sugar 1 i/ 2 cup molasses teaspoon soda 2 2 cups milk cup seedless raisin. When light put in greased pans. of graham. to 1 cup teaspoon salt and equal amounts of flour shortening..16 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING GRAHAM BREAD.

Beat well and turn in greased pans and let rise one hour before baking. rise. 2 • '> nips warm water salt cups Hour tablespoon 1 . RYE BREAD. brush top with white of egg and water. | eup lard Rye Hour to make a soft dough. and sour milk with soda dissolved in Stir in Hour. Let rise and bake in slow oven. cups Rye Hour warm water to make batter and let Cup dissolved yeast Stir well rise.BRLAD MA KIN (i AND BREAD BAKING 17 BROWN BREAD. BAKED. salt and graham and lastly the raisins dredged in Hour. Mould into loaves. Dough. . 1 cake dry yeast teaspoon sugar cup warm water 1 Y-2 Soak half hour Japong-e. ] 2 2 1 cup brown sugar eup molasses eup raisins cups sour milk cup flour 2 cups graham Hour salt 2 tablespoons shortening 1 teaspoon 2 1 2 teaspoons soda 1 effo- Work sugar. shortening and molasses together. Yeast. add it. :. knead thoroughly and hanLet dle dough roughly by striking or pounding with hands.. beaten egg.

stand half an hour. spoon or the hands but do not knead. 1 teaspoon Let salt and gradually flour enough to make stir a soft dough. Dissolve one cake dry yeast in V2 cup Luke warm Scald a water. 3 Add teaspoon sugar and let of milk. round or oval. kneading when knead dough becomes too stiff down and let rise again. Use a fork. then tie milk or water. rise. piece buttei of size an egg melted or softened. Salt. Roll lightly to 14 15 to 20 minutes. inch in thickness. fold. Mix dry ingredients and work in the shortening. Rolls. Eponge. Cut Flatten out the dough to about ^ inch in thickness. To the the sponge stir in 2 or 3 tablespoons sugar. use biscuit "cutter. bake gether. 2 cups flour V2 CLl 2 teaspoons $4 baking-powder P shortening cup milk or water. yeast and flour to pint make medium cover and let rise. brush tops lightly with melted butter and creas< tli rough center with back of knife.18 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING PARKER HOUSE ROLLS. ' BAKING POWDER BISCUITS. As quickly as possible place the soft dough on a floured hoard. about 20 minutes in quick oven. Dough. Bake . when eool add cup biatter. to with spoon. and press edges toPut in baking pan with space between. Let rise.

turn into a buttered tin. Pour the boiling water over the corn meal. Stir in flour enough to make medium hatter. 2 cups flour 2 eggs 1 19 2 2 1 eup milk rounding teaspoons baking-powder rounding teaspoons shortening rounding teaspoon sugar Beat the eggs well. Serve hot. eup Hour 2 eggs 1V< cup graham flour 2 1% h x CU P milk 2 heaping teaspoons baking-powder rounding teaspoons shortening cup sugar Sail Proceed as with muffins. now turn in the melted shortening. Fill pans half full. . L .BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING MUFFINS. Salt teaspoon soda Shortening Dissolve soda in a little water. MINNEAPOLIS JOHNNY CAKE. add sugar and pumpkin. SOUR MILK GEMS. Turn at once into gem irons or muffin pans that are well greased and smoking Bake 15 to 20 minutes. then stir in the mixed and sifted dry ingredients. 1 1 pint sour milk Flour. the beaten eggs and seasoning. GRAHAM 1 GEMS. which should be hot. hot. Beat briskly. cup flour cup boiled pumpkin nip sugar cup boiling water 1 1 1 scant teaspoon salt 1/2 4 teaspoon cinnamon teaspoons baking-powder or 2 eggs.i i •' . add milk. bake. or buttermilk may he used. stir until well mixed. flour sifted with the baking powder. 2 enps corn meal 1 1 eup sour milk scant teaspoon soda 1 . stir. Add to sour milk. Then the sour milk with soda dissolved in it.

and preparation. Your attention should not be should be of the best quality. adds a to its success. FOR CAKES WITHOUT BUTTER. cake. any used. fresh eggs. should now be added. . good baking-powder. if it ran be had. and then the fruit. Add Hour and fold if liquid alternately. The genera] with butter sugar. with never Two points essential in cake making. use a good grade of bread for bread. Add the flavoring and what liquid may be ing until used. and good brand of flavoring extracts. well beaten. are attention failure. spongy. flour. I'se fresh sweet butter. a Good housekeepers. and genera] baking purposes. beat well and add the flavoring beating briskly until creamy. Add sugar slowly. Hour in (mixed the is with baking-powder beaten several times. Sift extracts. beatBeat the yolks of eggs very light. The whites of eggs beaten to a froth folded in alternately with the Hour. lightly and salt) and when whites of egos.20 BRHAD MAKING AND BRKAD BAKING Pointers for Pastry For fancy cakes and pastry. and sifted several times. and when beaten light. use pastry flour. however. and the piecrust more flakey. which has been mixed with baking-powder arid salt. is ride for mixing a butter cake or any cake made as follows: ('ream the hotter. To be prepared the working utensils should The materials used in the cake be clean and within reach. gradually add the The yolks of eggs well beaten. Speed in stirring up a cake interrupted by any other work. the cake will be lighter.

To Test the Oven. a hot oven for baking cookies and layer cakes. pierce the center with a broom is comes out dry and (dean the cake done.i moderately heated oven light will scorch a piece of white paper brown in five minutes. a moderate oven for baking loaf. Sift once salt. pound.BREAD MAKING iND BREAD BAKJNG 21 Baling and Helps Have a moderate oven for baking sponge and angel cakes. before sift it then add baking- powder and and 2 or 3 times more. pound. A to . To splint. into bak- The batter should be spread evenly when turned ing tin. and fruit The pans for baking medium sized loaf cakes should be flour. test if il in baking a cake. greased and dusted with The pans should lie for lined with baking large loaf. and fruit cakes two or three thicknesses of greased paper. in five minutes. it A hot oven will scorch flour to a is dark brown measured. Have Have cakes. All measurements are level unless otherwise mentioned. .

1 butter iy — 2 2 tablespoons equals oz. y. flour oz..22 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Standard Measuring Cup 1 1 *1 eup flour equals A y i/£> cup sugar equals cup butter solid equals . sugar Level measurements. . .. 1 cuip liquid equals y -1 2 pound pound pound pound cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 liquid equals liquid equals yL > pint 2 gills liquid equals liquid equals wineglasses 16 tablespoons 1 1 4 saltspoons 2 equals teaspoon oz. liquid 3 teaspoons equals 3 tablespoons equals — tablespoon il 2 tablespoons equals 2 tablespoons equals - 1 1 oz.

flour i \/ 2 cup raisins eggs salt cup sugar V2 cup butter - 2 Nutmeg and Add some flour to sponge. sprinkle with sugar. . or make a sponge of 1 cake of dry yeast. when light work in cup sugar and i/o cup butter creamed together. Let rise. butter. cinnamon and a few bits of butter. a few gratings of nutmeg and a Flatten out in shallow baking tins and if liked. Let and bake. 1 23 quart bread sponge. or 1 pint water. add flour and knead let rise. brush top with melted butter and sprinkle with sugar and cin- namon : h't rise and bake. 1 pint sealded and eooled milk. when light flatten out in baking tins. and 2 or 3 .BBEAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING COFFEE CAKE. a teaspoon salt. raisins. ami other ingredients and flour enough to make a stiff dough by kneading. After rising. COFFEE CAKE. One quarl of bread sponge. '• i few raisins rise beaten eggs. stir in sugar.

flour to To V/2 pints scalded make a medium milk. ' L . DEUTCHER KAFFEE KUOHEN. cooled. and Let rise. 1 teaspoon sugar. . Have tins about 2 inches deep and till half full. Soak half hour. Dough. beat well. 10 to 15 minutes. and 4 Stir in ' Beat. Let rise. Yeast. cups sugar.24 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKI\<. Sponge. ^ cup butter creamed with \ /i 3 stiff batter. cup hike warm water. add dissolved yeast battel". 1 cake dry yeast. or 4 beaten eggs. 1 teaspoon salt. some flour. adding Hour to make a teaspoon nutmeg. currants and nutmeats. z/^ sprinkle top to 1 with sugar and cinnamon. and bake hour in moderate oven. mixed with about 2 cups combined raiL sins.

after and Bake on oven grate with moderate reduce heat.2 1 2 Ihs. Hour butter black walnut meats 1 • teaspoon ground cloves 1 currants citron 2 teaspoons V2 lb. 8 to Salt : juice of 3 oranges. butter 1/2 lb. raisins cinnamon baking-powder ground nutmegs 10 eggs teaspoon soda Juice 2 or 3 lemons. Cream Add ( ggs and the Hour sifted with the baking-powder. or run through a The citron may be sliced very thin food chopper. sugar 1 1 cup ciip New Orleans molasses 1 1 lb. 1 lb. 1 currants 2 / cup molasses lb. 1 lb.BRKAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 25 Cufa FRUIT CAKE. Fold in that the well beaten whites of eggs. Hour seeded raisins sultana raisins teaspoons baking-powdi teaspoon cinnamon teaspoon cloves 10 eggs the well beaten yolks of Stir in the 1 lb. 1 lb. molasses and spices. 11). one hour DARK FRUIT CAKE. has been buttered heat. .teaspoons . i 1 1 l 1 lb. sugar 1 cup black citron Aval nuts lb. fruit. add the orange juice. bake 3 to 4 hours in long. nar- row and deep aluminum pan floured. 134 1 lb. chopped dales the sugar and butter. lb. .

figs 2 teaspoons baking-powder Whites of (i or 8 eggs.cups Hour ! cup milk cups eoeoanut. flour 1 lb. 1/2 lb.26 BREAD ./. SILVER CAKE OR SEAFOAM CAKE. teaspoon cream tartar teaspoon soda 11 2 teaspoons vanilla 1 cup butter Yolks of eggs . Sultana raisins citron 2 cups black walnuts 2 .'2 lb. lb. 11). sugar butter 1 lb. 1 lb. of the eggs with the sugar. 2 ] cups powdered sugar 2 cups pastry flour 1 cup butter 1 cup corn starch Whites of six eggs cup milk 2 teaspoons 1 baking-powder teaspoon Almond extract GOLD CAKE OR SUNSHINE CAKE. also the butter the Hour. in when well this is done combine the two whites of the 10 eggs.MAKING AND BREAD BAKING LIGHT FRUIT CAKE. sugar butter 2 1/. 2 cups sugar I 2J 1 2 / cups flour cup milk V2. mixtures and fold flavor. 1 lb. 1 eggs (10) Almond Cream the yolks with part of of vanilla. 1 i. lb. the beaten Bake as a loaf. POUND CAKE.

SPONGE CAKE. beat well. 2 Halt. turn into buttered and heatin the ed pan. bake. yL > teaspoon cinnamon. Place in a cup one and one half tablespoons of corn starch. cup sugar as layer or loaf cake. Bake 1 This makes a nice spice cake by omitting. Beat and yolks of eggs separately.vanilla and adding o teaspoon ground cloves. combine the two mixtures. : > eggs 2 cups flour 2 1 cups sugar 2 teaspoons baking-powder teaspoon vanilla % Beat whites 1 cup hot water teaspoon salt. y2 teaspoon nutmeg. sugar gradually. When well beaten add the flavoring and the cup of hot water. 1 27 cup sour cream V2 teaspoon soda 1 D/2 cup flour 1 teaspoon vanilla esrsrs. beat until creamy. SPONGE CAKE Bea1 the yolks of four eggs. sift twice. stir in one teaspoon of lemon juice and a pinch of salt. Fold 1 in the well beaten whites of four cogs. 1 ! -j 1 rup sugar eup butter cup sour milk teaspoon soda l/o 1 1 teaspoon nutmeg teaspoon cinnamon L teaspoon cloves ' 4 1 j/4 cup sweet milk 2 teaspoons baking-powder cup black walnut meats chopped cups flour 2 .BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING SOUR CREAM CAKE. Bake about thirty ninnies SPICE CAKE. add three tablespoons water. then together. then the flour sifted with salt and baking-powder. Add one cup sugar. mixing quickly. one teaspoon baking-powder and till with flour.

seeded raisins lb. 2 citron. No. LAYER OR WHITE CAKE. Whites of 8 eggs cup milk 3 Voteaspoon lemon extract Vo teaspoon vanilla extract j 2 cups sugar •v. and beat well. citron and orange peel cut or chipped thin. .mated rind and juice of lemon. Like any fruit cake it is much better baked two or three weeks before used. stir alter- nately with the beaten whites. 1 butter flour i 1 teaspoon cinnamon teaspoon mace _. candied 8 to 10 eggs ' lb. Mix well and fold in the well beaten whites of the eggs. This may be baked in one or two oblong pans. three thicknesses of buttered paper. it mix bakin ing powder with flour and several times.28 BftEAD MAKING AM) BREAD BAKING WEDDING CAKE. and yolks of eggs with Combine the two mixtures. add milk and sift extracts. and dredge the small fruits that have been previously prepared. stirring always one way. orange or lemon. bleached Sultana raisins figs or dates 3 1 oranges (juice) lemon (juice and grated rind) o lb. Stir and add the chopped nut meats. 1 ll). lb. lb. candied Cream butter with part of sugar. 1. or 2 cups sugar 1 teaspoon nutmeg 1 1 lb.! cup butter cups flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 3 Cream sugar and butter. Bake in buttered and floured cake tin. . add orange juice. 2 cups blanched 1 1 currants almonds cup black walnut meats 1 1 1 lb. which should be lined with balance of sugar. and all the flour except part of a cup in which mix the spices.

A 1 very good birthday cake for children : may be made from his recipe 2 :: 1 : . seive 3 or 4 times and add to the creamed mixture with the milk. or if made in loaf cake. then more figs and nut meats as before. • sugar. sprinkle figs and black walnut meats. ingredients. then fold in the frothy whites of 3 eggs. tin should be about 2 /i> full. Add in milk slowly. 29 LAYER OR WHITE CAKE.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING No.powder ^ 1 cup butter cup milk vanilla 2U 5 eggs salt Cream butter and with baking powder. frail Bake or loaf. Good with banana or any BIRTHDAY CAKE. then Hour sifted layers Fold tilling the stiffly beaten whites of eggs in idding the flavoring.decorate with candies. 2. cup milk cup butter ("ream }/» teaspoon salt eggs 3 butter and sugar. . Frost with cream with chopped frosting. Bake in slow oven about 40 minutes. 3 2 cups sugar cups flour teaspoons baking. then turn in layer of batter. stir well. Bake tin as layer cake. mix the dry. cups sugar cups flour 1 heaping teaspoon baking powder tablespoon ground mace 1 4 2 />. Add yolks well beaten. turn in more batter. line deep cake with buttered paper.

1 1 cup shortening eup water cup raisins Mix together sugar. shallow tins.. then the well beaten add some Hour after being sifted with baking powder.30 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING GINGER CAKES 1 1 1 cup brown sugar cup light New Orleans molasses cup sour cream teaspoon soda 1 teaspoon ginger 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon salt 1 i . with sab rat us dissolved in it. 3 1 . Add the water bot. ! 1 L . cup sugar eggs 1 2 2 :>. JELLY ROLL CAKE. shortening. stir in raisins and the well beaten eggs. cinnamon and salt. Spread eurranl jelly and GINGER BREAD. Add flour stirring until quite smooth. Bake in thin layers in large roll. cup milk cups flour teaspoons baking powder V2 cup butter eggs. cups Hour cup molasses ''Up 2 teaspoons ginger 1 1 :> teaspoon cinnamon teaspoon saleratus eggs Salt 2 1 blown sugar [. . Bake slowty. a Cream butler and slowly add sugar. then all is part of milk and flour alternately until stirred in. Beat wit! briskly. molasses. ginger. eup nut meats (or) rll 2 eggs 2 cups flour 1 p raisins Bake as drop calces or loaf cake.

Dissolve 2 teaspoons soda in 4 tablespoons of hot water. stir it into molasses. lard and seasoning. Beat 1 cui) butter. roll out quickly ami bake in a moderate oven. Stir in flour tins make in a stiff dough. a little salt. 1 teaspoon of ginger. 2 cups molasses 1 1 teaspoon soda H cup milk or water cup shortening Dissolve soda in a little 1 teaspoon salt Flour hot water. then stir in flour to make a stiff dough Cut and bake on floured tin in quick oven. 2 teaspoons of ground (doves and the grated rind to of a lemon out (if wanted). Add milk to above mixture with Stir it into 1 cup sour milk. 2 cups molasses until well mixed. roll thi'n.URKAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING GINGER COOKIES cup brown sugar cup New Orleans molasses 1 cup butter 2 eggs y<> cup milk 1 1 1 31 teaspoon soda teaspoon cinnamon 2 teaspoons ginger 1 1 2 teaspoon salt Hour to make a soft dough. Add milk. mix. . kept These cookies will keep nicely for week a stone crock. Bake in floured a in it moderate oven. */£ cup sugar. MOLASSES COOKIES. GINGER COOKIES.

1 V A 1 cup sugar cup butter teaspoon cloves ' 1 1 2 cups flour eggs. beating well. cup molasses cup shortening cup milk (<tl 1 ] teaspoon salt teaspoon soda teaspoon cloves 1 P sugar 3 cups flour 1 2 teaspoons 3 cinnamon eggs raisins. 1 1 % -/•2. . and last the eggs that have been well beaten. Cream the butter then add MOLASSES CAKE. Stir in seasoning. sugar and shortening. salt 2 ] teaspoon cinnamon 1 heaping cup of nut meats ami raisins chopped. Then molasses with soda that has been dissolved in a little hot water. chopped dates. Bake in quick oven.32 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING SUGAR COOKIES. heaping cup Heal milk. or in place of raisins. ROCKS. 1/4 cups sugar 1 y2 1 teaspoon baking-powder teaspoon vanilla 1 2 cup butter cup milk eggs 14 teaspoon salt Flour the sugar and the well beaten eggs and the other ingredients. next the flour with raisins. Sift in Hour enough to make a dough to roll out. Bake 30 to 40 minutes in ordinary oblong baking tin.

and add the sugar and beat very Sift in the flour while heating steadily. eup grated eheese and yolk of 1 egg.to 3 cups flour to make a soft dough. tablespoon of melted shortening . dash of peprika. a small spoon on buttered tin and bake moderat CHEESE CAKES. the edges together. cup sugar eup sour milk flour sail 1 1 1 egg teaspoon soda 1 nutmeg . 1 1 33 cup powdered sugar 2 eggs 1 eup flour teaspoon baking powder Heat the eggs well Vanilla Pinch of salt light. Put a into in heaping sprinkle full the center of a each piece of crust.KREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING SUGAR CAKES. Drop from oven. . and DOUGHNUTS. -t tablespoons melted Lard. and 2 heaping tablespoons grated cheese. 1 a little water. Bake until browned. few bits of butter. Lay on the upper crust pressing moisten the edges of crust. add a. cut 1 Roll filling nut and by mixing teaspoon with a Make a any shape or size desired. a little salt cup Hour. Mix add as for pie crust. the sour milk has no cream) stir in the milk with seasoning and 2 1/. Add flavoring in if desired. to moisten.Mix lit' sugar and egg.

. stir in mix and sift tlu. the heat is aboul right for the well beaten egg . . roll out in sheet about one-third of an inch in thickness and cut as desired.baking-powder and flour and stir in the Hour or enough to make a soft dough. Cream the sugar and melted butter nutmeg. 1 cup sugar cup milk 3 cups flour 1 egg 1 2 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons 1/9 baking powder teaspoon grated nutmeg in a mixing howl.34 BREAD MAKING AND BRKAD BAKING DOUGHNUTS. — frying doughnuts. then the milk . Have lard for frying at the right temperature. drop a small piece of bread in the frying fat. it should not he smoking hot. and if it browns in % of a minute.salt.

flour. cup milk cup cream teaspoon vanilla Mix sugar. stir in balance of sugar mixed with corn starch. pinch salt 1 salt. boiler 10 minutes. part of sugar. Beat a few minutes.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 35 Cake Fillings CREAM and FILLING. Add egg. Spread sweetened and flavored whipped cream between the layers of cake and on top. adding sliced bananas. boil 10 minutes. WHIPPED CREAM AND BANANA FILLING. and butter. Frostings 1 1 cup sugar tablespoon Hour 1 1/2 2 eggs. 1 egg teaspoon butter 1 tablespoon cornstarch -Juice and grated rind of V2 lemon. light. well beaten. Add the dry ingredients and cook in double a Remove from heat and beat Beating will make it few minutes adding the vanilla. and Stir the well beaten eggs into milk and cream. lemon juice and grated rind in double boiler and heat to boiling point. LEMON cup sugar yi cup water y$ 1 FILLING. . Put water.

soft ball when ORANGE }i 1 FILLING. figs 1 1 cup sugar teaspoon vanilla IVo cups water Chop figs fine and cook in water until tender. with water combined to make a scant cupful.36 BRKAJ) MAKING AND BRKA1) BAKING ' j FIG FILLING. Add stir sugar in the CARAMEL 2 cups light FILLING. Oook until and add the mixture and butter to smooth and thick. it will form a Spread warm. 1 lb. filling This can be used for and frosting. stir it into milk. . and cook until of the right consistency to spread. Make like lemon filling. Now melt the chocolate in a double boiler it. CHOCOLATE FILLING. 1 brown sugar tablespoon butter ^2 cup milk Mix ingredients and a little is boil until dropped in cold water. :^ squares Bakers chocolate 1 1 1 teaspoon butter iy cups powdered sugar 2 4 egg teaspoon vanilla. BANANA FILLING. tablespoons milk Beat yolk. vanilla. add sugar. Add vanilla and let cool. filling Spread the layers with '-ream and add sliced banana. I 1 cup sugar tablespoon cornstarch Juice of 1 egg teaspoon butter orange and V* lemon.

powdered sugar to in make a Spread with a tablespoon of vanilla added. it place over slow heat. between layers and on top of rake.1 cup sugar 4 tablespoons water White Flavor 1 egg Dissolve sugar in water and boil until the soft ball stage. soft paste. . stir until begins Add flavoring and stir or beat until frosting is becomes creamy. filling CREAM FROSTING. Spread on the cold cake. boil until in forms a soft light when dropped water. boil five minutes. BOILED ICING. BOILED FROSTING. . . 1 cup granulated sugar. 2 table spoons Karo V2 12 teaspoon drops to o tablespoons water % teaspoon almond it Add ball the sugar to water.BREAD MAKING 1ND BREAD BAKING BANANA-CREAM Four tablespoons cream. add flavoring.stir 37 FILLING. Lemon Mix sugar and cream. beating briskly. with sliced bananas. 5 tablespoons cream. beating briskly and add flavoring. or almond flavoring. to boil. Turn syrup slowly on the beaten white of egg. fake must be quite warm when spread on. turn in slowly the light beaten white of egg. ami Karo. White 1 cup sugar 1 egg vanilla.

Divide dough and roll out one half inch in thickness. make a thickening of the flour and one pint of milk. add yolks to pint of cream and turn it into custard. 2 cups flour 2 teaspoon l baking powder cup shortening }i cup milk ¥4 teaspoon salt dry ingredients. Beat eggs separately. roll out other dough and place on top of first. . Bake layer sticking. 2 quarts milk 3 cups sugar 4 eggs 5 lemons Beat eggs separately. then the vanilla and the beaten Avhites. add part of sugar to the yolks and beat more.3S BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE. in quick oven. Now add the Lemon juice and finish freezing-. 2 quarts millk 1 pint cream K. tablespoon vanilla 3 cups sugar Put three pints of milk in double boiler and heat. add shortening which should be part and the milk. Turn all into gallon freezer and freeze LEMON SHERBET.cup flour x/ 4 to 6 eggs ] 2 teaspoon salt . Turn freezer and freeze until it begins to thicken. dot liberally with butter. . Before straAvberries are added. VANILLA ICE CREAM. add salt and turn it into heated milk in double boiler. Serve warm. turning it in milk with rest of sugar and stir in the beaten AA'hites. Place in large flat pan and butter the top which is to prevent upper Sift butter. Stir in sugar and let cool. Mix as for baking powder biscuits. Replace upper crust and spread it Avith fruit same as lower pairt. When done raise upper crust carefully and spread lower portion with crushed and sweetened strawberries. stir and cook 20 to 30 minutes.

out pressing . cup currants. Now add flour sifted with baking-powder and seasoning. the cover must not be raised during iy% hours of steaming. 4 beaten eggs. which with the suet may be run through S food chopper. 1 pound equal parts of candied citron. 4 eggs. milk and bread crumbs. iy cups 2 milk. (generous measure of brown sugar) and the fruit. 1 % 1 1 teaspoon cinnamon. y-2 pound suet. 2 teaspoon cup sugar. SUET PUDDING. To finish add 1 cup flour. and [loured. lemon and orange peel. Y2 teaspoon cloves. '4 lb. Bea1 eggs. 1 cup seeded raisins chopped and 1 cup Sultana raisins. 2 cups crumbed dry bread. and suet that has been measured with- down in eup. raisins 2 cups bread 1 crumbs '4 lb. 1 citron cherries 2 2 I 1 eup sugar cup nn + meats cup milk cup brown sugar cnp flour teaspoon cinnamon teaspoons salt '-teaspoon cloves 2 -\ 1 1 teaspoons baking-powder. the juice of 2 lemons with grated rind may be added. a little After mixing well. 1 it y are mixed and kept in a cool place for several days before is made. Steam constantly four hours. add sugar. 1 cup suet 1 lb. The pudding will have a finer flavor if the above ingredient? cup brown sugar. the first of the Steam about 4 hours. or blanched almonds chopped. cup black walnuts. washed.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING" 39 Puddings ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING. :: nutmeg.

1 quart milk 1 vgg _. 2 quarts scalded 2 :! i milk U> 1 •' . cup sugar cup corn meal cup cold milk cup flour cup molasses cup raisins teaspoons salt 2 -teaspoon each Ginger and cinnamon. Do not remove the cover during the hours of cooking. iSlteam steadily first . Then stir in cup cold milk. Serve with lemon sauce. 1^4 cups brown sugar may be substituted for the ' 4 cup molassesi and "% cup sugar. CORN MEAL PUDDING. stirring steadily. 2 2 teaspoons salt and ]/\. Boil 10 to 15 minutes on range. Let cool stir in seasonings.40 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD. Bring milk to boiling point. Serve with lemon sauce or whipped cream. stir in corn meal. Hour and baking-powder • ! last. two quarts scalded milk one cup coin meal. so as not to scorch. ] teaspoon ginger '- 2 teaspoon cloves salt cup sugar A cup raisins 1 Cup suet j> | iy teaspoon 2 1 teaspoon baking-powder Juice of ^ lemon and ' cup molasses the grated rind. . bake Stir into 1 ' _. the ginger and einnaanon. Turn into a buttered pan and bake one hour. With two well beaten eggs. y2 1 1 cup corn meal cup Hour . or boil 20 minutes in double boiler.BAKING INDIAN PUDDING. cup molasses and J/2 cup Hour. bring to boiling point. To this mixture add the cornmeal batter and stir until smooth.2 hours or more. 1 ' to 2 hours longer. add ^ CU P sugar. suet and other ingredients. eggs 1 1 L . cup Sultana raisins.

Cream butter and beat light. each of seeded raisins and Sultana raisins. J Vz 1/2 2 1 cup sugar cup butter cups rhubarb eup bread crumbs ' j 1 cup cocoanut teaspoon lemon 1 4 eggs Grated rind of lemon. the major portion to be blanched almonds and black walnuts. cracker or calve crumbs.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 41 RHUBARB PUDDING. V2 lb.") BETTY. FRUIT PUDDING. BROWN . in Place ai layer of crumbs a buttered dish. Crumb a pound of dry bread. Wash Vi> lb. sugar. Mix in V2 enp melted butter. with some pistashio nuts and pine kernels. and chop fine 5 medium mix melted butter with bread crumbs and spices. a teaspoon of salt and 4 or 5 weU beaten Steam as a plum pudding. core 1 1/2 t> Water. . the grated rind of a lemon. 1 scant cup of chopped candied or preserved cherries. Fold iu the beaten whites of 4 eggs. apples. '. two cups stewed rhubarb. Wash lb. the cocoanut and lemon extract. the grated of a lemon may be added also. of mixed nut meats chopped. Steam 2 to 2) i hours. minutes with pan covered part of time. eggs % . rm d Bake in slow oven 30 to 40 Serve with any sauce. tben another layer of crumbs. citron chopped fine or ground.currants. then a layer of apples with part of the sugar sprinkled over.)<\(\ beaten yolks of four eggs and Stir in one eup of bread. Add 2 1/i> cups sugar and juice of 3 lemons and stir. and chop 1 lb. ! j apples teaspoon nutmeg teaspoon cinnamon lemon. sized apples: 3 1 cups bread crumbs cup sugar tablespoons melted butter Peel. Serve with lemon sauce. sugar and finish with a layer of crumbs on top. Turn lemon juice over top with a few tablespoons of water to moisten.

Stir in the boiled rice and bake three-fourth hour in moderate oven. cups Hour. NEST. ples. Serve cold with whipped cream. Ileal one quart milk in a double boiler. one teaspoon ' two teaspoons baking- Mix and seive twice. if you wish. add to them one cup sugar and beat well. . when hot stir in cup minute tapioca and a teaspoon salt. cook 10 minutes. Boil one cup rice. a little salt. some butter and a little grated Pour in the batter and spread evenly over apples nutmeg. teaspoon vanilla. One half cup each coeoanut and raisins. Serve with sauce or cream. Have prepared six ap- peeled. Rub in a piece of butter size of Stir in milk to make a stiff batter or soft dough. salt. cook until clear. Add one cup tapioca and a teaspoon salt to a generous quart stir in of hot water. half teaspoon vanilla and a little melted butter. APPLE TAPIOCA. TAPIOCA PUDDING.42 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKINC CROWS Two powder. when done turn into cooked tapioca. Beat three eggs. walnut. Beat three eggs. Serve with lemon saiice. Serve hot or cold witb sweetened RICE PUDDING. remove from heat. over which has been sprinkled a cup of sugar. Have baking tin ready half filled with sliced apples. Stir in one cup of milk. little quartered and cooked with 1 to and as dish water as will alternately with the iy cups sugar 2 cook them. add one cup sugar and beat more turn the beaten eggs into the cooked tapioca and stir well add1 ing one cream. remove from stove and one cup sugar and a teaspoon vanilla. Bake in quick oven.

add 3 tablespoons powdered sugar and one-half tea1 . . 1 4 diced apples 1 ( "ook prunes quite rich. TUTTI FRUITI SALAD. 1 cup dates. slice bananas.cups stewed prunes sweetened cup pineapple diced 2 dozen marsh mallows quartered I 1 1 cup orange pint whipped cream. uDOii vanilla. Dice with the the pineapple. 1 cup pineapple. 3 bananas. rwo or three pieces Serve with whipped cream prepared as follows: Whip one pint of cream. Pom. when l -> cold pit and quarter them. cup candied cherries. Serve with a salad dressing and whipped cream. Then add to cup powdered sugar. and if fresh. Cut apples in small pieces. 3 or 4 nicely ripened bananas. T or /_> fi be added. or not. and let stand the prunes with the marshmallows . and sprinkle with about an hour.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 43 Fruit Salads FRUIT SALAD.one-half of cream over salad and mix: the balance oi cream to be used by placing a spoonful on each individual dish of salad as it is served. Six apples. 2 cups dates. or if served in salad bowl spread whipped cream over fruit. wash. pit and cut dates in Any other fruit may be added if desired. 3 oranges. place in a bowl diced orange. V2 up chopped cocoanut may 4 apples. APPLE SALAD. all cut in small pieces or diced. 'A: cup chopped black walnut meats.

black WHIPPED CREAM One pint sweet cream whipped stiff. and balance spread over top. place a spoonful on each serving. Sweeten to taste. A half cup of nut meats walnuts or pecans are best. Pineapple may be omitted or substitute some other fruit. may and diced apples be added if liked. Mix in part of whipped cream. 2 Stir in 1 tablespoon . powdered sugar and y teaspoon vanilla.44 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING last. if served individually. or.

Add flour.3 Pies PIE CRUST This recipe will make upper and lower cups of unsifted of crusts for three pies. add two-third cup of lard and mix thoroughly with a fork. One sift cuip lard. Mix and sift 2 cups flour. Add two-third cuip cold water and mix and bring dough to- gether with fork. cover the paste just made with a napkin and place in the refrigerator or a cool place to chill: this can be done very conveniently while the filling is being prepared. AND BREAD BAKING 4. three one-half teaspoon twice. mix dry ingredients and shortening. mix thoroughly by rubbing briskly — between the hands and fingers. do not press the dough together or the tendency will be to toughen the crust. Place on an evenly floured board and roll out very thin. two teaspoons salt. ( - teaspoor baking-powder into mixing bowl. To further add to the flakiness of the crust. folding one end over to the center of the sheet. Xow make one fold the other way. Roll out on a board that has been floured Add water to remainder of dough as soon as needed. To roll foe the pi*' tins. PIE CRUST. slightly. and you will have four folds or layers: this adds to making the crust flakey. 1 ' ^ teaspoons salt. take the cooled paste . now work lightly and briskly between tlic hands until it looks mealy. then fold the long way. then bring the other mid over in and meet the center.BREAD MAKIM. baking-powder. Bring a portion of the dough to one side of bowl and moisten with cold water.

t Two . PIE. a pie crust with sliced apples a full. cups of boiled seedless raisins. and the hands use no more than necessary. or sift and eight or ten whole cloves for seasoning. mix well. Avoid mixing. the lard and flour chilled and water ice cold.46 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING in pieces according to the number of crusts desired. All ingredients and utensils used in making pie crust should be as cold as possible. stewed PIE. fiour. Put raisins in crust. teaspoon of butter. RAISIN PIE eup sugar with heaping teaspoon of flour. :. butter to suit taste. Mix nil and bake with two crusts. and butter. pic (Must barely full of pitted sour cherries. Bake 30 Moisten edges with water. add lemon. reducing heat after 12 to 15 minutes. APPLE Kill PIE. juice and rind of one lemon. and a lump of butter.scraps with the fresh paste. 1 cup of boiled Sultana raisins. add bits 01 little heat after 12 to 15 minutes. for a medium sized pie. CHERRY Fill a. and cut and roll. MOCK CHERRY One cup of cranberries. V/ cups sugar. Cover with upper crust and bake for 30 to 40 minutes in hot oven. 2 rounding teaspoons of flour. and bits of butter. IV2 CU P S sugar. spread on sugar. and add upper crust. 1 heaping A teaspoon of flour mixed with sugar. reducing more than level add a heaping over the apples. The mixing bow] should be cold. sifted with the sugar into The pie. and worked through a colander. take a cup of sugar*. juice and grated rind. cover with nipper crust. and to 40 minutes in hot overt.

bits of butter. that have been mixed and sifted twice. beat well. well heated in put hot oven at once.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 47 LEMON Filling for PIE. Now heal the whites of the four eggs that you have left and add them to the filling. bake . two of one. in all and seasoned fill pie crust. mince meat has been heat. level full. stir in gradually 1 cup of sugar. and turn into unbaked crusts and bake in a pies. MINCE Take mince meat if PIE. Bake in moderate oven. and few When crust. add this to mixture and turn into double-boiler. sufficient to If fill a. stir in six tablespoons of lemon juice. LEMON PIE. pie tin. and Turn into a. y$ cup melted butter. jelly or liquid from any sweet pickle without onwn. Beat yolks of three eggs. put in sauce a pan amount required. then add a small lump of butter. nee<-tfsairy. pinch of salt. begins to brown. add to this mixture two cups sugar and four tablespoons of flour. and use the whites of 3 eggs for frosting. baked crust. stir steadily and pour in 1*4 cups of hot water boil about 5 minutes. When it is well beaten. Use the yolks of five eggs and white add one cup of milk. dissolve 1 tablespoon of starch in a i\ little cold water. fresh made. quick oven. made some moisten ii time. lined with pie paste or crust. the juice of 1 lemon with a little of the grated rind. a pinch of salt. add upper Reduce heat as soon as crust 30 minutes. use cider.

beat light. Kill < baked crust and spread the whites over smoothly. CHOCOLATE PIE. adding cup of fresh grated or shredded cocoannt. butter and Moisten cornstarch and whip in double boiler.4S BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CREAM 2 cups mill? 3 :: 1 PIE. add vanilla. 1 Pinch Beat eggs and sugar. into the hot ingredients. stirring constantly. Take the o salt and place yolks. eggs 1 i cup sugar Butter size of walnut Pinch of add milk. salt. Bake in an . also frost and bake as cream pie. vanilla and unbaked crust. ^ CUSTARD l" 2 1 PIE. teaspoon vanilla tablespoon cornstarch salt. Frost. brown arefully in hot oven. Boil 5 minutes. add milk. cups milk cup sugar :] eggs teaspoon vanilla salt. add ingredients cream pie. add a tablespoon of powdered sugar. Beat the three whites to stiff froth. COCOANUT PIE. sugar. Prepare the filling as for cream pie. as for Melt one square of chocolate in double boiler. sprinkle top with cocoanut and brown as cream pie.




















and the latter may be chopped. set on range. lb. Cold mince meat can be Sometimes more apples. through the food chopper. can be had. the apples. which is much better. It). brown sugar candied lemon 1 4 Hi. candied orange Boil the beef and season with salt run it and pepper while cooking. and lemon peel should be run through the food chopper. 11). sugar or moisture are Deeded. spices. A quantity can be made up and used will . Prepare and added to the mixture at orange juice. . oranges 1 currants 4 lemons i lb. best not to use lemon juice. The liquid from sweet peach. they should be chopped once. 2 1 lbs. it keep as long as the weather is cool.BREAD MAKING AM) BREAD BAKING 65 Mince Meats MTNCE MEAT. Mix all ingredients and add granu- lemon and lemon and orange Add brown sugar and lated sugar to sweeten. lb. scorch. Mix all together. pear or crabapple pickles is very good. Prepare the currants and raisins by washing well. orange. odds and ends in jelly can be used to In case vinegar is used in mince meat it is good advantage. lb. beef suet citron raisins 1 ] teaspoon cloves teaspoon cinnamon 1 1 1 lb. heated and added to when wanted. also the siiet unless it can 1)-' in chopped a chopping howl. The citron. cook one to no1 two hours. 1 seeded raisins seedless raisins 2 teaspoon salt '-teaspoon pepper peck apples ] 6 Hi. do as needed. Sugar Sweet eider . followed with the and the outside grating of a !'se sweet eider to moisten if it.

To one cup of idee. Drop rice slowly into water.66 HliKAl) MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Miscellaneous Cooking BOILED RICE. then is put back 1h" rice il kettle. with the possible exception of wheat. Jap head rice. which usually takes 25 minutes. have two quarts of water boiling and salted. and boil steadily until grains are soft. the north. . as the potato There are but few varieties or grades of rice in our markets. in southern states rice in is as commonly used. is When the water does not turn milky the rice be used in clean. rice is in done it may if be drained through a colander. or there not a great deal of water on set hack need not be drained. In is many countries. which should be kept boiling. rice is the chief article of food. a high grade. Rice should be washed it in several waters. Plenty of water should rice is cooking. are the kinds we use. to scrape loose any kernels that A' may hen begin to stick. and Carolina head rice. which will make a medium mess. Add cup of milk and on range to keep hot. More rice used than any other grain. with the cheaper grades. Do not stir the rice but try bottom of kettle with fork. Wild rice can also be had. il is used principally in soups. and must be boiling hot when the not in.

Allow meat to brown down before removing from kettle. while cloth and Prepare the turkey in the roaster and season with salt. kettle if you have one. BEEF POT ROAST. stuff the fowl. rub seasoning into flesh both with the dressing that should hasting it fast.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING ROAST TURKEY. 61 Put in usual way for roasting. TURKEY DRESSING. drying and flouring it. put in the meat and roast until a small onion on all sides: cul in two and add it to The roast with boiling water to cover. if more water is needed add some. drain and add the giblets to the moistened and cook until tender. with salt. with some butter and season to taste. turn off some and make brown gravy. set on range in a pan and per. when done remove from kettle and use grease for brown gravy. Put the giblets of the fowl through a meat chopper. season Soak a two quart pan of dry bread -rusts in cold water. using hands to inside and out. Fry and brown in butter 3 or 4 onions and add to the dressing. Cook until tender. Lift turkey from pan and if there is an abundance of urease. celery and sage. Prepare a five pound roast of the round. pepMix well. pepper and sage.\ hen well heated. . rump or shoulder iron by washing. Roast from 3 to 4 hours according to size and age of fowl. Close up the opening by stitching or covering witli a. set it on the <>f Use a round bottom tire with about four ounces suet cut in fine pieces. Lread. When browned suet is well fried out. . Stuff the fowl be prepared and ready. .

beeJ shank 2 1 3 to 6 tablespoons barley cups chopped cabbag cup chopped carrots cup chopped rutabaga or turnips 2 chopped onions. from a pot roast for brown gravy. 3 tablespoons sugar 1 teaspoon table mustard One onion Few dashes pepper size of walnut. cup is sufto % Have kettle with grease frying hot. add three cups cold water. Hew hours and skim. take ficient.MAKING AND BREAD BAKING BROWN GRAVY. cups Navy be'ans oz. a sieve. It there out some.68 BREAD . cabbage. bring to a SOUP. a Pew celery leaves may be added to flavor. I se the grease is more grease than needed. bake 6 to 8 hours or all .-. salt and pepScald two quarts of milk and add with a cup of cracker per. onions. rutabagas. 15 or 20 minutes before soup is done. VEGETABLE SOUP. 3 I. stir while browning. One 1 3 to 5 Lbs. carrot. etc. Season to taste. ingredients in Wash jar Fill beans. add two heaping ' _> tablespoons of Hour. crumbs to the tomato and serve. 1 teaspoon salt salt pork. l>oil pearled barley in separate water and add. jar with cold water. boil MINNEAPOLIS BAKED BEANS. Season a Cook soup bone with salt and pepper. cook and stir until well thickened. add vegetables time required for cooking varies in order named. and put them with all half gallon night. season with butter. turnips. CREAM TOMATO Strain one can tomatoes through soda. Add ' 4 teaspoon and skim.

cool. well perforated. and mix with the meat. add hot water as the beans become dry. When pour over the meat a cup or two of the thickened gravy. is A pound or two of stewed veal mixed with the chicken noticed. Halve 5 to 8 hours. Place an upper crust. Serve hot. lb. stew the chicken in plenty of water. from . 3 1 cups Navy beans 1 teaspoon table mustard 4 1 pork teaspoon ground mustard to l /2 lb. turn all in a pan to mold. CHICKEN . veal salt S'chives Salt 1 pork and pepper. in a baking- nan. cut a small quanty of schives in short lengths. Leave gravy and stir in a tablespoon of tiour to thicken. to 5 lbs.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 69 BAKED BEANS. Cook the meat and season while cooking. Slice cold. that has been lined with rich biscuit crust about one-third inch thick. When done take liquid. Warm the liquid that meat was cooked in and add it to the meat. . balance can be used for other purposes. little pepp< r. drain. drain and cover with cold water. on the meat pie and bake. PIE. Soak beans ove] night. but the difference in taste will hardly be PRESSED VEAL. Boi] one minute. 'remove bones and cut in small pieces. cheaper. or When cool remove meal from bones and place well tilled. salt 2 or 3 tablespoons sugar ] teaspoon salt. Put in half gallon jar with pork and seasonings. 'Pake chicken from kettle. there should be a quart more of gravy when done.$ lbs. cover with water.

beet' 1 lb. Serve hot. May be served hot 2 ! or cold. MEAT LOAF WITH TOMATO SAUCE. Bake two hours. salt 1 J/2 bread crumbs sail pork 1 teaspoon onion Pepper. not expensive. Add the well-beaten eggs and form tin' mixture into a loaf Turn in a little water. heaping tablespoon of Hour. and the chopped onion if desired. and will serve do/en adults. Prepare platter a meal Loaf. Moisten the bread crumbs in milk or water and add with the chopped onions to the meat. and add with the well beaten eggs to the meat and mix well.in BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING VEAL LOAF. and place in a roaster. and when baked. teaspoon salt Pepper Put meat through meat chopper. dissolved in one-half cup of water. adding one half cup milk to prevent the loaf being dry. 2 1 lb. 2 Lbs. stirring well from the bottom. . remove place. lb. to a hot and set in a warm the contents of a can of tomatoes through a sieve. and mix in the seasonings. and salt and pepper to taste. vea) '> eggs lb. Moisten the bread crumbs in milk. Pour sauce over the meal loaf. round steak fresh pork 3 eggs '1 teaspoon sage % dry bread. 1 lb. crumbed 3 medium sized onions Jh. Tins a is very fine. garnish with parsley. Work a Add Turn sauce into pan that meal was removed from and cook about ten minutes. Form into loaf and hake 2 / hours in roaster. MEAT LOAF. Put meal through a meal chopper and add seasoning.

sifted with 4 teaspoons baking powder and a little sail in it: and a tablespoon of butter with milk to make a dough that will drop from a tablespoon. season well with salt and pepper and generous piece of butter. and lay on hot platter. and lei simmer a little longer. and set it on to cook plenty after cooking some time. lit pieces. Split biscuits while hot and dip meal them into hoi gravy. veal or chicken are usually used with dumplings. in good veal slew. Then with a tablespoon cut the dough from the mixing bowl and drop into . make a thickening of two heaping tablespoons of flour dissolved in water. horn kettle to hot platter. Veal should cook 2% to When stew is done add two heaping tahlespoons flour 3 hours. FRICASSEED CHICKEN WITH BAKING POWDER BISCUITS. then pour a little hoi water on and roast Remove chicken from pan. STEW WITH BAKING POWDER pare of water. place on philter and serve al once. a BISCUITS. pour I over plenty of gravy. The dumplings should be prepared when meal is done. dip in he hot gravy Arrange chicken on same platter. make brown gravy until tender. Remove part of meal from keltic if necessary. minutes or half hour. chicken up small. salt. the breast and dip them in Hour. Remove dissolved in cold water. and pour over or serve separate.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 71 BROWN FRICASSEED < CHICKEN. STEW AND DUMPLINGS. Break biscuit in half. in in two every joint separate. Make a very soft dough with two cups flour. place in hot melted butter Let roast for 20 roaster. 15oil until tender. butter will not be needed un- Cut a less chicken is loan. the back in two pieces. pepper and one onion sliced. Season well with salt and pepper. Mutton. Serve at once.

and one or two sliced onions. turn into colander to drain one or two cups of cold water. spaghetti 1 pint oysters can corn tablespoons butter Salt 2 cups 1 broken crackers pint milk and pepper Boil spaghetti in it then pour over venl its usual way. then add cup hot water. a moisten with milk. season with salt and pepper inside and out. and left in salted water until used. basting frequently. which will pre- sticking together. SPAGHETTI AND OYSTERS. rubbing in seasoning well with the hands. Bake . finish as quickly as possible should oil 20 minutes without uncovering. according to size of fish. crackers any cold fish. Dot with few pieces of butter and hake moderately half an hour. If fish is lean. BAKED FISH. Serve hot on platter with meat. SCALLOPED Bone and rolled flake FISH. in dish. place in baking dish. Place whole fish in baking pan. Slew should be boiling when dumplings are put in and I. turn over fop cup . kettle. he more generous with butter in baking. adding some butter and seasoning.or two of white sauce and then bake. dip spoon in liquid each time sticking. in Fresh fish after being cleaned. should be washed thoroughly cold water slightly salted.7:> BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING which will prevent dough and cover. Re- move to hot platter just before serving. !/> 1 •'i lb. at once. butter and season to suit. alternate and fish. Add milk. and hake one or two hours longer. place with other ingredients in Layers. When baking drained.



package spaghetti



pork steak




can tomatoes

Break up the spaghetti in small pieces and drop into salted boiling water: there must be plenty of water, about 3 quarts, to prevent spaghetti from sticking together. Boil steady 30 minutes. Turn into a colander to drain, when drained, put into baking dish and add can of tomatoes. The best meat to use is round steak, and pork shoulder which should be run through a meat chopper. Mix, season with salt and pepper and fry until browned. Prepare medium sized onions, cut fine, season and fry until browned; add onions and meat to spaghetti. Add a little more salt and pepper and scant half teaspoon paprika. Bake onehalf hour; in case of baking dry add a small amount of hot water
This dish will serve 10 to 12 people.

Break one-half package of spaghetti into short pieces, and drop into boiling salted water. Boil 20 minutes, drain, turn into baking dish, add one-half can tomatoes and mix. butter the size of a walnut, a little salt and paprika. Bake 30 minutes in slow oven. One-half cup grated cheese,. with a small onion chopped Hue. may be added to this dish.


pound package







into boiling salted water, boil until soft, drain through a colandei
a cup or two of cold water over it. When drained put baking dish, add milk until nearly covered. Spread on about one-fourth pound grated cheese, some salt, butter and Bake in slow oven 30 to 40 minutes,. paprika to suit taste. covered part of time to prevent baking dry.

and turn



a package of creamettes the same as macaroni, cookabout 15 minutes, and place in baking dish, cover with 2 or cups of white sauce, and one cup grated cheese and season. Bake 30 to 45 minutes.




Prepare a can of red salmon by removing hones and skin; break in pieces suitable for serving and lay on a platter. For the gravy take a pint of milk, piece of butter the size of a walnut

more, and one heaping tablespoon of flour dissolved

in a little

Heat milk, add butter, thickening and seasoning, cook slowuntil thickened, and pour over salmon on platter, add a few dashes of paprika, serve hot.

Prepare can salmon on platter, se1 in oven to warm; braid one rounding tablespoon of flour and butter size of an egg, add boiling water (about l 1/. cups) stirtogether in sauce pan
ring steadily, boil a few minutes: the gravy should be spongy when done. Turn over salmon, serve hot.

Prepare a can of red salmon by removing bones and skin; or one and one-half pounds of fresh salmon, when cold, flake.


Butter baking dish and put

Layer of rolled crackers,

layer of flaked salmon, with pieces of butter
repeat with oilier layers until pan


and then and salt and pepper; add milk lo thoroughly



well to set

pan aside for


milk" if


a few minutes, and then add Bake slowly one hour.



pint oysters





egg Pepper and salt Crush crackers by rolling with rolling pin; place layer in baking dish, follow with layer of oysters and so on till all ingredients are used, add butter in small pieces, with seasoning, add milk to moisten well or cover ingredients. Bake until nicely


Butter size of



can sweet corn






Milk to moisten

Butter size of an egg Salt ami pepper.

Roll crackers, place ingredients in layers in baking pan, add











one can of coin
dissolved in a


stew pan. add one heaping teaspoon
' •_.





pinch of







pepper to cup of milk, boil a few


'•learned corn.



beans ami asparagus may he prepared like

cup lima beans over night. Boil until tender, drain, and cool with cold water and remove skins, put on to boil again in water to cove)'. Cook' about one-half hour, add one can corn, season with butter, pepper and salt and boil slowly a few minutes longer. Canned lima beans mav be used instead of dry ones.


Boil medium sized beets whole. mix and -€1! the tomato shells. VINEGAR SAUCE. broken in pieces. cook slowly a few minutes. Crumb amount of dry bread desired. some pepper. y2 1 cup vinegar cup hot water 1 % 2 teaspoons cup sugar Hour salt.76 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING STEWED TOMATOES. cut in small pieces. little Dissolve a tablespoon of flour in a with a half cup of milk. Moisten with the strained tomato. and about 2 cups of dry bread or crackers. tablespoon butter stir Mix flour and sugar and pinch of in the vinegar and cook until clear. stir and pour over sliced beets. add heaping teaspoon of sugar. chop some celery xcry tine. mix with bread crumbs. Cook until tender. CREAMED CARROTS. to this add some minced cooked meat of any kind. When done peel and slice and keep warm. BAKED STUFFED TOMATOES. BOILED BEETS. bake 30 minutes. Take one can of tomatoes or same amount of fresh ones. and place in stew pan and put on to heat. water and stir it pepper and butter. season with Cook slowly a few minutes longer. serve hot with vinegar sauce. pepper ami butter. Peel carrots as thin as possible. a Lump of butter tinsize of a walnut. Scrape out center of tomatoes carefully. season with salt. Add tablespoon butter and cup hot water. an opening in the stem ends of medium ripe saving piece cut out to be replaced for cover. . and place pulp in sieve and rub through. without cutting or bruising the skin. V2 teaspoon of salt. Cut neatly firm tomatoes. salt. wash and put on in to boil in hot water.

Bake a light brown. reason with and pepper and butter. season with sail and pepper water. turn melted butter and lemon juice over top. sprinkle with a pinch of sail. of one lemon. drain. BAKED SWEET POTATOES. Bake browned. peel and slice lengthwise.i Sprinkle with sugar. with rind add pinch of salt. piece of butter. and part of grated rind of lemon if liked. one for each when done. Place layer in buttered baking dish. Six sliced ripe bananas. mash well and serve. chopped celery and onion moistened with water. and free from and cut in thin strips or slices. . layer. When well salt done. put into dish and mash. eeling. juice of half a lemon. in three person pieces. salt and pepper. seasoned with butter. put on to boil in hot Cook until tender. 6 ~2 sweel potatoes tablespoons sugar 2 1 lemon. cup of sugar.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING STUFFED GREEN PEPPERS. drain and peel. Boil six salt is sufficient. butter. wash and cook without Serve hot. 2 tablespoons melted Place in baking dish with sugar between each. BAKED BANANAS. i 77 ut tops from green peppers. add until slightly small if lump liked. scrape out insides and soak a peppers in salted water for stuff few hours. medium sized smooth turnips. . Bake 10 minutes. MASHED RUTABAGA. Remove. juice 1 butter. of butter cut in pieces. rutabagas thai are round. and a Select toots: peel MASHED Select I TURNIPS. smooth. medium sized sweel potatoes. drain and with bread erwmbs and cold cooked meat minced.

Grind round steak in meat chopper. and add the meat.78 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CHILI CON CARNE. with four medium sized onions chopped fine. and milk enough to cover. This recipe will make a small mess. Noodles are are to Italians. salt. paprika and vinegar. Roll out very thin using no flour. NOODLES AND CHEESE. and fry brown in oneStrain one can of tomatoes. and cut very thin. butter. Use as many noodles as desired. Y2 1 round steak cup suet fat i tablespoon salt 1 1 4 onions teaspoon paprika tablespoon of vinegar can tomatoes 1 2y 2 cups water quart cooked brown beans half cup of suet fat. Stir and mix well. The dough should be rather dry or very stiff. ages and sold usually are Germans what macaroni and spaghetti the same way and put up in packby dealers. . Bake one-half hour. i1 /^ lb. and put them into stew pan. Two eggs or 4 yolks of eggs or 2 yolks with 2 tablespoons water mixed well with a teaspoon of salt. Add the water and brown or kidney beans and cook or simmer on slow fire one hour longer. Roll up the sheet of paste like a jelly roll. using the yolks give the noodles a nice color. pepper and a few cracker crumbs. Add flour slowly by sifting and mixing with spoon. add salt grated cheese. NOODLES. Cook about 15 or 20 minutes. using part water is for economy only. and the seasoning. Cook one-half to one hour on slow fire. Noodles can be made at home and to the in made much much better than factory made. When dough is quite stiff remove to floured moulding board and work in more flour.

season with salt and pepper. 2 tablespoons vinegar and 2 tablespoons of sugar. 70 Halve hard boiled eggs and remove the yolks and press them through a ricer or mash finely. (i boiled beets chopped fine 2 cups red cabbage chopped fine Butter the size of an egg melted. Mix enough salad dressing to make a paste. . Serve cold. Add a little butter and salt. SALMON SLAW. and stir in y cup of horse2 radish. BEET SLAW. EGGS AND CURRY SAUCE. 1 can salmon Y 2 teaspoon white pepper 1 1 chopped cabbage cup chopped celery qt. Serve on a loll nee leaf. Boil hard as a many eggs platter flat side as needed.BRKAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING DEVILED EGGS. pour around them eurry sauce and serve hot. qt. halve them and place on down. chopped cabbage cup chopped celery y2 cup vinegar 1 1 y2 Cream sugar teaspoon pepper U> teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons to moisten. Y2 teaspoon salt Use salad dressing to moisten CREAM SLAW. Refill the halved whites. pour over the beets and cabbage.

and to about two quarts add one small pimento and a small amount of chives -°ut tine. . Add salad dressing. add horseradish. BAKING POTATO SALAD. Mix dry ingredients and egg yolks in a bowl. RED SALAD. 1 quart \-c(\ cabbage 1 pint 1 MAYONNAISE DRESSING. pepper and cups salad dressing salt Small bunch of chives or fresh onion tops Slice cold potatoes and bits. if wanted. add a few drops of vinegar and stir until smooth.. Add salad dressing and seasoning in layers or mix. 1 1 small dozen boiled potatoes Bermuda onion 1 2 pimento. others a Dover beater. Shred sweet.. tender cabbage as fine as possible. a small onion. pepper and salt and mix. ( lemon juice as required until all is used. i teaspoon salt . chopped boiled beets Pepper and salt u glass horseradish Chop cabba'ge and beets separately. either way the stirring must be steady and constant add oil drop by drop to the mixture as it becomes thick add a few Jontinue si irring and adding oil and drops of lemon juice to thin. cut chives ur onion tops and the pimento cut in small pieces A few hard boiled eggs may be sliced and added if desired. teaspoon mustard cups olive oil A pinch pepper 2 tablespoons lemon juice or vinegar Have all utensils and ingredients as cold as possible. in small CA2BAGE SALAD. 2 yolks of eggs x ^2 1 ' :. . some favor a silver fork.80 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD.

add butter of eggs. halve small heads and quarter large ones as desired. Let stand all l an hour or two. Serve on individual plates with two tablespoons salad dressing on each. china dish. CHICKEN SALAD. cook minutes. . cup to > few dashes pepper. is Now drain and press out with the hands put hack in dish.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 81 CREAM SALAD DRESSING. a i possible. add about slightly. 1 SLICED CUCUMBERS (German Slice very thin 3 three -fourths Style). partly cool. /o 1 the brine thai ijream. and seasoning. five Add add sugar. 1 1 cup ream tablespoon flour i- 1 ] •_> teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons butter •'! teaspoon dry mustard tablespoons vinegar 2 Whites of Heat cream stir steadily. then the well beaten whites stir in when cool vinegar. at the waste Leaves from head lettuce. sprinkle on 1 tablespoon grown cucumbers. in eggs flour dissolved in water. put in a salt and mix well. •lis dressing can be used on fruit or vegetable salads. 3 cups 2 e cubed chicken ps cubed celery 12 ! :j 2 cup broken mil meals cups mayonnaise dressing chopped olives LETTUCE SALAD. double boiler. mix and turn on ablespoons vinegar.

-<j boiled potatoes !/> 1 can red salmon Bermuda onion Slice Small amount of chives chopped fine. adding slowly a cup of cold water or meat stock. Set on range in double boiler. fry soft in butter. SALMON SALAD. with a generous amount of dressing and finely cut chives sprinkled on top. add vinegar and beat more. '4 J 1 tablespoons mustard tablespoon sugar 1 CURRY SAUCE. This dressing will keep if kept in a coo] ' D/2 teaspoons mustard 2 teaspoons salt •_» l . add to fried onions. set the vinegaf slowly. Mix dry ingredients and add them nd heat well. stirring until it boils and thickens. Mix a tablespoon of flour. beating briskly until smooth. add about IV2 cups hot water. Salad dressing Place layer in salad dish.82 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING SALAD DRESSING. stir in butter and cool. turn in Add salt. . over a slow fire. stir and cook about five minutes. Spread over this part of salad dressing. dissolve mustard in water and add it. eup vinegar Pinch salt egg Mix mustard and sugar. mix and continue frying. TABLE MUSTARD. stir constantly until thickened. a pinch of ginger and a little salt. to thin stir in sweet cream. a teaspoon of curry powder. Cul two large onions fine. now another layer of potatoes and a layer of salmon. 6 eggs : > tablespoons sugar eup vinegar eup butter 1V2 cups hot water 1 tablespoon flour Bea1 eggs very light.4 i place. Add the egg and beat well. Remove from heat. finishing eold boiled potatoes. Dot liberally with flaked salmon. Do not mix.

Melt a piece of butter the floor. season with and pepper while cooking. butter size of teaspoon of Lemon extract. one-halt Beat egg lightly. a walnut. Cook in double boiler until clear. one egg. size of 1 when well blended.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 83 WHITE SAUCE. braid butter and sugar together. LEMON SAUCE. Water should be added at the last minute just before serving. add egg and extract and beat briskly. turn in salt 2 an egg. One cup of sugar. together. one cup hot water. 1 cup sugar "2 teaspoons cornstarch lVo cups water 1 lemon (juice) Mix sugar and cornstarch well pinch of salt. cups boiling water. . add juice of 1 lemon. It must not be allowed to cook any after water is added ! LEMON SAUCE. pour on l 1/. add tablespoon of cups cold milk and cook until smooth.

The following combinations make very good fillings for sandwiches. Chop or grind cold veal. then a layer of the filling leaf of lettuce. (hop leaf of lei olives Hue with a feAv nut meats if desired. NUT SANDWICHES. Warm and soften Blue Label cheese in a double boiler Spread sandwiches with butter then with the softened chees< A bat' of lettuce and a little minced pimento may be used if desired. mix with salad dressing and spread on buttered bread with leaf of lettuce. BLUE LABEL CHEESE SANDWICHES. OLIVES AND PIMENTO SANDWICHES. ('hop any kind of nut meats and mix with salad dressing to make with a a paste. Chopped olives and pickles with salad dressing. Butter the sandwich. add salad dressing and spread on buttered bread. Minced ham with salad dressing. Minced or ground beef with salad dressing. . with or without chopped pickles or pimentoes.84 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Sandwiches VEAL SANDWICHES. with minced pimento ami tuce.

using EGG WITH PIMENTO SANDWICHES. PEANUT SANDWICHES.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING RAISIN 85 AND NUT SANDWICHES. of raisins Chop about equal parts dressing. . To finely chopped peanuts. On the upper slice spread the plain salad dressing with a leaf of lettuce. add salad dressing to moisten. Grind or mash hard boiled eggs. add thick salad dressing and spread on buttered bread with leaf of lettuce. Spread the sandwiches. and nuts and add salad leaf of lettuce if desired. spread lower slice with mixture and minced pimento.

which should be beaten briskly all the time Let syrup chain from sauce pan freely without scraping: then add flavoring and if you wish some nut meats. '_' 1 cups sugar teaspoon vanilla ! /2 4 i/ cup corn syrup cup water ^\ 2 drops extraei almond 2 hil «*s of eggs cup of syrup water to make cup three-fourths full. Now with the assistance of some one the syrup should be added: taking the sauce pan by the handle. Beat steadily. which should be strictly fresh. heat slowly. stirring until sugar is entirely dissolved. black walnuts are best. 1 It should harden in a short ime. begin pouring syrup into the beaten whites. an indication of when it is beaten enough is when the candy begins to pull heavily on the fork. to a stiff froth on a platter or open china dish. BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKI. giving it your attention as the setting point comes very suddenly. turn in shallow buttered pan. thin sheet not more than one-third of an inch in thickness. Beat whites two eggs. then it should ball.«« . . BUTTER SCOTCH. hoi] steady without stirring a until spoonful dropped into -oh] water will form a soft to the half Add Remove from range but do not disturb syrup. of be turned quickly on a buttered tin. turn this with sugar into sauce pan. "_' A /4 ' cups sugar cup good molasses 1 Va CU P butter 1 cup water tablespoon vanilla Put ball all in kettle except vanilla. make a when cool break in pieces.\'(! Candy DIVINITY. boil briskly until the hard stage: add vanilla.

2 1 cups sugar cup milk and cream ( 1 1 square chocolate tablespoon butter of tartar ream of tartar Cook sugar and milk. do it vera pf. 2 cups light * 87 brown sugar Vanilla or ' - 2 tablespoons butter ' cup cream cup nutmeats flavor almond Pin sugar. and idler. cool on platter. With a damp cloth remove all sugar that In a granite sauce-pan. set over brisk and steady heat. shape Melted Chocolate: will turn gray. turn into bowl. let cool until will not burn to touch. a double-boiler. butter and cream in sauce pan. cream I. boiler: beat very slowly. but not after syrup begins to boil. When it begins to buttered tin. turn into buttered dish to harden. from heat.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING PANOCHE.. teaspoon cream tartar. put 4 cups cane granulated 4 cup boiling water. may stick to inside of sauce-pan! Boil until the soft ball stage. Put unsweetened chocolate into a double coating. cook to soft ball stage. stir until well dissolved. and stir while ball heating. take if from heat and beat. in any. cut when eold. then heal adding flavoring. add chocolate. stir steadily until creamy white. and . add the nut meats and flavoring. never to the scalding point or chocolate Keep lukewarm while . FUDGE. Fondant: ' i sugar. take •id Avoil snaking or moving the boiling syrup as it grains easily. CHOCOLATE CREAMS. as desired Creams: Soften fondant by heating in and coat with melted chocolate. cook to the soft thicken turn out stage.

which will take from six to twelve hours. Cook and make the same as maple fudge. . Coat with melted ehocolate.-. not very hard. using vanilla or almond Roll or form into any shapes desired. STUFFED DATES. Clean some good whole dates.-'ii Make an opening Fill in the side and remove the pit. flavoring to suit. add a teaspoon of butter and beat until creamy. MAPLE FUDGE. stirring until dissolved. Press opening opening with fondant that in date together and roll in fine gar. MAPLE CANDY. Coal with melted ehocolate. Uncooked Fondant: Mix equal amounts of whites oi eggs and water. add powdered sugar enough to make a fondant that will mold into any form or shape desired. Uncooked Fondant: Mix cup sweet cream with enough powdered sugar lo make a stiff paste. add half cup chopped cocoanut or a cup of black walnut meats. turn into buttered tins and mark off.) " 1 V4 cup black walnut cup water meat. place on waxed paper to harden. cook until the soft ball stage and remove from fire. 2 cups '•' \ maple sugar cup cream (1 lb. 2 cups cane granulated sugar '12 2 cups rich milk 1 '"P maple syrup or sugas teaspoon butter ( Vs CU P cocoa nut Put sugar. of each date is . milk and maple syrup or sugar into sauce-pan and heat. place on waxed 1 paper to harden. Use powdered sugar to prevent sticking to fingers.8S BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CHOCOLATE CREAMS.

cold water. .BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING MOLASSES CANDY. 1 89 cup sugar 1 cup best molasses Vi cup butter Boil until it will form a firm mass or ball when dropped into Cool and pull until light colored and creamy.

Pear pickles may he made the same as peach pickles. This pickle will keep much better if pu1 in Mason jars and sealed.ipples . quarts finely chopped cabbage cups finely cut celery quarl vinegar 4 green peppers 1 cup sugar i. this adds to the flavor of the pickles ami they keep better. put in jars. add mustard seed. Boil the 2 sugar and vinegar for about 10 minutes with 3 or 4 sticks of cinnamon and 2 tablespoons of cloves.90 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Pickles is large green tomatoes '2 and Catsup 1 1 PICCALILLI. Crab should he steamed slowly until skins are broken. tied in a muslin bag. put in muslin bag and drain over night. skim if necessary. boil vinegar with sugar a few minutes. For seven pounds of peaches peeled. take -IV2 pounds of sugar and iy pints of vinegar. SWEET PEAR PICKLES. then put them in jars and pour the syrup over them. Let cool. Time for boiling should lake at least one-half hour. SWEET CRAB APPLE PICKLES. then put fruit iido prepared syrup and boil slowly until tender. . SWEET PEACH \ l/2 to PICKLE. Now add the peaches. Remove peaches from syrup. pitted and halved.i blespoon mustard seed Chop tomatoes and peppers fine and mix V-^ cup salt. hod slowly until they are clear or a fork will pierce them easily. put into stone jar mixed with cabbage and celery. turn on syrup which can be drained off in a few days am! reheated and put back on the pickles. turn over the pickle. which may he strained if wanted clear. though care must he taken that they do not boil to pieces.

and slice very thin. Cook vinegar and sugar with stick cinnamon and cloves (tied in muslin bag). adding mustard seed and celery seed. 1 gallon strained tomatoes 8 tablespoons mustard 1 cup sugar tablespoons salt tablespoons white pepper 14 teaspoon red pepper 1 4 pint vinegar 2 Cook slowly until it thickens. but do not peel. boiling . boil down about one-half. cinnamon qts. Take out spice and balance of spices. CATSUP. 10 minutes. ripened tomatoes. SWEET TOMATO (i PICKLES. and turn while hot over the pickles. vinegar tomatoes and mix in a cup of salt. add to tomatoes and cook until cloves soft. let set over night. seasoning and boil 10 minutes longer. with sliced onions and sliced peppers. a few days. drain and press out the brine. put into jars in alternate layers. 10 medium green sliced tomatoes sized onions 4 sticks 2 I teaspoons cloves tablespoon mustard 2 red peppers 2 cups sugar 1 tablespoon celery seed 1 qt. 1 •") 91 peel? tomatoes 2 1 tablespoons sail large onions tablespoon whole closes tablespoon celery seed 1 cup sugar pint vinegar 1 1 1 V2 teaspoon paprika tablespoon pepper ("ut out stem ends and dark spots of firm. In a few days drain off the liquid and boil 30 min- Slice the Repeat 2 or 3 times at intervals of liquid about 10 minutes each time. peel the onions. strain and set on slow fire with and celery seed tied in loose muslin bag. vinegar.BREAD MAKING VND BREAD BAKING CATSUP. bag and seal in bottles or jars. Add sugar. Seal in bottles or jars. utes.

put in layer of cucumbers with head or two of dill. until container is full. cool. I )ne peek tomatoes not too ripe. Drain Boil for a few minutes two quarts over night in muslin bag. Three green peppers and add cup salt. cut in suitable pieces. and two bunches of celery chopped fine. Cover and set awav. cover with cold water and set over night. PICKLES. reheat and pour over pickles while hot. DILL PICKLES. vinegar with two pounds sugar. Drain off the brine and cook in fiesh water until tender. chop fine ^ over the mixture the cold sweetened vinegar. using a cup to two gallons of prepared rind. Put drained vegetables in two gallon jar. sprinkle with salt. After this syrup has cooked 10 minutes. use very sharp chopper. and remove the pink pulp from the inside. put in stone jar or crock. off brine. let cool. with 3 sticks cinnamon and a heaping teaspoon cloves tied in a muslin sack. Heat water to boiling point. seeded. heat to boiling point. put into jars. drain pickles. Pour seeded. In a day or two turn off syrup.water Dill and grape leaves Wash cucumbers. more grape leaves. It will be ready to use in a few days. Weight these down with a china plate turned upside down with weight on it. cover. cucumbers and dill. combine with rinds and cook slowly 10 minutes. pour oyer cucumbers until covered. In about a week. Medium 1 sized cucumbers pint salt. and turn back on WATERMELON Peel firm watermelon rinds. 2 to 2V2 gal. stir in salt and let cool. drain well. . then add a syrup made in the following proportions: 6 to 8 cups sugar to 3 to -i cups vinegar.!i2 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING TOMATO RELISH. add one ounce white mustard seed. place a layer of grape leaves in bottom of jar or keg. and lour onions.

1 tablespoon celery seed and 1 2 tablespoons mustard seed. 3 times at intervals of a Turn days. Drain and add 3 ounces of ground pep] v and 3 ounces of celery seed.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CHILI SAUCE. pul in sack and drain over night. add a Lump of alum size of a nutmeg. Put into jars. and cover with cold vinegar. til 100 small cucumbers in slices with peelings on. Cook slowly CHOW CHOW. 1 tablespoon pepper. 4 onions 6 | 1 ! 5 g] i cabbage en peppers medium cup salt sized bunch celery cucumbers hop vegetables. 1 peck green tomatoes lb. onions and red peppers. set aside for a few hours. Put 3 pints of cider vinegar into kettle and boil a few minutes with 2 or 3 cups brown sugar. and reheat the vinegar 2 or few OIL PICKLES. 2 or 3 hours. Sprinkle small with sail and let stand three hours. one pint of < oil. after seeding the peppers and tomatoes and peeling the cucumbers. Add vinegar. sugar and spices. _!4 93 large ripe tomatoes large onions '1 tablespoons sail 8 2 tablespoons 1 mustard seed 6 cups vinegar tablespoon cinnamon 4 cups sugar 2 cups celery cut fine 2 ' 1 1 teaspoon pepper teaspoon paprika medium sized red peppers teaspoon ground cloves into kettle with Chop tomatoes. then slice three pints of white onions in water. 3 ounces of mustard. mix in the salt. turn off onto vegetables boiling hot. put celery cut fine. . dissolve the alum in hot water.

If 5 to 10 gallons are to be made.ol pour over cucumbers that have been closely packed in a jar or keg. only a smaller size. leaves. These pickles do not keep very Ioul. remove the heart and shred with kraut cutter. There should he a jar or keg few gallons or more in every cellar. cup vinegar to 3 or 4 quarts of water. about an inch deep. using Prepare the cucumbers as for salt cucumber pickle-. Set in a cool place and in . then a layer of encum- bers. Remove outer leaves from cabbage and cut each head in two in center. do not bruise. Carefully pick cucumbers 3 to 4 inches in length. Place in the jar or keg a layer of wild grape leaves. Keep pickles weighted down and covered with brine. Everybody likes sauerkraut. alternating until jar is filled. fresh picked. Drop the shredded cabbage into the jar or keg as fast as it and when there are three or four inches sprinkle in a hand- . i to the water while freshening will make the pickles firm CUCUMBER PICKLES. boil and skim. soak in fresh water for a day or two.-. it is both healthy and. is cut.J or 4 weeks they will be ready for use. select a large jar.94 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING SALT CUCUMBER PICKLES. cutting the stem instead of breaking off the cucumbers. but if a keg or barrel is to be used. when co. If kraut of a is made without a cutter use a large sharp knife. cutting as fine as possible. changing lie water two or three times. To freshen. select one that has had cider (>]• vinegar in it and scald it out well. then cover all with brine. wash Make a brine that will bear an egg or potato. a teaspoon of powdered alum added and set in a cool place for a day. cut into the cabbage as far as the center and shred in that way. cover with a layer of grape made with one cup salt. % SAUERKRAUT. nourishing.

BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING ful of salt. 95 and tamp it well. so thai the brine will There will be plenty of brine if the shredded cabbage is properly tamped. it is handful or two of salt and tamp again. . If made in cold weather it is best to se1 the kraut in a moderately warm place for the first three weeks: then place in a cover it Always keep the kraul weighted at all times. . too until job is complete. when tamped enough the brine will begin to show. A little A salt pint to a pint and a half of salt will is sugar added improves is about the rule.i purpose use a stick three or Put in more cabbage. Repeat the flavor. down. unless too much salt is used or it is kept in too cold a place. with a square end. cool place. for this four inches in diameter. Kraut will be ready for use in about three weeks. but it will keep longer. there not enough salt will cure quickly but will not keep as long. it much if delay the kraut in curing.

vegetables is can. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Grade for ripeness. test joints and invert to cool. and tomatoes the least Canning sweet corn nade quite simple in the following: EXTRACTS FROM BULLETIN Canning Recipes. Place rubber and partially seal. some much higher temperature and for a longer time. 15 minutes under 5 -pounds of steam or 10 minutes in pressure cooker. proper must be the rule. Remove jars. in both the material to be canned. use silver spoons. sils in \n canning do not use tin or chipped enamel utencooking the fruit or vegetables. NO.96 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Canning In Fruits and Vegetables sterilization canning i'ruil and vegetables. articles to be canned. By sterilization is to 212° or the boiling a certain time. Dip in cold water. difficult of all Sweet corn to is considered the most difficult. 18 minutes in water-seal outfit. and the jars or con- meant to heat and kept at that heat for any bacteria or mold that may infest the tainers. remove skins. Sterilize 22 minutes in hot water hath. to kill poinl for water. forks and knives. TOMATOES. Fill with tomatoes only and add one level teaspoonful salt to each quart. Fruits generally are sterilized of which need boiling at a much quicker than vegetables. 521. pack whole. In preparing and handling. tighten covers. size. Scald to loosen skins. . and quality.

8 minutes in water-seal outfit. and 1 level teaspoonful salt. SWEET CORN (On the Cob). iy hours 2 in water-seal outfit. in jar without crushing. except cut from ear after blanching. 1 hour in water-seal. not in hot water. Blanch in boiling water 10 or 15 minutes. sound berries same day picked. plunge in cold water. PEAS— BEANS. alternating butts and tips. fresh. add just a little boiling water and 1 level teaspoonful of salt to each quart. partially tighten. Pour hot syrup over berries Sterilize 12 to minutes in hot water bath. place rubber and top. Process 180 to 240 minutes in hot water bath. (Pleat up for table use in steamer. Pack jars with boiling water. invert. 6 minutes under 5 pounds of steam. Remove jars.) ( - Place rubber and top. pour hot water over to cleanse. then partially tighten top. Proceed as above. according to ripeand freshness.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING STRAWBERRIES. 1 hour under 1 5 pounds of steam. Pack top. as above. 60 minutes under 5 pounds of steam. or 5 minutes in pressure cooker. adding 1 level teaspoonful salt to each pint. Cjiji 9. or 45 minutes in pressure cooker. or 40 minutes in pressure cooker. and eool. water boiled to medium thick. V2 hours in hot water bath. Hull (twist berries off hull). place in strainer. Pack. plunge in cold water.) ness. to each Process pint. size SWEET CORN Same and fill (Off the Cob). Place rubber and top and partially tighten. tighten covers. to 10 Blanch 5 Pack and add boiling water . minutes in boiling water. (Syrup: IV2 lt s sugar to 1 qt.

etc 180 15 8 40 6 3 10 90 30 '.98 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Turnips.. at 212o Minutes 214o Minutes more Minutes Apples. For altitude of 4. By following the general instrucand this time table. Pears. 521. Huckleberries Beets. you will have the information necessary for canning all kinds of fruit and vegetions of bulletin recipes.. Chicken. Okra 60 90 12 15 45 60 6 35 45 3 5 Blackberries Cherries. To be followed in the use of the four different types of porthome canners. Peaches 10 12 10 60 10 6 Corn (without acids) .. 25 60 240 15 10 35 60 45 250 15 180 10 40 5 . Beans. 75 60 Pineapple Raspberries 25 12 10 8 40 10 5 .000 feet or more above sea This is a supplement level. 20 15 15 10 12 6 6 Apricots 12 60 60 Asparagus Peas.. Beef Rhubarb 22 15 18 15 15 10 5 10 15 30 . whole or sliced. SteamWater-seal outfits pressure cooker 5 lbs.Minutes Pressure cooker 10 lbs. Time Table for Canning 1 .. 15 Sauerkraut Strawberries 50 12 50 8 40 6 25 5 Tomatoes Grape Juice Quince Pumpkin and Squash. . able to Farmers' Bulletin No... or Products to lie canned.. Plums. or more . 210 15 Grapes. add about 25% time to this schedule.. Home made lint water bath outfits tables.

Set jars with fruit on a wooden or wire rack in a boiler. skim and boil slowly 5 to 8 minutes. If bubbles should appear Boil 5 to 8 minutes after water begins to boil. seal. through the center the flat way. To wash strawberries. There usually is syrup enough to fill jars. currants. as they generally disappear in a day or two.sprinkle over them or dredge with one cup of sugar to two quarts of berries. Take the juice drained from berries. large tomatoes. and set back in boiler. slice Select firm. Take jars them with hot syrup. Raspberries. cut the halves into smaller pieces and drop into preserving kettle. and blackberries may be canned by the same method. add two cups sugar to each cup juice. and wash After strawberries are washed and drained. but do not crush them. pressing them down you put them without rubber rings. ripe. set on range and heat clowly. and preserves them in their own juice. after fruit cools. Scald and peel. boiler. stirring from the bottom. drain the juice from the seeds through a seive and add to the fruit in the kettle. the berries. with a teaspoon salt to each 3 or 4 pints of fruit. it should not be regarded as anything serious. pitted sour cherries. When not enough make a little syrup of sugar and water. take out and seal. and fill with water until jars are half sun- merged. or any other berry that is inclined to be gritty. place one-half in the palm of the hand and press by closing the hand gradually forcing the seeds out. CANNED STRAWBERRIES. if hull them place. with covers on loosely as Then somewhat fill fruit jars with in. use hands to remove them from the water to another pan. Let stand a few hours or over night in a cool again if necessary. sometimes more. boil 5 minutes. This method of canning keeps the berries whole. . fill from in the cans or jars. .BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 99 CANNED TOMATOES. place berries in a basin and cover well with water. then place them in a granite pan. which should be put in a bowl. you choose. and boil 5 to 10 minutes longer. heat slowly.

a piece at a time. which should be skimmed when necessary. core and rinse as quickly as con- venient as tender. Put them into preserving kettle. stir and heat slowly. CANNED PEACHES. add *4 teaspoon soda. one peck of plums. drop plums into this and heat slowly and skim. Add 6 cups sugar to 3 cups water in the preserving kettle. put in preserving kettle. peel. CANNED PLUMS. When to the seal. drain and drop in the hot syrup. using fork. filled s\ nip.100 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CANNED SOUR CHERRIES. To can plums use about 3 cups of sugar to 4 cups of fruit. Add more sugar. Remove from the hot syrup with into hot sterilized jars. strain and fill each jar with the hot syrup. a should not be enough can be quickly made with hot If there water and sugar. halve. boil 5 minutes. little the last jar. pit and dozen peaches. halve and 3 cups water. with cold water. fill a fork. Peel. cook slowly until into hot jars as quickly as possible. as the fruit heats the amount of syrup increases but gets thinner. Skim and seal in glass jars. CANNED PEARS. Make a syrup of 1 cup water to three cups sugar. add CU P °f sugar to each cup of cherries. and put syrup to v about % full. rinse them in cold water-. To bring out the flavor of peaches they should cook a syrup of 6 cups sugar to 3 Make 2% slowly. amount required. Simmer V2 to 1 hour. Cook slowly about 20 minutes. strain in and fill with boiling hot . till many pears as will cook in the syrup. As soon as plums begin to burst remove from stove and drain. fill seal. Wash when cool pit them or they may be canned whole. % Pit and cut cherries in two. heat -slowly to cover boiling point. Simmer !/2 to % hour.

. few cloves dropped in the syrup while the crab apples are cooking. fill jars with hot syrup Miid seal. In preparing crab apples to can remove the remains of blossoms. Use the same method in canning apricots as for peaches. improves the flavor they should be taken out A . leave stems on. little more sugar and a little less water for the syrup. cook very slowly so as keep the fruit as whole as possible. When cooked through. and wash. and may be pitted and halved. In the preserving kettle cups water. to make a syrup of 6 cups sugar to 3 After boiling 5 minutes drop in as much of the prepared fruit as will cook in the syrup. remove by stem and place in heated jars. before the fruit is put in the jars.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 101 CANNED APRICOTS. using a CANNED CRAB APPLES. or left whole. They may be peeled or canned with skins on.

Two CHERRY CONSERVE. one-fourth cup orange conserve. or pecan meats serve. One pint oi' pineapple. 2 cups pitted sour cherries 21/2 cups sugar cup Sultana raisins chopped Y2 cup black walnut meats chopped 1 orange (pulp and juice) 1 GRAPE CONSERVE. boil slowly for one hour or until syrup RHUBARB CONSERVE. or cherry juice. canned or fresh. one-half cup black walnut meats. canned pinestir. To two cups of seeded Concord grapes add a little cold water and boil until skins are tender. used. Add two and one-fourth cups sugar. Larger ones cut in two. add a little water.102 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Conserves PINEAPPLE CONSERVE. put all in sauce pan. slowly one hour or until thick. one-fourth cup of orange conif two cups sugar. one cup Sultana raisins. one-half to three-fourths cup of chopped black walnut. shredded or cut into small pieces. Boil slowly one hour or until thick. one cup of bleached Sultana raisins. sweetened with two cups sugar. butternut. is or one and one-half cups. one cup Sultana raisins. . apple thick. one-half cup chopped black walnut Boil meats. cnps stewed rhubarb. heat is slowly to boiling point. . one-fourth cup orange conserve.

Add pint of water to each pound of fruit. 8 oranges • ! lemons 2 grapefruit Select clear rind fruit. Black walnut meats may be added just before the cooking is finished. measure. Slice thin 6 oranges. 3 lemons and grapefruit. it jells or thickens. and let set over night. heat slowly to boiling point. and repeat put on to cook % % the cooking. ORANGE MARMALADE. Cook about 20 minutes. Boil slowly one hour or until thick. cut inch wide and inch long. drain and combine the two removing seeds and white tissue as far as possible. add two cups sugar. cups tomatoes that have been peeled. cook 20 minutes. ORANGE CONSERVE.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 103 TOMATO CONSERVE. skim and turn in the cooked rind. now cut up the peeled fruit three waters. drain. sealing wax. one-half teaspoon cinnamon. seeded and cut in small pieces. then add an equal amount of sugar and cook until Put in glasses and seal. make a very thick syrup. orange and lemon peel in pieces in cold water. if desired. lots. one cup Sultana raisins. slice off ends and peel carefully. measure and with an equal amount of sugar add it to the above and cook Put in glasses or fruit jars and cover with until thickened. one-half cup black walnut Two meats. cooking u. Prepare the grapefruit rinds in a similar way. . one-third cup orange conserve or lemon juice. and for each cup of rind take a cup of sugar.

core and quarter Tallman sweet apples. use about one dozen quince to one peck of apples. cover with water as quickly as possible. mix carefully and let simmer until of a rich. then set on to cook. peel. When a fork will easily pierce them. Remove quince from syrup. Peel. cook slowly an hour or two after sugar is added. deep. For quince and apple preserves.104 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING QUINCE APPLE PRESERVES. put in preserving kettle. . put in fruit jars and seal while hot. set back on range to simmer. put apples in and cook until tender. return quince to kettle. Add sugar enough to make a rich syrup. red color. core and cut quinces in eighths.

Mash well. a very difficult task in most cases. ing sunshine and Maying and freshly picked durPick from stems. boiling very slowly all the time. "While juice a pan. but do not a boil. slowly until heated thoroughly. use wooden masher and turn it into a jell bag to drain. let drain without pressing until stops dripping. and have it ready at the moment it is needed. place set in the % sugar in and . . Begin testing by taking a teaspoon of the juice and putting it into a saucer to cool if cooked enough it will start to congeal almost at once and while it is still warm. heating. if it does not set. let it heat slowly. Skim when necessary. stirring gently until sugar is dissolved. Heat Select currants that are half ripened warm weather if possible. heat slowly. say half a cup to each quart of fruit. is amount of cane granulated oven to heat. almost to the point of scorching. rather a little less than more. Add the hot sugar. skim carefully. but it gives a perfectly clear jelly. strain through a linen cloth If Measure juice and bestos sauce pan to boil. When ready for the glasses it can be strained again. Add a little water to keep fruit from scorching. Boil juice about 20 minutes. if a teaspoon is placed in the glass while jelly is poured in. test again allowing a minute or two between tests. they need not be hot to prevent breaking.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 105 Directions for Jelly CURRANT JELLY. wash and put into preserving kettle. When turning the hot jelly into the glasses. gas is and put used better have an in as- mat under sauce pan.

GOOSEBERRY JELLY. Use one-fourth currant and three-fourths strawberry juice. with three-fourths amount of sugar. when fruit begins to break open remove from range. Boil juice with three-fourths amount (or a little more) of cane granulated sugar. MINT JELLY. Just before cooking is finished drop in a sprig or 5 or 6 leaves of mint for mint flavor. . and proceed as with currant jelly. CURRANT STRAWBERRY JELLY. Prepare unripened gooseberries. put them into sauce pan.106 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CURRANT RASPBERRY JELLY. use one-third currant and two- thirds raspberry juice with three-fourths amount of sugar and proceed as with currant jelly. mash and put in jell bag to Strain juice through muslin and measure. selecting fruit that is* green or light colored skin. Proceed as with crabapple jelly. do not boil. is The coloring for looks only and can be omitted. Set on the range to heat slowly. put in sauce drain. heat au equal amount of sugar and proceed as with other jelly. pan and boil steadily. and 4 to 8 drops of vegetable green to each pint of jelly. Skim carefully. For currant raspberry jelly. add water until it can be seen rising in the pan under the fruit.

eook until soft: strain through fine colander. Turn into jelly moulds and let cool. boil slowly until fruit is quite soft. core that and cut out dark spots.n equal make a very nice amount of sugar. ot plum and erabapple juice Make as erabapple jelly. and cook as a marmalade or jelly. .BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CRABAPPLE JELLY. quarter. transcendent crabs are best for jelly. Set on to boil in water does not quite cover the fruit. using about three-fourths amount of sugar. and add an equal amount of sugar. PLUM CRABAPPLE JELLY. using a. Put cranberries on to cook in cold water to barely cover them. 107 Pull grown. which usually takes 20 minutes to half hour. i CRANBERRY MOULDS. Equal parts jelly. Proceed as with other jelly. turn in jell bag and drain. unripened.

results. . Mix and sift several times. 1. 4 ounces tartaric acid and 6 ounces corn starch. 2. BAKING POWDER NO. put in a pint fruit jar. 2. Cut fine one ounce of fresh vanilla beans. 1. put into jar or bottle and add one-half pint deodorized alcohol set ten days and it will be ready for use. VANILLA EXTRACT NO. Cut line 4 fresh vanilla beans. . cover for 2 weeks. stir or shake occasionally.108 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Baling Powder and Extracts BAKING POWDER NO. of tartar. gives good VANILLA EX. NO. and add V2 cup water and and set in warm place ] /> pint deodorized strong alcohol. 6 ounces bicarbonate of soda. use the usual amount in baking. One teaspoon soda and two teaspoons cream mixed and sifted well with eaieh two cups flour. dredge thoroughly with a heaping tablespoon of sugar.

put in a pint fruit jar with half cup deodorized strong alcohol. Tonka beans. stir. cover and Into another pint jar. to this mixture. Cut in small pieces the rinds of two lemons. half cup deodorized strong alcohol in and two drams of fresh oil of lemon. vanilla beans and one oz. This extract be used for all is 3. 2. use the usual amount of this extract. stir. four tablespoons water. sprinkle with salt and brown slightly in oven. let stand a few days. dredge in four oz. sugar. Pour boiling hot water over shelle almonds. strain the preparation from the other jar.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING VANILLA EXTRACT NO. LEMON EXTRACT NO. Cut fine one oz. and extract is ready for use. put set in a warm place for one week. water. . ' the juice of one-half lemon. drain and dry. drop into cold water for a few minutes. put in pan. put into a quart jar or bottle and turn on ten oz. deodorized alcohol. and can purposes. LEMON EXTRACT Put into a pint one ounce uil NO. to fill and add enough alcohol jar. BLANCHED ALMONDS. For salted almonds dredge blanched almonds in melted butter. let stand a minute or two and the skins can be peeled off. of lemon. 109 generally used at soda fountains. fruit jar one-half pint deodorized alcohol. then add one dram Vanillin and six oz. 1.

stir in milk or milk and water to make a thin batter. SOUR MILK. buckwheat flour with part white flour to (or milk and make a medium batter. add water. little corn meal mixed in flour makes the cakes much better. melt a rounding tablespoon of shortening and add batter just before baking. Do not turn cakes more than once while baking. Stir in pinch of soda.110 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Griddle Calces and Fritters GRIDDLE CAKES. but no yeast is needed. teaspoon salt and bake. To each cup of buttermilk or sour milk add one scant tea spoon soda (level measurement) dissolved in water. any batter is left over set it aside until evening. to batter. set over night and in the morning add pinch of soda. water). a teaspoon salt and if thinning is bake on hot griddle. dry yeast in half cup hike warm Stir into one pint of fresh milk.. stir well. . BUCKWHEAT Soak onedialf cake of CAKES. Sift together two cups flour. it frying hot to the GRIDDLE CAKES. until under side is sufficiently baked. do not turn cakes If necessary use milh. add salt and one or two beaten eggs. set away to rise until morning. When yeast cake is well soaked. two heaping teaspoons bakingpowder and one teaspoon salt. Stir in a little hot shortening just before baking. with teaspoon sugar. stir in flour A to make a thin batter. stir in flour and milk as the night before. stir in one or two beaten eggs.

Slice apples quite thin. serve hot. Make a batter after mixing and sifting the dry ingredients. turn in milk to make half full. if there is not a half cup of it. Drain the corn. stir it into Hour.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING HI Croquettes and Waffles CORN FRITTERS. 1 cup flour J 1 cup milk tablespoon shortening 2 eggs can corn. . drain and sprinkle with powdered sugar. stir oysters into batter and fry make in hot fat. turn liquid into cup. stir into fritter batter and fry in hot fat. Drain the oysters and parboil one minute. shortening and the eggs. !/2 teaspoon baking. and let drain the hatter as for corn fritters using half milk and half liquid drained from the oysters. care should be taken that fritters are cooked through. drain and serve hot. take from fat with wire spoon. Have fat frying hot. then the corn. cut dough with tablespoon and drop into fat. APPLE FRITTERS.powder Y2 teaspoon salt 1 OYSTER FRITTERS.

serve hot. into croquettes. cold chicken x /'-i teaspoon salt tablespoon butter pepper 2 eggs 2 teaspoons Hour VL' cap milk bread crumbs flour and sot on the range. a wire spoon instead fork. a little milk added to it. Shape in well beaten with forms about the size of a thumb.powder teaspoon salt 3 bananas 1/3 cup milk 2 teaspoons 2 tablespoons sugar *4 lemon juice 2 eggs Mix dry ingredients and sift: mash or rice the bananas and alternating with the milk. mix with the flour. and then roll in bread fat like or cracker crumbs. then the finely minced chicken and seasonings. A little finely chopped celery or onion juice may be added Mix butter and if liked. using hot. CHICKEN CROQUETTES. Use tablespoon and drop into hot fat: drain and sprinkle with powdered sugar. . Fry of in hot doughnuts. drain and serve VEAL CROQUETTES. Yx 1 lb. and the lightly beaten eggs. let cool and stir in one well beaten egg. dip into egg. stir in lemon juice. Veal Or any kind of cold meat may be made They are prepared like chicken croquettes.112 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING BANANA FRITTERS. when cooked stir in milk. 1 1 cup flour teaspoon baking.

stir in the milk with the beaten yolks. and fold in the beaten sift Mix and whites of the eggs. . 2 cups flour 1 113 lvj cups milk teaspoon baking. ly for griddle cakes.BKEAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING WAFFLES. added. Waffle irons should be hot and well greaased. then the melted shortening. The batter for waffles should be a little thinner than usualand should be well beaten when milk is Serve hot with syrup. dry ingredients.powder teaspoon salt 3 eggs V2 2 tablespoons shortening.

a beef tea. — . . and brown. and stewed fowl. made from beef. sometimes nut meats are added. To stew meat with vegetables. until it jellies. roasted. Meat covered with a mixture and baked or Canning Fruits. in desired shapes and fried in hot butter or other Fondant — The body or foundation of most cream candies sugar and water boiled by prescribed rules. preparitory for the final roasting or stewing. combination of fruits cooked with an equal to the consistency of jelly. . cut suitable it is served with gravy.1. coated with eggs and bread crumbs and fried in deep .14 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING CULINARY TERMS Not Always Understood.Croutons —Pieces of bread cut fat. Bouilon —A clear soup. and then hake. or meat broth boiled — Minced meat etc. usually the pulp and cooked with an equal amount of sugar. A combination of fruits. Croquettes clear rich bouillon. vegetables and meats and sealed while hot in tin cans or glass Conserves — sterilized jars. fat. usually used for stuffing. Fricassee for serving. —A amount of sugar. or different kinds of meat small : . with flour. Forcemeat —Finely chopped meat. shaped into balls. by cooking. Consumme— A down. Braise— To dredge meat usually. — Chicken. rabbit or veal. Marmalade rinds.

sweetened Pot —Efcuit cooked Pourri —A stew of with an equal amount of sugar. or meat fried in very little fat. seasoned and usually sweetened. beaten to a and flavored. used for frosting pies. chopped as for . —A highly seasoned stew of meat. Frutti —A salad.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Meringue The whites of eggs. etc. used on meats. Puree —A . very sharp. soup. Preserves 115 — troth. combination of different kinds of fruit. puddings. Huffy omelet. similar to a pot — Fish Souffle — A Saute beaten light. Ragout pourri. baked or fried. light. Tartare Tutti — An uncooked sauce. made of the whites of eggs. thickened with the strained pulp of cooked vegetables usually beans or peas. different kinds of meat: sometimes includes vegetables.

apples were unknown there is nothing said to the Pilgrims. 22. or in what month it was held. and as the festivities extended over a period of from three to six days in the open. The next thanksgiving record says. followed the arrival of other Pilgrim^ among them friends and relatives of the colonists. it can only be regarded as a public festival. decided to hold a period of thanksgiving and festivities. Some writers disagree as to this heing the first Thanksgiving day. though the colony located near. where is now the famous Cape Cod cranberry marshes. about it. before the weather became too chilly for outdoor feasting. and the gathering of a good harvest on which so much depended. Christmas and New Year's day are holidays for Divine worship. but it probably took place in the last days of October or in November.116 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING THE FIRST THANKSGIVING Thanksgiving day. this without festivities. and cranberry sauce. that now had been reduced by death. to which all were bidden. was held on Feb. the colony. the former is an American holiday of New England origin. thanksgiving and festivities. to less than three score. copy? bread. this ship also brought supplies which were sorely needed- — . and dates from the year following the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock in 1620. including an Indian chief and ninty of his tribe. after a prosperous summer. 1623. To help provide for the feast Governor Braddock sent out four hunters into the forest to bring in wild fowl of which they obtained an abundance. vegetables and Indian pudding. History does not tell us upon what day this feast began. However. also pilmpkin pie. holding that as there is no record to show that any religious services were held. all told 146 persons. "We are told that roast wild turkey and other wild fowl and venison was served in great plenty.

it is observed in all parts of the country. and in the spring of 1623 after the crops had well started a drought threatened their entire destruction. In colonial times there was no set day for this holida}'. come to save their crops. it usually followed some important event such as the arrival of relatives and new colonists from the mother country. or a victory over the Indians or a period A bountiful harvest always called for the appointment of a day of thanks. writers claim this was the second Thanksgiving it the others the third. it is a day of family reunions. visiting and recreation. The day is a national holiday and is a legal holiday in all the states. 1623. . let her recall the story of the first holiday and perchance it may be on the anniversary of that first Thanksgiving. There followed a plentiful rainfall that revived the fields the colony. with the possible exception of one or two. . distress. of peace with them. and in gratitude thereof a and also the spirits of day of thanksgiving was oif ordered and observed — July 30. sickness and famine.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING 117 The summer of 1622 was not prosperous and the winter followed with disaster. prepared by a small group of homesick women in a strange land in thait long ago. then again is claimed that this was the first harvest thanksgiving. and this led to the observance of Thanksgiving in the autumn ats the customary time. in the island possessions and by Americans in foreign countries. that rain Avould Early in July a whole day was given to fasting and prayer. Thanksgiving is the great American feast day. though under far different conditions. Some Pilgrims. much the same as when the day was first observed. In 1863 President Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November as a day of thanksgiving in all the land. and this has been followed annually by the President since. When the contented housewife of today sets to preparing her next Thanksgiving dinner.

set on edge of stove for salt. it will heat through in an hour or two it should be basted frequently while so that all of the . is to make the fowl ready for the roaster. then mash well. and . drain. fry one onion until browned. then make brown gravy with grease and dregs left in pan. sop can be omitted. well covered with water. The turkey or fowl that is to be used can be roasted in advance and set back in the oven the next morning'. heating. and should not be forgotten as they always go with a Thanksgiving dinner. The preparation gun the day before. raw oysters last.118 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKIXH PREPARING THE THANKSGIVING DINNER. steamed an hour or two before serving. and stuff the fowl nse a covered roasterWhen done remove fowl from pan and also part of grease. Cranberry moulds can be made several days before they are needed. stir briskly sweet milk. Plum pudding should be made several days in advance. Mince pie is equally as good made in advance and reheated lor serving. of the Thanksgiving. dot top with small bits of butter and then sprinkle with a few dashes of peprika. A make in the more satisfactory way the dressing . Mashed potatoes are by no means the least task in preparing a dinner. one vegetable is enough. add half cup with masher or heavy spoon until snow white. mix with other ingredients in the usual way. in the if it is to morning be oyster dressing. take up in warmed vegetable dish. as do mashed rutabagas. mix. Pumpkin pie is very good served cold. The menu on the following page is in greater variety than needed. then set it in a cool place over night. a minute or two uncovered. celery . boil briskly. it is best with uncooked lemon sauce.dinner should be be- work will not fall to the forenoon of the holiday.



and olives are very nice, sweet pickles such as peach or melon, should be served rather than sour pickles.

For dessert


pudding and sauce


sufficient, possibly

one variety of pie; fruit and nuts need not be served unless in place of something else. The salad should be fresh made for a cabbage salad, chop the cabbage very fine or use a food chopper, which some like better; use a good rich dressing.



Thanksgiving or Christmas
Roast Turkey

Tomato Soup
Oyster- Dressing

Brown Gravy
Mashed Potatoes
Mashed Rutabagas
Cranberrry Moulds
Fruit Salad


Minee Pie
Coffee Fruit
Cluster Raisins

Pumpkin Pie




Roast Turkey

Onion Dressing


Mashed Potatoes


Mashed Rutabagas

Cranberry Sauce

Baked Sweet

Potatoes, Southern Style

Cabbage Salad

Plum Pudding
Mince Pie

Lemon Sauce





. pound silver 26 102 26 Conserve. Candy. light fruit molasses 32 chow Christmas menu Conserve. Bread. Chili Chili canned carne 100 ginger gold jelly roll con 78 93 fricasseed 71 26 30 29 26 sauce Chicken. baked sponge sponge wedding white buckwheat cheese griddle 28 28 110 Beans. cherry Chow 93 121 Cake. Cake. baking Candy. compressed dry yeast ginger yeast 13 30 16 15 17 Graham nut rye creams creams chocolate creams fudge maple maple fudge molasses panoche chocolate chocolate stuffed fruits 88 87 88 87 88 88 89 87 Steamed birthday coffee coffee fruit brown 16 dates 88 96 76 91 91 29 23 23 25 25 30 Canning Carrots. Cakes.. Bread. Candy. Cake. Conserve. Cake.. Cakes. Blanched 109 101 1 Cake. dark fruit Catsup Catsup Cherries. Cakes. Cake. Candy. (Cake. 2 Bananas. Candy. . baked brown Bread. sour cream 27 orange . Cakes. Apricots. Bread. Cake. Cake. 108 77 Cake. Boston brown Biscuit. Cake. canned Beef pot roast Beets. sour scotch milk 110 67 76 18 17 sugar butter divinity 30 86 86 boiled Candy. Cakes. powder Bread. baked 68 69 97 30 110 Beans. & vegetables. Candy. Bread. cream Cake. . Candy. Cake. grape 102 103 Cake. Candy. Cake. 108 . Cake. Cake. griddle.. brown layer Chicken fricasseed I 71 Cake. Candy. 16 13 Bread. Bread. Cake.126 BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING INDEX Almonds. Candy. spice 27 27 27 canned Baking Powder No. Bread. baked Beans. Baking Powder No.

table 82 78 Noodles and cheese scalloped 78 75 billing. Fritters. 19 32 Kaffee Kuchen 1 24 109 sugar 32 44 101 Cream. Pickles. Filling. Pickles. cream Gems. tomato canned creamed scalloped Jelly. Jelly. Pie. Corn. 127 37 boiled rhubarb currant 105 106 Corn. Conserve. orange Mayonnaise dressing Measuring cup Meat Joaf Meat loaf. Cookies. Tee Tee brown vanilla 68 38 cherry chicken chocolate 46 46 cream. lemon orange Peppers. pineapple 102 102 103 97 75 75 31 Icing. gooseberry mint crabapple Cookies. sliced Culinary Terms 114 Macaroni and cheese Marmalade. baked. watermelon Pickles. Filling. Noodles Oysters. 2 109 107 74 112 112 81 chicken veal Cucumbers. Croquettes. Graham Gems. Jelly. 72 112 cucumber dill apple 92 93 banana corn oyster boiled 112 Ill Ill oil peach pear salt 90 Fritters. canned Peaches. sherbet 38 69 48 . canned Peas. cream. Jelly. 37 37 19 Frosting. curry sauce deviled Mustard. tomato sauce Mince meat Muffins 73 103 80 22 70 70 65 19 Doughnuts Doughnuts. Pie. Corn. canned Cranberry moulds Creamettes and cheese Croquettes. cream fig canned Pears. Filling. Pickles. Pickles. Cookies. tomato Pickles. Filling. Pie. Cookies. 36 35 Filling. Pickles. whipped Crabapples.BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING Conserve. Conserve. currant-raspberry currant-strawberry 106 106 106 107 107 Jelly. ginger ginger 31 31 molasses rocks plum-crabapple Johnny-cake Jelly. Eggs. Pie. 36 37 35 Pastry pointers 20 Filling. Cookies. crabapple 90 94 Fish. banana banana and cream banana & whipped cream chocolate . Picca-liili 77 36 72 90 Fish. Lemon Extract No. 100 100 97 75 36 35 creamed stuffed Filling. Peas. Jelly. 90 94 91 Frosting. 92 19 apple Gravy. Pickles. sour milk cucumbers Pickles. scalloped Fritters. Fritters. Lemon Extract No. 34 sour milk 33 79 79 Eggs.

2 No. Salad. Salad. Turnips. Pie. Tomato relish 92 Salad Salad 82 Salad Salad. 85 84 84 85 peanut raisin custard 48 47 85 lemon lemon mince veal 84 82 83 47 47 curry Pie. egg and Sandwiches. Pie. plum Pudding. preserves canned 97 boiled 66 18 77 Strawberries. Kraut beet 94 79 79 79 42 41 40 42 41 cream Slaw. Salad. 83 76 vinegar canned Potatoes. Sandwiches. Pie. baked sweet Pudding. 40 39 41 Short strawberry Spaghetti. Sandwiches. nut Sandwiches. Vanilla Vanilla roast 67 67 77 1 potato 80 80 82 . Sauce. lemon Sauce. the first 116 Thanksgiving menu 120 98 Time table for canning cucumber dressing dressing. Salad. Spanish Spaghetti Spaghetti 42 39 & & tomatoes oysters 42 104 Stew and biscuits Stew and dumplings Strawberries. Extract Extract salmon tutti 108 frutti 43 74 74 74 Salmon. Brown Betty Pudding. Sauce. olive Sandwiches. canned Salmon. tapioca Plums. stuffed 96 99 76 76 lettuce Turkey dressing Turkey. rice Pudding. Slaw. mashed apple 43 cabbage chicken 80 81 81 Thanksgiving dinner. apple tapioca Pudding. BREAD MAKING AND BREAD BAKING cocoanut 48 48 45 45 cream crust crust Pie Pie Pie. Pie. red mashed Extract No. 3 108 109 Veal Veal. stewed Tomatoes.. preparing 118 Thanksgiving. suet Pudding. canned home method 99 75 Rolls Succotash Rutabaga. rhubard Pudding. salmon vegetable Soup. fruit cream mayonnaise 81 . Sauce. Salad. Indian Pudding. pimento.128 Pie. dressing. mock cherry raisin 46 46 100 77 lemon Sauce. Salad. white 83 Sauer Slaw. Salad. canned Tomatoes. Salad. Quince-apple Rice. 68 68 38 73 73 72 71 71 cream tomato cake. canned home method Tomatoes. cheese Vanilla No. 80 43 81 Tomatoes. Sandwiches. corn meal Pudding crows nest Pudding. butter gravy Salmon. Soup. Salad. Pie. scalloped Sandwiches.. loaf 70 69 113 pressed 84 Waffles . fruit Pudding.

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