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S. vivekanantha, Faculty Member, Department of Management Studies Kodaikanal Christian College, Kodaikanal
The big difference between these terms
and human resource Development
Why Human Factor is More Important?
Human resources are unique in character HR alone can produce an output greater than its input HR is the only resource which are animate HR is most complex and unpredictable in its behavior This is the only resource which appreciates in its value with the passage of time.
Meaning and Definition
NIPM ± CALCUTTA" Personnel Management is that part of the management function which is primarily concerned with human relationships within in organization. Its objective is the maintenance of those relationships on a basis which, by consideration of the wellbeing of the individual, enables all those engaged in the undertaking to make their maximum personal contribution in the effective working of the undertaking.´
compensation. development. Therefore.Edwin B Flippo ³The personnel function is concerned with the procurement. personnel management is the planning. and controlling of the performance of those operatives functions´. organizing. directing. integration and maintenance of the personnel of an organization for the purpose of contributing towards the accomplishment of that organization¶s major goals or objectives. .
Difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management Take Home Compulsory Assignment. .
Objectives and scope of HRM To effective utilization of the human resources To establish and maintain an organizational structure To secure integration to the individuals and organization by reconciling individual group goals To generates maximum development of individuals groups To recognize and satisfy individual needs and group goals To maintain high morale and better human relations To develop and maintain a quality of work life To establish and maintain productive self-respecting working relationships .
Features of HRM Comprehensive Function People-Oriented Action Oriented Individual Oriented Development Oriented Pervasive Function Continuous Function Interdisciplinary Nervous system. Young discipline Future-oriented Challenging Function Science as well an Art Staff function .
Procurement b. Organizing C. II. Maintenance . Integration e. Directing d. Controlling. Compensation d. Planning b. Development c.Functions of HRM I. Operative Functions: a. Managerial Functions: a.
What Is Strategic Management? Strategic Management ± The ongoing process companies use to form a vision. especially shareholders Vision ± Contains at least two components²a mission that describes the firm¶s DNA and the ³picture´ of the firm as it hopes to exist in a future time period. and select one or more strategies to use to create value for customers and other stakeholders. analyze their external environment and their internal environment. .
Parts of Strategic Management Strategy ± An action plan designed to move an organization toward achievement of its vision Mission ± Defines the firm¶s core intent and the business or businesses in which it intends to operate .
resources and capabilities. and so forth) inside the firm affecting the choice and use of strategies External Environment ± A set of conditions outside the firm that affect the firm¶s performance .The Strategic Environment Internal Environment ± The set of conditions (such as strengths.
Key Characteristics of Strategic Management Strategic management is: Performance oriented Ongoing in nature Dynamic rather than static Oriented to the present and the future Concerned with conditions both outside and inside the firm Concerned with performing well and satisfying stakeholders .
± Strategy implementation²the set of actions firms take to use a strategy after it has been selected. . Firms analyze their external environment and their internal environment. Strategic leaders form a firm¶s vision and mission. 2. 3. Firms choose and implement a strategy that to creates unique mix of value for customers and satisfies other stakeholders.The Three Parts of the Strategic Management Process 1.
A worldwide market of markets built on a worldwide network of networks . and quality. linking pools of liquidity and connecting investors from all over the world . . . NASDAQ To build the world¶s first truly global securities market . . every time. Petsmart To be the premier organization in nurturing and enriching the bond between people and animals.Vision and Mission Statements Vision Statements McDonald¶s To give each customer. an experience that sets new standards in value. . Wachovia Wachovia¶s vision is to be the best. most trusted and admired financial services company. service. . . assuring the best possible price for securities at the lowest possible cost. friendliness. .
and to provide employees with meaningful work and advancement opportunities.Mission statements contd« Mission Statements Bristol-Myers Squibb Our mission is to extend and enhance human life by providing the highest-quality pharmaceuticals and health care products. Merck The mission of Merck is to provide society with superior products and services by developing innovations and solutions that improve the quality of life and satisfy customer needs. and investors with a superior rate of return. . feel better and live longer. Wipro The mission is to be a full-service. global outsourcing company. GlaxoSmithKline GSK¶s mission is to improve the quality of human life by enabling people to do more.
Through it management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places. and the individual receiving.HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Definition: It is the process by which management determines how an organisation should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. doing things which result in both the organisation. at the right time. maximum long-rang benefit´ .
Objectives of HRP To ensure optimum use of existing HR To forecast future requirements for HR To provide control measures To link HRP with Organisational Planning To determine levels of Recruitment and Training To estimate cost of Hr and Housing needs of Employees To provide a basis for MDP To facilitate productivity Bargaining To meet the needs of Expansion and Diversification programmes To assess shortage and surplus of Hr .
HRP is useful in To carry on its work anticipating Cost of and to achieve its HR which facilitates objectives budgeting easier HRP identifies gaps HRP facilitates There is need to Career and replace employees succession planning HRP facilitates expansion and growth HRP helps in planning for HRP helpful in physical facilities effective utilization of like canteen staff HR and Technology quarters etc Need and Importance of HRP .
Why HRP gained so much focus in recent times« Employment situation Technological Changes Organizational Changes Demographic Changes Lead time Hiring costs Increased Mobility Shortage of Skills Legislative Controls Pressure Groups Systems Concepts .
Forecasting supply of HR 4. Forecasting Demand for HR 3.Process of HRP 1. Estimating Manpower Gaps 5. Action Planning 6. Analyzing Organizational Plans 2. Monitoring and Control .
Draw an organizational chart of an MNC known to you and state whether HR function line or Staff function.Assignments 1. State essential qualities of Successful HR Manager? 3.What are the challenges of HR Executives in the present day business scenario? 2. .
Human Resource Management ± Dr.Further Readings 1.C. Khanka ± S. C. Gupta ± Sultan Chand & Sons Pub.B. Tripathi Himalaya Pub. Personnel Management & Industrial Relations ± P. . Chand Pub. Human Resource Management ± S. 2.S.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
S. vivekanantha, Faculty Member, Department of Management Studies Kodaikanal Christian College, Kodaikanal
Job analysis is a formal and detailed study of jobs It refers to a scientific and systematic analysis of a job in order to obtain all pertinent facts about the job It is essentially a process of collecting and analyzing all pertinent data relating to a job
Objectives of Job Analysis
Job Redesign Work Standards Recruitment Selection Training Performance appraisal Job evaluation Safety
Benefits of Job Analysis 6. Performance 1. Organizational Appraisal Design 2. Human Resource 7. Career Path planning Planning 8. Job Design 3. Recruitment and 9. Job Evaluation Selection 10 Labour Relation 4. Placement and 11. Employee Orientation Counselling 5. Training and 12. Health and Development Safety
Deciding the uses of Job Analysis Information 4. Selecting Representative Jobs for analysis 5. Collection of Data 7. Preparing a Job Specification . Developing a Job Description 8.The process of Job Analysis 1. Organisational Analysis 2. Understand Job Design 6. Organising Job Analysis Programme 3.
Techniques of Job Analysis 1. Interview 4. Personal Observation 3. Job Performance 2. Critical Incidents 6. Log Records . Questionnaire 5.
location.Differentiate between Job Description and Job Specification Job specification is a Job Description is a statement of the functional description of minimum acceptable what the job entails. working conditions. psychological and hazards and relationship behavioral with other jobs. a written record it contains title. human qualities And define the purpose required for the proper and scope of a job. characteristics of a person . mental. It is performance of a job. social. It includes physical. duties. responsibilities.
. Job evaluation is ³the process of analysis and assessment of jobs to ascertain reliably their relative worth using the assessment as the basis for a balanced wage structure´ Job evaluation begins with job analysis and ends up with the classification of jobs according to their worth. A job cannot be evaluated unless and until it is analyzed.Job Evaluation According to BIM.
To provide a framework for periodic review and revision of wages 5. religion . caste.Objectives of Job evaluation 1. To enable management to gauge and control the payroll costs 7. region. To provide a basis for wage negotiations 6. To Determine equitable wage differentials between different jobs in the organization 2.To develop a consistent wage policy 4. sex. creed etc . To minimize wage descriptions on the basis of age. To eliminate wage inequities 3.
Point Rating ± B. Grading or Job Classification 2. Ranking or Job Comparison ± b. Non-quantitative methods: ± a.Methods of Job Evaluation Job Evaluation can be classified in to two categories 1. Quantitative methods: ± a. Factor Comparison .
Recruitment What is Recruitment? What is Procurement? The Difference Between Recruitment and Selection and Placement. Why Recruitment is more important for an organization? How not to recruit employees in the organization? General Factors affecting Recruitment: .
Transfers 2. Press Advertisements 2.Recommendations 8.Recruitment at Factory gate 9.Unsolicited Applicants 7.The sources of Recruitment Internal Sources 1.Labour Contractors 6. Online . Promotions External Sources 1.Placement Agencies 4.Employment Exchanges 5. Educational Institutions 3.
Locating and Developing the sources of Required number and type of employees 3. Communicating the information about the organization. the job and the terms of conditions of service.Recruitment Process Steps in Recruitment Process: 1. Requisitions for recruitment from other department 2. Identifying the prospective employees with required characteristics 4. Evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment process. . Encourage the identified candidates to apply for jobs In the organization. 5. 6.
What is Selection? Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the applicants. The purpose of Selection is to pick up the right person for every job. . Selection is negative process as it rejects a large number of unsuitable applicants from the pool. It is the process of weeding out unsuitable candidates and finally identify the most suitable candidate. Selection is a process of matching the qualifications of applicants with the job requirements.
Job Knowledge test . Personality Tests: ± Objective test ± Projective test ± Situation test 4. Aptitude Tests: ± Mental or Intelligence test ± Mechanical test ± Psycho-motor test 2. Interest Tests: Continued« . Achievement Tests: .Work sample test 3.Methods of Selection (a) Tests: 1.
Patterned or Structured Interview 4. Panel or Board Interview . Non-Directed or Unstructured Interview 5. Group Interview 7. Formal Interview 3. Depth Interview 6. Stress Interview 8.Methods of Selection (continued) (b) Interviews 1. Informal Interview 2.
Medical Examination 6.Reference Checks 7. Final Approval . Employment Interview 5. Selection Test 4. Application Blank 3.Selection Process« 1. Preliminary Interview 2.
of an .Induction/Orientation Definition: ³Orientation or induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving in the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work´. Objectives and Advantages Induction programme.
locker room. job. absenteeism and labour turnover Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve the overall morale of employees An Induction programme proves that the company is taking a sincere interest in getting him off to a good start .Advantages and Objectives of an Orientation programme Objectives: 1. and welfare of employees Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances. To help the new come to overcome his shyness To build new employee¶s confidence To develop the new entrants a sense of belonging and loyalty To foster a close and cordial relationship« To prevent false impression and negative attitude of the new employees To give the new comers necessary information like canteen. Rest periods and leave rules etc« Advantages: It helps to build two way communication It facilitates informal relations and team work Induction is helpful in supplying information about the organisation.
Policies and procedures of the company. Grievance procedures. Rules. Products and services of the company. holidays etc. The company¶s organization structure. Location of departments and employee facilities. Opportunities for training and promotions transfers etc.Contents of an Induction programme: Brief history and operations of the company. Suggestion schemes Benefits and services for employees. working hours. Safety measures Standing orders and disciplinary procedures Terms and conditions of service including wages. . regulations and daily work routines. over time.
At the Organisational level. education. The subtle differences between Training. Development and Education . employee training and executive development are main areas of human resource development. training and research.Employer Investment on People A country can develop only when its human resources are developed through health. nutrition.
wastage and accidents To build second line workers .Why Training is needed? To familiarize the employee with the company¶s culture To increase the employee¶s quantity and quality of output To enable the employee to do new jobs and prevent of his old skills become obsolete To prepare the employee for promotion to higher jobs To reduce supervision.
4. 2. 7. 3. 8. 9.Importance of Training 1. Higher productivity Better quality of work Less learning period Cost Reduction Reduced supervision Low accident rate High morale Personal Growth Organizational Climate . 6. 5.
Setting Training Objectives and Policy 3. Identifying Training Needs. Follow up and Evaluation . Conducting the Training 5.Designing Training Programme 4.Present Performance ± Desired Performance (Accepted Level of Performance) 2.Steps in Training Programme 1.
And also state how will you spell out Job specification and job description briefly in the AD itself. 2. If you are HR Executive of an MNC.Assignments 1. How will you retain employees in your organization? . State essential qualities of Successful Recruitment Advertisement. How will you carry out training need analysis for a medium sized organization? 3.
Gupta ± Sultan Chand & Sons Pub 2. Personnel Management ± C.C. Human Resource Management ± Dr.Personnel Management & Industrial Relations ± P. Human Resource Management ± S. Khanka ± S.B Mamoria Vikas Pub. Tripathi Himalaya Pub 4.Further Readings 1. Chand Pub 3. .S.B. C.
vivekanantha.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT S. Faculty Member. Kodaikanal . Department of Management Studies Kodaikanal Christian College.
higher status and better working standards. higher status and better salary. .PROMOTION Promotion refers to advancement of an employee to a higher post carrying greater responsibilities. It is the upward movement of an employee in the organization's hierarchy. to another job commanding greater authority.
responsibilities. skills needed or compensation´ .Transfer A transfer refers to a horizontal or lateral movement of an employee from one job to another in the same organization without any significant changes status and pay. It has been defined as ³ lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties.
To adjust the work force 6. To make the Employee More versatile 5. To satisfy employee Needs 3.Need and purpose of Transfers 1. To meet organizational needs 2. To better utilization of Employees 4. To Punish Employees . To provide Relief 7.
Production Transfer 2. Shift Transfer . Replacement Transfer 3.Types of Transfers 1. Remedial Transfer 5. Versatility Transfer 4.
It refers to downward movement pf an employee in the organizational hierarchy with lower status and lower salary.Demotion Demotion implies the assignment of an employee to a job of lower rank with lower pay. . hence it should be used tactfully and only when it is absolutely necessary. It is downgrading process and a serious type of Punishment.
Adverse Business Conditions 2. Incompetence 3. . Disciplinary Measure. Technological Change 4.Need for Demotion: Why and When 1.
It may occur due to resignation. Resignation Retirement Layoff Retrenchment Dismissal .Seperations Separation of an employee takes place when his service agreement with the organisation come to an end and the employee the organisation. Following are various forms of separations. death. dismissal and layoff.
To control Costs 6. To improve the public image of the company . To retain the present employees 4.Wage and Salary Administration (WASA) Objectives of WASA: 1. To attract competent personnel 3. To improve productivity 5. To establish a fair and equitable remuneration 2. To improve union management relations 7.
Internal Equity 2.Essentials of sound wage and Salary structure 1. Link with productivity 5.External Competitiveness 3. Built in incentive 4. Maintain Real Wages 6. Increments .
Labour Unions 4. Productivity 8.Hazards involved in the job 5. Stability of Employment 6.Industry¶s role in the economy 8.General and Individual Factors affecting Wages General Factors 1. Ability to pay of the Organization 3. Demand for and Supply of labour 2. Employee¶s Age and work Experience 2. Educational Qualification 3.Potentials of an employee . Job Requirements 7. Promotion possibilities 4. Cost of Living 5.Demand for the product 7. State Regulation Individual Factors 1. Prevailing wage rates 6.
Time Wage system 2. Piece Wage system .Methods of Wage Payment 1.
If you are an owner of the production unit of a retail product which method would you adopt for payment of wages? .discuss 3.What are the Precautions a manager should have while go for Demotion of an employee? 2. Determining Wage structure is a cumbersome process and it requires lot more knowledge and thinking.Assignments 1.
. Tripathi Himalaya Pub. Personnel Management & Industrial Relations ± P.Further Readings 1. 2. C.C. Human Resource Management ± Saiyadin .TMH Pub.B. Human Resource Management ± Dr. Gupta Sultan Chand and sons Pub.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Unit ± IV Bachelor of Business Administration V Semester Non ± CBCS Syllabus of Madurai Kamaraj University S. Kodaikanal . Faculty Member. Kodaikanal Christian College. School of Business Studies and Application. Vivekanantha.
employees and government in any industrial or non-industrial organization . IR comprise relationships between the State on the one hand and the employers¶ and organizations on the other and the occupational organizations themselves.Industrial Relations Industrial Relations are exercises in organizational relations between functional interest groups. According to ILO. It means Collective relationship between management.
Objectives and Importance of IR To Develop and maintain harmonious relationship between management and labour To safeguard the interests of labour To establish and maintain industrial Democracy To avoid all form of industrial conflict so as to ensure industrial peace To raise productivity and reduce high labour turnover To bring about Government control over such industrial units To ensure a healthy and balanced social order through recognition of human rights by way of trade unionism .
Causes and Effects of poor Industrial Relations Economic Causes Organizational Causes Psychological Causes Social Causes Political Causes Multiplier Effects Fall in normal Tempo Resistance to Change Frustration and Social cost .
Remedies to Improve Industrial Relations General Guidelines: 1. Sound personnel polices 2. Collective Bargaining 4. Employee Welfare 7. Responsible Unions 6. Effective Grievance Procedure . Participative Management 5.Constructive Attitudes 3.
.Remedies to Improve Industrial Relations Specific Guidelines: Both Management and Union should Develop trust and positive attitude towards each other. All basic policies and procedures Relating to Industrial Relations should be clear to every body in the organization and the Union Leaders The personnel manager should remove any distrust by convincing the union of the company¶s integrity and his own sincerity and Honesty. Management should encourage right kind of Union Leadership After the settlement is reached should be properly administered.
unjust or inequitable´ .Meaning and Definition of Grievances Broadly speaking Grievance means any real or imaginary feeling of dissatisfaction and injustice which an employee has about his employment relationship. According to Michael J Jucious. whether expressed or not. whether valid or not. is unfair. arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks. believes or even feels. ³ a grievance is any discontent or dissatisfaction.
Grievances arising out of Working Conditions 2. Grievances arising out of Personal Maladjustment .Causes of Grievances 1. Grievances arising from Alleged violation of certain statutes« 4. Grievances arising from Management policy 3.
Opinion Surveys 3. Exit Interview 2.Understanding Employee Grievances 1. Indiscipline Low morale and decreased productivity High Absenteeism and turnover Loss of faith in management Increase in accidents Formation of cliques Lowering of public image of the organization . Open Door Policy Effects of Grievances 1. Gripe Boxes 4.
.Standard Grievance Procedure (ILC) Follow only standard procedure ( a voluntary Grievance procedure) in pursuance to the Code of Discipline adopted in the 16th session Indian Labour Conference in 1958. It contains Five successive time bound steps each leading to the next in case the aggrieved employee prefers an appeal.
Simplicity 5.Follow-up . Training 6. Promptness 4. Acceptability 3.Essentials of Sound Grievance Procedure 1. Legal Sanctity 2.
3. Rust is the worst foe of Iron similarly Frustration is the worst opponent of human being. Highlight the evil effects of Grievances on ordinary Industrial worker. . Do you agree. Draw a suitable grievance redress procedure for a medium sized manufacturing organisation.Assignments How Political parties influence industrial relations Sean in India? How will you alleviate political influence in the Industry? 2.
. 3. Gupta ± Sultan Chand & Sons Pub. C.B. Personnel Management & Industrial Relations ± P.pub. Human Resource Management ± Dr. 2. Industrial Relations by Arun Monappa TMH.C.Further Readings 1. Tripathi Himalaya Pub.
Faculty Member. Kodaikanal Christian College. School of Business Studies and Application. Kodaikanal .HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Unit ± V Bachelor of Business Administration V Semester Non ± CBCS Syllabus of Madurai Kamaraj University S. Vivekanantha.
³ Performance appraisal is the systematic.360 degree« . According to Flippo.Meaning and Definition of Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process of assessing the performance and progress of an employee or of a group of employees on a given job and his potential for future development. periodic and an impartial rating of an employee¶s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job´ Difference between Merit-rating and Performance Appraisal Present appraisal systems in practice.
The process of Performance Appraisal 1. Establishing Performance Standards 2. Taking Corrective Actions . Discussing the Appraisal 6. Communicating the Standards 3. Measuring Performance 4. Comparing the actual standards with the Standards 5.
Appraisal through MBO. Group Appraisal 10. Critical Incidents 9. Human Resource Accounting 3. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales 4. .Methods of Performance Appraisal Traditional Methods: 1. Straight Ranking 4. Field Review Modern Methods: 1. Confidential Report 2. Assessment Centre 2. Forced Distribution 6. Paired Comparisons 5. Checklist Method 8. Graphic Rating Scales 7. Free Form or Essay 3.
Clear Objectives 3.Essentials of an Effective Appraisal System 1.Standardisation 4.Job Relatedness 6. Review and Appeal . Mutual Trust 2. Individual differences 9.Documentation 7. Post appraisal Interview 10.Training 5. Feedback and Participation 8.
Workers¶ Participation in Management According Keith Davis Participation refers to ³the mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share in the responsibility of achieving them´ It is a process by which authority and responsibility of managing industry are shared with workers In Yugoslavia it is called self-management In Germany it is known as Co-determination .
³ the concept of participation as a principle of democratic administration in an industry implies a share by rank and file in the decision-making process of decisionan industrial organization through their representatives at all the appropriate levels of management in the entire range of managerial action´ .In the words of Mehtras.
Raise worker¶ level of 2.Cross-fertilisation and 3. Social motivation and commitment Objective 3. Economic managerial decisions objective 2. Democratic right to influence the 1. . Psychological speedy communication of ideas Objective Foster better cooperation between labour and management.Objectives of Workers participation in management 1.
Importance of Workers¶ Participation in Management 1. 5. 2. 3. 6. Mutual Understanding Higher Productivity Industrial Harmony Industrial Democracy Less Resistance to change Creativity and Innovation . 4.
4. 3.Levels/Degrees of Participation 1. Communication Consultation Codetermination Self-Management . 2.
Forms of Workers¶ Participation in Management 1. 5. 2. 3. Suggestion Scheme Works committees Joint Management Councils Worker Directors Co-Partnership . 4.
2. Why Workers Participation in management is a desperate failure in India? Suggest some measures for making participation successful. 3.Assignments 1. if you wish to grab incentive please your boss´ ± Pass a Critical comment on it. . ³Performance appraisals are mere paper tigers. Write an essay on 360 degree Performance appraisal system which prevails in the most successful Organizations.
2. C. Gupta Sultan Chand and sons Pub.B.TMH Pub.C. Personnel Management & Industrial Relations ± P. Tripathi Himalaya Pub.Further Readings 1. Human Resource Management ± Saiyadin . . Human Resource Management ± Dr.