V.T.U.

Web-Based Education
Engineering Mathematics – I (MAT-11)
By Dr. K.S. Chandrashekhar
Dept. of Mathematics, N.I.E.,
Mysore-8
Lesson 1 Differential Equations
Session – 1
Introduction
Many problems in all branches of science and engineering when analysed for putting in a
mathematical form assumes the form of a differential equation.
An engineer or an applied mathematician will be mostly interested in obtaining a solution
for the associated equation without bothering much on the rigorous aspects. Accordingly
the study of differential equations at various levels is focused on the methods of solving
the equations.
Preliminaries
Ordinary Differential Equation (O.D.E)
If y = f (x) is an unknown function, an equation which involves atleast one derivative of
y, w.r.t. x is called an ordinary differential equation which in future will be simply
referred to as Differential Equation (D.E).
The order of D.E is the order of the highest derivative present in the equation and the
degree of the D.E. is the degree of the highest order derivative after clearing the
fractional powers.
Finding y as a function of x explicitly [y = f (x)] or a relationship in x and y satisfying the
D.E. [f (x, y)= c] constitutes the solution of the D.E.
Observe the following equations along with their order and degree.
1 2
dy
dx
x ·
[order = 1, degree = 1]
2 3 2 0
2

dy
dx
dy
dx
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ ·
[order = 1, degree = 2]
1
General solution and particular solution
A solution of a D.E. is a relation between the dependent and independent variables
satisfying the given equation identically.
The general solution will involve arbitrary constants equal to the order of the D.E.
If the arbitrary constants present in the solution are evaluated by using a set of given
conditions then the solution so obtained is called a particular solution. In many physical
problems these conditions can be formulated from the problem itself.
Note : Basic integration and integration methods are essential prerequisites for this
chapter.
Solution of differential equations of first order and first degree
Recollecting the definition of the order and the degree of a D.E., a first order and first
degree equation will be the form
dy
dx
f x, y M x, y dx +N x, y dy = · b g b g b g or 0
We discuss mainly classified four types of differential equations of first order and first
degree. They as are as follows :
• Variables separable equations
• Homogenous equations
• Exact equations
• Linear equations
Variables separable Equations
If the given D.E. can be put in the form such that the coefficient of dx is a function of the
variable x only and the coefficient of dy is a function of y only then the given equation is
said to be in the separable form.
The modified form of such an equation will be,
P (x) dx + Q (y) dy = 0
Integrating we have

P x dx + Q y dy = c bg bg z z
This is the general solution of the equation.
2
Example –1
Solve :
e y dx e + dy=
x x
− + 1 2 4 0 b g

>> e y dx e + dy=
x x
− + 1 2 4 0 b g  
Dividing throughout by (y-1) (e
x
+ 4) we get,
e
e
dx
dy
y
Variables are separated
x
x
+
+

·
4
2
1
0
 

+
+
z

·
z
e
e
dx
dy
y
c
x
x
4
2
1
i. e. e y c
x
log log     + + − · 4 2 1
or log log     e y c
x
+ + − · 4 1
2
i. e. e y k say
x
log log    + − · 4 1
2
b g
or is the required solution    e y k
x
+ − · 4 1
2
Example 2
Solve given that
or
i. e. by separating the variables.*
i. e.
Put or
Hence we have,
i e
or is the general solution.


dy
dx
x e y
dy
dx
x e
dy
dx
x e e
dy
e
x e dx
e dy x e dx= c
e dy x e dx= c
x t x dx =dt x dx = dt
e e dt c
e
e
c
y x
y x y x
y
x
y x
y x
y t
y
t
· ·
>> · ·
·

z

z
− −
z
− · ∴− −
− + ·
z
− + ·
− ·

− −

− −
− −

2
2 2
2
2
2
0 0
2 2
2
2
2
bg
e
e c
x
y
2
2
Now we consider y (0) = 0 That is y = 0 when x = 0,
* For animation
3
The general solution becomes
1
2
1
1
2
− · − c c = or
Now the general solution becomes
e
e
x
y

− · −
2
2
1
2
or is the particular solution. e e
x y − −
+ ·
2
1 2
e j
Example –3
Solve :
i. e.,
i. e.,
or by separating the variables.*
or
i. e., 1 log
i. e., log log
or
x y
dy
dx
x +y +xy
>> x y
dy
dx
x +y +xy
x y
dy
dx
x y +x
x y
dy
dx
x +y
ydy
y
x
x
dx
y
+y
dy
x
x
dx c
y
+y
dy
x
dx dx c
dy
+y
dy x x = c
y y x x = c
· +
· +
· + +
· +
+
·
+
⇒ −
+
·
z z
+ −
− −
z
·
z z
− −
z

z
− + − −
− − +
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
   
  
 
 
 y x x y b glog 1 · c is the required solution.
Example – 4 :
Solve : y x
dy
dx
y
dy
dx
− · +
2
>> Rearranging the given equation we have,
4
 
 
 

y y
dy
dx
x +
dx
x
dy
y y
dx
x
dy
y y
c
x
dy
y y
c
− ·
+
·

+
z
·

·
z
+ −

·
z
2
2
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
or by separating the variables.*
i. e. logb g
We have to employ the method of partial fractions for the second term of the above.
Let
1
(1 )
Put
Put
or
log log log
1
y y
A
y
B
y
A y B y
y = A
y = B
dy
y y y
dy +
y
dy
dy
y y y
dy +
y
dy
dy
y y
y + y
y
y

+ +

⇒ · − +
·
·

z
·

z z

z
· −

z z

· − − ·
− F
H
G
I
K
J z
1
1 1
0 1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
b g
b g
b g
b g
b g

 i e
Using this result in (1) we get,
log log
1
or log
( ) ( )
log say
is the required solution.
x +
y
y
c
x y
y
k
1
1 1
b g+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+ − L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
∴ −
 
x + y ky, 1) (1 )=
Example – 5 :
Solve : tan cos( ) +cos( )
>> The given equation on expanding terms in the R. H. S. becomes
tan cos cos sin sin cos cos sin sin
i e tan cos cos
y
dy
dx
x y x y
y
dy
dx
x y x y x y x y
y
dy
dx
x y
· + −
· − + +
·
  
 2
5
or
tan
cos
cos by separating the variables.*
tan sec cos
is the required solution.
y
y
dy= x dx
y. y dy x dx c
2
2 ⇒ −
z z
·
∴ − sec 2sin y x =c
Session – 2
Equations reducible to the variables separable form
Some differential equations can be reduced to the variables separable from by taking a
suitable substitution. We present a few examples.
Example – 6
Solve : cos (x + y + 1) dx – dy = 0
>> We have = cos ( )
dy
dx
x +y +1
… (1)
Put or
Now (1) becomes cos or cos
i. e.
cos cos
t = x +y +
dt
dx
dy
dx
dt
dx
dy
dx
dt
dx
t
dt
dx
t
dt
t
dx
dt
t
dx=c
1 1 1
1 1
1 1
∴ · + − ·
− · · +
+
· ⇒
+
z

z
i. e.
cos
or
1
2
sec
2
2
dt
t
x =c t dt x =c
2 2
2
 
 −
z z

i. e. tan ( / 2) t x =c −
i. e. is the required solution. tan
+1
2
x + y
x = c
F
H
G
I
K
J

Example – 7
Solve tan
tan( ) +1 .... (1)
Put or
:
dy
dx
x y x
dy
dx
x y x
t = y x
dt
dx
dy
dx
dt
dx
dy
dx
· − +
>> · −
− ∴ · − + ·
 

1
1 1
6
Now (1) becomes tan or tan
Hence
tan
by separating the variables.*
cot
i. e. log(sin )
Thus ( ) is the required solution.
dt
dx
x t
dt
dx
x t.
dt
t
x dx
t dt x dx=c
t
x
c
  + · + ·
·
∴ −
z z
− ·
− −
1 1
2
2
log sin
2
2
y x
x
Example – 8
Solve : x y dx dy dx +dy     + − · 2
>> Rearranging the terms in the given equation we have,
   
 
 

x + y dx= x + y + dy
dy
dx
x + y
x + y
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
1

·

+
or
Put
or
1
2
The becomes
1
2
i. e.,
t = x + y
dt
dx
dy
dx
dt
dx
dy
dx
d. e
dt
dx
t
t +
dt
dx
t
t
dt
dx
t
t +
2
1 2 1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3 1
1
∴ · + −
F
H
G
I
K
J
·

F
H
G
I
K
J
·

∴ ·

+
+
·

 
 
or
i. e.,
t
t
dt =dx
t
t
dt dx =c
t
t
dt x =c
+

+

z

z
+

z
1
3 1
1
3 1
1
3 1
… (2)
Let t + 1 = l(3t−1) + m
or t + 1 = ( 3l ) t + (−l+m)
⇒ −
− ·
∴ + · − +
3 1 1
1 3 1 3 1 4 3
1 1 3 3 1 4 3
l = l +m =
l = +m= m
t . t
and
Hence and or   
   
Thus (2) can be written as
7
i. e.
1 3 3 1 4 3
3 1
   t
t
dt x c
− +

− ·
z
i. e.
1
3
1
4
3 3 1
dt +
dt
t
x =c

z z
i. e. log(3 1)
t
t x =c
3
4
9
+ − −
i. e. log(3 6 )
x + y
x y x c
2
3
4
9
1 + + − − ·
i. e. is the required solution.
2
3
4
9
log 6     y x + x + y c − − · 3 1
Example – 9 :
Solve :
2
dy
dx
x +y +
x + y
·
+
 1
2 3
>> ·
+
We have
2(
dy
dx
x +y +
x +y
 

1
3
Put or t =x +y
dt
dx
dy
dx
dt
dx
dy
dx
∴ · + − · 1 1
The given equation becomes,
dt
dx
t
t
dt
dx
t
t +
− ·
+
+
· +
+
1
1
2 3
1
1
2 3
or
i. e. or
dt
dx
t t
t +
dt
dx
t
t
·
+ + +
·
+
+
2 3 1
2 3
3 4
2 3
i. e.,
2 3
3 4
t
t +
dt = dx
+

+
z

z
2 3
3 4
t
t +
dt dx = c
Let 2t + 3 = l (3t + 4) + m
or 2t + 3 = (3l) t + (4l + m)
⇒ 3 2 4 3 l = l +m= and
∴ l = m= m = 2 3 8 3 1 3  and / 3 + or
Thus 2 t + 3 = 2/3 . (3t+ 4) + 1/3
Hence (1) becomes
2 / 3.(3 + 4) +1 / 3
3 + 4
t
t
dt dx =c
z

z
i. e.,
2
3
1
1
3 3 4
dt +
dt
t
x =c
+
z

z
8
i. e.,
2
3
log where
t
t x =c, t = x +y + + −
1
9
3 4  
∴ + + −
2
3
1
9
3 3 4
 
 
x +y
x y + x =c log
i. e., is the required solution.
1
3
(2 ) +
1
9
log(3 + 3 + 4) = y x x y c −
Example – 10
Solve : sec
2
x
dy
dx
x y + xy
3 2
0 + ·  
The given d.e. can be written as,
x x
dy
dx
y xy
2
0 1 +
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ · sec
2
  
Put t = xy
dt
dx
x
dy
dx
y ∴ · +
Now (1) becomes, sec
2
x
dt
dx
t =
2
0 +
i. e., sec or
sec
2
2
x
dt
dx
t
dt
t
dx
x
2
2
· − · −

z z
· cos
2
t dt +
dx
x
c
2
i. e.
cos 1 2
2
1 + t
dt
x
c −
z
·
i. e.,
1
2
sin2
where t +
t
x
c, t = xy.
2
1 F
H
G
I
K
J
− ·
i. e., + is the required solution.
1
4
2 sin(2 )
1
= xy xy
x
c, −
9
EXERCISES :
Solve the following differential equations
1 0
2 2
  xy x dx + x y +y dy = +
2 0
2 2 2 2 2
    x yx dy + y +x y dx = −
3
2
y x
dy
dx
a y
dy
dx
− · +
F
H
G
I
K
J
4   x +y dx dy dx +dy − ·
5
4 3
x
dy
dx
x y+ xy + cosec( ) = 0
1 1 1
2 2
   + + · x y c
2 1 1 log y + y + x x c − ·
3 1    − · ay a+x cy
4y x + x +y c − · log
5
2
cos( ) +1 / 2 xy x c ·
Session –3
A function u = f (x, y) is said to be homogeneous function of degree n if
u = x g y / x u = y g x / y
n n
b g b g or
A D.E. of the form M (x, y) dx+ N (x, y) dy = 0 is said to be a homogeneous differential
equation if both M (x, y) and N (x, y) are homogeneous functions of the same degree.
Solution of a homogeneous equation
We prefer to have the differential equation in the form
dy
dx
f x, y
g x, y
·
b g
b g
after recognizing that the D.E. is a homogeneous one.
We take the substitution y = v x so that,
dy
dx
v. x
dv
dx
· + 1 by product rule.
With these the given d.e. can be solved by separating the variables.
10
Example –1
Solve : x y dx x y dy =
2 3 3
0 − +  
>> (Observe that the coefficient of dx and dy are homogeneous functions of degree 3)
The given equation can be written as,
dy
dx
x y
x y
y = v x
dy
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v +x
dv
dx
x . vx
x +v x
·
+
∴ ·
·

Put
Now (1) becomes,
2
3 3
2
3 3 3
1 
i. e., or
i. e., or
by separating the variables.*
v +x
dv
dx
x v
x v
x
dv
dx
v
v
v
x
dv
dx
v v v
v
x
dv
dx
v
v
v
v
dv =
dx
x
·
+
·
+

·
− −
+
·

+

+ −
3
3 3 3
4
3
4
3
3
4
1 1
1 1
1
 

(* for animation)

z z
·
z

+

− +

1 1
3
1
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
v
dv +
v
dv +
dx
x
c
v
v + x =c
v
vx c, v =
y
x
x
y
y =c,
i. e., log log
i. e., + log ( ) = where
Thus log is the required solution.
Example –2
Solve :
>> We have
or
x dy y dx = x +y dx
x dy = y + x +y dx

dy
dx
y + x +y
x

L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 
11
Put
Now (1) becomes
i. e., or
by separating the variables. *
i. e., sin log where
Thus sin log is the required solution.
y =vx
dy
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v +x
dv
dx
vx x v x
x
v +x
dv
dx
x v + v
x
x
dv
dx
v
dv
v
dx
x
dv
v
dx
x
c
h v x =c, v = y / x
h y / x x =c,
∴ ·
·
+ +
·
+
F
H
I
K
· +

+
·

+
z

z
·

2 2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
 
Example –3
Solve :
We have
or
x
dy
dx
y
x
y
>> x
dy
dx
y
y
x
dy
dx
xy y
x

 
+ ·
· −
·

2
2
2
2
1
Put
Now (1) becomes
i. e., or
y = v x
dy
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v +x
dv
dx
x . v x v x
x
v +x
dv
dx
x v v
x
x
dv
dx
v
∴ ·
·

·

· −
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
 
∴ · −
z
+
z
· − +
− +
dv
v
dx
x
dv
v
dx
x
c
v
x =c, v =
y
x
x
y
x = c,
2
2
1
by separating the variables.*
Hence i. e., log where
Thus log is the required solution.
12
Example – 4
Solve : tan ( ) sec sec
>> The given equation can be written as,
sec tan( )
sec
2 2
2
2
x y / x y y / x dx +x y / x dy =
dy
dx
y y / x x y / x
x y / x

·

   
 
 

0
1
Put or
Now (1) becomes,
sec tan
sec
i. e.,
sec tan
sec
2
2
2
2
y
x
v v = v x
dy
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v x v x v
x v
v +x
dv
dx
x v v v
x v
· ∴ ·
·

·
−  
i. e.,
sec tan
sec
i. e.,
sec tan sec
sec
i. e.,
tan
sec
or
sec
tan
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
x
dv
dx
v v v
v
v
x
dv
dx
v v v v v
v
x
dv
dx
v
v
v
v
dv =
dx
x
·

·
− −
·

Hence
sec
tan
i. e., log (tan ) + log
or log (tan ) = = log (say),
2
v
v
dv+
dx
x
c
v x =c
v. x c k
z
·
z
⇒x v = k v = y / x
x y / x k,
tan where
Thus tan ( ) = is the required solution.
Example – 5
Solve : log log
The given equation can be written in the form
log( ) +1
x
dy
dx
y y x +
>>
dy
dx
y
x
y / x
· −
·
 

1
1
13
Put
Now (1) becomes log
i. e., log or
log
Hence
1/
log
y = v x
dy
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v +x
dv
dx
v v
x
dv
dx
v v
dv
v v
dx
x
v
v
dv
dx
x
=c
∴ ·
· +
· ·
z

z
  1
i. e., log log log log say
i. e., log log log log
i. e., log log log
log where
Thus l g( ) = is the required solution.
v x =c = k
v k + x
v kx
v kx v = y / x
y / x k x,
   
 
   

·
·
⇒ ·
Example – 6
Solve : 1+
(As we observe terms with , we need to express the
equation relating to and the terms are homogeneous functions of degree 0.
We have 1+
e dx +e
x
y
dy =
x / y
dx / dy
e dx =e
x
y
dy
x/ y x/ y
x/ y x/ y
e j
e j
1 0
1

F
H
G
I
K
J
>>

F
H
G
I
K
J
or
1+
Put or
Now (1) becomes,
dx
dy
e
x
y
e
x / y = v x = v y
dx
dy
v +y
dv
dy
v +y
dv
dy
e v
e
x/ y
x/ y
v
v
·

F
H
G
I
K
J
∴ ·
·

+
1
1
1
1
e j

 
 
i. e., i. e.,
i. e., or
(1+
Hence
(1+ )
y
dv
dy
e v
e
v y
dv
dy
e v e v e v
e
y
dv
dy
e +v
e
e dv
e +v
dy
y
e dv
e v
dy
y
c
v
v
v v v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
·

+
− ·
− − −
+
·−
+
· −
+
+
z z
·
 
   
 
 

1
1 1
1
14
i. e., log ( ) log
or log log (say)
where
Thus is the required solution.
e +v y =c
e +v y k
e +v y =k, v = x / y.
y e x =k,
v
v
v
x/ y
+
·

+
 
 
Session – 4
Equations reducible to the homogeneous form
Consider the differential equation in the form :
    ax +by +c dx a' x +b' y +c' dy = t 0
We first express the equation in respect of dy / dx and the procedure is narrated by taking
dy
dx
a x + b y + c
a' x +b' y +c'
a
a'
b
b'
· ≠ where  1
This condition implies that there are no common factors for the x and y terms in the
numerator as well as in the denominator.
Put x = X + h, y = Y + k where h and k are constants to be chosen appropriately later.

Now
Hence
dy
dx
dy
dY
dY
dX
dX
dx
dY
dX
.
dy
dx
dY
dX
·
· · 1 1 
As a consequence of these (1) becomes
dY
dX
a X +h b Y +k +c
a' X +h b' Y +k +c'
dY
dX
aX +bY ah+bk +c
a' X +b' Y a' h+b' k +c'
·
+
+
·
+
+
b g b g
b g b g
b gb g
b gb g
i. e.,  2
Now, let us choose h and k such that :

ah+bk +c a' h+b' k +c' = · 0 0 and
Solving these equations we get the value for h and k.
Thus (2) now assumes the form

dY
dX
aX +bY
a' X + b' Y
·  3
It is evident that (3) is a homogeneous equation in the variables X and Y. This equation
can be solved by putting Y = VX as discussed already. Finally we substitute for X and
Y where X = x −h, Y = y−k.
15
Example –1
Solve : ( )
We have
Put and where and are constants to be choosen suitably later.
x y dx + x +y dy =
x +y dy = x y dx
dy
dx
x y
x +y
x = X +h y =Y +k h k
− − −
>> − − − −
∴ ·
− + +

4 9 4 2 0
4 2 4 9
4 9
4 2
 
   
Now
Hence
dy
dx
dy
dY
dY
dX
dX
dx
dY
dX
dy
dx
dY
dX
·
· · 1 1  
Thus (1) becomes
dY
dX
X h Y +k
X +h Y +k
dY
dX
X Y h+ k
X +Y h+k
h k
h+ k h+k
h = k
·
− + + +
+ −
·
− + + − +
+ −
− + · − ·
· −
   
   
  
   

4 9
4 2
4 4 9
4 4 2
2
4 9 0 4 2 0
1 2
i. e.,
Let us choose and such that
and
Solving these equations we get, and
Thus (2) becomes
Put
Now (3) becomes,
i. e., or
i. e., i. e.,
by separating the variables.*
dY
dX
X Y
X +Y
Y = VX
dY
dX
V + X
dV
dx
V + X
dV
dX
X VX
X +VX
V + X
dV
dX
X V
X +V
X
dV
dX
V
+V
V
X
dV
dX
V V V
+V
X
dV
dX
V
+V
V dV
V
dX
X
·
− +
∴ ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
− +

·
− + − −
·
− +

+
+
· −
4
4
3
4
4
1 4
4
1 4
4
1 4 4
4
1
4
4
1
2 2
2

 
 
 
 
 
 
16

+
+
z
+
+
z
·
z
+
+

4
1 1
1
2
2 2
2
2 2
1 2
1 2
1 2 2
dV
V
V dV
V
dX
X
c
V + V X =c
V + V X = c
V + V X = c, V =Y / X
i. e., 4 tan log(1+ log
i. e., 8 tan log (1+ log
i. e., 8 tan log (1+ where

∴ + ·
− − −

F
H
G
I
K
J
+ − + + ·

8 tan log ( + say
But and
8 tan log
This is the required solution.
1 2 2
1 2 2
2
1 2
2
1
1 2
    
   
Y / X X Y c =k
X = x h = x Y = y k = y +
y +
x
x y k

Example – 2
Solve :
dy
dx
x + y
x +y
·

2 3
2 3
>> ·

We have
dy
dx
x + y
x +y
2 3
2 3
1 
Put x = X + h and y = Y + k, where h and k are constants to be chosen suitably later.
∴ ·
· ·
·
+ −
+ −
·
+ −
+ −
dy
dx
dy
dY
dY
dX
dX
dx
dY
dX
dy
dx
dY
dX
dY
dX
X +h Y +k
X +h Y +k
dY
dX
X + Y h+ k
X +Y h+k
1 1
2 3
2 3
2 2 3
2 2 3
 
   
  
  
  
Hence
Thus(1) becomes,
i. e.,
……(2)
Let us choose h and k such that,
h+ k h+k
h k
dY
dX
X + Y
X +Y
2 3 0 3 0
1 1
2
2
3
− · − ·
· ·
·
and 2
Solving these equations we get and
Thus (2) becomes 

17
Put
Now (3) becomes
i. e.,
Y = VX
dY
dX
V + X
dV
dX
V + X
dV
dX
X + VX
X +VX
V + X
dV
dX
X V
X V
∴ ·
·
·
+
+
2
2
1 2
2
 
 
or or
by separating the variables.*
2
i. e., log
1+
log( log
i. e., log
1+
log( log
X
dV
dX
V
V
V X
dV
dX
V
V
V
V
dv =
dX
X
dV
V
+
V dV
V
dX
X
c
V
V
V X =c
V
V
V X = c
·
+
+
− ·

+

+

z

− ·
z z

F
H
G
I
K
J
− − −

F
H
G
I
K
J
− − −
1 2
2
1
2
2
1
1 1
2
1
2 1
1
2
1
2
1
1 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
 

i. e., log
1+
log (
or log
(
( (
log say
(
(
or
( )
since
ut and
Thus is the required solution.
V
V
V X = c
V
V V X
k
V
V X
k
X +Y
X Y
k V =
Y
X
X = x h = x Y = y k y
x y k x y
1
1 2
1
1 1
1
1
1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
3 2 3
3

F
H
G
I
K
J
− −
+
− −
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·

+

·

·
− − − · −
+ − · −

 
 

   
b g

Exercises :
Solve the following equations:
1
2 0
3
4 4 2
5 3 1 2 0
3 3
2
   
   

   
   
x +y dx xy x +y dy
x +y x y y dx x x y dy
x / y y dx x dy y dy
y x dx= y +x dy
x y dy x y dx =
·
− − − ·
− ·
− − −
− − + −
log log log log
Sin ( )
18
1
2 1
3
2
1
4
4 1 3 2 3 1
5 1 4 2 1
2 1
4
  
   
     
   
y / x + y x c
x+ y / x y / x c
.
x
y
x y y =c
x + y y x + c
x +y c x y
log
log log( )
sin(2 ) log
log ( ) tan
2
− ·
− ·
− −
+ − + − ·
− · − −

Session - 5
We say that M (x, y) dx+N (x, y) dy = 0 is an exact differential equation if there exists a
function f (x, y) such that
df = M (x, y) dx+N (x, y) dy.
The necessary and the sufficient condition for the D.E. M (x, y) dx + N (x, y) dy = 0 to be
an exact equation is

M
y
N
x
·
Further the solution of the exact equation is given by
Mdx + N y dy = c
z zbg
where, in the first term we integrate M (x, y) w.r.t x keeping y fixed and N (y) indicate
the terms in N not containing x.
Example –1
Solve : [ cos log sin
Let cos and log sin
y x y dx + x + x x y dy
M = y x y N = x + x x y
1 1 0
1 1
+ + − ·
>> + + −
   

b g
b g
∴ · + − · + −
·
z z

M
y x
y
N
x x
y
M
y
N
x
M dx+ N y dy =c
1
1
1
1
sin and sin
Since the given equation is exact.
The solution is

bg
i. e., cos
Thus log cos is the required solution.
y
x
y dx + dy= c
y x + x x y =c,
1
1
0 +
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
z z
+ b g
19
Example –2
Solve :
cos sin
sin cos
The given equation is put in the form,
cos sin sin cos
Let cos sin and sin cos
dy
dx
y x+ y+ y
x +x y +x
y x+ y+ y dx + x +x y +x dy =
M = y x+ y+ y N = x +x y +x
+ ·
>>
0
0 b g b g
∴ · ·
·
z z
z z

M
y
x+ y+
N
x
x+ y+
M
y
N
x
Mdx+ N y dy =c
y x+ y+ y dx = dy= c
y x + x y + xy = c,

cos cos and cos cos
Since the given equation is exact.
The solution is
i. e., cos sin
Thus sin sin is the required solution.
1 1
0

bg
b g
Example – 3
Solve :
Let and
y e x dx + xye y dy
M= y e x N = x y e y
M
y
y e xy +e y,
N
x
x y e y ye
xy xy
xy xy
xy xy xy xy
2 3 2
2 3 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
4 2 3 0
4 2 3
2 2 2 2
+ − ·
>> + −
∴ · · +
e j e j

   
i. e., and
Since the given equation is exact.
The solution is

M
y
xy e ye
N
x
xy e ye
M
y
N
x
M dx + N y dy= c
xy xy xy xy
· + · +
·
z z
2 2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2 2


i. e., y e x dx + y dy =c
xy 2 3 2
2
4 3 +
z

z e j
i. e.,
Thus is the required solution.
y
e
y
x y c
e x y c,
xy
xy
2
2
4 3
4 3
2
2
 + − ·
+ − ·
Equations reducible to the exact form
Sometimes the given differential equation which is not an exact equation can be
transformed into an exact equation by multiplying with some function (factor) known as
the integrating factor (I.F.)
20
The procedure to find such a factor is as follows.
Suppose that, for the equation M dx + N dy = 0

M
y
N
x
≠ , then we take their difference.
If
1
or
1
N
M
y
N
x
f x
M
M
y
N
x
g y

F
H
G
I
K
J
· −
F
H
G
I
K
J
· bg bg
then or is an integrating factor. e e
f x dx g y dy bg bg z

z
Example – 4
Solve : (4 ) xy + y x dx +x x + y dy = 3 2 0
2
− b g
Let 4 and
and (The equation is not exact. )
Consider close to
M= xy + y x N = x x + y x xy
M
y
x + y
N
x
x + y.
M
y
N
x
x y = x + y N.
3 2 2
4 6 2 2
2 4 2 2
2 2
− · +
· ·
− · +
 
 

Now
1
Hence is an integrating factor.
Multiplying the given equation by we now have,
and
Solution is given by
Thus ( )
log log
N
M
y
N
x
x + y
x x + y x
f x
e
e e e e x
x
M= x y + x y x N = x x y
M dx + N y dy =c
x y + x y x dx + dy =c
f x dx
f x dx
x
dx
x x

F
H
G
I
K
J
· · ·
· · · ·
− +
z z

z z
z
z
z
z z
2 2
2
2
4 3 2
4 3 0
2
2 2
2
3 2 2 3 4 3
3 2 2 3
2
 
 

bg
bg
bg
i. e., is the required solution. x y +x y
x
c,
4 3 2
4
4
− ·
21
Example – 5
Solve :
Let and
i. e., and
y x y + dx +x x y + dy =
M= y x y + N = x x y +
M= xy y y N = x xy + x
2 1 3 4 3 0
2 1 3 4 3
2 3 4 3
2 2
− −
>> − −
− + −
b g b g
b g b g

M
y
x y
N
x
x y
M
y
N
x
x y x y + M.
M
M
y
N
x
x y +
y x y + y
g y
· − + · − +
− · − + − · − −

F
H
G
I
K
J
·
− −

· − ·
2 2 1 6 4 3
4 2 2 2 2 1
2 2 1
2 1
2
 b g
b g
b g
bg
near to
Now,
1
Hence
Multiplying the given equation with we now have,
and
log log
I. F =e e =e e y
y
M= x y y y N = x y xy xy
g y dy y
dy
y y −
z
z
· ·
− + − +
  
2
2 2
2
3 4 3 2 2 3 2
2
2 3 4 3
The solution is
i. e.,
Thus is the required solution.
M dx + N y dy = c
x y y y dx + dy = c
x y xy xy c,
bg
e j
z z
− +
z z
− + ·
2 0
3 4 3
2 3 4 3
EXERCISES:
Solve the following differential equations
1. cos x (e
y
+1)dx + sin x e
y
dy = 0
2. [4x
3
y
2
+ y cos (xy)] dx+[2x
4
y+x cos (xy)] dy =0
3 2 3 2 1 1
2 2
    xy x y dx +x y dy = x +y dy ; y + − + ·
4 1 3 2 0    y x +y dx +x x + y dy + + · b g
5 2 3 2 6 3 0
2 3 2
    x + y y dx + x +xy dy y + · given that (1) = 2
22
1 1
2
3
2 2
2 3 1
4
2
5 3 15
4 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
3 2
6 4 3 4
  

sin
sin
x e c
x y xy c
x y x
xy + x y
x y
xy xy c
x x y x y
y
+ ·
+ ·
+ − − ·
+ + ·
+ + ·
bg
Session – 6
Linear Equations
A differential equation of the form

dy
dx
Py =Q +
…(1)
where P and Q are functions of x only is called a linear equation in ‘y’.
y e Q e dx +c
dx
dy
Px =Q ...
P dx P dx
z z
·
z
+
is the solution of the linear equation (1).
An equation of the form :
 2
where P and Q are functions of y is called a linear equation in x.
The solution can simply be written by interchanging the role of x and y.
i. e.. x e Q e dy +c
P dy P dy
z z
·
z
is the solution for the linear equation (2)
Working procedure for problems
• The given equation must be first put in the form conformal to the standard
form of the linear equation in x or y.
• The expression for P and Q is to be written by simple comparison.

We equip with the I. F. or e e
P dx P dy
z z

• We assume the associated solution and we only need to tackle the R.H.S. part
of the solution to finally arrive at the required solution.
23
Example – 1
Solve : cot cos
cot cos is of the form
where cot and cos
sin
cot log (sin
dy
dx
y x = x
>>
dy
dx
y x = x
dy
dx
Py =Q, P = x Q = x
e e e x
P dx x dx x
+
+
+
∴ · · ·
z z z

The solution is
i. e., sin cos sin
i. e., sin
sin 2
Thus sin
cos 2
4
, is the required solution.
y e Qe dx +c
y x = x. x dx +c
y x =
x
dx +c
y x =
x
c
P dx P dx
z z
·
z
z
z

+
2
Example – 2
Solve : 2 cos sin sin given that
Dividing the given equation by cos we have
tan = sin sin 2 cos sin
This is of the form where tan and sin
y' x+ y x = x y
>> x,
dy
dx
x y x x= x x
dy
dx
Py =Q, P x Q x
4 2 3 0
2
2 2
2
 
b g·
+
+ · ·
e e e x
pdx x dx x
z z z
· · ·
2 tan 2 log (sec ) 2
sec
The solution is y e Qe dx +c
P dx P dx
z z
·
z
i. e., sec sin sec
i. e., sec tan sec
Thus sec sec , is the general solution. ..... (1)
Consider That is when
Hence (1) becomes 0 = 2 + or
Thus sec sec is the required particular solution.
y x = x. x dx +c
y x = x x c
y x = x dx +c
y y = x =
c c =
y x= x ,
2 2
2
2
2
3 0 0 3
2
2
z
z
+
·

     b g
24
Example – 3
Solve : (1+ ) tan
We have
tan
or
tan
This is of the form
Here and
tan
;
tan
y dx + x y dy =
dx
dy
y x
y
dx
dy
x
y
y
y
dx
dy
Px =Q
P=
y
Q=
y
y
e e
P dy y
2 1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
0
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
  −
>> ·

+
+
+
·
+
+
+ +
·

z

The solution is given by
i. e.,
tan
By putting tan we obtain
1
1+
i. e., by parts.
Thus tan is the required solution.
tan tan
tan
tan
tan tan
x e Q e dy+c
x e
y
y
e dy+c
y =t,
y
dy = dt
x e t e dt + c
x e t e e + c,
x e e y +c,
P dy P dy
y y
y t
y t t
y y
z z

·
z
·
+
z
∴ ·
z
· −
· −
− −

− −
1 1
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1  
Equations reducible to linear form
Form (i): where and are function of
We put
The given equation becomes which is a linear equation in
Similarly, where and are function of can be
reduced to the linear form by putting
f ' y
dy
dx
P f y Q, P Q x.
f y t f ' y
dy
dx
dt
dx
dt
dx
Pt =Q t.
f ' x
dx
dy
P f x Q, P Q y
f x t
 
 

 
+ ·
· ∴ ·
+
+ ·
·
bg
25
Form (ii) : where and are functions of
This equation is called as Bernoulli' s equation
We first divide the equation throughout by to obtain

1
Put or
1
dy
dx
+P y =Q y P Q x.
y.
y
y
dy
dx
P y =Q .....
y t n y
dy
dx
dt
dx y
dy
dx n
dt
dx
n
n
n
n
n n
n


 
 
+
· ∴ − · ·

− −
1
1
1
1
1
1
Hence (1) becomes,
or which is a linear equation in
Similarly , where and are functions of is called
Bernoulli' s equation . We first divide by and later put =
to obtain a linear equation in .
1
1
1 1
1
 
   

+
+ − −
+

n
dt
dx
P t =Q
dt
dx
n P . t = n Q t.
dx
dy
P x =Q x P Q y
x x x t
t
n
n n
Example - 4
Solve : tan tan cos cos
>> Dividing the given equation by cos we have
sec tan sec tan cos
2
2
y
dy
dx
x = y x
y
y y
dy
dx
y x = x
+
+  1
Now, put sec sec tan
Hence (1) becomes tan cos
This equation is of the form + where we have,
tan and cos
2
2
y = t y y
dy
dx
dt
dx
dt
dx
t x = x
dt
dx
Pt =Q,
P= x Q= x
∴ ·
+
∴ · ·
·
z
z
z z z
z z
e e e x
t e Qe dx +c
y x = x . x dx +c
P dx x dx x
P dx P dx
tan log (sec
2
= sec
The solution is
i. e., sec sec cos sec
i. e., sec sec cos
Thus sec sec sin is the required solution.
y . x = x dx +c
y x = x +c,
z
26
Example – 5
Solve :
Dividing the given equation by we have,
1
Put
Hence (1) becomes
or
dy
dx
y
x
y x
>> y
y
dy
dx y x
x
y
t
y
dy
dx
dt
dx
dt
dx
t
x
x
dt
dx
t
x
x
+ ·
+ ·
· ∴

·

+ ·
− · −
2
2
2
2
1
1
1 1

This equation is a linear equation of the
where and
The solution is
i. e.,
Thus is the required solution.
log
dt
dx
Pt =Q,
P=
x
Q= x
e e =e
x
t e Q e dx +c
t .
x
x.
x
dx + c
xy
x +c,
P dx
x
dx
x
P dx P dx
+

∴ · ·
·
z
· −
z
· −
z

z

z z
1
1
1 1
1
1
Example – 6
Solve :
Consider
or Dividing by we get,
xy xy
dy
dx
dx
dy
x y +x y
dx
dy
xy = x y x
 

1 1
2
2 3
2 3 2
+ ·
>> ·

1
Put
x
dx
dy x
y = y
x
t
x
dx
dy
dt
dy
2
3
2
1
1
1 1

· ∴

·

27
Hence (1) becomes or
This equation is of the form where,
and
The solution is
− − −
+
− ∴ · ·
·
z
z z
z z
dt
dy
t y = y
dt
dy
+t y = y
dt
dy
P t = Q
P = y Q = y e e e
t e Q e dy +c
P dy y dy y
P dy P dy
3 3
3 2
2
i. e.,
Put
Also or
i. e., , on integration by parts.
Thus is the required solution.
t e y e dy +c
y u y dy = du
y y dy = y du y dy = u du
t e u e du+c
t e u e e +c
e
x
e
y
c ,
y
y
y u
y u u
y
y
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 3
2
2
2 2 3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
2

 
· −
z
· ∴
∴ · −
z
· − −
· −
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
EXERCISES
Solve the following equations
1 4 2 0
2 2
 

dy
dx
y x = x x ; y
x
dy
dx
y = x
+ ·

cot cosec
sin 2 tan
3 0 x dy + y x xy x dx − − · tan b g
4
5 2 3 0
2 6
4 2

 
dy
dx
y
x
x y
y xy dx + x dy =
+ ·

1 2 2
2
3
4
1 5
2
5 2
2 2
5 5 2
2 3
  

  
y x = x
y x = x c
x y x x+ x x +c
x y x
c
x y x
sin
cot log tan
cos =cos sin

+
− ·
· +

28
Session – 7
Orthogonal Trajectories
Definition : If two family of curves are such that every member of one family intersects
every member of the other family at right angles then they are said to be orthogonal
trajectories of each other.
Working procedure for problems
Case – i : (Cartesian family)
* Given f (x, y, c) = 0, differentiate w.r.t x and eliminate c.
* Replace by and solve the equation.
dy
dx
dx
dy

Case – ii : (Polar family)
* Given an equation in r and θ , we prefer to take logarithms first and then
differentiate w.r.t θ .
* fter ensuring that the given parameter is elimiated we replace by
and solve the equation.
 dr
d
r
d
d r

2
Example –1
Find the Orthogonal trajectories of the family of parabolas y
2
= 4 a x.
>> · Consider
y
x
a
2
4
Now differentiating (1) w.r.t x we have,
x. y
dy
dx
y
x
x y
dy
dx
y
2 1
0 0
2
2
2

· − ·

or 2
i. e., 2 is the D. E. of the given family.
Replacing by we have, 2
or
x
dy
dx
y =
dy
dx
dx
dy
x
dx
dy
y =
x dx + y dy =
x dx+ y dy = c

− −
F
H
G
I
K
J

z z
0
0
2 0
2
i. e., or 2 say
Thus is the required O. T.
x
y
c x y c =k
x y k
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
+ · + ·
+ ·
 
29
Example – 2
Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of curves
where is the parameter.
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 +
+
·  
>> We have
Differentiating w. r. t we have,
where
i. e.,
x
a
y
b
x
x
a
y y
b
y
dy
dx
x
a
y y
b
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2 2
0
2
+
+
·
+
+
· ·
·

+




Also from (1)
or
Now, dividing (2) by (3) we get,
or
Now, let us replace by
x
a
y
b
x a
a
y
b
x
x a
y y
y
x
x a
y
y
y
dy
dx
dx
dy
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
1
2 2 2
1
1
1
3
− ·

+

·

+

·

·
·



· −
F
H
G
I
K
J
− −
⇒ − +
z z z
x
x a y
dx
dy
y dy =
x a
x
y dy = x dx +a
dx
x
c
2 2
2 2
2
1
or by separating the variables.
 
i. e., log
or log = 0 is the required orthogonal trajectories. Here
y x
+a x +c
x +y a x b b = c
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
·

− −
Example-3
Show that the family of parabolas y
2
= 4a (x+a) is a self orthogonal.
>> Consider y
2
= 4a (x+a) ….(1)
Differentiating w.r.t x, we have
2 4
2
1
1
y
dy
dx
a a =
yy
y
dy
dx
· ∴ · where
Substituting this value of ‘a’ in (1) we have,
30
y yy x +
yy
y xy yy
y xy yy
2
1
1
1 1
2
1 1
2
2
2
2
2 2
·
F
H
G
I
K
J
· +
· +
or
Thus we have, 
This is the D.E. of the given family.
Now replacing y
1
by −1 / y
1
(2) becomes
y = x
y
y
y
y =
x
y
y
y
yy x y y .......
2
1 1 2
2 3
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
− F
H
G
I
K
J
+
− F
H
G
I
K
J

+
+ ·
or
i. e., 
(3) the D.E. of the orthogonal family which is same as (2) being the D.E. of the given
family.
Thus the family of parabolas y
2
= 4a(x+a) is self orthogonal.
Example –4
Find the O.T. of the family r =a(1+sin θ )
>> We have r = a (1 + sin θ )
⇒log log + log (1+ sin r = a 
Differentiating w.r.t θ we have,
1
0
1
2
2
r
dr
d
dr
d
r
d
dr
r
r
d
dr

 

· +

F
H
G
I
K
J
·
cos
1+ sin
Replacing by we get,
cos
1+ sin
i. e.,
cos
1+ sin
or
1+ sin
cos
by separating the variables.
1+ sin
cos
i. e., log + sec tan
− ·
·

z
+
z
·
z
+ ·
z
r
d
dr
d
dr
r
dr
r
d c
r d d c
 

   
i. e., log + log(sec tan ) + log(sec
i. e., log sec tan sec log (say)
cos
sin
cos cos
i. e.,
1+ sin
cos
or
1+ sin
sin
2
r c
r b
r b
r
b
r
b
  
  

 

+ ·
+ ·
⇒ +
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
·

·

   
 
b g
1 1
1
2
Thus sin is the required O. T. r =b  1− 
31
Example – 5
Find the O.T. of the family r
n
cos nθ = a
n
>> We have r
n
cos n θ = a
n
⇒n r + n n a log log(cos ) = log 
Differentiating w.r.t θ we have,
n
r
dr
d
n n
n r
dr
d
n
dr
d
r
d
dr
r
r
d
dr
n r
d
dr
n
d
n
dr
r

 

+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
· ·

F
H
G
I
K
J
· − ·
∴ ·

sin
cos
i. e.
1
tan
Replacing by we have,
1
tan or tan
tan
by separating the variables.
0
2
2

z
+ ·
z
dr
r
n d c cot  
i. e., log log(sin ) =
or log log (sin ) =
r +
n
n c
n r + n nc
1

i. e., log( sin ) = log (say)
sin = is the required O. T.
r n b
r n b,
n
n

 ∴
EXERCISES
Find the orthogonal trajectories of the following family of curves
1
2 2 0
4
2
2 2
2

 
 
y = ax
x y y +c =
x a y +a
+ +
·
 being the parameter.
3. Show that the family of parabolas is a self orthogonal.
4. sec
cos
2
r = a
r=a

  

2
5 1+
1 2
2 2 0
2
5 1
2 2
2 2
2


  
x y c
. x y kx c = k
r =b
r =b
+ ·
+ + +

is arbitrary.
4. cosec
cos

32
LESSON – 2 Part – C Integral Calculus
Session - 1
Introduction :
We are familiar with various methods of integration, definite integrals and the associated
application of finding the area under a curve.
In this chapter we first discuss reduction formulae and later discuss the method of tracing
cartesian and polar curves. By knowing the shape of a given curve we disucss application
of definite integrals such as area, length or perimeter, surface area of plane curves and
volume of solids.
In all these applications reduction formulae plays a vital role in the evaluation of definite
integrals.
Reduction Formulae
Reduction formulae is basically a recurrence relation which reduces integral of functions
of higher degree in the form of (where m and n are non negative  f x dx, f x g x dx
n m n
z z
Reduction formulae is basically a recurrence relation which reduces integral of functions
of higher degree in the form of (where m and n are non negative  f x dx, f x g x dx
n m n
z z
integers) to lower degree. The successive application of the recurrence relation finally
end up with a function of degree 0 or 1 so that we can easily complete the integration
process.
We discuss certain standard reduction formulae in the form of indefinite integrals and the
evaluation of these with standard limits of integration.
Reduction formula for sin and sin where is a positive integer
0
/2

Let sin
sin sin say
n n
x dx x dx dx n
I x dx
x . x dx = u v dx
n
n
n
z z
·
z
·
z z

π
1
 
We have the rule of integration by parts,
u v dx = u vdx v dx.u' dx −
zz z z
∴ · − − − −
z
− −
z
·− − −
z
· − −
z
− −
z
− −
− −
− −
− −
I x x x n x x dx
= x x + n x x dx
x x + n x x dx
x x + n x dx n x dx
n
n n
n n
n n
n n n
sin cos cos sin cos
sin cos sin cos
sin cos sin sin )
sin cos sin sin
1 2
1 2 2
1 2 2
1 2
1
1
1 1
1 1
    
   
   
    
33
i. e. sin cos
i. e. sin cos
sin
sin cos
I x x + n I n I
I n x . x + n I
I x dx =
x . x
n
n
n
I
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
· − − − −
+ − · − −
∴ ·

z
+

1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
1 1 1
1
1
 
   

This is the required reduction formula.
Illustration
 i To find sin
4
x dx
z
>> Comparing with L.H.S. of (1), we need to take n = 4 and use the established result.
∴ ·
z
·

+ I x dx
x x
I
4 2
4
3
4
sin
sin cos
4
3
We need to apply the result (1) again by taking n = 2
i. e.,
sin cos sin cos
3
I
x x x x
I
4 0
4
3
4 2
1
2
·

+

+
R
S
T
U
V
W
We cannot find I
0
from (1). But basically we have
I x dx= dx = x
0
1 ·
z z
sin
0
Thus sin
sin cos
sin cos
4
I x dx=
x x
x x +
x
c
4
3
4
3
8
3
8
·

z
− +
Corollary :
To evaluate sin
n
x dx
0
2
z
>> ·
z
Let sin I x dx
n
n
0
2 
Equation (1) must be established first.
∴ · −
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+

from (1)
sin cos
I
x. x
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
0
2
1
2
1

But cos (π / 2) = 0 = sin 0
Thus I
n
n
I .
n n
·

1
2
2

We use this recurrence relation to find I
n

2
by simply replacing n by (n− 2).
34
i. e.,
Hence
Similarly from (2)
Hence again by back substitution.
Continuing like this the reduction process will end up as below.
if is odd
= if is even
But sin
I
n
n
I
I
n
n
n
n
I
I
n
n
I
I
n
n
n
n
n
n
I
I
n
n
n
n
n
n
I n
n
n
n
n
n
n
I n
I x dx =
n n
n n
n n
n n
n
− −

− −

·

·
− −

·

·
− −

·
− −

− −

· −
2 4
4
4 6
6
1
0
1 0
3
2
1 3
2
5
4
1 3
2
5
4
1 3
2
5
4
2
3
1 3
2
5
4
1
2

 
  
  
 2
0
2
0 0
2
0
2
0
2
0 1 1
2
 


 
cos
and sin
0
x
I x dx = dx = x

 
z
· − − ·
·
z
·
z
Thus we have,
sin
if is even
if is odd
n
x dx =
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
− −

− −

R
S
|
T
|
z
1 3
2
5
4
1
2 2
1 3
2
5
4
2
3
0
2
   
  

Note :
The reduction formula for cos can be established in a similar way.
n
x dx
z
The result is as follows.
cos
cos sin
n
n
n
x dx =
x . x
n
n
n
I

+

z
1
2
1
sin cos by the property
n n
a a
x dx = x dx f x dx = f a x dx
0
2
0 0 0
2    
  
z z

z z
35
Session – 2
Reduction formula for tan and tan where is a positive integer.
0
n n
x dx x dx n
Let tan
tan tan tan sec
tan sec tan
tan sec
For the first term, put tan sec
Now
Thus
tan
2 2
2
2
,
I x dx
x. x dx x x dx
x x dx x dx
x x dx I
x = t x dx = dt
I t dt I
t
n
I
I
x
n
I
n
n
n n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
z z
·
z
·
z
· −
z
·
z

z
·
z

· −
z
·

·

− −
− −

2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1 
Next, let tan
tan
by using (1)
I x dx
I
x
n
I
n
n
n
n
n
·
z
∴ ·

L
N
M
O
Q
P

0
4
1
0
4
2
1

But tan( / 4) =1 and tan 0 = 0
Thus tan
or or

I x dx
n
I
I I
n
n I I
n
n
n
n n n n
·
z
·

+ ·

+ ·

− + −
0
4
2
2 1 1
1
1
2
1
1
1


 
Illustration
(i) To find tan
5
x dx
z
>> ·
z
· −
− −
R
S
T
U
V
W
·
z
·
z
·

z
· − +
I x dx
x
I
x x
I
I x dx x dx x
x dx
x x
x c
5 3
1
1
tan
tan
4
by using (1).
i. e., =
tan
4
tan
2
But tan tan log (sec )
tan
tan
4
tan
2
log (sec ) +
5
4
4 2
1
5
4 2

Note : The reduction formula for cot can be established in a similar way
and the result is as follows
n
x dx
.
z
36
I x dx=
x
n
I
n
n
n
n
·

z

cot
cot
1
2
1
3. Reduction formula for sec where is a positive integer
n
x dx n
z
>> ·
z
·
z

Let sec
sec sec
2
I x dx
x dx
n
n
n 2

Integrating by parts we have,
I x x x. n x x x dx
= x x n x x dx
= x x n x x dx
= x x n x dx + n x dx
n
n n
n n
n n
n n n
· −
z

− −
z
− −
z

− −
z

z
− −
− −
− −
− −
sec tan tan sec sec tan
sec tan sec tan
sec tan sec sec
sec tan sec sec
2
2
2
2 3
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 1
2 2
  
 
   
   
I x x n I n I
I n
n
x x n I
I x dx =
n
x x
n
n
n
I
I x dx
I
n
x x
n
n
n
I
n
n
n n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
· − − + −
+ − ·

+ −
·

+

F
H
G
I
K
J z
·
z
∴ ·

L
N
M
O
Q
P
+

F
H
G
I
K
J

sec tan
i. e., sec tan
Thus sec
sec tan
Next let sec
sec tan
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
4
2
0
4
2
2 2
1 2 2
1
2
1
1
2
1
   
  

…(1)
But sec( / 4) = 2 tan ( / 4) =1, sec0 =1, tan 0 = 0
Thus sec
/ 4
 

 

n
n
n
x dx =
n
n
n
I
2
1
2
1
2
2
0
2

z
+

F
H
G
I
K
J
Illustrations
(i) To find sec
sec
sec tan
by using (1).
i. e., =
sec tan sec tan
But sec log(sec tan )
5
5
3
3
x dx
I x dx
x x
I
x x x x
I
I x dx = x x
z
>> ·
z
· +
+ +
R
S
T
U
V
W
· +
z
5 3
1
1
4
3
4
4
3
4 2
1
2

37

z
· + +
z
· + · + +
R
S
|
T
|
U
V
|
W
|
· + ·
z
·
z
·

+

F
H
G
I
K
J

sec
sec tan
sec tan log(sec tan ) +
(ii) To evaluate sec
The reduction formula for cosec can be established in
a similar way and the result is as follows.
cosec
cosec cot
5
3
4
x dx
x x
x x + x x c
x dx
>>I I
x dx
I x dx
x x
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
n
n
4
3
8
3
8
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
1
0
2
3
2
3
4
3
1
2
1
0
4
4
2
2
0
2
2

e j e j
Note :
Session – 3
Reduction formula for sin cos and sin cos
where and are positive integers.
0
/ 2
m n m n
x x dx x x dx
m n

z z
Let sin cos
sin sin cos say
I x x dx
x x x dx= uv dx
m, n
m n
m n
·
z
·
z z

 
   
1
We have
Here sin cos
cos
by putting cos
uv dx = u v dx v dx. u' dx
v dx = x dx
x
n
x = t
n
n

zz z z
z z
·

+
+1
1
Now (sin
cos cos
sin cos
i. e., =
sin cos
sin cos
I x
x
n
x
n
m x x dx
x x
n
m
n
x x dx
m, n
m
n n
m
m n
m n
·

+
F
H
G
I
K
J

+
z

+
+

+
z

+ +

− +
− +
1
1 1
2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
1
1
1
  
=
x x
n
m
n
x x x dx
=
x x
n
m
n
x x x dx
m n
m n
m n
m n

+
+

+
z

+
+

+
z

− +

− +

sin cos
sin cos cos
sin cos
sin cos ( sin
2
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 
=
x x
n
m
n
x x dx
m
n
x x dx
m n
m n m n

+
+

+
z

+
z
− +

sin cos
sin cos sin cos
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
38
I
x x
n
m
n
I
m
n
I
I
m
n n
x x + m I
I
m n
n n
x x + m I
I x x dx =
x x
m+n
m
m+n
I
m, n
m n
m n m, n
m, n
m n
m n
m, n
m n
m n
m, n
m n
m n
m n
·

+
+

+

+
+

+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
+
− −
+
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
+
− −
∴ · − +
z

− +

− +

− +

− +

sin cos
i. e., sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
1 1
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

 
 
…(1)
Note : If we decompose sin cos sin cos cos and integrate by parts taking
cos sin cos we can obtain

sin . cos

m n m n
n m
m, n
m n
m, n
x x= x x x
u = x, v = x x
I
x x
m+n
n
m+n
I 

+ −

·

+

1
1
1 1
2
1
2
Note:
sin cos
m n
x x dx =
m m n n
m n m n m n
k
   
   
− − − −
+ + − + −
×
z
1 3 1 3
2 4
0
2
where k = π / 2 when m and n are even. This is known as Walli’s rule.
Illustrations









i sin cos
ii sin cos
iii sin cos
iv sin cos
4
5
5
6
5
0
2
7
0
2
6
0
2
8
4 2 3 1
9 7 5 3 1
8
315
6 4 2 4 2
12 10 8 6 4 2
1
120
5 3 1 4 2
11 9 7 5 3 1
8
693
7 5 3 1 5 3 1
14 12 10 8 6 4 2
x x dx =
x x dx =
x x dx =
x x dx =
× × × ×
·
z
× × × × ×
·
z
× × × × ×
·
z
× × × × × ×

2
5
4096
0
2
·
z


Session – 4
Note for problems : Basic properties of definite integrals are the prerequisites for
working problems on reduction formulae.
Example –1
Evaluate sin
Let sin
8
8
x x dx
I = x x dx
0
0

z
z
39
We have the property
sin sin
8 8
f x dx = f a x dx
I = x x dx = x x dx
a a
  
     
0 0
0 0
z

z
∴ − −
z

z
  
 
· −
z z

z z

 

 
 
x dx x x dx
I = x dx I I = x dx
I =
I =
sin sin
sin or 2 sin by a property.
Hence by reduction formula.
Thus
8 8
8 8
0 0
0
2
0
2
2
7
8
5
6
3
4
1
2 2
35
256



Example –2
Evaluate cos sin using reduction formula.
Let cos sin
sin 6 sin 3 cos 3 sin sin cos (
cos sin cos 3
4 2
/ 6
4 2
4
3 6
3 6
2 2 2 2
3 2 3
0
0
6
2
0
6
x x dx
I = x x dx
x = x x
I = x x x dx
/
/

 
z
>>
z
·

z
  
 
i. e., sin cos 3
Put 3
If If
sin cos =
4
3
sin cos
by reduction formula.
Thus
2 6
2 6 2 6
I = x x dx
x = y dx =dy
x y x = y =
I = y y
dy
y y dy
I =
I =
/
/ /
4 3
3
0 0 6 2
4
3
4
3
1 5 3 1
8 6 4 2 2
5
192
0
6
0
2
0
2

 
 

z

· ·

z z
× × ×
L
N
M
O
Q
P

  


40
Example – 3
Using reduction formula find the value of
Let
Put sin cos and varies from 0 to
cos cos
sin cos cos sin cos
Hence by reduction formula.
Thus
0
1
2 3
3 4
x x dx
>> I = x x dx
x = dx = d
x
I = d d
I =
I =
2 2 3 2
2 2 3 2
0
1
2 3 2 3 2
2
0
2
2
0
2
1
1
2
1
1 3 1
6 4 2 2
32
z

z

− · ·

z
·
z
× ×
 
 

   

 

 
 
    
 
      

 
Example – 4
Evaluate (i) (ii)
Let
Put sin sin cos
varies from 0 to
Also sin sin
i. e., = sin sin sin cos sin cos
0
2
0
2
2
x ax x dx
x dx
ax x
I x ax x dx
x = a dx = a d
ax x a a
a a a
a a
a
2 2
2
2
0
2
1
2 2
2
2 2 2 2 4
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2 4
2
2 4 4
4 1 4 2

z

z
>> · −
z

− · −
− · ·
   
 
 
    

 
∴ ·
z
·
z
·
× × ×
·
·
I a a a d
a d
a
I
a
1
2
0
2
4
0
2
4
1
4
4 2 4
32
32
5 3 1
8 6 4 2 2
5
8
sin sin cos sin cos
sin cos
by reduction formula.
Thus
4
6 2
     
  

 



41
ii)
sin
sin cos
sin cos
sin by reduction formula.
Thus
4
4
I
a
a
a d
a d a
I
a
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
4
2
4
8 8
3
4
1
2 2
3
2
·
z
·
z
·
·

 
  
 


Example – 5
Evaluate
>> Let
Put tan sec
If If
Also (1+ ) tan sec sec
0
0
2
4 2 2 8
x
x
dx
I =
x
x
dx
x = dx = d
x = x = ,
x
4
2 4
4
2 4
2 4 4
1
1
0 0 2
1
 
 
  
   
+
z
+
z

· ∞ ·
· + · ·

  
  
  

z
·
z
·
z
·
z
× ×
· ·
I = d d
d d
I =
I =
/ /
/
tan
sec
sec
tan
sec
cos
sin
cos
sin cos
Hence by reduction formula.
Thus
4
8
2
4
6
6
4
4
4 2

 

   

 
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
3 1 1
6 4 2 2
32



Exercises :
Evaluate the following integrals
1
2
3
0
4
0
4
2 2
0

sin 4 cos 2
sin cos
4 3
7 2
x x dx
x x x dx
x
a x
dx
a

z
z

z
4
1
3
2 4
0
1

 
x
x
dx
+
z
5
1
6
2 9 2
0

 

x
x
dx
+
z

1 128 1155 2 16 315 3 3 16 4 1 24 5 1 7
4
         a
42
Session –5
Tracing of Curves
Introduction :
This topic gives an insight to the process of finding the shape of a plane curve based on
its equation by examining certain features. Based on these features we can draw a rough
sketch of the curve. It is highly essential to known the shape of the curve to find its
area, length, surface area and volume of solids.
List of important points to be examined for tracing a cartesian curve f (x, y) = 0
1. Symmetry : If the given equation has even powers of x only then the curve is
symmetrical about the y axis and if the given equation has even powers of y only
then the curve is symmetrical about the x-axis.
If f (x, y) = f (y, x) then the curve is symmetrical about the line y = x. Also
if f (x, y) = f (−x, − y) then the curve is symmetrical about the
origin.
2. Special points on the curve : If f (0, 0) = 0 then the curve passes through the
origin. In such a case we can find the equations of tangents at the origin by
equating the groups of lowest degree terms in x and y to zero.
The points of intersection of the curve with the x-axis is got by putting y = 0 and
that with the y-axis is got by putting x = 0.
3. Asymptotes : Asymptote of a given curve is defined to be the tangent to the given
curve at infinity. In otherwords these are lines touching the curve at infinity.
Equating the coefficient of highest degree terms in x to zero we get asymptotes
parallel to the x-axis and equating the coefficient of highest degree terms in y to
zero we get asymptotes parallel to the y-axis.
4. Region of existence : Region of existence can be determined by finding out the set
of permissible (real) values x and y. The curve does not lie in the region whenever
x or y is imaginary.
By examining these features we can draw a rough sketch of the curve.
Note : In the case of a parametric curve : x = x (t) and y = y (t), we need to vary the
parameter t suitably to take a note of the variations in x and y so that the curve can be
drawn accordingly.
List of important points to be examined for tracing a polar curve f ( r, θ ) = 0
1. Symmetry : f ( r, θ ) = f ( r, −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the initial
line θ = 0 and θ · π .
If f ( r, θ ) = f ( r, π −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the line
θ · π / 2 (positive y-axis)
43
If f ( r, θ ) = f ( r, π / 2 −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the line
θ · π / 4 (the line y = x)
If f ( r, θ ) = f ( r, 3 π / 2 −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the line
θ · 3 π / 4 (the line y = −x)
If f ( r, θ ) = f (−r, θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the pole. (origin)
2. Curve passing through the pole : If r = 0 gives a single value of θ say θ
1
between 0 and 2π then the curve passes through the pole once. θ = θ
1
is a
tangent to the curve at the pole.
If it gives two values then the curve passes through the pole twice.
3
0 0
Asymptote : If as then the line is an asymptote. r → ∞ → ·   
4. Region of existence : If r is imaginary for θ ∈ (α, β ) i.e, α< θ < β then the
curve does
not exist in the region between θ · α and θ · β .
5. Special points : We can tabulate a set of values of r for convenient values of θ .
These give some specific points through which the curve passes.
By examining these features we can draw a rough sketch of the curve
Example – 1
Trace the curve y
2
(a−x) = x
3
, a > 0
>> We have y
2
(a−x) = x
3
. (This curve is known as cissoid)
We observe the following features of the curve.
1. Symmetry : The equation contain even powers of y.

the curve is symmetrical about x- axis.
2. Special points : The curve passes through (0, 0).
The given equation is ay
2
−xy
2
=x
3
.
The lowest degree term is ay
2
and ay
2
= 0

y = 0 which is the equation of x-axis. Hence
x-axis is the tangent to the curve at the origin.
Putting y = 0 we get x = 0 and vice versa. This means that the curve meets the x-axis and
y-axis at the origin.
3. Asymptotes : Equating the co-efficient of the highest degree term in y i.e. coefficient
of y
2
being a−x to zero we get x=a which is a line parallel to the y-axis. Hence x=a is an
asymptote. Also coefficient of the highest degree term in x is x
3
whose coefficient is 1

0. This implies that there is no asymptote parallel to the x-axis.
4. Region of existence : y
2
= x
3
/ (a−x)

∴ − y = x a x.
3

44
This is positive if x > 0, a −x > 0 or x < 0, a −x < 0 i.e. x > 0, x < a, x < 0, x > a. Since
a > 0 the second case is not possible. Hence y is real if x > 0 and x < a which implies that
the curve lies in the interval 0 < x < a. Further as x increases y also increases.
The shape of the curve is as follows
Note : Since the curve meets the coordinate axes at the origin only, the origin called a
‘cusp’ with x-axis as the common tangent.
Example – 2
Trace the curve y
2
(a−x) = x
2
(a + x), a > 0
>> y
2
(a−x) = x
2
(a + x) (This curve is known as ‘Strophoid’.)
We observe the following features of the curve.
1. Symmetry : The equation contain even powers of y.

the curve is symmetrical about x- axis.
2. Special points : The curve passes through the origin. The equation of the curve
can be put in the form
a (y
2
−x
2
) −x y
2
−x
3
= 0
Equating the lowest degree terms to zero we have a (y
2
−x
2
) = 0
Hence y = + x which are the tangents to the curve at the origin. Since there are two
tangents, the origin is called a ‘node’.
Next putting y =0 we get x
2
(a + x)= 0  x=0, x = − a.
The points are (0, 0) and (−a, 0)
Also putting x = 0 we get ay
2
= 0 or y = 0 and the point is (0, 0)
Hence we say that the curve intersects x-axis at (0,0) (−a, 0) and intersects the y-axis at
(0, 0) only.
3. Asymptotes : The co-efficient of the highest degree term in x being x
3
is −1 and
hence there is no asymptote parallel to the x-axis. Also the coefficient of the highest
45
degree in y being a−x, a−x = 0 gives x = a. Hence x = a is the only asymptote which is
a line parallel to the y-axis.
4
2
  Region of existence : y = x a+x a x. −
When a+x < 0 and also when a−x < 0 y is imaginary.
Hence we can say that the curve lies between the lines x = −a and x = + a
The shape of the curve is as follows.
Example – 3
Trace the curve a y
2
= x
2
(a−x), a > 0
We observe the following features of the curve.
1. Symmetry : The equation contain even powers of y and hence the curve is
2. Special points : The curve passes through (0, 0). The equation of the curve is
ay
2
−ax
2
+ x
3
= 0. Equating the lowest degree terms to zero we have
a (y
2
−x
2
) = 0  y = + x
These are the equations of the tangents to the curve at the origin.
If y = 0 then x
2
(a − x) = 0, or x = 0, x = a and if x = 0, y = 0. Hence the curve meets
the x-axis at (a, 0) and meets the y-axis at (0,0) only.
3. Asymptotes : The coefficient of the highest degree terms in x and y are
respectively 1 and a. Since these are constants, there are no asymptotes.
4. Region of existence : y = x a x a   −
y is positive if x > 0 and a−x > 0. x > 0 and x < a or 0 < x < a.
The curve lies between x = 0 and x = a.
46
The shape of the curve is as follows.
Session – 6
Example – 4
Trace the curve r = a sin 3  (Three leaved rose)
 We observe the following features of the curve.
f (r, ) f (r,−  ) the curve is not symmetrical about the initial line.
f (r, ) f (−r,  ) the curve is not symmetrical about the pole.
f (r, ) f (r,  −  ) the curve is symmetrical about the line
r = 0 gives sin 3 0 n or n 
Taking values for n = 0, 1, 2, …..6 we get the corresponding values of

 and the curve passes through the pole for these values.
If 0 <  r is positive and r = a if
If <  r is positive and r = 0 if

If <  r is negative and r = −a if

These observations implies that r increases from 0 to a as varies from 0 to
r decreases from a to 0 as  varies from to
.
r increases numerically from 0 to a as varies from to

47
Further f(r −) = f(r,) implies that the curve is
symmetrical about the line  =  / 6 so that we conclude that there is a loop
between the lines and 
Similarly we can examine the path of the curve as  moves from  to
and also from  to 2.
Let us tabulate a set of values of r corresponding to some values of 


 

  

  

 



r 0 a 0 −a 0 a 0 −a 0 a 0 −a
The curve is symmetrical about and 32
The shape of the curve is as follows.
Example – 5
Trace the curve r
2
= a
2
cos 2  (Lemniscate of Bernoulli)
>> We observe the following features of the curve.
f (r, ) = f (r, −) the curve is symmetrical about the initial line.
f (r, ) = f (−r, ) the curve is symmetrical about the pole.
r = 0 gives a
2
cos 2 = 0 i.e., cos2 = 0 2and

 andare the tangents to
the curve at the pole.
When  = 0, r
2
= a
2
or r = + a.
Hence the curve meets the initial line at the points (+a, 0) and (− a, 0).
48
Since the curve is symmetrical about the initial line it is composed of two loops. r is real
for  and . Also
r doesnot tend to infinity for any and hence there are no asymptotes.
The shape of the curve is as follows.
Application to find area, length and volume of solids of revolution
The relevent formulae for finding these are as follows.
1. Area : The area (A) bounded by a curve y = f (x) , the x-axis and the ordinates x = a
and x = b is given by
A= y dx
x=a
b
z
The area (A) between the curves y = f (x) and y = g (x) between x = a and x = b is given
by
A= f x dx g x dx.
a
b
a
b
  −
z z
The area (A) called the sectorial area, bounded by a polar curve r = f ( and the lines
and  is given by
A= r d
1
2
2
1
2

z
2. Length : The length (s) of the arc of a curve between two specified points on it for
various types of the curves are given by the following formulae.
Such a process is called rectification and the entire length of the curve is called as the
perimeter of the curve.
(i) Cartesian curve y = f (x) or x = f (y)
s =
dy
dx
dx
dx
dy
dy
x=a
b
y=c
d
1 1
2 2
+
F
H
G
I
K
J z
+
F
H
G
I
K
J z
or
49
(ii) Parametric curve x = x (t), y = y (t)
s =
dx
dt
dy
dt
dt
t
t
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J z
2 2
1
2
(iii) Polar curve r = f (
s = r
dr
d
d s = r
d
d r
dr
r r
r
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1 +
F
H
G
I
K
J z
+
F
H
G
I
K
J z
· ·



or
3. Surface area : When a curve revolves about the x-axis a surface is generated and
the same is called a surface of revolution. If a curve is bounded by the ordinates
x = a and x = b revolves once completely about the x-axis, the area of the surface
(S) generated is given by
S = y ds= y
ds
dx
dx
x=a
b
a
b
2 2 
z z
where
ds
dx
dy
dx
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
1
2
Similarly the surface area of revolution about the y-axis is given by
S = x ds = x
ds
dy
dy,
c
d
y=c
d
2 2  
z z
where
ds
dy
dx
dy
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
1
2
In the case of a polar curve the surface area of revolution about the initial line is given by
S = r ds= r
ds
d
d 2 2
1
2
1
2
   



sin sin

z z
·
where
ds
d
r
dr
d  
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
2
4. Volume of revolution : The volume (V) of the solid generated by the revolution of the
curve y = f (x) between the ordinates x = a and x = b, about the x-axis is given by
V = y dx
x=a
b

2
z
Similarly if the axis of revolution is the y-axis, the volume of the solid is given by
V = x dy
y=c
d

2
z
50
Also in the case of a polar curve r = f () the volume (V) of the solid generated is given
by
V = r d
V = r d
2
3
2
3
2
3
3

 

   
z
z
·
sin (revolution about the initial line)
cos (revolution about the line )
Session – 7
Application related to standard curves
Example –1
The Astroid : Astroid is the curve represented by the equation
x
2/3

+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
Its parametric equation is x = a cos
3
and y = a sin
3
.
We shall find its shape first and then determine the associated area, perimeter, surface
area and the volume.
(a) Trace curve x
2/3

+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
>> Let us consider its parametric equation :
x = a cos
3
y = a sin
3
.
We tabulate x, y corresponding to certain angles of in the interval [0, 2 
     
x a 0 −a 0 a
y 0 a 0 −a 0
From the table we conclude that the curve meets the x-axis at the points (a, 0) and (
− a, 0). Also it meets the y-axis at the points (0, a) and (0, − a). Since | cos | < | and
| sin  | < 1, we have | x | < a and | y | < a. Hence we infer that the entire curve lies within
a circle of radius ‘a’ having origin as the centre.
51
Also we have from the cartesian equation of the curve,
f (x, y) = f (−x, y) ; f (x, y) = f (x, − y) ; f (x, y) = f (y, x)
Hence the curve is symmetrical about the coordinate axes and also about the line y = x.
Taking a note of the values of x and y as advances from one quadrant to the other
the shape of the curve is as follows.
(b) Find the area enclosed by astroid x
2/3

+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
>> Note : In any problem on applications we need to draw the curve first by briefly
examining the important features.
The curve astroid is symmetrical about the coordinate axes and hence the required area
(A) is equal to four times the area in the first quadrant.
i. e., A= y dx= y
dx
d
d
a a
4 4
0 0
z z

We have cos sin cos sin x =a y =a
dx
d
a
3 3 2
3  

  ∴ · −
When x = 0 : a cos
3
= 0 or cos
3
= 0 
x = 1 : a cos
3
= a or cos
3
= 1 
∴ −
z
·
A= a a d 4 3
0 2
0
sin cos sin
3 2
   

·
z
12
2
0
2
a d sin cos
4 2
  


·
× ×
12
3 1 1
6 4 2 2
3 8
2
2
a
A a


by reduction formula.
Thus the area ( ) enclosed is sq. units.
(c) Find the parameter of the astroid x
2/3

+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
52
>> Since the curve is symmetrical about the coordinate axes, the perimeter (entire length)
of the curve is four times its length in the first quadrant.

∴ ·
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J z
·
l
dx
d
dy
d
d 4
2 2
0
2
 


· +
z
4 9 9
2 2
0
2
a a d cos sin sin cos
4 2 4 2
    

· +
z
4 9
2
0
2
a d cos sin cos sin
2 2 2 2
    

 

·
z
4 3
0
2
a d cos sin   

·
z
·
− L
N
M
O
Q
P
· − − · − − − ·
6
6
2
3 3 1 1 6
0
2
0
2
a d
a a a a
a
/
sin 2
cos 2
cos cos 0
Thus the perimeter of the curve is 6 units.
 


   
(d) Find the surface area of revolution of the astroid x
2/3

+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
>> Because of symmetry the required surface area is equal to twice the surface area by
the revolution of the first quadrant of the curve.
∴ · ×
z z
·
S y ds = y
ds
d
d
a
2 2 4
0
2
0
 


But cos sin
Hence sin cos sin
3
ds
d
dx
d
dy
d
a
S = a a d
  
 
    

·
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
z
2 2
0
2
3
4 3

= a d
= a
a
12
12
3
5 3 1
2
0
2
2
2
   

sin cos
by reduction formula.
Thus the required surface area = 12 / 5 sq. units.
4


z
× ×
(e) Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the astroid x
2/3
+y
2/3
= a
2/3
>> Because of the symmetry the required volume (V) is equal to twice the volume of the
solid generated by the curve in the first quadrant about the x-axis.
53
∴ · ×
z z
· −
z
·
z
V y dx = y
dx
d
d
a a d
a d
a a
2 2
2 3
6
2 2
0 0
2
2
0
3
0
2
 

    
   

sin cos sin
sin cos
6 2
7 2
 

·
× × × ×
6
6 4 2 1
9 7 5 3 1
3
3

a
a

by reduction formula.
Thus the required volume of the solid is 32 / 105 cubic units.
Example –2
Cycloid : Cycloid is a curve generated by a point on the circumference of a circle which
rolls on a fixed straight line known as the base. Imagine a wheel rolling on a straight line
without slipping. A fixed point on the rim of the wheel traces the cycloid. The parametric
equation of the cycloid can be in the following forms :
    
    
    
    
i sin cos
ii sin cos
iii sin cos
iv sin cos
x =a y =a
x =a y =a
x =a y =a
x =a y =a
  
  
  
  
− −
+ −
− +
+ +
1
1
1
1
(a) Trace the cycloid :
x =a y =a        − − sin cos 1
>> Let us tabulate x, y for certain values of  in the interval [0, 2] where is


    
x 0 a
( )
a

a(3 ) 2a
y 0 a 2a A 0
From the table we can conclude that the curve intersects the x-axis at x = 0 and 2a.
Also, we have y = a (1cos) and since | cos  | < 1 y is non negative. Hence the
curve lies above the x-axis.
Taking a note of the values of x and y as  advances in the interval [0, 2] the shape
of the curve is as follows. It is called an arch of the curve.
54
(b) Find the area of an arch of the cycloid :

x =a y =a    − − sin cos 1
>>
z
− −
z
·
Area
i. e., cos cos

  
A = y
dx
d
d
A= a a d

  

0
2
0
2
1 1
· −
z
·
z
a d
a d
2 2
0
2
2
0
2
1
4 2
 

cos
sin (
4
 
 

Put varies from 0 to
sin sin
4 4
 
 
 

2 2
8 8 2
2
0
2
0
2
· ∴ ·

z z
· ·
t d dt, t
A= a t dt = a t dt
t t
i. e., by reduction formula. A= a 16
3
4
1
2 2
2
  

Thus the area enclosed by an arch of the curve on its base is 3 a
2
sq.units.
(c) Find the length of an arch the cycloid :
x =a y =a    − − sin cos 1
55
>>
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J z
− +
z
· − + +
z
· − ·
z z
·
z
· −
L
N
M
O
Q
P
· − − · − − − ·
Length ( ) =
i. e., cos sin
cos cos sin
cos sin (
sin (
cos (
cos cos 0
=0
2
2
2
2
l
dx
d
dy
d
d
l = a a d
a d
a d a d
a d
a
a a
 

  
   
   
 

 

2 2
2 2 2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
1
1 2
2 1 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1 2
4 4 1 1 8
 
 
   



    a
Thus the required length is 8a
(d) Find the surface area generated by the revolution of an arch of the cycloid
x = a (−sin ), y = a (1−cos ) about the x-axis.
>>
z
·
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
∴ −
z
Surface area (
But sin ( / 2)
cos sin ( / 2)
S = y
ds
d
d
ds
d
dx
d
dy
d
a
S = a a d

 
2
2
2 1 2
0
2
2 2
0
2

  

   

· ·
z z
· ∴ ·
·
z z
4 2 8
2 2
8 2 16 2
32
2
3
3
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
     
  
 

 
 
a d a d
t d dt t
S = a t . dt a t dt
i. e., S = a
a
t= t=
sin ( / 2) sin ( / 2)
Put and varies from 0 to
Hence sin sin
by applying reduction formula.
Thus the required surface area is 64 sq. units.
3 3
3 3
 

(e) Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the cycloid
x =a y =a        − − sin cos 1
56
>>
z
· − −
z
· ·
z z
· ·
z z
V = y
dx
d
d
a a d
a d a d
a d a d

   
     
     

 
 
2
0
2
2 2
0
2
3
3
3
0
2
0
2
3 3
0 0
1 1
2 2 8 2
8 2 2 16 2
 
  
  
cos cos
sin sin
sin sin
2 6
6 6
o t
Put and varies from 0 to
sin
by reduction formula.
Thus the required volume is 5 cubic units.
6
  

 
   
2 2 2
16 2
32
5
6
3
4
1
2 2
3
0
2
3
2 3
· ∴ ·

z
·
t d dt t
V = a t . dt
a ,
a
Session –8
Example –3
Cardiode : r = a (1+cos )
(a) Trace the curve r = a (1+cos )
>> r = a (1+cos )
We observe the following features of the curve.
(i) f (r, ) = f (r, −) and hence the curve is symmetrical about the initial line.
(ii) r = 0 when =  and hence the curve passes through the pole. = 
is a tangent to the curve at the pole.
(iii) Since | cos  | < |, | r |< 2a and hence the curve lies with in the circle of radius
2a having its centre at the pole.
Let us tabulate r for certain angles of .


    
r 2a 3a/2 a a/2 0
57
It is evident thatas increases from 0 to , r decreases from 2a to 0. The shape
of the curve is as follows.
(b) Find the area of the cardioide r = a (1 + cos )
>> Since the curve is symmetrical about the initial line, the total area (A) is twice the area
above the initial line.
i. e., cos
cos ( )] cos ( )
2
2 2 4
A= r d a d
=a d a d
2
1
2
1
2 2 4 2
2 2
0 0
2
0
2
0
  
  
  
   
 
 
· +
z z
z
·
z
Put and varies from 0 to
cos cos
by reduction formula.
Thus the area enclosed is 3 / 2 sq. units.
4 2 4
2
  

 
 
  
 
2 2 2
4 2 8
8
3
4
1
2 2
2
0
2
0
2
2
· ∴ ·

z z
·
t d dt t
A= a t. dt = a t dt
a
a
t= t=
(c) Find the perimeter of cardioide r = a (1 + cos )
>> Perimeter (length) = 2 (length of the upper half of the curve)
i. e., = 2 where
Now cos sin cos
2
ds
d
ds
d
r
dr
d
ds
d
a a a
  

  

0
2
2
2 2 2
1 2 1
z
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
· + + · +    
·

z
·
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
2 2
2 4
1 2
8
0
0
a
a d a a
a
cos (
perimeter = 2 cos( / 2)
sin( / 2)
Thus the perimeter of the curve is 8 units.

 



58
(d) Find the surface area of the revolution of the curve about the initial line.
>>
z
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
∴ +
z
·
z
·
·
Surface area sin
But cos ( )
cos sin cos ( )
cos sin ( cos( ) cos( )
S = r
ds
d
d
ds
d
r
dr
d
a
S = a a d
a d


   
   
2
2 2
2 1 2 2
4 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
0
2 2
0
 

 

    
     

·
z
· ∴ ·
z
×
16 2 2
2 2 2
16 2
32
3 1
5 3
5
2 4
0
2 4
0
2
2
2
   
  

a d
t d dt t
S = a t t . dt
= a
a
t=
cos sin (
Put and varies from 0 to .
Hence cos sin
by reduction formula.
Thus the required surface area is 32 sq. units.
 
 



(e) Find the volume generated by the revolution of the curve r = a (1 + cos )
the initial line.
>> ·
z
+
z
+ ∴ −
· ·
∴ − ·
z z
·
L
N
M
O
Q
P
· − ·
V = r d a d
t = dt = d
t = t =
V =
a
t dt
a
t dt
a t a a
a
2
3
2
3
1
1
0 2 0
2
3
2
3
2
3 4
2
3
4 0
8
3
3
3
0
3 3
0
3
3
3
2
0
3
0
2
3 4
0
2
3 3
3
  

  
  
  
 
  

 
sin cos sin
Put cos sin
If and if
Thus the required volume is 8 cubic units.
 

 
 

Example – 4
Regarding sphere as the solid generated by revolving a circle about a diameter, find the
volume of a sphere of radius ‘a’
59
>> Let x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
be the equation of the circle and when the semicircle revolves about
the diameter (x-axis) a sphere of radius ‘a’ is generated.
Volume
Thus the required volume is cubic units.
V = y dx
V y dx a x dx
a x x a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

 

2
2 2 2
2 3 3
3
3 4 3
4 3
z
·
z
· −
z
· − ·
− −

 
  

Example – 5
Find the volume generated by the parabola y
2
= 4 ax when revolved about the y-axis
between y = 0 and y = 2a
>> Required volume (
i. e.,
Thus the required volume is cubic units.
V = x dy
V y a dy
a
y
a
a
a
a
a
y=
a
a

  
 

 

2
2 2
0
2
2
5
0
2
2
5
5
2
3
4
16 5
80
2
32
80
2 5
z
·
z
·
L
N
M
O
Q
P
· ·
Example – 6
Find the perimeter of the curve r = a sin
3
(/ 3)
>> Let us tabulate r for certain angles of where r = a sin
3
(/ 3)


   

 


r 0 a/8
3 3 8 a 
A
3 3 8 a 
a/8 0
60
∴ +
z
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
· +
· +
· +
·
∴ + ·
·
perimeter
sin sin cos
sin sin cos
sin sin cos
sin
sin
6 2
6 4 2
4 2 2
4
2
  
  
  
  

  
l = r dr / d d
r
dr
d
a a.
a a
a
a
r dr / d a
2 2
0
3
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
3 3 3 3 1 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
3
3
 

  
  
  

 

o t
Hence, perimeter sin
Put and varies from 0 to
sin sin
i. e., by reduction formula.
Thus the required perimeter is 3 / 2 units.
2
2 2
 
 
 

l = a d
d d
l =a d a d
l = a .
a
 
  

 
3
3 3
3 3 2
6
1
2 2
0
3
0 0
2
z
· ∴ ·
∴ ·
z z
·
 
   
Exercises
1. Show that the length of the arc from = 0 to =  along the curve
x = a (cos  + sin ), y = = a (sin  − cos ) is a 

/ 2
2. Find the surface area of a sphere of radius a.
3. Show that the surface area generated by the revolution of the loops of the curve
r
2
= a
2
cos 2 about the initial line 2 a
2
(
2 2 −
).
4. Find the volume of the sphere of radius ‘a’.
5. Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of a loop of the curve
r
2
= a
2
cos 2 about the initial line.
2. 4a
2
4. 4a
3
/3 5.
2 15
3
a 
61
Infinite Series
Session - 1
Introduction:
Infinite series is basically a summation of infinite number of terms. The summation will
be meaningful if there is no significant change in the sum as more and more terms gets
added up which is the concept of convergence. In this topic we discuss the aspect of
convergence, divergence and oscillation of an infinite series which are attributed as the
nature or the behaviour of an infinite series. In this connection we make use of well
established tests so as to draw a valid conclusion on the nature of an infinite series.
‘Progression’ is the pre-requisite for this topic
Definitions
If u
n
is a function of n defined for all integral values of n, an expression of the form
u + u + u +... + u infinite series
n 1 2 3
containing infinite number of terms is called an

usually denoted by or simply u u
n
n
n
·

∑ ∑
1

u
n
is called the n
th
term or the general term of the infinite series. The sum of the first n
terms of the series is denoted by s
n
i. e., s =u u u u
n n 1 2 3
+ + + + 
Convergence, Divergence and Oscillation
A series is said to be if
lim
where is a finite quantity.
is said to be if
lim
A series is said to be if tends to more thanone limit as
u s l l
u s
u s n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
∑ ·
∑ · t∞
∑ → ∞
→∞
→∞
convergent
divergent
Oscillatory
Geometric series as an example for convergence, divergence and oscillation.
Let us consider the geometric series a + ar + ar
2
+ …to discuss its nature for various
values of r. The sum to n terms of this series is given by
62
s
a r
r
r
s
a r
r
r
r| < r n
s
a
r
a
r
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
·

<
·

>
→ → ∞
·

− ·
− →∞
 

 


 
1
1
1 1
1
1
1 2
1 0
1
1 0
1
if
and if
Now if as and from (1), we have
lim
which is a finite quantity.
Hence we conclude that the geometric series is convergent for | r |< 1.
Next if from (2)
lim lim
If as
r s
a r
r
r r n
n
n
n
n
n
> ·

· ∞
> → ∞ → ∞
→∞ →∞
1
1
1
1
Hence we conclude that the geometric series is divergent if r > 1
Also if r = 1 the series becomes a + a + a +…
s
n
= a + a + a… to n terms = na
∴ · ∞
→∞ →∞ n
n
n
s n a =
lim lim
Hence the series is divergent if r = 1.
When r = −1, the series become a −a + a … where the sum of the first n terms s
n
is 0 or
' a' n s a s
n
n n
according as is even or odd and we can say that
lim
= 0 or . tends to more
→∞

than one limit as n ∞
Hence we conclude that the series is oscillatory if r = −1.
Further if r <−1, r
n
∞ or −
∞ according as n is even or odd. s
n
tends to more
than one limt as n ∞
Hence we conclude that the series is oscillatory if r < −1.
Note : An infinite series of positive terms is either convergent or divergent.
Property : If is convergent, then
lim
but not conversely. u u = ,
n
n
n

→∞
0
An example to show that the converse is not true.
63
Consider the series
Here
i. e.,
n+ n+
u n n+
n+ n+ n+ n+
n+ n+
u
n+ n
n+ n+ n+ n+
n=
n
n
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
2 1
1
− ∑
· + − ·
− +
+
·
− +
+
·
+

e je j
e j
e j
   
Clearly
lim

Next
i. e.,
i. e.,
lim lim
n
n
n n n
n
n
n
n
n
u
s u u u u u
s n+ n n+ n+
s n+
s n+
→∞

→∞ →∞
·
· + + + +
· − + − + − + + − + −
·− +
∴ · − + · ∞
0
3 2 4 3 5 4 1 2 1
2 2
2 2
1 2 3 1


e j e j e j e j e j
Hence we conclude that u
n
is divergent.
This example shows that the converse of the property is not true.
Remarks :
1. The contrapositive of the statement of this theorem provides a fundamental test
for the divergence of an infinite series which can be stated as follows :
If u
n
does not tend to zero as n tends to infinity, then u
n
is not convergent.
Thus
lim
is divergent.
n
n n
u u
→∞
≠ ⇒ ∑ 0
2. Addition or deletion or multiplication of each term of infinite series by a nonzero
constant doesnot alter the nature of infinite series.
Tests for convergence for series of positive terms
Comparison Test
If and be any two series of positive terms such that
lim
is a non zero finite quantity. Then and behave alike.
That is and both will converge or both will diverge.
u v
u
v
u v
u v
n n
n
n
n
n n
n n
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
→∞
64
Remark : In this test the given series u
n
is to be compared with another series v
n
whose nature is to be known to us. We usually compare with the harmonic series
1
1 n
p p p
p
n
( series) which is convergent for >1 and divergent for 1 − ≤ ∑
·

(The proof is established later)
Working procedure for problems
• Given an infinite series, we first write the n
th
term (general term) u
n
.
[The n
th
term of the A.P; a, a+ d, a+2 d, … is a+(n− 1)d ]
• Comparison test is usually applicable when u
n
involves expression of n in the
numerator and the denominator like (n+1), (2n+1), (n
2
+1),
n
, n
3
+ 4 etc.
• ·

We choose where and are the highest power in the denominator v
n
p q n
n
p q
1
and numerator of u
n
respectively.
• − −
+
+
However if is of the form or irrational factors connected
by a negative sign), we must rationalize by multiplying with or
as the case may be and then chose as stated.
u f n g n f n g n
f n g n
f n g n v
n
n
  
 
 
Order Test
We say that
1
is the order of . If ( ) = (say) then we say that is of the order
1
and conclude that is converngent if and divergent if .
Sometimes this is referred to as the order test.
n
u p q k u
n
u k k
p q
n n
k
n

∑ > ≤ 1 1
Session – 2
Example – 1
65
Examine the series
1
1.3.5
for convegence.
>> Numerators are 1, 2, 3, .... Hence the general term is .
In the denominator we have,
First factors : 1, 3, 5, ... term = 1+
Second factors : 3, 5, 7, ... term = 3 +
Third factors : 5, 7, 9 ... term = 5 +
Thus term of the given series is given by
th
th
th
th
+ + +
∴ − · −
∴ − · +
∴ − · +
2
3 5 7
3
5 7 9
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 3
 

 
 
n
n n n
n n n
n n n
n
u
n
n n n
v
n
n n
u
v
n
n n n
n
u
v
n
n n n n
u v
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
·
− + +
· ·
·
− + +
×
·
− + +
·
∑ ∑
→∞ →∞
   
   
   
2 1 2 1 2 3
1
2 1 2 1 2 3 1
2 1 2 1 2 3
1
8
3 2
2
3
3
Choose
Thus
Now
lim lim
By comparision test, and behave alike.
Here is of the form is convergent.
Hence is also convergent.
v
n n
p
u
n
p
n
· · > ∑ ∑ ∑

1 1
2 1
2
 
Example – 2
Find the nature of the series
1
1
1 2
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
+
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
+
>> It should be observed that there will be n terms in the numerator and the
denominator of the general term u
n
.
66
∴ ·
+ + + +
+ + + +
·

·
+ + +
·
+
+ +
·
+
·
·
+
·
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
∑ ∑
· · · ∑ ∑ ∑
→∞ →∞
→∞
u
n
n
n
n
u
n n n n n
u
n n
n n n n
v
n
u
v n
n
n
u v
v
n n
p
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
1 2 3
1 2 3
1
2
1 2 1
6
1
2
6
1 2 1
3
2 1
1
3
2 1 1
3
2 1
3
2
1 1
1
2 2 2 2 2
1


    
 

  

 
i. e.,
i. e., Choose
Now
lim lim
lim
By comparison test, and behave alike.
But is divergent.
Hence is also divergent. u
n

Example – 3
Test for convegence
By data Choose
Now
lim lim
lim lim
By comparison test and behave alike.
But = ( =1 / 2 <1) is divergent.
Hence is also divergent.
Alternative version of the problem.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
2
1
1
1 2
n n
u
n n
v
n
u
v n n
n
n
n n n
n
n n
u v
v
n
p
u
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n n
n n
n
/
n
+ +

>> ·
+ +
·
·
+ +
·
+ +
·
+ +
·
∑ ∑
∑ ∑

·

→∞ →∞
→∞ →∞

Note :
67
Discuss the convergence of the infinite series
>> and on rationalizing we have
i. e., which is the same as the example discussed.
n n
u n n
u n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
u
n n
n
n
n
n
+ − ∑
· + −
· + −
+ +
+ +
·
+ −
+ +
·
+ +
·

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
e j
e j
e j

Example – 4
Test for convergence
By data,
We have an elementary formula
or
If we take and assumes the form
by above.
i. e., Choose
n n
u n n
a b a b a +ab+b a b
a b
a +ab+b
a = n b =n, u a b
u
n n
n n n+n
u
n n n+n
v
n
n
n
n
n
n n
3 3
1
3 3
3 3 2 2
3 3
2 2
3 3
3 3
3 2 3 3 3 2
3 2 3 3 3 2
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
+ −
L
N
M
O
Q
P

>> · + −
L
N
M
O
Q
P
− · − − ·

+ −
∴ ·
+ −
+ + +
·
+ + +
·
·

    
 
 
  
  

2
Now
lim lim
lim
lim
lim
By comparison test and behave alike.
Hence is also convergent.
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
u
v
n n n+n
n
n
n n n n n+n
n
n n n n n
n
n n n
u v
u
→∞ →∞
→∞
→∞
→∞
·
+ + +
×
·
+ + +
·
+ + + +
·
+ + + +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
+ +
·
∑ ∑

1
1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1
1
3
3 2 3 3 3 2
2
2
3 3
2 3
3 3 3 2
2
2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2
2
2 3 2 3 3 3
  
     
   
   

68
Exercises :
Find the nature of the following series
1
1
1 2 3
4
2 5 7
7
3 811
2
1
1
1 2
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3
3
1
3 5
1
4 6
1
5 7
4 3
2
3
2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 2

  

 
 

+ + +
+
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ −
L
N
M
O
Q
P
∑ n n
1. Convergent 2. Divergent 3. Divergent 4. Convergent
Session – 3
D’Alembert’s ratio test and Raabe’s test
If  u
n
 is a series of positive terms and if

n
n
n
u
u
l
→∞
+
·
lim
(finite qty)
1
then  u
n
is convergent if l < 1, divergent if l > 1 and the test fails if l = 1.
When the ratio test fails, we can apply the comparison test (order test) if possible or
Raabe’s test stated as follows.
If  u
n
is a series of positive terms and if
n
n
n
n
u
u
l
→∞
+

F
H
G
I
K
J
·
lim
(finite qty)
1
1
then  u
n
is convergent if l > 1, divergent if l < 1 and the test fails if l = 1.
Remark :
Usually we try ratio test in the following cases.
(i) n
th
term of the series is not of the order 1/n
k
.
(ii) n
th
term of the series involves variables like x
n
, x
2n
etc.,
69
(iii) n
th
term of the series involves n !, (n+1) !, (n !)
2
etc.
(iv) The number of factors in the numerator and denominator increase steadily from term

to term like
1
3
(carry over series) + + +
12
3 5
1 2 3
3 5 7




Working procedure for problems
 We first write the general term u
n
for the given series and find u
n+1
by replacing n
by (n+1)
• → ∞
+
We find the ratio simplify and find its limit as to decide the nature of the series.
u
u
n
n
n
1
When the ratio test fails we can try to apply the order test in the first
instance or
apply Raabe’s test.
 Raabe’s test becomes inevitable when the ratio test fails in the case of carry over
series.
Example – 1
x
.
x x
u
x
n n
u
x
n n
u
u
x
n n
n n
x
n
n
x
u
u
n
n
x =
n
x = x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
12 2 3 3 4
1
1 2
1 2
1
2
2
1
1 2
2 3
1
1
1
1
1
+ + +
>> ·
+
∴ ·
+ +
·
+ +
+
·
+
∴ ·
+ +
+
+
+
+
→∞
+
→∞ →∞


  
  
 
 
Now
lim lim lim

>
R
S
T

·
·
+
·
+
·
+
by D' Alembert' s ratio test is
divergent if
convergent if
and the test fails if
But when
u
x
x<
x
x = u
n n n n n n
n
n
n
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

   
70
u n p u
u x x
n n
n
is of order 1 / ( = 2 >1) and hence is convergent.
Hence we conclude that
is convergent if and divergent if
2
1 1

≤ ∑ > 
Example – 2
Find the nature of the series
1
2
13
2 4
13 5
2 4 6
13 5 2 1
2 4 6 2
1
13 5 2 1 1
2 4 6 2 1
13 5 2 1
2 4 6 2 2
13 5 2 1 2 1
2 4 6 2 2 2
2 3
1
1 1
1
x + x x
u =
n
n
x
u
n
n
x
n
n
x
u
n n
n n
x
n
n
n
n n
n




 


 
 


  
  
+ +
>>

·
+ −
+
·
+
+
·
− +
+
+
+ +
+
i. e.,
n+1
2 
From (1) and (2) we have,
u
u
n n
n n
x
n
n x
u
u
n
n
x ...
n
n
n
n
n
n
+ +
+
·
− +
+
×

·
+
+
1 1
1
13 5 2 1 2 1
2 4 6 2 2 2
2 4 6 2
13 5 2 1
2 1
2 2
3
  
  

 
  i. e.,
∴ ·
+
+
+
+

>
< R
S
T
·
→∞
+
→∞ →∞ n
n
n
n n
n
u
u
n
n
x=
n n
n n
x = x
u
x
x
x
x
lim lim lim
Hence by ratio test
is
divergent if
convergent if
and the test fails if =1
Now when we shall apply Raabe' s test.
1
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 2
1
1
1

 
 

When from (3)
Now
lim

lim lim
lim
is divergent by Raabe' s test Hence we conclude that the given series
is convergent if and divergent if
x
u
u
n
n
u
u
n
n
n
u
u
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n n
u
u x < x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
· ·
+
+
∴ ·
+
+

F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+
+

F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+ − −
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+
· <
∴∑
∑ ≥
+
+
→∞
+
→∞ →∞
→∞
1
2 1
2 2
2 2
2 1
1
2 2
2 1
1
2 2 2 1
2 1
2 1
1
2
1
1 1
1
1
1

 

71
Example –3
Test for convergence
By data
i. e.,
3 6 9 3
4 710 3 1
5
3 2
3 6 9 3
4 710 3 1
5
3 2
3 6 9 3 1
4 710 3 1 1
5
3 1 2
3 6 9 3 3 3
4 710 3 1 3 4
5
3 5
1
1
1
1
1

 


 

  
 

 
  
  

n
n n+
u
n
n n+
u
n
n n +
u
n n
n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+

>> ·
+
∴ ·
+
+ + +
·
+
+ + +
·

+
+
+
+
Now
i. e.,
lim lim
lim
u
u
n n
n n n
n
n
n
u
u
n n
n n
u
u
n n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+
+
+
→∞
+
→∞
→∞
·
+
+ + +
×
+ +
·
+ +
+ +
∴ ·
+ +
+ +
·
+
1
1
1
1
3 6 9 3 3 3
4 710 3 1 3 4
5
3 5
4 710 3 1
3 6 9 3
3 2
5
3 3 3 2
3 4 3 5
5
3 3 3 2
3 4 3 5
5
3 3
   
  

 

 
  
  

  
  

  
  

3 2
3 4 3 5
5 5 1
+
+ +
· >

n
n n
u
n
Hence by the ratio test is divergent.
Example – 4
72
Find the nature of the series
By data,
i. e.,
From (1) and (2) we have,
4 710 3 1
4 710 3 1
1
4 710 3 1 1
1
4 710 3 4
1
4 710 3 1 3 4
1
2
4
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
 
 


  
 
 
 

  
 
 

n
n
x
u
n
n
x
u
n
n
x
n
n
x
u
n n
n n
x
u
u
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
+

>> ·
+
·
+ +
+
·
+
+
·
+ +
+
·
·

+
+ +
+
+
+
710 3 1 3 4
1 4 710 3 1
3 4
1
3 4
1
3 4
1 1
3
1
1
1
  
 

 

n n
n n
x
n
n x
u
u
n
n
x
u
u
n
n
x=
n
n
x = x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
+ +
+
×
+
·
+
+
∴ ·
+
+
+
+
+
+
→∞
+
→∞ →∞
i. e.,
lim lim lim
Hence by ratio test is
divergent if 3 or
convergent if 3 or
and the test fails if 3 or =1 / 3
If we have =
1
3
or
Now
lim lim lim lim
Hence is diverge
u
x x
x x
x = x
x =
u
u
n
n
u
u
n
n
n
u
u
n
n
n
n
n n
u
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n n
n

> >
< < R
S
T
+
+
·
+
+

F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+
+

F
H
G
I
K
J
·

+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·

+
·

<

+
+
→∞
+
→∞ →∞ →∞
1 1 3
1 1 3
1
1 3
3 4
1
3 3
3 4
1
3 3
3 4
1
1
3 4
1
3 4
1
3
1
1
1
1

 
 
 
nt when 3 =1 by Raabe' s test.
Thus is convergent if <1 / 3 and divergent if 1 / 3.
x
u x x
n
∑ ≥
Example – 5
Test for convergence of the infinite series
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
2 3 4
+ + + +
  

>> The first term of the given series can be written as 1!/1
1
so that we have,
u
n
n
u
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n n
· ∴ ·
+
+
·
+
+
·
+
+
+ +
  
 
 
 

 
1
1 1
1
1
1
1 1
73
Now
lim lim
Hence by ratio test is convergent.
u
u
n
n
n
n
n
n n
u
u n e
u
n
n
n
n n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+
→∞
+
→∞
·
+
·
+
∴ ·
+
· <

1
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
1
1

 

  
 
Exercises
1 1
3
1
3
2
3
3
2
2
3 4
3
4 5
4
5 6
3
1
3
1 2
3 5
12 3
3 5 7
4
3
4 5
3 6
4 7 8
3 6 9
4 710 11
5
3 5 7 2 1
3 6 9 3
2 3
2 3
2 3
2 3
1

  


  





 





 

+ + + +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+

·

x + x x
x + x x
x x x
n
n
x
n
n
1. Convergent
2. Convergent if x < 1, divergent if x > 1
1. Convergent if x < 2, divergent if x > 2
2. Convergent if x < 1, divergent if x > 1
3. Convergent if x < 3/2, divergent if x > 3/2
Session - 4
Cauchy’s root test
If  u
n
is a series of positive terms and if
n
n
n
u l
→∞
·
lim
(finite) 
1
then the series is convergent if l < 1, divergent if l > 1 and the test fails if l = 1.
When the test fails we can try the order test or the fundamental test.
Note : 1. We try to apply this test if u
n
is of the form [f (n)]
g (n)
2. The following standard limits will be useful
74
(i)
lim
ii
lim
iii
lim
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
n
e;
x
n
e
→∞ →∞ →∞
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
· +
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
1
1 1
1
1


Example – 1
Test for convergence
by data.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3 2
3 2
3 2
1 2
1
1
1
1
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

>> · +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
∴ · +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
R
S
|
T
|
U
V
|
W
|
· +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
· +
L
N
M
O
Q
P

·

− −
n
u
n
u
n
u
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n




Now
lim lim
lim
as also
Hence by Cauchy' s root test is convergent.
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
u
n
n
e
n , n
u
→∞ →∞

→∞
· +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
· <
→ ∞ → ∞


 
 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Example – 2
Discuss the convergence of
by data.
( )
lim
( )
lim lim lim
1/
1/
 
 
   
 
   
     

  
  
n x
n
u =
n x
n
u
n x
n
n x
n
n x
n n
u
n x
n n
n n x
n n
n x
n
n n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n+ n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+

>>
+
∴ ·
+
·
+
·
+
·
+
·
+
·
+
+
·

+
+
→∞ →∞ →∞ →∞
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
o t
75
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
u
n x
n
x
x, n
u
x>
x
x
x = , u
n
n
u n n n u
u x < x
→∞
→∞
→∞
→∞
+
+
·
+
·
+
· ·

< R
S
T
·
·
+

∑ ≥
lim
( )
lim
lim
lim
Hence by Cauchy' s root test is
divergent if 1
convergent if
and the test fails if
When
is of order / =1 / and hence is divergent.
Thus is convergent if 1 and divergent if 1.
1/
 
 
 

1 1
1 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Example – 3
Find the nature of the series
1
2
3
3
4
0
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
1 2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
>> ·
+
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
∴ ·
+
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
R
S
|
T
|
U
V
|
W
|
·
+
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+
+
>
< R
S
T

→∞ →∞
x + x x >
u
n
n
x
u
n
n
x
n
n
x
u
n
n
x = x
u
x
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n

   

 
 

Omitting the first term,
Now
lim lim
Hence by Cauchy' s root test is
divergent if
convergent if
and the test fails if =1 x
76
But when
lim lim
using
lim
Since
lim
is divergent when
Thus is convergent if <1 and divergent if 1.
x = u
n
n
n
n
n
n
u
n
n
e
e e
x
n
e
u
e
u x
u x
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
n n
n
1
1
2
1
1
2
1 1
1 2
1 1
1 2
1
1
1
0 1
2

 
 
 
 

·
+
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
+
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
·
+
+
· · +
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
· ≠ ∑ ·
∑ ≥
→∞ →∞ →∞
→∞
Example – 4
Test for convergence
1
2
The first term of the series can be put in the form 1 / 1 so that we have,
lim lim lim
Hence by Cauchy' s root test is convergent.
1
+ + +
>>
·
∴ ·
F
H
G
I
K
J
· · <

→∞ →∞ →∞
1
2
1
3
1
1 1
0 1
2 2
1
1



u
n
u
n n
u
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Exercises :
Tests for convergence the following series
1 1
3
2
1 3
4
3
4
3
7
5
10
7
13
9
4 1
2 3 4
0
2
2
2 3 4
2
2
3
3

 
 
+
F
H
G
I
K
J ∑
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J ∑
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
+ + + + >

n
n
n
x x x
x
n
n n
77
(1) Convergent (2) Divergent (3) Divergent (4) Convergent
Cauchy’s integral test
If is a series of positive terms and if = ( ) be such that u u f x
n x

(i) ( ) is continuous in 1 <
(ii) ( ) decreases as increases [ ( ) is monotonically decreasing] then the series is
convergent or divergent according as the integral ( ) is finite or infinite.
The condition ( ) < 0 ensures that ( ) decreases as increases where ( )
is the derivative of ( ).
1
f x x <
f x x f x u
f x dx
f ' x f x x f ' x
f x
n

z

Note :
Example :
Apply Cauchy’s integral test to discuss the nature of the harmonic series (p- series)
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
n
u
n
f n
f x
x
x f ' x px
p
x
f x
p
n
n
p
p
p p
p
·

− − −
+

>> · ·
· · ∴ · − ·

<
By data
Hence is decreasing.
 

Now if
: Let or ( ) > 0
Then as
which is finite.
Thus is convergent if >1.
1 1 1
1
f x dx =
x
dx = x dx =
x
p
p
p > p
x
x
x p
f x dx =
x
p p p
u p
p
p
p
p
p
p
n

  

∞ ∞

z z

L
N
M
O
Q
P

z

· → → ∞ − >

z

L
N
M
O
Q
P
· −

·

1
1
1
1 1
1
0 1 0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Case - i
78
Case - ii : Let or 1 > i. e., (1 ) > 0
As above
But as (1 ) > 0
Hence
Thus is divergent if <1.
1
1
p < p p
f x dx =
x
p
x x . p
f x dx =
p
u p
p
p
n
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

z

L
N
M
O
Q
P
→ ∞ → ∞ −
z
∞ −

· ∞




Case - iii
Remark :
: Let
log
Thus is divergent if =1.
Conclusion : is convergent if >1 and divergent if 1.
We have used the behaviour of this series while solving problems on comparison test
to discuss the nature of a givenseries in comparison with a series of the form
1 1
1
1
p =
f x dx =
x
dx = x
u p
n
p p
n
n
p
n=
p
n=
1
1
0
1
1
1
1

z
· ∞ − · ∞
z

≤ ∑

Session – 5
Alternating series
If , , , ... are all positive, then a series of the form is called an
alternating series represented by
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
u u u u u u + u u + ...
u
n
n
n
− −
− ∑

·

1
1
1
Leibnitz test for convergence of an alternating series
If , , , ... are all positive and if
1 2 3 4
u u u u

(i) , for all i. e., > ...
1 2 3 4
u >u n u >u >u u
n n+1

(ii)
lim
n
n
u
→∞
· 0
then the alternating series + +... is convergent.
1 2 3 4
u u u u − −
Remark : If
lim
then the series is oscillatory.
n
n
u
→∞
≠ 0
79
Absolute convergence and conditional convergence
The alternating series + +... is said to be absolutely convergent if the series of
positive terms + +... is convergent.
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
u u u u
u u u u
− −
+ +
If the given alternating series is convergent and the absolute series (series of positive
terms) is divergent then the alternating series is said to be conditionally convergent.
Property : Every absolutely convergent series is convergent but the converse is not true.
Generalised D’Alembert’s test
If is a general series and if
lim
=| | then is absolutely convergent if | |
not convergent if | | and the test fails if | | =1.
u
u
u
l u l
l l
n
n
n
n
n
∑ ∑ <
>
→∞
+1
1
1
Example – 1
Test for convergence the series, 1
Here =
1
We shall apply Leibnitz test.
Now
1 1 1
i. e.,
− + − +
>>
− · −
+
·
+ −
+
·
+
>
− > ⇒ >
+
+ +
1
2
1
3
1
4
1 1
1
1
0
0
1
1 1

 
u
n
u u
n n
n n
n n n n
u u u u
n
n n
n n n n
Also
lim lim
1
n
n
n
u
n →∞ →∞
· · 0
Hence the given series is convergent by Leibnitz test.
Remark : We have mentioned a property that “every absolutely convergent series is
convergent”, but the converse is not true. The series 1 serves as an − + − +
1
2
1
3
1
4

example for the converse of the statement not being true. That is a convergent series not
being absolutely convergent.
80
The alternating series is convergent by Leibnitz test, but the absolute series 1
being is divergent . ( series where
+ + +

·

1
2
1
3
1
1
1


n
p - p =
n
Thus the alternating series is not absolutely convergent.
Example –2
Test the series + +... for
(a) convergence (b) absolute convergence (c) conditional convergence
>> We have
Now
since ( +1) >
i. e.,
Also
lim lim
1
1
2 2
1
3 3
1
4 4
1 1 1
1
1 1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
3 2
1
3 2
1
3 2 3 2
3 2 3 2
3 2
1 1
− −
· · ∴ ·
+
− · −
+
·
+ −
+
>
− > ⇒ >
· ·
+
+
+ +
→∞ →∞
u
n n n
u
n
u u
n n
n n
n n
n n.
u u u u
u
n n
n n
n n
n n n n
n
n
n

 
 

 
 
 

Hence the given series is convergent by Leibnitz test.
The absolute series is given by + + +...
We have
is a harmonic series of the type is convergent.
1
1
2 2
1
3 3
1
4 4
1 1
1 1 3 2 1
3 2
3 2
1 1
+
· ·
∑ ∑ · >
·

·

u
n n n
n n p
n
n
p
n

   
Thus the alternating series is absolutely convergent and it is not conditionally
convergent.
Example – 3
81
Find the nature of the series
3
4
5
7
7
10
9
13
>> We have
Now
i. e.,
Also
lim lim
i. e.,
lim
n n n
− + − +
·
+
+
∴ ·
+ +
+ +
·
+
+
− ·
+
+

+
+
·
+ +
>
>
·
+
+
· ≠
+
+
+
→∞ →∞ →∞

 
 
  

u
n
n
u
n
n
n
n
u u
n
n
n
n n n
u u
u
/ n
n
u
n n
n n
n n
n n
2 1
3 1
2 1 1
3 1 1
2 3
3 4
2 1
3 1
2 3
3 4
1
3 1 3 4
0
2 1
3 1
2
3
0
1
1
1
Hence the given series is oscillatory.
Example – 4
Show that the series
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
+ − − + + − − +
+ + + + + + + +
·



is convergent.
>> Consider the absolute series,
The general term of this series is given by
is a harmonic series ( = 2 >1) and it is convergent.
u
n
n
p
n
Hence we conclude that the given series is absolutely convergent.
But every absolutely convergent series is convergent.
Hence the given alternating series is convergent.
Remark : The problem can also be done by applying Leibnitz test.
Example – 5
82
Discuss the nature of the series
x
x x x
u
x
n
u
x
n
n
n n
n
n n
− + − +
>>
·

∴ ·

+

+
+
2 3 4
1
1
1
2 3 4
1 1
1

   
The general term of the series is given by
We shall apply generalised D' Alembert' s test.
Now
lim lim
lim
n
n
n
n
n n
n n
n
u
u
x
n
n
x
n
n n
x x
→∞
+
→∞
+

→∞
·

+ −
· −
+
·
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
 

 
 

Hence the series is absolutely convergent if | x | < 1, not convergent if | x | > 1 and the test
fails if | x | = 1.
Since absolute convergence implies convergence, the given series is convergent if |x|<1,
that is –1< x <1,not convergent when | x | > 1 and the test fails if | x | = 1.
If | x | = 1 then x = 1 or –1.
If =1, the series becomes
We have = = Clearly
Also
lim
=
lim
Hence the series is convergent by Leibnitz test
If the series becomes
Here the series of positive terms = is divergent.
the given series is divergent (to ) when

x
u
n
u
n
u u
u
n
x
n n
x
n n n n
n
n
n
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1 1
1
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
3
1 1
1
1 1
1 2
− + − +

+
>
·
· −
− − − − · − + + +
F
H
G
I
K
J
∑ ∑
∴ − ∞ · −
− ≤ · −
+ +
→∞ →∞

 

 

Thus the given series is convergent if 1 < 1 divergent when 1 x x
83
Exercises :
Find the nature of the following series :
 
 
1 1
1
4
1
7
1
10
2
1
7
1
12
1
17
1
22
− + − +
− + − + Examine the series for
(a) convergence for (b) absolute convergence
(c) conditional convergence
(3) Show that the seies
1+
is convergent.
(4) Show the series
is absolutely convergent if | | < 1, conditionally convergent if =1 and divergent
if =1.
1
2 2
1
3 3
1
4 4
1
5 5
1
6 6
1
7 7
1
8 8
1
1
4
1
7
1
10
2 3
− − + + − − +
− − +

 x + x x
x x
x
1. Convergent
2. Convergent, conditionally convergent, not absolutely convergent.
84
V.T.U. Web-Based Education
Engineering Mathematics – I (MAT-11)
By Prof.M.G.Geetha
Dept. of Mathematics, PESIT
Bangalore
ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY IN 3
DIMENSIONS
Introduction
Any point in a plane can be located by means of two real numbers, called the
coordinates. These numbers could either be distances from two fixed straight lines or a
distance form a fixed point and an angle with reference to a straight line.
The former is called the Cartesian System of coordinates and the latter the polar system
of coordinates. If the two reference lines in the Cartesian system are perpendicular to
each other, the system is called the rectangular Cartesian coordinate system.
Any point in a plane is represented by P(x, y) in Cartesian system and P(r, θ ) in polar
system of coordinates.
In space, we need three real numbers to locate a point and the reference lines, called the
coordinate axes, which are three concurrent mutually perpendicular lines. The system of
coordinates is called the rectangular Cartesian coordinate system in three dimension.
F I G 1
In the above figure, the lines OX,OY and OZ are the three axes with O as the
origin of the coordinate system.
85
If P(x,y,z) is any point in this system, then ON = x, NM = y and MP = z where
M is the foot of the perpendicular from P to the XOY plane and N is the foot of
the perpendicular from M to the axis OX.
Distance formula :
Then from the right angled triangle OMP,
OP
2
= OM
2
+ MP
2
= ON
2
+ MN
2
+ MP
2
, because ONM is a right angled triangle.
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2

Or, the distance OP =
2 2 2
z y x + +
Distance between two given points :
Let P (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and Q (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) be the two given points.
Shift the origin to P keeping the axes parallel to the original axes.
Then A≡ (x
2
- x
1
, y
2
- y
1
, z
2
- z
1
) with reference to the new axes.
∴Distance
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
) ( ) ( ) ( z z y y x x PQ − + − + − ·
Section Formula
If a point R divides the line segment joining the points P(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and Q(x
2
, y
2
, z
2
)
in the ratio p : q , then
]
]
]

+
+
+
+
+
+

q p
qz pz
q p
qy py
q p
qx px
R
1 2 1 2 1 2
, ,

If R is the middle point of PQ, then
]
]
]

+ + +

2
,
2
,
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z y y x x
R

Example:
Find the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are
A (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
), B (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) and C (x
3
, y
3
, z
3
).
If G is the centroid of the triangle ABC, then it divides AD, the median from A,
in the ratio 2:1.
86
Since D is the mid point of the side BC, D ≡
]
]
]

+ + +
2
,
2
,
2
3 2 3 2 3 2
z z y y x x

≡ ∴ G ]
]
]

+ + + + + +
3
,
3
,
3
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1
z z z y y y x x x
Direction Cosines:
If a straight line makes angles α , β and γ with the coordinate axes, then cosα , cosβ
and cosγ are defined as the Direction Cosines (D.C.s) of the straight line. They are
denoted by l, m, n.
Numbers proportional to the D.C.s are called Direction Ratios (D.R.s), denoted by a. b.
c.
For instance,
1, 0, 0 are the D.C.s of the X-axis and s,0,0 are its D.R.s for any real number s.
Note
1. Two parallel lines have the same D.C.s
2. If A(x, y, z) is any point on the line OA that makes angles α , β and γ with the
three axes, then
3. α cos ·
r
x
, β cos ·
r
y
, cos ·
r
z
γ where OA = r
∴cos
2
α + cos
2
β + cos
2
γ = 1, using the distance formula r =
2 2 2
z y x + +
4. If P is any point at a distance r from the origin, then P is given by P ≡ (r l, r
m, r n) where l, m, n are the D.C.s of the line OP.
5. l
2
+ m
2
+ n
2
=1 for any line whose D.C.s are l, m, n
6. If a, b, c are D.R.s of a line, then a, b, c are proportional to the D.C.s l, m, n
87
i.e.,
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
n m l
c b a
n
c
m
b
l
a
+ + ·
+ +
+ +
· · ·

∴The D.C.s of the line are
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, ,
c b a
c
c b a
b
c b a
a
+ + + + + +
D.C.s of the line joining two points: fig 1.3
Let A (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and B (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) be the two points.
Shifting the origin to A (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) with the axes parallel to the original axes,
We get B ≡ (x
2
- x
1
, y
2
- y
1
, z
2
- z
1
)
If l, m, n are the D.C.s of the line AB with length r units, we have B ≡ (r l, r m, r
n) since A is the origin in the new system of coordinates.

1 2 1 2 1 2
z z
n
y y
m
x x
l

·

·

∴ The D.C.s of AB are proportional to x
2
– x
1
, y
2
- y
1
, z
2
– z
1
.
or one set of D.R.s can be taken as x
2
– x
1
, y
2
- y
1
, z
2
– z
1
.
Angle between two lines with known D.C.s :
Fig 1.4
Let l
1
, m
1
, n
1
and l
2
, m
2
, n
2
be the D.C.s of two given straight lines.
Draw OP and OQ parallel to the given lines passing through the origin.
Let OP = r
1
and OQ = r
2.
Then P ≡ (r
1
l
1
, r
1
m
1
, r
1
n
1
) and Q ≡ (r
2
l
2
, r
2
m
2
, r
2
n
2
)
∴ PQ
2
= (r
2
l
2
– r
1
l
1
)
2
+ (r
2
m
2
– r
1
m
1
)
2
+ (r
2
n
2
– r
1
n
1
)
2

= r
1
2
+ r
2
2
– 2r
1
r
2
(l
1
l
2
+ m
1
m
2
+ n
1
n
2
), using the distance formula
Remember : l
1
2
+ m
1
2
+ n
1
2
= 1 and l
2
2
+ m
2
2
+ n
2
2
= 1 .
Also, using Cosine formula for triangle OPQ,
We have PQ
2
= OP
2
+ OQ
2
– 2OP.OQ cos θ , where θ =
Q O P

.
Equating the two expressions for PQ
2
, we get cos θ = l
1
l
2
+ m
1
m
2
+ n
1
n
2
Note:
88
1. The expression for the angle between two lines in terms of their D.R.s (a
1
, b
1,
c
1
and
a
2
, b
2
, c
2
)
is
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
cos
c b a c b a
c c b b a a
+ + + +
+ +
· θ

2. The condition for perpendicularity of two lines is
l
1
l
2
+ m
1
m
2
+ n
1
n
2
= 0 or a
1
a
2
+ b
1
b
2
+ c
1
c
2
= 0.

Projection of a line joining two points on a straight line with known D.C.s :
Fig. 1.5
Let A ≡ (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
), B ≡ (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) and let l, m, n be the D.C.s of the line MN.
MN is the projection of AB on MN.
If θ is the angle between AB and MN, then MN = AB cos θ .
∴MN
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ((
) ( ) ( ) (
z z y y x x
z z n y y m x x l
z z y y x x
− + − + −
− + − + −
− + − + − ·
∴MN = l(x
2
– x
1
) + m(y
2
- y
1
) +n(z
2
- z
1
).
Remember: The D.C.s of a line joining the points (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) are
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
) ( ) ( ) ( z z y y x x
x x
− + − + −

etc.
Exercise:
1. The distance between the points (0,0,3) and (-4, 0, 0) is
a)* 5 unit b) √5 units c) 25 units d) 4 units
2. If A ≡ (-1, 0, 4) and B ≡ (1, -6, 2), then the mid-point of AB is
a) (1, -3, 1) b)* (0, -3, 3) c) (1, -3, -1) d) (0, 3, -1)
3. The line which is perpendicular to the line with D.R.s 1,2,3 has D.C.s proportional to
a) 3, 2, 1 b) *0, 3, -2 c) 1, 3, -2 d) 1, -2, 3.
4. The vertices (5, -1, 1), (7, -4, 7), (1, -6, 10) and (-1, -3, 4) form a
a) rectangle b) Square c)* Rhombus d) None of the others
89
5. The point A (5,8,-1) is joined to the mid-point M of the line joining P(1,2,-3) and
Q(3,4,5). The angle between these two lines is
a)* 90
o
b) 30
o
c) 60
o
d) 45
o
Planes:
A Plane is a surface such that the line joining any two points on the surface lies entirely
on the surface.
Theorem:
A linear equation ax + by + cz +d = 0 in x, y and z represents a plane.
Proof :
If A(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and B(x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) are two points on the surface represented by the above
equation, then the point
]
]
]

+
+
+
+
+
+

q p
qz pz
q p
qy py
q p
qx px
C
1 2 1 2 1 2
, ,
is a point lying on the
line AB dividing it in the ratio p : q.
Since A and B are points lying on the surface ax + by + cz +d = 0
------------------------- (1)
we have ax
1
+ by
1
+ cz
1
+ d = 0 and ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
+ d = 0

0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 2 1 2 1 2
· + + + + + + + ∴ q p d qz pz c qy py b qx px a
Or
0
1 2 1 2 1 2
· +

,
`

.
|
+
+
+

,
`

.
|
+
+
+

,
`

.
|
+
+
d
q p
qz pz
c
q p
qy py
b
q p
qx px
a

which implies that the point C lies on the surface given by equation (1).
Since C is any arbitrary point lying on the line AB, the entire line AB lies on the surface
(1).
∴By the definition of a plane, equation (1) represents a plane.
Normal Form of equation to a plane :
Fig. 1.6
Let OL be drawn perpendicular (normal) to the plane from the origin.
90
Let its length be p and the D.C.s be l, m, n.
If P (x, y, z) is any point on the plane, then OL is the projection of OP on the normal
OL.
By the projection formula, we have p = lx + my + nz.
or lx + my + nz = p is the normal form of equation to a plane.
Note: Comparing the general and the normal forms of equations of a plane, we get

p
d
n
c
m
b
l
a

· · ·
from which we observe the following:
1. a, b and c, the coefficients of x, y and z in the equation of a plane are
proportional to the D.C.s of the normal to the plane.
In other words, the coefficients of x, y, z are a set of D.R.s of the normal.
2. Since each ratio is equal to
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c b a
n m l
c b a
+ + ·
+ +
+ +
,
we get
2 2 2
c b a
d
p
+ +

·
∴ Length of the perpendicular from the origin to the plane is
2 2 2
c b a
d
+ +

3. To find the length of the perpendicular from any point P ≡ (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) to the plane
ax + by + cz + d = 0, shift the origin to the point P keeping the directions of the axes
unchanged.
Then any general point (X, Y, Z) in the new system of coordinates changes to
(x – x
1
, y – y
1
, z –z
1
)
∴The equation of the plane in the new system of coordinates is
a (x + x
1
) + b (y + y
1
) + c (z + z
1
) + d = 0
or ax + by + cz + (ax
1
+ by
1
+ cz
1
+ d) = 0
so that the perpendicular distance of the plane from P, the origin in the new system, is

2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
d cz by ax
+ +
+ + +
Three Point form of Equation:
91
Given the three points (x
i
, y
i
, z
i
); i =1, 2, 3.
If the plane given by ax + by + cz +_d = 0 passes through these three points, then they
satisfy the equation of the plane.
Eliminating ‘d’, we get
a(x - x
1
) + b(y – y
1
) + c(z – z
1
) = 0
a(x
1
– x
2
) + b(y
1
– y
2
) + c( z
1
– z
2
) = 0
and a(x
2
– x
3
) + b(y
2
– y
3
) + c(z
2
– z
3
) = 0
This system of three equations has a non-trivial solution if
3 2 3 2 3 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
1 1 1
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
− − −
− − −
− − −

= 0.
Note:
The three-point form of equation to a plane gives the condition for coplanarity of four
points
(x
i
, y
i
, z
i
) ; i = 1, 2, 3, 4 as
4 3 4 3 4 3
3 2 3 2 3 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
− − −
− − −
− − −
= 0.
Intercept form of equation:
If a plane makes intercepts A, B, and C with the coordinate axes, then the points
(A,0,0), (0,B,0) and (0,0,C) lie on the plane.
If ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the equation of the plane, then

C
d
c
B
d
b
A
d
a

·

·

· & ,
∴The equation of the plane reduces to
1 · + +
C
z
B
y
A
x
.
This is known as the intercept form of equation to the plane.
Note:
92
1. The angle between the two planes a
i
x + b
i
y + c
i
z + d
i
= 0 ; i = 1, 2 ; is equal to the
angle between their normals and hence is
]
]
]
]

+ + + +
+ +

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1 1
cos
c b a c b a
c c b b a a
2. If the two planes are perpendicular, then a
1
a
2
+ b
1
b
2
+ c
1
c
2
= 0.
3. Equation of a plane passing through the line of intersection of two planes
a
i
x + b
i
y + c
i
z + d
i
= 0, i =1,2 ; is
(a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
z +d
1
) + k(a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
z +d
2
) = 0 where k is a constant.
Exercise:
1. The planes 2x + 3y - z = 5 and 6x +9y – 3z -7 = 0 are
a) Perpendicular b)* Parallel c) coinciding d) inclined at an angle of
45
o

2. The distance of the point (1,1,1) from the plane 2x – y +2z =3 is
a)* 0 b) 1/3 c) 1 d) 2
3. The D.C.s of the normal to the XY-plane are
a) 1,1,1 b) 0,1,0 c)* 0,0,1 d) 1,0,0
4. Which of the following points lie on the same side of the plane 3x – y + 2x – 8 = 0
a) (3,0,0) b) (3,0,2) c) (2,0,1) d)* (2,0,0)
5. One of the following planes is perpendicular to the plane 2x – 3y +5z = 1
a) x – y – z = 4 b) 5y - 3z = 1 c) x + y – z = 14 d) 3x – 2y + 5 = 0
True of False
1. The plane 4x – 3y +5 = 12 passes through the intersection of the planes
2x - 5y + z = 6 and x + y + 2z = 3. (T)
2. The point (1, -5,2) lies on the plane 3x + y + z = 1. (F)
3. The Plane 2x + 3y – z + 6 = 0 and 10x - 15y - 5z + 24 = 0 are parallel (F)
93
Straight Lines:
A curve in space is defined as the set of points common to two intersecting surfaces
and it is represented by two equations - equations of the intersecting surfaces.
A straight line is the curve of intersection of two planes.
Two plane form of equation to a straight line:
Two planes interest in a straight line and therefore the equations of the intersecting
planes together represent a straight line.
If a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
z + d
1
= 0 and a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
z + d
2
= 0 represent two intersecting
planes, then the equations of the straight line of intersection are

a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
z + d
1
= 0 = a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
z + d
2
This is called two-plane form of equations .
Symmetric form of equations:
If P(x, y, z) is any point on a straight line that passes through the point (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
),
then D.C.s of the straight line l, m, n are proportional to x - x
1
, y - y
1
, z - z
1.
∴The equations of the straight line are ,
1 1 1
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x −
·

·

called the symmetric form of equations.
Note:
1. Any point lying on the straight line whose equations are
,
1 1 1
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x −
·

·

is given by (lt + x
1
, mt + y
1
, nt + z
1
) where t is a parameter .
2. The symmetric form of equations to a straight line can be converted to its two-
plane form of equations and vice versa.
3. When the two-plane form of equations to a straight line are given, the D.C.s of the
straight line are proportional to b
1
c
2
– b
2
c
1
, c
1
a
2
– c
2
a
1
and a
1
b
2
– a
2
b
1
,
since the straight line is perpendicular to the normal to the two intersecting planes.
94
Coplanarity of two straight lines:
Consider two straight lines

2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x
and
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x −
·

·
− −
·

·

.
If these lines are coplanar, let the equation of the plane containing them be
ax + by + cz + d = 0.
Then the two points (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) lie on this plane. Also the normal to the
plane is perpendicular to the two lines.
∴we have the following conditions :
ax
1
+ by
1
+ cz
1
+ d = 0 --------------------------- (1)
ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
+ d = 0 --------------------------- (2)
al
1
+ bm
1
+ cn
1
= 0 --------------------------- (3)
al
2
+ bm
2
+ cn
1
= 0 --------------------------- (4)
Eliminating d from equations (1), (2) and ax + by + cz + d = 0, we get
a (x – x
1
) + b ( y – y
1
) + c (z –z
1
) = 0 and
a (x
1
– x
2
) + b ( y
1
– y
2
) + c (z
1
–z
2
) = 0
Eliminating a, b, c from this equation, (3) and (4) , we get the condition for
coplanarity of straight lines in the form
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
n m l
n m l
z z y y x x − − −
= 0
and the equation of the plane containing them is given by
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
n m l
n m l
z z y y x x − − −

= 0.
Note:
If two lines are coplanar, then the lines are either parallel or intersecting. When they
intersect, the point of intersection can be found by solving the equations of the two lines.
95
Skew Lines:
Two lines are said to be skew when they are non-coplanar. This is so, when they are
neither parallel nor intersecting.
Shortest distance between skew lines:
When two lines are skew, there exists a line perpendicular to both called the line of
shortest distance. The length of the common perpendicular intercepted between the
skew lines is the shortest distance between them.
Fig. 1.7
Let the two skew lines be given by
1
1
1
1
1
1
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x −
·

·

-------------- (1)
and
2
2
2
2
2
2
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x −
·

·

-------------(2)
with P ≡ (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) and Q ≡ (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) .
AB, the line of shortest distance is perpendicular to both the lines.
Then the D.C.s λ , µ , ν of the line of shortest distance are proportional to

m
1
n
2
– m
2
n
1
, n
1
l
2
– n
2
l
1
, l
1
m
2
– l
2
m
1

We observe that the length AB is the projection of the line PQ on the line of shortest
distance.
∴ By the projection formula,
AB = (x
2
– x
1
)λ + (y
2
– y
1
)µ + (z
2
– z
1

2
1 2 2 1
2
1 2 2 1
2
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
) ( ) ( ) (
) )( ( ) )( ( ) )( (
m l m l l n l n n m n m
m l m l z z l n l n y y n m n m x x
− + − + −
− − + − − + − −
·

This gives the shortest distance between the two skew lines.
Equations of the line of shortest distance:
The shortest distance line is coplanar with line (1) since it intersects line (1) at the point
A. Point B is the point of intersection of the line of shortest distance and line (2).
∴ We have
96

0
1 1 1
1 1 1
·
− − −
n m l
z z y y x x
υ µ λ
and
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
− − −
n m l
z z y y x x
υ µ λ
These two equations together represent the line of shortest distance between the skew
lines given by (1) and (2).
Exercise:
1. The straight line
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

·

·

is
a)* Perpendicular b) Parallel to c) lies entirely on d) at an angle of 45
o
with
the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 .
2. The point of intersection of the lines
2 3 7 −
· ·
z y x
and
z
y x
·

·
4 3
is
a) (-5, -13, -37) b) (4, 7, -3) c)* (0, 0, 0) d) (1, -1, 2)
3. The lines
2
3
4
5
3
2 +
·

·
− z y x
and
4
3 2
4
6
3
4 +
·

·
− z y x
are
a) Perpendicular b)* Parallel c) coincident d) Skew
4. The image of the point (1, 1, 1) in the plane x + y + z = 0 is
a) (0, 0, 0) b) (1, -1, -1) c)* (-1, -1, -1) d) (
3
1
,
3
1
,
3
1
)
True or False
1. The lines
2
3
2
2
1

·

· −
z y
x
and
2
4
5
3
4
2 z y x −
·

·

are
perpendicular .
2. The point (1, 2, 3) lies on the line
z
y x
− ·

·

2
4
6
3
4
.
3. The line
0
2
0
1 z
y
x
· − ·

and the z – axis are skew lines.
4. The equations
4
3
2
2
1
− ·

·

z
y x
and 3x –2y +1 = 0 = y – 3z +10
represent the same straight line.
5. The plane 2x + 3y + 3z –1 = 0 contains the line
4
1
2
1
3
2

·
+
·
− z y x
.
97
6. The shortest distance between the lines

4
4
3
2
2
1

·

·
− z y x
and
5
4
4
2
3
1 −
·

·

− z y x
is 0.
7. The straight lines which do not intersect are called skew lines.
Right Circular cone and Right Circular Cylinder:
The solid generated when a straight line rotates about a fixed line is either a right
circular cone or a right circular cylinder. The rotating line is a generator of the solid.
The fixed line is called the axis.
In the case of a cone, the generators are inclined at an angle α with the axis while in a
cylinder, the generators are parallel to the axis.
Note:
The angle α is called the semi-vertical angle of the cone and the point of
intersection of the generators with the axis is called the vertex of the cone.
Equation of a right circular Cone:
Fig. 1.8
Let the axis of the cone be given by
n
z z
m
y y
l
x x
1 1 1

·

·

with its vertex as V≡ (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
).
If P (x, y, z) be any point on the surface of the Cone, then the D.C.s of the generator
passing through V are proportional to x – x
1
, y – y
1
, z – z
1.
If α is the semi-vertical angle of the cone, then

2 2 2 2
1
2
1
2
1
1 1 1
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
cos
n m l z z y y x x
n z z m y y l x x
+ + − + − + −
− + − + −
· α

or ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2
1 1 1
n z z m y y l x x − + − + − ( ) [ ]
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( cos z z x x n m l − + − + + · α
is the equation of a right circular cone with its vertex at (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
), semi-vertical angle
as α and the D.C.s of its axis proportional to l, m, n.
98
Equation of a right circular cylinder:
Fig/ 1.8

n
z z
m
y y
l
x x
1 1 1

·

·

be the axis of the right circular cylinder with A ≡ (x
1
, y
1
,
z
1
) and r as its radius.
If P ≡ (x, y, z) is any point on the surface of the cylinder, then AM is the projection of
AP on the axis with M as the foot of the perpendicular from P to the axis.
or AM = AP cos θ , where θ =
P A M

2 2 2 2
1
1 1 1 2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
. ) ( ) ( ) (
n m l x x
z z n y y m x x l
z z y y x x AM
+ + −
− + − + −
− + − + − · ∴

Also AM
2
= AP
2
– MP
2
with MP = r
[ ]
2 2 2
2
1 1 1 2 2
1
2
1
2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
n m l
z z n y y m x x l
r z z y y x x
+ +
− + − + −
+ · − + − + − ∴
is the equation of the right circular cylinder.
Exercise
Fill in the blanks :
1. The semi-vertical angle of the right circular cone passing through the origin, vertex at
(1,2,1) with its axis parallel to the line
1
1
2
1
2 −
+
·

·
z y x
is ____________. π /3
2. The vertex of the right circular cone whose axis is the line
2
7
3
7 +
·

·
z y
x with the line
2
2
3
3
1
+ ·

·

+
z
y x
as one of its generators is _______________ (2,1,-3)
3. The radius of the right circular cylinder passing through the origin with its axis lying
along the line
3
5
2
4
10
9

·

·
+ z y x
is _______ units.
3.
99
Questions
1. Find the distance of the point (1, 2, -3) from the middle point of the line segment
joining (-3, 4, -2) and (1, 2, 6)
The mid-point of the given line segment is (-1, 3, 2).
∴ The distance of (1, 2, -3) from this point is 30 25 1 4 · + + units
2. Show that the points A (2, 3, 4), B (3, 4, 2) and C(-1, 0, 10) are collinear.
D.R.s of the line AB are 1, 1, -2 and those of the line BC are 4, 4, -8 or 1, 1, -2
∴ The lines AB and BC have proportional D.R.s. The lines have a common point B.
Hence the points A, B and C are collinear.
3. Find the centroid of the triangle ABC where
A ≡ (-1, 2, 1), B ≡ (-3, 4, -4) and C ≡ (-1, 0, 3).
The centroid G is given by
,
`

.
| + − + + + + −
3
3 4 1
,
3
0 4 2
,
3
1 3 1
or (1, 2, 0).
4. Find the angles made by a line with the coordinate axes if it is equally inclined with
the axes.
We know that cos
2
α + cos
2
β + cos
2
γ = 1
But α = β = γ is given . ∴ angle =
3
1
cos
1 −
· α

5. Find the angles of the triangle ABC formed by the vertices
A (3, 0, -1), B(-1, 4, 1) and C(3, 4, 2) .
D.R.s of AB are –4, 4, 2 and D.R.s. of AC are 0, 4, 3.

15
11
25 36
6 16 0
cos ·
+ +
· ∴ A

D.R.s of BA are 4, -4, -2 and D.R.s of BC are 4, 0, 1

17 3
7
cos · ∴ B

D.R.s of CA are 0, -4, -3 and D.R.s of CB are –4, 0, -1
100

17 5
3
cos · ∴ C
∴The angles are
,
15
11
cos
1
·

17 3
7
cos
1
·

and
17 5
3
cos
1
·

6. Find the angle between any two diagonals of a cube.
Fig. 1.10
Let the cube be as shown in the figure with one of its vertices O as the origin of the
coordinate system and the axes along the three sides OA, OB, OC of the cube
respectively.
If d is the length of each side of the cube, then its vertices are given by
O ≡ (0, 0, 0), O

≡ (d, d, d),
A ≡ (d, 0, 0), A

≡ (0, d, d),
B ≡ (0, d, 0), B’ ≡ (d, 0, d),
C ≡ (0, 0, d), C

≡ (d, d, 0),
We can see that the four diagonals of the cube are OO’, AA’, BB’, and CC’.
D.R.s of OO’ and AA’ are d, d, d and –d, d, d respectively
∴ Angle between these two diagonals is given by
3
1
cos
3 3
cos
1
2 2
2 2 2
1 − −
·
+ +
·
d d
d d d

7. Find the angle between a diagonal of a cube and
(i) an intersecting diagonal of a face (ii) a non-intersecting diagonal of a face.
(i) The diagonal AA

of the cube and the diagonal O’A of a face of the cube
intersect.
D.R.s of these two lines are respectively –d, d, d, and 0, d, d .
∴Angle between them is given by
3
2
cos
2 3
2
cos
1
2 2
2
1 − −
· ·
d d
d
(ii) The diagonal AA’ of the cube and the diagonal B’C’

of a face of the cube do not
intersect. Their D.C.s are respectively proportional to –d, d, d and 0, d, -d. .
101
∴Angle between them is given by
2
2 3
0
cos
2 2
2 2
1
π
·
− +
·

d d
d d
8. Given a cube as in Fig. 1.10, the diagonals passing through O, of the faces meeting at
O, make angles α , β , γ with the diagonal OO’ of the cube, prove that
cos
2
α + cos
2
β + cos
2
γ = 2.
The diagonals of the faces meeting at O and passing through O are OA

, OB

, OC
’.
whose D.R.s are 0, d, d; d, 0, d and d, d, 0.
If these lines are inclined at angles α , β , γ with OO

, whose D.R.s are d, d, d ;
then the angles are given by
6
2
6
2
cos
2
2
· ·
d
d
α
or
3
2
cos
2
· α

Also
3
2
cos
2
· β
and
3
2
cos
2
· γ
. Hence the required result.
9. Find the angle between the two lines whose D.C.s are given by the relations
l + m + n = 0 and 2lm + 2nl – mn = 0.
Eliminating l from the given relations, we get 0 1 2 2
2
· + +
,
`

.
|
n
m
n
m

. 0 1 2 2 ·

,
`

.
|
+ +

,
`

.
|
+ ⇒
n
m
n
m

0 2 · + ⇒ n m
or
0 2 · +n m
These with l + m + n = 0 give us two sets of l,m,n proportional to –1, -1, 2 and 1,
-2, 1.
The angle between these two lines is
3 6
2 2 1
cos
1
π
·
+ + −

.
10. Show that the straight liens whose D.C.s are given by ul + vm + wn = 0 and
pl
2
+qm
2
+rn
2
= 0
are (i) perpendicular if u
2
(q+r) + v
2
(r+p) + w
2
(p+q) = 0
and (ii) parallel if
0
2 2 2
· + +
r
w
q
v
p
u

102
Eliminating l from the two given relations,
We get 0 ) ( 2 ) (
2 2
2
2
2 2
· + + + + ru pw
n
m
pvw
n
m
qu pv -----------------( 1)
(i) Equation (1) is quadratic in
n
m
and has two roots, say,
1
1
n
m
and
2
2
n
m

Then the product of the 2 roots is given by
2 2
2 2
2
2
1
1
pv qu
ru pw
n
m
n
m
+
+
·

or
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
pv qu
n n
ru pw
m m
+
·
+
Similarly, by eliminating m and n from the given relations and then getting the
product of the roots and simplifying, we get
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
qw rv
l l
pv qu
n n
+
·
+
and
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
ru pw
m m
qw rv
l l
+
·
+

2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
qw rv
l l
pv qu
n n
ru pw
m m
+
·
+
·
+

---------------(2)
where l
i
, m
i,
n
i ;
i= 1, 2 are the two straight lines given by the relations.
When these lines are perpendicular, we have l
1
l
2
+ m
1
m
2
+ n
1
n
2
= 0
⇒ pw
2
+ ru
2
+ qu
2
+ pv
2
+ rv
2
+ qw
2
= 0 from (2)
⇒ u
2
(q+r) + v
2
(r+p) + w
2
(p+q) = 0
(ii) When the two lines are parallel, they have the same D.C.s.
This is true when equation (1) has two equal roots.
⇒ 4p
2
v
2
w
2
- 4(pv
2
+ qu
2
) (pw
2
+ ru
2
) = 0
⇒ qru
2
+ rpv
2
+ pqw
2
= 0

0
2 2 2
· + +
r
w
q
v
p
u
Planes:
11. Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (1, 2, 3), (2, 0, -1) and (-
1, 4, 5).
Also find the distance of the point (0, 2, -4) from the plane.
103
What is the angle made by this plane with 2x-y+z = 6 ?
The plane through the three given points is
2 2 2
4 2 1
3 2 1

− −
− − − z y x
= 0 or 2x+3y-z
= 5.
Perpendicular distance of (0,2,-4) from this plane is
14
5 4 6 0 − + +
=
14
5
.
The angle between this plane and 2x-y+z = 6 is given by cosθ = 0.
or the two planes are perpendicular.
12. Show that the points (3, 4, 1), (-1, -2, 5), (1, 7, 1) and (1, 10, 0) are coplanar.
Find the equation of the plane containing them and also the intercept made by it on the
x-axis.
The plane containing (3,4,1), (-1, -2, 5) and (1,7,1) is

4 9 2
2 3 2
1 4 3

− − − z y x
= 0 or 3x +2y + 6z - 23= 0.
Since the point (1, 10, 0) lies on this plane, the four given points are coplanar.
The equation of the plane in intercept form is
1
6
23
2
23
3
23
· + +
z y x

∴The x-intercept by the plane is
3
23
units.
13. Find the equation of the plane bisecting perpendicularly the join of the points (2,1,3)
and (4, 3, -1).
Let the equation of the required plane be ax+by+cz + d = 0
Then the mid-point (3,2,1) lies on it. Also a, b, c, are proportional to 1, 1, -2.
∴The equation is x + y – 2z – 3 = 0.
104
14. Find the equation to the plane perpendicular to x + y – 4z = 0 and through the
intersection of the planes x +3y –z = 4 and 2x + 2y +2z = 1.
The equation of the plane through the intersection of the given planes is
x + 3y – z – 4 + k(2x + 2y + 2z – 1) = 0
or (1 + 2k) x + (3 + 2k) y + (-1 + 2k) z + (-4 – k ) =0
But this is given to be perpendicular to x + y – 4z = 0
∴ 1 + 2k + 3 + 2k + 4 –8k =0 ⇒k = 2.
∴ The equation of the required plane is 5x + 7y + 3z =6.
15. The plane 4x + 7y + 4z +81 = 0 is rotated through a right angle about its line of
intersection with the plane 5x + 2y + 5z = 25. Find the equation of the plane in its
new position.
The plane in its new position passes through the line of intersection of the two given
planes.
Fig. 1.11
∴Its equation is given by 4x + 7y + 4z +81 + k (5x + 2y +5z – 25) = 0
or (4 + 5k) x + (7 + 2k) y + (4 + 5k) z + (81 –25k) = 0
But this is perpendicular to the plane 4x + 7y +4z +81 =0
∴We have (4 + 5k) 4 + (7 + 2k) 7 + (4 + 5k) 4 = 0. ∴
2
3
− · k
.
∴The equation of the required plane is 7x-8y+7z-237 =0.
Straight lines:
16. Find the equations of the straight line of intersection of the planes 2x – y + z = 5
and
x +3y – 2z +1=0
The line of intersection is perpendicular to both the planes.
If l, m, n are its D.C.s, we have 2l – m + n = 0 and l + 3m – 2n = 0 .
105
∴l : m : n = -1 : 5 : 7
Choosing z = 0 in the equations of the planes and solving the resulting equations,
we get (2, -1, 0) as a point lying on both the planes.
∴ Equations of the straight line are
7 5
1
1
2 z y x
·
+
·

17. Find the image of the point P(1, 3, 4) in the plane 2x – y +z + 3 = 0 .
Fig. 1.12
If P

is the image of the point P in the given plane, then the line PP

is perpendicular
to the plane and the plane bisects the line at the point, say, M .
∴ the equations of PP

are
k
z y x
·

·

·

1
4
1
3
2
2
(say)
M is given by M ≡ (2k+1, -k+3, k+4) and lies on the given plane. ∴k = 1.
∴M ≡ (-1, 4, 3)
∴ P’≡ (-2, 5, 2)
18. Find the image of the point (1, -1, 2) in the line
2
3
3
1

· · −
z y
x
.
Let P ≡ (1, -1, 2) and P’ be its image.
Then PP’ is perpendicular to the given line and its mid-point, say, M lies on the
given line.
∴M can be written as (k + 1, 3k, -2k + 3) .
∴D.R.s if PP

are k + 1 –1, 3k+1, -2k +3 –2 or k, 3k + 1, -2k+1.
Since PP’ is perpendicular to the line
2
3
3
1

· · −
z y
x
,
we have k + 3 (3k + 1) –2(-2k + 1) = 0 ⇒
14
1
− · k

.
14
44
,
14
3
,
14
13
M

,
`

.
| −
≡ ∴

.
7
30
,
7
4
,
7
6
P'

,
`

.
|
≡ ∴
106
19. Find the image of the line
4
3
3
2
2
1 −
·

·
− z y x
in the plane x + y + z + 3 =0 .
The given line is not parallel to the given plane.
∴It must intersect the plane.
Any point on the given line is (2k + 1, 3k +2, 4k + 3). If this lies on the plane, then k
= -1.
∴(-1, -1, -1) is the point of intersection of the given line and the given plane and
hence is a point lying on the image of the line in the plane.
(1,2, 3) is a point on the given line. Its image in the given plane is (-5, -4, -3) and is
another point on the image of the line.
∴D.R.s of the image line are 4, 3, 2 .
∴Its equations are
2
3
3
4
4
5 +
·
+
·
+ z y x
.
20. Find the equation of the plane through the points (1, 0, -1) and (3, 2, 2,) and parallel
to the line

3
2
2
1
1

·

· −
z y
x
.
The equation of the required plane is of the form a(x-1) + by + c (z+1) =0 --------
(1)
This plane also passes through the point (3, 2, 2).
∴We have 2a + 2b + 3c = 0 ----------- --- (2)
The plane is parallel to
3
2
2
1
1

·

· −
z y
x
.
∴ The normal to the plane with D.R.s a, b, c is perpendicular to the line.
∴ a – 2b + 3c = 0 ---------------------(3)
Evaluating a, b, c from the three equations, we get
0
3 2 1
3 2 2
1 1
·

+ − z y x
or 4x-y-2z-6 = 0 is the equation of the plane.
107
21. Find the angle between the lines
2 2
z
y
x
· ·
and 4x – y + z –5 =0 = 14x – 3y +
4z – 20.
D.R.s of the first line are 2, 1, 2 .
D.R.s of the second line are got by solving the equations 4a – b + c = 0 & 14a
– 3b + 4c=0
and they are 1, 2, -2 .
∴ Angle between the lines is
2 9
4 2 2
cos
1
π
·
− +

22. Find the angle that the line
4
3 2
2
2
1 +
· − ·
− z
y
x
makes with the plane x – y +
z = 0.
The required angle is θ
π
cos
2
− , where θ is the angle between the line and
the normal to the plane.
Here
3
1
cos
3 3
2 1 2
cos
1 1 − −
·
+ −
· θ
∴ Required angle is
3
1
sin
1 −
.
23. Find the distance of the point (1, -2, 3) from the plane x – y + z =13
measured
parallel to the line
6 3 2 −
· ·
z y x
.
Fig. 1.13
Let P ≡ (1, -2, 3). The equations of the line through P parallel to the given line are
6
3
3
2
2
1

·
+
·
− z y x
. Let this line intersect the given plane at M.
Then M ≡ (2k + 1, 3k - 2, -6k + 3).
108
Since M lies on the plane, we have 2k + 1 –3k + 2 – 6k + 3 = 13 ⇒k = -1.
∴ M ≡ (-1, -5, 9).
∴ The required distance PM = 7 units .
24. Find the distance of the point (-1, -5, -10) from the point of intersection of the line
12
2
4
1
3
2 −
·
+
·
− z y x
and the plane x - y + z =5.
Any point on the given line is (3k + 2, 4k –1, 12k+2).
If this lies on the given plane, then
3k + 2 – 4k +1 +12k +2 = 5 ⇒k =0.
∴(2, -1, 2) is the point of intersection of the given line with the given plane.
∴ The required distance is 13 ) 10 2 ( ) 1 5 ( ) 1 2 (
2 2 2
· + + − + + units
25. Find the line through (3, -4, 1), parallel to the plane 2x + y –z +8 = 0 and
intersecting the line 2
3
1
2
3
− ·

+
·

z
y x
.
The equations of the required line are
n
z
m
y
l
x 1 4 3 −
·
+
·

, where l, m, n are
its D.C.s.
This line is parallel to 2x + y – z +8 = 0.
∴We have 2l + m – n = 0 -----------------(1)
The line intersects
2
3
1
2
3
− ·

+
·

z
y x
.
∴They are coplanar.

0 3 3 0
1 3 0
1 3 2 · − + ⇒ ·
− −
− n m l
n m l
-----------------------(2)
Solving equations (1) and (2) , we get l : m : n are 2 :-3 :1 .
∴ Equations of the required line are
1
1
3
4
2
3 −
·

+
·
− z y x
.
109
26. Find the equations of the line through (2, 1, 3) and perpendicular to the line
3
2
2
6
5

·
+
· −
z y
x
.
Also find the length of the perpendicular from (2, 1, 3).
If M is the foot of the perpendicular from (2, 1, 3) to the given line, M ≡ (k+5, 2k-
6,3k+2).
∴ D.R.s of PM are k + 3, 2k – 7, 3k –1 with P ≡ (2, 1, 3) .
But PM is perpendicular to the given line.
∴ k + 3 + 2 (2k – 7) + 3 ( 3k –1) = 0 ⇒k =1
∴ M ≡ (6, -4, 5) ∴ Perpendicular distance = 3 3
Equations of the perpendicular line are
2
3
5
1
4
2 −
·

·
− z y x
.
27. A line with D.C.s proportional to 7, 4, -1 is drawn to intersect the lines
2
1
7
3
1
+ ·

·

z
y x
and
4
5
2
3
3
1 −
·

·

+ z y x
. Find the points of intersection and
also the length intercepted.
Let P and Q be the points of intersection of the line with D.R.s 7, 4, -1 with the two
given lines.
Then P ≡ (3k
1
+ 1, k
1
+ 7, k
1
- 2)
and Q ≡ (-3k
2
– 3, 2k
2
+ 3, 4k
2
+ 5) for some k
1
& k
2
∴ D.R.s of PQ are 3k
1
+ 3k
2
+4, -k
1
–2k
2
+ 4, k
1
–4k
2
– 7
They are also given by 7, 4, -1.
∴These two sets of D.R.s are proportional .
We get the equations 19k
1
+ 26k
2
= 12 and k
1
– 6k
2
= 8,
which when solved, yield k
1
=2, k
2
= -1 .
∴Points of intersection are P ≡ (7, 5, 0) and Q ≡ (0, 1, 1) .
∴Length intercepted 66 units
110
28. Find the shortest distance between the lines
4
3
3
2
2
4 −
·

·
− z y x
and
5x +3y +7z +6 = 0 = 6x +7y -5z +14. Also find the equations of the shortest
distance line.
Line 1 has D.R.s 2, -3, 4 and (4, 2, 3) lying on it.
Line 2 has D.R.s –64, 67, 17 and (0, -2, 0) lying on it.
∴The shortest distance line has D.R.s 11, 10, 2.
But the shortest distance is the projection of the join of (4, 2, 3) and (0, -2, 0) on the
line of shortest distance.
∴ Shortest distance length
6 ) 0 3 (
15
2
) 2 2 (
15
10
) 0 4 (
15
11
· − + + + −
units
Equations of the shortest distance line are given by
2 10 11
17 67 64
2
0
2 10 11
4 3 2
3 4 4

+
· · −
− − − z y x z y x

or 46x – 40y – 53z + 55 = 0 = 4x – 35y + 153z – 70.
29. Find the shortest distance between the line
7
3
4
2
2
1 −
·

·
− z y x
and
6
2
5
1
2
2

·

·
− z y x
.
What do you conclude here?
The D.C.s of the shortest distance line are proportional to 11, 9, 2 .
Shortest distance =
( ) ( )
0
206
) 3 2 ( 2 1 9 1 2 11
·
− + − + −
.
∴The lines are coplanar. We can see that they are not parallel. Hence they intersect.
111
30. Find the plane through the line 5x + 3y + 7z +6 = 0 = 6x + 7y – 5z +2 and parallel
to the line
4
3
3
1
2
1 −
·

·
− z y x
. Hence find the length of the shortest distance
between the given lines.
Any plane through the given line is (5 + 6k) x + (3 + 7k) y + (7 – 5k) z + (6 +2k) =
0.
This is parallel to the line
4
3
3
2
2
1 −
·

·
− z y x
.
∴(5 + 6k) 2 + (3+7k) (-3) + (7-5k) 4 = 0 ⇒k = 1.
∴ The equation of the required plane is 11x +10y + 2z + 8 = 0.
Now the length of the perpendicular from the point (1, 2, 3) on to this plane gives
the shortest distance between the two given lines.
∴It is
3
15
45
·
units.
Cones and Cylinders :
31. Find the equation of the right circular cone with vertex at (1, 2, -3), 30
o
as its semi-
vertical angle and its axis along the line
1
3
3
1
2
1 +
·

·
− z y x
.
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2 2 2
2
2
3 2 1 14
3 1 3 1 2
4
3
30 cos
+ + − + −
+ + − + −
· ·
z y x
z y x
o
or ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ]
2 2 2 2
5 3 2 2 3 2 1 21 − + + · + + − + − z y x z y x is the equation.
32. Show that the equation of the right circular cone with semi-vertical angle as α and its
axis along the z –axis, is given by x
2
+ y
2
= (z-3)
2
tan
2
α given that the vertex is at
(0, 0, 3).
[ ]
2 2 2
2
2
) 3 (
) 3 ( ) 0 ( 0 ) 0 ( 0
cos
− + +
− + − + −
·
z y x
z y x
α
( ) [ ]
2 2 2 2 2
) 3 ( cos 3 − · − + + ⇒ z z y x α
α
2 2 2 2
tan ) 3 ( − · + ⇒ z y x
112
33. Given that the vertex of a right circular cone passing through the origin is at the point
(1,2,1) whose axis is along the line
2
1
1
2
2
1

·

·
− z y x
. Find its equation.
[ ]
27
2
6 9
) 1 0 ( 2 ) 2 0 ( 1 ) 1 0 ( 2
cos
2
2
·
− − − + −
·
x
θ
If (x, y, z) is any general point on the surface of the cone, then
[ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2 2 2
2
1 2 1 9
) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ( 1 ) 1 ( 2
27
2
− + − + −
− − − + −
·
z y x
z y x
or ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ]
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 − − + · + + − + − z y x z y x is the equation.
34. Find the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is along the line
2
1
3
1
2

·

+
· −
z y
x

with the radius of its base as 3 units.
Let A ≡ (2,-1, 1), then
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
14
1 2 1 3 2
2
2
− + + − −
·
z y y
AM . (check fig. 1.9 )
But AM
2
= AP
2
– PM
2
, by Pythagoras Theorem.
= (x – 2)
2
+ (y +1)
2
+ (y - 1)
2
–9 .
∴(x –3y + 2z -7)
2
= 14[(x-2)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
+ (z - 1)
2
] –126 is the equation of the
right circular cylinder.
35. Show that the equation of a right circular cylinder whose axis is along x –2 = 0 = z
–1
2
+ y
2
– 4x – 2z + 4 = 0.
The equations of the axis are
0
1
1
0
0
2 −
·

·
− z y x
.
Here A = (2, 0, 1) and r = 1.
∴We have x
2
+ z
2
– 4x – 2z +4 = 0 as the equation.
113
36. Find the equation of a right circular cylinder whose axis is
5
4
4
3
3
2 −
·

·
− z y x
and
a generator is
5
2
4
3
3
4 −
·

·
− z y x

A ≡ (2, 3, 4) and Q ≡ (4, 3, 2) is a point on the surface of the cylinder.
If QM perpendicular to the axis, QM = r, radius and r
2
= AQ
2
– AM
2

[ ]
25
192
50
) 2 ( 5 ) 0 ( 4 ) 2 ( 3
4 0 4
2
·
− + +
− + + · .
If P ≡ (x, y, z) is any general point on the surface of the cylinder, then
AL
2
= AP
2
– PL
2
, PL perpendicular to the axis.
[ ]
. 25 / 192 ) 4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 (
50
) 4 ( 5 ) 3 ( 4 ) 2 ( 3
2 2 2
2
− − + − + − ·
− + − + −
z y x
z y x
or ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 384 ) 38 5 4 3 ( 4 3 2 50
2 2 2 2
· − + + − − + − + − z y x z y x
is the equation of the right circular cylinder.
TEST :
1. If α , β , γ are the angles made by a line with the coordinate axes, the value of
sin
2
α + sin
2
β + sin
2
γ is
a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4
2. A straight line is inclined at angles 45
o
and 60
o
with the y and the z-axes respectively.
Its inclination with x-axes is
a) 60
o
b) 45
o
c) 75
o
d) 90
o
3. The D.C.s of the line perpendicular to the plane ABC formed by A≡ (1, 1, 1), B≡ (3,
4, -1) and C≡ (1, 4, 0) are
a) 3, 2, 6 b)
7
6
,
7
2
,
7
3
, c)
7
6
,
7
2
,
7
3
d)
7
6
,
7
2
,
7
3 −
4. The foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the line joining (1, 2, 3) and (2, 3, 4)
is
a) (1, 0,1) b) (-1, 0, 1) c) (1, 0, -1) d) (-1, 0, -1)
114
5. The points A(3, 4, 2), B(6, -1, 10) and C(9, 1, 4) are the vertices of a triangle.
Traingle ABC is
a) Isosceles b) Right angled c) equilateral d) Right angled isosceles
6. The perpendicular distance between the planes 2x – 2y + z + 3 = 0 and 4x – 4y +
2y +9 = 0 is
a)
2
1
b)
6
1
c)
3
1
d)
3
2

7. The equation of the plane through the points (2, 3, 4), (-3, 5, 1) and (4, -1, 2) is
a) x-y+z1=0 b) x+y-z+1=0 c) x+y-z-1=0 d) x-y-z-1 =0
8. If the points (1, 1, -1), (7, 1, 2), (λ , -1, 2) and the origin are coplanar, the value of λ
is
a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 4) 4
9. The equation of the plane through (1, -2, 4) and parallel to the plane x+2y-3z-7 = 0
is
a) x+2y-2z=0 b) x+2y-3z+7=0 c) x+2y-3z-15=0 d) x+2y-3z+15=0
10. The acute angle between the plane 2x-y+z = 7 and x+y+2z-11 = 0 is
a)
3
π
b)
3

c)
6
5
cos
1 −
d)
6
1
cos
1 −
11. The equation of the plane through the line of intersection of the planes 2x-
3y+4z+1=0 and x+y+z-5=0 and perpendicular to the latter plane is
a) 3x-2y+5z-4=0 b) x-4y+3z+6=0 c) 11x+6y+13z-44=0 d) 12x+7y+14z-
49=0
12. The foot of the perpendicular from (3, 2, 1) to x+3y-2z+7 = 0 is
a) (2, -2, 3) b) (4, 5, -1) c) (2, -1, -1) d) (3, 2, 1)
13. The equations of the straight line joining the points (3, 2, 4) and (4, 5, 2) are
a)
2
4
5
2
4
3 −
·

·
− z y x
b)
2
4
3
2
3

·

· −
z y
x
c)
4
2
2
5
3
4 −
·

·
− z y x
d)
2
2
3
3
1

+
·

· −
z y
x
14. The equation of the plane through the line of intersection of the planes 3x-4y+5z-10
= 0
and 2x+2y-3z-4 = 0 and parallel to the straight line x = 2y = 3z is
115
a) x+20y –27z=14 b) x-20y-27z+14=0 c) x-20y +27z=14 d) x +20y – 27z
+14=0
15. Equations of the straight line through the point (2, 3,1) and parallel to the line
x-2y-z +5 = 0 = x+y+3z-6 are
a)
3
1
4
3
5
2

·

·
− z y x
b)
3
1
4
3
5
2

·

·
− z y x

c)
3
1
4
3
5
2 −
·

·

− z y x
d)
3
1
4
3
5
2 −
·

·
− z y x
16. Equations of the straight line through the point (2, 1, -3) and perpendicular to the
plane 3x+2y-4y-7=0 are
a)
4
3
2
1
3
2 +
·

·
− z y x
b)
4
3
2
1
3
2 −
·

·
− z y x

c)
4
3
2
1
3
2

+
·

·
− z y x
d)
4
1
2
1
3
2

·

·
− z y x

17. Equations of the straight line through the point (3, 4, -3) and perpendicular to two
lines whose D.C.s are
1 : 2 : 2 and 2 : 1 : 3 are
a)
3
3
1
4
4
3

+
·

·
− z y x
b)
3
3
1
4
4
3

·

·
− z y x
c)
3
3
1
4
4
3

·

·

− z y x
d)
3
3
1
4
4
3

+
·

·
− z y x

18. A(1, 2, 3), B(2, 1, -5) and C(4, -1, 3) are the vertices of a triangle.
The equations of the median through A are
a)
2
3
1
2
1
1 −
·

·

− z y x
b)
2
5
1
1
1
2 +
·

·

− z y x
c)
4
3
1
1
1
4 −
·

+
·
− z y x
d)
4
1
1
2
1
1 −
·

·
− z y x

19. The equation of the plane through the point (2, -1, 0) & (3, -4, 5) and parallel to the
line 2x=3y=4z is
a) 29x-27y –22z=85 b) 29x+27y-22z-85=0 c) 29x-27y-22z+85=0 d) 29x-27y+22z-
85=0
20. The plane 4x+5y-z+15=0 ______________ the line
3
4
1
3
2
1 −
·

+
·
− z y x

a) Perpendicular b) Contains c) Parallel to d) is at 45
o
with
116
21. The point of intersection of the straight lines
3
1
2
1
1
1 +
·

·
− z y x
and
2
2
1
5
2
2 +
·

·
+ z y x
is
a) (2, 3, 1) b) (2, 3, 2) c) (3, 3, 1) d) (3, 3, 2)
22. The straight line
4
3
3
2
2
1 −
·

·
− z y x
is non-coplanar with one of the following
straight lines.
a)
2
11
1
8
2
2 −
·

·
− z y x
b)
4
13 3
1
3
2
5 3 −
·

·
− z y x
c)
5
5
4
4
3
2 −
·

·
− z y x
d)
2
1
3
1 −
·
+
·
z y
x
23. The shortest distance between the straight lines x+y = 0 = y+z and x+y = 0 =
x+y+z-a is
a)
6
a
b)
3
2a
c)
3
2a
d) a
3
2
24. The equation x
2
+y
2
-z
2
=0 represents a
a) Sphere b) Cone c) Cylinder d) Two planes
25. The equation y
2
+z
2
=1, in space, represents a
a) Cylinder b) cone c) Sphere d) none of the three
117
Notes by Prof. A.T.Eshwar, PES, Mandya
Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum
WEB-BASED EDUCATION
Engineering Mathematics – I (I Semester)
(VTU Sub.Code:MAT -11)
Syllabus
PART –A
1. Analytical geometry in 3 dimensions
Direction cosines and direction ratios - planes - straight lines -Angle between
planes/straight lines - coplanar lines-shortest distance between skew lines, right circular
cone and right circular cylinder.
PART - B
2. Differential calculus
Determination of n
th
derivatives of standard functions, Leibnitz's theorem (without
proof) - problems only. Polar curves - Angle between the radius vector and the tangent -
pedal equations of polar curves only. Partial differentiation: Euler's Theorem. Total
differentiation.
Differentiation of Composite and implicit functions - Jacobins - Errors and
approximations. -Illustrative Engg. Oriented problems.
PART – C
3. Integral calculus
Reduction formulae for the functions sin
n
x, cos
n
x, tan
n
x, cot
n
x, sec
n
x, cosec
n
x and
sin
m
x cos
n
x - Evaluation of these integrals with standard limits - problems. Tracing of
standard curves in Cartesian form, parametric form and Polar form,
Applications to find area, length, volume and surface area.
PART - D
4. Differential equations
Solutions of 1
st
order & 1
st
degree equation- variables separable - Homogeneous and
Non- Homogeneous, Exact equations and reducible to exact form, Linear and Bernoulli’s
equations. Orthogonal trajectories of Cartesian and polar forms. (Use of initial condition
should be emphasized).-Illustrative examples from engineering field.
5. Infinite Series
Convergence, divergence and oscillation of an infinite series, Comparison Test, P-series,
D'Alembert's ratio test, Raabe's test, Cauchy's root test, Cauchy's integral test (All tests
without proof) for series of positive terms. Alternating series. Absolute and conditional
convergence, Leibnitz's test (without proof)
118
Text Book:
1. Higher Engineering Mathematics by B.S.Grewal, 36
th
Edition - July 2001.
Reference book:
2. Advanced Engineering Mathematics: - by E. Kreyszig, John Wiley & Sons, 6
th
Ed.

• Engineering Applications of MAT-11 at glance
• Contents of Part-B

A.T.Eswara, PESCE, Mandya
Sl.
No
Engg. Maths -I
(Code:MAT 11)
Applications
1
PART –A
Analytical
Geometry
in 3 dimensions
Wave Theory in E&C; Filed Theory in E&E;
Drawings in Mech. Engg.; Applied Mechanics in Civil
Engg.,
2 PART - B
Differential calculus
Basic of Applied Mechanics, Bending, deflection torsion,
in Civil & Mech. Engg.; Spreading the functions &
Electron beam deflections in E&C and E&E
3
Part – C
Integral Calculus
Basic Thermodynamics for Mech.Engg., Area, Volume
and Surface area, Tracing of Curves for all branches of
Engg.,
4
PART - D
Differential
equations
Mathematical Modeling in circuits theory for E&E,
E&C, CS&E, IS&E, Mechanical Vibrations, Deflection
of beams,Whilring of shafts in Civil/ Mech.Engg
5
PART - D
Infinite
Series
Theory of signals in E&E, E&C; Series solutions of
Differential Equations in all branches; Description of
Periodic phenomena
119
Differential Calculus
(Part-B)

Chapter – 1
LESSON -1 : Successive Differentiation
• In this lesson, the idea of differential coefficient of a function and its successive
derivatives will be discussed. Also, the computation of n
th
derivatives of some
standard
functions is presented through typical worked examples.
1.0 Introduction:- Differential calculus (DC) deals with problem of calculating
rates of
change.When we have a formula for the distance that a moving body covers as a
function of
time, DC gives us the formulas for calculating the body’s velocity and
acceleration at any
instant.
• Definition of derivative of a function y = f(x):-
Fig.1. Slope of the line PQ is
x
x f x x f

− ∆ + ) ( ) (
120
Chapter 1
Successive
Differentiation
Chapter 3
Partial
Differentiation
Chapter 2
Polar Curves
Lesson-1
n
th
derivative
of standard
functions
Lesson-2
Leibnitz`
s theorem
Lesson-1
Angle
between
polar curves
Lesson-2
Pedal
equations
Lesson-1
Euler’s
theorem
Lesson-2
Total derivative,
differentiation of
composite &
implicit functions
Lesson-3
Applications to
Jacobians, Errors
& Approximations
The derivative of a function y = f(x) is the function
) (x f ′
whose value at each x is
defined as

dx
dy
=
) (x f ′
= Slope of the line PQ (See Fig.1)
=
0
lim
→ ∆x
x
x f x x f

− ∆ + ) ( ) (
-------- (1)
=
0
lim
→ ∆x
(Average rate change)
= Instantaneous rate of change of f at x provided the limit exists.
The instantaneous velocity and acceleration of a body (moving along a line) at any instant
x is the derivative of its position co-ordinate y = f(x) w.r.t x, i.e.,
Velocity =
dx
dy
=
) (x f ′
--------- (2)
And the corresponding acceleration is given by
Acceleration ) (
2
2
x f
dx
y d
′ ′ · · ---------- (3)
• Session - 1
1.1 Successive Differentiation:-
The process of differentiating a given function again and again is called as
Successive differentiation and the results of such differentiation are called
successive derivatives.
• The higher order differential coefficients will occur more frequently in spreading
a function all fields of scientific and engineering applications.
• Notations:
i.
dx
dy
,
2
2
dx
y d
,
3
3
dx
y d
,…….., n
th
order derivative:
n
n
dx
y d
ii
) (x f ′
,
) (x f ′ ′
,
) (x f ′ ′ ′
,…..., n
th
order derivative: ) (x f
n
iii Dy, y D
2
, y D
3
,………..., n
th
order derivative: y D
n
iv
y′
,
y ′ ′
,
y ′ ′ ′
,……, n
th
order derivative:
) (n
y
v.
1
y ,
2
y , 3
y
…, n
th
order derivative: n
y
• Successive differentiation – A flow diagram
Input function:
) (x f y ·
Output function
) (x f
dx
df
y ′ · · ′
(first order
derivative)
Input function
) (x f y ′ · ′
Output function ) (
2
2
x f
dx
f d
y ′ ′ · · ′ ′ (second
order derivative)
121
Operation

dx
d
Operation

d x
d
Input function
) (x f y ′ ′ · ′ ′
Output function ) (
3
3
x f
dx
f d
y ′ ′ ′ · · ′ ′ ′ (third order
derivative)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------
Input function ) (
1 1
x f y
n n − −
· Output function ) (x f
dx
f d
y
n
n
n
n
· · (nth

order
derivative)

Animation Instruction
(Successive Differention-A flow diagram)
Output functions are to appear after operating
on Input functions, successively.

• 1.1 Solved Examples :
1. If
) sin(sin x y ·
, prove that 0 cos tan
2
2
2
· + + x y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
Solution: Differentiating
) sin(sin x y ·
--------- (1) w.r.t.x, we get

x x
dx
dy
y cos ). cos(sin
1
· ·
-------------- (2)
Again differentiating
dx
dy
y ·
1
w.r.t.x gives
[ ] x x x x x
dx
y d
y cos ) sin(sin ( cos ) sin )( cos(sin
2
2
2
− + − · · Using product rule
[ ] ) sin(sin cos ) cos(sin sin
2
2
2
2
x x x x
dx
y d
y + − · ·
i.e.
]
]
]

+ − · ) sin(sin cos ) cos(sin cos
cos
sin
2
2
x x x x
x
x
y
[ ] xy xy y
2
1 2
cos tan + − · , using Eqs. (1) and (2)
or 0 cos tan
2
1 2
· + + xy xy y
or 0 cos tan
2
2
2
· + + x y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
122
Operation

dx
d
Operation

d x
d
Operation

dx
d
2. If
) (
) (
d cx
b ax
y
+
+
·
, show that
2
2 3 1
3 2 y y y ·
Solution: We rewrite
) (
) (
d cx
b ax
y
+
+
·
, by actual division of ax+b by c x+d, as

( )
1
1

+ + ·
+

,
`

.
|
− + · d cx k
c
a
d cx c
b
c
a
y
---------- (1)where
,
`

.
|
− ·
c
b k
Differentiating (1) successively thrice, we get

( )
2
1

+ − · · d cx kc y
dx
dy
---------- (2)
( )
3 2
2
2
2
2

+ − · · d cx kc y
dx
y d
---------- (3)
( )
4 3
3
3
3
6

+ − · · d cx kc y
dx
y d
---------- (4) From (2), (3) and (4) we get
{ ¦{ ¦ [ ]
4 3 2
3 1
) ( 6 ) ( 2 2
− −
+ − + − · d cx kc d cx kc y y

6 4 2
3 1
) ( 12 2

+ · d cx c k y y
[ ]
2
3 2
3 1
) ( 2 3 2

+ − · d cx kc y y
Therefore
2
2 3 1
3 2 y y y · , as desired.
3. If t x sin · ,
pt y sin ·
, Prove that 0 ) 1 (
2
2
2
2
· + − − y p
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
Solution: Note that the function is given in terms a parameter t. So we find,

t
dt
dy
cos ·
and
pt p
dt
dy
cos ·
, so that

t
p t p
d x
d y
y
d t
d x
d t
d y
c o s
c o s
1
· · · . Squaring on both sides
( )
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
1
) 1 (
sin 1
) sin 1 (
cos
cos
x
y p
t
pt p
t
pt p
y

·

· · (by data)
∴( )( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
2
1 1 y p y x − · − .
Differentiating this equation w.r.t x, we get
( ) ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) ( 2 1
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
yy p x y y y x − · − + − .
Canceling
1
2y throughout, this becomes
( ) y p xy y x
2
1 2
2
1 − · − −
or ( ) 0 1
2
1 2
2
· + − − y p xy y x
i.e. 0 ) 1 (
2
2
2
2
· + − − y p
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
4. If
) sin (cos t t t a x + ·
,
) cos (sin t t t a y − ·
, find
2
2
dx
y d
123
Solution:
( ) t at t t t t a
dt
dy
cos sin cos sin · + + − ·

( ) t at t t t t a
dt
dy
sin cos sin cos · − + ·

∴ t
t a t
t a t
d x
d y
d t
d x
d t
d y
t a n
c o s
s i n
· · ·

,
`

.
|
Hence,
t at t at
t
dx
dt
t
dx
y d
3
2 2
2
2
cos
1
cos
1
sec sec ·
,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
·
5. If ( )
a
x
a y cosh · , prove that
2
1
2
2
2
1 y y a + ·
Solution: ( )( ) ( ), sinh
1
sinh
1
a
x
a a
x
a
dx
dy
y · · · and
( )( ),
1
cosh
2
2
2
a a
x
dx
y d
y · ·
∴ ( )
a
x
ay cosh
2
· , so that ( )
a
x
y a
2 2
2
2
cosh ·
i.e. ( )
2
1
2 2
2
2
1 sinh 1 y
a
x
y a + · + · , as desired.
• Problem Set No. 1.1 for practice.
1. If bx e y
ax
sin · , prove that ( ) 0 2
2 2
1 2
· + + − y b a ay y
2. If 1 2
2 2
· + + by hxy ax , prove that
( )
3
2
2
2
by hx
ab h
dx
y d
+

·
3. If ) cos( c t l Ae y
kt
+ ·

, show that ( ) 0 2
2 2
2
2
· + + + y l k
dx
dy
k
dx
y d
4. If ( )
2
1 log x x y + + · , prove that ( ) 0 1
2
2
2
· + +
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
5. If ( ) x y sinh tan
1 −
· , prove that 0 tan
2
2
2
·
,
`

.
|
+
dx
dy
y
dx
y d
6. If
( )
2
t a n l o g c o s
t
t a x + ·
,
t a y sin ·
, find
2
2
dx
y d
Ans:
t a
t
4
cos
sin
7. Find
2
2
dx
y d
, when θ
3
cos a x · , θ
3
sin b y · Ans:
2
4
3
sec cos
a
ec b θ θ
124
8. Find
3
3
dx
y d
, where

,
`

.
|

·

2
1
1
tan
x
x
y
Ans:
( )
2
5
2
2
1
2 1
x
x

+
9. If t t x 2 cos cos 2 − · , t t x 2 sin sin 2 − · , Find
2
2
2
π
·

,
`

.
|
x
dx
y d
Ans: -3/2
10. If
x x
be e xy

+ · , prove that 0 2
2
2
· − + xy
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
• Session -2
1.2 Calculation of n
th
derivatives of some standard functions
• Below, we present a table of n
th
order derivatives of some standard functions for
Table : 1
125
• We proceed to illustrate the proof of some of the above results, as only the above
functions are able to produce a sequential change from one derivative to the
other. Hence, in general we cannot obtain readymade formula for nth derivative
of functions other than the above.
1. Consider
mx
e . Let
mx
e y · . Differentiating w.r.t x, we get
·
1
y
mx
me . Again differentiating w.r.t x, we get
( )
mx
me m y ·
2
=
mx
e m
2
Similarly, we get

3
y
=
mx
e m
3
Sl.
No
y = f(x)
y D
dx
y d
y
n
n
n
n
· ·
1
mx
e
mx n
e m
2
mx
a ( )
mx n n
a a m log
3
( )
m
b ax + i. ( )( ) ( ) ( )
n m n
b ax a n m m m m

+ + − − − 1 .... 2 1 for all
m
.
ii. 0 if
n m <
iii.
( ) ! n
a
n
if
n m ·
iv.
( )
n m
x
n m
m

− !
!
if
n m <
4
( ) b ax +
1
n
n
n
a
b ax
n
1
) (
! ) 1 (
+
+

5.
( )
m
b ax +
1
n
n m
n
a
b ax m
n m
+
+ −
− + −
) ( ! ) 1 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
6.
) log( b ax +
n
n
n
a
b ax
n
) (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
+
− −

7.
) sin( b ax +
)
2
sin(
π
n b ax a
n
+ +
8.
) cos( b ax +
)
2
cos(
π
n b ax a
n
+ +
9. ) sin( c bx e
ax
+
) sin( θ n c bx e r
ax n
+ + ,
) ( t a n
1 2 2
a
b
b a r

· + · θ
10. ) cos( c bx e
ax
+
) cos( θ n c bx e r
ax n
+ + ,
) ( t a n
1 2 2
a
b
b a r

· + · θ
126

4
y
=
mx
e m
4
…………….
And hence we get
n
y
=
mx n
e m ∴ [ ] ·
mx
n
n
e
dx
d
mx n
e m .

2. ( )
m
b ax + (See Sl. No-3 of Table-1 )
let
· y
( )
m
b ax + Differentiating w.r.t x,

1
y =
m ( ) a b ax
m 1 −
+ . Again differentiating w.r.t x, we get

2
y =
m

( ) 1 − m
( )
2 2
a b ax
m−
+
Similarly, we get

3
y
=
m

( ) 1 − m

( ) 2 − m
( )
3 3
a b ax
m−
+
………………………………….
And hence we get

n
y
=
m

( ) 1 − m

( ) 2 − m
……….
( ) 1 + −n m
( )
n n m
a b ax

+ for all m.
Case (i) If
n m ·
(m-positive integer),then the above expression becomes
n
y
=
n ( ) 1 − n ( ) 2 − n
……….3.2.1( )
n n n
a b ax

+
i.e. ( )
n
n
a n y ! ·
Case (ii) If m<n,(i.e. if n>m) which means if we further differentiate the above
expression, the
right hand site yields zero. Thus ( ) [ ] ( ) n m if b ax D
m n
< · + 0
Case (iii) If m>n, then ( )( ) ( )( )
n n m
n
a b ax n m m m m y

+ + − − − · 1 ...... 2 1 becomes

( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
n n m
a b ax
n m
n m n m m m m

+

− + − − −
·
!
! 1 ...... 2 1
. i.e
( )
( )
n n m
n
a b ax
n m
m
y

+

·
!
!

3.
( )
m
b ax +
1
(See Sl. No-5 of Table-1 )

( )
( )
m
m
b ax
b ax
y Let

+ ·
+
·
1
Differentiating w.r.t x
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
a b ax m a b ax m y
m m 1 1
1
1
+ − − −
+ − · + − ·

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
[ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 2 2 2 1 1
2
1 1 1 1 a b ax m m a b ax m m y
m m + − − + −
+ + − · + + − − ·
Similarly, we get ( ) ( )( )( )
( ) 3 3 3
3
2 1 1 a b ax m m m y
m+ −
+ + + − ·
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 4 4 4
4
3 2 1 1 a b ax m m m m y
m+ −
+ + + + − ·
……………………………
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) n n m n
n
a b ax n m m m m y
+ −
+ − + + + − · 1 ..... 2 1 1
This may be rewritten as
127

( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) n n m
n
n
a b ax
m
m m m n m n m
y
+ −
+

− + − + − + −
·
! 1
! 1 1 ..... 2 1 1
or
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
n
n m
n
n
a
b ax m
n m
y
+
+ −
− + −
·
! 1
! 1 1
4.
( ) b ax +
1
(See Sl. No-4 of Table-1 )
Putting
, 1 · m
in the result

n
n m
n
m
n
a
b ax m
n m
b ax
D
+
+ −
− + −
·
]
]
]

+ ) ( ! ) 1 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
1
we get
n
n
n
n
a
b ax
n
b ax
D
+
+ −
− + −
·
]
]
]

+
1
) ( ! ) 1 1 (
! ) 1 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
1
or
n
n
n
n
a
b ax
n
b ax
D
+
+

·
]
]
]

+
1
) (
! ) 1 (
) (
1

• 1.2.1. Worked Examples:-
In each of the following Questions find the n
th
derivative after reducing them into
standard functions given in the table 1.2.1
1. (a) ) 1 9 log(
2
− x (b) [ ]
7 5
) 3 4 ( log
+
+
x
e x (c)
6
2
10
) 1 (
) 3 2 ( ) 5 3 (
log
+
− +
x
x x
Solution: (a) Let { ¦ ) 1 3 )( 1 3 ( log ) 1 9 log(
2
− + · − · x x x y

) 1 3 log( ) 1 3 log( − + + · x x y
(
B A AB log log ) log( + ·
)
∴ { ¦ { ¦ ) 1 3 log( ) 1 3 log( − + + · x
dx
dn
x
dx
dn
y
n n
n
i.e
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
y ) 3 (
) 1 3 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 3 (
) 1 3 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
1 1

− −
+
+
− −
·
− −
(b) Let [ ]
7 5 7 5
log ) 3 4 log( ) 3 4 ( log
+ +
+ + · + ·
x x
e x e x y

e x x
e
log ) 7 5 ( ) 3 4 log( + + + ·
( A B A
B
log log · )

) 7 5 ( ) 3 4 log( + + + · x x y
(
1 log · e
e )

0 ) 4 (
) 3 4 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
+
+
− −
·

n
n
n
n
x
n
y

5 ) 6 5 ( · + x D
0 ) 6 5 (
2
· + x D
) 1 ( 0 ) 1 5 ( > · + n x D
n
(c) Let
6
2
10
) 1 (
) 3 2 ( ) 5 3 (
log
+
− +
·
x
x x
y
128

¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+
− +
·
6
2
) 1 (
) 3 2 ( ) 5 3 (
10 log
1
x
x x
e

10 log
log
log
10
e
e
X
X ·

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
− +
·
6
2
) 1 (
) 3 2 ( ) 5 3 (
log
2
1
10 log
1
x
x x
e
A B A
B
log log ·

B A
B
A
log log log − ·
,
`

.
|

{ ¦
6 2
) 1 log( ) 3 2 log( ) 5 3 log(
10 log 2
1
+ − − + + · x x x
e

{ ¦ ) 1 log( 6 ) 3 2 log( ) 5 3 log( 2
10 log 2
1
+ − − + + · x x x y
e
Hence,

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
− −
− −

− −
+
+
− −
·
− − −
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
e
n
x
n
x
n
x
n
y ) 1 (
) 1 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
. 6 ) 3 (
) 3 2 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 3 (
) 5 3 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
. 2
10 log 2
1
1 1 1
2. (a)
4 2 4 2
6
+ +
+
x x
e (b) x x 4 cosh 4 cosh
2
+
(c) x x e
x
2 cosh 3 sinh

(d)
5
4
) 8 6 (
) 4 5 (
1
) 5 4 (
1
+ +
+
+
+
x
x x
Solution: (a) Let
4 2 4 2
6
+ +
+ ·
x x
e y

4 2 4 2
6 6
x x
e e + ·
∴ ) 6 ( 1296 ) (
2 2 4 x x
e e y + ·
hence ) 6 ( 1296 ) (
2 2 4 x
n
x
n
n
dx
dn
e
dx
dn
e y + ·
{ ¦ { ¦
x n n x n
e e
2 2 4
6 ) 6 (log 2 1296 2 + ·
(b) Let x x y 4 cosh 4 cosh
2
+ ·

2
4 4 4 4
2 2

,
`

.
| +
+

,
`

.
| +
·
− − x x x x
e e e e

( ) { ¦ ) )( ( 2 ) ( ) (
4
1
2
1
4 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 x x x x x x
e e e e e e
− − −
+ + + + ·

( ) { ¦ 2
4
1
2
1
8 8 4 4
+ + + + ·
− − x x x x
e e e e y
hence,
[ ] [ ] 0 ) 8 ( 8
4
1
) 4 ( 4
2
1
8 8 4 4
+ − + + − + ·
− − n n n n x n x n
n
e e e e y

(c) Let x x e y
x
2 cosh 3 sinh

·

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹ +
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹ −
·
− −

2 2
2 2 3 3 x x x x
x
e e e e
e
129
{ ¦ ) )( (
4
2 2 3 3 x x x x
x
e e e e
e
− −

+ − ·
{ ¦
x x x x
x
e e e e
e
5 5
4
− −

− + − ·

{ ¦
x x x
e e e
6 2 4
1
4
1
− −
− + − ·

{ ¦
x x x
e e e y
6 2 4
1
4
1
− −
− − + ·
Hence,
{ ¦
x n x n x n
n
e e e y
6 2 4
) 6 ( ) 2 ( ) 4 ( 0
4
1
− −
− − − − + ·
(d) Let
5
4
) 8 6 (
) 4 5 (
1
) 5 4 (
1
+ +
+
+
+
· x
x x
y
Hence,
( ) { ¦
5
4
8 6
) 4 5 (
1
) 5 4 (
1
+ +
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
· x
dx
dn
x dx
dn
x dx
dn
y
n n n
n

0 ) 5 (
) 4 5 ( ! ) 1 4 (
! ) 1 4 ( ) 1 (
) 4 (
) 5 4 (
! ) 1 (
4 1
+
+ −
− + −
+
+

·
+ +
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
i.e
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
y ) 5 (
) 4 5 ( ! 3
! ) 3 ( ) 1 (
) 4 (
) 5 4 (
! ) 1 (
4 1 + +
+
+ −
+
+

·
• Session - 3
• 1.2.2 Worked examples:-
1. (i)
8 6
1
2
+ − x x
(ii)
3 2
1
1
x x x + − −
(iii)
6 7 2
2
2
+ + x x
x
(iv)
9 12 4
1
1
2
2
+ +
+
,
`

.
|
+
+
x x x
x
(v) ( )
a
x
1
tan

(vi) x
1
tan

(vii)

,
`

.
|

+

x
x
1
1
tan
1
• In all the above problems, we use the method of partial fractions to reduce
them into standard forms.
130
Solutions: (i) Let
8 6
1
2
+ −
·
x x
y . The function can be rewritten as
) 2 )( 4 (
1
− −
·
x x
y
• This is proper fraction containing two distinct linear factors in the denominator.
So, it can be split into partial fractions as

) 2 ( ) 4 ( ) 2 )( 4 (
1

+

·
− −
·
x
B
x
A
x x
y
Where the constant A and B are found
as given below.

) 2 )( 4 (
) 4 ( ) 2 (
) 2 )( 4 (
1
− −
− + −
·
− − x x
x B x A
x x

) 4 ( ) 2 ( 1 − + − · x B x A
-------------(*)
Putting x = 2 in (*), we get the value of B as
2
1
− · B
Similarly putting x = 4 in(*), we get the value of A as
2
1
· A

2
) 2 / 1 (
4
) 2 / 1 (
) 2 )( 4 (
1

+

·
− −
·
x x x x
y
Hence

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
x dx
d
x dx
d
y
n
n
n
n
n

]
]
]

]
]
]

·
+ +
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
) 1 (
) 2 (
! ) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
) 4 (
! ) 1 (
2
1
1 1

]
]
]

− ·
+ + 1 1
) 2 (
1
) 4 (
1
! ) 1 (
2
1
n n
n
x x
n

(ii) Let
) 1 )( 1 (
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
1
1
2 2 3 2
x x x x x x x x
y
− −
·
− − −
·
+ − −
·
ie
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
) 1 )( 1 )( 1 (
1
2
x x x x x
y
+ −
·
+ − −
·

Though y is a proper fraction, it contains a repeated linear factor
2
) 1 ( x − in its
denominator. Hence, we write the function as

x
C
x
B
x
A
y
+
+

+

·
1 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
in terms of partial fractions. The
constants A, B, C
are found as follows:
131

x
C
x
B
x
A
x x
y
+
+

+

·
+ −
·
1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
2 2
ie
2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 ( 1 x C x B x x A − + + + + − · -------------(**)
Putting x = 1 in (**), we get B as
2
1
· B
Putting x = -1 in (**), we get C as
4
1
· C
Putting x = 0 in (**), we get C B A + + · 1

4
1
4
1
2
1
1 1 · − − · − − · C B A

4
1
· A
Hence,
) 1 (
) 4 / 1 (
) 1 (
) 2 / 1 (
) 1 (
) 4 / 1 (
2
x x x
y
+
+

+

·

]
]
]

+

+
]
]
]

− −
− + −
+
]
]
]

·
+ + +
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
x
n
y ) 1 (
) 1 (
! ) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
) 1 ( ! ) 1 2 (
! ) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
! ) 1 (
4
1
1 2 1

]
]
]

+ −
+ −
+
]
]
]

+
+

− ·
+ +
2 ) 1 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
! ) 1 (
4
1
1 1
n x
n
x x
n
n
n n
n
(iii) Let
6 7 2
2
2
+ +
·
x x
x
y (VTU July-05)
This is an improper function. We make it proper fraction by actual division
and later
spilt that into partial fractions.
i.e
6 7 2
) 3 (
2
1
) 6 7 2 (
2
2
7
2 2
+ −
− −
+ · + + ÷
x x
x
x x x

) 2 )( 3 2 (
3
2
1
2
7
+ +

+ ·

x x
x
y Resolving this proper fraction into partial
fractions, we get

]
]
]

+
+
+
+ ·
) 2 ( ) 3 2 ( 2
1
x
B
x
A
y
. Following the above examples for finding A &
B, we get

]
]
]

+

+
+
+ ·
2
) 4 (
3 2 2
1
2
9
x x
y
Hence,
]
]
]

+

]
]
]

+

+ ·
+ +
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
y ) 1 (
) 2 (
! ) 1 (
4 ) 2 (
) 3 2 (
! ) 1 (
2
9
0
1 1
132
i.e
]
]
]

+

+
− ·
+ + 1 1
2
9
) 2 (
4
) 3 2 (
) 2 (
! ) 1 (
n n
n
n
n
x x
n y
(iv) Let
9 12 4 ) 1 (
) 2 (
2
+ +
+
+
+
·
x x
x
x
x
y

(i) (ii)
Here (i) is improper & (ii) is proper function. So, by actual division (i)
becomes

,
`

.
|
+
+ ·
,
`

.
|
+
+
1
1
1
1
2
x x
x
. Hence, y is given by

2
) 3 2 (
1
1
1
1
+
+
,
`

.
|
+
+ ·
x x
y
[ 9 12 4 ) 3 2 (
2 2
+ + · + x x x ]
Resolving the last proper fraction into partial fractions, we get

2 2
) 3 2 ( ) 3 2 ( ) 3 2 ( +
+
+
·
+ x
B
x
A
x
x
. Solving we get

2
1
· A and
2
3
− · B

]
]
]

+

+
+
+

,
`

.
|
+
+ ·
2
2
3
2
1
) 3 2 ( ) 3 2 ( 1
1
1
x x x
y

]
]
]

+ +
+ −

]
]
]

+

+
]
]
]

+

+ ·
+
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n x
n
x
n
x
n
y ) 2 (
2 ) 3 2 (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
3
) 2 (
) 3 2 (
! ) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
! ) 1 (
0
1

(v) ( )
a
x
1
tan

Let ( )
a
x
y
1
tan

·

( )
2 2 2
1
1
1
1
a x
a
a
a
x
y
+
·

,
`

.
|
+
·

,
`

.
|
+
· · ·
− −
2 2
1
1
1
) (
a x
a
D y D y D y
n n n
n
Consider
) )( (
2 2
ai x ai x
a
a x
a
− +
·
+

) ( ) ( ai x
B
ai x
A

+
+
·
, on resolving into partial fractions.

( ) ( )
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
ai x
i
ai x
i

+
+

·
, on solving for A & B.
133

,
`

.
|

+

,
`

.
|
+

·

,
`

.
|
+
− − −
a i x
D
a i x
D
a x
a
D
i n i n n 2
1
1 2
1
1
2 2
1

]
]
]

− −

,
`

.
|
+
]
]
]

+
− −

,
`

.
|
− ·
− −
n
n
n
n
ai x
n
i ai x
n
i ) (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
) (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
1 1
-----------(*)
• Since above answer containing complex quantity i we rewrite the answer in terms of
real quantity, We take transformation
θ θ sin cos r a r x · ·
where
2 2
a x r + · ,

,
`

.
|
·

x
a
1
tan θ
( )
θ
θ θ
i
re i r ai x · + · + sin cos
( )
θ
θ θ
i
re i r ai x

· − · − sin cos

( )
n
in
in n n
r
e
e r ai x
θ
θ
· ·

1 1
,
( )
n
in
n
r
e
ai x
θ −
·
+
1

now(*) is
( ) ( )
[ ]
θ θ in in
n
n
n
e e
r i
n
y

− −
·
2
! 1 1
1

( )
( )
( ) ( )
θ θ n
r
n
n i
r i
y
n
n
n
n
n
sin
! 1 1
sin 2
2
1
1 1
− −

·
− −
(vi) Let x y
1
tan

· .Putting a = 1 in Ex.(v) we get
n
y
which is same as above with ( )
x
x r
1
tan 1
1 2 −
· + · θ
( ) θ θ cot cot
1
· ·

x or x
θ
θ
θ θ
n
n n
ec r
ec r sin
cos
1 1
cos 1 cot
2
· · ⇒ · + · ∴
( ) ( ) ( ) x where n n x D
n n n 1 1 1
cot sin sin ! 1 1 tan
− − −
· − − · θ θ θ
(vii) Let
,
`

.
|

+
·

x
x
y
1
1
tan
1
put θ tan · x x
1
tan

· θ

]
]
]

+
·

θ
θ
tan 1
tan 1
tan
1
y

[ ] ) t a n ( t a n
4
1
θ
π
+ ·

( )
,
`

.
|

+
· +
θ
θ
θ
π
tan 1
tan 1
4
tan

) ( tan
4
4
1
x

+ · + ·
π
θ
π

) ( tan
4
1
x y

+ ·
π

) (tan 0
1
x D y
n
n

+ ·
134

]
]
]

− −

,
`

.
|
+
]
]
]

+
− −

,
`

.
|
− ·
− −
n
n
n
n
ai x
n
i ai x
n
i ) (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
) (
! ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
1 1
Problem set No. 1.2.1 for practice
Find the n
th
derivative of the following functions:
1.
) 4 )( 1 (
6
2
− − x x
x
2.
) 1 2 )( 2 (
2
+ − + x x x
x
3.
2 2
1 4
2 3
2
− − +
+ +
x x x
x x
4.
3 4
2
− − x x
x
5.
2 3
2
3
+ − x x
x
6.
,
`

.
|

2
1
1
2
tan
x
x
7.

,
`

.
|
− +

x
x 1 1
tan
2
1
• Session 4
1.
) sin( b ax +
.(See Sl. No-7 of Table-1 )
Let
) sin( b ax y + ·
. Differentiating w.r.t x,
a b ax y ). cos(
1
+ · As
X X cos )
2
sin( · +
π
135
We can write

). 2 / sin(
1
π + + · b ax a y
Again Differentiating w.r.t x,
a b ax a y ). 2 / cos(
2
π + + · Again using
X X cos )
2
sin( · +
π
,we get
2
y as
a b ax a y ). 2 / 2 / sin(
2
π π + + + ·
i.e. ). 2 / 2 sin(
2
2
π + + · b ax a y
Similarly, we get
). 2 / 3 sin(
3
3
π + + · b ax a y
). 2 / 4 sin(
4
4
π + + · b ax a y
……………………………
). 2 / sin( π n b ax a y
n
n
+ + ·
2. ( ). sin c bx e
ax
+ (See Sl. No-9 of Table-1 )
( ) ) 1 .....( sin c bx e y Let
ax
+ ·
Differentiating using product rule ,we get
·
1
y ( ) ( )
ax ax
ae c bx b c bx e + + + sin cos
i.e. ·
1
y ( ) ( ) [ ] c bx b c bx a e
ax
+ + + cos sin . For computation of higher order
derivatives
it is convenient to express the constants ‘a’ and ‘b’ in terms of the
constants r and
θ defined by
θ cos r a ·
&
θ sin r b ·
,so t
2 2
b a r + · and
( )
a
b
1
tan

· θ .thus,

1
y can be rewritten as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] c bx r c bx r e y
ax
+ + + · cos sin sin cos
1
θ θ
or ( ) ( ) [ ] } cos cos cos {sin
1
θ θ c bx c bx r e y
ax
+ + + ·
i.e. ( ) [ ] ) 2 .( .......... sin
1
θ + + · c bx re y
ax
Comparing expressions (1) and (2), we write
2
y as
( ) θ 2 sin
2
2
+ + · c bx e r y
ax
( ) θ 3 sin
3
3
+ + · c bx e r y
ax
Continuing in this way, we get
( ) θ 4 sin
4
4
+ + · c bx e r y
ax
( ) θ 5 sin
5
5
+ + · c bx e r y
ax
…………………………….
( ) θ n c bx e r y
ax n
n
+ + · sin

( ) [ ] ( ), sin sin θ n c bx e r c bx e D
ax n ax n
+ + · + where
2 2
b a r + · &
( )
a
b
1
tan

· θ
• 1.2.3 Worked examples
136
1. (i) x x
3 2
cos sin + (ii) x
3 3
cos sin (iii) x x x 3 cos 2 cos cos
(iv) x x x 3 sin 2 sin sin (v) x e
x
2 cos
3
(vi) ( ) x x e
x 3 2 2
cos sin +
• The following formulae are useful in solving some of the above problems.
(i)
2
2 cos 1
cos ) (
2
2 cos 1
sin
2 2
x
x ii
x
x
+
·

·

(iii) x x x iv x x x cos 3 cos 4 3 cos ) ( sin 4 sin 3 3 sin
3 3
− · − ·
(v)
( ) ( ) B A B A B A − + + · sin sin cos sin 2
(vi)
( ) ( ) B A B A B A − − + · sin sin sin cos 2

(vii)
( ) ( ) B A B A B A − + + · cos cos cos cos 2
(viii)
( ) ( ) B A B A B A + − − · cos cos sin sin 2
Solutions: (i) Let
( ) x x
x
x x y cos 3 3 cos
4
1
2
2 cos 1
cos sin
3 2
+ +
,
`

.
| −
· + ·

( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2
cos 3
2
3 cos 3
4
1
2
2 cos 2 0
2
1
π π π n
x
n
x
n
x y
n n
n
+ + + + + − · ∴
(ii)Let y =
]
]
]

+ −
· ·
,
`

.
|
·
4
2 sin 3 6 sin
8
1
8
2 sin
2
2 sin
cos sin
3
3
3 3
x x x x
x x
[ ] x x 6 sin 2 sin 3
32
1
− ·

]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ −
,
`

.
|
+ ·
2
6 sin 6
2
2 sin 2 . 3
32
1 π π n
x
n
x y
n n
n
(iii) )Let y = x x x 2 cos cos 3 cos
=
( ) [ ] x x x x x x 2 cos 2 cos 4 cos
2
1
2 cos 2 cos 4 cos
2
1
2
+ · +
=
( )
]
]
]

+ +
2
4 cos 1
2 cos 6 cos
2
1
2
1 x
x x

( ) x
x
x 4 cos 1
4
1
4
2 cos
6 cos
4
1
− + + ·

4
2
4 cos 4
4
2
2 cos 2
2
6 cos 6
4
1

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
+
,
`

.
|
+ · ∴
π π
π
n
x
n
x
n
x y
n n
n
n
(iv) )Let y =
x sn x x 2 sin 3 sin

( ) [ ] x x x 2 sin 4 sin 2 sin
2
1
− ·
137

[ ] x x x 2 sin 4 sin 2 sin
2
1
2
− ·
=
( )
]
]
]

− −

x x
x
6 sin 2 sin
2
1
2
4 cos 1
2
1

( )
]
]
]

− −
,
`

.
| −
· x x
x
6 sin 2 sin
4
1
4
4 cos 1

]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ +
,
`

.
|
+ −
,
`

.
|
+ ·
2
6 sin 6
2
2 sin 2
2
4 cos 4
4
1 π π π n
x
n
x
n
x y
n n n
n
(v) Let x e y
x
2 cos
3
· (Refer Sl.No. 10 of Table 1)
( ) θ n x re y
x
n
+ · ∴ 2 cos
3
where
2 2
2 3 + · r 13 · &
,
`

.
|
·

3
2
tan
1
θ
(vi) Let y = ( ) x x e
x 3 2 2
cos sin +
We know that
[ ] [ ] x x
x
x x cos 3 3 cos
4
1
2
2 cos 1
cos sin
3 2
+ +

· +
∴y =
[ ] [ ] x x
e x
e x x e
x
x x
cos 3 3 cos
4 2
2 cos 1
cos sin
2
2 3 2 2
+ +
]
]
]

· +

[ ] [ ] x e x e x e e y
x x x x
cos 3 3 cos
4
1
2 cos
2
1
2 2 2 2
+ + − · ∴
Hence,
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ]
3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
1
2
cos 3 3 cos
4
1
2 cos 2
2
1
θ θ θ n x e r n x e r n x e r e y
x n x n x n x n
n
+ + + + + − ·
where
2 2
1
2 2 + · r 8 · ;
2 2
2
3 2 + · r 13 · ;
2 2
3
1 2 + · r 5 ·
;
2
1
tan ;
2
3
tan ;
2
2
tan
1
3
1
2
1
1

,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
·
− − −
θ θ θ
Problem set No. 1.2.2 for practice
Find n
th
derivative of the following functions:
1. ) cos (sin
2 3
x x + 2. x x 3 cos 2 sin 3. x x 3 sin . 2 cos 4. x x 2 cos cos
5. x x 2 s i n s i n 6. ) cos (sin
2 3 3
x x e
x
+ 7. x x e
x
4 cos 2 cos 8. x x e
x
2 cos sin
2 −
.9. x e
x 3 3
cos

(VTU Jan-04)
LESSON -2 : Leibnitz’s Theorem
• Session - 1
138
• Leibnitz’s theorem is useful in the calculation of n
th
derivatives of product of two
functions.
• Statement of the theorem:
If u and v are functions of x, then
v uD v uD D C v uD D C uDv D C uv D uv D
n r r n
r
n n n n n n n
... .... ) (
2 2
2
1
1
+ + + + + ·
− − −
,
where
dx
d
D ·
, n C
n
·
1
,
( )
( )! !
!
,........,
2
1
2
r n r
n
C
n n
C
r
n n

·

·
• Worked Examples
1. If
that prove pt y t x sin , sin · ·
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 2 1
2 2
1 2
2
· − + + − −
+ + n n n
y n p xy n y x (VTU July-05)
Solution: Note that the function
) (x f y ·
is given in the parametric form with a
parameter t.
So, we consider

t
p t p
d x
d y
d t
d x
d t
d y
c o s
c o s
· · (p – constant)
or
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
) 1 (
sin 1
) sin 1 (
cos
cos
x
y p
t
pt p
t
pt p
dx
dy

·

· ·
,
`

.
|
or ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
2
1 1 y p y x − · −
So that ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
2
1 1 y p y x − − − Differentiating w.r.t. x,
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) 0 2 2 2 1
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
· − − − + − yy p x y y y x
( ) 0 1
2
1 2
2
· + − − y p xy y x --------------- (1) [
1
2y ÷ , throughout]
Equation (1) has second order derivative
2
y in it. We differentiate (1), n times,
term wise,
using Leibnitz’s theorem as follows.
( ) [ ] 0 1
2
1 2
2
· − − − y p xy y x D
n
i.e { ¦ { ¦ ( ) 0 ) 1 (
2
1 2
2
· − − − y p D xy D y x D
n n n
---------- (2)

(a) (b) (c)
Consider the term (a):
( ) [ ]
2
2
1 y x D
n
− . Taking
2
y u · and ) 1 (
2
x v − · and applying Leibnitz’s theorem
we get
[ ] ...
3 3
3
2 2
2
1
1
+ + + + ·
− − −
v uD D C v D D C uDv D C uv D uv D
n n n n n n n n
i.e
[ ] ... ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ). ( ) 1 ).( ( ) 1 (
2 3
2
3
3
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
+ − + − + − + − · −
− − −
x D y D C x D y D C x D y D C x y D x y D
n n n n n n n n

... ) 0 .( .
! 3
) 2 )( 1 (
) 2 .(
! 2
) 1 (
) 2 .( )
2 ) 3 ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 ) 1 (
2
2 ) (
+
− −
+ −

+ − + − ·
+ − + − + − + n n n n
y
n n n
y
n n
x ny x y
( ) [ ] ( )
n n n
n
y n n nxy y x y x D ) 1 ( 2 1 1
1 2
2
2
2
− − − − · −
+ +
----------- (3)
139
Consider the term (b):
[ ]
1
xy D
n
. Taking
1
y u · and
x v ·
and applying Leibnitz’s
theorem, we get

[ ] .... ) ( ). ( ) ( . ) ).( ( ) (
2
1
2
2 1
1
1 1 1
+ + + ·
− −
x D y D C x D y D C x y D x y D
n n n n n n

.... ) 0 (
! 2
) 1 (
.
2 ) 2 ( 1 ) 1 ( 1 ) (
+

+ + ·
+ − + − + n n n
y
n n
ny x y
[ ]
n n
n
ny xy xy D + ·
+1 1
---------- (4)
Consider the term (c):

n
n n
y p y D p y p D
2 2 2
) ( ) ( · · --------- (5)
Substituting these values (3), (4) and (5) in Eq (2) we get
( ) { ¦ { ¦ { ¦ 0 ) 1 ( 2 1
2
1 1 2
2
· + + − − − − −
+ + + n n n n n n
y p ny xy y n n nxy y x
ie ( ) 0 ) 1 2 ( 1
2 2
1 2
2
· + − + − + − −
+ + n n n n n n
y p ny ny y n xy n y x
∴( ) ( ) 0 ) 1 2 ( 1
2 2
1 2
2
· − + + − −
+ + n n n
y n p xy n y x as desired.
2. If ) 1 log( 2 sin
1
+ ·

x y or

[ ] ) 1 log( 2 sin + · x y
or [ ]
2
) 1 log( sin + · x y
or ) 1 2 log( sin
2
+ + · x x y , show that
( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0 4 1 1 2 1
2
1 2
2
· + + + + + +
+ + n n n
y n y x n y x (VTU Jan-03)
Out of the above four versions, we consider the function as
) 1 log( 2 ) ( sin
1
+ ·

x y
Differentiating w.r.t x, we get

,
`

.
|
+
·

1
2
) (
1
1
1
2
x
y
y
ie
2
1
1 2 ) 1 ( y y x − · +
Squaring on both sides
( ) ) 1 ( 4 1
2 2
1
2
y y x − · +
Again differentiating w.r.t x,
( ) ( ) ( ) ) 2 ( 4 ) 1 ( 2 2 1
1
2
1 2 1
2
yy x y y y x − · + + +
or ( ) ) 2 ( 4 ) 1 ( 1
1 1 2
2
y y y x y x ÷ − · + + +
or ( ) 0 4 ) 1 ( 1
1 2
2
· + + + + y y x y x -----------*
Differentiating * w.r.t x, n-times, using Leibnitz’s theorem,

{ ¦ 0 4 ) 1 ( ) 1 )( ( ) 2 )( (
! 2
) 1 (
) 1 ( 2 ) ( ) 1 (
1
1
1 2
2
2
1 2
2
· + + + +
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹ −
+ + + +
− − −
y D y nD x g D y D
n n
x y nD x y D
n n n n n n
On simplification, we get
( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0 4 1 1 2 1
2
1 2
2
· + + + + + +
+ + n n n
y n y x n y x
140
3. If
) tan(log y x ·
, then find the value of
( ) ( )
1 1
2
) 1 ( 1 2 1
− +
− + − + +
n n n
y n n y nx y x (VTU July-04)
Consider

) tan(log y x ·
i.e. y x log tan
1
·

or
x
e y
1
tan

·
Differentiating w.r.t x,

2 2
tan
1
1 1
1
.
1
x
y
x
e y
x
+
·
+
·

∴( ) ( ) 0 1 1
1
2
1
2
· − + · + y y x ie y y x -----------*
We differentiate * n-times using Leibnitz’s theorem,
We get
( ) [ ] 0 ) ( 1
1
2
· − + y D y x D
n n
ie.
{ ¦ { ¦ 0 .... ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 )( (
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
· − + + + + + +
− −
y D x D y D C x D y D C x y D
n n n n n n
ie
0 .... 0 ) 2 (
! 2
) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
2
1
· −
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ +

+ + +
− + n n n n
y y
n n
x ny x y
( ) ( ) 0 ) 1 ( 1 2 1
1 1
2
· − + − + +
− + n n n
y n n y nx y x
4. If
x y y
m m
2
1 1
· +

, or
[ ]
m
x x y 1
2
− + ·
or
[ ]
m
x x y 1
2
− − ·
Show that ( ) ( ) 0 ) 1 2 ( 1
2 2
1 2
2
· − + + + −
+ + n n n
y m n xy n y x (VTU Feb-02)
Consider

x
y
y x y y
m
m m m
2
1
2
1
1 1 1
· + ⇒ · +

( ) ( ) 0 1 2
1 1
2
· + − ⇒
m m
y x y
m
y
1

2
4 4 2
) 1 ( 2
) 1 )( 1 ( 4 ) 2 ( ) 2 (
2 2
1 − t
·
− − t − −
·
x x x x
y
m
( ) ( ) 1 1
2
1 2 2
2 2
2
1
− t · ⇒ − t ·
− t
· x x y x x
x x
m

( )
m
x x y 1
2
− t ·
. So, we can consider

[ ]
m
x x y 1
2
− + ·
or
[ ]
m
x x y 1
2
− − ·
Let us take
[ ]
m
x x y 1
2
− + ·

( )

,
`

.
|

+ − + ·

) 2 (
1 2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
x
x
x x m y
m

( )

,
`

.
|

+ −
− + ·

1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
x
x x
x x m y
m
or
( ) my y x · −
1
2
1 . On squaring
141
( )
2 2 2
1
2
1 y m y x · − . Again differentiating w.r.t x,
( ) ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2 1
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
yy m x y y y x · + −
or
( ) ) 2 ( 1
1
2
1 2
2
y y m xy y x ÷ · + −
or
( ) 0 1
2
1 2
2
· − + − y m xy y x ------------(*)
Differentiating (*) n- times using Leibnitz’s theorem and simplifying, we get
( ) ( ) 0 ) 1 2 ( 1
2 2
1 2
2
· − + + + −
+ + n n n
y m n xy n y x
Problem set 1.3.1
In each of the following, apply Leibnitz’s theorem to get the results.
1. show that
]
]
]

− − − −

·
]
]
]

+
n
x
x
n
x
x
dx
d
n
n
n
n
1
.........
3
1
2
1
1 log
! ) 1 ( log
1
Hint: Take
x
u x v
1
; log · ·
2. If , ) 1 (
2 n
x y − · Show that n
y
satisfies the equation
( ) 0 ) 1 ( 2 1
2
2
2
· + + − − y n n
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x Hint : It is required to show that
( ) ( ) 0 1 2 1
1 2
2
· + + − −
+ + n n n
y n n xy y x
3. If
), sin(log ) cos(log x b x a y + ·
( ) ( ) 0 1 1 2
2
1 2
2
· + + + +
+ + n n n
y n xy n y x
4. If ,
1
sin x m
e y

· Prove That
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 2 1
2 2
1 2
2
· + − + − −
+ + n n n
y m n xy n y x
5. If , log cos
1
n
n
x
b
y

,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|

Show that

( ) 0 2 1 2
2
1 2
2
· + + +
+ + n n n
y n xy n y x
6. ( ) That ove x m y Pr , sin sin
1 −
·
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 2 1
2 2
1 2
2
· + − + − −
+ + n n n
y m n xy n y x
7. If ( ), log x x D y
n n
n
· Prove That
(i)
)! 1 (
1
− + ·

n ny y
n n (ii)
! n y
n
·
]
]
]

+ + + + +
n
x
1
.........
3
1
2
1
1 log
8. If , log x x y
n
· Show that
x
n
y
n
!
1
·
+
• Summary :- The idea of successive differentiation was presented. The computation
of n
th
derivatives of a few standard functions and relevant problems were discussed.
Also, the concept of successive differention was extended for special type of
functions using Liebnitz’s theorem.

142
r = f(ө)
A
P(r, ө)
O
r
Ө
Chapter – 2 : POLAR CURVES
LESSON -1 : Angle between Polar Curves
• In this chapter we introduce a new coordinate system, where we can understand
the idea of polar curves and their properties.

• Session-1
2.1.0 Introduction:- We are familiar with Cartesian coordinate system for specifying a
point in the xy – plane. Another useful system for similar purpose is Polar coordinate
system, and the curves specified by these coordinates are referred to as polar curves.
• A polar curve by name “three-leaved rose” is displayed below:
• Any point P can be located on a plane with co-ordinates
( ) θ , r
called polar
co-ordinates of P where r = radius vector OP,(with pole ‘O’) ;θ = projection
of OP

on the
initial axis OA.(See Fig.1)
• The equation
( ) θ f r ·
is known as a polar curve.
• Polar coordinates
( ) θ , r
can be related with Cartesian coordinates
( ) y x,
through the relations Fig.1. Polar
coordinate
θ cos r x · &
θ sin r y ·
. system
ө = 0
ө =
ө = ө =
ө = π
ө =
143
T
2.1.1 Important results
• Theorem 1 : Angle between the radius vector and the tangent.:
i.e. With usual notation prove that
dr
d
r
θ
φ · tan
• Proof:- Let “
φ
” be the angle between the radius vector OPL
and the tangent
1
TPT
at the point `P` on the polar
curve
( ) θ f r ·
. (See fig.2)
From Fig.2, Fig.2. Angle between radius

φ θ ψ + ·
vector and the tangent
tan
( )
φ θ
φ θ
φ θ ψ
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

+
· + ·

i.e.
....... ..........
tan tan 1
tan tan
φ θ
φ θ

+
·
dx
dy
(1)
On the other hand, we have θ cos r x · ;
θ sin r y ·
differentiating these,
w.r.tθ,

( )

,
`

.
|
+ − ·
θ
θ θ
θ d
dr
r
d
dx
cos sin
&
( )
,
`

.
|
+ ·
θ
θ θ
θ d
dr
r
d
dy
sin cos
//NOTE//

( )
( )
,
`

.
|
+ −

,
`

.
|
+
· ·
θ
θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ
d
dr
r
d
dr
r
d
dx
d
dy
dx
dy
cos sin
sin cos
θ
θ
cos &
d
dr
by Dr Nr the dividing

( )
( ) 1 tan
tan
+ −
+
·
θ θ
θ
θ
dr rd
dr
d
r
dx
dy
i.e.
( )
( )
dr
rd
dr
d
r
dx
dy
θ
θ
θ
θ
tan 1
tan

+
· ………………….(2)
Comparing equations (1) and (2)
we get
dr
d
r
θ
φ · tan
• Note that

,
`

.
|
·
θ
φ
d
dr
r
1
cot
• A Note on Angle of intersection of two polar curves :-
If
1
φ and
2
φ are the angles between the common radius vector and the
tangents
at the point of intersection of two curves ( ) θ
1
f r · and ( ) θ
2
f r · then the
angle intersection of the curves is given by 2 1
φ φ −
144
r = f(ө)
φ
φ
T

1
1
1
P(r, ө)
O
r
Ө
ψ
L
A
Y
φ
O
P(r, ө)
P
N
r = f (ө)
φ
r
Ө
Ψ
• Theorem 2 : The length “p” of perpendicular from pole to the tangent in a
polar curve i.e.
(i)
φ sin r p ·
or (ii)

,
`

.
|
· ·
θ d
dr
r r p
4 2 2
1 1 1
2
• Proof:- In the Fig.3, note that ON = p, the length of the perpendicular from the
pole to
the tangent at p on
( ) θ f r ·
.from the right angled triangle OPN,

( ) φ φ sin sin OP ON
OP
ON
· ⇒ ·
i.e.
) ....( .......... sin i r p φ ·

Consider
φ
φ
ec
r r p
cos
1
sin
1 1
· ·

( ) φ φ 2 cot 1
1
cos
1 1
2
2
2 2
+ · · ∴
r
ec
r p

Fig.3 Length of the perpendicular
from the pole to the tangent

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ ·
2
2 2
1
1
1 1
θ d
dr
r r p
) ..( ..........
1 1 1
2
4 2 2
ii
d
dr
r r p

,
`

.
|
+ · ∴
θ
• Note:-If
,
1
r
u ·
we get
2
2
2
1

,
`

.
|
+ ·
θ d
du
u
p
• Session-2
• In this session, we solve few problems on angle of intersection of polar curves
and pedal equations.
2.1.2 Worked examples:-
• Find the acute angle between the following polar curves
1.
( ) θ cos 1+ ·a r
and
( ) θ cos 1− ·b r
(VTU-July-2003)
2
( ) θ θ cos sin + · r
and θ sin 2 · r (VTU-July-2004)
3. ( )
2
sec 16
2
θ
· r and ( )
2
cos 25
2
θ
ec r ·
4.
θ log a r ·
and
θ log
a
r ·
(VTU-July-2005)
5.
θ
θ
+
·
1
a
r and
2
1 θ +
·
a
r
145
Solutions:
1. Consider Consider
( ) θ cos 1+ ·a r ( ) θ cos 1− ·b r
Diff w.r.t θ Diff w.r.t θ
θ
θ
sin a
d
dr
− · θ
θ
sin b
d
dr
·
( )
θ
θ θ
sin
cos 1
a
a
dr
d
r

+
·
( )
θ
θ θ
sin
cos 1
b
b
dr
d
r

·
( )
( ) ( )
2
cos
2
sin 2
2
cos 2
tan
2
1
θ θ
θ
φ − ·
( )
( ) ( )
2
c o s
2
s i n 2
2
s i n 2
t a n
2
1
θ θ
θ
φ − ·
2
cot
θ
− ·
2
tan
θ
·
i.e ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
tan ta n
1 1
θ π
φ
θ π
φ + · ⇒ + ·
2 1 1
2
tan tan φ φ
θ
φ · ⇒ ·
Angle between the curves
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1
π θ θ π
φ φ · − + · −
Hence ,the given curves intersect orthogonally
2. Consider Consider

( ) θ θ cos sin + · r
θ sin 2 · r
Diff w.r.t θ Diff w.r.t θ

θ θ
θ
sin cos − ·
d
dr

θ
θ
cos 2 ·
d
dr

θ θ
θ θ θ
sin cos
cos sin

+
·
dr
d
r

θ
θ θ
cos 2
sin 2
·
dr
d
r

θ
θ
φ
tan 1
1 tan
tan
1

+
·
(÷ Nr & Dr θ cos ) θ φ tan tan
2
·
i.e ( ) θ
π
θ
θ
φ + ·

+
·
4
tan
tan 1
1 tan
tan
1
θ φ · ⇒
2
θ
π
φ + · ⇒
4
1
∴Angle between the curves = ( )
4 4
2 1
π
θ θ
π
φ φ · − + · −
3. Consider Consider
( )
2
sec 16
2
θ
· r ( )
2
cos 25
2
θ
ec r ·
146
Diff w.r.t θ Diff w.r.t θ
( ) ( )
2
1
.
2
tan
2
sec 32
2
θ θ
θ
·
d
dr

( ) ( )
2
1
.
2
cot
2
cos 50
2
θ θ
θ
ec
d
dr
− ·
( ) ( )
2
tan
2
sec 16
θ θ
·
( ) ( )
2
cot
2
cos 25
2
θ θ
ec − ·

( )
( ) ( )
2
ta n
2
se c 16
2
s e c 1 6
2
2
θ θ
θ
θ
·
dr
d
r
( )
( ) ( )
2
co t
2
c o s 2 5
2
c os 25
2
2
θ θ
θ
θ
ec
e c
dr
d
r

·

( )
2 2
tan
2
cot tan
1
θ π θ
φ − · ·

( )
2
tan
2
tan tan
2
θ θ
φ − · − ·

( )
2 2
1
θ π
φ − · ⇒
2
2
θ
φ − · ⇒
Angle of intersection of the curves = ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 1
θ θ π
φ φ − − · −

2
π
·
4. Consider Consider

θ log a r ·
θ log
a
r ·
Diff w.r.t θ Diff w.r.t θ

θ
θ
a
d
dr
· ( )
θ
θ
θ
1
. log
2
a
d
dr
− ·
( )
a
a
dr
d
r
θ
θ
θ
log ·
( )

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− ·
a
a
dr
d
r
θ θ
θ
θ
2
log
log
) ( .......... log tan
1
i θ θ φ ·
) ( .......... log tan
2
ii θ θ φ − ·
We know that

( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan
φ φ
φ φ
φ φ
+

· −
147
( )
( )( ) θ θ θ ϑ
θ θ θ θ
log log 1
log log
− +
− −
·
i.e
( )
( )
) ..( ..........
log 1
log 2
tan
2
2 1
iii
θ θ
θ θ
φ φ

· −
From the data:
( ) 1 log 1 log
log
log
2
t · · ⇒ · · θ θ
θ
θ or
a
r a
As θ is acute, we take by θ=1
NOTE e · ⇒θ
Substituting e · θ in (iii), we get

( )
( )

,
`

.
|

·

· −
2 2
2 1
1
2
log 1
log 2
tan
e
e
e e
e e
φ φ
( ) 1 log ·
e
e

,
`

.
|

· − ∴

2
1
2 1
1
2
tan
e
e
φ φ
5. Consider Consider

θ
θ
+
·
1
a
r as
2
1 θ
θ
+
·
a
r
( ) 1
1
1 1 1
+ ·
+
·
θ
θ
θ
a a r
( )
r
a
· + ∴
2
1 θ
Diff w.r.t θ Diff w.r.t θ
( )
2
2
1
1 1
θ
θ
− · −
a d
dr
r
θ
θ
d
dr
r
a
2
2

·

2
1
θ θ a
r
d
dr
r
·
θ
θ
d
dr
r a
r 1 2
·

r
a
dr
d
r
2
θ θ
· i.e
θ
θ
r
a
dr
d
r
2

·

( ) θ
θ
θ
φ
+
·
1
tan
2
1
a
a

,
`

.
| +
− ·
a
a
2
2
1
2
tan
θ
θ
φ
( ) θ θ φ + · ∴ 1 tan
1
( )
2
2
1
2
1
tan θ
θ
φ + − ·
Now, we have
( ) ( ) θ θ θ
θ θ
θ
+ · + ⇒
+
· ·
+
1 1
1 1
2
2
a a
a
r
a
or 1 1
3 3
· ⇒ + · + θ θ θ θ or 1 · θ

2 tan
1
· ∴ φ
& ( ) 1 tan
2
− · φ
Consider
( )
( )( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan
φ φ
φ φ
φ φ
+

· −

( )
( )( )
3 3
1 2 1
1 2
· − ·
− +
− −
·
148
( ) 3 tan
1
2 1

· − ∴ φ φ
Problem Set No. 2.1.1 for practice.
• Find the acute angle between the curves
1. ( ) θ θ n n a r
n n
sin cos + · and θ n a r
n n
sin · (ans:
4
π
)
2.
n n
a n r · θ cos and
n n
b n r · θ sin (ans:
2
π
)
3. θ a r · and
θ
a
r · (ans:
2
π
)
4. θ cos a r · and
2
a
r · (ans:5
6
π
)
5. θ m a r
m m
cos · and θ m b r
m m
sin · (ans:
2
π
)
LESSON -2 : Pedal Equations
• Session - 1
• 2.2.0 Pedal equations (p-r equations):- Any equation containing only p & r
is
known as pedal equation of a polar curve.
• Working rules to find pedal equations :-
(i) Eliminate r and
φ
from the Eqs.: (i)
( ) θ f r ·
&
φ sin r p ·
(ii) Eliminate only θ from the Eqs.: (i)
( ) θ f r ·
&
2
4 2 2
1 1 1

,
`

.
|
+ · ∴
θ d
dr
r r p
• 2.2.1 Worked Examples on pedal equations:-
• Find the pedal equations for the polar curves:-
1.
θ cos 1
2
− ·
r
a
2.
α θ cot c
e r ·
3. θ θ m b m a r
m m m
cos sin + · (VTU-Jan-2005)
4. θ cos 1 e
r
l
+ ·
Solutions:
1. Consider
θ cos 1
2
− ·
r
a
……….(i)
Diff. w.r.t θ
( ) θ
θ
sin
1
2
2
·

d
dr
r
a
a
r
d
dr
r 2
sin 1 θ
θ

·
θ
θ
sin
1 2
r
a
dr
d
r − ·
149
( )
( )
2
t a n
2
c o s
2
s i n 2
2
s i n 2
s i n
c o s 1
t a n
2
θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
φ − · − ·

− ·
( )
2 2
t a n t a n
θ
φ
θ
φ

· ⇒

·
Using the value of
φ
is
, sin φ r p ·
we get
( ) ) ...( ..........
2
sin
2
sin ii r r p
θ θ
− ·

·
Eliminating “θ” between (i) and (ii)

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
| −
· ·
r
a r
r r p
2
2 2
cos 1
2
sin
2
2 2 2 2
θ
θ
[See eg: - (i)]
.
2
ar p ·
This eqn. is only in terms of p and r and hence it is the pedal equation of the polar
curve.
2. Consider
α θ cot
e r ·
Diff. w.r.t θ
( ) ( )
α θ α θ
α α
θ
cot cot
cot cot e r r e
d
dr
· · ·
We use the equation
2
4 2 2
1 1 1

,
`

.
|
+ ·
θ d
dr
r r p
( )
2
4 2
cot
1 1
α r
r r
+ ·
( ) ( ) α α α
2
2
2
2
2
4 2
cos
1
cot 1
1
cot
1 1
ec
r r r r
· + · + ·

α
2
2 2
cos
1 1
ec
r p
·

α
2
2
2
cosec
r
p · or α
2 2 2
cos ec p r · is the required pedal equation
3.Consider θ θ m b m a r
m m m
cos sin + ·
Diff. w.r.t θ
( ) ) sin ( cos
1
θ θ
θ
m m b m m a
d
dr
mr
m m m
− + ·

θ θ
θ
m b m a
d
dr
r
r
m m
m
sin cos − ·
θ θ
θ θ
θ m b m a
m b m a
d
dr
r
m m
m m
cos sin
sin cos 1
+

·
θ θ
θ θ
φ
m b m a
m b m a
m m
m m
cos sin
sin cos
cot
+

·
150
Consider
φ sin r p ·
,
φ ec
r p
cos
1 1
·
φ
2
2 2
cos
1 1
ec
r p
·
( ) φ
2
2
cot 1
1
+ ·
r

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

+ ·
2
2
cos sin
sin cos
1
1
θ θ
θ θ
m b m a
m b m a
r
m m
m m
( ) ( )
( ) ]
]
]
]

+
− + +
·
2
2
2
2
cos sin
sin cos cos sin 1
θ θ
θ θ θ θ
m b m a
m b m a m b m a
r
m m
m m m m

Note
r
b a
r p
m
m m
]
]
]

+
·
2
2 2
2 2
1 1
( )
m m
m
b a
r
p
2 2
1 2
2
+
· ⇒
+
is the required p-r equation
4. Consider ( ) θ cos 1+ ·
r
l
Diff w.r.t θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
sin
1
sin
1
2
e
d
dr
r r
l
e
d
dr
r
l ·

,
`

.
|
⇒ − ·

,
`

.
|

( ) θ φ sin cot e
r
l
·
( ) θ φ sin cot e
l
r
· ∴
We have
( ) φ
2
2 2
cot 1
1 1
+ ·
r p
(see eg: 3 above) Now
]
]
]

+
·
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
sin 1 1
l
r e l
r p
θ

( ) θ
2
2
2 2
2
sin 1
1
l
r e
r
+ ·
r
l
e · + θ cos 1

r
r l
e

· θ cos
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
| −
− +
·
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
1
1 1
l
re
r l
r e l
r p

,
`

.
| −
·
re
r l
θ cos
θ θ
2 2
cos 1 sin − ·
On simplification
lr e
e
p
2 1 1
2
2
2
+

,
`

.
| −
·

2
1

,
`

.
| −
− ·
re
r l
151
• Problem Set No. 2.2.1 for practice.
Find the pedal equations of the following polar curves
1.
n n
a n r · θ cos and
n n
b n r · θ sin
2. θ a r · and
θ
a
r ·
3. θ cos a r · and
2
a
r ·
4 . θ m a r
m m
cos · and θ m b r
m m
sin ·
Chapter-3: PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Lesson-1: Euler’s Theorem
Session-1
3.1.0 Introduction : We often come across qualities which depend on two or more
variables. For e.g. the area of a rectangle of length x and breadth y is given by
Area = A(x,y) = xy. The area A(x, y) is, obliviously, a function of two variables.
Similarly, the distances of the point (x, y, z) from the origin in three-dimensional space is
an example of a function of three variables x, y, z.
• 3.1.1 Partial derivatives: Let z = f(x, y) be a function of two variables x and y.
The first order partial derivative of z w.r.t. x, denoted by
x
z

or
x
f

or z
x
or f
x
is
defined as
( ) ( )
x
y x f y x x f
x
z
x
δ
δ
δ
, ,
lim
0
− +
·

• From the above definition, we understand that
,
`

.
|

x
z
is the ordinary derivative of
z w.r.t x, treating y as constant.
The first order partial derivative of z w.r.t y, denoted by
y
z

or
y
f

or z
y
or f
y
is defined
as
( ) ( )
y
y x f y y x f
y
z
y
δ
δ
δ
, ,
lim
0
− +
·

• From the above definition, we understand that

,
`

.
|

y
z
is the ordinary derivative of
z w.r.t y, treating x as constant
• The partial derivatives
2
2
x
z
x
z
x ∂

·

,
`

.
|

or
2
2
x
f

or z
xx
or f
xx
;

2
2
y
z
y
z
y ∂

·

,
`

.
|

or
2
2
y
f

or z
yy
or f
yy
;

y x
z
y
z
y ∂ ∂

·

,
`

.
|

2
or z
yx
or f
yx
152
and
y x
z
y
z
y ∂ ∂

·

,
`

.
|

2
or z
xy
or f
xy
are known as second order Partial derivatives.
In all ordinary cases, it can be verified that
x y
z
y x
z
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
• The third and higher order partial derivatives of f(x,y) are defined in an analogous
way Also, the second and higher order partial derivatives of more than two
independent variables are defined similarly.
• A note on rules of partial differentiation :-
All the rules of differentiation applicable to functions of a single independent
variable are applicable for partial differentiation also; the only difference is that
while differentiating partially w.r.t one independent variable all other independent
variables are treated as constants.
• 3.1.2 Worked examples : -
 In solving the following examples, we learn the partial differentiation
of so called explicit functions of more than one variables.
1. Evaluate ( )
x
z

and
( ) y x ∂ ∂
, if
(a)
xy x y x z sin
2
− ·
(b)
z z y x log · + +
Solution: - (a) Consider
xy x y x z sin
2
− ·

Differentiating

z w.r.t x, keeping y as a
constant, we get the partial derivative,

( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) { ¦ 1 sin cos 2 xy y xy x y x
x
z
+ − ·

i.e.
( ) xy xy xy xy xy xy xy z
x
sin cos 2 sin cos 2 − − · − − ·
Similarly, differentiating z w.r.t y keeping x as a constant
,
we get the partial derivative

( ) ( ) ( )( ) { ¦ 0 sin 1
2
xy x xcoxy x
y
z
+ − ·

i.e
( ) xy x xy x x z
y
cos 1 cos
2 2 2
− · − ·
(b) Consider
z z y x log · + +
i.e.
* log − − − − − + · − y x z z

Differentiating * partially w.r.t x treating y as
Constant,

1 1
1
0 1
1
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

⇒ + ·

z x
z
x
z
x
z
z
i.e.
1
1
·

,
`

.
| −

z
z
x
z
or

,
`

.
|

·

z
z
x
z
1
153
Similarly, differentiating * partially w.r.t y, treating x as constant,

1 1
1
0 1
1
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

+ ·

z x
z
or
x
z
x
z
z

,
`

.
|

·

z
z
x
z
1

,
`

.
|

·

·

z
z
y
z
x
z
1
2. .If

t
r
n
e t
4
2

· θ
,
what value of n will make

?
1
2
2
t r
r
r r ∂

·

,
`

.
|

∂ θ θ
Solution: Consider

t
r
n
e t
4
2

· θ
------------------------------------------------- (*)

Differentiating * w.r.t. r, treating t as constant, we get

·

r
θ
t
r
n
t
r
n
e t
r
t
r
e t
4
1
4
2 2
2 4
2

·
,
`

.
| −

t
r
n
e t
r
r
r
4
1
3
2
2
2

− ·

θ

and hence

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·
,
`

.
|

t
r
e t
r
e t
r
r
r
r
t
r
n
t
r
n
4
2
2 2
3
4
1
3
4
1
2
2
2 2
θ

t
r
n n
e t
r
t
r
r
r r
4
2
2
1 2
2
2
4 2
3 1

− −

,
`

.
|
+ − ·
,
`

.
|

θ
------------------- (1)
Also, differentiating (*)

w.r.t t, treating r as constant, we get

,
`

.
|
+ ·

− −

2
2
4 4
1
4
2
2
t
r
e t e nt
t
t
r
n
t
r
n
θ

t
r
n n
e t r nt
4
2 2 1
2
4
1

− −

,
`

.
|
+ ·
------------------------ (2)
Since
,
,
1
2
2
t r
r
r r ∂

·

,
`

.
|

∂ θ θ

equation (1) and (2) yield,
t
r
n n
t
r
n n
e t
r
nt e t
r
t
4
2
2
1
4
2
2
1
2
2
4 4
2
3

− −

− −

,
`

.
|
+ ·

,
`

.
|
+

i.e.
( ) ( )
2
3
0
2
3
0
2
3 4
1
2

· · + ⇒ · +

n or n e t n
t
r
n
3. If

( ), by ax f e z
by ax
− ·
+
prove that
abz
y
z
a
x
z
b 2 ·

+

(VTU-Jan-2004)
Solution: Consider

( ), by ax f e z
by ax
− ·
+
------------------- (*)
Differentiating (*)

w.r.t x using product and chain rules, we get
( )( ) { ¦ ( ) ( ) { ¦ b e by ax f b by ax f e
y
z
by ax by ax + +
− + − − ·

1
154
( ) ( ) { ¦ by ax f by ax f be
y
z
by ax
− − − ·

+ 1
------------------- (2)
Multiplying eq (1) by b and eq(2) by a, and adding we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] by ax f by ax f by ax f by ax f abe
y
z
a
x
z
b
by ax
− − − + − + + ·

+

+ 1 1
( ) [ ] by ax f abe
by ax
− ·
+
2
( ) [ ] by ax f e ab
by ax
− ·
+
2
abz 2 ·
,
as desired
4.Given
( ), sin cos
cos
θ
θ
r e u
r
· ( ) θ
θ
sin sin
cos
r e v
r
·
,
prove that

θ ∂

·

∂ v
r r
u 1

and
θ ∂

− ·

∂ u
r r
v 1
Solution: Consider

( ), sin cos
cos
θ
θ
r e u
r
·

Differentiating u w.r.t. r and
θ
partially, we
get
,
( )( ) { ¦ ( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ θ
cos sin cos sin sin sin
cos cos r r
e r r e
r
u
+ − ·

i.e.
( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ
sin sin sin cos sin cos
cos
r r e
r
u
r

or
( ) { ¦ θ θ
θ
+ ·

sin cos
cos
r e
r
u
r
--------------(1)
and
( )( ) { ¦ ( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ
θ θ
sin sin cos cos sin sin
cos cos
r e r r r e
u
r r
− + − ·

( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ
sin sin cos cos sin sin
cos
r r re
r
+ − ·
i.e.
( ) { ¦ θ θ
θ
θ
+ ·

− sin sin
1
cos
r e
u
r
r
---------------------(2)
Next consider
,

) sin sin(
cos
θ
θ
r e v
r
·
Differentiating v w.r.t r &
θ
,

Partially we get
( ) { ¦ ( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ θ
cos sin sin sin sin cos
cos cos r r
e r r e
r
v
+ ·

( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ
sin sin cos cos sin sin
cos
r r e
r
+ ·
i.e

( ) { ¦ θ θ
θ
+ ·

sin sin
cos
r e
r
v
r
--------------------(3);
( )( ) { ¦ ( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ
θ θ
sin sin sin cos sin cos
cos cos
r e r r r e
v
r r
− + ·

( ) ( ) { ¦ θ θ θ θ
θ
sin sin sin cos sin cos
cos
r r re
r
− ·
i.e.
( ) { ¦ θ θ
θ
θ
+ ·

sin cos
1
cos
r e
v
r
r
----------------------------- (4)
155

Thus, from eqs (1) and (4),

we obtain
θ ∂

·

∂ v
r r
u 1
, and from eqs (2) and (3) we obtain
θ ∂

− ·

∂ u
r r
v 1
.
Session-2
• 3.1.3 Worked Examples:- In each of following examples, we try to
show that
x y
u
y x
u
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
, where
( ) y x f u , ·
is a function of two variables.
1.
y
x u · ; 2. ( ) y y y x e u
x
sin sin − ·
3.
,
`

.
|
·

x
y
u
1
sin
Solution: - 1. Differentiating
y
x u · partially w.r.t y, we get

x x
y
u
y
log ·

( )

,
`

.
|
· x a a
dx
d
x x
log
differentiating the

above partially w.r.t x, we get

( ) x x
x y
u
x
y
log

·

,
`

.
|

i.e
( )
1
2
log
1

+

,
`

.
|
·
∂ ∂

y y
yx x
x
x
y x
u
or
( ) x y x
y x
u
y
log 1
1
2
+ ·
∂ ∂

---------------(1)
Next, differentiating

y
x u · partially w.r.t. x, we get
1 −
·

y
yx
x
u
so that

( )
1 −

·

,
`

.
|

y
yx
y x
u
y
i.e
( ) ( ) 1 log
1 1
2
− −
+ ·
∂ ∂

y y
x x x y
x y
u
or
( ) x y x
x y
u
y
log 1
1
2
+ ·
∂ ∂

---------------(2)
from (1) and (2), we get

x y
u
y x
u
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
2. Differentiating

,
`

.
|
·

x
y
u
1
sin
partially w.r.t. x, we get
156

2 2
2
2
1
1
y x x
y
x
y
x
y
x
u

·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·

( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
1
1
y x x
y
y x
x y y x x
x
u
y −
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

− −
− ·

,
`

.
|

i.e.

( )
( ) ( )
2
3
2 2
2
3
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
y x
x
y x x
xy y x x
x y
u

− ·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+ −
− ·
∂ ∂

----------------(1)

Next, differentiating

,
`

.
|
·

x
y
u
1
sin
partially w.r.t. y, we get
( )
2 2
2
1
1
1
1
y x
x
x
y
y
u

·

,
`

.
|

·

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
1
1 0
y x
x
y x
y x
y
u
x −

− −
− ·

,
`

.
|

i.e.
( )
2
3
2 2
2
y x
x
y x
u

− ·
∂ ∂

------------- (2)
From (1)

and (2), we get
x y
u
y x
u
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
3. Differentiating

( ) y y y x e u
x
sin sin − ·

w.r.t y
,
we get

( ) y y y y x e
y
u
x
sin cos cos − − ·

Differentiating w.r.t x, we get

( ) ( )
x x
e y y y y x y y x e
y
u
x
sin cos cos 0 0 cos sin − − + − − + − ·

,
`

.
|

i.e.
( ) y y y y x y y x e
y x
u
x
sin cos cos cos sin
2
− − + + − ·
∂ ∂

Or
( ) ( ) { ¦ y x y y x e
y x
u
x
sin 1 cos 1
2
+ − − + ·
∂ ∂

----------------- (1)
Next, differentiating

w.r.t x, we get

{ ¦ ( )
x x
e y y y x y y x e
x
u
sin sin sin cos − + + ·

( ) { ¦ y y x y x e
x
u
x
sin 1 cos − + + ·

Differentiating this w.r.t. y, we get
157

( ) ( ) ( ) { ¦ 1 sin cos 1 0 sin − + − + + + − ·

,
`

.
|

y y y x y x e
x
u
y
x
( ) ( ) { ¦ y x y y x e
x
sin 1 cos 1 + − − + ·
----------------- (2)
from (1)and (2),we

get

x y
u
y x
u
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
3.1.4 In the following few examples involve equations where partial derivatives of
higher order occur. These equations frequently appear is engineering applications.
1. If

,
`

.
|

·

2 2
1
2
tan
y x
xy
u
, prove that
0
2
2
2
2
·

+

y
u
x
u
Solution:- Differentiating

,
`

.
|

·

2 2
1
2
tan
y x
xy
u
partially w.r.t.x, we get

( )( ) ( )
( ) ¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

− −

,
`

.
|

+
·

2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
1
1
y x
x xy y y x
y x
xy
x
u
i.e.

( )
2 2
2
y x
y
x
u
+

·

Differentiating Partially this w.r.t. x, we get

( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2 0 2
y x
x y y x
y x
y
x x
u
+
− −
·

,
`

.
|
+

·

i.e.
( )
2
2 2
2
2
4
y x
xy
x
u
+
·

-------------------------- (1)
Next differentiating

,
`

.
|

·

2 2
1
2
tan
y x
xy
u
partially w.r.t. y, we get

( )( ) ( )
( ) ¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

− − −

,
`

.
|

+
·

2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
1
1
y x
y xy x y x
y x
xy
y
u

( )
2 2
2
y x
x
y
u
+
·

Differentiating partially this w.r.t.y, we get

( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2 0 2
y x
y x y x
y x
x
x x
u
+
− −
·

,
`

.
|
+ ∂

·

i.e.

( )
2
2 2
2
2
4
y x
xy
y
u
+

·

-----------------------(2)

Adding eqs (1) and (2) we get

0
2
2
2
2
·

+

y
u
x
u
, as desired
158
Note:
(a) The equation
0
2
2
2
2
·

+

y
u
x
u
is known as Laplace’s equation in two dimension
which has variety of applications in potential theory.
(b) A similar equation viz,
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
·

+

+

z
u
y
u
x
u
is known as Laplace’s equation in
three- dimensions where
( ) z y x u u , , ·
2. If
( ) ( ), ay x g ay x f u − + + ·
show that
2
2
2
2
2
x
u
a
y
u

·

Solution:- Differentiating
( ) ( ), ay x g ay x f u − + + ·
partially w.r.t.x, we get

( )( ) ( )( ) 1 1
1 1
ay x g ay x f
x
u
− + + ·

Again differentiating partially w.r.t.x, we see that
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 1
11 11
2
2
ay x g ay x f
x
u
− + + ·

( ) ( ) [ ] ay x g ay x f a
x
u
a − + + ·

11 11 2
2
2
2
-----------(1)
Next, differentiating
( ) ( ), ay x g ay x f u − + + ·
partially w.r.t.y

( )( ) ( )( )
2 1 2 1
. a ay x g a ay x f
y
u
− + + ·

Again differentiating partially w.r.t.y, we see that
( )( ) ( )( )
2 11 2 11
2
2
a ay x g a ay x f
x
u
− + + ·

i.e
( ) ( ) [ ] ay x g ay x f a
y
u
− + + ·

11 11 2
2
2
------------------(2)
from eqs (1) and (2), we see that

2
2
2
2
2
x
u
a
y
u

·

Note:- (a). The equation
2
2
2
2
2
x
u
a
y
u

·

or the equation
2
2
2
2
2
x
u
a
t
u

·

is known as
one-dimensional wave equation
(b). A similar equation viz,

,
`

.
|

+

+

·

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
u
y
u
x
u
a
t
u
is known as three- dimensional wave equation
159

3. If x e u
t
3 cos
2 −
· , find the value of ‘c’ such that
2
2
2
x
u
c
t
u

·

Solution:- Differentiating x e u
t
3 cos
2 −
· , partially w.r.t. t we get

x e
t
u
t
3 cos 2
2 −
− ·

--------------- (1)
Next, differentiating x e u
t
3 cos
2 −
· partially w.r.t.x,

x e
x
u
t
3 sin 3
2 −
− ·

Again differentiating partially w.r.t x,

x e
x
u
t
3 cos 9
2
2
2 −
− ·

( )
2
9
3 cos 9 3 cos 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
· ⇒ · − ⇒

·

− −
c x e x e
x
u
c
t
u
t t
or
2
9
· c
Note (a)

The equation

2
2
2
x
u
c
t
u

·

is called one-dimensional heat equation
(b) Similarly, the equation viz,

,
`

.
|

+

+

·

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
u
y
u
x
u
c
t
u
is known as
three-dimensional heat equation
4. If ( ) xyz z y x u 3 log
3 3 3
− + + · , prove that
(a)

,
`

.
|
+ +
·

+

+

z y x z
u
y
u
x
u 3
(b)
( )
2
2
9
z y x
u
z y x + +
− ·

,
`

.
|

+

+

(VTU Feb-2005)
Solution:- (a) Differentiating u partially w.r.t. x,y,z we get respect or

xyz z y x
yz x
x
u
3
3 3
3 3 3
2
− + +

·

xyz z y x
zx y
y
u
3
3 3
3 3 3
2
− + +

·

And
xyz z y x
xy z
z
u
3
3 3
3 3 3
2
− + +

·

adding these partial derivatives we get
160

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) z x y z x y z y x z y x
z x y z x y z y x
x y z z y x
z x y z x y z y x
z
u
y
u
x
u
− − − + + + +
− − − + +
·
− + +
− − − + +
·

+

+

2 2 2
2 2 2
3 3 3
2 2 2
3
3
3

,
`

.
|
+ +
·
z y x
3
(b) By definition, we have
·

,
`

.
|

+

+

u
z y x
2

,
`

.
|

+

+

z y x
u
z y x

,
`

.
|

+

+

=

,
`

.
|

+

+

z y x

,
`

.
|

+

+

z
u
y
u
x
u
=

,
`

.
|

+

+

z y x

,
`

.
|
+ + z y x
3
=

,
`

.
|
+ + ∂

z y x x
3
+

,
`

.
|
+ + ∂

z y x y
3
+

,
`

.
|
+ + ∂

z y x z
3
=
( )

,
`

.
|
+ +

2
3
z y x
+
( )

,
`

.
|
+ +

2
3
z y x
+
( )

,
`

.
|
+ +

2
3
z y x
=
( )
2
9
z y x + +

5. If
( ) r f u ·
, where
2 2 2
z y x r + + · , show that
( ) ( ) r f
r
r f
z
u
y
u
x
u
1 11
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ ·

+

+

Solution:- By data
2 2 2 2
z y x r + + · Differentiating this partially w.r.t x, we get

x
x
r
r 2 2 ·

or
,
`

.
|
·

r
x
x
r
Similarly, we get
,
`

.
|
·

r
y
y
r
and
,
`

.
|
·

r
z
z
r
Now, differentiating
( ) r f u ·
, partially w.r.t.x,

( )
x
r
r f
x
u

·

1
As
,
`

.
|
·

r
x
x
r
, we get

( )

,
`

.
|
·

r
x
r f
x
u
1
Differentiating
( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
·

r
r f
x
x
u
1
partially w.r.t.x, we get

( ) ( )
( )
( ) 1
1 1
1
2
1 11
2
2
r
r f
x
r
r
r f
x
r
r f
r
x
x
u
+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|
− +

·

i.e.
( ) ( )
( )
r
r f
r
x
r
r f
r
x
r f
r
x
x
u
1
2
1 11
2
2
1 1
+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− +

,
`

.
|
·

or
( ) ( ) ( )
r
r f
r
r f
r
r f
r
x
x
x
u
1
2
1 11
2
2
+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|
·

…………. (1)
161
( )
( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− + ·

2
2 1
11
2
2
2
2
1
r
x
r
r f
r f
r
x
x
u
Similarly, we get
and
( )
( )
( ) 3 . . . . . 1
2
2 1
1 1
2
2
2
2
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− + ·

r
z
r
r f
r f
r
z
z
u
Adding eqs (1) ,(2) and (3), we get

( )
( )
( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹ + +
− + + + ·

+

+

2
2 2 2 1
2 2 2
2
11
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
r
z y x
r
r f
z y x
r
r f
z
u
y
u
x
u
( )
( )
{ ¦ 1 3
1
11
− + ·
r
r f
r f
( )
( )
r
r f
r f
1
11
2 + ·
Problem Set No.3.1.1 for practice
1. Verify
x y
z
y x
z
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
where
(i) axy y x z 3
3 3
− + · (ii) ( )
2 2 1
tan y x z + ·

(iii)
( ) x y y x z sin sin log + ·
2. If
y
x
y
x
y
x u
1 2 1 2
tan tan
− −

,
`

.
|
·
, prove that

2 2
2 2 2
y x
y x
x y
u
+

·
∂ ∂

Hint
,
`

.
|

·
∂ ∂

x y x y
u
2
3. If,
y x
y x
z
+
+
·
2 2
, show that

,
`

.
|

− ·

,
`

.
|

y
z
x
z
y
z
x
z
1 4
2
(VTU-Jan-2005)
4. If
( )( )( ) x z z y y x u − − − ·
, show that
0 ·

+

+

z
u
y
u
x
u
5. If
xy
e z · , prove that
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·

+

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
y
z
x
z
z y
z
x
z
6. If
x
z
z
y
u + ·
, prove that
0 ·

+

+

z
u
z
y
u
y
x
u
x
7. If
, sin , cos θ θ r y r x · ·
show that

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·

+

2 2
2
2
2
2
1
y
r
x
r
r y
r
x
r
(Hint: By data
2 2 2
r y x · + )
162
( )
( )
( ) 2 .... 1
2
2 1
11
2
2
2
2
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− + ·

r
y
r
r f
r f
r
y
y
u

Session –3
• 3.1.5: Introduction to homogenous functions:-
An expression of the form
n
n
n n n
y a y x a y x a x a + + + +
− −
.. ..........
2 2
2
1
1 0
In which every term is of the n
th
degree, is called homogenous function of order n. This
can be rewritten as

]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ +

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
n
n
n
x
y
a
x
y
a
x
y
a a x ... ..........
2
2 1 0

,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x
n
φ
.
Thus any function
( ) y x f ,
which can be expressed in the below
,
`

.
|
x
y
x
n
φ
, is called
homogenous function of order n (or derivative n) in x and y
For example: (i)
( )
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+ · + − + ·
3 2
3 3 2 2 3
1 ,
x
y
x
y
x
y
x y xy y x x y x f

,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x
n
φ
is a homogenous function of degree 3.
(ii)
( )

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
+
·
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
x
y x
y x
y x f φ
2
1
1
1
,
is a homogenous function
of degree ½
(iii)
( )

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
y x f φ
0 0
sin sin ,
is a homogenous function of degree 0
Note: - (1) Any function, which can be expressed as,
,
`

.
|
y
x
y
n
φ
is also a homogenous
function of degree n.(or order n)
(2) In general, a function
( ) ,......... , , , t z y x f
is said to be a homogenous
function
of order n in x, y, z, t… if it can be expressed as

,
`

.
|
....... ,......... , ,
x
t
x
z
x
y
x
n
φ
3.1.6: Euler’s Theorem:-
The following theorem, named in honour of the great Swiss mathematician
L. Euler (1707-1783) gives a very useful formula for a particular combination of
partial derivatives of homogenous functions.
• Statement of Euler’s theorem:- If u is a homogenous function of x and y with
degree n, then
nu
y
u
y
x
u
x ·

+

(VTU Feb-2005)
Proof: - Since u is a homogenous function of degree n, we can put u is the form
163

,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x u
n
φ
.
Differentiating this w.r.t x partially, we get
{ ¦
1
2
1 −

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·

n n
nx
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
x
u
φ φ
or
,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
− ·

− −
x
y
nx
x
y
y x
x
u
n n
φ φ
1 1 2
----------(1)
Again differentiating
,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x u
n
φ
partially w.r.t y, we get

( ) 0
1
1
+

,
`

.
|
·

x
x
y
x
y
u
n
φ

,
`

.
|
·

x
y
x
y
u
n 1 1
φ
…………. (2)
Consider

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|
+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
− ·

+

− − −
x
y
x y
x
y
nx
x
y
y x x
y
u
y
x
u
x
n n n 1 1 1 1 2
φ φ φ

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
− ·
− −
x
y
y x
x
y
nx
x
y
y x
n n n 1 1 1 1
φ φ φ
=
,
`

.
|
x
y
nx
n
φ

nu ·
. Since
,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x u
n
φ
Note: - In general, if u is a homogenous function of order x, y, z, t… then
nu
t
u
t
z
u
z
y
u
y
x
u
x · +

+

+

+

.. ..........

• Corollary to Euler’s theorem :- If u is homogenous function of x and y with
degree n, then
( )u n n
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x 1 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
− ·

+
∂ ∂

+

(VTU Feb-2005)
Proof: - As u is a homogenous function of degree, we have, by Euler’s theorem

nu
y
u
y
x
u
x ·

+

-----------(*)
Differentiating (*) partially w.r.t x,

x
u
n
y x
u
y
x
u
x
u
x

·
∂ ∂

+

+

2
2
2

( )
x
u
n
y x
u
y
x
u
x

− ·
∂ ∂

+

1
2
2
2
………….(1)
Differentiating (*) Partially w.r.t y
164

y
u
n
y
u
y
u
y
x y
u
x

·

+

+
∂ ∂

2
2 2
or
( )
y
u
n
x y
u
x
y
u
y

− ·
∂ ∂

+

1
2
2
2
………….. (2)
Multiplying esq. (1) by x and esq. (2) by y we get

( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

+

− ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
∂ ∂

+

+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
∂ ∂

+

y
u
y
x
u
x n
x y
u
xy
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

or
( )( )
( )u n n
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x
nu n
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x
1 2
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
− ·

+
∂ ∂

+

− ·

+
∂ ∂

+

,
`

.
|
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

y x
u
y x
u
2 2
• Session - 4
• 3.1.7: Worked Examples
1. Verify Euler’s theorem for
i).

,
`

.
|
+
·
y x
xy
u
ii)
2 2
2 by hxy ax u + + ·
Solution:- (i) Consider
( )
( )

,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
·
+
·
x
y
x
x
y
x
x y
x y
x
x y x
x y x
y x
xy
u φ φ
1
2
1 1
This shows that
y x
xy
u
+
·
is a homogenous function of degree1 (1=n).
Hence, Euler’s theorem when applied to u becomes
u
y
u
y
x
u
x ) 1 ( ·

+

………….(*) (n=1)
we verify the equation (*) by showing actually LHS=RHS
now as

,
`

.
|
+
·
y x
xy
u
,
( )
2
2
y x
y
x
u
+
·

&
( )
2
2
y x
x
y
u
+
·

∴ LHS of (*)
y
u
y
x
u
x

+

·
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) y x
xy
y x
y x xy
y x
x
y
y x
y
x
+
·
+
+
·

,
`

.
|
+
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
2 2
2
2
2
=RHS
This verifies the result(*)
(ii) Consider
,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+ · + + ·
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
x
y
b
x
y
h
x
a
x by hxy ax u

,
`

.
|
·
x
y
x φ
2
,which means u is a
homogenous function of degree 2. Hence, on applying Euler’s theorem
to u, we get
u
y
u
y
x
u
x 2 ·

+

………….(*)
165
Now, as
2 2
2 by hxy ax u + + · , we see that
( ) hy ax
x
u
+ ·

2
&
( ) hx ay
y
u
+ ·

2

Consider, LHS of (*)
y
u
y
x
u
x

+

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) hx ay y hy ax x + + + · 2 2
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 by hxy ax ay hxy hxy ax + + · + + + ·
u 2 · = RHS
This verifies the result (*)
(2) If

,
`

.
|
+
·
y x
y x
u
2 2
sin
, show that
u
y
u
y
x
u
x tan 3 ·

+

(VTU July-2005)
Solution:- Consider
f
y x
y x
u ·

,
`

.
|
+
·
2 2
sin
,say We note that

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+
·
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
x
y x
y x
f φ
3
2
4
2 2
1
.Thus, `f` is a homogenous function of degree 3.
Applying Euler’s theorem to f, we get
f
y
f
y
x
f
x 3 ·

+

As
u f sin ·
,we see that
( ) ( ) ( ) u u
y
y u
x
x sin 3 sin sin ·

+

i.e.
( ) ( ) u
y
u
u y
x
u
u x sin 3 cos cos ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

or we get
u
y
u
y
x
u
x tan 3 ·

+

as desired
2. If

,
`

.
|
+
+
·
y x
y x
e u
4 3
3 3
, show that
u u
y
u
y
x
u
x log 2 ·

+

(VTU july-2004)
Solution: - Consider

,
`

.
|
+
+
·
y x
y x
e u
4 3
3 3

f
y x
y x
u ·

,
`

.
|
+
+
· ∴
4 3
log
3 3
,say

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
+
· ∴
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
x
y x
y x
f φ
2
3
3
3
3 3
4 3
1
4 3
.Thus, f is a homogenous function of degree 2.
Applying Euler's theorem to f, we get
f
y
f
y
x
f
x 2 ·

+

i.e
( ) ( ) ( ) u u
y
y u
x
x log 2 log log ·

+

or
u
y
u
u
y
x
u
u
x log 2
1 1
·

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

166
or
u u
y
u
y
x
u
x log 2 ·

+

4. If
y x
y x
u
+
+
· cos
Prove that
u
y
u
y
x
u
x cot
2
1
− ·

+

(VTU- Jan-2004)
Solution:- Let
f
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
x
y x
y x
u ·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
+
· φ
2
1
1
1
cos
,say Hence, f is a
homogenous function of degree ½
On applying Euler's theorem to f, we get
f
y
f
y
x
f
x
2
1
·

+

Since
u f cos ·
( ) ( ) u u
y
y u
x
x cos
2
1
cos cos ·

+

or
u
y
u
u y
x
u
u x cos
2
1
sin sin ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

− +
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

or
u
u
y
u
y
x
u
x
sin
cos
2
1
− ·

+

or
u
y
u
y
x
u
x cot
2
1
− ·

+

5. If

,
`

.
|
+
+
·

y x
y x
u
3 3
1
tan
, show that
u yu xu
y x
2 sin · +
.Hence to evaluate
yy xy xx
u y xyu u x
2 2
2 + +
(VTU July-2005)
Solution: - Consider

,
`

.
|
+
+
·

y x
y x
u
3 3
1
tan

f
y x
y x
u ·
+
+
· ∴
3 3
tan
, say
Now,

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
+
· ∴
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
x
y x
y x
f φ
2
3
3
3
3 3
1
1
.So, f is a homogenous function of
degree2. Applying Euler’s theorem to f we get

f
y
f
y
x
f
x 2 ·

+

As
u f tan ·
, we see that

( ) ( ) u u
y
y u
x
x tan 2 tan tan ·

+

u
y
u
u y
x
u
u x tan 2 sec sec
2 2
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

u u
u
u
y
u
y
x
u
x cos sin 2
sec
tan 2
2
· ·

+

u
y
u
y
x
u
x 2 sin ·

+

…………….(*),as required.
167
To get the value of yy xy xx
u y xyu u x
2 2
2 + +
we proceed as follows Differentiating (*)
partially w.r.t.x & y we get, respectively
( )
x
u
u
y x
u
y
x
u
x
u
x

·
∂ ∂

+

+

2 cos 2
2
2
2
…………..(1)
( )
y
u
u
y
u
y
u
y
x y
u
x

·

+

+
∂ ∂

2 cos 2
2
2 2
…………….(2)
Multiplying eq (1) by x, and eq(2) by y and adding thereafter
we get
( )

,
`

.
|

+

− ·

+
∂ ∂

+

y
u
y
x
u
x u
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x 1 2 cos 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
( )( ) u u 2 sin 1 2 cos 2 − ·
u u u y xyu u x
yy xy xx
2 sin 4 sin 2
2 2
− · + +
6. If
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
− −
y
x
y
x
y
x u
1 2 1 2
tan tan
, show that
u
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
·

+
∂ ∂

+

Solution:- We note that
w v u − ·
where
,
`

.
|
·

x
y
x v
1 2
tan
&
,
`

.
|
·

y
x
y w
1 2
tan
So that v and w are homogenous functions of degree 2. Applying the corollary to the
Euler’s theorem to v and w, we obtain
( ) v v
y
v
y
y x
v
xy
x
v
x 2 1 2 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
· − ·

+
∂ ∂

+

( ) w w
y
w
y
y x
w
xy
x
w
y 2 1 2 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
· − ·

+
∂ ∂

+

Taking the difference of these two expressions, we get
u
y
u
y
y x
u
xy
x
u
x 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
·

+
∂ ∂

+

 Problem set 3.1.2 for practice
1. If

,
`

.
|
+
·

y x
y x
u
2 2
1
sin
,show that
u
y
u
y
x
u
x tan ·

+

2. If

,
`

.
|
+
·
y x
y x
z
2 2
log
,show that
1 ·

+

y
z
y
x
z
x
168
3. If
y x
y x
u
+
+
·
−1
cot
,prove that
u
y
z
y
x
z
x 2 sin
4
1
− ·

+

4. If

,
`

.
|
+
·

3 3
3 3
1
tan
y x
y x
z
,prove that
u
y
u
y
x
u
x 2 sin
2
3
·

+

169
Chapter - 3 : PARIAL DIFFERENTIATION
LESSON-2: Total derivatives, Differentiation of Composite
and Implicit functions

• In this lesson we learn the concept of total derivatives of functions of two
or more
Variables and, also rules for differentiation of composite and implicit
functions.

Session-1
3.2.0: a) Total differential and Total derivative:-
For a function
) , ( y x f z ·
of two variables, x and y the total differential
(or
exact differential ) dz is defined by:
dy
x
f
dx
x
f
dz

+

·
--------------------------(1)
Further, if
) , ( y x f z ·
where
) (t x x ·
,
) (t y y ·
i.e. x and y are themselves
functions of an independent variable t, then total derivative of z is given by
dt
dy
y
f
dt
dx
x
f
dt
dz

+

·
-------------------------(2)
Similarly, the total differential of a function
) , , ( z y x f u ·
is defined by
dz
z
f
dy
y
f
dx
x
f
du

+

+

·
-----------------(3)
Further, if
) , , ( z y x f u ·
and if
) (t x x ·
,
) (t y y ·
,
) (t z z ·
, then the total
derivative of u is given by
dt
dz
z
f
dt
dy
y
f
dt
dx
x
f
dt
du

+

+

·
---------------(4)
(b) Differentiation of implicit functions:-
An implicit function with x as an independent variable and y as the dependent
variable is generally of the form
0 ) , ( · · y x f z
. This gives
0 ·
,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
dx
df
dx
dz
.Then, by virtue of expression (2) above, we get
dx
dy
y
f
x
f
dx
dz

+

·
or
dx
dy
y
f
x
f
dx
df

+

·
, and hence
170
dx
dy
y
f
x
f

+

· 0
, so that we get

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

− ·
y
f
x
f
dx
dy
----------- (5)
(c) Differentiation of composite functions:-
Let z be an function of x and y and that
) , ( v u x φ ·
and
) , ( v u y ϕ ·
are
functions of u and
v then,
&
v
y
y
f
v
x
x
f
v
z

+

·

-------------------(6)
Similarly, if
) , ( v u f z ·
are functions of u and v and if
) , ( y x u φ ·
and
) , ( y x v ϕ ·
are functions of x and y then,
&
y
v
v
f
y
u
u
f
y
z

+

·

--------------------------
(7)
Note:-1) The above formulae can be extended to functions of three are more
variables and formulas (6) and(7) are called Chain rule for partial differentiation.
2) The second and higher order partial derivatives of
) , ( y x f z ·
can be
obtained by repeated applications of the above formulas

3.2.1: Worked examples:-
1. Find the total differential of
(i) [ ] y y y x e
x
cos sin + (ii)
xyz
e
Ans:- (i) Let ( ) [ ] y y y x e y x f z
x
cos sin , + · · Then

( ) [ ] y y y x e
x
z
x
cos sin 1 + + ·

and
( ) [ ] y y y x e
y
z
x
sin cos 1 − + ·

Hence, using formula (1), we get

dy
y
z
dx
x
z
dz

+

·
i.e ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]dy y y y x e dx y y y x e dz
x x
sin cos 1 cos sin 1 − + + + + ·

(ii) Let
xyz
e z y x f z · · ) , , ( Then
171
u
y
y
f
u
x
x
f
u
z

+

·

x
v
v
f
x
u
u
f
x
z

+

·

( )
xyz
e yz
x
u
·

;
( )
xyz
e xz
y
u
·

;
( )
xyz
e xy
z
u
·

∴ Total differential of
) , , ( z y x f z ·
is (see formula (3) above)

dz
z
u
dy
y
u
dx
x
u
du

+

+

·
( ) xydz zxdy yzdx e
xyz
+ + ·
2. Find
dt
dz
if
(i) y x xy z
2 2
+ · ,where
2
at x · ,
at y 2 ·
(ii)
,
`

.
|
·

x
y
u
1
tan
,where
t t
e e x

− · ,
t t
e e y

+ · (VTU-Jan 2003)
Ans:- (i) Consider y x xy z
2 2
+ ·

xy y
x
z
2
2
+ ·

&
2
2 x xy
y
z
+ ·

Since
2
at x · &
at y 2 ·
, We have
at
dt
dx
2 ·
,
a
dt
dy
2 ·
Hence, using formula (2), we get

dt
dy
y
z
dt
dx
x
z
dt
dz

+

·
( )( ) ( )( ) a x xy at xy y 2 2 2 2
2 2
+ + + ·
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 x xy a y xy y + + + · , Using
at y 2 ·

2 2 3
2 4 2 ax axy xy y
dt
dz
+ + + ·
To get
,
`

.
|
dt
dz
explicitly in terms of t, we substitute

2
at x · &
at y 2 ·
, to get

( )
4 3 3
5 8 2 t t a
dt
dz
+ ·
,
`

.
|
(ii) Consider

,
`

.
|
·

x
y
u
1
tan
2 2
y x
y
x
u
+

·

,
2 2
y x
x
y
u
+
·

Since
t t
e e x

− · &
t t
e e y

+ · ,we have

y e e
dt
dx
t t
· + ·

x e e
dt
dy
t t
· − ·

Hence
dt
dy
y
u
dt
dx
x
u
dt
du

+

·
( see Eqn (2))

,
`

.
|
+

·

,
`

.
|
+
+

,
`

.
|
+

·
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
y x
y x
x
y x
x
y
y x
y
Substituting
t t
e e x

− · &
t t
e e y

+ · , we get
172

t t
e e dt
du
2 2
2

+

·
Session-2
3. Find
,
`

.
|
dx
dy
if (i)
x y
y x + =Constant
(ii) xy e x
y
2 · +
Ans: - (i) Let
x y
y x y x f z + · · ) , ( =Constant. Using formula (5)
y
f
x
f
dx
dy

− ·
-----------------(*)
But
y y yx
x
f
x y
log
1
+ ·

and
1
log

+ ·

x y
xy x x
y
f
Putting those in(*), we get
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
+
− ·

1
1
log
log
x y
x y
xy x x
y y yx
dx
dy
(ii) Let xy e e y x f z
y x
2 ) , ( − + · · =Constant
Now,
y e
x
f
x
2 − ·

;
x e
y
f
y
2 − ·

Using this in (8),
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

− ·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

− ·
x e
y e
y
f
x
f
dx
dy
y
x
2
2
4. (i) If
) , ( y x f z ·
,where θ cos r x · ,
θ sin r y ·
show that
2
2
2
2
2
1

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

θ
z
r r
z
y
z
x
z
(VTU July-2005)

(ii) If
) , ( y x f z ·
,where
v u
e e x

+ · &
v u
e e y − ·

,Show that
y
z
y
x
z
x
v
z
u
z

·

Ans: - As θ cos r x · and
θ sin r y ·
, we have
θ cos ·

r
x
,
θ
θ
sin r
x
− ·

;
θ sin ·

r
y
&
θ
θ
cos r
y
·

. Using Chain rule (6) & (7)
we have
( ) ( ) θ θ sin cos
y
z
x
z
r
y
y
z
r
x
x
z
r
z

+

·

+

·
,
`

.
|

Squaring on both sides, the
above equations, we get
θ θ θ θ cos sin 2 sin cos
2
2
2
2 2

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

+

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·
,
`

.
|

y
z
x
z
y
z
x
z
r
z
173
( ) ( ) θ θ
θ θ θ
cos sin r
y
z
r
x
z y
y
z x
x
z z

+ −

·

+

·
,
`

.
|

θ θ θ θ
θ
cos sin 2 sin cos
1
2
2
2
2 2
2

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·
,
`

.
|

y
z
x
z
y
z
x
z z
r
Adding the above equations , we get

( ) θ θ
θ
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
sin cos
1
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·
,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

y
z
x
z z
r r
z
=
2
2

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

y
z
x
z
as desired.
(ii) As
v u
e e x

+ · &
v u
e e y − ·

, We have
u
e
u
x
·

,
v
e
v
x

− ·

,
u
e
u
y

− ·

&
v
e
v
y
− ·

Using Chain rule (6) we get
( ) ( )
v u
e
y
z
e
x
z
u
y
y
z
u
x
x
z
u
z

·

+

·
,
`

.
|

( ) ( )
v v
e
y
z
e
x
z
v
y
y
z
v
x
x
z
v
z

− −

·

+

·
,
`

.
|

( ) ( )
v u v u
e e
y
z
e e
x
z
v
z
u
z

− +

·
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

− −

y
y
z
x
x
z

·
5. (i) If
) / , , ( z y z x f u ·
Then show that
0 ·

z
u
z
y
u
y
x
u
x
(VTU-July-2004)
(ii) If
) , , ( x z z y y x f H − − − ·
, show that
0 ·

+

+

z
H
y
H
x
H
(VTU-July-2003)
Ans: - (i) Let
) , ( w v f u ·
, where
xz v ·
and
z
y
w ·
z
x
v
·

,
0 ·

y
v
,
x
z
v
·

&
0 ·

x
w
,
z
y
w
1
·

,
2
z
y
z
w

·

Using Chain rule,
( ) ( )
v
u
z
w
u
z
v
u
x
w
w
u
x
v
v
u
x
u

·

+

·

+

·

0
( ) ( )
w
u
z
z
w
u
v
u
y
w
w
u
y
v
v
u
y
u

·

+

·

+

·

∂ 1
1
0
( )
w
u
z
y
v
u
x
z
y
w
u
x
v
u
z
w
w
u
z
v
v
u
z
u

·

,
`

.
|−

+

·

+

·

2
2
From these, we get

,
`

.
|

·

w
u
z
y
v
u
x z
w
u
z
y
v
u
xz
z
u
z
y
u
y
x
u
x
2
= 0
(ii) Let
) , , ( w v u f H ·
Where
x z w z y v y x u − · − · − · , ,
174
Now,
0 , 1 , 1 ·

− ·

·

z
u
y
u
x
u
1 , 1 , 0 − ·

·

·

z
v
y
v
x
v
1 , 0 , 1 ·

·

− ·

z
u
y
w
x
w
Using Chain rule,
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 0 1 −

+

+

·

+

+

·

w
H
v
H
u
H
x
w
w
H
x
v
v
H
x
u
u
H
x
H
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 1
w
v
v
H
u
H
y
w
w
H
y
v
v
H
y
u
u
H
y
H

+

+ −

·

+

+

·

( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 0
w
H
v
H
u
H
z
w
w
H
z
v
v
H
z
u
u
H
z
H

+ −

+

·

+

+

·

Adding the above equations, we get
0 ·

+

+

z
H
y
H
x
H
, as desired.
3.2.2: Problem Set No: 3.2.1
1. Find the total differentials of
(i) ( )
1 −
+ xyz xyz (ii) x z z y y x
2 2 2
+ +
2. Find
,
`

.
|
dt
du
If
(i)
2 2
y x u − · , , cos t e x
t
· t e y
t
sin ·
(ii)
t
e y t x xy u · · · , log , sin
2
(iii)
t t
e z e y
t
x zx yz xy u

· · · + + · , ,
1
,
(iv) ( ) t z t y e x z y x u
t
cos , sin , , log · · · + + ·

3. Find
,
`

.
|
dx
dy
is each of the following cases:-
(i)
( ) ( ) y x y x x + · − sin
(ii) ( ) ( )
x y
y x sin cos ·
4. If
) , ( y x f z ·
and
uv y v u x · − · ,
Prove that
(i)
( )
v
z
v
x
z
u
x
z
v u

·

+
(ii)
( )
v
z
u
z
y
z
v u

+

·

+
5. If , 5 8 , 4 3 2 ,
2 2
− + − · + − · − · s r y s r z y x u Prove that
y x
r
u
2 4 + ·

6. If
) , ( s r f z ·
, where
bt y y at x r + · + · ,
Prove that
y
u
b
x
u
a
t
u

+

·

Chapter - 3 : PARIAL DIFFERENTIATION
175
LESSON-3: Applications to Jacobians, Errors and
Approximations

In this lesson, we study Jacobians, errors and approximations using the
concept of
partial differentiation.

Session - 1
3.3.0 Jacobians:-
Jacobians were invented by German mathematician C.G. Jacob Jacobi (1804-
1851),
who made significant contributions to mechanics, Partial differential equations and
calculus
of variations.
Definition:- Let u and v are functions of x and y, then Jacobian of u and v w.r.t x and
y,
denoted by
J or

,
`

.
|
y x
v u
J
,
,
or
( )
( ) y x
v u
,
,

is defined by
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
u
y x
v u
J

·

,
`

.
|
,
,
Similarly, if u, v, w are functions of three independent variables of x, y, z, then
176
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
u
y
v
x
v
z
u
y
u
x
u
z y x
w v u
J J

·

,
`

.
|
·
, ,
, ,
Remark:- In a similar way, Jacobian of n functions in n-variables can be defined
Note:- (i) If
( )
( ) y x
v u
J
,
,

·
, then the "inverse Jacobian" of the Jacobian J,
denoted by J ′ ,is defined as
( )
( ) v u
y x
J
,
,

·
(ii) Similarly, "inverse Jacobian" of
( )
( ) z y x
w v u
J
, ,
, ,

·
is defined as
( )
( ) w v u
z y x
J
, ,
, ,

· ′
3.3.1: Properties of Jacobians :-
Property 1:- If
( )
( ) y x
v u
J
,
,

·
and
( )
( ) v u
y x
J
,
,

· ′
then 1 · ′ J J
Proof:- Consider
177
( )
( )
( )
( )
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
x
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
u
v u
y x
y x
v u
J J

×

·

×

·
,
,
,
,
1
1
0 1
0 1
· ·

+

+

+

+

·
v
y
y
v
v
x
x
v
u
y
y
v
u
x
x
v
v
y
y
u
v
x
x
u
u
y
y
u
u
x
x
u
Property 2:- (Chain rule for Jacobians):- If u and v are functions of r&s and r,s
are functions x&y,then

,
`

.
|
×
,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
y x
s r
J
s r
v u
J
y x
v u
J
,
,
,
,
,
,
Proof:- Consider
178
y
s
x
s
y
r
x
r
s
v
r
v
s
u
r
u
y x
s r
J
s r
v u
J

×

·

,
`

.
|
×

,
`

.
|
,
,
,
,

y
s
s
v
y
r
r
v
x
s
s
v
x
r
r
v
y
s
s
u
y
r
r
u
x
s
s
u
x
r
r
u

+

+

+

+

·

,
`

.
|
·

·
y x
v u
J
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
u
,
,
3.3.2:-Jacobians in various co-ordinate systems:-
179
1. In Polar co-ordinates, θ cos r x · ,
θ sin r y ·
we have
( )
( )
r
r
v u
·

θ ,
,
2. In spherical coordinates,
, , sin , cos z z y x · · · φ ρ φ ρ
we have
( )
( )
ρ
φ ρ
·

z
z y x
, ,
, ,
3. In spherical polar co-ordinates,
φ θcos sin r x ·
,
φ θsin sin r y ·
, θ cos r z ·
Proof of 1:- we have,
θ cos ·

r
x
and
θ sin ·

r
y
θ
θ
sin r
x
− ·

and
θ
θ
cos r
y
·

( )
( ) θ θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ c o s s i n
s i n c o s
,
,
r
r
y
r
y
x
r
x
r
y x

·

·

( ) r r r r · + · + · θ θ θ θ
2 2 2 2
sin cos sin cos
Proof of 2 :-we have
φ
ρ
cos ·

∂x
,
φ
ρ
sin ·

∂y
,
0 ·

ρ
z
φ ρ
φ
sin − ·

∂x
,
φ ρ
φ
cos ·

∂y
,
0 ·

φ
z
0 ·

ρ
z
,
0 ·

φ
z
,
0 ·

z
z
180
( )
( )
ρ φ ρ φ
φ ρ φ
φ ρ
φ ρ
φ ρ
φ ρ
·

·

·

1 0 0
0 c o s s i n
0 s i n c o s
, ,
, ,
z
z z z
z
y y y
z
x x x
z
z y x
Proof of 3:- We have
θ θcos sin ·

r
x
,
φ θ
θ
cos cos r
x
·

,
φ θ
φ
sin sin r
x
− ·

φ θsin sin ·

r
y
,
φ θ
θ
sin cos r
y
·

,
φ θ
φ
cos sin r
y
·

θ cos ·

r
z
,
θ
θ
sin r
z
− ·

,
0 ·

φ
z
( )
( )
0 s i n c o s
c o s s i n s i n c o s s i n s i n
s i n s i n c o s c o s c o s s i n
, ,
, ,
θ θ
φ θ φ θ φ θ
φ θ φ θ θ θ
φ θ
r
r r
r r
r
z y x

·

θ sin
2
r ·
Session – 2
181
3.3.3:-Worked Examples:-
1. If
2 2
2y x u − · ,
2 2
2 y x v − · , where
θ cos r x · ,
θ sin r y ·
show that
( )
( )
θ
θ
2 sin 6
,
,
3
r
r
v u
·

(VTU-Jan-2006)
Consider θ θ
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin 2 cos 2 r r y x u − · − ·
θ θ
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cos 2 2 r r y x v − · − ·
θ θ
2 2
sin 4 cos 2 r r
r
u
− ·

,
θ θ
2 2
sin 2 cos 4 r r
r
v
− ·

θ θ θ θ
θ
cos sin 4 sin cos 2
2 2
r r
u
− − ·

θ θ θ θ
θ
cos sin 2 sin cos 4
2 2
r r
v
− − ·

( )
( )
θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ
θ
θ
c o s s i n 2 s i n c o s 4 s i n 2 c o s 4
c o s s i n 4 s i n c o s 2 s i n 4 c o s 2
,
,
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
r r r r
r r r r
v
r
v
u
r
u
r
v u
− − −
− − −
·

·

( )( ) θ θ θ θ θ θ cos sin 2 sin cos 4 sin 4 cos 2
2 2 2 2
r r r r − − − ·
( )( ) θ θ θ θ θ θ
2 2 2
sin 2 cos 4 cos sin 4 sin cos 2 r r r r − − − ·
θ 2 sin 6
3
r ·
2. If
( ) , , 1 uv y v u x · − ·
Prove that
1
,
,
,
,
1
·
,
`

.
|
×
,
`

.
|
v u
y x
J
v u
y x
J
(VTU-2001)
182
Consider
v
u
x
− ·

1
,
u
v
x
− ·

v
u
y
·

,
u
v
y
·

u v
u v
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
x
v u
y x
J
− −
·

·

,
`

.
|

1
,
,

( ) ( ) u uv uv u uv u v · + − · − − − · 1
) 1 (
,
,
− − − ·
,
`

.
|
∴ u
v u
y x
J
Further, as
( ) , , 1 uv y v u x · − ·

uv u − ·
We write,
y u x − ·

y x u + · ∴
and

,
`

.
|
+
· ·
y x
y
u
y
v

,
`

.
|
+
· ∴
y x
y
v
, 1 ·

x
u
1 ·

y
u
and
( )
,
2
y x
y
x
v
+
− ·

( )
2
y x
x
y
v
+
·

183
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 1
,
,
y x
x
y x
y
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
u
y x
v u
J
+ +

·

·

,
`

.
|

( ) ( ) u y x y x
y
y x
x 1 1
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
+
·
+
+
+
·
1
1
1
· · ∴
u
u JJ
3. If , cos v e x
u
· , sin v e y
u
· Prove that
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
,
,
,
,
·

×

y x
v u
v u
y x
Consider v e x
u
cos · v e y
u
sin ·
v e
u
x
u
cos ·

v e
u
y
u
sin ·

v e
v
x
u
sin − ·

v e
v
y
u
cos ·

184
( )
( )
v e v e
v e v e
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
x
v u
y x
u u
u u
c o s s i n
s i n c o s
,
,

·

·

( )
( )
) 1 (
,
,
.
2
− − − − − ·

u
e
v u
y x
e i
Again Consider , cos v e x
u
· , sin v e y
u
·
u
e y x
2 2 2
· + ∴ or
( )
2 2
log
2
1
y x u + ·
&
v
x
y
tan ·
or
,
`

.
|
·

x
y
v
1
tan
Hence
; ,
2 2
y x
x
x
u
+
·

; ,
2 2
y x
y
y
u
+
·

& 2 2 2 2
;
y x
x
y
v
y x
y
x
v
+
·

+

·

185
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1
,
, −
+ ·
+
·
+ +

+ +
·

·

∴ y x
y x
y x
x
y x
y
y x
y
y x
x
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
u
y x
v u
i.e
( )
( )
) 2 (
,
,
2
− − − − − − − ·

− u
e
y x
v u
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
,
,
,
,
2 2
· × ·

×

− u u
e e
y x
v u
v u
y x
4. If
, , ,
z
xy
w
y
zx
v
x
yz
u · · ·
Show that
( )
( )
4
, ,
, ,
·

z y x
w v u
186
Now,
( )
( )
2
2
2
, ,
, ,
z
x y
z
x
z
y
y
x
y
z x
y
z
x
y
x
z
x
y z
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
v
y
v
x
v
z
u
y
u
x
u
z y x
w v u

·

·

i.e
( )
( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
|
− ·

2
2 2 2 2
, ,
, ,
y
zx
z
y
z
x
y
z
x
y
y
x
z
y
z
xy
y
z
x
z
z
xy
y
zx
x
yz
z y x
w v u
= 4, as desired.
5. If
φ θcos sin r x ·
,
φ θsin sin r y ·
, θ cos r z · ,show that
( )
( )
θ
φ θ
sin
, ,
, ,
2
r
r
z y x
·

Now, by definition
187
( )
( )
φ θ
φ θ
φ θ
φ θ

·

z z
r
z
y y
r
y
x x
r
x
r
z y x
, ,
, ,
i.e
( )
( )
0 s i n c o s
c o s s i n s i n c o s s i n s i n
s i n s i n c o s c o s c o s s i n
, ,
, ,
θ θ
φ θ φ θ φ θ
φ θ φ θ φ θ
φ θ
r
r r
r r
r
z y x

·

( ) { ¦ φ θ φ θ cos sin 0 cos sin
2 2
r − ·
( ) { ¦ φ θ θ φ θ cos cos sin 0 cos cos r r − −
{ ¦ φ θ φ θ φ θ sin cos sin sin sin sin
2 2
r r r − − −
( ) φ θ θ φ θ θ
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos cos sin cos sin sin r r + ·
( ) φ θ φ θ θ θ
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin sin cos cos sin sin r r + + ·
( ) φ φ θ
2 2 2
sin cos sin + · r
θ sin
2
r · , as required
3.3.4:-Problem set No: 3.3.1
1. θ cos r x · ,
θ sin r y ·
show that
1
,
,
,
,
1
·

,
`

.
|
×
,
`

.
|
y x
r
J
r
y x
J
θ
θ
2. If , sec v e x
u
· , tan v e y
u
· Show that
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
,
,
,
,
·

×

y x
v u
v u
y x
3.If
z y x w zx yz xy v xyz u + + · + + · · , ,
show that
188

( )
( )
( )( )( ) x z z y y x
z y x
w v u
− − − ·

, ,
, ,
4.If
, , , uvw z v z y u z y x · · + · + +
find the value of
( )
( ) w v u
z y x
, ,
, ,

5.If y e v u y e v u
x x
sin , cos · − · + find

,
`

.
|
y x
v u
J
,
,
[Hint: Start from ( ) y y
e
u
x
sin cos
2
+ · and ( ) y y
e
v
x
sin cos
2
− ·
3.3.5:-Errors and Approximations
Session-3:-
While doing scientific or engineering computations there is always scope for
computation errors. Obviously, it is going to have an impact on the result which may
be negligible or significant too. In such situations, an account of various types of
errors is necessary to present approximate value of the function under consideration.
3.3.6:-Definition:-
If
) , ( y x f z ·
is a function of two variables x and y then the error or absolute error
z ∂ is given by
y
y
z
x
x
z
z δ δ δ

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·
-------------(1)
Similarly, if
) , , ( z y x f u ·
is a function of three variables x,y,z then the error or
absolute error u δ is given by
z
z
u
y
y
u
x
x
u
u δ δ δ δ
,
`

.
|

+

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|

·
----------- (2)
Remark:- The quantity o is called relative error in z or u respectively. Similarly, the
quantity
,
`

.
|
×
,
`

.
|
× 100 100
u
u
or
z
z δ δ
is called percentage error in z or u respectively
Note:- The following results similar to that of differentials will also be useful.
(i)
( ) u c cu δ δ ·
(ii)
( ) v u v u δ δ δ t · t
(iii)
( ) u v v u uv δ δ δ + ·
(iv)
2
v
v u u v
v
u δ δ
δ

·
,
`

.
|
3.3.7:-Worked Examples:-
1. Find the percentage error in measuring the area of a traingle if 1% error (each) is
made in measuring its base as well as height.
Area A of a traingle is given by
189
ah A
2
1
·
---------- (1)
where `a`and `h` are base and height of the triangle respectively. Therefore, the
change A ∂ due to a change a δ in a, and a change h δ in h, is given by
( ) [ ] a h h a ah A δ δ δ δ + · ·
2
1
2
1
[ ]
ah
a h h a
A
A
2
1
2
1
δ δ
δ
+
· ∴
a
a
h
h
A
A δ δ δ
+ · ∴

,
`

.
|
× +
,
`

.
|
× · × ∴ 100 100 100
a
a
h
h
A
A δ δ δ
=1 % +1% (by data)
=2%
The percentage error in A is 2%
2. The focal length f of a lens is given by
q p f
1 1 1
+ ·
where p and q are the
distances of the lens from the object and the image respectively. For a certain lens
p and q are each 25cms with a possible error of almost 0.5cm. Find the
approximate value of the maximum error in f.
Consider
q p f
1 1 1
+ ·
. By data
25 · ·q p
and
5 . 0 · · q p δ δ
Now,

,
`

.
|
+ ·

,
`

.
|
q p f
1 1 1
δ δ
i.e

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
q p f
1 1 1
δ δ δ
q
q
p
p
f
f
δ δ δ
2 2 2
1 1 1
− − · −
i.e
]
]
]

+ ·
2 2
2
q
q
p
p
f f
δ δ
δ
As
, q p ·
and
, q p δ δ ·
we have
]
]
]

·
2
2
2
p
p
f f
δ
δ
Since
08 . 0
25
1
25
1 1
· + ·
f
we have f=12.5. Hence,
( )
( )
25 . 0
25
5 . 0
2 5 . 12
2
2
·
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
· f δ
∴ The maximum error in f=0.25
190
3. The current measured by a tangent galvanometer is given by the relation
θ tan k c · Where θ is the angle of deflection .Show that the relative error in c
due to a given error in θ is maximum where
0
45 · θ .
Consider θ tan k c · (k=constant)
∴ ( ) θ δ δ tan k c ·
( ) 0 sec
2
+ · δ θ θ k
∴ δ θ
θ
θ δ
tan
sec
2
k
k
c
c
·
or
δ θ
θ
δ

,
`

.
|
·
2 sin
2
c
c
-----------(*)
The relation error in c being
c
c δ
is maximum when the denominator of RHS of
(*) is maximum and the maximum of sine function is unity.
0 0
45 90 2 1 2 sin · ⇒ · ⇒ · ∴ θ θ θ
Thus, the relative error in c is minimum when
0
45 · θ .
4. If
2
2
1
mv T ·
is the kinetic energy, find approximately the change in T as m
changes From 49 to 49.5 and V changes from 1600 to 1590.
By data,
5 . 0 5 . 49 , 49 · ∂ ⇒ · ∂ + · m m m m
10 1590 , 1600 − · ∂ ⇒ · ∂ + · v v v v
As
2
2
1
mv T ·
,
( )
2
2
1
mv T δ δ ·

( ) ( ) [ ] m v v v m δ δ
2
2
2
1
+ ·
i.e
( )( )( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
2
1600 5 . 0 10 1600 2 49
2
1
+ − · T δ
=-1,44,000
5. If the sides of a triangle ABC vary in such a way that its circum radius remains
constant, Prove that

0
cos cos cos
· + +
c
c
B
b
A
a δ δ δ
If the triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle of radius R and if a,b,c respectively
denotes the sides opposite to the angles A,B,C we have the sine rule given by
R
c
c
B
b
A
a
2
sin sin sin
· + ·
( ) ( ) A R A R a A R a sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 δ δ δ · · ⇒ · ⇒
; cos 2 A A R a δ δ · ∴
( ) ( ) B R B R b B R b sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 δ δ δ · · ⇒ · ⇒
; cos 2 B B R b δ δ · ∴
191
( ) ( ) C R C R c C R c sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 δ δ δ · · ⇒ · ⇒
C C R C δ δ cos 2 · ∴
From the above, we write
C R
C
c
B R
B
b
A R
A
a
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
2
cos
& 2
cos
; 2
cos
· · ·
C R B R A R
C
c
B
b
A
a
δ δ δ
δ δ δ
2 2 2
cos cos cos
+ + · + +

( ) C B A R δ δ δ + + ·2
( ) t Cons R tan 2 δ ·
t Cons radians C B A tan · · + + π
( ) 0 2 δ R ·
=0
3.3.8:-Problem set No: 3.3.2
1. Find the percentage error in the evaluation of the area of an ellipse if 1% error is
made while measuring the major and minor axis
.
2. The time T of a Complete oscillation of a simple pendulum is given by the
formula
( ) π 2
g
l
T ·
, where g is constant .If there is an error of 3% in the value of
l, Find the percentage value of T.
3. The radius of a Sphere is found to be 10cms with possible error of 0.02cm. What
is the relative error in computing the volume?
( Hint: Volume of the Sphere=
3
3
4
r π
)
4. The pressure p and the volume v of a gas are concentrated by the relation
pv
1.4
=constant. find the percentage increase in pressure corresponding to a
dimension of
2
1
% in volume
192
193

General solution and particular solution A solution of a D.E. is a relation between the dependent and independent variables satisfying the given equation identically. The general solution will involve arbitrary constants equal to the order of the D.E. If the arbitrary constants present in the solution are evaluated by using a set of given conditions then the solution so obtained is called a particular solution. In many physical problems these conditions can be formulated from the problem itself. Note : Basic integration and integration methods are essential prerequisites for this chapter. Solution of differential equations of first order and first degree Recollecting the definition of the order and the degree of a D.E., a first order and first degree equation will be the form dy = f x, y or M x, y dx + N x, y dy = 0 dx We discuss mainly classified four types of differential equations of first order and first degree. They as are as follows : • • • • Variables separable equations Homogenous equations Exact equations Linear equations

bg bg bg

Variables separable Equations If the given D.E. can be put in the form such that the coefficient of dx is a function of the variable x only and the coefficient of dy is a function of y only then the given equation is said to be in the separable form. The modified form of such an equation will be, P (x) dx + Q (y) dy = 0 Integrating we have P x dx Q yg z bg + z bdy = c

This is the general solution of the equation.

2

Example –1 Solve : e x y − 1 dx + 2 e x + 4dy= 0
x x

b g >> e b 1g + 2  + 4 y − dx e dy= 0
 Variables are separated 

Dividing throughout by (y-1) (ex + 4) we get, ex dy dx + 2 =0 x  − 1 y e +4 ⇒

z

ex dy dx + 2 =c x y −1 e +4

z

i.e. log x + 4 2 log  − 1 c e + y =
2 or log x + 4 log  − 1= c e + y

2 i.e. log x + 4 y − 1 = log k say e 

bg

2 or x + 4 y − 1 = k is the required solution e 

Example 2 Solve 
2 dy = x e y − x given that y 0 = 0 dx 2 2 dy dy >> = x e y − x or = x e y − x e dx dx 2 dy i. e. y = x e − x dx by separating the variables.* e

bg

⇒ e − y dy − x e − x dx = c
2

z

z

i. e. − e − y dy − x e − x dx = c
2

z

Put − x 2 = t ∴− 2 x dx = dt or − x dx = dt 2 Hence we have, − e − y + e t dt  = c 2 i e
2

z

− e− y +

et =c 2

or

e−x − e − y = c is the general solution. 2

Now we consider y (0) = 0 That is y = 0 when x = 0, * For animation

3

4 . i. e.The general solution becomes 1 1 − 1 = c or c = − 2 2 Now the general solution becomes e− x 1 − e− y = − 2 2 2 or e − x + 1 = 2e − y is the particular solution.. or ⇒ or i. 2 e j Example –3 Solve : x y >> x y i. e. dy = 1 + x + y + xy dx or y − x − log x+ y= c is the required solution. i..* 1+ y x y 1+ x dy − dx = c 1+ y x + y 1 1 − 1 dy − dx − 1 dx = c 1+ y x 1 1 dy − dy − log x − x = c 1+ y y − log  y log x − x = c 1+ − z z z z z z z >> Rearranging the given equation we have. 1 Example – 4 : Solve : y − x dy dy = y2 + dx dx b g dy = 1 + x + y + xy dx dy xy = + x  y+ x  1 + 1 dx dy xy = + x 1 + y 1  dx ydy 1 + x = dx by separating the variables. e... e.

* x + 1 y − y2 dx dy ⇒ = =c x + 1 y− y 1 dy i. log x + 1 − =c 1   y− y 1 z z b gz b g We have to employ the method of partial fractions for the second term of the above.y − y 2 = dy  + 1 x dx dx dy or = by separating the variables. x Example – 5 : Solve : tan y dy = cos( x + y ) + cos ( x − y ) dx >> The given equation on expanding terms in the R. log x + 1 + log ∴  + 1) (1 − y )= ky. is the required solution.H.S. Let 1 A B + + y(1 − y ) y 1 − y ⇒ 1= A 1 − y + B y Put y = 0 1 = A Put y =1 = B 1 dy 1 1 ∴ = dy + dy y 1− y y 1− y zb g z z dy 1 −1 or − z = − z dy + z dy yb y g y 1− 1− y i − e dy 1 = 1 = zb− yg −log y + log b− yglog F−y y I G J y1 H K Using this result in (1) we get. becomes dy tan y =  x cos y − sin x sin y  x cos y + sin x sin y cos + cos dx dy i tan y e = 2 cos x cos y dx 1 b g F−y y I = c G J H K Lx + 1) (1 − y) Olog k   ( or log M = N y P say Q 5 . e.

G2 J H K Example – 7 Solve : >> dy = x tan  − x  1 y + dx . e... z z Session – 2 Equations reducible to the variables separable form Some differential equations can be reduced to the variables separable from by taking a suitable substitution. e. We present a few examples. z cosdt2− x = c 2 t 2 or 1 t 2 dt z sec  − x = c 2 2 i.tan y dy= 2 cos x dx by separating the variables. sec y dy − 2 cos x dx = c or ∴ sec y − 2 sin x = c is the required solution. tan x F + y + 1I − x = c is the required solution.* cos y ⇒ tan y. tan (t / 2) − x = c i. Example – 6 Solve : cos (x + y + 1) dx – dy = 0 dy = cos ( x + y +1) dx >> Put We have … (1) dt dy dt dy =1+ or  1= − dx dx dx dx dt dt Now (1) becomes − 1 = cos t or = 1 + cos t dx dx dt dt i. = dx ⇒ − dx =c 1 + cos t 1 + cos t t = x + y +1 ∴ z z i. e.. e. (1) dy = x tan ( y − x ) + 1 dx dt dy dt dy Put t = y − x ∴ = − 1 or = +1 dx dx dx dx 6 .

e.e.* tan t ∴ cot t dt − x dx =c z z i.Now (1) becomes Hence dt dt  = x tan t + 1 or +1  x tan t.e becomes G − 1J = 2 H K t +1 dx dt dy 1 dt dy =1 + 2 or −1 = dx dx 2 dx dx dt − 1 t =2 +1 dx + 1 t dt 3t − 1 i.  + 2 y − 1 =  + 2 y + 1 x dx x dy dy  + 2 y 1 x − or =  1  dx  + 2 y 1 x + ∴ F I G J H K 1F dt I t − 1 The d.. 2 Example – 8 Solve :  + 2 ydx − dy  + dy x  = dx >> Rearranging the terms in the given equation we have. dt − x = c 3t − 1 … (2) Put t = x + 2 y ∴ or z z z Let t + 1 = l(3t −1) + m or t + 1 = ( 3l ) t + ( −l+m) ⇒ 3 l =1 and − l+ m = 1 Hence l = 1 and − 1 + m = 1 or m = 4  3 3 3 ∴t + 1 = 1  . = dx t + 1 t +1 t +1 dt =dx ⇒ dt − dx = c 3t − 1 3t − 1 t +1 i.. log (sin t ) − x2 =c 2 x2 Thus log sin ( y − x ) − is the required solution. e. = dx dx dt = x dx by separating the variables. t − 1 4  3 3 + 3 Thus (2) can be written as 7 .

i. e. e.. ⇒ 2 +3 dx ztt + 4 dt − z = c 3 Let 2t + 3 = l (3t + 4) + m or 2t + 3 = (3l) t + (4l + m) ⇒ 3 l = 2 and 4 l+m= 3 ∴ l= 2 3 and 8 / 3 + m= 3 or m = 1  3 Thus 2 t + 3 = 2/3 . (3t+ 4) + 1/3 Hence (1) becomes i.1 3  3 z33t t−−11 + 4  dt − x = c 1 4 dt i. dt t +1 dt t +1 −1= or =1 + dx 2t + 3 dx 2t + 3 i. e. zdt + z 1 − x=c 3 3 3t − 1 i. e. dt 2t + 3 + t + 1 dt 3t + 4 = or = dx 2t + 3 dx 2t + 3 2t + 3 dt = dx 3t + 4 i. 2 dx z / 3. y + 3 = 3 9 dy  + y 1 x + = dx 2 x + 2 y + 3 dy  + y 1 x + = dx 2( x + y 3 + dt dy dt dy =1 + or −1 = dx dx dx dx Example – 9 : Solve : >> We have Put t = x + y ∴ The given equation becomes.(33tt ++4) + 1 / 3 dt − z = c 4 2 1 dt 1 dt + − x=c 3 3 3t + 4 8 z z . e.. e. e. i. t 4 + log (3t − 1) − x = c 3 9 x + 2y 4 + log (3 x + 6 y − 1) − x = c 3 9 2 4  − x  log x + 6 y − 1 c is the required solution. i. e.

e. where t = xy. where t = x + y 3 − 3 9 2  + y 1 x + log x + 3 y + 4 x = c 3 − 3 9 1 1 (2 y − x ) + log (3x + 3 y + 4) = c is the required solution. G t+ J− = c. can be written as. 4 x 9 . 2 H 2 Kx i. e. x 2 i.e. 1 1 2xy + sin (2 xy ) − = c... e. ∴ 2t 1 + log t + 4 x = c. e. 3 9 i. e. Example – 10 Solve : x 3 dy + x 2 y + sec 2   0 xy = dx The given d.. e.. z 1 z+ cos 2t dt − 1 = c 2 x 1 F sin 2t I 1 i. is the required solution.i. x2 x F dy + yI + sec   0 Gdx J H K xy = 2 1   Put t = xy ∴ dt dy =x +y dx dx dt + sec 2 t = 0 dx Now (1) becomes. x 2 dt dt dx = − sec 2 t or =− 2 2 dx sec t x dx z =c x 2 ∴ cos2 t dt + i..

EXERCISES : Solve the following differential equations 1xy 2 + x dx + 2 y + y = 0 x dy 2 2 2 2 2 2x − yx  +  + x y  = 0  dy y dx dy dy 3 − x y = a y2 + dx dx 4 + y − dy dx + dy  x  dx = dy 5 4 x + x 3 y+ cosec ( xy) = 0 dx F G H I J K ANSWERS : 2 2 1 + x + y = c  1 1 2 log y + 1 y + 1  − x = c x 3 − ay + x  cy  1  a = 4 − x + log x + y = c y 5 ( xy) + 1 / 2 x 2 = c cos Session –3 A function u = f (x. y = dx g x. can be solved by separating the variables. Solution of a homogeneous equation We prefer to have the differential equation in the form after recognizing that the D. dy f x. We take the substitution y = v x so that. y bg bg 10 . y) is said to be homogeneous function of degree n if u = x n g y / x or u = y n g x / y b g b g A D. of the form M (x. dy dv = v. dx dx With these the given d. y) dy = 0 is said to be a homogeneous differential equation if both M (x.E. y) and N (x.e.E. is a homogeneous one. y) are homogeneous functions of the same degree.1 + x by product rule. y) dx+ N (x.

e. e. v + x = dx x 3 + v 3 x 3 i. x = or x = dx dx 1 + v 3 1 + v3 ∴ 1 + v3 − dx dv =  separating the variables. is the required solution. e. + log v + log x = c −3 1 y i. e.. where v = x 3v 3 x Thus − 3 + log y = c..* by 4 x v 1 dx z1 dv +z dv + zx = c v v 4 (* for animation) ⇒ v −3 i. vx Now (1) becomes. v + x dv x3 v dv v = 3 or x = −v 3 dx x + v  dx 1 + v 3 1 dv v − v − v 4 dv − v 4 i. 3y Example –2 Solve : x dy − y dx = >> We have x dy = y + x 2 + y 2 dx or dy y + x 2 + y 2 = dx x L M N x 2 + y 2 dx O P Q    1 11 ..Example –1 Solve : x 2 y dx − 3 + y 3  = 0 x dy >> (Observe that the coefficient of dx and dy are homogeneous functions of degree 3) The given equation can be written as. − 3 + log (vx ) = c. dy x2 y = 3 dx x + y 3 Put y = v x ∴    1 dy dv =v+ x dx dx dv x 2 ..

. y − Example –3 dy y 2  + =y dx x dy y2 >> We have x  y − = dx x 2 dy xy − y or  = dx x2 dy dv Put y = v x ∴ = v + x dx dx dv x . v + x = or x = −v 2 2 dx dx x Solve : x ∴    1 dv dx =− by separating the variables. − + log x = c. is the required solution..* 2 x v dv dx 1 y Hence 2 + = c i. sin h −1 v − log x = c. v + x = or x = 1 + v2 dx x dx dv dx ∴ = by separating the variables.v x − v 2 x 2 Now (1) becomes v + x = dx x2 dv x 2  − v 2  v dv i. y z z 12 . e.. e. e.. is the required solution. where v = y / x Thus sin h −1  / x  log x = c.e. where v = x v x v x Thus − + log x = c. * x 1 + v2 F H I K ⇒ dx z 1dvv − zx = c + 2 i.Put y = vx ∴ dy dv = v+ x dx dx dv vx + x 2 + v 2 x 2 Now (1) becomes v + x = dx x 2 dv x v + 1 + v dv i.

x dv x  sec 2 v − tan v v = dx x sec 2 v 1   dv v sec 2 v − tan v = −v dx sec 2 v dv v sec 2 v − tan v − v sec 2 v = dx sec 2 v dv − tan v sec 2 v dx = or dv = − 2 dx sec v tan v x sec 2 v dx Hence dv+ =c tan v x i.Example – 4 Solve : x tan ( y / x ) − y sec 2  / x  + x sec 2  / x  = 0 y dx y dy >> The given equation can be written as.. v + x = dx x sec 2 v Put i.. e. dy y sec 2  / x  x tan ( y / x ) y − = 2 dx x sec  / x  y y dy dv = v or v = v x ∴ = v + x x dx dx 2 dv v x sec v − x tan v Now (1) becomes. v + x i. e. Example – 5 dy = y y − log x + 1 log dx >> The given equation can be written in the form dy y = log ( y / x ) + 1    1 dx x Solve : x z z 13 . e. ⇒ x tan v = k where v = y / x Thus x tan ( y / x ) = k.. is the required solution.. x i. e. log (tan v ) + log x = c or log (tan v. x ) = c = log k (say).. e. x i.

we need to express the equation relating to dx / dy and the terms are homogeneous functions of degree 0... x = v log v or = dx v log v x 1/ v dx Hence dv − =c log v x Put y = v x ∴ z z i. e. y dv e v − 1 v = dy + e v  1 dv e v  − 1 v dv e v v − e v − v − e v v = − v i. y = dy + e v  dy 1 + e v  1 dv v + v  e (1 + e v  dv dy i. Example – 6 Solve : 1 + e x/y dx + e x/y 1 − e j F x I dy = 0 G yJ H K F − 1I dy x G J H K y >> (As we observe terms with x / y .. y =− or =− v v dy y + e  1 e +v Hence (1 dy z e+ e+ )vdv + zy = c v v 14 . v + y i. e.. e. log  v log x = c = log k   log − say i. is the required solution. We have 1 + e x/y dx = e x/y x/y or Put e j F I x e G− 1J H K y dx = dy 1 e+ e j x /y    1 dx dv = v+y dy dy x / y = v or x = v y ∴ Now (1) becomes.. e. e..dy dv = v+ x dx dx dv Now (1) becomes v + x = v  v + 1 log dx dv dv dx i. log  v log   log = kx ⇒ log v = kx where v = y / x Thus l g ( y / x ) = k x.. log  v log k + log x log = i. e. e.

e. is the required solution. Finally we substitute for X and Y where X = x −h. let us choose h and k such that : Solving these equations we get the value for h and k.i. Put x = X + h.. e y Thus y e x/y + x = k. Now dy dy dY dX = dx dY dX dx dY dy dY = 1 . b gb g b g b g aX + ah b + bY gb + bk + cg dY = dX b X + b' Y gbh + b' k + c' g a' + a' ah + bk + c = 0 and a' h + b' k + c' = 0   2 Now. Y = y −k. e. Session – 4 Equations reducible to the homogeneous form Consider the differential equation in the form :  + by + c ±  x + b' y + c'  = 0 ax dx a' dy We first express the equation in respect of dy / dx and the procedure is narrated by taking dy a x + b y + c a b = where ≠ dx a' x +b' y + c' a' b'    1 This condition implies that there are no common factors for the x and y terms in the numerator as well as in the denominator.1 Hence = dX dx dX As a consequence of these (1) becomes a X +h + b Y +k +c dY = dX a' X + h + b' Y + k + c' i. where v = x / y. Thus (2) now assumes the form dY aX + bY = dX a' X + b' Y   3  It is evident that (3) is a homogeneous equation in the variables X and Y. 15 .. This equation can be solved by putting Y = VX as discussed already. y = Y + k where h and k are constants to be chosen appropriately later. log (e v + v ) + log y = c or log v + v = log k (say) e y ⇒ v + v = k.

dy dy dY dX Now = dx dY dX dx dY dy dY = 1  Hence 1 = dX dx dX Thus (1) becomes dY − + h 4 + k  9 X + Y + = dX 4  + h  + k  2 X + Y − dY  X + 4Y  h + 4 k + 9 − + − i.Example –1 Solve : ( x − 4 y − 9) dx + x + y − 2 = 0 4 dy >> We have x + y − 2 = −  − 4 y − 9 4 dy x dx dy − x + 4 y + 9 ∴ = dx 4 x + y − 2 Put x = X + h and y = Y + k where h and k are constants to be choosen suitably later. X = dX 4+V dX + V  4 + V 4 dV dX ∴ =− by separating the variables. e.. V + X = or X = −V dX X+ V  4 dX 4+V dV −1 + 4V − 4V − V 2 dV −+ V 2  1 i. e.* 2 X + V  1 16 . V + X = dX 4 X + VX dV X 1 + 4V  − dV −1 + 4V i. X = i.. e. e.. h = 1 and k = −2 Thus (2) becomes   2 dY − X + 4Y =  3  dX 4 X + Y dY dV Put Y = VX ∴ =V + X dX dx dV − X + 4VX Now (3) becomes. = dX  X + Y  h + k − 2 4 + 4 Let us choose h and k such that − h + 4 k + 9 = 0 and 4 h + k − 2 = 0 Solving these equations we get..

e. e. h+ 2 k − 3 = 0 and 2 h + k − 3 = 0 Solving these equations we get h = 1 and k = 1 dY X + 2Y Thus (2) becomes = dX 2 X + Y 3   17 . = dX  X + Y  h + k − 3 2 + 2 ……(2) Let us choose h and k such that.⇒4 dV dX z+ V + zV+dV + zX = c 1 1 V 2 2 1 i. 8 tan −1 V + log (1 + V 2  2 log X = 2c + i. where h and k are constants to be chosen suitably later. where V = Y / X X ∴ 8 tan −1  / X  log ( X 2 + Y 2  2c = k   Y + = say But X = x − h = x − 1 and Y = y − k = y + 2 8 tan −1 y F+ 2 I+ log  − 1+  + 2 = k y G− 1J H K x x 2 2 This is the required solution. = dX 2  + h  + k  3 X + Y − dY  + 2Y  + 2 k − 3 X + h i. 4 tan −1 V + log (1 + V 2  log X = c + 2 i. 8 tan −1 V + log (1 + V 2  2 = 2c. ∴ dy dy dY dX = dx dY dX dx dY dy dY = 1  Hence 1 = dX dx dX dY  + h 2 + k  3 X + Y − Thus(1) becomes.. Example – 2 Solve : dy x + 2 y − 3 = dx 2 x + y − 3 dy x + 2 y − 3 = dx 2 x + y − 3  1  >> We have Put x = X + h and y = Y + k. e....e.

.. log G J − log (1 − V  = 2c X H− V K 1 L (1 + V  Olog k   or log M = P say (1 − V  (1 − V  Q X N 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 z ⇒ (1 + V  (X +Y) Y = k or = k since V = 3 2 3 X (1 − V X X −Y b g  ut X = x − h = x − 1 and Y = y − k = y − 1 3 Thus  + y − 2 k  − y is the required solution. e. 2 log − log (1 − V 2  log X = c − 2 1− V 2 z z F I G J H K 1 F+ V I i.* 2 X 1− V dV V dV dX ⇒2 + − =c 2 2 X 1− V 1− V 1 1+ V 1 i. x = x Exercises : Solve the following equations: 1x 3 + y 3  = xy  + y  dx x dy 2x + y log x − y log y − x  x − log y = 0  dx log dy 3 2 ( x / y) y dx − x dy= y dy Sin 4 − x − 4 = + x − 2  y dx y dy 53 x − y − 1 + 2 − y = 0  dy x dx 18 .. V + X = dX X + V  2 Put Y = VX ∴ dV 1 + 2V dV 1 − V 2 or X = − V or X = dX 2 + V dX 2 + V 2+V dX ∴ dv = by separating the variables. e. e. 2 log G J − log (1 − V  2 log X = 2c − H− V K 1 1 F+ V I i.. e.dY dV =V+X dX dX dV X + 2VX Now (3) becomes V + X = dX 2 X + VX dV X + 2V  1 i.

y) dx + N (x.5 We say that M (x. in the first term we integrate M (x. y) dy = 0 to be an exact equation is M  N =  y  x Further the solution of the exact equation is given by Mdx N y dy z + z bg = c where..E. y) w. y) dy = 0 is an exact differential equation if there exists a function f (x. y) such that df = M (x. y) dy. y) dx+N (x. y) dx+N (x. The necessary and the sufficient condition for the D. is the required solution. the  y  x The solution is M dx + N y dy = c b g >> Let M = y b 1 gcos y and N = x + log x − x sin y 1+ x + ∴ z z bg LF+ 1 I dx i. e.Answers : 1 / x + log − x  c y y = 2 x +  / x  log ( y / x ) − 1 c log y  = x 1 3. Example –1 Solve : [ y 1 + 1  + cos y + + log x − x sin y = 0 x dx x dy  M 1  N 1 = 1 + − sin y and = 1 + − sin y  y x  x x  M  N Since =  given equation is exact. M (x. x+ + 19 .r. − sin (2 x y) − log y = c 2y 4 2 4 ( x + 1)2 +  − 3 + 2 tan −1  − 3 + 1= c log y y  x 4 5 x + y − 1 = c x − 2 y − 1  4 Session .t x keeping y fixed and N (y) indicate the terms in N not containing x. zyG J + cos y P + z dy= c M xK O 0 H N1 Q Thus y b log x g x cos y = c.

.. the  y  x The solution is M dx + N y dy = c i. is the required solution. z bg dx 0 b zy cos x +sin y+ yg = z dy= c z e j e Thus y sin x + x sin y + xy = c. e. e. y dx sin dy bcos x +sin y+ yg + b x + x cos y + xg = 0 Let M = y cos x + sin y+ y and N = sin x + x cos y + x ∴  M  N = cos x + cos y+ 1 and = cos x + cos y+ 1  y  x  M  N Since =  given equation is exact.. e 2 2 = 2 x y e xy 2 + 2 ye xy y  y  x 2 2 2 2 N  M  = 2 xy 3 e xy + 2 ye xy and = 2 xy 3 e xy + 2 ye xy  y  x N  M  Since =  given equation is exact. e.F. is the required solution. i. z − zy e + 4 x jdx + z3y dy = c e 2 xy 2 2 z 3 2 e xy i.Example –2 Solve : dy y cos x + sin y+ y + =0 dx sin x + x cos y + x >> The given equation is put in the form. Example – 3 Solve : y 2 e xy + 4 x 3 dx + 2 xye xy − 3 y 2 dy = 0 >> Let M = y 2 e xy + 4 x 3 and N = 2 x y e xy − 3 y 2 2 2 2 2 N  M  ∴ = y 2  xy xy +e xy y . the  y  x The solution is M dx + N  y dy= c 2 2 2 2 j i.) 2 20 . e. y  2 + x 4 − y 3 = c y 2 Thus e xy + x 4 − y 3 = c.. Equations reducible to the exact form Sometimes the given differential equation which is not an exact equation can be transformed into an exact equation by multiplying with some function (factor) known as the integrating factor (I.

Suppose that..The procedure to find such a factor is as follows. for the equation M dx + N dy = 0  M  N ≠ . 4 21 . then we take their difference.  y  x If 1  M  N 1  M  N − = f x or − =g y N   y x M   y x f x dx − g y dy then e z bg or e F G H I bg J K zbg F G H I b J g K is an integrating factor. (The equation is not exact. 2 F G H I J K bg z dx 2 f x dx log e z bg = e x = e z log x = e z x  = x 2 Multiplying the given equation by x 2 we now have.e. M = 4 x 3 y + 3 x 2 y 2 − x 3 and N = x 4 + 2 x 3 y Solution is given by M dx + N = c y dy Thus ( z4 x y + 3x y 3 4 3 2 z 2 2 z − x ) dx + z dy = c 0 3 x4 i. Example – 4 Solve : (4 xy + 3 y 2 − x ) dx + x x + 2 y dy = 0 Let M = 4 xy + 3 y 2 − x and N = x  + 2 y x 2 + 2 xy x =  M  N = 4 x + 6 y and = 2 x + 2 y. is the required solution. x     y x Now 1  M  N 2 + 2 y 2 x − = = = f x N   y x x + 2 y x x f x dx 2 b g Hence e z bg is an integrating factor.)  y  x  M  N Consider − = 2 x + 4 y = 2 + 2 y close to N. x y + x y − = c.

.. EXERCISES: Solve the following differential equations 1. z2 x y e z 3 − y4 z bg + y jdx + z dy = c 0 3 Thus x 2 y 3 − xy 4 + xy 3 = c. M = 2 xy − y 2 + y and N = 3 x 2 − 4 xy + 3 x M  N = 2 x − 2 y + 1 = 6x − 4y + 3  y  x  M  N − = −4 x + 2 y − 2 = −2 2 x − y + 1 near to M. b b g 2 1 FM  I −2 b − y + 1g 2  N y Gy −  J = y bxx− y +1g= − y = gbg MH  xK 2 − g y dy Hence I. M = 2 x y 3 − y 4 + y 3 and N = 3 x 2 y 2 − 4 xy 3 + 3 xy 2 The solution is M dx + N y dy = c i.     y x Now.Example – 5 Solve : y 2 x − y + 1 dx + x 3 x − 4 y + 3 dy = 0 g b g >> Let M = y b − y + 1g N = xb − 4 y + 3g 2x and 3x i. [4x3 y2+ y cos (xy)] dx+[2x4y+x cos (xy)] dy =0 3xy 2 + x − 2 y + 3dx + x 2 y dy = 2 + y . F = e z e 2 z dy y y = e 2 log y = e log  = y 2 2 Multiplying the given equation with y 2 we now have. e. e. is the required solution. y = 1  x dy 1 4 x + y + 1 dx + x + 3 y + 2 = 0 y x dy 5x 2 + 2 y 3 + 6 y + 3 + xy 2  = 0 given that y (1) = 2 23 dx x dy b g ANSWERS: 22 . cos x (ey +1)dx + sin x eydy = 0 2.

S. F. part of the solution to finally arrive at the required solution. z is the solution of the linear equation (1). P P We equip with the I. The solution can simply be written by interchanging the role of x and y. The expression for P and Q is to be written by simple comparison. P P i.  2 where P and Q are functions of y is called a linear equation in x.1 xy + 1 c sin e = 2 4 y 2 + sin xy = c x x 2 y2 x 2 3 + − 2 xy + 3 x − y 2 = 1 2 2 2 2 x y 4 + xy 3 + xy 2 = c 2 5 6 + x 4 y 3 + 3 x 4 y = 15 x Session – 6 Linear Equations A differential equation of the form dy + Py = Q dx P P y e z dx = Q e z dx dx + c bg …(1) where P and Q are functions of x only is called a linear equation in ‘y’. e z dx or e z dy  We assume the associated solution and we only need to tackle the R. An equation of the form : dx + Px = Q dy .H.. x e z dy = Q e z dy dy + c z is the solution for the linear equation (2) Working procedure for problems • • • • The given equation must be first put in the form conformal to the standard form of the linear equation in x or y. 23 . e...

4 Solve : 2 y' cos x + 4 y sin x = sin 2 x given that y  3 = 0 >> Dividing the given equation by 2cos x. (1) z x = z x sec x + c tan z bg 24 .. sin x dx + c i.. where P = cot x and Q = cos x dx P cot log ∴ e z dx = e z x dx = e z (sin x  sin x = P P The solution is y e z dx = Q e z dx dx + c i.. y sec 2 x = sin x. e. we have dy + tan x = sin x  sin 2 x = 2 cos x sin x 2 y dx dy This is of the form + Py = Q. y sin x = cos x. is the required solution. z sin 2 x y sin x = z dx + c 2 z Thus y sin x = Example – 2 − cos 2 x + c .Example – 1 Solve : >> dy + y cot x = cos x dx dy + y cot x = cos x is of the form dx dy + Py = Q. e. sec 2 x dx + c i.. y sec 2 Thus y sec 2 x = sec x dx + c. ... e. is the general solution. Consider y  3 = 0  That is y = 0 when x =  3  Hence (1) becomes 0 = 2 + c or c = −2 Thus y sec 2 x = sec x − 2. where P = 2 tan x and Q = sin x dx pdx 2 2 e z = e z tan x dx = e z log (sec x ) = sec 2 x P P The solution is y e z dx = Q e z dx dx + c bg i. e.. is the required particular solution..

tan + Equations reducible to linear form dy Form (i): f '  + P f  Q.. f '  + P f x = Q.Example – 3 Solve : (1 + y 2 )dx +  − tan −1 y = 0 x dy >> We have or dx tan −1 y − x = dy 1 + y2 dx x tan −1 y + = dy 1 + y 2 1 + y 2 dx This is of the form + Px = Q dy Here P = −1 1 tan −1 y P and Q = . e z dy = e tan y 1 + y2 1 + y2 P P The solution is given by x e z dy = Q e z dy dy + c i. = e tan −1 Thus x e tan −1 y  −1 y − 1 c. where P and Q are function of x. x e tan −1 y = tan z+ yy e 1 2 −1 z tan −1 y dy + c 1 dy = dt 1 + y2 By putting tan −1 y = t. we obtain ∴ x e tan −1 y = t e t dt + c −1 z y y i. dx dx Similarly. where P and Q are function of y can be x dy reduced to the linear form by putting f  t x = bg 25 .. y y = dx dy dt We put f  t ∴ f '  = y = y dx dx dt The given equation becomes + Pt = Q which is a linear equation in t. e. e. is the required solution. by parts. x e tan = t e t − e t + c.

t = − n which is a linear equation in t. 1 P 1 Q dx dx Similarly + P x = Q x n . sec y . or dy dt 1 dy 1 dt = or n = dx dx 1 dx y dx − n 1 dt + P t=Q − n 1 dx dt + − n . sec x = z x dx + c cos 2 z i.e. sec x dx + c Thus sec y sec x = sin x + c. 26 ... Example . is the required solution. e.4 dy + tan x = cos y cos2 x dx >> Dividing the given equation by cos y we have dy sec y tan y + sec y tan x = cos2 x 1   dx Solve : tan y Now... where we have.. where P and Q are functions of y is called dy Bernoulli' s equation x..  1 y n dx Put y1− n = t ∴ − n− n 1 y Hence (1) becomes. We first divide by x n and later put x 1− n = t to obtain a linear equation in t. put sec y = t ∴ sec y tan y Hence (1) becomes dy dt = dx dx dt + t tan x = cos2 x dx dt This equation is of the form + Pt = Q.dy + P y = Q yn  where P and Q are functions of x. sec y sec x = cos x . dx P = tan x and Q = cos 2 x P tan log ∴ e z dx = e z x dx = e z (sec x  = sec x P P The solution is t e z dx = Q e z dx dx + c z i. dx This equation is called as Bernoulli' s equation y. Form (ii) : We first divide the equation throughout by y n to obtain 1 dy + P y1− n = Q .

Example – 5 dy y + = y2 x dx x >> Dividing the given equation by y 2 we have. dx P ∴ e z dx = e = e − log x = P The solution is t e z dx 1 x P = Q e z dx dx + c i.. Thus 1 1 = − x . 1 dy 1 + =x 2 y dx y x Solve : 1 −1 dy dt =t ∴ 2 = y y dx dx − dt t Hence (1) becomes + =x dx x dt t or − = −x dx x Put This equation is a linear equation of the where P = −1 and Q = − x x − 1 z dx x   1  dt + Pt = Q. dx + c x x z z 1 = − x + c. is the required solution.e. dy 1 dx 1 − y = y3 2 x dy x 1 −1 dx dt Put =t ∴ 2 = x x dy dy  1 27 . t . xy Example – 6 dy Solve : xy + xy 2  = 1 1 dx dx >> Consider = x y + x 2 y3 dy dx or − xy = x 2 y 3  Dividing by x 2 we get.

x 2 F I G J H K EXERCISES Solve the following equations dy 1 + y cot x = 4 x cosec x . e. dy Hence (1) becomes − P P The solution is t e z dy = Q e z dy dy + c P y P = y and Q = − y 3 ∴ e z dy = e z dy = e y 2 2 i. t e y2  2 2 2 ey  y2 2 Thus = 2 ey  1 − + c . t e y 2 2  2 = − y3 e z z y2  2 dy + c Put y 2 = u ∴ y dy = du Also y 2  dy = y 2 du or y 3 dy = 2u du y ∴ t ey 2  2 = −2 u e u du+c = −2 e u − e u  c . u + 2 z i. e. is the required solution. on integration by parts.. y  0  2 = dx dy 2 2 x sin − 2 y = tan x dx 3 dy + y − x − xy tan x dx = 0 x dy y 4 + = x 2 y 6 dx x 5 y 4 − 2 xy + 3 x 2 dy = 0  dx Answers: 1y sin x = 2 x 2 − 2   2 2 cot x = log tan x + c y 3 y cos x = cos x + x sin x + c x 1 5 4 5 5 − 2 = c x y 2x 5 2 = y 3  + 2 x x b g 28 ..dt dt − t y = y 3 or + t y = − y3 dy dy dt This equation is of the form + P t = Q where.

t x and eliminate c. E.Session – 7 Orthogonal Trajectories Definition : If two family of curves are such that every member of one family intersects every member of the other family at right angles then they are said to be orthogonal trajectories of each other.T. 2 x − − y=0 dx dy dy * F I G J H K or 2 x dx + y dy = 0 ⇒ 2 x dx + y dy = c y2 2 i. c) = 0. we prefer to take logarithms first and then differentiate w. z z 29 . 2 x − y = 0 is the D.. y. of the given family.t θ .t x we have. x + = c or 2 x 2 + y 2 = 2c = k   say 2 Thus 2 x 2 + y 2 = k is the required O.2y − y2  1 dy dx = 0 or 2 x y − y2 = 0 2 dx x dy i. dy dx * Replace by − and solve the equation. dr d *  fter ensuring that the given parameter is elimiated we replace by − r 2 d dr and solve the equation. dy x . differentiate w..r. Working procedure for problems Case – i : (Cartesian family) Given f (x.r. e. y2 >> Consider = 4a x Now differentiating (1) w. Example –1 Find the Orthogonal trajectories of the family of parabolas y2 = 4 a x.r.e. dx dy dx dx Replacing by − we have. dx dy Case – ii : (Polar family) * Given an equation in r and θ .

Here b = 2c z z z Example-3 Show that the family of parabolas y2 = 4a (x+a) is a self orthogonal.. e. >> Consider y2 = 4a (x+a) …. 2 x 2 y y1 dy + 2 = 0 where y1 = 2 dx a b + x −y y i. r.(1) Differentiating w. = + a 2 log x + c 2 2 2 2 or x + y − 2 a 2 log x − b = 0 is the required orthogonal trajectories. x dx ⇒ y dy = − x dx + a 2 +c x y2 − x 2 i. 30 . dividing (2) by (3) we get. x yy x y = 21 or 2 = 1 2 2 2 y x −a y x −a Now. 2 = 2 1 a b + x2 − y2 Also from (1) 2 − 1 = 2 a b + 2 2 2 x −a −y or = 2 2 a b + Now. let us replace y1 = ∴ x 1 dx = − 2 y dy x −a 2    1   2 3   F I G J H K dy − dx by dx dy −2 − a 2  x or y dy = by separating the variables. a2 b +  x2 y2 >> We have 2 + 2 =1 a b + Differentiating w.Example – 2 Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of curves x2 y2 + 2 = 1 where is the parameter. we have dy yy dy 2y = 4 a ∴ a = 1 where y1 = dx 2 dx Substituting this value of ‘a’ in (1) we have..t x. t x we have. e.r.

of the orthogonal family which is same as (2) being the D.. e. of the given family. cos  r dr 1 + sin  ⇒ + d c = r cos  i. e. 1  31 .T.  3 (3) the D...y 2 = 2 yy1 x + F yy I or y = 2 xy + yy G 2J H K 1 1 2 2 1 2 Thus we have. d dr 1 d cos  −r 2 = r dr 1 + sin  d  cos  i.r. Now replacing y1 by −1 / y1 (2) becomes F1I F1I − − y = 2 x G J + yG J or y = y y HK HK 1 1 2 yy1 −2 x y + 2 y1 y1 i.. z r+ sin  1  r+ sin  1  = b or =b cos2  − sin 2  1  Thus r = b− sin is the required O.E. Example –4 Find the O. log r + sec   tan   c d + d = i. − r = dr 1 + sin  1 + sin  − dr or d = by separating the variables.. log r + log (sec  tan + log (sec  = c + )  F I G J H K z z z i. e.E. + 2 x y1 = y . e. e. of the family r =a(1+sin θ ) >> We have r = a (1 + sin θ ) ⇒ log r = log a + log (1 + sin   Differentiating w.t θ we have. e. y = 2 xy1 + yy1   2 This is the D.. 1 dr cos  =0+ r d 1 + sin  dr d Replacing by − r 2 we get. log r b  tan sec  = log b (say) sec + g F 1 sin I 1 = b ⇒ rG + J H  cos  cos  K cos i. of the given family.E.. Thus the family of parabolas y2 = 4a(x+a) is self orthogonal.....T..

T.t θ we have..e. y is 2 4. 3.Example – 5 Find the O. log( r sin n  = log b (say) ) ∴ r n sin n  b. k 4. T. r = a sec  2 5r =a + cos  1  ANSWERS 1x 2 + 2 y 2 = c 2. of the family rn cos nθ = an >> We have rn cos n θ = an ⇒ n log r + log (cos n = n log a ) Differentiating w. r = b cosec 2  2 5r = b − cos  1  32 .. e. log r + log (sin n  = c ) n or n log r + log (sin n  = nc ) n i. d dr F G H I J K 1 d −r 2 = tan n  r dr ∴ F I G J H K z z or − r d = tan n  dr d dr = by separating the variables. e. = EXERCISES Find the orthogonal trajectories of the following family of curves 1y = ax 2 2x 2 + y 2 + 2 + c = 0 y being the parameter. = tan n  r d cos n  r d dr d Replacing by − r 2 we have. x 2 + y 2 + 2 kx + c = 0  is arbitrary. n dr − n sin n  1 dr + = 0 i. Show that the family of parabolas x 2 = 4 a + a a self orthogonal.r. tan n  − r dr ⇒ + cot n   c d = r 1 i. is the required O.

In this chapter we first discuss reduction formulae and later discuss the method of tracing cartesian and polar curves. Reduction formula for sin n x dx and Let In = sin x dx n −1 z π /2 0 zsin x dx dx where n is a positive integer n z =z sin n x . 33 . We discuss certain standard reduction formulae in the form of indefinite integrals and the evaluation of these with standard limits of integration. In all these applications reduction formulae plays a vital role in the evaluation of definite integrals. length or perimeter.LESSON – 2 Session .   dx (where m and n are non negative f x g x z n z m z n z m integers) to lower degree.1 Introduction : Part – C Integral Calculus We are familiar with various methods of integration. Reduction Formulae Reduction formulae is basically a recurrence relation which reduces integral of functions n of higher degree in the form of f x  dx. surface area of plane curves and volume of solids. sin x dx = u v dx   say z u vdx z z v dx = uz − zv dx.   dx (where m and n are non negative f x g x Reduction formulae is basically a recurrence relation which reduces integral of functions n of higher degree in the form of f x  dx. definite integrals and the associated application of finding the area under a curve. The successive application of the recurrence relation finally end up with a function of degree 0 or 1 so that we can easily complete the integration process. By knowing the shape of a given curve we disucss application of definite integrals such as area.u' dx ∴ I = sin xcos x  z cos x  − 1 − −  −  n sin x  cos x dx = − sin x  x +  − 1sin x  cos n cos x dx z = − sin x  x +  − 1sin x − sin x ) dx cos n z 1 = −sin x  x +  − 1sin x dx −  − 1 cos n n sin z z x dx n n −1 n−2 n −1 n−2 2 n −1 n−2 2 n −1 n−2 n We have the rule of integration by parts.

of (1). In = − sin n −1 x cos x + n − 1In − 2 −  − 1n n I i. e. cos x +  − 1n − 2 n n I ∴ In = sin n x dx = z −sin n −1 x . cos x n − 1 + In − 2 n n Illustration    1 This is the required reduction formula. I4 = + + I0 4 4 2 2 I0 = sin 0 x dx = 1 dx = x Thus I4 4 3 R S T U V W We cannot find I0 from (1). 34 .S.i. In 1 +  − 1= − sin n −1 x .  2  We use this recurrence relation to find In − 2 by simply replacing n by (n − 2). cos x n O+ n −1 I P n Q 2  0 n−2 But cos (π / 2) = 0 = sin 0 Thus In = n −1 In − 2 n . But basically we have z z −sin x cos x 3 3x = z x dx = sin − sin x cos x + +c 4 8 8  2 0 Corollary : To evaluate >> Let In = zsin n n x dx 2  0 zsin x dx Equation (1) must be established first.H..e. ∴ I4 = sin 4 x dx = z z −sin 3 x cos x 3 + I2 4 4 We need to apply the result (1) again by taking n = 2 −sin 3 x cos x 3 −sin x cos x 1 i.  To find sin 4 x dx i >> Comparing with L. we need to take n = 4 and use the established result.e. ∴ from (1) In L sin = −M N n −1 x .

n−3 In − 4 n−2 n −1 n − 3 Hence In =  In − 4 n n−2 n−5 Similarly from (2) In − 4 = In −6 n−4 n −1 n − 3 n − 5 Hence In =   In −6 again by back substitution. The result is as follows. n n−2 n−4 Continuing like this the reduction process will end up as below. n −1 n − 3 n − 5 2 In =    I1 if n is odd   n n−2 n−4 3 n −1 n − 3 n − 5 1 =    I0 if n is even   n n−2 n−4 2 i. sin x + n n 1 I n f x dx f a dx zsin x dx = zcos x dx by the property z =z − x n n−2 2  0 n 2  0 n a 0 a 0 n −1 z 35 . e.. In − 2 = But I1 = and I0 0 = zsin x dx = − cos x = − − 1 1  = z sin x dx = zdx =  = x 2 2  0 2  0 2  0 0 2  0 2  0 Thus we have. − cos z x dx = cos x . 2  0 n n n 2 R− 1  − 3 n − 5  if n is odd | n n − 2 n − 4 3 zsin x dx = S − 1 n − 3 n − 5 1  |n n  − 2 n − 4   if n is even  2 2 T n Note : The reduction formula for cos n x dx can be established in a similar way.

= − − I1 4 2 1 1 4 2 5 n z and the result is as follows. put tan x = t ∴ sec 2 x dx = dt Now In = t n − 2 dt −In − 2 = tan n −1 x Thus In = − In − 2 n −1 Next. 36 . z =z tan =z tan =z tan z x . where n is a positive integer.Session – 2 Reduction formula for tan n x dx and Let In = tan n x dx n−2 n−2 z   0 ztan n x dx. let In = ∴ In  4 0 n But tan (  / 4) = 1 and tan 0 = 0 Thus In = 4  0 ztan x dx L x O − I  by using (1) tan =M Nn − 1 P Q n −1 4  n−2 0 ztan n x dx = 1 − In − 2 n −1   2 or In + In − 2 = 1 or nn +1 + In −1  1  I = n −1 Illustration (i) To find tan 5 x dx tan 4 x >> I5 = tan x dx = − I3  using (1). by 4 5 z R U S V T W But I = z x dx = z x dx = log (sec x ) tan tan tan x tan x ∴z x dx = tan − + log (sec x ) + c 4 2 Note : The reduction formula for z x dx can be established in a similar way cot tan 4 x tan 2 x i.. tan 2 x dx = tan n − 2 x sec 2 x − 1dx x sec 2 n−2 n−2 z x dx − z tan x dx x sec 2 x dx − In − 2 t n −1 − In − 2 n −1 1   For the first term. e.

sec 0 = 1..In = cot n x dx = z − cot n −1 x − In − 2 n −1 3.. e. tan 0 = 0 / tan / Thus z n− 2  2 n−2 sec x dx = + In − 2 n −1 n −1 n F I G J H K  2  Illustrations (i) To find sec 5 x dx >> I5 = sec 5 x dx = sec 3 x tan x 3 + I3  using (1). In = sec n −2 x  x − tan x .  − 2 n −3 x sec x tan x dx tan n sec = sec = sec n−2 n−2 = sec n − 2 z x tan x −  − 2sec n z x tan x −  − 2sec n z x tan x −  − 2sec n − 2 x tan 2 x dx n n−2 n z x  2 x − 1 sec dx x dx +  − 2sec n − 2 x dx n z In = sec n −2 x tan x −  − 2n +  − 2n − 2 n I n I n−2 x tan x +  − 2 i. = + + I1 4 4 2 2 But I1 = sec x dx = log (sec x + tan x ) z z z R S T U V W 37 . e. Reduction formula for sec n x dx where n is a positive integer >> Let In = sec n x dx n−2 z =z sec z x  2 dx sec Integrating by parts we have. I  +  − 2 = sec 1 n n I n sec n− 2 x tan x n−2 Thus In = sec n x dx = + In − 2 n −1 n −1 z F I G J H K n−2 Next let In = ∴ In 4  0 2 zsec n x dx 4  L n− x tan x O + F − 2 I I sec n =M P G− 1 J n N n −1 Q H K 0 4 / 0 n−2 …(1) But sec (  4) = 2  (  4) = 1. by 4 4 sec 3 x tan x 3 sec x tan x 1 i.

Let I m. − cosec n − 2 x cot x n−2 In = cosec x dx = + In − 2 n −1 n −1 z n F I G J H K Reduction formula for sin m x cos n x dx and where m and n are positive integers. = − + sin m − 2 x cos n + 2 x dx n +1 n +1 m −1 n +1 sin x cos x m − 1 =− + sin m − 2 x cos n x cos 2 x dx n +1 n +1 m −1 n +1 sin x cos x m − 1 =− + sin m − 2 x cos n x (1 − sin 2 x  dx n +1 n +1 sin m −1 x cos n +1 x m − 1 m −1 =− + sin m − 2 x cos n x dx − sin m x cos n x dx n +1 n +1 n +1 z z z z z 38 . n m −1 n +1 n +1 m−2 sin m −1 x cos n +1 x m − 1 i..u' dx uv v v z − cos x Here z dx = z x cos dx = v sin by putting cos x = t n +1 Fcos x I− z cos x  − 1 x cos x dx − Now I = (sin x  Gn + 1 J − n + 1 m sin H K n n +1 m.sec 3 x tan x 3 3 ∴ sec x dx = + sec x tan x + log (sec x + tan x ) + c 4 8 8 5 z (ii) To evaluate 2 4  0 R 2j U2 2 4 |e + 0|= + = >> I S1 V3 3 3 3 3 | | T W Note : The reduction formula for z cosec x dx can be established in 4 zsec 2 4 x dx 0 e2 j + 2 I = 2 2 = + 3 3 n a similar way and the result is as follows. n = sin m x  n x dx  cos m −1 n z Session – 3  /2 0 zsin m x cos n x dx z =z sin x  x cos x  = z dx   sin dx uv say We have z dx = u z dx − z dx. e.

n = + Im − 2n − Im. n = −sin m +1 x . n ∴ Im. e. n L O M P N Q m L + n O 1 −sin x cos x +  − 1 = m I M+ 1 P n + 1 n N Q sin x cos x m − 1 = z x cos x dx = − sin + I m+n m+n m −1 n +1 m − 2 n m n m −1 n +1 m n m m −2 n n −1 Note : If we decompose sin x cos x = sin x cos x cos u = cos n −1 x. v = sin m x cos x we can obtain Im.  2 zsin m x cos n x dx =  i 2  0 z 0 Illustrations  4 1 8 2 3  sin 5 x cos 4 x dx = = 9 × 7 × 5 × 3 × 1 315 7  ii 2  zsin 0 x cos 5 x dx =  2 6  4 2 4  12 × 10 × 8 × 6 × 4 × 2 = 1 120  iii  iv 2  zsin 6 x cos 5 x dx = x cos6 x dx =   4  8 5  2 3 1 = 11 × 9 × 7 × 5 × 3 × 1 693 2  0 zsin 8   3   7   5   5 3 1 1 5 = 14 × 12 × 10 × 8 × 6 × 4 × 2 2 4096 Session – 4 Note for problems : Basic properties of definite integrals are the prerequisites for working problems on reduction formulae. Im. n n +1 n +1 n +1 m −1 1 i. This is known as Walli’s rule. n −2 m+n m+n …(1) x and integrate by parts taking 2   Note: m − 1 − 3 n − 1n − 3 m     ×k  + n + n − 2 + n − 4 m  m  m   0 where k = π / 2 when m and n are even.. n 1 + = −sin m −1 x cosn +1 x +  − 1m − 2 m I n n +1 n +1 Im. Example –1 Evaluate  0  0 x z sin 8 x dx Let I = x sin 8 x dx z 39 . cos n −1 x n − 1 + Im.−sin m −1 x cosn +1 x m − 1 m −1 Im.

z We have the property f  = f  − x  x dx a dx 0 0  8  0 8 a a 0  0 8  0 8  0 8 2  0 8 z 7 5 3 1  Hence I =      by reduction formula. >> Let I = z cos 3 x sin 6 x dx Evaluate  /6 0 4 2 6 / 0 4 2 sin 6 x = 2 sin 3 x cos 3 x  sin  = 2 sin 2 (  2  cos  ∴I= 2 zcos 3x sin 3x cos 3xdx i. 8 6 4 2 2 2 35 Thus I = 256 Example –2 zcos 3x sin 6 x dx using reduction formula.. 3 N 6× 4 ×2 2P 8× Q 2 / 0 2 6 2 / 0 2 6 Thus I = 5 192 40 . I = 4 z 3 x cos 3 x dx sin 6 / 0 4 2 6 / 0 2 6 Put 3x = y ∴ dx = dy  3 If x = 0y = 0  If x =  6 y =  2   ∴I=4 zsin y cos y dy = 4 zsin y cos y dy 3 3 4 L  5    3  O 1  1 I= M  by reduction formula. e.z ∴ I = z − x   − x  =z − x  x dx   sin  dx   sin =  sin x dx − z sin x dx x z I =  sin x dx − I or 2 I = 2 z  sin x dx by a property.

8×6×4×2 2 5 4 a Thus I1 = 8 41 .. 2 ax − x 2 = 4 a 2 sin 2  4 a 2 sin 4  − = 4 a 2 sin 2 1 − sin 2  = 4 a 2 sin 2 cos2 = 2 a sin     cos 2  =0 ∴ I1 = z4a 2 sin 4 2 a sin  4 a sin     cos  cos d 6 = 32 a 4 2  0 zsin cos2 d     5   3 1 = 32 a 4   by reduction formula. by 6×4×2 2  Thus I = 32 Hence I = 2a 0 Evaluate (i) >> Let I1 = zx 2 2 ax − x 2 dx (ii) 2 ax − x 2 dx 2a 0 z 2ax − x Example – 4 x 2 dx 2 2a 0 zx 2 Put x = 2 a sin 2 ∴dx = 4 a sin    cos d   varies from 0 to  2  Also i. e.Example – 3 Using reduction formula find the value of x 1 z − x  dx >> Let I = z − x  x 1 1 2 2 3 2 0 1 0 2 2 3 2 dx Put x = sin ∴ dx = cos d and varies from 0 to  2  3 − x 2 2 =  2 3  = cos3  1 cos  2 2  0 ∴ I= zsin 2 cos3    cos d = 2  0 zsin 2 cos 4   d    1 3 1    reduction formula.

ii) I2 = 2  0 z 4 a 2 sin 4  a sin    4 cos d 2 a sin cos  2  0 = 8 a2 zsin 4 4 3 1    8a 2    by reduction formula. =  2  If  Also (1 + x 2 ) 4 = + tan 2 4 =  2 4 = sec8  1  sec  4 2 tan  / 2 tan 4  / ∴ I= sec 2   d = d 8 6  0 sec  =  0 sec  = z z 2 / sin 4   4 d = sin 4  2   cos d cos  0 0  1 3  1  Hence I =  by reduction formula. 6×4×2 2  Thus I = 32 Exercises : = 2  zcos 6 z 1 zsin 2 x sin z 4  0  0 a 0 Evaluate the following integrals 4 4 x cos3 2 x dx x cos 2 x dx dx 7 3 za x4 2 − x2 1 x3 4 dx 1 2 4 0 + x  ∞ x6 5 dx 2 1 2 9 0 + x  z z Answers 1  128 1155 2  315 3 4  4  16  3 a 16 1 24 5  1 7 42 . d = 4 2 2 3 2 a Thus I2 = 2 Evaluate ∞ 0 Example – 5 z1 +xx dx  2 4 ∞ >> Let I = x4 dx 1 2 4 0 + x  z Put x = tan  dx = sec 2   ∴ d If x = 0 = 0  x = ∞ .

List of important points to be examined for tracing a cartesian curve f (x. The curve does not lie in the region whenever x or y is imaginary. θ ) = f ( r. 2. In such a case we can find the equations of tangents at the origin by equating the groups of lowest degree terms in x and y to zero. θ ) = 0 1. It is highly essential to known the shape of the curve to find its area. Also if f (x. Based on these features we can draw a rough sketch of the curve. 3. − y) then the curve is symmetrical about the origin. θ ) = f ( r.Session –5 Tracing of Curves Introduction : This topic gives an insight to the process of finding the shape of a plane curve based on its equation by examining certain features. The points of intersection of the curve with the x-axis is got by putting y = 0 and that with the y-axis is got by putting x = 0. Asymptotes : Asymptote of a given curve is defined to be the tangent to the given curve at infinity. If f ( r. 0) = 0 then the curve passes through the origin. List of important points to be examined for tracing a polar curve f ( r. 4. we need to vary the parameter t suitably to take a note of the variations in x and y so that the curve can be drawn accordingly. Equating the coefficient of highest degree terms in x to zero we get asymptotes parallel to the x-axis and equating the coefficient of highest degree terms in y to zero we get asymptotes parallel to the y-axis. Symmetry : If the given equation has even powers of x only then the curve is symmetrical about the y axis and if the given equation has even powers of y only then the curve is symmetrical about the x-axis. Symmetry : f ( r. Region of existence : Region of existence can be determined by finding out the set of permissible (real) values x and y. π −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the line θ = π / 2 (positive y-axis) 43 . y) = f (y. −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the initial line θ = 0 and θ = π . Note : In the case of a parametric curve : x = x (t) and y = y (t). If f (x. x) then the curve is symmetrical about the line y = x. surface area and volume of solids. y) = f ( −x. In otherwords these are lines touching the curve at infinity. y) = 0 1. length. By examining these features we can draw a rough sketch of the curve. Special points on the curve : If f (0.

Also coefficient of the highest degree term in x is x3 whose coefficient is 1 ≠ 0. 4. Hence x=a is an asymptote. This implies that there is no asymptote parallel to the x-axis. If it gives two values then the curve passes through the pole twice.If f ( r.axis. 1. 2. (This curve is known as cissoid) We observe the following features of the curve. (origin) 2. π / 2 −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the line θ = π / 4 (the line y = x) If f ( r. By examining these features we can draw a rough sketch of the curve Example – 1 Trace the curve y2 (a −x) = x3. Special points : The curve passes through (0. Special points : We can tabulate a set of values of r for convenient values of θ . Curve passing through the pole : If r = 0 gives a single value of θ say θ 1 between 0 and 2π then the curve passes through the pole once. The given equation is ay2 −xy2=x3. θ = θ 1 is a tangent to the curve at the pole. θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the pole. 3 Asymptote : If r → ∞ as  →  then the line   is an asymptote. a > 0 >> We have y2 (a −x) = x3. 3. The lowest degree term is ay2 and ay2 = 0 ⇒ y = 0 which is the equation of x-axis. θ ) = f ( r. Region of existence : y2 = x3 / (a −x) ∴ y = x 3 a − x. These give some specific points through which the curve passes. θ ) = f ( r. ⇒ the curve is symmetrical about x. Symmetry : The equation contain even powers of y. 44 . = 0 0 4. then the 5. β ) i. 0). Hence x-axis is the tangent to the curve at the origin. θ ) = f ( −r.e. 3 π / 2 −θ ) then the curve is symmetrical about the line θ = 3 π / 4 (the line y = −x) If f ( r. coefficient of y2 being a −x to zero we get x=a which is a line parallel to the y-axis. α < θ < β curve does not exist in the region between θ = α and θ = β . Asymptotes : Equating the co-efficient of the highest degree term in y i.e. Region of existence : If r is imaginary for θ ∈ (α. This means that the curve meets the x-axis and y-axis at the origin. Putting y = 0 we get x = 0 and vice versa.

Hence y is real if x > 0 and x < a which implies that the curve lies in the interval 0 < x < a. x > a. 0) Hence we say that the curve intersects x-axis at (0. x = a. x > 0. Since there are two tangents. x < a. Further as x increases y also increases. Asymptotes : The co-efficient of the highest degree term in x being x3 is −1 and hence there is no asymptote parallel to the x-axis.This is positive if x > 0. a −x > 0 or x < 0. Next putting y =0 we get x2 (a + x)= 0  x=0. The shape of the curve is as follows Note : Since the curve meets the coordinate axes at the origin only. Special points : The curve passes through the origin. a −x < 0 i. Also the coefficient of the highest 45 .axis. Since a > 0 the second case is not possible. (This curve is known as ‘Strophoid’. x < 0. ⇒ 2. 0) and ( −a. − The points are (0.) We observe the following features of the curve. Symmetry : The equation contain even powers of y. Example – 2 Trace the curve y2 (a −x) = x2 (a + x).e. 0) only. the origin is called a ‘node’. 0) Also putting x = 0 we get ay2 = 0 or y = 0 and the point is (0.0) ( −a. 0) and intersects the y-axis at (0. a > 0 >> y2 (a −x) = x2 (a + x) 1. The equation of the curve can be put in the form a (y2 −x2) −x y2 −x3 = 0 Equating the lowest degree terms to zero we have a (y2 −x2) = 0 Hence y = + x which are the tangents to the curve at the origin. the curve is symmetrical about x. the origin called a ‘cusp’ with x-axis as the common tangent. 3.

Asymptotes : The coefficient of the highest degree terms in x and y are respectively 1 and a.axis. a > 0 We observe the following features of the curve. The equation of the curve is ay2 −ax2 + x3 = 0. Since these are constants. Hence the curve meets the x-axis at (a. Symmetry : The equation contain even powers of y and hence the curve is symmetrical about x. 0) and meets the y-axis at (0. 4.0) only. If y = 0 then x2 (a − x) = 0. The curve lies between x = 0 and x = a. there are no asymptotes. x > 0 and x < a or 0 < x < a. a When a+x < 0 and also when a −x < 0 y is imaginary. y = 0. a −x = 0 gives x = a. x = a and if x = 0. 2.degree in y being a −x. Example – 3 Trace the curve a y2 = x2 (a −x). 0). Hence we can say that the curve lies between the lines x = −a and x = + a The shape of the curve is as follows. Special points : The curve passes through (0. Hence x = a is the only asymptote which is a line parallel to the y-axis. 3. 4 Region of existence : y = x 2 a + x   − x. Equating the lowest degree terms to zero we have a (y2 −x2) = 0  y = + x These are the equations of the tangents to the curve at the origin. Region of existence : y = x  − x a a  y is positive if x > 0 and a −x > 0. 46 . 1. or x = 0.

f (r. )  f (r. 1. ) f ( −r. f (r. )  f (r. 2.   −  ) the curve is symmetrical about the line r = 0 gives sin 3 0  n or n   Taking values for n = 0.  ) the curve is not symmetrical about the pole. r increases numerically from 0 to a as varies from to  47 . Session – 6 Example – 4 Trace the curve r = a sin 3   (Three leaved rose)   We observe the following features of the curve.  ) the curve is not symmetrical about the initial line.6 we get the corresponding values of    and the curve passes through the pole for these values.  − f (r.The shape of the curve is as follows.. If 0 <    r is positive and r = a if r = 0 if r = −a if If <   If <   r is positive and r is negative and These observations implies that r increases from 0 to a as varies from 0 to r decreases from a to 0 as  varies from to . ….

−) the curve is symmetrical about the initial line. f (r. Example – 5 Trace the curve r2 = a2 cos 2  (Lemniscate of Bernoulli) >> We observe the following features of the curve.e.. When  = 0. r2 = a2 or r = + a. r = 0 gives a2 cos 2 = 0 i. cos2 = 0 2and    andare the tangents to the curve at the pole. ) the curve is symmetrical about the pole. 48 .) implies that the curve is symmetrical about the line  =  / 6 so that we conclude that there is a loop between the lines and  Similarly we can examine the path of the curve as  moves from  to and also from  to 2. Let us tabulate a set of values of r corresponding to some values of    r  0   a   0   −a   0   a   0  −a   0   a   0   −a The curve is symmetrical about and 32 The shape of the curve is as follows.Further f(r −) = f(r. ) = f (r. ) = f ( −r. f (r. 0). 0) and ( − a. Hence the curve meets the initial line at the points (+a.

Length : The length (s) of the arc of a curve between two specified points on it for various types of the curves are given by the following formulae. 1. Such a process is called rectification and the entire length of the curve is called as the perimeter of the curve.Since the curve is symmetrical about the initial line it is composed of two loops. bounded by a polar curve r = f (        and  is given by A=  2 1 and the lines r z d 2 2. Area : The area (A) bounded by a curve y = f (x) . Also r doesnot tend to infinity for any and hence there are no asymptotes. The shape of the curve is as follows. the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b is given by A= b x=a y zdx The area (A) between the curves y = f (x) and y = g (x) between x = a and x = b is given by A = f  − g  x dx x dx. r is real for   and . a a b z 1 2 b z The area (A) called the sectorial area. length and volume of solids of revolution The relevent formulae for finding these are as follows. (i) Cartesian curve y = f (x) or x = f (y) FI dy dx FI s = z 1 + G J dx or z 1 + G J dy HK dx HK dy b 2 d 2 x=a y=c 49 . Application to find area.

the volume of the solid is given by V =  x 2 dy y=c d z 50 .(ii) Parametric curve x = x (t). y = y (t) dx dy FI FI s = z G J + G J dt H K HK dt dt t2 t1 2 2 (iii) Polar curve r = f ( s=  2  = 1 z r2 + dr d F I d or s = z 1 + r F I dr GJ Gr J HK HK d d 2 r2 2 2 r = r1 3. Volume of revolution : The volume (V) of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve y = f (x) between the ordinates x = a and x = b. d c ds dx where = 1+ dy dy  2 FI GJ HK 2 In the case of a polar curve the surface area of revolution about the initial line is given by S=  2 ds 2  sin  2  r sin  d  r ds= d  = 1  1 z z ds dr where = r2 + d d FI GJ HK 2 4. the area of the surface (S) generated is given by S = 2  y ds= 2  y x=a a b z ds where = dx d z dy FI 1 + GJ HK dx b 2 ds dx dx Similarly the surface area of revolution about the y-axis is given by S= y=c ds 2 z2x ds = z x dy dy . If a curve is bounded by the ordinates x = a and x = b revolves once completely about the x-axis. Surface area : When a curve revolves about the x-axis a surface is generated and the same is called a surface of revolution. about the x-axis is given by V =  y 2 dx x=a b z Similarly if the axis of revolution is the y-axis.

 We tabulate x. a) and (0. 0). 51 . surface area and the volume. Since | cos   | < | and | sin  | < 1. 0) and ( − a. y corresponding to certain angles of in the interval [0. Also it meets the y-axis at the points (0. perimeter. We shall find its shape first and then determine the associated area. 2    x y  a 0   0 a  −a 0   0 −a  a 0 >> Let us consider its parametric equation : From the table we conclude that the curve meets the x-axis at the points (a. (a) Trace curve x 2/3 + y 2/3 = a 2/3 x = a cos3  y = a sin3 . − a).Also in the case of a polar curve r = f () the volume (V) of the solid generated is given by 2 3 r sin   d (revolution about the initial line) 3 2 3 V= r cos   d (revolution about the line   2) =  3 V= z z Session – 7 Application related to standard curves Example –1 The Astroid : Astroid is the curve represented by the equation x 2/3 + y 2/3 = a 2/3 Its parametric equation is x = a cos3 and y = a sin3 . we have | x | < a and | y | < a. Hence we infer that the entire curve lies within a circle of radius ‘a’ having origin as the centre.

i. a (c) Find the parameter of the astroid x 2/3 + y 2/3 = a 2/3 52 .. f (x. The curve astroid is symmetrical about the coordinate axes and hence the required area (A) is equal to four times the area in the first quadrant. y) . A = 4 y dx = 4 y 0 0 a z a z ddx d  dx = −3a cos 2   sin d We have x = a cos3  y = a sin 3 ∴  When x = 0 : a cos3 = 0 or cos3 = 0   x = 1 : a cos3 = a or cos3 = 1   ∴ A=4 0 0 =  2 a z sin 2  0 3 −3 a cos2  d   sin  4 = 12 a 2 zsin  2 d  cos  1 3  1  = 12 a 2   by reduction formula. y) = f (y. Taking a note of the values of x and y as advances from one quadrant to the other the shape of the curve is as follows. − y) . f (x. x) Hence the curve is symmetrical about the coordinate axes and also about the line y = x. y) = f (x. units.Also we have from the cartesian equation of the curve. f (x. 6×4×2 2 Thus the area ( A) enclosed is 3 2 8 sq.e. y) = f ( −x. (b) Find the area enclosed by astroid x 2/3 + y 2/3 = a 2/3 >> Note : In any problem on applications we need to draw the curve first by briefly examining the important features.

units. (d) Find the surface area of revolution of the astroid x 2/3 + y 2/3 = a 2/3 >> Because of symmetry the required surface area is equal to twice the surface area by the revolution of the first quadrant of the curve. 53 . ∴ FI FI dx dy l = 4 z G J +G J d d K d K H H = 4 z 9a cos   9a sin  sin + cos 2  2 2 =0 2  0 2 4 2 2 4 2 d  =4 2  0 sin z 9a cos  2 2 2 cos 2  sin 2  d   +  = 4 3a cos    sin d 0 2  z 0 z − Lcos 2O = − 3a  − cos 0 −3a1 − 1 6a = 6a M cos = − = N2 P Q = 6 a sin 2   d 2 / 2  0 Thus the perimeter of the curve is 6 a units. the perimeter (entire length) of the curve is four times its length in the first quadrant. 5 × 3×1 Thus the required surface area = 12  2 / 5 sq. a (e) Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the astroid x 2/3+y 2/3= a 2/3 >> Because of the symmetry the required volume (V) is equal to twice the volume of the solid generated by the curve in the first quadrant about the x-axis.>> Since the curve is symmetrical about the coordinate axes. ∴ S = 2 × 2  ds = 4  y y 0 0 = 2 2 z z ddsd  FI FI ds dx dy But = G J + G J = 3a cos   sin  d H K H K d d Hence S = 4 za sin 3a cos     sin d a 2  2  0 3 = 12  2 a 2  0 zsin 4 cos   d  3 = 12  2  a by reduction formula.

Hence the curve lies above the x-axis.   x y  0 0  a (  ) a  a  2a   a(3  ) A  2a 0 From the table we can conclude that the curve intersects the x-axis at x = 0 and 2a. Taking a note of the values of x and y as  advances in the interval [0. Also. 9 × 7 × 5 × 3 ×1 Thus the required volume of the solid is 32  3 / 105 cubic units. y for certain values of  in the interval [0. Imagine a wheel rolling on a straight line without slipping. The parametric equation of the cycloid can be in the following forms :  x = a  − sin  = a − cos  i  y 1  x = a  + sin  = a − cos  ii  y 1    = a  − sin  = a + cos  iii x  y 1    = a  + sin  = a + cos  iv x  y 1  (a) Trace the cycloid : x = a  − sin  = a − cos   y 1  >> Let us tabulate x. a = 6 3 a Example –2 Cycloid : Cycloid is a curve generated by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls on a fixed straight line known as the base. 2] where is inradians. we have y = a (1cos) and since | cos  | < 1 y is non negative. It is called an arch of the curve. 2] the shape of the curve is as follows.∴ V = 2 ×  2 dx = 2  y 2 y 0 0 0 2 6 z z ddxd  = 2  z sin −3a cos  d  a  sin  = 6 z a sin cos d  a a 2 2  3 2  0 7 2    6   4 2 1 by reduction formula. 54 . A fixed point on the rim of the wheel traces the cycloid.

A = 16 a 2    by reduction formula. e.. (c) Find the length of an arch the cycloid : x = a  − sin  y = a − cos   1  55 . t varies from 0 to    = ∴ A = 8a 2 sin 4 t dt = 8a 2  2 t =0  z zsin 4 t dt 3 1  i. e.. A = a− cos  a − cos d  1  1   = a2 = a2 2 0 z 2 0 1  z− cos  d  d z4 sin ( 2  4 2  t =0 Put  2 = t ∴ d  2 dt.(b) Find the area of an arch of the cycloid : x = a  − sin  y = a − cos   1  >> Area  A = 2 0 2  =0 zy ddxd  2 i. 4 2 2 Thus the area enclosed by an arch of the curve on its base is 3   a2 sq.units.

e. l = 2 0 2 2  =0 dx dy GI GI J HJ z F +F d HK d K d 2 2 2 2 2 1  z a − cos  + a sin  d  = z − 2 cos  cos  sin  d  a 1 + +  = a z 2 − cos  d  a z 2 sin (  2 d  1  = 2  2 2 O La cos ( = 2a z ( 2 d  − M sin  = 2 N 1 P Q 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 = −4 a   cos 0 −4 a 1 − 1 8a cos − = − = Thus the required length is 8a (d) Find the surface area generated by the revolution of an arch of the cycloid x = a ( −sin ). e. y = a (1 −cos ) about the x-axis. a 3 (e) Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the cycloid x = a  − sin  = a − cos   y 1  56 . a 3 Thus the required surface area is 64  2  sq.>> Length (l ) = i. 2 dt = 16  2  a 2 2  t=0 zsin 3 t dt 2 i... S = 32  2  by applying reduction formula. units. z ddsd  ds dx dy FI FI But = G J + G J = 2 a sin (  2) / d  H H d K d K ∴ S = 2 z− cos  a sin (  2) d  a1 2 / >> Surface area ( S 2  y = 0 2 2 2 2 0 =4 2 a 2 0 z2 sin  t=0 3 (  2) d  8  2 / = a 2 0 zsin 3 (  2) d  / Put  2 = t ∴ d  2 dt and t varies from 0 to   =  Hence S = 8  2 a sin z 3 t .

>> V =  zy ddx d  = z  − cos   a − cos d  a 1  1  =  z 2 sin 2 d  8  z   a o  t = a sin  2 d = 8   z   16  z   a 2 sin  2 d = a sin  2 d 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 3 2 0 2 3 3 2 0 6 3  0 6 3  0 6 2  0 Put  2 = t ∴ d  2 dt and t varies from 0 to  2  =  ∴ V = 16  3 a zsin 6 t . =   is a tangent to the curve at the pole.   r 57 .  2a   3a/2   a  a/2  0 Let us tabulate r for certain angles of . | r |< 2a and hence the curve lies with in the circle of radius 2a having its centre at the pole. r = 0 when  =  and hence the curve passes through the pole. Session –8 Example –3 Cardiode : r = a (1+cos ) (a) Trace the curve r = a (1+cos ) >> r = a (1+cos ) We observe the following features of the curve. ) = f (r. a 6 4 2 2 2 Thus the required volume is 5  a 3 cubic units. by reduction formula. (i) (ii) (iii) f (r. 2 dt 5 3 1  = 32  3     . −) and hence the curve is symmetrical about the initial line. Since | cos  | < |.

. (b) Find the area of the cardioide r = a (1 + cos ) >> Since the curve is symmetrical about the initial line.  1 i. 4 2 2 Thus the area enclosed is 3 2 / 2 sq. a (c) Find the perimeter of cardioide r = a (1 + cos ) >> Perimeter (length) = 2 (length of the upper half of the curve) i. 2 dt = 8 a 2 2  t=0 zcos 4 t dt 3 1  = 8 a 2    by reduction formula.It is evident thatas increases from 0 to . r decreases from 2a to 0. 58 . The shape of the curve is as follows. the total area (A) is twice the area above the initial line. e.. Now =2  ds ds dr where = r2 + d d 0d z FI GJ HK 2 ds = a 2 + cos 2 + a 2 sin 2  a 2 + cos  1  = 1  d = 2 a cos (  2   0 ∴ perimeter = 2 2 a cos(  2) d = 4 a / z sin L (/ 2) O 8a M1  P= N 2 Q  0 Thus the perimeter of the curve is 8a units. e. A = 2 r 2 d = a 2 + cos 2 d  1  20 0 = a2  0 z z  2 cos z2 cos ()] d = 4a z 2 2 2  0 4 (  2) d   Put  2 = t ∴ d  2 dt and t varies from 0 to  2  =  ∴ A = 4a 2 2  t=0 zcos 4 t. units.

units. 3 Example – 4 Regarding sphere as the solid generated by revolving a circle about a diameter. 2 dt   3 1 = 32  2  a by reduction formula. 5×3 Thus the required surface area is 32  2  sq. a 5 (e) Find the volume generated by the revolution of the curve r = a (1 + cos ) about the initial line. ds >> Surface area  2  sin  d  S = r d ds dr But = r2 + = 2 a cos (  2)  d d ∴ S = 2  a+ cos sin 2 a cos (  2) d  1     =0 2  2 z FI GJ HK 2 z = 4  z cos  sin (  2 cos(  2) cos(  2) d  a 2 2  2     0 =  0 = 16  2 cos 4  (  2 d  a  2 sin  Put  2 = t ∴ d  2 dt and t varies from 0 to  2. find the volume of a sphere of radius ‘a’ 59 . 2  2  3 >> V =  r 3 sin   d = a + cos 3 sin   1  d 3 0 3 0 Put t = 1 + cos  ∴ dt = −sin   d If  0 t = 2 and if   t = 0 = =  2 3 0 3 a 2 3 2 3 a ∴V = t dt  − = t dt 3 2 3 0 2 3 a = 3 4 2 0 3 z z z z L O= 2 a  − 0 8a t MP 3 4 = 3 4 NQ 3 Thus the required volume is 8a 3  cubic units.  =  2  t=0 z Hence S = 16  2 a zcos 4 t sin t .(d) Find the surface area of the revolution of the curve about the initial line.

a 3 Example – 5 Find the volume generated by the parabola y2 = 4 ax when revolved about the y-axis between y = 0 and y = 2a >> Required volume (V   x 2 dy = i.. z V = z dx = z − x  y  a dx Volume V =  y 2 dx a 2 a 2 −a −a 2 a −a = a 2 x − 3  = 4  3  x 3 a 3 Thus the required volume is 4  3  cubic units. a 5 Example – 6 Find the perimeter of the curve r = a sin3 (/ 3) >> Let us tabulate r for certain angles of where r = a sin3 (/ 3)   r  0  a/8  3 3a 8   A  3 3a 8    a/8  0 60 . e. V =  2 ady y 4 2 y=0 5 2a 0 z  L O y = MP 5 16 a N Q 2a 2 z =  32  5 a a= 2 5 2 80 a 80 a 2 Thus the required volume is 2  3  cubic units.>> Let x2 + y2 = a2 be the equation of the circle and when the semicircle revolves about the diameter (x-axis) a sphere of radius ‘a’ is generated.

perimeter  = l za sin 2   3 d Put  3 =  ∴ d  3d and   = varies from 0 to   ∴ l =a sin 2 d  3 a 3 = 2  =0  z 2  0 zsin 2 d  1   by reduction formula. Exercises 1. 3. 4a2 4. 5.. Show that the surface area generated by the revolution of the loops of the curve r2 = a2 cos 2 about the initial line 2 a2 ( 2 − 2 ). Find the volume of the sphere of radius ‘a’. y = = a (sin  − cos ) is a  / 2 2. 2   61 .∴ perimeter  = l 2 3 0 = 6 zr 2 +  / d 2 d  dr  2 r2 + F I = a sin  o 3 sin dr  3 + a. l = 6 a . Show that the length of the arc from = 0 to =  along the curve x = a (cos  + sin ).e. 2 2 Thus the required perimeter is 3a 2 units. / i. G d K HJ 2   3  3   3  cos 1 t 2 = a 2 sin 6  a 2 sin 4  2  3 +  3 cos  3 = a 2 sin 4 sin 2  cos 2  3  3 + 3 = a 2 sin 4  3 ∴ r 2 +  / d 2 = a sin 2  dr  3 3 0 Hence. 4. Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of a loop of the curve r2= a2 cos 2 about the initial line. Answers 2. 4a3/3 a 3 15 5. Find the surface area of a sphere of radius a.

. + un containing infinite number of terms is called an infinite series usually denoted by ∑ un or simply ∑ un n =1 ∞ un is called the nth term or the general term of the infinite series. In this connection we make use of well established tests so as to draw a valid conclusion on the nature of an infinite series. divergence and oscillation of an infinite series which are attributed as the nature or the behaviour of an infinite series. n→∞ ∑ un is said to be divergent if lim sn = ± ∞ n→∞ A series ∑ un is said to be Oscillatory if sn tends to more than one limit as n → ∞ Geometric series as an example for convergence.1 Introduction: Infinite series is basically a summation of infinite number of terms. e. divergence and oscillation. Divergence and Oscillation A series ∑ un is said to be convergent if lim sn = l where l is a finite quantity. The summation will be meaningful if there is no significant change in the sum as more and more terms gets added up which is the concept of convergence. Let us consider the geometric series a + ar + ar2 + …to discuss its nature for various values of r. sn = u1 + u2 + u3 +u n +  Convergence.Infinite Series Session .. an expression of the form u1 + u2 + u3 +. The sum to n terms of this series is given by 62 .. The sum of the first n terms of the series is denoted by sn i. In this topic we discuss the aspect of convergence. ‘Progression’ is the pre-requisite for this topic Definitions If un is a function of n defined for all integral values of n.

but not conversely. then lim un = 0. sn tends to more Hence we conclude that the series is oscillatory if r < −1. Property : If ∑ un is convergent. 63 . we have r a a − 0 1 = which is a finite quantity.a− r n  1 if r < 1  1  1− r an − 1 r and sn = if r > 1  2  r −1 Now if r|< 1 n → 0 as n → ∞ and from (1). Further if r < −1. lim sn = 1− r 1− r n→∞ sn = Hence we conclude that the geometric series is convergent for | r |< 1. n→∞ An example to show that the converse is not true. the series become a −a + a … where the sum of the first n terms sn is 0 or ' a' according as n is even or odd and we can say that lim sn = 0 or a. Note : An infinite series of positive terms is either convergent or divergent. rn     than one limt as n ∞ ∞ or − ∞ according as n is even or odd. When r = −1. Next if r > 1 from (2) lim sn = lim n→∞ ar n − 1 =∞ r −1 n→∞  If r > 1 → ∞ as n → ∞ r Hence we conclude that the geometric series is divergent if r > 1 Also if r = 1 the series becomes a + a + a +… sn = a + a + a… to n terms = na ∴ lim sn = lim n a = ∞ n→∞ n→∞ n Hence the series is divergent if r = 1. sn tends to more n→∞ than one limit as n  ∞ Hence we conclude that the series is oscillatory if r = −1.

Then ∑ un and ∑ vn behave alike. This example shows that the converse of the property is not true. 64 . un = + 2  + 1 n − n = n + 2 + n +1 en + 2 − n +1jen + 2 + en + 2 + n +1j 1 n +1 n +1 j en + 2 + j n +1 Clearly lim un = 0 n→∞ Next sn = u1 + u2 + u3 +un −1 + un   i. n→∞ 2. e. n→∞ v n That is ∑ un and ∑ vn both will converge or both will diverge..Consider the series ∑ ∞ n=1 n + 2 − n +1 Here un = n + 2 − n + 1 = i.. e. Tests for convergence for series of positive terms Comparison Test If ∑ un and ∑ vn be any two series of positive terms such that un lim is a non zero finite quantity. sn = i. e.. Remarks : 1. sn = − 2 + n + 2   e3 − 2 j+ e4 − 3 j+ e5 − 4 j++ en + 1 − n j+ en + 2 − j ∴ lim sn = lim − 2 + n + 2 = ∞ n→∞ n→∞ Hence we conclude that un is divergent. Thus lim un ≠ 0 ⇒ ∑ un is divergent. The contrapositive of the statement of this theorem provides a fundamental test for the divergence of an infinite series which can be stated as follows : If un does not tend to zero as n tends to infinity. then un is not convergent. Addition or deletion or multiplication of each term of infinite series by a nonzero constant doesnot alter the nature of infinite series.

1 We choose vn = p − q where p and q are the highest power n in the denominator n and numerator of un respectively. [The nth term of the A. we must rationalize by multiplying with f  g the case may be and then chose vn as stated. … is a+(n − 1)d ] Comparison test is usually applicable when un involves expression of n in the numerator and the denominator like (n+1). If ( p − q ) = k (say) then we say that un is of the order 1 and conclude that ∑ un is converngent if k > 1 and divergent if k ≤ 1. n + n as Order Test We say that 1 n p− q is the order of un . We usually compare with the harmonic series ∑ ∞ n =1 1 ( p − series) which is convergent for p > 1 and divergent for p ≤ 1 np (The proof is established later) Working procedure for problems • • • Given an infinite series. (n2+1).P. • However if un is of the form f n − g or n f  girrational factors connected n − n  f  g n + n or by a negative sign). we first write the nth term (general term) un.Remark : In this test the given series un is to be compared with another series vn whose nature is to be known to us. a+ d. a. n . a+2 d. n3 + 4 etc. Session – 2 Example – 1 65 . (2n+1). nk Sometimes this is referred to as the order test.

. 5. . 5.   1. .. Examine the series First factors : 1. 2.5 3  59 57 7 >> Numerators are 1. 7. Here ∑ vn = ∑ Example – 2 Find the nature of the series 1 1+ 2 1+ 2 + 3 + 2 + 2 +   2 2 1 1 +2 1 + 22 + 32 >> It should be observed that there will be n terms in the numerator and the denominator of the general term un. 9 . 7. In the denominator we have. Hence the general term is n.. .. Second factors : 3. 66 .3.1 2 3 + + + for convegence. Now lim 1 1 is of the form ∑ p  = 2 > 1 convergent.. 3. ∴ n th term = 1 + n − 12 = 2 n − 1 ∴ n th term = 3 +  − 1= 2 n + 1 n 2 ∴ n th term = 5 +  − 1= 2 n + 3 n 2 Thus n th term of the given series is given by un = Thus n n 1 Choose vn = 3 = 2 n − 1 n + 1 n + 3 2  2  2 n n un n n2 = × vn n − 1 n + 1 n + 3 1 2  2  2 un n3 1 = lim 3 = n→∞ vn n→∞ n  − 1 n + 1  + 3  8 2  2 n  2 n By comparision test.. ∑ un and ∑ vn behave alike.. 3... Third factors : 5. p is 2 n n Hence ∑ un is also convergent.

.∴ un = 1 + 2 + 3++ n   ∑n = 2 2 2 2 1 + 2 + 3 ++ n   ∑n n + 1 n + 12n + 1 n n  i. Note : Alternative version of the problem. ∑ un and ∑ vn behave alike.. un =  = Choose vn = 2 n + 12n + 1 2n + 1 n  n u 3 n Now lim n = lim  n→∞ vn n→∞ 2 n + 1 1 2 = lim n→∞ F 3 I= 3 G+ 1 J 2 H nK 2 By comparison test. n1/2 Hence ∑ un is also divergent.e. p is n n Hence ∑ un is also divergent. 1 ( p = 1 / 2 < 1) is divergent. Example – 3 Test for convegence ∑ >> By data un = Now lim ∞ n =1 1 n +1+ n 1 1 Choose vn = n +1 + n n 1 n  1 n +1+ n n = lim n  + 1 n + n n→∞ n 1 n 1 + 1 + 1 n = 1 2 n→∞ un = lim vn n→∞ = lim n→∞ By comparison test ∑ un and ∑ vn behave alike. 1 1 But ∑ vn = ∑ = ∑ 1  = 1 divergent.e. But ∑ vn = ∑ 67 . un =  2 6 n + 1 n 6 3 1 i.

e. un = en + 1 + n en + 1 − n j n + 1 + n j = n + 1− n n +1+ n 1 which is the same as the example discussed. 2 3 + 13 + 3 n 3 + 1 + n 2 n n 1 1 i.Discuss the convergence of the infinite series ∑ ∞ n =1 en + 1 − n j >> un = n + 1 − n and on rationalizing we have un = i. un assumes the form  − b a  ∴ un = by above.. L M N n2 O P Q = 1 1 = 1+1+1 3 68 . n +1+ n Example – 4 Test for convergence ∑ >> By data. e.. un = Choose vn = 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 n  + 1 + n + 1 + n n n Now lim n→∞ 3 + 1 n 3 n − un 1 n2 = lim × 2 vn n→∞ 3 + 1 3 + 3 n 3 + 1 + n 2 1 n n n2 n 3 + 1 3  + 3 n 3 + 1 3 n + n 2 1 n 1 n  n2 n 2 + 1 3  3 + n 2 1 n 2 3 2 3 = lim = lim = lim n→∞ n→∞ 1 + 1 3 + n 2 n n→∞ n 2 + 1 3  3 + 3 1 + 1 3 + 1 1 n 2 n By comparison test ∑ un and ∑ vn behave alike. un 3 3 We have an elementary formula Ln + 1 − n O M P N Q = Ln + 1 − n O M P N Q ∞ 3 3 n =1 a 3 − b 3 =  − b 2 + ab + b 2   − b a  a or a = a3 − b3 a 2 + ab + b 2 If we take a = 3 n 3 + 1 and b = n. Hence ∑ un is also convergent.

Remark : Usually we try ratio test in the following cases.. we can apply the comparison test (order test) if possible or Raabe’s test stated as follows. Convergent Session – 3 D’Alembert’s ratio test and Raabe’s test If  un is a series of positive terms and if n→∞ 2. If  un is a series of positive terms and if n→∞ lim n Fu − 1I = l (finite qty) G J u H K n n +1 then  un is convergent if l > 1. When the ratio test fails. Convergent lim un +1 = l (finite qty) un then  un is convergent if l < 1. x2n etc. (i) (ii) nth term of the series is not of the order 1/nk. divergent if l > 1 and the test fails if l = 1. nth term of the series involves variables like xn. divergent if l < 1 and the test fails if l = 1. 69 . Divergent 3.Exercises : Find the nature of the following series 1 4 7 1 + + +   13 27 311 2 5 8 12 12 + 22 12 + 2 2 + 32 2 3 + 3 + +   1 1 + 2 3 13 + 2 3 + 33 1 1 1 3 + +    3+ 5 4+ 6 5+ 7 4∑ Ln + 3 − n O M P N Q 4 2 Answers : 1. Divergent 4.

(n !)2 etc.  Raabe’s test becomes inevitable when the ratio test fails in the case of carry over series.(iii) nth term of the series involves n !. (iv) The number of factors in the numerator and denominator increase steadily from term to term like 1 1 13 2 2 + + +(carry over series)   3 3 37 5 5 Working procedure for problems  We first write the general term un for the given series and find un+1 by replacing n by (n+1) • We find the ratio un+1  simplify and find its limit as n → ∞ to decide the nature of the series.2 2 3 3 4 >> un = xn nn + 1 x n +1 ∴ un +1 =  + 1 + 2  n  n Now ∴ lim un +1 x n +1 n + 1 n n = = x un  + 1 + 2 x n n  n n+2 un +1 n 1 = lim x = lim x=x un n→∞ n + 2 1 n→∞ + 2 n n→∞ convergent if x <1 ∴ by D' Alembert' s ratio test ∑ un is divergent if x > 1 and the test fails if x = 1 1n 1 1 But when x = 1un = = = 2 n + 1 n + 1 n + n n n R S T 70 . (n+1) !. un   instance or When the ratio test fails we can try to apply the order test in the first apply Raabe’s test. Example – 1 x x2 x3 + + +   1.

un +1 = x  2  26n n + 2 42   2 From (1) and (2) we have.un is of order 1 / n 2 ( p = 2 > 1) and hence ∑ un is convergent. e. un +1 2 n + 1 =  x un 2n + 2 un +1 2n + 1 n  + 1  2 n = lim = lim x = x x un n→∞ 2 n + 2 2 n n→∞ n  + 2  . we When x = 1 from (3) Now lim n n→∞ R S T Fu G u H n − 1 = lim n n→∞ n +1 I J K un +1 2 n + 1 u 2n + 2 = ∴ n = un 2n + 2 un +1 2 n + 1 n→∞ 2 2 Fn + 2 − 1I = lim n Fn + 2 − 2n − 1I Gn + 1 J G 2n + 1 J H K H K 2 = lim n 1 = <1 2 n n→∞ n  + 1  2 ∴ ∑ un is divergent by Raabe' s test Hence we conclude that the given series ∑ un is convergent if x < 1 and divergent if x ≥ 1 71 . e.. un +1 15n − 1 n + 1 n +1 32   2 262 n 4  = x × un 26n n + 2 42   2 15n − 1n 32  x i.. Hence we conclude that ∑ un is convergent if x ≤ 1 and divergent if x > 1 Example – 2 Find the nature of the series 1 1 2 15 3 3 3 x+ x + x +   2 2 4 26 4 15n − 1 n 32  >> un = x 262n 4   un +1 = 15 2 + 1 1 3 n  − x n +1 =  1  152 n + 1 n +1 3  x 262 n + 1 4  262 n + 2 4  15n − 1 n + 1 n+1 32   2 i...  3 ∴ lim n→∞ Hence by ratio test convergent if x < 1 ∑ un is divergent if x > 1 and the test fails if x = 1 Now when x = 1 shall apply Raabe' s test.

un +1 39 n n + 3 5n +1 6 3   3 410n + 13n + 2 7 3   =  × un 410n + 1 n + 43n + 5 7 3   3 39 3n 6  5n un +1 n + 33n + 2 3  =  5 un n + 43n + 5 3  un +1 n + 33n + 2 3  = lim  5 un n→∞ n + 43n + 5 3  = lim ∴ lim n→∞ + 3  3 + 2  3 n   n  = 5 >1 5 3 n   n n→∞  + 4  3 + 5  Hence by the ratio test ∑ un is divergent. Example – 4 72 . e.Example –3 Test for convergence ∑ >> By data un = ∴ un +1 = ∞ n =1 39 3n 6  5n  410n + 13n + 2 7 3  39 3n 6  5n  410n + 1 3n + 2 7 3  39 3 + 1 6  n 5n +1  4103 + 1 1 3 + 1 2 7  n  + n + 39 3nn + 3 5n +1 6  3 i. un +1 =  410n + 1 n + 43n + 5 7 3   3 Now i... e.

un = x  1  n 410 n + 1 1 n +1 410n + 4 n +1 7 3  + 7 3  un +1 = x =  x  + 1 n   + 1 n  410n + 13n + 4 n +1 7 3   i. e. un = 73 .. Example – 5 Test for convergence of the infinite series 1+ 2  3 4  + + +   2 2 33 4 4 n  + 1  + 1  n  n  n n ∴ un +1 = = = n n +1 n +1 n n  + 1 n  + 1 n  + 1 n >> The first term of the given series can be written as 1!/11 so that we have..410n + 1 n 7 3  x n n =1 410n + 1 n 7 3  >> By data. Thus ∑ un is convergent if x < 1 / 3 and divergent if x ≥ 1 / 3. un +1 410n + 1 n + 4 n +1 7 3   3 n =  × x un  + 1 n  n 410n + 1 n 7 3   x u 3n + 4 i. un +1 =  x  2   + 1 n  n From (1) and (2) we have. e. n +1 =  x un n +1 Find the nature of the series ∑ ∞ ∴ lim n→∞ un +1 3n + 4 3+ 4 n = lim = lim x  = 3x x un n n→∞ n + 1 n→∞ 1 + 1  convergent if 3 x < 1 or x < 1  3 Hence by ratio test ∑ un is divergent if 3 x > 1 or x > 1  3 and the test fails if 3 x = 1 or x = 1 / 3 u n + 4 3 1 u 3n + 3 If x = 1  we have n +1 = 3 or n = un  + 1 3 n un+1 3n + 4 Now lim n n→∞ n n+1 n→∞ n→∞ R S T Fu − 1I= lim n Fn + 3 − 1I = lim n F −1 I = lim 3 G+4 J G J H K u 3n 3n H K H K G + 4J n→∞ −1 −1 = <1 + 4  3 3 n Hence ∑ un is divergent when 3 x = 1 by Raabe' s test.

n n n nn un +1 Now =  = n un  + 1 n  n n + 1  n 1 nn 1 1 u ∴ lim n +1 = lim = <1 n n→∞ un n→∞ + 1  e 1 n Hence by ratio test ∑ un is convergent. divergent if x > 2 2. Convergent if x < 3/2. Convergent if x < 1.4 Cauchy’s root test If  un is a series of positive terms and if n→∞ u 1 n lim n  = l (finite) then the series is convergent if l < 1. divergent if l > 1 and the test fails if l = 1. We try to apply this test if un is of the form [f (n)]g (n) 2. divergent if x > 1 1. Note : 1. Convergent 2. Exercises 1 1 + 3 32 33 + + +   1 2  3 2 3 2 4 3 2 x+ x + x +   3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 2 13 3 2 2 3 x + x + x +   3 3 5 37 5 3 x 3 x 2 39 x 3 6 6 4  +  + +   4 5 4 8 410 11 7 7 ∞ 37n + 1 52  5 ∑ xn 393n 6  n =1 Answers 1. Convergent if x < 2. When the test fails we can try the order test or the fundamental test. The following standard limits will be useful 74 . divergent if x > 3/2 Session . divergent if x > 1 3. Convergent if x < 1.

1 N nQ R 1OU |L P | ∴   = S+ u 1 N |M n Q V | T W L+ 1 O L+ 1 O   = M P =M P u 1 1 N nQ N nQ L+ 1 O Now lim   = lim M P u 1 N nQ 2 − n3  n =1 L+ 1 O 1 ∑ M P N nQ ∞ 1 n n n 1 n 2 − n3  n 1 n 2 − n1  − n n→∞ n 1 n − n n→∞ = lim n→∞ L+ 1 O 1 M nP N Q n 1 = 1 < 1 e  n → ∞. G nJ H K n − n3 2  iii lim 1 + n→∞ F xI = e G nJ H K n x Example – 1 Test for convergence L+ 1 O >> u = M P by data. n also → ∞ as Hence by Cauchy' s root test ∑ un is convergent. Example – 2 n  + 1x n n Discuss the convergence of ∑ n =1 n n +1 n  + 1x n n >> un = by data. n n +1 ∞ ∴ (un ) 1/ n  n o + 1t = n→∞ 1/ n lim (un )  + 1  + 1 n x n x = 1+1  n 1 n   n n nn  + 1 n x n+ 1 n 1 x + 1  1 n x = lim = lim = lim 1 n 1 n 1 n n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ nn nn n n+1 1  n n n 1 n n x 1 = 75 .n (i) lim n1  = 1 n→∞ ii lim 1 + n→∞ F 1 I = e.

un = n  + 1 n n n +1 un is of order n n / n n +1 = 1 / n and hence ∑ un is divergent. u = G J x H+ 2 K n Rn + 1 I U   = F + 1 Ix n |F J | x G J ∴  =S u G+ 2 KV H+ 2 K n |H | Tn W n n n n 1 n n n 1 n 1 n FI x GJ HK 2 2 +  x > 0   Now lim n n = lim u 1 n→∞ + 1  1 n x=x 1 n n→∞ + 2  convergent if x < 1 Hence by Cauchy' s root test ∑ un is divergent if x > 1 and the test fails if x = 1 R S T 76 . Example – 3 Find the nature of the series 1+ 2 3 x+ 3 4 n F + 1I >> Omitting the first term.  lim n1  = 1 1 n→∞ convergent if x < 1 Hence by Cauchy' s root test ∑ un is divergent if x >1 and the test fails if x = 1 When x = 1. R S T Thus ∑ un is convergent if x < 1 and divergent if x ≥ 1.n→∞ lim (un ) 1/ n = n→∞ 1 n x lim + 1  n→∞ lim n 1 n = + 0 1 x n = x.

1 un = n n Test for convergence ∴ lim n  = u n→∞ 1 n n→∞ 1 F1 I lim G J = lim = 0 < 1 HK n n 1 n n n→∞ Hence by Cauchy' s root test ∑ un is convergent. Exercises : Tests for convergence the following series F+ 3 I 1∑ G J 1 H nK n 3 F + 1I F I 2∑ G J G Hn K HJ 4K 4 FI F I F I 7 10 13 3 + G + GJ + GJ +  J H K HK  3 H 5K 7 9 − n2 n2 n 2 3 4 41 + x x2 x3 + + + > 0 x  2 32 4 3 Answers : 77 .n n  n O F + 1 I F + 1 I L1 + 1  But when x = 1 = G J 1 = G J = M u H+ 2 K H+ 2 K N+ 2  n n  1 n P Q + 1  e 1 1 n F+ x I = = using lim G J = e 1 lim u = lim H nK e + 2  e 1 n n n n n n n n n→∞ n x n→∞ n 2 n→∞ 1 Since lim un = ≠ 0 un is divergent when x = 1 ∑ e n→∞ Thus ∑ un is convergent if x < 1 and divergent if ≥ 1. Example – 4 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 +   2 2 3 >> The first term of the series can be put in the form 1 / 11 so that we have.

Example : Apply Cauchy’s integral test to discuss the nature of the harmonic series (p.i : Then x 1− p ∞ 1 L O 1 = 1 which is finite. x is Now ∞ 1 z ∞ 1 x1− p f  = p dx = x − p dx = x dx 1− p 1 x 1 ∞ z z Case . Note : The condition f ' ( x ) < 0 ensures that f ( x ) decreases as x increases where f ' ( x ) is the derivative of f ( x ). 78 .(1) Convergent (2) Divergent (3) Divergent (4) Convergent Cauchy’s integral test If ∑ un is a series of positive terms and if ux = f ( x ) be such that (i) f ( x ) is continuous in 1 < x < ∞ (ii) f ( x ) decreases as x increases [ f ( x ) is monotonically decreasing] then the series ∑ un is convergent or divergent according as the integral ∞ 1 f z( x) dx is finite or infinite. x ∴ z  =M P= 0 − f x dx 1− N pQ 1− p p −1 1− p ∞ 1 Let p > 1 or ( p − 1) > 0 1 = p −1 → 0 as x → ∞   − 1 0 p > x L O p ≠1 M Pif N Q ∞ 1 Thus ∑ un is convergent if p > 1.series) n =1 ∞ ∑ 1 np 1 = f n np >> By data un = f  x = 1 −p = x − p  ∴ f '  − px − p −1 = p +1 < 0 x = p x x Hence f  decreasing.

Case . Remark : If lim un ≠ 0 then the series is oscillatory. u2 .. (1 − p) > 0 But x 1− p ∞ 1 → ∞ as x → ∞.  (1 − p) > 0 Hence x dx zf  = ∞ − 1 −1 p = ∞ Let p = 1 ∞ 1 1 ∞ 1 Thus ∑ un is divergent if p < 1. (ii) lim un = 0 n→∞ then the alternating series u1 − u2 + u3 − u4 +. Case ..iii : ∞ 1 zf xdx = zx1 dx =log x =∞−0=∞ Thus ∑ un is divergent if p = 1... u1 > u2 > u3 > u4 .. is called an alternating series represented by ∑ −1n −1 un n =1 ∞ Leibnitz test for convergence of an alternating series If u1 .. n→∞ 79 . u3 . u2 . e.e. is convergent. for all n i. then a series of the form u1 − u2 + u3 − u4 + . u4 . ∞ 1 Conclusion : ∑ p is convergent if p > 1 and divergent if p ≤ 1....are all positive and if (i) un > un+1 ... n=1 n Remark : We have used the behaviour of this series while solving problems on comparison test ∞ 1 to discuss the nature of a given series in comparison with a series of the form ∑ p n=1 n Session – 5 Alternating series If u1 . u3 .are all positive. u4 .ii : L O x As above z  =M P f x dx 1− N pQ ∞ 1 1− p ∞ 1 Let p < 1 or 1 > p i..

un − un +1 > 0 ⇒ un > un +1 Also lim un = lim n→∞ n→∞ 1 =0 n Hence the given series is convergent by Leibnitz test.. Example – 1 Test for convergence the series. Property : Every absolutely convergent series is convergent but the converse is not true. but the converse is not true. n 1 1 n +1− n 1 Now un − un +1 = − = = >0 n n + 1 nn + 1 n + 1 n i. Remark : We have mentioned a property that “every absolutely convergent series is convergent”. is convergent. 80 . 1 − >> Here un = 1 1 1 + − +  2 3 4 1 We shall apply Leibnitz test.... is said to be absolutely convergent if the series of positive terms u1 + u2 + u3 + u4 +. If the given alternating series is convergent and the absolute series (series of positive terms) is divergent then the alternating series is said to be conditionally convergent. e.Absolute convergence and conditional convergence The alternating series u1 − u2 + u3 − u4 +.. That is a convergent series not being absolutely convergent. The series 1 − 1 1 1 + − +serves as an   2 3 4 example for the converse of the statement not being true. Generalised D’Alembert’s test If ∑ un is a general series and if lim n→∞ un +1 =| l | then ∑ un is absolutely convergent if | l | < 1 un not convergent if | l | > 1 and the test fails if | l | = 1.

. Example – 3 81 . 1 n n = 1 n 3 2 ∞ n =1 3 2 np p 2 is ∑ 1 n is a harmonic series of the type ∑ 1   = 3  > 1 convergent.The alternating series is convergent by Leibnitz test. Example –2 +. but the absolute series 1 + being ∑ ∞ 1 1 + +   2 3 n =1 1 is divergent ..series where p = 1 n Thus the alternating series is not absolutely convergent. for 2 2 3 3 4 4 (a) convergence (b) absolute convergence (c) conditional convergence 1 1 1 >> We have un = = 3 2 ∴ un +1 = 3  + 12 n n n n 1 1 Now un − un +1 = 3  − 2 3 n  + 1 2 n 3 2  + 1 2 − n 3  n > 0 since (n + 1) > n. n→∞ n→∞ Also lim un = lim 1 The absolute series is given by 1 + We have un = ∞ 1 2 2 + 1 3 3 + 1 4 4 +.. un − un +1 > 0 ⇒ un > un +1 Test the series 1 − 1 + 1 − 1 = =0 n n Hence the given series is convergent by Leibnitz test. n =1 Thus the alternating series is absolutely convergent and it is not conditionally convergent. 2 n + 13  n i.. ( p . e..

. Example – 5 82 . Remark : The problem can also be done by applying Leibnitz test. n 1+ Hence we conclude that the given series is absolutely convergent. lim un ≠ 0 n 3 n →∞ 3 + 1  n →∞ Hence the given series is oscillatory. un > un +1 Find the nature of the series Also lim un = lim n→∞ 2 +1/ n 2 = i.. e. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +   2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 The general term of this series is given by un = 2 n 1 ∑ 2 is a harmonic series ( p = 2 > 1) and it is convergent. Hence the given alternating series is convergent.   22 3 4 5 6 7 8 >> Consider the absolute series. But every absolutely convergent series is convergent.e. Example – 4 Show that the series 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 − 2 − 2 + 2 + 2 − 2 − 2 + is convergent.3 5 7 9 −  + − +   4 7 10 13 2n + 1 2 + 1 1 2 n + 3 n + >> We have un = ∴ un +1 = = 3n + 1 3 + 1 1 3n + 4 n + 2n + 1 2n + 3 1 Now un − un +1 = − = >0 3n + 1 3n + 4 n + 13n + 4 3  i.

Discuss the nature of the series x2 x3 x4 + − +   2 3 4 >> The general term of the series is given by x− 1 1 x n − n− 1x n +1 − n un = ∴ un +1 = n n +1 We shall apply generalised D' Alembert' s test. the series becomes 1 − We have un = 1 1 1 + − +   2 3 4 1 1 ∴ un +1 = Clearly un > un +1 n n +1 1 Also lim un = lim =0 n→∞ n→∞ n Hence the series is convergent by Leibnitz test If x = −1 the series becomes 1 1 1 1 − −= − 1 +   + +   2 3 2 3 1 1 = ∑ 1  is divergent. Here the series of positive terms ∑ n 2 n ∴ the given series is divergent (to − ∞) when x = −1 Thus the given series is convergent if − 1 < x ≤ 1 divergent when x = −1 −1− F G H I J K 83 . If x = 1.not convergent when | x | > 1 and the test fails if | x | = 1. Since absolute convergence implies convergence. that is –1< x <1. not convergent if | x | > 1 and the test fails if | x | = 1. If | x | = 1 then x = 1 or –1. the given series is convergent if |x|<1. un +1 1x n +1 − n n Now lim = lim  n −1 n n→∞ un n→∞ − n + 1 1 x = lim −1 n→∞ n x = x  n + 1  1 n Hence the series is absolutely convergent if | x | < 1.

Exercises : Find the nature of the following series :  1− 1 1 1 1 + − +   4 7 10  2 Examine the series 1 1 1 1 − + − +for   7 12 17 22 (a) convergence for (b) absolute convergence (c) conditional convergence (3) Show that the seies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+ − − + + − − +   2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 is convergent. Answers : 1. conditionally convergent. Convergent. 84 . not absolutely convergent. conditionally convergent if x = 1 and divergent if x = 1. Convergent 2. 1 1 1 (4) Show the series 1 − x + x 2 − x 3 +   4 7 10 is absolutely convergent if | x | < 1.

If the two reference lines in the Cartesian system are perpendicular to each other. PESIT Bangalore ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY IN 3 DIMENSIONS Introduction Any point in a plane can be located by means of two real numbers. called the coordinates.T.G.V. the system is called the rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. called the coordinate axes. The former is called the Cartesian System of coordinates and the latter the polar system of coordinates. the lines OX. F I G 1 In the above figure. y) in Cartesian system and P(r.Geetha Dept.U. of Mathematics. In space. Any point in a plane is represented by P(x. The system of coordinates is called the rectangular Cartesian coordinate system in three dimension. 85 .OY and OZ are the three axes with O as the origin of the coordinate system.M. Web-Based Education Engineering Mathematics – I (MAT-11) By Prof. θ ) in polar system of coordinates. we need three real numbers to locate a point and the reference lines. These numbers could either be distances from two fixed straight lines or a distance form a fixed point and an angle with reference to a straight line. which are three concurrent mutually perpendicular lines.

NM = y and MP = z where M is the foot of the perpendicular from P to the XOY plane and N is the foot of the perpendicular from M to the axis OX.z1) with reference to the new axes. y1.If P(x. z1) and Q(x2. then R ≡  2 2 2   2  Example: Find the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are A (x1. 1. OP2 = OM2 + MP2 = ON2 + MN2 + MP2. Fig.2 If G is the centroid of the triangle ABC. the median from A. y1. B (x2. Shift the origin to P keeping the axes parallel to the original axes. the distance OP = Distance between two given points : Let P (x1.y1. = x2 + y2 + z2 x 2 + y 2 +z 2 Or. then ON = x.y. . z2) in the ratio p : q . If R is the middle point of PQ. Answer : in the ratio 2:1. y2. Distance formula : Then from the right angled triangle OMP. y3. z1). y2. y1. Then A≡ (x2. z2. z3). then it divides AD.x1. 86 . because ONM is a right angled triangle. z1) and Q (x2. z2) and C (x3. ∴ Distance PQ = ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 − y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 − z1 ) 2 Section Formula If a point R divides the line segment joining the points P(x1.  px + qx1 py 2 + qy1 pz 2 + qz 1  . . y2. y2. then R ≡  2 p+q p +q   p +q   x + x1 y 2 + y1 z 2 + z1  . z2) be the two given points.z) is any point in this system.

r m. 5. b.C. m.C.C.s for any real number s. x y = cos α .R. . Numbers proportional to the D.s) of the straight line. Note 1. then P is given by P ≡ (r l. c.R.s l. then a. = cos β .s are l.s 2.0. denoted by a. n 6.R. n are the D. l2 + m2 + n2 =1 for any line whose D. 1. For instance. m.  3 3 3  Direction Cosines: If a straight line makes angles α .s). Two parallel lines have the same D.s of a line.C. 0. n 87 . b.C. z) is any point on the line OA that makes angles α . m. If A(x.s of the line OP.s of the X-axis and s.C.C. 4. then cosα . c are D. r n) where l. r r z = cos γ r where OA = r using the distance formula r = ∴ cos2 α + cos2 β x 2 + y 2 +z 2 + cos2 γ = 1. b. y. m. x 2 + x3 y 2 + y 3 z 2 + z 3  . D ≡  2 2   2  ∴ G ≡  x1 + x 2 + x3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z 3  .s are called Direction Ratios (D. cosβ and cosγ are defined as the Direction Cosines (D. They are denoted by l. β and γ with the three axes. Since D is the mid point of the side BC. n. then 3. 0 are the D. c are proportional to the D. If P is any point at a distance r from the origin. . β and γ with the coordinate axes.0 are its D. If a.

y1.s of the line are a a +b +c 2 2 2 .y1.s of AB are proportional to or one set of D.s of two given straight lines.x1. m. m2. z2) be the two points.4 Let l1. using Cosine formula for triangle OPQ. We have PQ2 = OP2 + OQ2 – 2OP. b a +b +c 2 2 2 .R. n2 be the D. Equating the two expressions for PQ2. r m.OQ cos θ . y1. n are the D. y2 . y2 . z2 . Let OP = r1 Then and OQ = r2. P ≡ (r1l1.i. r n) since A is the origin in the new system of coordinates.C.C. x2 – x1. z2 – z1.C.e. r2n2) = r12 + r22 – 2r1r2 (l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2).3 Let A (x1. using the distance formula and l22 + m22 + n22 = 1 .z1) If l. r2m2. z1) with the axes parallel to the original axes.C. r1n1) and Q ≡ (r2l2.C. ∧ ∴ PQ2 = (r2l2 – r1l1)2 + (r2m2 – r1m1)2 + (r2n2 – r1n1)2 Remember : l12 + m12 + n12 = 1 Also.s : Fig 1. m1. Note: where θ = P O Q . Shifting the origin to A (x1.s of the line AB with length r units. z1) and B (x2. z2 – z1. y2.s can be taken as x2 – x1. ∴ l m n = = x 2 − x1 y 2 − y1 z 2 − z1 ∴ The D.y1. we get cos θ = l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 88 . r1m1. y1.s of the line joining two points: fig 1. y2 . Angle between two lines with known D. n1 and l2. we have B ≡ (r l. We get B ≡ (x2 . c a + b2 + c2 2 D. a b c a2 + b2 + c2 = = = = a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 l m n l +m +n ∴ The D.C. Draw OP and OQ parallel to the given lines passing through the origin..

c1 and a2.R. The expression for the angle between two lines in terms of their D. n be the D. 3.3) and (-4.s a) 3. 3. (7.C. 3. y1. b2. MN is the projection of AB on MN. -6. c2 ) is cosθ = a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1 c 2 2 2 a + b12 + c12 a 2 + b22 + c 2 2 1 2. 1 2.s (a1. 1. 0) is a)* 5 unit b) √5 units c) 25 units d) 4 units If A ≡ (-1. y1.s of the line MN. -1) b) *0. 4) form a a) rectangle 89 . then MN = AB cos θ . z1) and (x2. 7).y1) +n(z2 . y2. d) None of the others The line which is perpendicular to the line with D.5 Let A ≡ (x1. y2. If θ is the angle between AB and MN. b1. z1). 10) and (-1. The condition for perpendicularity of two lines is l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 or a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.s : Fig. -2 b) Square c) 1.0. 4.z1).R.1.s of a line joining the points (x1. B ≡ (x2. -3. 1). -2 c)* Rhombus d) (0. Remember: The D. 1) b)* (0. 0.2. Projection of a line joining two points on a straight line with known D. z2) and let l. etc. 4) and B ≡ (1. 3) c) (1.s proportional to d) 1. 3.C. -6. -1.3 has D. -3. The vertices (5. z2) are x 2 − x1 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 − y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 − z1 ) 2 Exercise: 1. 3. 2). m. The distance between the points (0. -4. -3.C. 0. (1.C. -3. -1) 1. -2. 2. then the mid-point of AB is a) (1. 2 2 2 ∴ MN = ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y 2 − y1 ) + ( z 2 − z1 ) l (( x2 − x1 ) + m( y 2 − y1 ) + n( z 2 − z1 ) ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 − y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 − z1 ) 2 ∴ MN = l(x2 – x1) + m(y2 .

y2. the entire line AB lies on the surface (1).5).(1) ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 and ∴a ( px 2 + qx 1 ) + b ( py 2 + qy 1 ) + c ( pz 2 + qz 1 ) + d ( p + q ) = 0 Or  px + qx1   py 2 + qy1   pz 2 + qz1  a 2  p + q  + b p + q  + c p + q  + d = 0            which implies that the point C lies on the surface given by equation (1). 1. equation. z1) and B(x2. Theorem: A linear equation Proof : If A(x1.8.-1) is joined to the mid-point M of the line joining P(1. y and z represents a plane.-3) and Q(3.2. line AB dividing it in the ratio p : q. then the point C ≡  2 is a point lying on the p+q p+q   p+q  ax + by + cz +d = 0 in x. The point A (5. Normal Form of equation to a plane : Fig. ∴ By the definition of a plane.6 Let OL be drawn perpendicular (normal) to the plane from the origin. y1. z2) are two points on the surface represented by the above  px + qx1 py 2 + qy 1 pz 2 + qz 1  . Since C is any arbitrary point lying on the line AB.5. . The angle between these two lines is a)* 90o b) 30o c) 60o d) 45o Planes: A Plane is a surface such that the line joining any two points on the surface lies entirely on the surface.4. 90 . equation (1) represents a plane. Since we have A and B are points lying on the surface ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d = 0 ax + by + cz +d = 0 ------------------------.

z –z1) ∴ The equation of the plane in the new system of coordinates is a (x + x1) + b (y + y1) + c (z + z1) + d = 0 or ax + by + cz + (ax1 + by1 + cz1+ d) = 0 ax 1 + by 1 + cz 1 + d a2 + b2 + c2 so that the perpendicular distance of the plane from P. or lx + my + nz = p is the normal form of equation to a plane.R. we have p = lx + my + nz.C. Since each ratio is equal to we get p= −d a + b2 + c2 2 a2 + b2 + c2 l +m +n 2 2 2 = a2 + b2 + c2 . then OL is the projection of OP on the normal Note: Comparing the general and the normal forms of equations of a plane. is Three Point form of Equation: 91 .C. z1) to the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0. ∴ Length of the perpendicular from the origin to the plane is d a +b2 +c2 2 3. In other words. y1. n. By the projection formula. m. y and z in the equation of a plane are proportional to the D. y.s of the normal to the plane. a. shift the origin to the point P keeping the directions of the axes unchanged. y. we get a b c d = = = l m n −p from which we observe the following: 1. z are a set of D. 2. b and c. the coefficients of x. z) is any point on the plane. To find the length of the perpendicular from any point P ≡ (x1.s of the normal. y – y1. P (x. Then any general point (X. If OL. the coefficients of x. the origin in the new system.s be l.Let its length be p and the D. Z) in the new system of coordinates changes to (x – x1. Y.

Note: The three-point form of equation to a plane gives the condition for coplanarity of four points (xi. If ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the equation of the plane. 2. we get a(x .x1) + b(y – y1) + c(z – z1) = 0 a(x1 – x2) + b(y1 – y2) + c( z1 – z2) = 0 and a(x2 – x3) + b(y2 – y3) + c(z2 – z3) = 0 x −x 1 y −y 1 y1 − y 2 y 2 −y 3 z −z 1 z1 −z 2 z 2 −z 3 This system of three equations has a non-trivial solution if x1 −x 2 x 2 −x 3 = 0.Given the three points If the plane given by (xi. then a= −d −d −d . yi. 3. Intercept form of equation: If a plane makes intercepts A. 3. i = 1. then they satisfy the equation of the plane. B.0. (0. Note: 92 .0). 4 as x1 −x 2 x 2 −x 3 x3 −x 4 y1 −y 2 y 2 −y 3 y 3 −y 4 z1 −z 2 z 2 −z 3 z 3 −z 4 = 0. and C with the coordinate axes.0) and (0. Eliminating ‘d’. b= & c= A B C x y z + + =1 . i =1. zi) . yi. A B C ∴ The equation of the plane reduces to This is known as the intercept form of equation to the plane. then the points (A. ax + by + cz +_d = 0 passes through these three points.0.C) lie on the plane. 2. zi).B.

0.C.0) b) 1/3 b) 0.1 a) (3.0.0 b) (3.0.1.1) from the plane 2x – y +2z =3 is a)* 0 a) 1. and (T) (F) (F) 10x . then aix + biy + ciz + di = 0.2) c) 1 c)* 0. -5.3z = 1 c) x + y – z = 14 b)* Parallel are     c) coinciding d) inclined at an angle of True of False 1.2 . Equation of a plane passing through the line of intersection of two planes (a1x + b1y + c1z +d1) + k(a2x + b2y + c2z +d2) = 0 Exercise: 1. 2 . 3. 3.1) d) 2 d) 1. The point (1. The distance of the point (1.z = 5 and 6x +9y – 3z -7 = 0 a) Perpendicular 45o 2. is equal to the  a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 −1 angle between their normals and hence is cos  2 2 2 2 2 2  a1 + b1 + c1 a 2 + b2 + c2  2. is where k is a constant.0 d)* (2.0) d) 3x – 2y + 5 = 0 The D. i =1. 4. The Plane 2x + 3y – z + 6 = 0 93 .1. If the two planes are perpendicular.1. The planes 2x + 3y .1 c) (2.s of the normal to the XY-plane are Which of the following points lie on the same side of the plane 3x – y + 2x – 8 = 0 One of the following planes is perpendicular to the plane 2x – 3y +5z = 1 a) x – y – z = 4 b) 5y . 3.0.0. i = 1.15y . The angle between the two planes aix + biy + ciz + di = 0 . a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.5z + 24 = 0 are parallel 2x . 5.1.2) lies on the plane 3x + y + z = 1. The plane 4x – 3y +5 = 12 passes through the intersection of the planes x + y + 2z = 3.5y + z = 6 and 2.0.

nt + z1) where t plane form of equations and vice versa. n are proportional to ∴ The equations of the straight line are called the symmetric form of equations. c1a2 – c2a1 and a1b2 – a2b1.x1.z1. If a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 represent two intersecting a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 = a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 This is called two-plane form of equations .C. mt + y1. Any point lying on the straight line whose equations are x .s of the straight line l.C. z .s of the straight line are proportional to b1c2 – b2c1.y1. z1). 94 . When the two-plane form of equations to a straight line are given. y. x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = . l m n planes. The symmetric form of equations to a straight line can be converted to its two3. m. Note: 1. then the equations of the straight line of intersection are x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = . since the straight line is perpendicular to the normal to the two intersecting planes.Straight Lines: A curve in space is defined as the set of points common to two intersecting surfaces and it is represented by two equations . Two plane form of equation to a straight line: Two planes interest in a straight line and therefore the equations of the intersecting planes together represent a straight line.equations of the intersecting surfaces. y . the D. then D. z) is any point on a straight line that passes through the point (x 1. Symmetric form of equations: If P(x. A straight line is the curve of intersection of two planes. is a parameter . y1. 2. l m n is given by (lt + x1.

Then the two points (x1.(4) and ax + by + cz + d = 0.(1) ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d = 0 --------------------------. (2) a (x – x1) + b ( y – y1) + c (z –z1) = 0 a (x1 – x2) + b ( y1 – y2) + c (z1 –z2) = 0 Eliminating coplanarity x1 −x 2 l1 l2 y1 − y 2 m1 m2 a. ∴ we have the following conditions : ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 --------------------------. Also the normal to the plane is perpendicular to the two lines. let the equation of the plane containing them be ax + by + cz + d = 0.(3) = 0 --------------------------. (3) of z1 −z 2 n1 n2 and (4) . 95 . and we get the condition for in the form we get Eliminating d from equations (1). z1) and (x2. lines straight = 0 x −x 1 l1 l2 y −y1 m1 m2 z −z 1 n1 n2 and the equation of the plane containing them is given by = 0. the point of intersection can be found by solving the equations of the two lines. y1.Coplanarity of two straight lines: Consider two straight lines x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = and l1 m1 n1 x − x2 y − y 2 z − z 2 = = . c from this equation. Note: If two lines are coplanar. z2) lie on this plane. l2 m2 n2 If these lines are coplanar. b.(2) al1 + bm1 + cn1 al2 + bm2 + cn1 = 0 --------------------------. then the lines are either parallel or intersecting. y2. When they intersect.

Shortest distance between skew lines: When two lines are skew. the line of shortest distance is perpendicular to both the lines. ∴ By the projection formula.C. y2. 1. there exists a line perpendicular to both called the line of shortest distance. of the line of shortest distance are proportional to l1m2 – l2m1 m 1n2 – m2n1.Skew Lines: Two lines are said to be skew when they are non-coplanar. AB = (x2 – x1)λ + (y2 – y1)µ + (z2 – z1)ν We observe that the length AB is the projection of the line PQ on the line of shortest = ( x 2 − x1 )( m1 n 2 − m 2 n1 ) + ( y 2 − y1 )( n1l1 − n 2 l1 ) + ( z 2 − z1 )(l1 m 2 − l 2 m1 ) (m1 n 2 − m 2 n1 ) 2 + ( n1l 2 − n 2 l1 ) 2 + (l1 m 2 − l 2 m1 ) 2 This gives the shortest distance between the two skew lines. µ . n1l2 – n2l1. z1) Then the D. This is so. y1.7 x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = -------------. Equations of the line of shortest distance: The shortest distance line is coplanar with line (1) since it intersects line (1) at the point A. Point B is the point of intersection of the line of shortest distance and line (2). ν and Q ≡ (x2.s λ . when they are neither parallel nor intersecting. z2) . The length of the common perpendicular intercepted between the skew lines is the shortest distance between them. distance. AB. Fig.(1) l1 m1 n1 x − x2 y − y2 z − z 2 = = -------------(2) l2 m2 n2 Let the two skew lines be given by and with P ≡ (x1. ∴ We have 96 .

-13. 0) and d) (1. The lines x −1 = 2 − y z −3 = 2 2 and x −2 y −3 4 − z = = 4 5 2 are perpendicular . and 3x –2y +1 = 0 = y – 3z +10 The equations x −1 y − 2 = =z −4 2 3 represent the same straight line. -1) c)* (-1. 3 2 −4 97 . The straight line a)* Perpendicular with the plane 2. . The lines x −2 y −5 z +3 = = 3 −4 2 x − 4 6 − y 2z + 3 = = 3 4 4 a) Perpendicular 4. 0) b) (1. 2. The plane 2x + 3y + 3z –1 = 0 contains the line x − 2 y +1 z −1 = = . 0. -3) and is c)* (0. 0. 3 4 and the z – axis are skew lines. 4. 7. 3. The point The line (1. -1. 1. -1. -1) d) ( . ax + by + cz + d = 0 .x −x 1 y −y 1 z −z 1 x −x 2 =0 y −y 2 z −z 2 λ l1 µ m1 υ n1 and λ l2 µ m2 υ n2 =0 These two equations together represent the line of shortest distance between the skew lines given by (1) and (2). -1. b)* Parallel c) coincident d) Skew 1 3 1 3 1 3 The image of the point (1. Exercise: 1. 5. x y z = = 7 3 −2 y x = =z 3 −4 x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = a b c is d) at an angle of 45o b) Parallel to c) lies entirely on The point of intersection of the lines a) (-5. 1) in the plane x + y + z = 0 is a) (0. ) True or False 1. 2. 2) are 3. -37) b) (4. 3) lies on the line x −1 z = y −2= 0 0 x −4 y −6 = =2−z.

If P (x. The fixed line is called the axis. m. 1.6. then the D.C. Note: The angle α is called the semi-vertical angle of the cone and the point of intersection of the generators with the axis is called the vertex of the cone. Right Circular cone and Right Circular Cylinder: The solid generated when a straight line rotates about a fixed line is either a right circular cone or a right circular cylinder. y1. The shortest distance between the lines x −1 y − 2 z − 4 = = 2 3 −4 and x −1 y − 2 z − 4 = = −3 4 5 is 0. 98 .8 Let the axis of the cone be given by x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = l m n with its vertex as V≡ (x1. y1.s of the generator passing through V are proportional to x – x1.C. If α is the semi-vertical angle of the cone. the generators are inclined at an angle α with the axis while in a cylinder. The straight lines which do not intersect are called skew lines. z) be any point on the surface of the Cone. Equation of a right circular Cone: Fig. z – z1. 7. The rotating line is a generator of the solid. then cosα = or ( x − x1 )l + ( y − y1 )m + ( z − z1 )n ( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y1 ) 2 + ( z − z1 ) 2 l 2 + m 2 + n 2 2 1 1 [ ( x − x ) l + ( y − y ) m + ( z − z ) n] 1 cos2 α = (l 2 + m 2 + n 2 ) ( x − x1 ) + ( z − z1 ) 2 2 [ ] is the equation of a right circular cone with its vertex at (x1. n.s of its axis proportional to l. y. semi-vertical angle as α and the D. In the case of a cone. y – y1. z1). z1). the generators are parallel to the axis.

where θ = ∧ M AP l ( x − x1 ) + m( y − y 1 ) + n( z − z1 ) ∴ AM = ( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y1 ) 2 + ( z − z1 ) 2 . y. then AM is the projection of AP on the axis with M as the foot of the perpendicular from P to the axis. y1.1) with its axis parallel to the line x y −1 z + 1 = = is ____________. The semi-vertical angle of the right circular cone passing through the origin. Also AM 2 = AP2 – MP2 with MP = r ∑(x − x ) l + m + n 2 2 2 1 2 ∴ ( x − x1 ) 2 + ( y − y 1 ) 2 + ( z − z1 ) 2 = r 2 + [ l ( x − x ) + m( y − y ) + n( z − z )] 1 1 1 2 l 2 + m2 + n2 is the equation of the right circular cylinder.-3) 3. vertex at (1.Equation of a right circular cylinder: Fig/ 1. or AM = AP cos θ . z1) and r as its radius. Exercise Fill in the blanks : 1.8 x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = l m n be the axis of the right circular cylinder with A ≡ (x1. x +9 y −4 z −5 = = 10 −2 −3 is _______ units. 99 . π /3 2 2 −1 2. z) is any point on the surface of the cylinder.2. The radius of the right circular cylinder passing through the origin with its axis lying along the line 3. The vertex of the right circular cone whose axis is the line x +1 y − 3 = =z +2 −3 2 x= y −7 z +7 = −3 2 with the line as one of its generators is _______________ (2.1. If P ≡ (x.

4). 3.R.R.s of CA are 0. -2 ∴ The lines AB and BC have proportional D. 3. 2. 11 15 ∴cos A = D. -1 100 . -2) and (1. 0. B(-1. 4. -4. Find the centroid of the triangle ABC where A ≡ (-1. 3). 1).s of AB are –4. 1 7 3 17 ∴cos B = D. 2) . 3.R. -3 and D. 1. -4) and C ≡ (-1.  −1 + 3 +1 2 + 4 + 0 1 − 4 + 3  . D. 0. 2. =1 1 3 α =β =γ −1 ∴ angle = α = cos 5.R. Hence the points A. . 2. The lines have a common point B.s. 2). -4. -2 and those of the line BC are 4. 4. 3. 2 0 + 16 + 6 36 25 = and D. 0. 4. 2.s of the line AB are 1. 0.R. 2. D. 0. 3 3 3   The centroid G is given by 4. 0). 4. -1). 1. Show that the points A (2. 1) and C(3.R. of AC are 0.Questions 1.s of BA are 4. -8 or 1. ∴ The distance of (1. 10) are collinear.s. Find the angles made by a line with the coordinate axes if it is equally inclined with the axes. -2 and D. B ≡ (-3. Find the distance of the point (1.R. 4. -3) from the middle point of the line segment joining (-3. 4. B and C are collinear. 6) The mid-point of the given line segment is (-1. B (3. -3) from this point is 4 +1 + 25 = 30 units 2. Find the angles of the triangle ABC formed by the vertices A (3.s of BC are 4. 4. 4. 2) and C(-1.   or (1.R.s of CB are –4. We know that But cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ is given .

d). d). d). 0). A’ ≡ (0. 0.R.10 Let the cube be as shown in the figure with one of its vertices O as the origin of the coordinate system and the axes along the three sides OA. Fig. (i) The diagonal AA’ of the cube and the diagonal O’A of a face of the cube intersect. AA’.C. 101 . d.s of OO’ and AA’ are d. B’ ≡ (d. A ≡ (d. d. d. d and 0. D. 0). cos −1 = 2d 2 3d 2 2d 2 = cos −1 2 3 (ii) The diagonal AA’ of the cube and the diagonal B’C’ of a face of the cube do not intersect. d. 15 cos −1 = 7 3 17 −1 and cos = 3 5 17 6. OC of the cube respectively. then its vertices are given by O ≡ (0. C ≡ (0. -d. d . d. d. d. d. . 0. d respectively cos −1 = d2 +d2 +d2 3d 2 We can see that the four diagonals of the cube are OO’. BB’. Find the angle between a diagonal of a cube and (i) an intersecting diagonal of a face (ii) a non-intersecting diagonal of a face. and 0. and –d. 0). Their D. d. d. C’ ≡ (d.s are respectively proportional to –d.∴cos C = 3 5 17 ∴ The angles are cos −1 = 11 . d ∴ Angle between these two diagonals is given by 3d 2 = cos −1 1 3 7. D. d).s of these two lines are respectively ∴ Angle between them is given by –d. 0). O’ ≡ (d. If d is the length of each side of the cube. and CC’. 1. 0. d. OB. B ≡ (0.R. Find the angle between any two diagonals of a cube. 0.

0. β .10. 2 6 If these lines are inclined at angles α . n   n  ⇒ m + 2n = 0 or 2m + n = 0 These with l + m + n = 0 give us two sets of l.s are 0. β . 1. d . we get 2 m   m  ⇒  + 2  +  2 + 1 = 0.R. m m  + 2 +1 = 0 n n 2  Eliminating l from the given relations. -1. d. prove that cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 2. d. OC’. d. d and d. whose D. with OO’.C.s are given by the relations l+m+n=0 and 2lm + 2nl – mn = 0.s are given by pl2+qm2+rn2 = 0 are and ul + vm + wn = 0 and (i) perpendicular if u2(q+r) + v2(r+p) + w2(p+q) = 0 (ii) parallel if u2 v2 w2 + + =0 p q r 102 . of the faces meeting at O. OB’.n proportional to –1. d. 3 Hence the required result. The angle between these two lines is cos −1 −1 + 2 + 2 π = .∴ Angle between them is given by cos −1 = 0+d2 −d2 3d 2 2d 2 = π 2 8.m. γ with the diagonal OO’ of the cube. whose D. γ then the angles are given by cos α = Also cos 2 β = 2 3 2d 2 6d 2 = or cos 2 α = 2 3 and cos 2 γ = 2 . Show that the straight liens whose D. d. -2. Given a cube as in Fig.R. 1. 6 3 10. 2 and 1. The diagonals of the faces meeting at O and passing through O are OA’. 9.s are d. make angles α .C. Find the angle between the two lines whose D. the diagonals passing through O. 0.

3). say. mi. they have the same D. we have l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 ⇒ pw2 + ru2 + qu2 + pv2 + rv2 + qw2 = 0 ⇒ u2 (q+r) + v2(r+p) + w2(p+q) = 0 (ii) When the two lines are parallel. When these lines are perpendicular. i= 1. ni . -1) and (1. 0. ⇒ 4p2v2w2 . Also find the distance of the point (0. We get (i) ( pv 2 + qu 2 ) m2 m + 2 pvw + ( pw 2 + ru 2 ) = 0 -----------------( 1) 2 n n m and has two roots. 2. 103 . 2. This is true when equation (1) has two equal roots.s.4(pv2 + qu2) (pw2 + ru2 ) = 0 ⇒ qru2 + rpv2 + pqw2 = 0 ⇒ u2 v2 w2 + + =0 p q r from (2) Planes: 11. 5).Eliminating l from the two given relations. -4) from the plane.C. 2 are the two straight lines given by the relations. we get n1 n 2 ll = 212 2 2 qu + pv rv + qw 2 and l1l 2 m1 m 2 = 2 rv + qw pw 2 + ru 2 2 ∴ m1 m 2 nn ll = 2 1 2 2 = 2 1 2 2 ---------------(2) 2 2 pw + ru qu + pv rv + qw where li. by eliminating m and n from the given relations and then getting the product of the roots and simplifying. 4. Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (1. n Equation (1) is quadratic in m1 m2 and n1 n2 m1 m2 pw 2 + ru 2 = Then the product of the 2 roots is given by n1 n2 qu 2 + pv 2 or m1 m 2 pw + ru 2 2 = n1 n 2 qu + pv 2 2 Similarly. (2.

-2. ∴ The equation is x + y – 2z – 3 = 0. 4. or the two planes are perpendicular. 10. Find the equation of the plane bisecting perpendicularly the join of the points (2.-4) from this plane is 0 +6 + 4 −5 14 = 5 14 .2.1). (-1.23= 0. 12. 10. Show that the points (3. -1). 5) and (1. The angle between this plane and 2x-y+z = 6 is given by cosθ = 0. (1. 3. -2. 1. Since the point (1.7.What is the angle made by this plane with 2x-y+z = 6 ? x −1 1 −2 y −2 −2 2 z −3 −4 2 The plane through the three given points is = 5. 104 . b. -2.4.1) lies on it. x The equation of the plane in intercept form is 23 3 + y z + =1 23 23 2 6 ∴ The x-intercept by the plane is 2 3 units. c. Find the equation of the plane containing them and also the intercept made by it on the x-axis. 7. 5). Also a. 1) and (1. 0) lies on this plane.3) and (4. (-1.1) is x −3 2 2 y −4 3 9 z −1 −2 −4 = 0 or 3x +2y + 6z . 3 13.1.2. Let the equation of the required plane be ax+by+cz + d = 0 Then the mid-point (3. the four given points are coplanar. 0) are coplanar. The plane containing (3. 1). = 0 or 2x+3y-z Perpendicular distance of (0. are proportional to 1.

we have 2l – m + n = 0 and l + 3m – 2n = 0 . 2 But this is perpendicular to the plane 4x + 7y +4z +81 =0 ∴ We have (4 + 5k) 4 + (7 + 2k) 7 + (4 + 5k) 4 = 0. ∴ k =− 7x-8y+7z-237 =0. If l. ∴ The equation of the required plane is Straight lines: 16.C. Fig.14. ∴ The equation of the required plane is 5x + 7y + 3z =6. Find the equations of the straight line of intersection of the planes 2x – y + z = 5 and x +3y – 2z +1=0 The line of intersection is perpendicular to both the planes. The plane 4x + 7y + 4z +81 = 0 is rotated through a right angle about its line of intersection with the plane 5x + 2y + 5z = 25. The equation of the plane through the intersection of the given planes is x + 3y – z – 4 + k(2x + 2y + 2z – 1) = 0 or (1 + 2k) x + (3 + 2k) y + (-1 + 2k) z + (-4 – k ) =0 But this is given to be perpendicular to x + y – 4z = 0 ∴ 1 + 2k + 3 + 2k + 4 –8k =0 ⇒ k = 2. n are its D. 15.s. 1. Find the equation of the plane in its new position. Find the equation to the plane perpendicular to x + y – 4z = 0 and through the intersection of the planes x +3y –z = 4 and 2x + 2y +2z = 1. The plane in its new position passes through the line of intersection of the two given planes.11 ∴ Its equation is given by or 4x + 7y + 4z +81 + k (5x + 2y +5z – 25) = 0 (4 + 5k) x + (7 + 2k) y + (4 + 5k) z + (81 –25k) = 0 3 . m. 105 .

∴ the equations of PP’ are x −2 y −3 z −4 = = = k (say) 2 −1 1 M is given by M ≡ (2k+1. 18. say. 2) and P’ be its image. M lies on the given line. 3k + 1.R. we get (2. ∴ M ≡ (-1. . 2) y z −3 = . 3k. Find the image of the point P(1. 3 −2 we have k + 3 (3k + 1) –2(-2k + 1) = 0 ⇒ k = − 13 −3 44  ∴M ≡  . 3 −2 ∴ k = 1. then the line PP’ is perpendicular to the plane and the plane bisects the line at the point. -2k + 3) . 3) ∴ P’≡ (-2.∴ l : m : n = -1 : 5 : 7 Choosing z = 0 in the equations of the planes and solving the resulting equations. 2) in the line x −1 = Let P ≡ (1. . -1. ∴ D. Then PP’ is perpendicular to the given line and its mid-point. k+4) and lies on the given plane. ∴ Equations of the straight line are x − 2 y +1 z = = −1 5 7 17. 3. . -2k+1. y z −3 = . -2k +3 –2 Since PP’ is perpendicular to the line x −1 = or k. 3k+1. 14 14 14   6 4 30  ∴P' ≡  . 0) as a point lying on both the planes. 4. -k+3. say. M . -1. . 7 7 7  1 14 106 . 4) in the plane 2x – y +z + 3 = 0 . Find the image of the point (1.12 If P’ is the image of the point P in the given plane. -1. 1. ∴ M can be written as (k + 1.s if PP’ are k + 1 –1. 5. Fig.

Its image in the given plane is (-5. ∴ Its equations are x +5 y +4 z +3 = = . (1. 2. 2). -1. 107 .s of the image line are 4. ∴ It must intersect the plane. The given line is not parallel to the given plane. c from the three equations.19. -3) and is another point on the image of the line. c is perpendicular to the line. Find the equation of the plane through the points (1.s a. 4 3 2 20. -1) is the point of intersection of the given line and the given plane and hence is a point lying on the image of the line in the plane. 3. -4.(2) x −1 = y −1 z − 2 = . b. Any point on the given line is (2k + 1. -1) and (3.) and parallel to the line x −1 = 1− y z −2 = . ∴ (-1. we get x −1 2 1 y 2 −2 z +1 3 =0 3 or 4x-y-2z-6 = 0 is the equation of the plane. then k = -1. ∴ D. 3) is a point on the given line.--. If this lies on the plane. 3k +2. ∴ We have 2a + 2b + 3c = 0 ----------. 0.R. 2 3 The equation of the required plane is of the form a(x-1) + by + c (z+1) =0 -------(1) This plane also passes through the point (3. b. ∴ a – 2b + 3c = 0 ---------------------(3) Evaluating a.R. 4k + 3). Find the image of the line x −1 y − 2 z − 3 = = 2 3 4 in the plane x + y + z + 3 =0 . 2 . 2. 2.2. −2 3 The plane is parallel to ∴ The normal to the plane with D.

R. Find the angle that the line z = 0. 1. 2 3 −6 Then M ≡ (2k + 1. x −1 2z +3 = y −2 = makes with the plane x – y + 2 4 The required angle is the normal to the plane. Find the distance of the point (1.s of the first line are – 3b + 4c=0 and they are 1. 2 3 −6 Fig. 23.21. The equations of the line through P parallel to the given line are x −1 y + 2 z − 3 = = . 2.s of the second line are got by solving the equations 4a – b + c = 0 & 14a −1 ∴ Angle between the lines is cos 2+2−4 π = 9 2 22. -6k + 3). -2 . x z =y= and 4x – y + z –5 =0 = 14x – 3y + 2 2 2. −1 Here θ = cos π 2 −cos θ . D. Find the angle between the lines 4z – 20. 2 . 3) from the plane x – y + z =13 measured parallel to the line x y z = = . 3k .2. 3). D. 1. 108 . where θ is the angle between the line and 2 −1 + 2 3 3 = cos −1 1 3 1 3 −1 ∴ Required angle is sin . Let this line intersect the given plane at M. -2. -2.R.13 Let P ≡ (1.

PM = 7 units . ∴ l 2 0 m −3 −3 n 1 = 0 ⇒3l + m − 3n = 0 -----------------------(2) −1 Solving equations (1) and (2) . ∴ The required distance 2k + 1 –3k + 2 – 6k + 3 = 13 ⇒ k = -1. 1). 12k+2). n are 2x + y – z +8 = 0. we have ∴ M ≡ (-1. ∴ Equations of the required line are x − 3 y + 4 z −1 = = . ∴ The required distance is ( 2 +1) 2 + (5 −1) 2 + ( 2 +10 ) 2 =13 units 25. If this lies on the given plane. 3 4 12 Any point on the given line is (3k + 2. -5. m. then 3k + 2 – 4k +1 +12k +2 = 5 ⇒ k =0.s. Find the distance of the point (-1. 2 −3 x − 3 y + 4 z −1 = = . 2) is the point of intersection of the given line with the given plane.C. -1. l m n The equations of the required line are its D. parallel to the plane 2x + y –z +8 = 0 and intersecting the line x − 3 y +1 = = z −2. 24. Find the line through (3. -10) from the point of intersection of the line x − 2 y +1 z − 2 = = and the plane x .Since M lies on the plane. -4. This line is parallel to where l. 2 −3 ∴ They are coplanar. 4k –1. ∴ (2. -5. 2 −3 1 109 . ∴ We have 2l + m – n = 0 -----------------(1) The line intersects x − 3 y +1 = = z −2 . we get l : m : n are 2 :-3 :1 .y + z =5. 9).

which when solved. 5.s are proportional . k1 –4k2 – 7 units 110 . 4k2 + 5) They are also given by 7. Find the points of intersection and 3 −1 −3 2 4 also the length intercepted. -1 with the two given lines. Let P and Q be the points of intersection of the line with D. 3) to the given line. Find the equations of the line through (2. 4 −5 2 27. 1. 1.C. ∴ k + 3 + 2 (2k – 7) + 3 ( 3k –1) = 0 ⇒ k =1 ∴ M ≡ (6.2) and Q ≡ (-3k2 – 3. ∴ D. k1 + 7. k2 = -1 . 2 3 and perpendicular to the line Also find the length of the perpendicular from (2. A line with D. We get the equations 19k1 + 26k2 = 12 and k1 – 6k2 = 8. 1. If M is the foot of the perpendicular from (2.R. -k1 –2k2 + 4. ∴ Length intercepted 66 for some k1 & k2 ∴ D. ∴ Points of intersection are P ≡ (7. 0) and Q ≡ (0. -1 is drawn to intersect the lines x −1 y − 7 x +1 y − 3 z − 5 = = z + 2 and = = . 3) x −5= y +6 z −2 = .R. 3k –1 with P ≡ (2. 2k6.s of PM are k + 3.26. 2k2 + 3. 1) .s proportional to 7. 4. 1.R. -4. 4. ∴ These two sets of D. M ≡ (k+5. Then P ≡ (3k1 + 1.s 7. 4. 3) . 5) ∴ Perpendicular distance = Equations of the perpendicular line are 3 3 x − 2 y −1 z − 3 = = .R. k1. 3). -1.s of PQ are 3k1 + 3k2 +4. yield k1 =2.3k+2). 1. 2k – 7. But PM is perpendicular to the given line.

Line 2 has D. x −1 y − 2 z − 3 = = and 2 −4 7 29. 2 5 −6 What do you conclude here? The D.28.s –64. x −4 y −2 z −3 = = 2 −3 4 and Also find the equations of the shortest Line 1 has D. -2. -2. 111 . Find the shortest distance between the lines 5x +3y +7z +6 = 0 = 6x +7y -5z +14.s 11. ∴ Shortest distance length 11 10 2 (4 − 0) + ( 2 + 2) + (3 − 0) = 6 units 15 15 15 Equations of the shortest distance line are given by x −4 2 11 y −4 −3 10 z −3 x 4 = 0 = −64 2 11 y +2 67 10 z 17 2 or 46x – 40y – 53z + 55 = 0 = 4x – 35y + 153z – 70. 3) lying on it. 10. ∴ The lines are coplanar. -3. 0) on the line of shortest distance.R. ∴ The shortest distance line has D. 2. 2 .C. Hence they intersect. 17 and (0. Shortest distance = 11( 2 − 1) + 9(1 − 2 ) + ( 2 − 3) 206 =0.s 2. 2. 0) lying on it.s of the shortest distance line are proportional to 11. But the shortest distance is the projection of the join of (4. distance line.R. 2. Find the shortest distance between the line x − 2 y −1 z − 2 = = . 67. We can see that they are not parallel. 4 and (4. 9.R. 3) and (0.

This is parallel to the line x −1 y − 2 z − 3 = = .30. 3). 15 Cones and Cylinders : 31. Find the plane through the line to the line 5x + 3y + 7z +6 = 0 = 6x + 7y – 5z +2 and parallel x −1 y −1 z − 3 = = . 2. ∴ The equation of the required plane is 11x +10y + 2z + 8 = 0. 2 −3 4 ∴ (5 + 6k) 2 + (3+7k) (-3) + (7-5k) 4 = 0 ⇒ k = 1. ∴ It is 45 = 3 units. cos 2 α = x2 + y2 = (z-3)2 tan2 α given that the vertex is at [ 0( x − 0) + 0( y − 0) + ( z − 3)] 2 x 2 + y 2 + ( z − 3) 2 2 ⇒ x 2 + y 2 + ( z − 3) cos2 α = ( z − 3) 2 ⇒ x 2 + y 2 = ( z − 3) 2 tan 2 α [ ] 112 . is given by (0. 2. Hence find the length of the shortest distance 2 −3 4 between the given lines. 0. 2 3 1 2 [ 2( x − 1) + 3( y − 1) + ( z + 3) ] 3 cos 30 = = 4 14 ( x − 1) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 + ( z + 3) 2 or 21 ( x − 1) + ( y − 2 ) + ( z + 3) = 2[ 2 x + 3 y + z − 5] 2 2 2 [ [ ] ] 2 is the equation. 30o as its semivertical angle and its axis along the line 2 o x −1 y −1 z + 3 = = . 32. Any plane through the given line is (5 + 6k) x + (3 + 7k) y + (7 – 5k) z + (6 +2k) = 0. 3) on to this plane gives the shortest distance between the two given lines. Show that the equation of the right circular cone with semi-vertical angle as α and its axis along the z –axis. Find the equation of the right circular cone with vertex at (1. -3). Now the length of the perpendicular from the point (1.

1) whose axis is along the line cos 2 x −1 y − 2 z −1 = = . 0 1 0 x –2 = 0 = z The equations of the axis are Here A = (2. = (x – 2)2 + (y +1)2 + (y . [ 2(0 − 1) + 1(0 − 2) − 2(0 − 1)] 2 θ= 9 x6 = 2 27 If (x. ∴ (x –3y + 2z -7)2 = 14[(x-2)2 + (y + 1)2 + (z . then AM 2 [ ( y − 2) − 3( y + 1) + 2( z − 1) ] 2 = 14 . then 2 [ 2( x − 1) + 1( y − 2) − 2( z − 1)] = 27 9 ( x − 1) 2 + ( y − 2 ) 2 + ( z − 1) 2 2 [ or 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 2) 2 [ 2 ] + ( z + 1) ] = 3[ 2 x + y − 2 z − 2] 2 2 is the equation. is x2 + y2 – 4x – 2z + 4 = 0. by Pythagoras Theorem. Find the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is along the line x −2 = y +1 z −1 = −3 2 with the radius of its base as 3 units. 1. Show that the equation of a right circular cylinder whose axis is along –1 of radius unity. 0. 113 . (check fig. x − 2 y − 0 z −1 = = .1)2] –126 is the equation of the right circular cylinder. z) is any general point on the surface of the cone.9 ) But AM2 = AP2 – PM2 . 34. 35. ∴ We have x2 + z2 – 4x – 2z +4 = 0 as the equation. y.1)2 –9 . Given that the vertex of a right circular cone passing through the origin is at the point (1.33. Let A ≡ (2. 1) and r = 1. 1).2.-1. 2 1 −2 Find its equation.

-1) 114 . 2.36. PL perpendicular to the axis. . 0. QM = r.1) b) (-1. 0. 7 7 7 d) 3 −2 6 . 2 7 . 4) is a) (1. 1. 0) are a) 3. 3.s of the line perpendicular to the plane ABC formed by A≡ (1. 4. 6 b) 3 7 . γ are the angles made by a line with the coordinate axes. c) 3 2 6 . the value of sin2α + sin2 β + sin2 γ is a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 2. then AL2 = AP2 – PL2. 6 7 . The foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the line joining (1. If QM perpendicular to the axis. B≡ (3. If α . ] is the equation of the right circular cylinder. radius and r2 = AQ2 – AM2 =4+0+4− [ 3(2) + 4(0) + 5(−2)] 2 50 = 192 . β . 2. 3. 2 [ 3( x − 2) + 4( y − 3) + 5( z − 4)] or 50 ( x − 2 ) + ( y − 3) + ( z − 4 ) − (3 x + 4 y + 5 z − 38) 2 = 384 2 2 2 [ 50 = ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 − 192 / 25. z) is any general point on the surface of the cylinder. -1) and C≡ (1. 2) is a point on the surface of the cylinder. 0. y. The D. A straight line is inclined at angles 45o and 60o with the y and the z-axes respectively. 3.C. . 4) and Q ≡ (4. Find the equation of a right circular cylinder whose axis is a generator is x − 4 y −3 z − 2 = = 3 4 5 x −2 y −3 z −4 = = and 3 4 5 A ≡ (2. 7 7 7 4. 0. 4. 1). TEST : 1. 25 If P ≡ (x. 1) c) (1. Its inclination with x-axes is a) 60o b) 45o c) 75o d) 90o 3. 3) and (2. -1) d) (-1.

-1. 3) b) (4. 2. 10) and C(9. the value of λ b) 2 c) 3 4) 4 9. -1. -1. -2. 2) is a) x-y+z1=0 is a) 1 is a) x+2y-2z=0 b) x+2y-3z+7=0 2π 3 b) x+y-z+1=0 c) x+y-z-1=0 d) x-y-z-1 =0 8. (-3. 2). 2) and the origin are coplanar. 4). Traingle ABC is a) Isosceles 2y +9 = 0 is a) 1 2 b) Right angled c) equilateral d) Right angled isosceles 6. 4) and parallel to the plane x+2y-3z-7 = 0 c) x+2y-3z-15=0 5 6 d) x+2y-3z+15=0 1 6 10. The foot of the perpendicular from (3. 1) 13. 2.5. -1). 1. 5. The equation of the plane through (1. 4) and (4. -1. B(6. 2) are a) c) x −3 y −2 z −4 = = 4 5 2 b) x-4y+3z+6=0 c) 11x+6y+13z-44=0 d) 12x+7y+14z- b) x − 3 = d) x − 1 = y −2 z −4 = 3 2 x −4 y −5 z −2 = = 3 2 4 y −3 z +2 = 3 −2 14. 1) and (4. The equations of the straight line joining the points (3. 4) are the vertices of a triangle. 2. The points A(3. (7. 5. 5. -2. The equation of the plane through the line of intersection of the planes =0 and 2x+2y-3z-4 = 0 and parallel to the straight line x = 2y = 3z is 3x-4y+5z-10 115 . The perpendicular distance between the planes 2x – 2y + z + 3 = 0 and 4x – 4y + 1 6 1 3 2 3 b) c) d) 7. The acute angle between the plane 2x-y+z = 7 a) and x+y+2z-11 = 0 is d) cos −1 π 3 b) c) cos −1 11. 4. 1. If the points (1. The equation of the plane through the points (2. -1) d) (3. The equation of the plane through the line of intersection of the planes 2x3y+4z+1=0 and x+y+z-5=0 and perpendicular to the latter plane is a) 3x-2y+5z-4=0 49=0 12. 3. 2). 1. (λ . 1) to x+3y-2z+7 = 0 is a) (2. -1) c) (2.

A(1. The equation of the plane through the point (2. -4.1) and parallel to the line x-2y-z +5 = 0 = x+y+3z-6 are a) c) x − 2 y − 3 z −1 = = 5 −4 −3 x − 2 y − 3 z −1 = = −5 4 3 b) d) x − 2 y − 3 z −1 = = 5 4 −3 x − 2 y − 3 z −1 = = 5 −4 3 16. The plane 4x+5y-z+15=0 ______________ the line a) Perpendicular b) Contains x −1 y + 3 z − 4 = = 2 −1 3 c) Parallel to d) is at 45o with 116 . 3. Equations of the straight line through the point (3.a) x+20y –27z=14 b) x-20y-27z+14=0 c) x-20y +27z=14 +14=0 d) x +20y – 27z 15. -3) and perpendicular to two lines whose D. 4. -1. 3). 5) and parallel to the line 2x=3y=4z is a) 29x-27y –22z=85 b) 29x+27y-22z-85=0 c) 29x-27y-22z+85=0 d) 29x-27y+22z85=0 20. The equations of the median through A are a) c) x −1 y − 2 z − 3 = = −1 1 2 x − 4 y +1 z − 3 = = 1 −1 4 b) d) x − 2 y −1 z + 5 = = −1 −1 2 x −1 y − 2 z −1 = = 1 −1 4 19. Equations of the straight line through the point (2.s are 1:2:2 a) c) and 2 : 1 : 3 are b) d) x −3 y −4 z −3 = = 4 1 −3 x −3 y −4 z +3 = = 4 1 −3 x −3 y −4 z +3 = = 4 −1 −3 x −3 y −4 z −3 = = −4 1 −3 18. B(2. 2. 1. 3) are the vertices of a triangle. 1. -5) and C(4. -3) and perpendicular to the plane 3x+2y-4y-7=0 are a) c) x − 2 y −1 z + 3 = = 3 2 4 x − 2 y −1 z + 3 = = 3 2 −4 b) d) x − 2 y −1 z − 3 = = 3 2 4 x − 2 y −1 z −1 = = 3 2 −4 17.C. Equations of the straight line through the point (2. 0) & (3. -1.

21. 2) c) (3. The equation x2+y2-z2=0 represents a a) Sphere b) Cone a) Cylinder b) cone c) Cylinder d) Two planes d) none of the three 25. The straight line straight lines. a) c) b) (2. represents a c) Sphere 117 . 3. 3. The shortest distance between the straight lines x+y = 0 = y+z and x+y = 0 = x+y+z-a is a) a 6 b) 2a 3 c) 2a 3 d) 2 a 3 24. 3. 2) x −1 y − 2 z − 3 = = is non-coplanar with one of the following 2 3 4 3x − 5 y − 3 3 z − 13 = = 2 1 4 x − 2 y − 8 z − 11 = = 2 −1 2 b) x −2 y −4 z −5 = = 3 4 5 d) x = y + 1 z −1 = 3 2 23. The point of intersection of the straight lines x +2 y −5 z +2 = = is 2 −1 2 x −1 y −1 z + 1 = = and 1 2 3 a) (2. in space. 1) 22. 3. The equation y2+z2=1. 1) d) (3.

Angle between the radius vector and the tangent pedal equations of polar curves only. P-series. parametric form and Polar form. Tracing of standard curves in Cartesian form. PART . 5.coplanar lines-shortest distance between skew lines. PES. Polar curves .planes . Cauchy's integral test (All tests without proof) for series of positive terms. Infinite Series Convergence.Homogeneous and Non. A. length.Eshwar. Leibnitz's theorem (without proof) . secn x. Differential calculus Determination of nth derivatives of standard functions. Oriented problems. Applications to find area. tann x.T. cosec n x and sinm x cosn x .Homogeneous. cosn x. Alternating series.D 4.-Illustrative examples from engineering field. volume and surface area. Belgaum WEB-BASED EDUCATION Engineering Mathematics – I (I Semester) (VTU Sub.Code:MAT -11) Syllabus PART –A 1. divergence and oscillation of an infinite series. Cauchy's root test. Analytical geometry in 3 dimensions Direction cosines and direction ratios . (Use of initial condition should be emphasized). right circular cone and right circular cylinder. Comparison Test.variables separable . Absolute and conditional convergence. Exact equations and reducible to exact form.Jacobins . Leibnitz's test (without proof) 118 .Evaluation of these integrals with standard limits . Differential equations Solutions of 1st order & 1st degree equation. cotn x. Partial differentiation: Euler's Theorem. Differentiation of Composite and implicit functions .problems only. Integral calculus Reduction formulae for the functions sinn x.B 2. Raabe's test. -Illustrative Engg. Linear and Bernoulli’s equations.problems. Total differentiation. D'Alembert's ratio test.straight lines -Angle between planes/straight lines . PART – C 3. PART .Notes by Prof. Orthogonal trajectories of Cartesian and polar forms. Mandya Visvesvaraya Technological University.Errors and approximations.

. Series solutions of Differential Equations in all branches. E&C. Engg. Volume and Surface area. John Wiley & Sons. Filed Theory in E&E. Mandya 119 .D Differential equations 4 5 PART . PESCE. Description of Periodic phenomena • Contents of Part-B Differential Calculus (Part-B) A. Mathematical Modeling in circuits theory for E&E. Basic of Applied Mechanics.. Deflection of beams. Maths -I No (Code:MAT 11) 1 PART –A Analytical Geometry in 3 dimensions 2 PART .. Tracing of Curves for all branches of Engg.D Infinite Series Theory of signals in E&E. E&C. IS&E.Grewal. Higher Engineering Mathematics by B. Area. Reference book: 2.Whilring of shafts in Civil/ Mech.Engg Sl. in Civil & Mech. Engg. Engg.T. • Engineering Applications of MAT-11 at glance Applications Wave Theory in E&C. Spreading the functions & Electron beam deflections in E&C and E&E Basic Thermodynamics for Mech. CS&E. Applied Mechanics in Civil Engg. Advanced Engineering Mathematics: .. deflection torsion.July 2001.. Drawings in Mech.Engg.B Differential calculus 3 Part – C Integral Calculus PART .by E.S. Mechanical Vibrations.Eswara. Bending. Kreyszig. 36th Edition . 6th Ed.Text Book: 1.

1. Also. the idea of differential coefficient of a function and its successive derivatives will be discussed.Chapter 1 Successive Differentiation Chapter 2 Polar Curves Chapter 3 Partial Differentiation Lesson-1 n derivative of standard functions th Lesson-2 Leibnitz` s theorem Lesson-1 Angle between polar curves Lesson-2 Pedal equations Lesson-1 Euler’s theorem Lesson-2 Lesson-3 Total derivative. the computation of nth derivatives of some standard functions is presented through typical worked examples.When we have a formula for the distance that a moving body covers as a function of time. Definition of derivative of a function y = f(x):- • Fig.1.Differential calculus (DC) deals with problem of calculating rates of change. Applications to differentiation of Jacobians. Slope of the line PQ is f ( x + ∆x ) − f ( x) ∆x 120 . DC gives us the formulas for calculating the body’s velocity and acceleration at any instant.0 Introduction:. Errors composite & & Approximations implicit functions Chapter – 1 LESSON -1 : Successive Differentiation • In this lesson.

y 2 . y1 . The instantaneous velocity and acceleration of a body (moving along a line) at any instant x is the derivative of its position co-ordinate y = f(x) w. nth order derivative: D n y iv y ′ . D 2 y . y 3 …...1 1. • Notations: dy d 2 y d 3 y dny i.e. Velocity = dy = f ′(x) dx --------.1 Successive Differentiation:The process of differentiating a given function again and again is called as Successive differentiation and the results of such differentiation are called successive derivatives.... f ′′(x ) .….………..1) dx f ( x + ∆x ) − f ( x) lim = ∆→ -------..(1) x 0 ∆x = lim (Average rate change) ∆ → x 0 = Instantaneous rate of change of f at x provided the limit exists. y ′′ . nth order derivative: y n • Successive differentiation – A flow diagram Input function: y = f (x) derivative) Input function y ′ = f ′(x) order derivative) Operation Output function y′ = d df = f ′(x ) dx (first order dx Output function y ′′ = d2 f = f ′′( x) (second dx 2 Operation d dx 121 .……. .. nth order derivative: y ( n ) v. . nth order derivative: f n (x ) iii Dy.The derivative of a function y = f(x) is the function f ′(x) whose value at each x is defined as dy = f ′(x) = Slope of the line PQ (See Fig.t x.r. i. f ′′′(x) . .. • The higher order differential coefficients will occur more frequently in spreading a function all fields of scientific and engineering applications. D 3 y . y ′′′ .(2) And the corresponding acceleration is given by Acceleration = d2y = f ′′( x) dx 2 ---------.(3) • Session . nth order derivative: dx dx 2 dx 3 dx n ii f ′(x) .…….

y 2 = −  cos x   sin x  y 2 = − tan xy1 + cos2 xy .(1) w.t.x dx Again differentiating y1 = gives d2y y2 = = [ cos(sin x)( − sin x) + cos x(− sin(sin x) cos x ] Using product rule dx 2 d2y y2 = = − sin x cos(sin x) + cos 2 x sin(sin x) 2 dx [ ] cos x cos(sin x) + cos 2 x sin(sin x) i.t. prove that + tan x + y cos 2 x = 0 2 dx dx Solution: Differentiating y = sin(sin x) --------. • 1.x. (1) and (2) or or y 2 + tan xy1 + cos xy = 0 2 [ ] d2y dy + tan x + y cos 2 x = 0 2 dx dx 122 .(2) dy w.r.1 Solved Examples : d2y dy 1. using Eqs. cos x dx -------------. we get y1 = dy = cos(sin x).r. successively.Input function y ′′ = f ′′(x ) derivative) Operation Output function y ′′′ = d d3 f = f ′′′( x ) (third order dx 3 dx ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------dn f Input function y n −1 = f n −1 ( x) Operation Output function y n = n = f n (x) (nth order dx d derivative) dx Animation Instruction (Successive Differention-A flow diagram) Output functions are to appear after operating Operation d dx on Input functions. If y = sin(sin x ) .e.

(4) From (2). by actual division of ax+b by c x+d. dy dy = cos t and = p cos pt . we get 1 − x 2 2 y1 y 2 + ( y1 ) 2 ( −2 x ) = p 2 ( −2 yy1 ) .r. y = sin pt . [ ] 2 d2y dy 3.(ax + b) 2 .(2) ---------. If y = Differentiating (1) successively thrice.e. So we find.(1)where k =  b −   c  c  cx + d c c   2. If x = a (cos t + t sin t ) . as (cx + d ) ad  1 a ad    −1 y = a + b − = + k ( cx + d ) ---------. y = a (sin t − t cos t ) . Differentiating this equation w. Squaring on both sides c o ts (by data) ) ( ) ( ) Canceling 2 y1 throughout. show that 2 y1 y 3 = 3 y 2 (cx + d ) (ax + b) Solution: We rewrite y = .(3) ---------. (3) and (4) we get d2y −3 = y 2 = −2kc 2 ( cx + d ) 2 dx d3y −4 = y 3 = −6kc 3 ( cx + d ) 3 dx 2 y1 y 3 = 2 {− kc (cx + d ) −2 }{− 6kc 3 (cx + d ) −4 } 2 y1 y 3 = 12 k c (cx + d ) 2 4 −6 [ ] 2 y1 y 3 = 3 −2kc 2 (cx +d ) −3 2 Therefore 2 y1 y 3 = 3 y 2 . find dx 2 ( ) ) 123 . Prove that (1 − x 2 ) 2 − x + p2 y = 0 dx dx Solution: Note that the function is given in terms a parameter t. this becomes 1 − x 2 y 2 − xy1 = − p 2 y ( or 1 − x 2 y 2 − xy1 + p 2 y = 0 d2y dy i. dy y1 = = dx ( dy dt = pc o s t p . If x = sin t . we get dy −2 = y1 = −kc ( cx + d ) dx ---------.t x. (1 − x 2 ) 2 − x + p2 y = 0 dx dx d2y 4. as desired. so that dt dt dx dt 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( y1 ) 2 = p cos2 pt = p (1 − sin2 pt ) = p (1 − 2y ) cos t 1 − sin t 1− x 2 2 2 2 ∴1 − x ( y1 ) = p 1 − y .

a 2 2 1 ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) • Problem Set No. a 2 y 22 ( ) . If −1 ( ) d y h − ab = 2 dx ( hx + by ) 3 2 2 ( ) d2y dy + 2k + k2 +l2 y = 0 2 dx dx 2 d y dy . If ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 1 . prove that 1 + x 2 +x =0 2 dx dx ( ) ( ) x = a( c o ts+ l o ga nt 2 ) . y = a sin t . prove that d 2 + tan y dy  = 0   dx  dx  2 Ans: sin t a cos4 t Ans: d2y . when x = a cos 3 θ . If y = tan 6. If y = e ax sin bx .1 for practice. If y = Ae −kt cos( l t + c) . so that a y = cosh ( x a) = 1 + sin h ( x ) = 1 + y . show that 4. If y = a cosh x ( a ) . prove that a y 2 2 2 = 1 + y12 Solution: y1 = dy = a sinh x 1 = sinh x . Find 124 . a a dx 2 2 2 2 2 ay ∴ 2 = cosh x a i. 1. dy dt dx dt = a ts i nt = ta n t a tc o ts d2y 1  dt   1  = sec 2 t   = sec 2 t  = 2 3 dx  dx   at cos t  at cos t 5. 1. prove that 3. find d y t dx 2 2 2 y ( sinh x ) . y = b sin 3 θ 2 dx b cos ecθ sec 4 θ 3a 2 7. as desired.e. prove that y 2 − 2ay1 + a 2 + b 2 y = 0 2. If y = log x + 1 + x 2 5.Solution: dy = a ( − sin t + t cos t + sin t ) = at cos t dt dy = a ( cos t + t sin t − cos t ) = at sin t dt  d y ∴ =   d x Hence. and a a a dx d2y y2 = = cosh x 1 .

 x d3y −1 8. prove that x Ans: -3/2 d2y dy +2 − xy = 0 2 dx dx • Session -2 1. If xy = e x + be −x . Table : 1 125 . If x = 2 cos t − cos 2t .2 Calculation of nth derivatives of some standard functions • Below. we present a table of nth order derivatives of some standard functions for ready reference. where y = tan   2 3 dx  1− x     Ans: d2y π x = 2  2  dx  (1 − x ) 2 1 + 2x 2 5 2 9. Find   10. Find . x = 2 sin t − sin 2t .

iii. we get y 2 = m me mx = m 2 e mx Similarly.Sl. 7. ii. Consider e mx . m( m −1)( m − 2 ).t x. No 1 2 3 y = f(x) yn = dny = Dn y dx n e mx a mx ( ax + b ) m m n e mx n m n ( log a ) a mx i.. r n e ax cos( bx + c + nθ ) .t x. 10. we get y1 = me mx . we get y3 = m 3 e mx ( ) 126 . for all 0 if (n!) a n if m = n m! x m −n if ( m − n )! m< n m< n 4 5. Hence. Again differentiating w. 6.r.r. 8. as only the above functions are able to produce a sequential change from one derivative to the other. iv. ( m − n +1) a n ( ax + b ) m −n m.. Let y = e mx . Differentiating w. r = a2 + b2 r = a2 + b2 θ = ta n− 1 (b a) θ = ta n− 1 ( b a) We proceed to illustrate the proof of some of the above results. 9.. • 1 ( ax + b ) (−1) n n ! an n +1 (ax + b) (−1) n (m + n −1) ! n a (m −1) !(ax + b) m +n ( − ) n −1 ( n −1) ! n 1 a (ax +b) n 1 ( ax + b ) m log( ax + b) sin( ax + b) cos( ax + b) e ax sin( bx + c ) e ax cos( bx + c) a n sin(ax + b + n π ) 2 a n cos(ax + b + n π ) 2 r n e ax sin( bx + c + nθ ) . in general we cannot obtain readymade formula for nth derivative of functions other than the above. 1.

.e. ( m −n +1) ( ax + b ) m −n a n for all m. No-5 of Table-1 ) y= 1 = ( ax + b ) −m ( ax + b ) m y 2 = ( − 1)( m ) − ( m + 1)( ax + b ) Similarly. And hence we get y n = m ( m −1) ( m − 2 ) ………... Case (i) If m = n (m-positive integer)..e. ( ax + b ) m (See Sl.(i.y 4 = m 4 e mx …………….r.t x.e m( m −1)( m − 2 )..t x − m −1 − ( m +1) y1 = −m( ax + b ) a = ( − 1) m( ax + b ) a [ − ( m +1) −1 3 y 4 = ( − 1) m( m + 1)( m + 2)( m + 3)( ax + b ) …………………………… n y 3 = ( − 1) m( m + 1)( m + 2 )( ax + b ) − ( m+ 4 ) a = ( − 1) m( m + 1)( ax + b ) 2 −( m+3 ) ] − ( m+ 2 ) a2 a3 a4 −( m + n ) y n = ( − 1) m( m + 1)( m + 2 ). 1 ( ax + b ) m Let i. ( m + n − 1)( ax + b ) an This may be rewritten as 127 . ( m − n + 1)( ax + b ) a n becomes [ ] ..2. Thus D n ( ax + b ) m = 0 if ( m < n ) Case (iii) m −n If m>n. y n = ( n!) a n Case (ii) If m<n. we get y 2 = m ( m −1) ( ax + b ) m−2 a 2 Similarly.3.. the right hand site yields zero. y1 = m ( ax +b ) m −1 a . (See Sl. we get y3 = m ( m −1) ( m − 2 ) ( ax + b ) m−3 a 3 …………………………………. And hence we get d n mx y n = m n e mx ∴ [e ] = m ne mx . Again differentiating w... ( m − n +1)( m − n ) ! ( ax + b ) m −n a n ( m − n) ! m! yn = ( ax + b ) m−n a n ( m − n) ! = 3. if n>m) which means if we further differentiate the above expression..r. we get 4 Differentiating w. No-3 of Table-1 ) let y = ( ax + b ) m Differentiating w.. n dx 2.. then y n = m( m − 1)( m − 2 )..t x.1 ( ax + b ) n −n a n i..then the above expression becomes y n = n ( n −1) ( n − 2 ) ……….r.

.1.. ( m +1) m( m −1) ! ( ax + b ) −( m +n ) a n ( m −1) ! n ( −1) ( m + n − 1) ! a n yn = or ( m −1) !( ax + b ) m +n 4. (a) log( 9 x 2 −1) (b) log [(4 x + 3)e 5 x +7 ] (c) log 10 (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3 x ) ( x + 1) 6 Solution: (a) Let y = log( 9 x 2 −1) = log {(3 x +1)( 3 x −1)} y = log( 3 x +1) + log( 3 x −1) ( log( AB ) = log A + log B ) ∴y n = dnn { log( 3x + 1)} + dnn { log(3x − 1)} dx dx i..e y n = (−1) n −1 ( n −1) ! (−1) n −1 (n −1) ! (3) n + (3) n (3x +1) n (3 x −1) n (b) Let y = log [(4 x + 3)e 5 x +7 ] = log( 4 x + 3) + log e 5 x +7 = log( 4 x + 3) + (5 x + 7) log e e ( log A B = B log A ) ∴y = log( 4 x + 3) + (5 x + 7) ( log e e = 1 ) ∴y n = (−1) n −1 (n −1) ! ( 4) n + 0 (4 x + 3) n  D (5 x + 6) = 5 D 2 (5 x + 6) = 0 D n (5 x +1) = 0 (n > 1) (c) Let y = log 10 (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3x) ( x + 1) 6 128 .2. 1 ( ax + b ) (See Sl.2. Worked Examples:In each of the following Questions find the nth derivative after reducing them into standard functions given in the table 1.1 1. No-4 of Table-1 ) Putting m =1.yn = ( −1) n ( m + n −1)( m + n − 2 ).. in the result   (−1) n (m + n −1) ! n 1 Dn  = a m  m +n  ( ax + b)  ( m −1) !(ax + b)   (−1) n (1 + n −1) ! n 1 Dn  = a we get  1+n ( ax + b)  (1 −1) !(ax + b) n n or D   = (ax + b)1+n a  (ax + b)   1  (−1) n n ! • 1.

(3) n + ( −3) n − 6. [ ] [ ] (c) Let y = e − x sinh 3 x cosh 2 x e 3 x − e −3 x e 2 x + e −2 x  = e −x    2 2    129 . (a) e 2 x +4 + 6 2 x +4 (b) cosh 4 x + cosh 2 4 x 1 1 + (6 x + 8) 5 (c) e − x sinh 3 x cosh 2 x (d) (4 x + 5) + (5 x + 4) 4 Solution: (a) Let y = e 2 x +4 + 6 2 x +4 ∴ hence = e2xe4 + 62x64 y = e 4 (e 2 x ) +1296 (6 2 x ) yn = e 4 dn 2 x dn (e ) + 1296 n (6 2 x ) n dx dx 4 n 2x n = e {2 e } + 1296 {2 (log 6) n 6 2 x } 2 (b) Let y = cosh 4 x + cosh 2 4 x  e 4 x + e −4 x   e 4 x + e −4 x  +  =     2 2     1 4x 1 4x 2 = e + e −4 x + (e ) + (e −4 x ) 2 + 2(e 4 x )( e −4 x ) 2 4 1 4x 1 8x y = e + e −4 x + e + e −8 x + 2 2 4 1 n 4x 1 y n = 4 e + ( −4) n e −4 x + 8 n e 8 n + (−8) n e −8 n + 0 2 4 ( ) { } ( ) { } hence. yn = 1 2 log e 10  ( −1) n −1 ( n −1) ! ( −1) n −1 ( n −1) ! ( −1) n −1 ( n −1) ! n  2. (1)   (3 x + 5) n (2 − 3x) n ( x +1) n   2.= 1  (3 x + 5) 2 (2 − 3 x)      log e 10  ( x + 1) 6      log 10 X = log e X log e 10 =  (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3 x)  1 1 log    log e 10  2 ( x + 1) 6   log A B = B log A   A log   = log A − log B B = 1 log( 3 x + 5) 2 + log( 2 − 3 x) − log( x +1) 6 2 log e 10 1 ∴ y = 2 log 10 {2 log( 3x + 5) + log( 2 − 3x) − 6 log( x +1)} e { } Hence.

Hence,

e −x (e 3 x − e −3 x )( e 2 x + e −2 x ) 4 e −x 5x = e − e − x + e x − e −5 x 4 1 = e 4 x − e −2 x + 1 − e −6 x 4 1 y = 1 + e 4 x − e −2 x − e −6 x 4 1 y n = 0 + (4) n e 4 x − (−2) n e −2 x − (−6) n e −6 x 4 1 1 + (6 x + 8) 5 (d) Let y = (4 x + 5) + (5 x + 4) 4 =

{

}

{

}

{

}

{

}

{

}

Hence, y n =

 dn  1  dn  1 + ( 6 x + 8) 5  + n  4  (4 x + 5)  dx  (5 x + 4)  dx n  ( −1) n n ! ( −1) n ( 4 + n −1) ! = ( 4) n + (5) n + 0 n +1 4 +n ( 4 x + 5) ( 4 −1) !(5 x + 4) dn dx n

{

}

i.e y n =

(−1) n n ! ( −1) n (3 + n) ! ( 4) n + (5) n ( 4 x + 5) n +1 3!(5 x + 4) n +4

• Session - 3
• 1.2.2 Worked examples:1 1 x2 1. (i) 2 (ii) (iii) x − 6x + 8 1 − x − x2 + x3 2x 2 + 7x + 6 (iv)  (v)

1  x +2 + x + 1  4 x 2 + 12 x + 9  1+ x   tan −1   1 − x 

tan −1 x

( a)

(vi) tan −1 x (vii)

In all the above problems, we use the method of partial fractions to reduce them into standard forms.

130

Solutions: (i) Let y = •

1 1 . The function can be rewritten as y = ( x − 4)( x − 2) x − 6x + 8 This is proper fraction containing two distinct linear factors in the denominator. So, it can be split into partial fractions as
2

y=

1 A B = + Where the constant A and B are found ( x − 4)( x − 2) ( x − 4) ( x − 2)

as given below.
1 A( x − 2) + B ( x − 4) = ( x − 4)( x − 2) ( x − 4)( x − 2)

∴ 1 = A( x − 2) + B( x − 4)

-------------(*)

Putting x = 2 in (*), we get the value of B as B = − 1

2

Similarly putting x = 4 in(*), we get the value of A as A = 1 2

∴y = ( x − 4)( x − 2) = x − 4 +
yn = 1 dn 2 dx n  1  1 dn  − n  x − 4  2 dx  1     x −2

1

(1 / 2)

( −1 / 2) x −2

Hence

=

 1  (−1) n n !  1  (−1) n n ! (1) n  −  (1) n   n +1 n +1 2  ( x − 4)  2  ( x − 2) 
  1 1 1 ( −1) n n !  −  2 ( x − 4) n +1 ( x − 2) n +1  

=

(ii) Let y =

1 1 1 = = 2 3 2 1− x − x + x (1 − x) − x (1 − x) (1 − x )(1 − x 2 ) 1 1 ie y = (1 − x)(1 − x)(1 + x ) = (1 − x) 2 (1 + x)

Though y is a proper fraction, it contains a repeated linear factor
(1 − x ) 2 in its

denominator. Hence, we write the function as
y= A B C + + 2 (1 − x) (1 − x ) 1+ x

in terms of partial fractions. The

constants A, B, C are found as follows:

131

y=

1 (1 − x) (1 + x)
2

=

A B C + + 2 (1 − x) (1 − x) 1+ x

ie 1 = A(1 − x)(1 + x) + B (1 + x) + C (1 − x) 2 -------------(**) Putting x = 1 in (**), we get B as B = 1

2 Putting x = -1 in (**), we get C as C = 1 4

Putting x = 0 in (**), we get 1 = A + B + C

∴A = 1 − B − C = 1 − 1 2 − 1 4 = 1 4 A ∴ = 14
Hence, y =

yn =

 1  (−1) n ( 2 + n − 1) ! n  1  ( −1) n n !  1  ( −1) n ! (1) n  +  (1)  +  (1) n   n +1 2 +n n +1 4  (1 − x)  2  ( 2 − 1) !(1 − x)  4  (1 + x) 
n

(1 / 4) (1 / 2) (1 / 4) + + 2 (1 − x ) (1 − x ) (1 + x)

=

  1  (−1) n ( n +1) ! 1 1 1 ( −1) n n !  +  +  n +1 4 (1 + x ) n +1  2  (1 − x ) n + 2  (1 − x )

x2 (iii) Let y = 2 (VTU July-05) 2x + 7x + 6 This is an improper function. We make it proper fraction by actual division and later spilt that into partial fractions.

i.e

−7 x − 3 1 2 ∴y = + 2 (2 x + 3)(x + 2)

1 (− 7 2 x − 3) x ÷ (2 x + 7 x + 6) = + 2 2 2x − 7x + 6
2 2

Resolving this proper fraction into partial

fractions, we get
y= 1  A B  + + . Following the above examples for finding A & 2  ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 2)  

B, we get

1  92 ( − 4)  y= +  + 2  2 x + 3 x + 2 
Hence, y n = 0 +
  (−1) n n !  9  (−1) n n ! ( 2) n  − 4  (1) n   n +1 n +1 2  ( 2 x + 3)   ( x + 2) 

132

Hence. y is given by  x +1   x +1  1  1  y =1+ + 2  x + 1  ( 2 x + 3) [ (2 x + 3) 2 = 4 x 2 +12 x + 9 ] Resolving the last proper fraction into partial fractions.e  9 2 (2) n 4  y n = (− 1) n !  −  n+1 ( x + 2) n + 1   (2 x + 3) n (iv) Let y = ( x + 2) x + 2 ( x + 1) 4 x + 12 x + 9 (i) (ii) Here (i) is improper & (ii) is proper function. Solving we get (2 x + 3) (2 x + 3) 2 (2 x + 3) 2 A= 1 B=−3 2 and 2 − 32   1   12 + ∴y = 1 +  + 2  1 + x   (2 x + 3) (2 x + 3)   ( −1) n n ! n  1  (−1) n n !  3  (−1) n ( n + 1) !  yn = 0 +  (1)  +  ( 2) n  −  ( 2) n  ∴ n n +1  (1 + x)  2  ( 2 x + 3)  2  ( 2 x + 3) n + 2  (v) tan −1 x Let ( a) 1 1+ x y = tan−1 x ( a) a  1  = 2 2 2  a x + a ∴y1 = ( a) 2  a  y n = D n y = D n −1 ( y1 ) = D n −1  2 2  x +a  Consider a a = 2 ( x + ai )( x − ai ) x +a A B = + .i. ( x + ai ) ( x − ai ) = ( x + ai) (− 12i ) + ( 12i ) ( x − ai) . by actual division (i) becomes  x +2  1    =1+   . So. 133 . on resolving into partial fractions. we get x A B = + . on solving for A & B.

θ = tan −1   a x x + ai = r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) = re iθ x − ai = r ( cos θ − i sin θ ) = re −iθ 1 1 e inθ 1 e −inθ = n −inθ = n . We take transformation x = r cos θ a = r sin θ where r = x 2 + a 2 .(v) we get y n which is same as above with or x = cot θ r = x 2 + 1 θ = tan−1 1 ( x) ∴ r = cot 2 θ + 1 = cos ecθ ⇒ 1 1 = = sin n θ n r cos ec nθ n −1 D n ( tan −1 x ) = ( − 1) ( n − 1) ! sin n θ sin nθ where θ = cot −1 x −1 (vii) Let y = tan  1 + x   1 − x  put x = tan θ θ = tan −1 x 1 + tan θ ∴ y = tan −1 1 − tan θ      = ta n− 1 [ ta nπ (4 + θ )] π  tan π ( 4  1 + tan θ  +θ =    1 − tan θ  ) + θ = + tan −1 ( x) 4 4 π y = + tan −1 ( x) 4 y n = 0 + D n (tan −1 x ) =π 134 . a  n − 1  − 12i  n − 1  12i  ∴  2 2= D  D + D   x +a   x + a i  x − a i n− 1 n −1 n −1  1  ( −1) ( n −1) !  1  ( −1) ( n −1) ! =  −  +     -----------(*) n n  2i  ( x + ai )   2i  ( x − ai )  • Since above answer containing complex quantity i we rewrite the answer in terms of real quantity. = n r ( x − ai ) n r e ( x + ai ) n r now(*) is y n yn = 2 i rn ( −1) n −1 ( n −1)! [e inθ = 2i r n − e −inθ ] ( −1) n −1 ( 2 i sin nθ ) ⇒ ( −1) n −1 ( n −1)! sin nθ rn (vi) Let y = tan −1 x θ = cot −1 ( x ) .Putting a = 1 in Ex.

3 4.a 2 • Session 4 π As sin( X + ) = cos X 135 . 2 2 2 2 ( x −1)( x − 4) ( x + 2)( x − 2 x +1) 4x − x − 3 x + 2x − x − 2 x3 x 2 − 3x + 2 −1  2 x  6.2. tan  2  1 − x  − 1 7. sin( ax + b) .r. Differentiating w. tan    1 + x 2 −1    x   1.n −1 n −1  1  ( −1) ( n −1) !  1  ( −1) ( n −1) ! =  −  +     n n  2i  ( x + ai )   2i  ( x − ai )  Problem set No. y1 = cos( ax + b). 1.t x. 5. No-7 of Table-1 ) Let y = sin( ax + b) .1 for practice Find the nth derivative of the following functions: 1. 6x x x x 2 + 4x + 1 2. 3.(See Sl.

. y n = r n e ax sin ( bx + c + nθ ) y1 can be rewritten as 1.e.r. 2. (See Sl.. we write y 2 as y 2 = r 2 e ax sin ( bx + c + 2θ ) y 3 = r 3 e ax sin ( bx + c + 3θ ) Continuing in this way. No-9 of Table-1 ) Let y = e ax sin ( bx + c )...a y 2 as π Again using sin( X + ) = cos X . θ = tan−1 b • ( a) n ax n ax ∴ D [e sin ( bx + c ) ] = r e sin ( bx + c + nθ ) .we get i. we get y 4 = r 4 e ax sin ( bx + c + 4θ ) y 5 = r 5 e ax sin ( bx + c + 5θ ) …………………………….e.( 2) Comparing expressions (1) and (2). ..2..We can write y1 = a sin( ax + b + π / 2). Again Differentiating w. y 2 = a 2 sin( ax + b + 2π / 2).t x.. where r = a 2 + b 2 & y1 = e ax [ ( r cos θ ) sin ( bx + c ) + ( r sin θ ) cos( bx + c ) ] y1 = e ax [ r{sin ( bx + c ) cos θ + cos( bx + c ) cos θ }] y1 = re ax [ sin ( bx + c + θ ) ]. …………………………… y n = a n sin( ax + b + nπ / 2). For computation of higher order it is convenient to express the constants ‘a’ and ‘b’ in terms of the constants r and θ defined by a = r cos θ & b = r sin θ . y 2 = a cos( ax + b + π / 2)....a i. derivatives y1 = e ax cos ( bx + c )b + sin ( bx + c ) ae ax y1 = e ax [ a sin ( bx + c ) + b cos ( bx + c ) ] .so t r = a 2 + b 2 and θ = tan−1 b ( a ) .e. e ax sin ( bx + c ). or i.. we get y 3 = a 3 sin( ax + b + 3π / 2). Similarly. y 4 = a 4 sin( ax + b + 4π / 2).we get 2 y 2 = a sin( ax + b + π / 2 + π / 2).thus..( 1) Differentiating using product rule .3 Worked examples 136 ..

(i) sin 2 x + cos 3 x (ii) sin 3 cos 3 x (iii) cos x cos 2 x cos 3 x (iv) sin x sin 2 x sin 3 x (v) e 3 x cos 2 x (vi) e 2 x (sin 2 x + cos 3 x ) • The following formulae are useful in solving some of the above problems.2 sin  2 x + 2  − 6 sin  6 x + 2  32      (iii) )Let y = cos 3x cos x cos 2 x = 1 ( cos 4 x + cos 2 x ) cos 2 x = 1 cos 4 x cos 2 x + cos 2 2 x 2 2 1 1 1 − cos 4 x  =  ( cos 6 x + cos 2 x ) +  2 2 2  1 cos 2 x 1 = cos 6 x + + (1 − cos 4 x ) 4 4 4 nπ  nπ    n 2 n cos 2 x +  4 cos 4 x +  1 n nπ  2  2     ∴ y n = 6 cos 6 x + − + 4 2  4 4  [ ] (iv) )Let y = sin 3 x sin x sn 2 x = 1 [sin ( 2 x ) − sin 4 x] sin 2 x 2 137 .1. (i) sin 2 x = 1 − cos 2 x 2 (ii ) cos 2 x = 1 + cos 2 x 2 (iii) sin 3x = 3 sin x − 4 sin 3 x (iv ) cos 3 x = 4 cos 3 x − 3 cos x (v) 2 sin A cos B = sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A − B ) (vi) 2 cos A sin B = sin ( A + B ) − sin ( A − B ) (vii) 2 cos A cos B = cos ( A + B ) + cos ( A − B ) (viii) 2 sin A sin B = cos ( A − B ) − cos ( A + B )  1 − cos 2 x  1  + ( cos 3 x + 3 cos x ) 2   4 2 3 Solutions: (i) Let y = sin x + cos x =  ∴ yn = 1 1 n n 0 − ( 2 ) cos 2 x + nπ + ( 3) cos 3 x + nπ + 3 cos x + nπ 2 4 2 2 2 3 [ ( )] [ ( ) ( )] (ii)Let y = sin 3 x cos 3 x =  = sin 3 2 x 1  − sin 6 x + 3 sin 2 x   sin 2 x  =   =  8 8 4  2   1 [3 sin 2 x − sin 6 x ] 32 1  n  nπ  nπ   n yn = 3.

1.2.No.1 138 . r2 = 2 2 + 3 2 = 13 . s i xns i 2 x 6.9. 10 of Table 1) ∴ y n = re cos ( 2 x + nθ ) where 3x (v) Let y = e 3 x cos 2 x r = 3 2 + 2 2 = 13 −1 & θ = tan   (vi) Let y = e 2 x (sin 2 x + cos 3 x )  2 3 1 − cos 2 x 1 + [ cos 3 x + 3 cos x ] 2 4 2x ∴ = e 2 x sin 2 x + cos 3 x = e 2 x 1 − cos 2 x  + e4 [ cos 3x + 3 cos x] y   2   1 2x 1 2x ∴y = e − e 2 x cos 2 x + e cos 3 x + 3e 2 x cos x 2 4 We know that [sin 2 x + cos 3 x ] = [ ] [ ] [ ] Hence. yn = 1 n 2x 1 2 e − r1n e 2 x cos ( 2 x + nθ1 ) + r2n e 2 x cos ( 3 x + nθ 2 ) + 3r3n e 2 x cos ( x + nθ 3 ) 2 4 = 8 [ ] [ ] where r1 = 2 2 + 2 2 . sin 3 x 4.2 for practice Find nth derivative of the following functions: 1.θ 3 = tan −1   . cos 2 x. e (sin x + cos x) 7. r3 = 2 2 + 12 = 5 2 3 1 θ1 = tan −1   . (sin 3 x + cos 2 x) 2.= 1 sin 2 2 x − sin 4 x sin 2 x 2 1 1 − cos 4 x 1  − ( sin 2 x − sin 6 x )  =  2 2 2  [ ]  1 − cos 4 x  1  =   − ( sin 2 x − sin 6 x )  4  4   1 nπ  n  nπ  nπ   n y n = 4 n cos 4 x +  − 2 sin  2 x +  + 6 sin 6 x + 4 2  2  2       (Refer Sl.θ 2 = tan −1   . e cos 3 x (VTU Jan-04) LESSON -2 : Leibnitz’s Theorem • Session . sin 2 x cos 3x 3. e cos 2 x cos 4 x 8. e sin x cos 2 x −3 x . cos x cos 2 x 3x 3 2 x −x 2 n 5. 2 2 2 Problem set No.

. term wise.uD n v .• • Leibnitz’s theorem is useful in the calculation of nth derivatives of product of two functions.D(1 − x 2 )+ n C 2 D n −2 ( y 2 ) D 2 (1 − x 2 )+ n C 3 D n −3 ( y 2 ) D 3 ( [ ] = y ( n ) +2 − x 2 ) + ny ( n −1) +2 .(1 − x 2 ) + n C1 D n −1 ( y 2 ). where D = n( n −1) n! d n n ... n times..( 0) +. throughout] Equation (1) has second order derivative y 2 in it..(1) [ ÷ 2 y1 ...(3) 139 ...r.( − ) + 2 .e D n y 2 (1 − x 2 ) = D n ( y 2 ). We differentiate (1)...t.. y ( n −3) +2 . Taking u = y 2 and v = (1 − x 2 ) and applying Leibnitz’s theorem we get [( ) ] D n [uv ] = D n uv +n C1 D n −1uDv +n C 2 D n −2 D 2 v +n C 3 D n −3 uD 3 v + .(2) (a) (b) (c) Consider the term (a): D n 1 − x 2 y 2 . then n D (uv ) = D n uv +n C1 D n −1uDv +n C 2 D n −2 uD 2 v + .e D n { (1 − x 2 ) y 2 } − D n { xy1 } − D n ( p 2 y ) = 0 [( ) ] ---------... So. Statement of the theorem: If u and v are functions of x. using Leibnitz’s theorem as follows.. 1 1 2 2 1 2 − xy1 + p y = 0 --------------. x. i. C 2 = 2 r!( n − r )! dx • Worked Examples 1.. C1 = n . y = sin pt prove that (1 − x 2 ) y n+2 − ( 2n + 1) xy n+1 + ( p 2 − n 2 ) y n = 0 (VTU July-05) Solution: Note that the function y = f (x) is given in the parametric form with a parameter t.. +n C r D n −r uD r v + ..( − x) + 2 D n 1 − x 2 y 2 = 1 − x 2 y n+ 2 − 2nxy n+1 − n(n − 1) y n [( ) ] ( ) n(n −1) n(n −1)( n −2) y ( n −2 ) +2 . we consider dy dt (p – constant) dx dt dy = dx ( pc o s t p = c o ts ) ( p 2 cos 2 pt p 2 (1 − sin 2 pt ) p 2 (1 − y 2 )  dy  = = or   = cos 2 t 1 − sin 2 t 1− x2  dx  2 or 1 − x 2 y12 = p 2 1 − y 2 So that 1 − x 2 y12 − p 2 1 − y 2 2 [ (1 − x )( 2 y y ) + y ( − 2 x) ] − p ( − 2 yy ) = 0 (1 − x ) y 2 ( ) ( ) ) Differentiating w. n C r = . If x = sin t . 2 2 D n 1 − x 2 y 2 − xy1 − p 2 y = 0 i. 2! 3! ----------.

r.  n  n( n −1) n −2 2 n− 1 ( y 2 ) 2( x +1) + D ( y 2 )( 2)  + D n ( g 1 )( x +1) + nD n −1 y1 (1) + 4 D n y = 0 D y 2 ( x +1) + nD 2!   { } On simplification. = y ( n ) +1 .x +ny ( n −1) +1 + D n [ xy1 ] = xy n +1 + ny n n(n −1) y ( n −2 ) +2 (0) +. 2! ---------. using Leibnitz’s theorem.( x) + n C1 D n −1 y1 .r. (4) and (5) in Eq (2) we get D n ( p 2 y) = p 2 D n ( y) = p 2 y n 2 n+ 2 2 2 2 ie (1 − x ) y n + 2 − (2n + 1) xy n +1 − n y n + ny n − ny n + p y n = 0 ( ∴1 − x 2 ) y n+2 − (2n + 1) xy n +1 + ( p 2 − n 2 ) y n = 0 as desired.t x. If sin −1 y = 2 log( x +1) or ( x + 1) 2 y n +2 + ( 2n + 1)( x + 1) y n +1 + ( n 2 + 4) y n sin −1 y = sin [ 2 log( x +1) ] or y = sin log( x + 1) 2 or y = sin log( x 2 + 2 x +1) . we get  2  ( y1 ) =   ie ( x +1) y = 2 1 − y 2 1  x +1  1− y 1 2 Squaring on both sides ( x + 1) 2 y12 = 4(1 − y 2 ) Again differentiating w.. n-times.(4) Consider the term (c): --------.t x. Taking u = y1 and theorem. we get v = x and applying Leibnitz’s D n [ y1 ( x )] = D n ( y1 ).t x.(5) Substituting these values (3). we get ( x + 1) 2 y n +2 + ( 2n + 1)( x + 1) y n +1 + ( n 2 + 4) y n = 0 140 .. D 2 ( x) + .. we consider the function as ( y ) = 2 log( x +1) Differentiating w. {(1 − x ) y − 2nxyn+1 − n(n − 1) y n } − { xyn +1 + ny n } + { p 2 y n } = 0 2.Consider the term (b): D n [ xy1 ] . show that [ ] = 0 (VTU Jan-03) Out of the above four versions..r.. ( x + 1) 2 ( 2 y1 y 2 ) + y12 ( 2( x + 1) ) = 4(−2 yy1 ) or or ( x + 1) 2 y 2 + ( x + 1) y1 = −4 y (÷2 y1 ) -----------* ( x + 1) 2 y 2 + ( x + 1) y1 + 4 y = 0 Differentiating * w.D( x )+ n C 2 D n −2 ( y1 )..

On squaring ) 141 . If y m + y − m = 2x .} − { D n y} = 0 2 ie y n +1 (1 + x ) + ny n (2 x) + ie. we can consider or y = x − x 2 −1 m [ ] m ) m −1 y1 = m x + x 2 − 1 ( ) m −1       1 1 + (2 x)    2 x 2 −1   2 x −1 + x   x 2 −1   or ( x 2 − 1 y1 = my . [( ) ]   (1 + x ) y 2 1 n +1 + ( 2nx − 1) y n + n( n − 1) y n −1 = 0  n( n −1) y n −1 ( 2) + 0 +. So.e. −1 − 1 ( ) ( ) We get D n 1 + x 2 y1 − D n ( y ) = 0 {D n ( y1 )(1 + x 2 ) + n C1 D n −1 ( y1 ) D(1 + x 2 )+ n C 2 D n −2 ( y1 ) D 2 (1 + x 2 ) + . If x = tan(log y ) . 1 y y1 = e tan x . then find the value of (1 + x 2 ) y n+1 + ( 2nx −1) y n + n(n −1) y n−1 (VTU July-04) Consider x = tan(log y ) i.r...t x. = 2 1+ x 1+ x2 ∴1 + x 2 y1 = y ie 1 + x 2 y1 − y = 0 -----------* We differentiate * n-times using Leibnitz’s theorem.3.  − y n = 0 2!  2 2 2 Show that ( x − 1) y n + 2 + ( 2n + 1) xy n +1 + ( n − m ) y n = 0 (VTU Feb-02) Consider 4... tan −1 x = log y or y = e tan x Differentiating w.. 1 or y = x + x 2 −1 [ ] m or y = x − x 2 −1 [ ] m y m + y − m = 2x 1 1 ⇒ ym+ 1 ⇒ (y ) 1 m 1 m 2 − 2 x y m + 1 = 0 Which is quadratic equation in y 1 ( ) 1 = 2x 1 ym 1 m ∴y = − ( −2 x) ± ( −2 x) 2 − 4(1)(1) 2x ± 4x 2 − 4 = 2(1) 2 = [ Let us take y = [x + ∴y 1 ∴y = ( x ± 2x ± 2 x 2 − 1 1 = x ± x2 −1 ⇒ y m = x ± x2 −1 2 x 2 −1 y = x + x 2 −1 x2 = m x + x 2 −1 ( ] −1 ] m ) ( ) ( ) m ..

.3... If y = x n log x. The computation of nth derivatives of a few standard functions and relevant problems were discussed. show that dn dx n 3. u = x 2. we get ( x 2 − 1) y n+2 + (2n + 1) xy n+1 + ( n 2 − m 2 ) y n = 0 2 ) Problem set 1. +  2 3 n 8.. If y = ( x 2 −1) n . Pr ove That (1 − x 2 ) y n+2 − ( 2n + 1) xy n+1 − ( n 2 + m 2 ) y n = 0 n n 7. If cos −1   = log   . − 1 (1 − x ( 2 ) )y n +2 − 2 xy n +1 + n( n + 1) y n = 0 x 2 y n +2 + ( 2n + 1) xy n +1 + ( n 2 + 1) y n = 0 4. y = sin ( m sin −1 x )..t x. apply Leibnitz’s theorem to get the results. If y = e m sin x ...r.. 142 .1 In each of the following.The idea of successive differentiation was presented.times using Leibnitz’s theorem and simplifying. If y n = D ( x log x ). Show that y n satisfies the equation d2y dy 1− x2 − 2x + n(n + 1) y = 0 Hint : It is required to show that 2 dx dx 1.. Prove That (1 − x 2 ) y n+2 − ( 2n + 1) xy n+1 − ( n 2 + m 2 ) y n = 0 y x 5.. Prove That x y n +2 2 b n + ( 2n + 1) xy n +1 + 2n 2 y n = 0  (i) y n = ny n −1 + ( n −1)! (ii) y n = n! log x +1 +  1 1 1 + + . − 1 2 y1 y 2 + y12 (2 x) = m 2 (2 yy1 ) − 1 y 2 + xy1 = m 2 y (÷2 y1 ) ) (x (x (x 2 ) 2 ) − 1 y 2 + xy1 − m 2 y = 0 ------------(*) Differentiating (*) n. n  Hint: Take x     1 v = log x. Show that n 6. Also... n 1 1 1  log x  ( −1) n!  = n +1  x  log x −1 − 2 − 3 − ... the concept of successive differention was extended for special type of functions using Liebnitz’s theorem... Again differentiating w. If y = a cos(log x) + b sin(log x). Show that y n +1 • n! = x Summary:.(x or or 2 − 1 y12 = m 2 y 2 .

and the curves specified by these coordinates are referred to as polar curves. θ) can be related with Cartesian coordinates ( x. Polar O coordinate x = r cos θ & y = r sin θ . Another useful system for similar purpose is Polar coordinate system. y ) through the relations Fig.(with pole ‘O’) .We are familiar with Cartesian coordinate system for specifying a point in the xy – plane. ө) r Ө r = f(ө) A 143 . Session-1 2.1) • The equation r = f (θ ) is known as a polar curve.1.Chapter – 2 : POLAR CURVES LESSON -1 : Angle between Polar Curves • • In this chapter we introduce a new coordinate system. system P(r.(See Fig.0 Introduction:. θ = projection of OP on the initial axis OA. θ) called polar co-ordinates of P where r = radius vector OP.1. • A polar curve by name “three-leaved rose” is displayed below: ө= ө= ө=π ө= ө=0 ө= • Any point P can be located on a plane with co-ordinates ( r . • Polar coordinates ( r . where we can understand the idea of polar curves and their properties.

Angle between radius ψ = θ +φ vector and the tangent dy tan θ + tan φ i... With usual notation prove that tan φ = r • dθ dr Y T L φ φ P(r. dθ d y tanθ + r d r = d x 1 − tanθ rdθ dr ( ( ) ) ………………….t θ ...2. dx = 1 −tan θ tan φ .. ө) T ψ 1 1 1 Proof:.(2) Comparing equations (1) and (2) we get tanφ = r dθ • • Note that cot φ =   1 dr    r dθ  dr A Note on Angle of intersection of two polar curves:If φ and φ are the angles between the common radius vector and the 1 2 tangents at the point of intersection of two curves r = f 1 (θ ) and r = f 2 (θ ) then the 1 2 angle intersection of the curves is given by φ −φ 144 .2.e. (1) On the other hand. Fig.: i. y = r sin θ differentiating these..1 Important results • Theorem 1: Angle between the radius vector and the tangent..r. ...e. dy dx  dr   dr  = r ( − sin θ ) + cos θ  = r ( cos θ ) + sin θ   //NOTE//  & dθ dθ  dθ   dθ   dr  dy r ( cos θ ) + sin θ   dy dr  dθ  dθ = = dividing the Nr & Dr by cos θ dx dx dθ  dr  dθ r ( − sin θ ) + cos θ    dθ  r dθ + tanθ dy dr = dx − ( rdθ dr) tanθ + 1 ( ) i.. A tanψ = tan (θ + φ ) = 1 − tan θ tan φ tan θ + tan φ w..2) curve From Fig..e.. we have x = r cos θ .2.. (See fig.1..Let “ φ” be the angle between the radius vector OPL r 1 Ө and the tangent TPT at the point `P` on the polar O r = f(ө) r = f (θ ) .

r = and r = 1 +θ 1+θ2 145 .. we solve few problems on angle of intersection of polar curves and pedal equations..• Theorem 2: The length “p” of perpendicular from pole to the tangent in a polar curve i.( ii ) 2 p r r  dθ  2 2 • • • Note:-If u = 1 1  du  .( i ) 1 1 1 Consider p = r sin φ = r cos ec φ 1 1 1 ∴ 2 = 2 cos ec 2φ = 2 (1 + cot 2φ ) p r r φ r Ө φ r = f (ө) P(r.. we get 2 = u 2 +   r p  dθ  Session-2 In this session.e.... 2. . 4.. r = a (1 + cos θ ) and r = b(1 − cos θ ) (VTU-July-2003) 2 3....In the Fig..e. ... sin φ = ON OP ⇒ ON = ( OP ) sin φ i. the length of the perpendicular from the pole to the tangent at p on r = f (θ ) .2 Worked examples:• Find the acute angle between the following polar curves 1.. p = r sin φ.3 Length of the perpendicular from the pole to the tangent 2 1 1   1 dr   = 2 1 +    p 2 r   r dθ     N ∴ 1 1 1  dr  = 2 + 4   . ө) O Ψ P Fig.. r = ( sin θ + cos θ ) and r = 2 sin θ (VTU-July-2004) 2 r = 16sec2 θ r = a log θ ( 2 ) and r = 25cosec (θ 2 ) (VTU-July-2005) and r = a logθ a aθ 5.1...3.... (i) p = r sin φ or (ii) 1 1 1  dr  = =   p 2 r 2 r 4  dθ  2 • Proof:..from the right angled triangle OPN. note that ON = p..

t θ r = ( sin θ + cos θ ) Diff w.r.t θ dr = 2 cos θ dθ dθ 2 sin θ r = dr 2 cos θ r = 2 sin θ dr = cos θ − sin θ dθ dθ sin θ + cos θ r = dr cos θ − sin θ tan θ + 1 tan φ1 = (÷ Nr & Dr cos θ ) 1 − tan θ tan φ2 = tan θ ⇒ φ2 = θ i. ( ) r = 16sec2 θ Consider ( 2) Consider r = 25cosec2 θ ( 2) 146 .Solutions: 1. Consider r = a (1 + cos θ ) Consider Diff w.t θ Diff w. Consider Consider ( ) Diff w.e ta nφ 1 = ta nπ + θ ⇒ φ 1 = π + θ 2 2 2 2 ( 2 ) ( ) = tanθ ( 2) ta nφ = − (2 2 sin(θ ) c o sθ ) 2 2 s in2 θ 1 2 tanφ1 = tanθ ⇒ φ1 = φ 2 2 Angle between the curves φ1 − φ 2 = π + θ − θ = π 2 2 2 2 Hence .r.r.r.the given curves intersect orthogonally 2.e tan φ1 = ⇒ φ1 = π + θ 4 tan θ + 1 = tan π + θ 4 1 − tan θ ( ) ∴ Angle between the curves = φ1 − φ 2 = π + θ − θ = π 4 4 3.t θ r = b(1 − cos θ ) dr = −a sin θ dθ dθ a (1 + cos θ ) r = dr − a sin θ ( 2) ta nφ = − 2 sin(θ ) c o s(θ ) 2 2 2 c o s2 θ 1 dr = b sin θ dθ dθ b(1 − cos θ ) r = dr b sin θ = − cotθ i.

r. 1 θ dθ  ( log θ ) 2 θ  dθ  r = − a  log θ      dr a  147 ...... 1 2 2 2 dθ dr = −50 cos ec 2 θ cot θ . (ii ) We know that tan φ1 − tan φ2 tan (φ1 − φ2 ) = 1 + tan φ1 tan φ2 r ( ) dr 2 = − a ( log θ ) ... Consider r = a log θ Consider r= a Diff w.( 2 ) tan(θ 2 ) = − 25cosec (θ ) cot(θ ) 2 2 = 16secθ 2 Diff w..t θ dr a = θ dθ Diff w.t θ logθ dθ = a log θ θ a dr tan φ1 = θ log θ...r.t θ dr = 32 sec 2 θ tan θ .. 1 2 2 2 dθ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Diff w.t θ 1 6se c2 θ dθ 2 r = 2θ d r 1 6se c ta nθ 2 2 tan φ1 = cot θ 2 2 = tan π ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 −θ 2 = tan − θ ) 2 5c o se c2 θ dθ 2 r = 2θ d r − 2 5c o se c co tθ 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) tan φ2 = − tan θ ( 2 ) φ1 − φ 2 = π − θ 2 2 =π 2 ⇒ φ1 = π − θ 2 2 ( ) Angle of intersection of the curves = ( ⇒ φ2 = −θ ) ( 2) 2 −θ 4...r....r... (i ) tan φ2 = −θ log θ.

. we take by θ =1 ⇒ =e NO E Substituting θ = e in (iii). Consider 1 1+θ 1 1 = = +1 r aθ a θ Diff w.e tan (φ1 −φ2 ) = 2 1 − (θ log θ ) = 2 From the data: a logθ = r = a logθ ⇒ ( logθ ) = 1 or logθ = ± 1 θ T As θ is acute.( iii ) i...e r dr 2 rθ a 1 +θ 2  2θ  a      tanφ1 = aθ aθ 2 (1 + θ ) tan φ2 = − ∴tan φ1 = θ (1 + θ ) tan φ2 = − Now..θ log θ − ( −θ log θ ) 1 + (ϑ log θ )( −θ log θ ) 2θ log θ .. we have aθ a =r= ⇒ aθ (1 + θ 2 ) = a (1 + θ ) 2 1+θ 1+θ or θ + θ 3 = 1 + θ ⇒ θ 3 = 1 or θ = 1 ∴tan φ1 = 2 & tan φ2 = ( − 1) Consider tan (φ1 − φ2 ) = = 1 (1 + θ 2 ) 2θ 2 − ( −1) = −3 = 3 1 + ( 2 )( −1) tan φ1 − tan φ2 1 + ( tan φ1 )( tan φ2 ) 148 .r.r..t θ 2θ = − a aθ 1+θ 2 r − r 1 dr r = r dθ aθ 2 dθ aθ 2 dr = r 1 dr 1 1 = − θ2 r 2 dθ a ( ) dr r dθ 2 − 2 rθ 1 dr = a r dθ dθ −a = i....t θ aθ r= as 1 +θ Consider r= ( ) ∴ (1 + θ 2 ) = a Diff w. . we get tan ( φ1 − φ2 ) = 1 − ( e log e ) 2e log e 2  2e  = 2  1− e  ( log e = 1) e  2e  ∴ φ1 − φ2 = tan −1  2  1− e  5..

2. 2. Consider Diff.1 θ 4.: (i) r = f (θ ) & ∴ • 1 1 1  dr  = 2 + 4  2 p r r  dθ  2 • • 2.(i) r ( ) 149 . r n cos nθ = a n and r n sin nθ = b n 3. r = a cos θ and r = a 2 • 2. • Find the acute angle between the curves (ans: π (ans: π (ans: π 1.2.∴φ −φ2 = tan −1 ( 3) 1 Problem Set No. 4.: (i) r = f (θ ) & p = r sin φ (ii) Eliminate only θ from the Eqs.t θ dr 2a − 1 2 = sin θ r dθ 1 dr − r sin θ = r dθ 2a dθ 2a 1 r =− dr r sin θ 2a = 1 − cos θ ………. Working rules to find pedal equations:(i) Eliminate r and φ from the Eqs. w.Any equation containing only p & r is known as pedal equation of a polar curve. l = 1 + e cosθ r Solutions: 1.0 Pedal equations (p-r equations):. r = aθ and r = a 4) 2) 2) (ans:5 π ) 6 5.1 for practice. r = e θc cot α 3. r m = a m cos mθ and r m = b m sin mθ (ans: π ) 2 LESSON -2 : Pedal Equations • Session .r. r n = a n ( cos nθ + sin nθ ) and r n = a n sin nθ 2.1. r m = a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ (VTU-Jan-2005) 1.1 Worked Examples on pedal equations:Find the pedal equations for the polar curves:2a = 1 − cos θ r 2.

.(ii) 2  1 − cos θ  r  2a  = r2  =   2 2   2 r  [See eg: . 2.(i)] This eqn..t θ We use the equation 1 1 1  dr  = 2 + 4  2 p r r  dθ  2 dr = eθ cot α ( cot α ) = r cot α dθ ( r = eθ cot α ) 1 1 2 + 4 ( r cot α ) 2 r r 1 1 1 1 = 2 + 4 ( cot 2 α ) = 2 (1 + cot 2 α ) = 2 cos ec 2α r r r r = 1 1 = 2 cos ec 2α 2 p r 2 p2 = r cosec2α or r 2 = p 2 cos ec 2α is the required pedal equation 3.. w....r.Using the value of φis p = r sin φ.. is only in terms of p and r and hence it is the pedal equation of the polar curve.Consider r m = a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ Diff. Consider r = eθ cot α Diff..r....t θ mr m −1 dr = a m ( m cos mθ ) + b m ( −m sin mθ ) dθ r m dr = a m cos mθ − b m sin mθ r dθ 1 dr a m cos mθ − bm sin mθ = r dθ a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ cot φ = a m cos mθ − b m sin mθ a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ 150 . ( 2 ) = − r sinθ 2 . w.. we get 2 = − ta nθ 2 θ sinθ 2 sin θ c o s 2 2 ta nφ = ta n− θ ⇒ φ = − θ 2 2 ( 1 − c o sθ ) = − ta nφ = − 2 sin2 θ ( ) ( ) p = r sin − θ Eliminating “ θ ” between (i) and (ii) p 2 = r 2 sin 2 θ p 2 = ar .

Consider l = ( 1 + cosθ ) Diff w. p = r cos ec φ 1 1 = 2 cos ec 2φ 2 p r 1 1 = = 1 (1 + cot 2 φ ) 2 r 2 1   a m cos mθ − bm sin mθ     1 +  m r 2   a sin mθ + b m cos mθ       r 2 ( m +1) is the required p-r equation ⇒ p = 2m a + b2m 2 2 2 1  ( a m sin mθ + bm cos mθ ) + ( a m cos mθ − bm sin mθ )   = 2 r   (a m sin mθ + bm cos mθ )2   2m 2m 1 1 a + b  = 2  Note 2 p r  r 2m  4.r.t θ dr   1 dr   l − 2  = − e sinθ ⇒ l r  1 r  = e sinθ  r dθ   dθ  r l ( cotφ ) = e sinθ r ∴ cotφ = r e sinθ l 1 1 ( ) 2 We have p 2 = r 2 (1 + cot φ ) (see eg: 3 above) Now 1 1  l 2 + e 2 r 2 sin 2 θ  = 2  p2 r  l2  = 2 2 1 1 + e r 2 sin2 θ 2 l r ( ) 1 + e cosθ = l e cos θ = l −r r r  2   l − r 2    1 l + e 2 r 2  −     re   1 1    = 2   p2 r l2       l −r cos θ =    re  sin 2 θ = 1 − cos 2 θ l −r  =1−   re  2  e2 − 1  2 1 =  2 + On simplification 2   p  e  lr 151 .Consider p = r sin φ .

y. z) from the origin in three-dimensional space is an example of a function of three variables x. r = a cos θ and r = a 2 4 . r m = a m cos mθ and r m = b m sin mθ Session-1 3. • 3.1. 2 or ∂x  ∂x  ∂x ∂x 2 ∂ ∂y  ∂z  ∂2 z ∂2 f   ∂y  = ∂y 2 or ∂ 2 or zyy or fyy. denoted by ∂ or ∂ or zy or fy is defined y y as ∂z f ( x.  ∂z   is the ordinary derivative of  ∂x  ∂ z ∂ f The first order partial derivative of z w.t y.t.g.0 Introduction: We often come across qualities which depend on two or more variables. For e. ∂z f ( x + δx.r. we understand that  z w. y ) = lim ∂x δx →0 δx ∂ z ∂ f or or zx or fx is ∂ x ∂ x Chapter-3: PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION Lesson-1: Euler’s Theorem The first order partial derivative of z w.t y. the distances of the point (x. The area A(x. y. y ) = lim ∂y δy →0 δy • • From the above definition.1.y) = xy. treating x as constant ∂  ∂z  ∂2 z ∂2 f  = The partial derivatives or zxx or fxx. 2. a function of two variables.• Problem Set No. denoted by defined as • From the above definition.1 Partial derivatives: Let z = f(x. r = aθ and r = a θ 3. Similarly. we understand that  ∂y  is the ordinary derivative of     z w. y ) − f ( x.r.  y   2 ∂ ∂  z ∂ z  = or zyx or fyx ∂ ∂  ∂ ∂ y y x y ∂  z 152 .r. y + δy ) − f ( x.1 for practice.t x. Find the pedal equations of the following polar curves 1. obliviously. z. the area of a rectangle of length x and breadth y is given by Area = A(x. r n cos nθ = a n and r n sin nθ = b n 2. treating y as constant.r. y) is.2. x. y) be a function of two variables x and y.

• • 1. we get the partial derivative z y = x 2 − x 2 cos xy = x 2 (1 − cos xy ) i. In all ordinary cases.r. Evaluate (a) (b) z = x 2 y − x sin xy x + y + z = log z (∂z ∂x ) and ( 2 ∂ ∂ ) .r. z ∂x ∂x ∂z  1 − z  ∂z  z  =   =1  ∂x  z  ∂x  1 − z  or 153 . 3. ∂z = ( 2 x ) y − { x cos ( xy )( y ) + sin ( xy )(1)} ∂x z x = 2 xy − xy cos xy − sin xy = xy ( 2 − cos xy ) − sin xy ∂z = x 2 (1) − { xcoxy ( x ) + sin ( xy )( 0 )} ∂y i.t x. the second and higher order partial derivatives of more than two independent variables are defined similarly. we learn the partial differentiation of so called explicit functions of more than one variables.(a) Consider z = x y − x sin xy Differentiating z w.r. A note on rules of partial differentiation:All the rules of differentiation applicable to functions of a single independent variable are applicable for partial differentiation also. keeping y as a constant.e. the only difference is that while differentiating partially w. log z − z = x + y − − − − − * Differentiating * partially w.e (b) Consider x + y + z = log z i.1.e.t y keeping x as a constant.t x treating y as i. it can be verified that 2 2 ∂z ∂z = ∂∂ x y ∂∂ y x • The third and higher order partial derivatives of f(x.∂ and ∂ y ∂  z ∂2 z  =  ∂  ∂ ∂ or zxy or fxy x y  y are known as second order Partial derivatives.2 Worked examples:  In solving the following examples.y) are defined in an analogous way Also.t one independent variable all other independent variables are treated as constants. if x y Solution: . we get the partial derivative.r. differentiating z w. 1 ∂z ∂z  ∂z  1  − = 1 + 0 ⇒   − 1 = 1  ∂x  z  Constant.e. Similarly.

Similarly, differentiating * partially w.r.t y, treating x as constant,

1 ∂z ∂z  ∂z  1  − = 1 + 0 or   −1 = 1 z ∂x ∂x  ∂x  z  ∂z  z  =  ⇒ ∂x  1 − z  ∂z ∂z  z  ∴ = =  ∂x ∂y  1 − z  1 ∂  2 ∂θ  ∂θ r2 − ? r = 2 n 4t 2. .If θ = t e , what value of n will make r ∂r  ∂r  ∂t

Solution: Consider θ = t e ------------------------------------------------- (*) Differentiating * w.r.t. r, treating t as constant, we get r2 −r 2 − − 2r  − r n −1 4t ∂θ n 4t  =t e t e  = ∂r 2  4t 
n

r2 4t

∂θ r3 ∴r = − t n −1e ∂r 2
2
2

−r 2 4t

∂  2 ∂θ  − 3r n −1 −r t e r = ∂r  ∂r  2

2

and hence  r 3  n −1 −r 4t   − 2 t e   

2

4t

 2r  −   4t 

1 ∂  2 ∂θ   3 n −1 r 2 n −2  −r 2 4t r  =  − t + t e  4 r 2 ∂r  ∂r   2  
2 2

------------------- (1)

Also, differentiating (*) w.r.t t, treating r as constant, we get r − −r  r2  ∂θ n −1 n 4t 4t  = nt e +t e  4t 2   ∂t  

1 ∂  2 ∂θ  ∂θ , r = 2 Since, r ∂r  ∂r  ∂t equation (1) and (2) yield, 2  − 3 n −1 r 2 n −2  −4rt   −r 2 r2  t + t e =  nt n −1 + t n −2 e 4 t  2    4 4    

 n −1 1 2 n − 2  − r 2 4t =  nt + r t e 4   ------------------------ (2)

i.e.

(

−r n + 3 t n − 1e 2

)

2

4t

= 0 ⇒ n + 3 = 0 orn = − 3 2 2

(

)

∂z ∂z b +a = 2abz z = e ax +by f ( ax − by ), prove that ∂x ∂y 3. If (VTU-Jan-2004) ax +by f ( ax − by ), Solution: Consider z = e
------------------- (*)

Differentiating (*) w.r.t x using product and chain rules, we get
∂z = {e ax +by f 1 ( ax − by )( − b )} + { f ( ax − by )e ax +by ( b )} ∂y

154

∂z = be ax +by { f ( ax − by ) − f 1 ( ax − by )} ∂y ------------------- (2)

Multiplying eq (1) by b and eq(2) by a, and adding we get
b ∂z ∂z +a = abe ax +by f 1 ( ax + by ) + f ( ax − by ) + f ( ax − by ) − f 1 ( ax − by ) ∂x ∂y

[

]

= abe ax +by [ 2 f ( ax − by ) ]

∂u 1 ∂v = u = e r cos θ cos ( r sin θ ), v = e r cos θ sin ( r sin θ ) prove that ∂r r ∂θ and 4.Given , ∂v 1 ∂u =− ∂r r ∂θ r cos θ cos ( r sin θ ), Differentiating u w.r.t. r and θ partially, we Solution: Consider u = e

= 2ab e ax +by f ( ax − by ) = 2abz ,as desired

[

]

get,

∂u = e r cos θ {− sin ( r sin θ )( sin θ )} + cos ( r sin θ ){e r cos θ ( cos θ )} ∂r ∂u r cos θ {cos ( r sin θ ) cos θ − sin ( r sin θ ) sin θ } e i.e. ∂r ∂u = e r cos θ {cos ( r sin θ + θ )} ∂r or --------------(1) ∂u r cos θ {− sin ( r sin θ )( r cos θ )} + cos ( r sin θ ){e r cos θ ( − r sin θ )} =e and ∂θ = −re r cos θ {sin ( r sin θ ) cos θ + cos ( r sin θ ) sin θ } 1 ∂u − = e r cos θ {sin ( r sin θ + θ )} i.e. r ∂θ ---------------------(2)

Next consider,

∂v = e r cos θ { cos ( r sin θ ) sin θ } + sin ( r sin θ ){e r cos θ ( cos θ )} ∂r = e r cos θ {sin ( r sin θ ) cos θ + cos ( r sin θ ) sin θ } ∂v = e r cos θ {sin ( r sin θ + θ )} ∂r i.e --------------------(3); ∂v r cos θ =e {cos ( r sin θ )( r cos θ )} + sin ( r sin θ ){e r cos θ ( − r sin θ )} ∂θ = re r cos θ {cos ( r sin θ ) cos θ − sin ( r sin θ ) sin θ } 1 ∂v = e r cos θ { cos ( r sin θ + θ )} r ∂θ i.e. ----------------------------- (4)

Differentiating v w.r.t r & θ , Partially we get

v = e r cos θ sin( r sin θ)

155

Thus, from eqs (1) and (4), we obtain
∂v 1 ∂u =− . ∂r r ∂θ

∂u 1 ∂v = , and from eqs (2) and (3) we obtain ∂r r ∂θ

Session-2 • 3.1.3 Worked Examples:- In each of following examples, we try to
2 2 ∂u ∂u = , where u = f ( x, y ) is a function of two variables. ∂∂ x y ∂∂ y x 1. u = x y ; 2. u = e x ( x sin y − y sin y )

show that

−1 y   3. u = sin  x    Solution: - 1. Differentiating u = x y partially w.r.t y, we get

∂u = x y log x ∂y ∂ ∂x

 d (a x ) = a x log x     dx 

differentiating the above partially w.r.t x, we get
 ∂u  ∂ y   ∂y  = ∂x ( x log x )    ∂2 u 1  = x y   + log x yx y −1 x i.e ∂x∂y

(

)
∂u = yx ∂x

∂2 u = x y −1 (1 + y log x ) ∂x∂y or ---------------(1)

Next, differentiating u = x y partially w.r.t. x, we get
∂  ∂u  ∂ ( yx y −1 )  = ∂y  ∂x  ∂y
∂2 u = y ( x y −1 log x ) + x y −1 (1) ∂∂ y x i.e ∂2 u = x y −1 (1 + y log x ) ∂y∂x or ---------------(2)
2 2 ∂u ∂u = x y ∂∂ y x from (1) and (2), we get ∂ ∂

y− 1

so that

−1 y   2. Differentiating u = sin  x  partially w.r.t. x, we get  

156

∂u = ∂x

−y − y  =  2 x  x x2 − y2  1−  y   x   1
2

 x ( x 2 − y 2 ) + xy2  ∂ 2u x   = − =− 2 3 ∂ y∂ x  x2 ( x2 − y2 ) 2  ( x − y 2 ) 32   i.e.

     ( − 2 y )  x x 2 − y 2 (1) − y  x  1  2 2    2 x −y   ∂  ∂u     ∴  =− 2 2 2 ∂y  ∂x  x (x − y )

----------------(1)

−1 y   Next, differentiating u = sin  x  partially w.r.t. y, we get   ∂u 1 1 1 = = 2 x ∂y x2 − y2 1−  y   x  

( )

∂  ∂u  ∴  =− ∂x  ∂y   

x 2 − y 2 ( 0) − (1)

1
2

2 x − y2 x2 − y2

(2x)

∂ 2u x =− ∂ x∂ y ( x 2 − y 2 ) 32 i.e.

------------- (2)

2 2 ∂u ∂u = x y ∂∂ y x From (1) and (2), we get ∂ ∂

x 3. Differentiating u = e ( x sin y − y sin y ) w.r.t y, we get

∂u = e x ( x cos y − y cos y − sin y ) ∂y

Differentiating w.r.t x, we get
∂  ∂u    = e x ( − x sin y + cos y − 0 − 0 ) + ( x cos y − y cos y − sin y ) e x ∂x  ∂y   
∂2 u = e x ( − x sin y + cos y + x cos y − y cos y − sin y ) ∂x∂y i.e. ∂2 u = e x {(1 + x − y ) cos y − (1 + x ) sin y} ∂x∂y Or ----------------- (1)

Next, differentiating w.r.t x, we get

∂u = e x { x cos y + sin y} + ( x sin y − y sin y ) e x ∂x ∂u = e x { x cos y + (1 + x − y ) sin y} ∂x

Differentiating this w.r.t. y, we get

157

∂  ∂u  x   = e { x ( − sin y ) + 0 + (1 + x − y ) cos y + sin y ( − 1)} ∂y  ∂x  = e x {(1 + x − y ) cos y − (1 + x ) sin y}

----------------- (2)

from (1)and (2),we get
2 2 ∂u ∂u = ∂∂ x y ∂∂ y x

3.1.4 In the following few examples involve equations where partial derivatives of higher order occur. These equations frequently appear is engineering applications.
 ∂2 u ∂2 u  , prove that + =0  ∂x 2 ∂y 2  2 xy  −1  Solution:- Differentiating u = tan  2  x − y2    
−1 1. If u = tan  

 2 xy 2 2 x −y

partially w.r.t.x, we get
∂u = ∂x 1
2

 ( x 2 − y 2 )( 2 y ) − 2 xy ( 2 x )      2 2 2  (x − y )  2 xy     1+  2  x − y2     ∂u − 2y = 2 ∂x x + y 2 Differentiating Partially this w.r.t. x, we get i.e.

∂ 2 u ∂  − 2 y  ( x 2 − y 2 )( 0) − ( 2 y )( 2 x ) =  = ∂x 2 ∂x  x 2 + y 2  ( x2 + y2 )2  

(

)

∂2u 4 xy = 2 2 ∂x ( x + y 2 )2 i.e.

-------------------------- (1)

−1 Next differentiating u = tan  

 2 xy 2 2 x −y

   

∂ u ∂  2 x  ( x 2 − y 2 )( 0) − ( 2 x )( 2 y ) =  = ∂x 2 ∂x  x 2 + y 2  ( x2 + y2 )2  
2

 ( x 2 − y 2 )( 2 x ) − 2 xy ( − 2 y )      2 2 2  (x − y )  2 xy     1+  2  x − y2     ∂u 2x = 2 ∂y x + y 2 Differentiating partially this w.r.t.y, we get ∂u = ∂y 1
2

partially w.r.t. y, we get

(

)

∂ 2u − 4 xy = 2 2 ∂y ( x + y 2 )2 i.e.

-----------------------(2)

Adding eqs (1) and (2) we get

∂2 u ∂2 u + = 0 , as desired ∂x 2 ∂y 2

158

Note: (a) The equation
∂2 u ∂2 u + = 0 is known as Laplace’s equation in two dimension ∂x 2 ∂y 2

which has variety of applications in potential theory.
∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u + + = 0 is known as Laplace’s equation in (b) A similar equation viz, ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

three- dimensions where u = u ( x, y , z )

2. If u = f ( x + ay ) + g ( x − ay ), show that

Solution:- Differentiating u = f ( x + ay ) + g ( x − ay ), partially w.r.t.x, we get Again differentiating partially w.r.t.x, we see that ∂2u = f 11 ( x + ay )(1) + g 11 ( x − ay )(1) 2 ∂x ∂ 2u a 2 2 = a 2 [ f 11 ( x + ay ) + g 11 ( x − ay ) ] -----------(1) ∂x Next, differentiating u = f ( x + ay ) + g ( x − ay ), partially w.r.t.y
∂u = f 1 ( x + ay ) ( a 2 ) + g .1 ( x − ay ) ( a 2 ) ∂y

∂2 u ∂2 u = a2 ∂y 2 ∂x 2

∂u = f 1 ( x + ay )(1) + g 1 ( x − ay )(1) ∂x

Again differentiating partially w.r.t.y, we see that ∂2u = f 11 ( x + ay ) ( a 2 ) + g 11 ( x − ay ) ( a 2 ) 2 ∂x i.e
∂2 u = a 2 f 11 ( x + ay ) + g 11 ( x − ay ) ------------------(2) ∂y 2

[

]

from eqs (1) and (2), we see that
∂2 u ∂2 u = a2 ∂y 2 ∂x 2

Note:- (a). The equation

one-dimensional wave equation

∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2u ∂2u = a2 = a 2 2 is known as 2 2 or the equation ∂y ∂x ∂t 2 ∂x

 ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u  ∂2 u = a2 2 + 2 + 2  (b). A similar equation viz, 2  ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂z   

is known as three- dimensional wave equation

159

r. If u = log ( x 3 + y 3 + z 3 − 3xyz ) .z we get respect or ∂u 3x 2 − 3 yz = 3 ∂x x + y 3 + z 3 − 3 xyz ∂u 3 y 2 − 3zx = 3 ∂y x + y 3 + z 3 − 3xyz ∂u 3z 2 − 3xy = 3 3 3 And ∂z x + y + z − 3xyz adding these partial derivatives we get 160 . the equation viz.t x.t.x.t.t.(a) Differentiating u partially w. ∂u = −3e −2 t sin 3 x ∂x Again differentiating partially w.(1) ∂t Next.r. partially w.r.r. If u = e −2 t cos 3x .y.∂u ∂2 u = c2 ∂t ∂x 2 Solution:.Differentiating u = e −2 t cos 3x . differentiating u = e −2 t cos 3x partially w. x. prove that (a) ∂u ∂u ∂u  3  + + = x + y +z   ∂x ∂y ∂z   2 ∂ ∂ ∂ 9 (b)  + (VTU Feb-2005)  ∂x ∂y + ∂z  u = −  ( x + y + z) 2   Solution:. t we get 3. find the value of ‘c’ such that ∂u = −2e −2 t cos 3 x --------------.  ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂z    three-dimensional heat equation 4. 2 − 2t ∴ ∂u ∂ 2u = c 2 2 ⇒ −2e −2 t cos 3 x = 9e −2 t cos 3x ⇒ c 2 = 9 or c = 2 ∂t ∂x ∂ u = − 9e cos3x 2 ∂x ( ) 9 2 Note (a) The equation ∂u ∂2u = c 2 2 is called one-dimensional heat equation ∂t ∂x  ∂2u ∂2u ∂ 2u  ∂u = c 2  2 + 2 + 2  is known as (b) Similarly.

t x. partially w. show that ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u 2 + 2 + 2 = f 11 ( r ) + f 1 ( r ) 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z r Solution:.t. 2 = x  f ( r )   + f ( r )  − 2   + ∂x r r  r  r  r ∂r  x  ∂u ∂r =   . (1) 161 . we have ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂       ∂ + ∂ + ∂  u = ∂ + ∂ + ∂  ∂ + ∂ + ∂  u  x y z  x y z y z   x 2 = ∂ ∂ ∂  ∂ + ∂ + ∂  y z  x   ∂u ∂u ∂u    ∂x + ∂y + ∂z      3   x + y +z      ∂  ∂  ∂ 3 3 3  =  x + y + z  + ∂y  x + y + z  + ∂z  x + y + z       ∂x       = ∂ ∂ ∂  ∂ + ∂ + ∂  x y z   =  5.r.e.∂ u ∂ u ∂ u 3( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − x y− y −z z )x 3( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − x y− y −z z )x + + = 3 3 3 = ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z x + y + z − 3x y z ( x + y + z) ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − x y− y −z z )x   3 =   x + y +z   (b) By definition. we get =   and =  = 2 x or ∂x  r  ∂y  r  ∂z  r  ∂x 1 1 ∂ 2u ∂r  1  ∂r  f ( r ) (1) = x  f 11 ( r ) + f 1 ( r )  − 2   + ∂x 2 ∂x r  r  ∂x  r 1  1 11  x  ∂ 2u  1  x  f ( r ) 1 i.By data r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 Differentiating this partially w. differentiating u = f ( r ) .x. where r =       9 −3 −3 −3      − 2 + 2 + 2 = ( x + y + z)2  ( x + y + z)   ( x + y + z)   ( x + y + z)  x2 + y2 +z2 . we get = f 1 (r) As ∂x  r  ∂x ∂x  f 1 (r)  ∂u ∂u x = x = f 1 ( r )   Differentiating  partially w.r.r. If u = f ( r ) .x. we get 2r Now. we get ∂x ∂x r  r  or 11 1 1 ∂ 2u  x  f ( r ) f ( r )  f ( r ) = x  − 2 + ∂x 2 r  r  r  r ∂ 2 u x 2 11 f 1 ( r)  x 2  = 2 f ( r) + 1 −  ∂x 2 r r  r2  ………….t. ∂r  x  ∂r  y  ∂r  z  ∂r =   Similarly.

.1... If u = x tan  x  − y tan x y . r r   ∂ 2u z 2 1 1 f 1( r)  z2  ( = 2 f ( r) + 1 − 2  . prove that x ∂x + y ∂y + z ∂z = 0 z x x = r cos θ. If z = e .Similarly. we get f 1( r ) {3 −1} r f 1(r) = f 11 ( r ) + 2 r = f 11 ( r ) + ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u f 11 ( r ) 2 f 1( r )  x2 + y2 + z 2  + 2 + 2 = x + y2 + z2 + 3 −  ∂x 2 ∂y ∂z r2 r  r2  ( ) Problem Set No. y = r sin θ. If 2 xy     2     2 2  ∂r   ∂2 r ∂2 r 1  ∂r    (Hint: + 2 =  +   ∂y  ∂x 2 ∂y r  ∂x       By data x 2 + y 2 = r 2 ) 162 . If u = + ... show that ∂x + ∂y + ∂z = 0 2  ∂z ∂2 z ∂2 z 1  ∂z  + 2 =   +  2 5.. Verify 2 2 ∂z ∂z = where ∂∂ x y ∂∂ y x (i) z = x 3 + y 3 − 3axy (ii) z = tan −1 ( x 2 + y 2 ) (iii) z = log ( x sin y + y sin x ) 2 −1  y 2 −1  2. we get 2 ∂u y2 = 2 f ∂ 2 y r 1 1 1 2   (r ) + f (r )  − y2  (2 ) and 1 .. show that x +y  ∂z ∂z   ∂z ∂z    ∂x − ∂y  = 41 − ∂x − ∂y  (VTU-Jan-2005)        ∂u ∂u ∂u 4. z = .(2) and (3). show that 7. If. prove that   ∂2u x2 − y2 ∂2u ∂∂ = 2 =   Hint 2 ∂∂ y x ∂ ∂  y x ∂y∂x x +y x2 + y2 3.3) 2 r  r  ∂z r Adding eqs (1) . If u = ( x − y )( y − z )( z − x ) .1 for practice 1.3. prove that 2  ∂y ∂x ∂y z  ∂x    ∂u ∂u ∂u y z 6.

. . is called homogenous function of order n.. is called   homogenous function of order n (or derivative n) in x and y 2 3   f ( x.. Euler (1707-1783) gives a very useful formula for a particular combination of partial derivatives of homogenous functions.6: Euler’s Theorem:The following theorem.. . y.. z ... . + a n  y    x  x  x         = x nφ  y  ..1.... ) is said to be a homogenous function of order n in x...If u is a homogenous function of x and y with ∂u ∂u degree n. z...... + a n y n In which every term is of the nth degree. named in honour of the great Swiss mathematician L.Since u is a homogenous function of degree n. y ) = x 3 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3 = x 3  1 +  y  −  y  −  y    For example: (i)   x  x  x          (ii) f ( x.  x   n y  Thus any function f ( x. y ) = sin x  = x sin x  = x φ  x  is a homogenous function of degree 0       n Note: ....1. t ......Session –3 • 3.  x   x 1 + y  1  x   = x 2φ  y   x  is a homogenous function    y  x 1 + x   of degree ½ 0 0 y y  y   (iii) f ( x.. y . which can be expressed as.....(1) Any function.. z . then x ∂x + y ∂y = nu (VTU Feb-2005) Proof: . y ) which can be expressed in the below x φ  x  ........   x  x x   3.. t ..5: Introduction to homogenous functions:An expression of the form a 0 x n + a1 x n −1 y + a 2 x n −2 y 2 + . a function f ( x. t… if it can be expressed as x nφ y . y φ  x y  is also a homogenous     function of degree n... • Statement of Euler’s theorem:.(or order n) (2) In general. we can put u is the form 163 ... y ) = x+ y x+ y = = x nφ  y  is a homogenous function of degree 3. This can be rewritten as 2 n   x n a 0 + a1  y  + a 2  y  + .

t y 164 .. . z. we get ∂u = x nφ 1  y  − y 2  + φ  y  nx n −1  x    x x      ∂x ∂u = − x n −2 yφ 1  y  + nx n −1φ  y  ----------(1) or  x  x     ∂x n y  Again differentiating u = x φ  x  partially w.r..In general.. y.r.. x ∂ 2 u ∂u ∂2 u ∂u + +y =n 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x∂y x ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u +y = ( n −1) ………….t x partially. then x x 2 ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u + 2 xy + y2 = n( n −1)u ∂x∂y ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (VTU Feb-2005) Proof: .(1) 2 ∂x∂y ∂x ∂x Differentiating (*) Partially w.  x   Differentiating this w. we have.. = nu ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ∂ t • Corollary to Euler’s theorem:.t y. t… then x ∂ u ∂ u ∂ u ∂ u +y +z +t +..t x. (2)  x   ∂y ∂u ∂u +y = x − x n −2 yφ 1  y  x   ∂x ∂y  ( ) Consider x  + nx n −1φ y   x    + y x n −1φ 1  y   x        = −x n −1 yφ 1  y  + nx nφ y  + x n −1 yφ 1  y   x  x  x       n y  = nx φ  x    = nu .If u is homogenous function of x and y with degree n.r..As u is a homogenous function of degree.u = x nφ  y  . we get   { } ∂u = x nφ 1  y  1 +0  x   x ∂y ∂u = x n −1φ1  y  ………….. y n Since u = x φ  x      Note: ...r. if u is a homogenous function of order x. by Euler’s theorem ∂u ∂u +y = nu -----------(*) ∂x ∂y Differentiating (*) partially w.

Verify Euler’s theorem for i). x+ y Hence.which means u is a  x   homogenous function of degree 2.(*) (n=1) ∂ x ∂ y 2 we verify the equation (*) by showing actually LHS=RHS now as u =   y ∂u x  xy  ∂u = . Hence. 2 &  ∂x = ∂y ( x + y ) 2 ( x + y) x+y ∂ u ∂ u LHS of (*) = x ∂ + y ∂y x 2 ∴  y2 = x  ( x + y) 2   +    x2 y  ( x + y) 2   xy ( x + y ) xy =  ( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) =RHS  This verifies the result(*) y2  2 2 2 y  (ii) Consider u = ax + 2hxy + by = x  a 2 + 2h x  + b  x2     x = x 2φ  y  . (2) by y we get  2 ∂2u  ∂u ∂2u   2 ∂2u ∂2u  ∂u  + xy + xy +y x  + y  = ( n −1) x  2 2 ∂x∂y   ∂y ∂y∂x  ∂y   ∂x  ∂x x2 ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u + 2 xy + y2 = ( n −1)( nu ) ∂x∂y ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂2 u ∂2 u or 2 ∂2 u x + 2 xy + y2 = n( n −1)u ∂x∂y ∂x 2 ∂y 2      ∂2 u ∂2 u   = ∂∂ x y ∂∂  x y Session .(*) ∂x ∂y 165 .4 • 3..(i) Consider u = xy is a homogenous function of degree1 (1=n). u =    xy    x+y • ii) u = ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2  y x  x 2 ( y x) xy 1 y y   = = x  1 + y x  = xφ x  = x φ x       x+y x(1 + y x )   Solution:.x ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u ∂u +y + =n 2 ∂y∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u +x = ( n −1) …………. we get x ∂u ∂u +y = 2u …………. on applying Euler’s theorem to u. (1) by x and esq.7: Worked Examples 1. (2) 2 ∂y∂x ∂y ∂y or y Multiplying esq. Euler’s theorem when applied to u becomes This shows that u = x ∂ u ∂ u +y = (1)u ………….1.

say We note that  x+y ∂f ∂f +y = 3 f As f = sin u . we get x ∂f ∂f +y =2 f ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂ i. as u = ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 .e x ∂x ( log u ) + y ∂y ( log u ) = 2( log u )  1 ∂u   1 ∂u   + y or x  u ∂y  = 2 log u   u ∂x    166 . LHS of (*) x ∂x + y ∂ y = x( 2( ax + hy ) ) + y ( 2( ay + hx ) ) ∂ u ∂ u = 2ax 2 + 2hxy + 2hxy + 2ay 2 = 2( ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 ) = 2u = RHS This verifies the result (*) (2) If sin u =   x y  ∂u ∂u  .say    3   x 3 1 + y 3  3 3 x  x +y ∴f = =  = x 2φ  y  . f is a homogenous function of degree 2. we see that ∂u = 2( ay + hx ) ∂y ∂u = 2( ax + hy ) & ∂x Consider. f =  x  x+ y     x 1 + y   x   Applying Euler’s theorem to f.Consider sin u =   4 2  x2 y2   = f .  x   3x + 4 y x 3 + 4 y    x      Applying Euler's theorem to f. we get Solution: . show that x 2. show that x +y = 3 tan u (VTU July-2005)  ∂x ∂y x+y 2 2 Solution:. `f` is a homogenous function of degree 3.Consider u =e  x3 + y 3     3 x +4 y     x3 + y3  ∴ log u =   3 x + 4 y  = f .Thus.we see that ∂x ∂y ∂ x ( sin u ) + y ∂ ( sin u ) = 3( sin u ) ∂x ∂y  ∂u  ∂u   i.Thus. x ( cos u )  + y ( cos u )  = 3 sin u ∂x  ∂y    ∂u ∂u or we get x ∂x + y ∂y = 3 tan u as desired  x3 + y3  ∂u ∂u   +y = 2u log u (VTU july-2004)  3 x +4 y  .Now. If  ∂x ∂y u = e x x y   x  x2 y2   =   = x 3φ  y  .e.

f is a homogenous function of Now. Applying Euler’s theorem to f we get ∂f ∂f +y = 2 f As f = tan u .or x ∂x + y ∂y = 2u log u 4. If u = tan   ∂u ∂u x+y ∂u ∂u 1  x3 + y3  x+y   . ∂x ∂y 167 . say x+y  y3  x 3 1 + 3   x  x3 + y3   = x 2φ  y  .Hence to evaluate       x 2 u xx + 2 xyu xy + y 2 u yy (VTU July-2005)  x3 + y3 u = tan −1  Solution: .So.Let cosu =    x+ y y  x 1 +  x  homogenous function of degree ½ On applying Euler's theorem to f. ∴ f = =  x   y x+ y  x 1 +  x  degree2.say Hence. we get ∂ f ∂ f 1 +y = f Since f = cos u ∂ x ∂ y 2 ∂ ( cos u ) + y ∂ ( cos u ) = 1 cos u x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂u ∂u 1 cos u  ∂u  ∂u  1  or x sin u  + y − sin u  = cos u or x ∂x + y ∂y = − 2 sin u ∂x  ∂y  2   ∂u ∂u 1 or x ∂x + y ∂y = − 2 cot u x −1 5. show that xu x + yu y = sin 2u . f is a  x Solution:.(*). we see that ∂x ∂y ∂ x ( tan u ) + y ∂ ( tan u ) = 2 tan u ∂x ∂y  2 ∂u  ∂u   x sec 2 u  + y sec u  = 2 tan u ∂x  ∂y    x x ∂u ∂u 2 tan u +y = = 2 sin u cos u ∂x ∂y sec 2 u ∂u ∂u x +y = sin 2u ……………. If cos u = x + y Prove that x ∂x + y ∂y = − 2 cot u (VTU.as required.Jan-2004) x 1 + y  1  x x+ y   = = x 2 φ  y  = f .Consider  x+y  3 3 x +y ∴ tan u = = f .

we obtain x2 y2 ∂2 v ∂2 v ∂2 v + 2 xy + y2 = 2( 2 −1)v = 2v ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂2 w ∂2 w ∂2 w + 2 xy + y2 = 2( 2 −1) w = 2 w ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u + 2 xy + y2 = 2u ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y 2 u = v − w where v = x 2 tan −1  y x  & w = y 2 tan −1  x y      Taking the difference of these two expressions. we get x2  Problem set 3.(2) 2 ∂y∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y x Multiplying eq (1) by x.r.(1) 2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x ∂x ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u ∂u x +y + = ( 2 cos 2u ) …………….show that x +y = tan u  ∂x ∂y x+y  x2 y2  ∂ z ∂ z z = log  2.2 for practice −1 1. and eq(2) by y and adding thereafter we get  ∂u ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂u  + 2 xy + y2 = ( 2 cos 2u −1) x 2  ∂x + y ∂y   ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y   = ( 2 cos 2u −1)( sin 2u ) x 2 u xx + 2 xyu xy + y 2 u yy = sin 4u − sin 2u x2 2 −1 y 2 −1 6. show that         x2 ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 u + 2 xy + y2 = 2u ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y 2 Solution:. Applying the corollary to the Euler’s theorem to v and w.We note that     So that v and w are homogenous functions of degree 2.t. If u = sin    x2 y2  ∂u ∂u  . respectively 2 2 ∂2 u ∂u ∂2 u ∂u + +y = ( 2 cos 2u ) …………. If u = x tan  x  − y tan  x y  . If  x + y  .show that x ∂ + y ∂ =1  x y   168 .x & y we get..To get the value of x u xx + 2 xyu xy + y u yy we proceed as follows Differentiating (*) partially w.1.

prove that x ∂x + y ∂y = − 4 sin 2u  ∂u ∂u 3 +y = sin 2u  .prove that x  ∂x ∂y 2  ∂z ∂z 1 4. −1 If z = tan    x3 y3 3 3 x +y 169 . If u = cot x+ y x+y .−1 3.

y . if z = f ( x.Then. then total derivative of z is given by dz ∂ dx f ∂ dy f = + -------------------------(2) dt ∂ dt x ∂ dt y Similarly. the total differential of a function u = f ( x.2. then the total derivative of u is given by du ∂ dx f ∂ dy f ∂ dz f = + + ---------------(4) dt ∂ dt x ∂ dt y ∂ dt z (b) Differentiation of implicit functions:An implicit function with x as an independent variable and y as the dependent  dz   df  variable is generally of the form z = f ( x. y ) where x = x (t ) . y ) = 0 . if u = f ( x.3 : PARIAL DIFFERENTIATION LESSON-2: Total derivatives. z ) and if x = x (t ) . y ) of two variables. z = z (t ) . Session-1 3. also rules for differentiation of composite and implicit functions. x and y are themselves functions of an independent variable t. y = y (t ) i. and hence df ∂ f ∂ dy f 170 . by virtue of expression (2) above. y = y (t ) . y . x and y the total differential ∂f ∂f dx + dy --------------------------(1) ∂x ∂x Further. z ) is defined by du = ∂ f ∂ f ∂ f dx + dy + dz -----------------(3) ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z Further.0: a) Total differential and Total derivative:(or exact differential ) dz is defined by: dz = For a function z = f ( x. Differentiation of Composite and Implicit functions • In this lesson we learn the concept of total derivatives of functions of two or more Variables and. This gives   =   = 0  dx   dx  .e.Chapter . we get dz ∂ f ∂ dy f = + dx ∂ x ∂ dx y or dx = ∂x + ∂y dx .

∂ z ∂ ∂ f u ∂ ∂ f v = + ∂ x ∂ ∂ u x ∂ ∂ v x & ∂ = ∂ ∂ +∂ ∂ y u y v y (7) ∂ z ∂ ∂ f u ∂ ∂ f v -------------------------- Note:-1) The above formulae can be extended to functions of three are more variables and formulas (6) and(7) are called Chain rule for partial differentiation. so that we get ∂ x ∂ dx y dx Let z be an function of x and y and that x =φ(u . y ) and v =ϕ( x.e dz = e x [ (1 + x ) sin y + y cos y ]dx + e x [ (1 + x ) cos y − y sin y ]dy (ii) Let z = f ( x.(i) Let z = f ( x. y. z ) = e xyz Then 171 . 2) The second and higher order partial derivatives of z = f ( x. if z = f (u .1: Worked examples:1. y ) can be obtained by repeated applications of the above formulas 3. y ) = e x [ x sin y + y cos y ] Then ∂z = e x [ (1 + x ) sin y + y cos y ] ∂x ∂z ∂z ∂z dx + dy ∂x ∂y x and ∂y = e [(1 + x ) cos y − y sin y ] Hence. v) and y =ϕ(u . we get dz = i. using formula (1). ∂ z ∂ ∂ f x ∂ ∂ f y = + ∂ u ∂ ∂ x u ∂ ∂ y u & ∂ = ∂ ∂ +∂ ∂ v x v y v ∂ z ∂ ∂ f x ∂ ∂ f y -------------------(6) Similarly. Find the total differential of (i) e x [ x sin y + y cos y ] (ii) e xyz Ans:. ∂f   ∂x   = − ----------. v ) are functions of u and v then. v) are functions of u and v and if u =φ( x.2.(5)  ∂f   ∂y    (c) Differentiation of composite functions:dy ∂ f ∂ dy f 0= + . y ) are functions of x and y then.

∂u ∂u ∂u = ( xz )e xyz ; = ( yz )e xyz ; = ( xy ) e xyz ∂y ∂x ∂z du = ∂u ∂u ∂u dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z = e xyz ( yzdx + zxdy + xydz

Total differential of z = f ( x, y , z ) is (see formula (3) above)

)

2.

Find

(i) z = xy 2 + x 2 y ,where x = at 2 , y = 2at −1  y  (ii) u = tan  x  ,where x = e t − e −t , y = e t + e −t (VTU-Jan 2003)   Ans:- (i) Consider z = xy 2 + x 2 y
∂z ∂z = 2 xy + x 2 = y 2 + 2 xy & ∂y ∂x

dz if dt

Since x = at 2 & y = 2at , We have
dz ∂z dx ∂ dy z = + dt ∂x dt ∂y dt

dx dy = 2at , = 2a dt dt

Hence, using formula (2), we get
= ( y 2 + 2 xy )( 2at ) + ( 2 xy + x 2 )( 2a ) = ( y 2 + 2 xy ) y + 2a ( 2 xy + x 2 ) , Using y = 2at

dz = y 3 + 2 xy 2 + 4axy + 2ax 2 dt  dz  To get   explicitly in terms of t, we substitute  dt  x = at 2 & y = 2at , to get  dz  3 3 4   = 2a (8t + 5t )  dt 

(ii) Consider

∂u −y ∂u x = 2 = 2 2 , ∂x x + y ∂y x + y2

u = tan −1  y   x  

Since x = e t − e −t & y = e t + e −t ,we have
dx dy = e t + e −t = y = e t − e −t = x dt dt
du ∂u dx ∂u dy

Hence dt = ∂x dt + ∂y dt
 −y = 2  x + y2 

( see Eqn (2))

 x2 − y2    x  y +  2 x =  2   x + y2   x + y2       

Substituting x = e t − e −t & y = e t + e −t , we get

172

Session-2 3. Find 

du −2 = 2t dt e + e −2t

 dy   if (i) x y + y x =Constant dx  

(ii) x + e y = 2 xy Ans: - (i) Let z = f ( x, y ) = x y + y x =Constant. Using formula (5)

∂f dy = − ∂x -----------------(*) ∂f dx ∂y
But
∂ f ∂f = x y log x + xy x −1 Putting those in(*), we get = yx y −1 + y x log y and ∂ y ∂x  yx y −1 + y x log y  dy = − y x −1  dx  x log x + xy 

(ii) Let z = f ( x, y ) = e x + e y − 2 xy =Constant Now,
∂f ∂f = e y − 2 x Using this in (8), = ex −2y ; ∂y ∂x

4. (i) If z = f ( x, y ) ,where x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ show that
 ∂z  1  ∂z   ∂z   ∂z    +  =   + 2   (VTU July-2005)  ∂y  r  ∂θ   ∂x   ∂r   
2 2 2 2

 ∂f  ex − 2y  dy  ∂x  = −  = − y  ∂f  dx  e − 2x    ∂y 

(ii) If z = f ( x, y ) ,where x = e u + e −v & y = e −u − e v ,Show that
∂ z ∂ z ∂ z ∂ z − =x −y ∂ u ∂ v ∂ x ∂ y y = r sin θ , we have Ans: - As x = r cos θ and

we have

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y = cos θ , = −r sin θ ; = sin θ & = r cos θ . Using Chain rule (6) & (7) ∂r ∂θ ∂r ∂θ

 ∂z  ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ( cos θ ) + ∂z ( sin θ ) + =  = ∂x ∂y  ∂r  ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂r
∂z  ∂z  ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y + = ( − r sin θ ) + ∂z ( r cos θ )  = ∂y  ∂θ  ∂x ∂θ ∂y ∂θ ∂x

Squaring on both sides, the

above equations, we get
 ∂z   ∂z   ∂z   ∂z  ∂z  2 2   =   cos θ +   sin θ + 2   sin θ cos θ  ∂y     ∂r   ∂x   ∂x  ∂y   
2 2 2

173

 ∂z  1  ∂z   ∂z   ∂z  ∂z  2 2  =   cos θ +   sin θ − 2   sin θ cos θ 2   ∂y    r  ∂θ   ∂x   ∂x  ∂y   

2

2

2

Adding the above equations , we get
2 2 2 2    ∂z   1  ∂z   ∂z   ∂z  2 2   + 2  =   +    cos θ + sin θ  ∂y  r  ∂θ   ∂r   ∂x      

(

)

 ∂z   ∂z  =   +   as desired.    ∂x   ∂y  (ii) As x = e u + e −v & y = e −u − e v , We have Using Chain rule (6) we get

2

2

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y = eu , = −e −v , = −e −u & = −e v ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v

∂z u ∂z −v  ∂z  ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y + = e − e  = ∂x ∂y  ∂u  ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂z  ∂z  ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y + = − e −v − −ev  = ∂v  ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂x ∂y  ∂z −u  ∂z   ∂z  ∂z u e + e −v − e − ev   −  = ∴ ∂y  ∂u   ∂v  ∂x

( ) (

( )

(

)

(

)

)

(

)
∂u

=

∂ z ∂ z x− y ∂ x ∂ y

5. (i) If u = f ( x, z , y / z ) Then show that x ∂x − y ∂y − z ∂z = 0 (VTU-July-2004) (ii) If H = f ( x − y , y − z , z − x) , show that
∂H ∂H ∂H + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u

∂u

(VTU-July-2003)

Ans: - (i) Let u = f (v, w) , where
∂ v ∂v ∂v =0 , =z , =x ∂ y ∂x ∂z

&

Using Chain rule,

∂w ∂w − y ∂w =1 , =0 , z ∂z = ∂y z2 ∂x

v = xz and w = y z

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂u = + = ( z ) + ∂u ( 0) = z ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x ∂w ∂x ∂v ∂w ∂v

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂u = + = ( 0) + ∂u 1 z = 1 ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y ∂w ∂y ∂v ∂w z ∂w

( )

From these, we get ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u y ∂u y ∂u   ∂u x −y −z = xz − − z x − 2  ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂v z ∂w  ∂v z ∂w  =0 (ii) Let H = f (u , v, w) Where u = x − y, v = y − z, w = z − x

∂u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂u = + = ( x ) + ∂u  − y z 2  = x ∂u − y2 ∂u    ∂z ∂v ∂z ∂w ∂z ∂v ∂w  ∂v z ∂w

174

y = uv Prove that ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z =u −v (i) ( u + v ) (ii) ( u + v ) ∂y = ∂u + ∂v ∂x ∂x ∂v t 3.3 : PARIAL DIFFERENTIATION 175 . ∂z = 0 ∂ v ∂v ∂ v = 0.1 1. Find   du   If  dt  (i) u = x 2 − y 2 .2: Problem Set No: 3.2. y = y + bt Prove that ∂u ∂u ∂u =a +b ∂t ∂x ∂y Chapter . as desired. y = e . where r = x + at . z = 2r − 3s + 4. =1. z = cos t  dy   is each of the following cases: dx  (i) x sin ( x − y ) = ( x + y ) (ii) ( cos x ) y = ( sin y ) x 4. Find  5. x = 1 . z = e (iv) u = log ( x + y + z ). x = e −t . Find the total differentials of (i) xyz + ( xyz ) −1 (ii) x 2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x 2. =− 1 ∂ x ∂y ∂ z ∂w ∂w ∂u = −1. y = e t sin t (ii) u = sin xy 2 . If z = f ( x. If u = x 2 − y 2 . y = sin t . y = −r + 8s − 5. x = log t . s ) . y = e t t −t (iii) u = xy + yz + zx. y ) and x = u − v. = 0. we get ∂H ∂H ∂H + + = 0 . ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂H ∂H ∂u ∂H ∂v ∂H ∂w ∂H (1) + ∂H ( 0) + ∂H ( −1) = + + = ∂x ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x ∂w ∂x ∂u ∂v ∂w ∂ H ∂ ∂ H u ∂ ∂ H v ∂ ∂ H w ∂ H ( −1) + ∂H (1) + ∂v ( 0) = + + = ∂ y ∂ ∂ u y ∂ ∂ v y ∂ ∂ w y ∂ u ∂ v ∂ w Adding the above equations. ∂x =1. =1 Using Chain rule. x = e t cos t . ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂H ∂H ∂u ∂H ∂v ∂H ∂w ∂H ( 0) + ∂H ( −1) + ∂H (1) = + + = ∂z ∂u ∂z ∂v ∂z ∂w ∂z ∂u ∂v ∂w 3. Prove that ∂u = 4x + 2 y ∂r 6.2. If z = f ( r .Now. ∂y = −1.

y )    is defined by ∂u  u. y. y  ∂ v ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y Similarly. Errors and Approximations In this lesson.t x and y. y  or ∂( x. v  J  x.r. v. denoted by J or ∂( u .LESSON-3: Applications to Jacobians. w are functions of three independent variables of x. then 176 . z. v )  u.G. then Jacobian of u and v w. errors and approximations using the concept of partial differentiation. if u. who made significant contributions to mechanics. v  ∂ x J   =  x. Definition:. Partial differential equations and calculus of variations.3. we study Jacobians.0 Jacobians:Jacobians were invented by German mathematician C.Let u and v are functions of x and y. Jacob Jacobi (18041851). Session .1 3.

v.In a similar way. y ) ∂( u . z  ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y ∂z Remark:. y. v. y ) and J ′ = then JJ ′ = 1 ∂( x. z ) ∂( u .(i) If J = denoted by J ′ . w) ∂( x.1: Properties of Jacobians :Property 1:. "inverse Jacobian" of J = 3.If J = Proof:. v ) 177 . z ) is defined as J ′ = ∂( x. v ) ∂( u .3. w) (ii) Similarly. v ) ∂( x.Consider ∂( u .is defined as J = ∂( x. then the "inverse Jacobian" of the Jacobian J. w  ∂ v ∂ v ∂ u J = J   =  x. Jacobian of n functions in n-variables can be defined ∂( u . v ) . v. y ) ∂( u . y ) Note:. ∂( x. y .∂u ∂u ∂u ∂x ∂y ∂z  u . y.

v   r.Consider 178 .If u and v are functions of r&s and r. s   u.(Chain rule for Jacobians):. v ) ∂ v ∂ v ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v ∂u∂x ∂u∂y ∂u∂x ∂u∂y + + ∂x∂u ∂y∂u ∂x∂v ∂y∂v 1 0 = = =1 ∂v∂x ∂v∂y ∂v∂x ∂v∂y 1 0 + + ∂x∂u ∂y∂u ∂x∂v ∂y∂v Property 2:.s are functions x&y. y           Proof:. y ) ∂ ( u .then  u. y) ∂ x ∂ y ∂ u ∂ v 1 J=J × = × ∂ ( x.∂u ∂u ∂x ∂x ∂ ( u. y  = J  r . v  J =  x . s  × J  x.v) ∂ ( x.

sr  ∂ r ∂ s ∂ x ∂ y J  × J  = ×  . y ∂ v ∂ v ∂ s ∂ s ∂r ∂s ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s + ∂r ∂x ∂s ∂x = ∂v∂r ∂v ∂s + ∂r ∂x ∂s ∂x ∂u ∂u ∂ x ∂ y  u. v  = = J  ∂ v ∂ v  x. y  ∂x ∂y 3.∂u ∂u ∂r ∂r  .3.sr   x.vu   .2:-Jacobians in various co-ordinate systems:- ∂u ∂r ∂u ∂s + ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂y ∂v∂r ∂v ∂s + ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂y 179 .

∂ρ = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z = −ρ sin φ .yx ) ∂ r ∂ θ c θ − ros θ i s n ∴ = = ∂ ( r. x = ρ cos φ. z = r cos θ Proof of 1:. =0 ∂ρ ∂φ ∂z 180 . =0 ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ ∂z ∂z ∂z =0 .θ ) ∂ y ∂ y s θ rci θ n o s ∂r ∂θ = r cos 2 θ + r sin 2 θ = r ( cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ ) = r ∂x ∂y ∂z Proof of 2 :-we have ∂ρ = cos φ . = ρ cos φ . In spherical polar co-ordinates. z ) =ρ ∂( ρ. we have ∂( x. ∂x ∂y = cos θ and = sin θ ∂r ∂r ∂x ∂y = −r sin θ and = r cos θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂x ∂x ∂ ( . θ ) 3.we have. In spherical coordinates.1. x = r sin θ cos φ . v ) =r ∂( r . y = r sin θ sin φ . y. =0 . In Polar co-ordinates. z ) ∂( u . x = r cos θ . ∂ρ = sin φ . y = r sin θ we have 2. y = ρ sin φ. φ. z = z.

z ) ∴ = s θ i s n φi nr c θ os φis nr s θ i c n φ o s ∂ ( r . = r cos θ sin φ .We have ∂x ∂x ∂x = −r sin θ sin φ = sin θ cos θ . ∂φ ∂r ∂θ s θ i c n θ o r cs θ oc φso − sr s θ i s n φi n ∂ ( x. ∂φ ∂r ∂θ ∂z ∂z ∂z =0 = cos θ .∂x ∂x ∂x ∂ρ ∂φ ∂z c φ − oρ s φ 0is n ∂ ( . ∂φ ∂r ∂θ ∂y ∂y ∂y = r sin θ cos φ = sin θ sin φ . = r cos θ cos φ .. φ ) c θ o s− r s θ i n 0 = r 2 sin θ Session – 2 181 . zyx ) ∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∴ = = s φ ρic φ n 0o = ρ s ∂ ( φρ ..θ . y . = −r sin θ . z) ∂ ρ ∂ φ ∂ z 001 ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂ρ ∂φ ∂z Proof of 3:.

y = r sin θ show that ∂( u . If u = x 2 − 2 y 2 . v  182 . v   u. v ) = 6r 3 sin 2θ ∂( r .θ ) ∂ v ∂ v 4r c θ o− 2rs s θ i − n4r c θ so θ −i 2rs ns θ ci θ n o s ∂r ∂θ = 2r cos 2 θ − 4r sin 2 θ − 4r 2 cos θ sin θ − 2r 2 sin θ cos θ = ( − 2r cos θ sin θ − 4r 2 sin θ cos θ )( 4r cos 2 θ − 2r sin 2 θ ) ( )( ) = 6r 3 sin 2θ 2. v = 2 x 2 − y 2 . θ ) (VTU-Jan-2006) Consider u = x 2 − 2 y 2 = r 2 cos 2 θ − 2r 2 sin 2 θ v = 2 x 2 − y 2 = 2r 2 cos 2 θ − r 2 sin 2 θ ∴ ∂v ∂u = 2r cos 2 θ − 4r sin 2 θ . y   x.3. y  × J 1   = 1 (VTU-2001)  u. Prove that J   x.3:-Worked Examples:1. If x = u (1 − v ). y = uv . where x = r cos θ .v) ∂ r ∂ θ 2r c θ o− 4rs s θ i − n2r c θ so θ −i 4rs ns θ ci θ n o s = = 2 2 2 2 ∂ ( r. = 4r cos 2 θ − 2r sin 2 θ ∂r ∂r ∂u = −2r 2 cos θ sin θ − 4r 2 sin θ cos θ ∂θ ∂v = −4r 2 cos θ sin θ − 2r 2 sin θ cos θ ∂θ ∂u ∂u 2 2 2 2 ∂ ( u.3.

v  Further.Consider ∂x ∂x =1 − v .yx  ∂ u ∂ v 1− v − u ∴ J  = =  . ∂ y ∂ x ∂v x ∂v y = =− . 2 ∂x ( x + y ) ∂y ( x + y ) 2 = u − uv 183 . =u ∂u ∂v ∂x ∂x  . = −u ∂u ∂v ∂y ∂y =v . x = u − y ∴ = x + y and  y  y  y  = ∴v =  x+y  x +y  u     ∂ u ∂ u =1 and ∴ =1. as x = u (1 − v ). u We write. y = uv .vu  ∂ y ∂ y v u ∂u ∂v v= = (1 − v )u − ( − uv ) = u − uv + uv = u  x. y  ∴  J  = u − − −(1)  u.

y ) Consider ∂x ∂u ∂x ∂v y = e sin v x = e u cos v ∂y = e u cos v = e u sin v ∂u ∂y u = −e sin v = e u cos v ∂v u 184 .∂u ∂u 1 1 1 u. y = e u sin v. v ) × =1 ∂( u . v  ∂ x ∂ y ∴ J   = = y x x . v ) ∂( x. y ) ∂( u . If x = e u cos v. Prove that ∂( x.y ∂ v ∂ v − 2 2 ( x + y) ( x + y) ∂x ∂y = ∴JJ 1 = u  1 x y + = 2 2 ( x + y) ( x + y)  x +   1 = y u  1 =1 u 3.

or u = log ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 2 y −1 y = tan v or v = tan   x  x   ∂u x ∂u y Hence ∂x = x 2 + y 2 . v ) Again Consider x = e u cos v. . y ) = e 2u − − − − − (1) ∂( u .e ∴x 2 + y 2 = e 2u ∂( x.yx ) ∂ u ∂ v e c v − eos v is n ∴ = =u u ∂ ( u. ∂v −y ∂v x & ∂x = x 2 + y 2 . .∂x ∂x u u ∂ ( . ∂y = x 2 + y 2 . v ) ∂ y ∂ y e s v e i c v n o s ∂u ∂v i. ∂y = x 2 + y 2 & 185 . y = e u sin v.

z ) yz zx xy ∂( u . y ) ∂( x. w = z .∂u ∂u x y 2222 ∂ (u. v ) ∂( x. v ) ∴ × = e 2u × e −2u = 1 ∂( u . Show that ∂( x.v) ∂x ∂ y + yx + yx 1 2 2−1 ∴ = = = 2 2 += yx ∂ (x.y) ∂v ∂ v − y x + yx 2222 ∂x ∂ y + yx + yx () ∂( u . If u = x . v. v = y . w) 186 . v ) = e −2u − − − − − − − ( 2) ∂( x. y ) i. y ) ∂( u .e =4 4. y .

z )  x 2  y 2  z 2   x  y  z 2   z  y         y  z  x   y  − zx  +     −   2       x  y  z   z  y  = 4. 5. as desired.e ∂( u .Now. w)  yz  − zx  − xy   z  z  − xy   y  x   =  −   −     −    ∂( x. θ . v w) ∂ v ∂ v ∂ v z − z x x = = 2 ∂ ( x y. If x = r sin θ cos φ . z ) = r 2 sin θ ∂( r .. z) ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z y y y ∂w ∂w ∂w y x − x y 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z z z z i. ∂ u ∂ u ∂ u y z yz −2 ∂x ∂y ∂z x x x ∂ ( u . y = r sin θ sin φ . z = r cos θ .show that Now. v. y. by definition ∂( x. φ ) 187 . y.

y ) ∂( u . v ) ∂( x. v = xy + yz + zx.1 1.∂x ∂r ∂ ( x. θ   x.3. y = eu tan v. as required 2 ( ( ) ) ) 3.4:-Problem set No: 3.If u = xyz .e s θi cn φ o r cs θ oc sφ o − sr s θi sn φi n ∂ ( x. θ . y = r sin θ show that  r. w = x + y + z show that that 188 . z ) = s θi sn φi nr c θ os φsi n r s θi cn φ o s ∂ ( r. φ ) c θ o s − r s θi n 0 = r 2 sin 2 θ sin θ cos 2 φ + r 2 sin θ cos 2 θ cos 2 φ = r 2 sin θ sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ cos 2 φ + r 2 sin θ sin 2 φ = r 2 sin θ cos 2 φ + sin 2 φ ( = sin θ cos φ {0 − ( r 2 sin 2 θ cos φ )} − r cos θ cos φ{ 0 − ( r sin θ cos θ cos φ )} − r sin θ sin φ{− r sin 2 θ sin φ − r cos 2 θ sin φ} = r sin θ . y  =1   r. y  J × J 1   x. θ    x = eu sec v.3. z ) ∂ y = ∂ ( r. x = r cos θ . If ∂( x. y ) 3. Show 2. φ ) ∂ r ∂z ∂r ∂x ∂θ ∂y ∂θ ∂z ∂θ ∂x ∂φ ∂y ∂φ ∂z ∂φ i. v ) × =1 ∂( u . y . y . θ .

Area A of a traingle is given by (ii) δ ( u ± v ) = δu ± δv  u  vδu − uδv (iv) δ   = 2 v v 189 . it is going to have an impact on the result which may be negligible or significant too. find the value of ∂( x. Similarly. the  δz   δu  quantity  ×100  or  ×100  is called percentage error in z or u respectively  z  u  Note:. z ) 4. w ) 5.5:-Errors and Approximations Session-3:While doing scientific or engineering computations there is always scope for computation errors.∂( u . z ) is a function of three variables x.3. u − v = e x sin y find J  x. v. an account of various types of errors is necessary to present approximate value of the function under consideration. y      [Hint: Start from u = x ex ( cos y + sin y ) and v = e ( cos y − sin y ) 2 2  u.If x + y + z = u.If u + v = e x cos y. y + z = v.z then the error or u absolute error δ is given by δu =   ∂u   ∂u   ∂u  δx +   ∂y δy +  ∂z δz ----------. In such situations. v  3.The quantity o is called relative error in z or u respectively. Obviously.3. if u = f ( x.3.y.(2)  ∂x       Remark:.7:-Worked Examples:1. v.The following results similar to that of differentials will also be useful. z = uvw . y. 3. Find the percentage error in measuring the area of a traingle if 1% error (each) is made in measuring its base as well as height. w) = ( x − y )( y − z )( z − x ) ∂( x. (i) δ ( cu ) = cδu (iii) δ ( uv ) = uδv + vδu 3. z ) ∂( u . y ) is a function of two variables x and y then the error or absolute error ∂ is given by z δz =   ∂z   ∂z  δx +   ∂y δy -------------(1)   ∂x    Similarly. y. y .6:-Definition:If z = f ( x.

Hence.e  f        1 1 1 1 1 1 − 1 1 1 δf = − 2 δp − 2 δq f2 p q  δp 2 i.   0.A= 1 ah ---------. Therefore. is given by 1 1 δA = δ ( ah ) = [ aδh + hδa ] 2 2 1 [ aδh + hδa ] δA ∴ = 2 1 A ah 2 ∴ δh δa = + A h a δA  δh   δa  ∴ ×100 =  ×100  +  ×100  A  h   a  δA =1 % +1% (by data) =2% The percentage error in A is 2% 2.25 190 .5  2  = 0.5) 2 2     ( 25)    ∴ The maximum error in f=0. the A a h change ∂ due to a change δ in a. By data p = q = 25 and δp = δq = 0. and a change δ in h.5.e δf = f  2 + 2  q  p As p = q.5cm. we have δq  1 1 1  2δp  = + = 0.25 δf = (12. and δp =δq. For a certain lens p and q are each 25cms with a possible error of almost 0. The focal length f of a lens is given by f = p + q where p and q are the distances of the lens from the object and the image respectively. Consider f = p + q .08 δf = f 2  2  Since f 25 25 p  we have f=12. Find the approximate value of the maximum error in f.(1) 2 where `a`and `h` are base and height of the triangle respectively.5 Now. δ   = δ  +  f   p q 1 1 1     1 1 1  δ  = δ  +δ   p q  i.

3. δT = δ mv 2 2 2 1 = m( 2vδv ) + v 2 ( δm ) 2 1 2 i. The current measured by a tangent galvanometer is given by the relation c = k tan θ Where θ is the angle of deflection .44. the relative error in c is minimum when θ = 45 0 . Prove that δa δb δc cos A + cos B + cos c =0 If the triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle of radius R and if a.000 5. find approximately the change in T as m 2 changes From 49 to 49.5)(1600 ) 2 v =1600 . δ B 191 .C we have the sine rule given by a b c = + = 2R sin A sin B sin c ⇒ a = 2 R sin A ⇒ δa = δ ( 2 R sin A) = 2 Rδ ( sin A) ∴ a = 2 R cos Aδ . By data. 2 ∴sin 2θ = 1 ⇒ 2θ = 90 0 ⇒ θ = 45 0 Thus. m = 49 . v + ∂v =1590 ⇒∂v = −10 As T = ( ) [ ] [ ] =-1. m + ∂m = 49 . δ A ⇒ b = 2 R sin B ⇒ δb = δ ( 2 R sin B ) = 2 R δ ( sin B ) ∴ b = 2 R cos Bδ . Consider c = k tan θ (k=constant) ∴ δc = δ ( k tan θ ) = k sec 2 θ δ θ+ 0 ( ) ∴ δc k sec θ = δθ c k tan θ δc  2  = δ θ-----------(*) or c  sin 2θ  δ c The relation error in c being is maximum when the denominator of RHS of c (*) is maximum and the maximum of sine function is unity. If T = 1 mv 2 is the kinetic energy.b.Show that the relative error in c due to a given error in θ is maximum where θ = 45 0 .5 1 1 mv 2 . If the sides of a triangle ABC vary in such a way that its circum radius remains constant.B.5 ⇒ ∂m = 0.e δT = ( 49 )( 2 )(1600 )( −10 ) + ( 0.c respectively denotes the sides opposite to the angles A. 4.5 and V changes from 1600 to 1590.

we write δa δb δc = 2 RδA.If there is an error of 3% in the value of l. where g is constant . Find the percentage value of T. 3. What is the relative error in computing the volume? ( Hint: Volume of the Sphere= 4 π r3) 3 4.3.8:-Problem set No: 3.3. The radius of a Sphere is found to be 10cms with possible error of 0. The pressure p and the volume v of a gas are concentrated by the relation pv1. 2. δa δb cos A + cos B + δc = 2 RδA + 2 RδB + 2 RδC cos C = 2 R(δA + δB + δC ) = 2 Rδ ( Cons tan t )  A + B + C = π radians = 2 R δ( 0 ) = Cons tan t =0 3.2 1. = 2 RδB & = 2 RδC cos A cos B cos C Adding. The time T of a Complete oscillation of a simple pendulum is given by the formula T = ( 2π ) l g .4=constant. Find the percentage error in the evaluation of the area of an ellipse if 1% error is made while measuring the major and minor axis . find the percentage increase in pressure corresponding to a dimension of 1 % in volume 2 192 .02cm.⇒ c = 2 R sin C ⇒ δc = δ ( 2 R sin C ) = 2 R δ ( sin C ) ∴ C = 2 R cos Cδ δ C From the above.

193 .