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Handbook of Downdraft Gasifier

Handbook of Downdraft Gasifier

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Aerodynamic sizing can be accomplished with either
a cascade impactor or a cascade cyclone. Particles and

I

Gas Testing

67

b,

co

Table 7-8. Energy Balance

-

3

>

Run

CT

o

98

ox

91 0

2,

920

to

927

$'

922

i%

101

VJ

0

929

0

101 1

5

101 5

e

lu

924

zt

106

0

123

!.

104

-"

1129
121

5'

ca.

1119

2

1117

(D

cn

1110

2

1221

3

all

VJ

mean
data

<95%
mean

D'?'
ch~p
rate
(kglh)

26.7
26.7
33.6
41.2
47.8
48.7
48.8
49.5
52.3
53.7
54.3
54.3
63.7
68.9
72.5
74.6
85.4
119.7
125.5

-
-
-
-

Chip
moisture
(%wet
basis)

Matl.
balance
closure

("/.I

98.9
98.3
96.6
85.4
85.1
98.6
99.5
91.6
88.8
91.8
95.4
94.2
92.6
91.9
80.4
97.3
97.0
91 .O
98.2

-
-
-
-

Dry

Gas

Char

gas

yield

yield

HHV

(m3/kg (kg1100

(MJlm3)

DCB)

kg DC)

5.33

2.22

3.28

5.18

2.28

3.21

5.33

2.48

4.06

5.63

2.54

3.08

5.44

1.43

2.76

5.59

2.18

3.45

5.63

2.10

3.72

5.44

2.55

3.94

5.33

2.73

4.69

5.66

1.62

2.79

5.48

1.95

2.18

5.51

1.90

4.27

5.55

2.61

2.71

5.59

2.85

3.82

5.63

1.39

3.57

5.74

2.1 1

3.96

5.78

2.30

2.92

5.74

1.79

1.67

5.44

2.10

3.25

Tar
yield
(kg11 000
kg DC)

2.55
4.59
2.71
3.30
1.90
1.86
2.79
4.59
5.21
2.54
1.67
3.35
2.85
3.96
3.76
3.65
2.13
3.03
4.34

3.20
0.99

2.92
0.99

Tar
in
dry gas
(PPm)

1370
2003
977
1180
1199
777
1205
1607
1679
1426
776
1594
989
1254
2445
1567
830
1544
1803

1380
424

1256
433

Dry
air in
(kg/
kg DC)

1.61
1.69
1.85
1.75
1.05
1.56
1.52
1.88
2.08
1.13
1.42
1.35
1.90
2.04
0.99
1.50
1.64
1.27
1.61

1.57
0.31

1.60
0.1 2

H20
out
(kg/
kg DC)

0.277
0.277
0.212
0.438
0.186
0.273
0.250
0.321
0.381
0.209
0.1 99
0.236
0.307
0.281
0.169
0.264
0.268
0.206
0.345

0.268
0.067

0.263
0.039

Energy
yield
(MJIkg
DC)

Total
energy
out
(MJIh)

31 5
31 5
441
590
370
594
576
685
759
490
579
567
924
1094
567
90 1
1136
1224
1434

-
-
-
-

Mass con-
version
effici-
ency
(%)

87.7
87.5
94.7
98.1
74.9
89.8
88.5
96.1
97.5
80.9
86.5.
83.0
96.2
98.1
70.8
86.0
92.2
81.6
87.9

Cold gas
effici-
encyb

70.2
70.2
78.1
85.0
46.1
72.5
70.2
82.2
86.3
54.2
63.5
62.1
86.2
94.4
46.5
71.8
79.1
60.8
67.9

aDC = dry chips
b~nergy in gaslenergy in wood
Source: Walawender 1985, p. 91 7

droplets are collected inertially as a function of their

7.8.5 Graphic Analysis of Size Distribution

aerodynamic size. Once they have been separated by
size, there is no need to prevent the droplets from

The cumulative article-size distribution shown in

coalescing. Quantities, and therefore distributions, are

Fig. 7-4 plots as a straight line on probability paper,

subsequently determined by the relative masses

thereby indicating log normal distribution about a

represented in each size grade.

mean particle diameter, dp at 5O0/0, with a geometric

Producer gas flow rate, m3/h (2!j0C,latm)

Fig. 7-21. Flow rate effects on efficiency, heating value, and gas composition for rice hulls (Source: Compiled from Kaupp 1984b data)

Table 7-9. Examples of Size-Analysis Methods and Equipment

Particle Size, km General Method

Examples of Specific instruments*

37 and larger

Dry-sieve analysis

Tyler Ro-Tap, Alpine Jet sieve

10 and larger

Wet-sieve analysis

Buckbee-Mears sieves

1-100

Optical microscope
Microscope with scanner and counter
Dry gravity sedimentation
Wet gravity sedimentation
Electrolyte resistivity change

0.2-20

Light scattering
Cascade impactor
Wet centrifugal sedimentation

Zeiss, Bausch & Lomb, Nikon microscopes
Millipore llMC system
Roller analyzer, Sharples Micromerograph
Andreasen pipet
Coulter counter

Royco
Brink, Anderson, Casella, Lundgren impactors
M.S.A.-Whitby analyzer

0.01 -1 0

Ultracentrifuge

Goetz aerosol spectrometer

Transmission electron microscope

Phillips, RCA, Hitachi, Zeiss, Metropolitan-Vickers,
Siemens microscopes

Scanning electron microscope

Reist & Burgess system

*This table gives examples of specific equipment. It is not intended to be a complete listing, nor is it intended to be an endorsement of any instrument.
Source: Perry 1973, Table 20-33

Gas Testing

69

Table 7-10. Sieve Number Versus Mesh Size

Sieve Number

Mesh Size, urn

standard deviation o as indicated by the slope. Note
that both distributions shown in Fig. 7-4 have the same
overall slope. This slope is typical of large materials
that have been broken up into a wide range of smaller
particles. It will be helpful for us to express this slope
as the geometric standard deviation, og

where dp50 is the diameter for which 50% of the total
particles are captured. The other subscripts denote
similar cumulative percentages of particles smaller
than the respective particle diameter d.

The solid particles that pass through a cyclone can be
expected to have a mean particle diameter near the

cyclone cut diameter, dp50, with a standard deviation,
og equal to 2.5, which is characteristic of cyclones,
gravity separators, and all Stokes' law particle
movement.

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