A defect in this case means anything that affects the structural integrity or appearance of timber.There are many potential defects as there are uses for timber. In this assignment we will discuss about : i. Natural defect
ii. Seasoning defect
Thing that attack timber
Planed lumber can have defects that have occurred during the tree's growth. Decay. “honeycomb”. Additionally. The wood loses its strength and may become soft or “punky”.
ii. Size and number of knots will affect the grade of the lumber. the wood of the knot may fall out and leave a hole. Decay can be seen in a variety of forms. Knots Knots are created where branches grew from the stem of the tree.1. This happens when the branch forming the knot dies and the wood is not bonded to the trunk wood. These include:
i. Rot or Unsound Wood Decay results from fungal activity. These forms are known as “white speck”.
This causes distortion of the grain and affects the strength of the lumber. If the separations radiate from the heartwood. If the separation is between or along the annual rings.iii. When the tree tissues are not elastic enough to withstand the stress as the tree is bent by wind. it is known as a cup shake. Shake A shake is a lengthwise separation of the wood.
iv. Shakes are most likely caused by wind damage. Burl Burl is a defect caused by an injury in the living tree. the tissues separate. they are known as heart or star shake. Shakes may also be caused in the drying process.
Pitch Pitch is an accumulation of resinous material.v.
. Pitch may be present in streaks or pockets. unknown but wind stresses with the felling. Timber Breaks
Timber breaks that zigzag grain of a Their cause is may be due to or hard contact ground during
are tiny cracks across the board or plank. This is unsuitable for certain grades of lumber because of appearance requirements.
This is often a dark or reddish colour. it is called heart stain. The usefulness of stained wood is reduced to uses where natural finishes will be applied. However. but may range from pink to brown. if the colour is in irregular patches. Sap Stain Sap stain is a variation in the natural colour of the wood. and heavy stained categories. Sap stain will not progress when the wood has been kiln dried and planed. This is unsuitable for certain grades of lumber because of appearance requirements.
The heartwood is naturally a darker colour than the sapwood.
. Stained wood is divided into light. Heart stain is unsuitable for certain grades of lumber because the strength can be affected.
x. Bark pockets can also occur when scar tissue is formed after an injury. Pinholes: Small round pinholes. up to 3 mm (1/8”) in diameter are usually the work of an insect known as the ambrosia beetle. Pith Fleck: Pith fleck are small darkened streaks or flecks on the face of a board created by the larvae of tiny flies. Bark Pockets Pockets of bark may be present in lumber as a result of the stem of the tree growing outwards around a branch that has broken off. Wormholes are caused by the larvae of several insects.ix. Insect Damage Wood is prone to attack from a fairly wide array of insects. Wormholes: Wormholes are larger than pinholes. Usually they range from 3 mm to 12 mm (1/8” to 1/2”) in size and they consist of elliptical or circular galleries or tunnels in the wood. It deposits the spore in the wood tissue and as the spore develops it causes deep staining on the walls of the bore hole. including longhorn and flathead wood borers and horntail wasps. The damage occurs when the adult beetle bores into the wood carrying a tiny fungus spore with it.
the force of gravity puts considerable stress on one side of the tree.xi.
. It is thought that trees produce reaction wood to compensate for this stress. Once the stem of a tree begins to grow in a direction other than vertical. Reaction Wood Reaction wood or “timber bind” develops from a leaning tree stem or trunk. There are two types of reaction wood: compression wood in softwoods and tension wood in hardwoods.
.xii. Compression wood has a hardened. Another major problem with compression wood is its tendency to shrink along its length. reaction wood forms on the underside of a leaning stem. Severe warping may result. brittle quality that severely reduces its strength. It is referred to as compression wood because it is compressed by the weight of the tree stem or trunk. It has an abnormal tendency to split and is difficult to machine. Compression Wood
In softwood trees.
Planed lumber may have defects that have occurred during the Seasoning Process:
i. and generally a natural defect. Boards near the bottom of a stack are held flat by the weight of the boards above. holding boards flat during the drying process may prevent cupping. The top layers must be weighted. occurring during the seasoning process. etc. In most cases. Shrinkage is the greatest tangentially over the radial direction with little loss along the length of the board. Shrinkage
Shrinkage is a defect. When timber is seasoning and it's moisture content (MC) is reduced below the Fibre Saturated Point (FSP) continued drying will cause dramatic change such as increase in strength but also distortion and shrinkage. Cup
Cupping occurs when a board becomes curved across its width.
when the convex side of a bowed board is laid flat on a level surface. both ends cannot be made to touch the surface at the same time.
. Crooks are created in much the same way as bows. In other words.iii.Bow
Bow describes a board that curves along its length. The only difference is that the abnormal wood is concentrated along one edge rather than along one side. Crook
A crook is similar to a bow except that warping or bending occurs along the edges of a board.
iv. the distorted board resembles the base of a rocking chair. As a result. The most common cause is the presence of reaction wood in a board. Bow usually results from uneven shrinkage in a given piece of wood.
All boards should have an allowance so that some end grain may be cut away because of possible shakes or splits. the board is said to have a twist. Minor twisting may result from the inclusion of uneven or irregular reaction wood in a board.
vi.v. Splits A separation of the wood fibres along the grain forming a fissure that extends through the board from one side to the other. It is usual in end grain and is remedied by cutting away the defected area. but pronounced twisting is associated with spiral grain pattern in wood.
When a board is laid flat on a level surface and only three corners of that board touch the surface.
called splits or shakes. Useable timber may be recovered from these boards by cutting a straight edge and re sawing.vii. Spring Spring is concave/convex distortion along the length of the board again but this time the distortion is in the flat plane of the board. because drying is faster at the board ends than along the sides. from a kind of case hardening.
. Small surface checks may be removed during planning. especially if it is subjected to uneven temperatures.
viii. In a mild form of distortion. cracks may appear in layers to relieve the stress. The grain direction however may not be satisfactory for aesthetics and care should be taken for placing the possible short grain figure where stability is required. Boards with this defect may have been cut from near the heart of the board and is the result of growth stresses being released on conversion. when tension stress on the outside layers exceeds the strength of the wood. are more likely to form at the ends of boards. Even air dried lumber may develop the condition. to some degree. (The reason: moisture travels about 15 times faster along the grain than across it).
ix. If the cracks are confined to the surface they are called checks. Checks
All kiln-dried lumber suffers. Checks and deeper cracks.
The wood fibers appear to have collapsed inward on the surface.
.Collapse is a server distortion of cells which occurs in wood during the early stages of drying.
and marine borers. moisture. Timber can be effectively protected from all hazards through appropriate detailing. Bacteria in wood ordinarily are of little consequence. protection must be provided during processing. Insects also may damage wood. merchandising. treatment and maintenance. are also be mention because they resemble stains caused by fungi. In addition. some may cause strength losses over long periods of exposure.2
Under proper conditions. The growth of fungi depends on suitably mild temperatures. By taking ordinary precautions with the finished product.
. They include a range of biological and physical or environmental hazards. wood will give centuries of service. Molds. and air (oxygen). wood offers the required food supply. and decay are caused by fungi. thread-like microorganisms that must have organic material to live. For some of them.and use. They can attack susceptible wood rapidly in saltwater harbors where they are the principal cause of damage to piles and other wood marine structures. and therefore reduce the long-term expected performance of the timber.
2. if conditions exist that permit the development of wood-degrading organisms. although they are not caused by organisms. which are microscopic. most sapwood stains. the user can contribute substantially to ensuring a long service life. However. but on a national scale. Termites are the major insect enemy of wood.insects. and in many situations must be considered in protective measures. they are a less serious threat than fungi. Marine borers are a fourth general type of wood-degrading organism. but some may make the wood excessively absorptive.The principal organisms that can degrade wood are fungi.2. bacteria.1
Deterioration of timber during service may cause by hazard.Chemical stains. Wood degradation by organisms has been studied extensively. and many preventive measures are well known and widely practiced. particularly in forest soils.
The environment is warm enough iii. Sap stain vi. Similarly. Dry rot iv. Brown rot iii. White rot
a common form of wood rotting fungus that causes structural defects
. wood submerged in water will not be attacked by fungi because of absence of air. Blue stain
ii.2. There is lots of air Wood with less than 25% moisture remains free of fungi for centuries. Heart rot v. Wet rot vii. Fungi timber defects: i.Cause of biodeteration of timber
Defects due to fungi
Fungi attacks timber when these conditions are all present: i. The timber moisture content is above 25%
Marine borers (Barnea similis)
Defects due to insects
Following are the insects which are usually responsible for the decay of timber: 1.
such as pine species. The maintenance and renewal of paint coatings is important and can significantly affect the overall long-term performance of a wood product in service. Species that are more dense are better suited to applications such as flooring where weighty objects or the heels of shoes will not leave imprints on the timber surface. yellowing and roughness of timber surfaces the UV rays alter the cell structure in the surface wood cells. Strong acids and alkalis result in separation of wood fibres or changes to the wood structure with an effect similar to chemical pulping. Some timbers. A notable exception is redwood (sequoia sempervirens). Some timber species may also be discolored by reaction between naturally occurring timber tannins and metals such as uncoated nails. The failure of paint coatings or films may also allow moisture ingress into wood and open wood joints as timber takes up moisture and swells. Exposure of timber surfaces to sunlight (UV rays) can lead to bleaching. splitting and cracking (checking) of timber different timber species or products may be more resistant to moisture and therefore appear to be more dimensionally stable. This is referred to as ‘iron rot’. of low to medium density are ‘soft’ and are susceptible to physical abrasion which will wear away timber surfaces. The contact of some preservative treated wood with iron fastenings such as screw spikes with CCA-treated railway sleepers (cross-ties) are an example of chemical degradation.
. Prolonged wetting and drying cycles (swelling and shrinkage) of wood will also lead to deformation of wood which is seen as warping (twist and bow).3
Most timber species exposed to strong acids and alkalis will be detrimentally affected.2. Western red cedar is commonly used as a cladding material and over time will grey and develop surface checking.
nzwood.nz/images/uploads/file/Designed %20PDFs/NZW13611%20Durability-Hazards-2. http://www. http://www.htm 4.co.slideshare.pdf 2.com/doc/6698702/Ch13-Bio-Deterioration-of-Wood 5. http://en.net/stootypal/timber-defects 3.wikipedia.geoffswoodwork.uk/shrinkage.scribd. http://www.org/wiki/Lumber