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Quantum mechanics|Views: 45|Likes: 1

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08/31/2011

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MECHANICS

JOURNEY TO THE WORLD OF

THE ULTRASMALL

“Quantum mechanics is the description of the

behaviour of matter in all its details and, in

particular, of the happenings on an atomic

scale. Things on a very small scale behave

like nothing you have any direct experience

about. They do not behave like waves, they

do not behave like particles, they do not

behave like clouds, or billiard balls, or weights

on springs, or like anything that you have

ever seen.”

Richard P. Feynman

Particles and waves

Behaviour of Particles

Behaviour of waves

Atomic Behaviour

Unlike ordinary experience

Very difficult to get used to

Appears peculiar and mysterious to

every one

All direct human experience and

intuition apply to large objects.

Even experts do not understand it

“If you are not confused by Quantum Physics then you

haven't really understood it”. N. Bohr

How to enter the world of ultra

small?

Try to learn about them in a sort of

abstract or imaginative fashion

Have an idea of the relation between

Mathematics and Nature

Don‟t approach quantum mechanics

having connection with our direct

experience.

Mystery at the heart of quantum

mechanics

Mystery cannot be explained in a classical

way

The dual nature of electrons

Behaves as a particle

Behaves as a wave

But neither

Behave just like light

Particle/wave nature being exhibited

depending on the type of experiment we

perform

Particle nature –

Photoelectric effect

Wave nature –

Interference

The Double slit experiment

Particles

Water Waves

ELECTRONS

DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT

Electrons travel as waves but

depart and arrive as particles

The de Broglie Relation

All forms of matter

exhibit dual behaviour

mv

h

= ì

Heisenberg Uncertainty

Principle

The more precisely the position is determined,

the less precisely the momentum is known in

this instant, and vice versa.

--Heisenberg, uncertainty paper, 1927

The position and velocity of an object cannot be

simultaneously known with certainty.

Uncertainty Principle applies to location and

momentum along the same axis.

t 4

h

x v m = A × A

Consequences of the new

findings

Bohr theory ran into trouble

Bohr tried to predict the movement of the

electrons too precisely

Restricted electrons to certain location in

the atom

Orbitals instead of orbits

Erwin Schrodinger came up

with a new idea.

The famous “Schrodinger

equation”

A mathematical equation

which provides all

information regarding an

electron in an atom.

Mathematics – The language of

Nature

"To those who do not know mathematics it

is difficult to get across a real feeling as to

the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature

... If you want to learn about nature, to

appreciate nature, it is necessary to

understand the language that she speaks

in"

Richard Feynman

y = x

2

x -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 0 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

y 9 6.25 4 2.25 1 0 1 2.25 4 6.25 9

2

4

6

8

9

-3 -2

-1 0 1 2 3

Schrodinger Equation

( )

Energy Total for Operator - Operator n Hamiltonia

ˆ

0

8

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

v v

v

t v v v

E H

V E

h

m

z y x

=

= ÷ +

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

Wave Functions

Emerge as solution

to the Schrodinger

Equation

Represented as

A function of x, y

and z coordinates

For convenience

we use polar

coordinates,

v

o u and , r

Spherical polar coordinates

Orbitals

There are infinite number of wave functions for the

electron in the hydrogen atom.

Or an infinite number of orbitals for the electron in the

hydrogen atom.

The term atomic orbital is used for an electron wave

function since the wave function gives the maximum

possible information about electron motion in an atom

In each orbital electron has precise energy, magnitude

for angular momentum

All other dynamical variables (position, velocity etc.) do

not have sharply defined values

The square of the wave function directly gives the

position probability distribution for a particular orbit.

Quantization of energy

The permitted

values of energy

are given by

2 2

0

4

8 h n

me

E

n

tc

=

n is the Principal quantum number

Only non-zero positive integral values

Angular momentum

Quantization of angular

momentum

For a given value of

energy, the angular

momentum cannot

have any magnitude

Known as space

quantization

t 2

) 1 (

h

l l L + =

Quantum numbers

Principal Quantum Number n

Azimuthal Quantum Number l

Magnetic Quantum Number m

The quantum numbers n, l and m are

introduced in a logical way during the

process of the solution of

Schrondinger equation

Spin Quantum Number

Introduced later to

account for the

intrinsic spin of the

electron

Shape of Atomic Orbitals

Nodes

Misleading Terms

„an electron is placed in an orbital‟

„an orbital is getting filled‟

„electrons occupy certain orbitals‟

„accommodate electrons in an orbital‟

„electrons jump from one orbital to

another,

Things on a very small scale behave like nothing you have any direct experience about. they do not behave like clouds. or billiard balls.” Richard P. of the happenings on an atomic scale. or weights on springs. they do not behave like particles. They do not behave like waves. or like anything that you have ever seen. Feynman . in particular.“Quantum mechanics is the description of the behaviour of matter in all its details and.

Particles and waves Behaviour of Particles Behaviour of waves .

Atomic Behaviour Unlike ordinary experience Very difficult to get used to Appears peculiar and mysterious to every one All direct human experience and intuition apply to large objects. Even experts do not understand it “If you are not confused by Quantum Physics then you haven't really understood it”. Bohr . N.

.How to enter the world of ultra small? Try to learn about them in a sort of abstract or imaginative fashion Have an idea of the relation between Mathematics and Nature Don‟t approach quantum mechanics having connection with our direct experience.

Mystery at the heart of quantum mechanics Mystery cannot be explained in a classical way The dual nature of electrons Behaves as a particle Behaves as a wave But neither Behave just like light Particle/wave nature being exhibited depending on the type of experiment we perform .

Particle nature – Photoelectric effect Wave nature – Interference .

The Double slit experiment Particles .

Water Waves .

ELECTRONS .

DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT .

Electrons travel as waves but depart and arrive as particles .

The de Broglie Relation All forms of matter exhibit dual behaviour h mv .

the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant. Uncertainty Principle applies to location and momentum along the same axis. --Heisenberg.Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle The more precisely the position is determined. uncertainty paper. h mv x 4 . and vice versa. 1927 The position and velocity of an object cannot be simultaneously known with certainty.

Consequences of the new findings Bohr theory ran into trouble Bohr tried to predict the movement of the electrons too precisely Restricted electrons to certain location in the atom Orbitals instead of orbits .

. Erwin Schrodinger came up with a new idea. The famous “Schrodinger equation” A mathematical equation which provides all information regarding an electron in an atom.

Mathematics – The language of Nature "To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty.. to appreciate nature. If you want to learn about nature.. it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in" Richard Feynman . the deepest beauty. of nature .

25 4 6.y = x2 x -3 y 9 -2.5 6.5 -1 0 0 1 1.5 3 2.25 9 9 8 6 4 2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 .25 1 1 2.5 2 2.25 -2 4 -1.

Schrodinger Equation 2 2 x y ˆ H E 2 2 2 z 2 8 2 m h 2 E V 0 Hamiltonian Operator .Operator for Total Energy .

y and z coordinates For convenience we use polar coordinates. r .Wave Functions Emerge as solution to the Schrodinger Equation Represented as A function of x. and .

Spherical polar coordinates .

Or an infinite number of orbitals for the electron in the hydrogen atom. velocity etc. The term atomic orbital is used for an electron wave function since the wave function gives the maximum possible information about electron motion in an atom In each orbital electron has precise energy.Orbitals There are infinite number of wave functions for the electron in the hydrogen atom.) do not have sharply defined values The square of the wave function directly gives the position probability distribution for a particular orbit. . magnitude for angular momentum All other dynamical variables (position.

Quantization of energy The permitted values of energy are given by me En 2 2 8 0 n h 4 n is the Principal quantum number Only non-zero positive integral values .

Angular momentum .

Quantization of angular momentum For a given value of energy. the angular momentum cannot have any magnitude Known as space quantization h L l (l 1) 2 .

Quantum numbers Principal Quantum Number n Azimuthal Quantum Number l Magnetic Quantum Number m The quantum numbers n. l and m are introduced in a logical way during the process of the solution of Schrondinger equation .

Spin Quantum Number Introduced later to account for the intrinsic spin of the electron .

Shape of Atomic Orbitals Nodes .

Misleading Terms „an electron is placed in an orbital‟ „an orbital is getting filled‟ „electrons occupy certain orbitals‟ „accommodate electrons in an orbital‟ „electrons jump from one orbital to another. .

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