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Edwin Clark - Visit To South America - 1878 -

Edwin Clark - Visit To South America - 1878 -

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*ms»3fac*x r\vf ; xatasoii







The Bequest of Colonel George Earl Church









Ins. Civ. Engineers,

F.R.A.S., F.M.S.,

etc., etc. ;

Author of



and Comoay Tubular Bridges."





. Printers. London and Aylesbury.^\oD Hazell. Watson. and Viney.

So far as the notes are concerned substance of notes they are given in the order in which they were written. but it has the advantage of preserving that freshness and authenticity peculiar to notes written in the presence of scenes described. Such a course and even dis- cordant views on the same subject.PEEFACE ^^^p3E following pages contain the made in 1876 and 1877. . little They thus form a text for various observations and explanations with which they are interwoven. and with alteration. during a journe}^ to the Eiver Plate and a residence of nearly two years in Buenos Ayres. often involves repetition. and Uruguay. Paraguay.

mechanics vitiated — and remarkable compilation. is hoped that the meteorologist and botanist . The only books and of I possessed were Hooker Decaizne's invaluable manual of botany. but which ciated can only be thoroughly by those who have witnessed the countries he describes and realized the marvellous accuracy and eloquence of his descriptions. Nystrom's American pocket-book its and engineering. but though I have it omitted detailed observations. I must meDtion that under the I laboured through- out serious disadvantage of possessing no library of reference. with useful collection of tables and formulae.Preface. and Darwin's Beagle^'' a Naturalist's Voyage it in the book of which appre- is impossible to speak too highly. Considerable attention was given to the natural history and meteorology of the country. and the notes and views on these subjects were far too voluminous for a book of this description all . but unfortunately by its many typographical *' other errors.

but it brethren will doubtless be disappointed in finding so small an amount on subjects of engineering the little level must be borne in mind that plains of the pampas furnish the vast and fertile scope for engineering works of novelty or magnitude. and even unexplored. while regions beyond. My professional of information interest. will not fail to finti original matter on these toiHCs wliicli will excite his interest. but also on account of the great dearth of existing information that is available for the solution of the very remarkable physical and moral problems to which they give rise.Preface. . though offering a field of unbounded future importance are and as interest for enterprise. On the other hand. A very large space has heen devoted to the description of Paraguay. not only on account of the extreme interest which its sad history and marvellous beauty excited. yet unpeopled. I have always been inclined to assign a much the larger range to the subjects that of essentially civil come within the province is engineer than usually admitted.

which includes the whole subject of terrestrial physics.ace. Prefc the mere technical or practical portion forming in my opinion only a single branch of the great science of engineering philoso- phy. and in that sense some of the following pages may serve as elemen- tary lessons for the young engineer. .

— Diffusion of Heat— Indications of the Thermometer — Finding a Good Position on Board— TemperaAir— The Wet Bulb— The Whirling Table 28—30 ture best obtained by Rapid Motion of the Instrument through the CHAPTER IV. THE SHIP AND THE WAVES. THE BAY OF BISCAY. Extent and Formation Its Dangers and Storms. —21 CHAPTER Its II.TABLE OF CONTENTS. LISBON AND THE TRADE WINDS. and 24 their Cause Loss of the Cajjtaln Ocean Depths — — — — 27 CHAPTER Verification of III. INTllODUCTION 9- U CHAPTER I. The Tagus Lisbon Entering the Trade Winds Its Dread by Early Navigators The Doldrums Explanation of The Atmosphere Influence of Solar Heat Circulation Moisture and Heat of the Doldrums of the Atmosphere Ascent of Heated Air A Prairie Fire Cyclones and — — — — — — — — — — Anticyclones 31 — 40 / . THE THEEMOMETER ON BOARD. Departure Selecting a Berth The Douro Waves Shipping a Sea Storms at Sea The Engines The Slip of 15 the Screw The Helmsman The Commissariat — — — — — — — — — .

Rising. — Southing. CHAPTER V. . and Sun's — — The Celestial Southern Cross The Want of an Equator and Meridian The 1. east Trades and the Doldrums 41 — 47 CHAPTER VL ASTKONOMICAL EVENINGS. and Setting of Planets — Jupiter's Satellites and LongiCortude — The Celestial Globe — The Compass and rections— The Log — The Latitude.Table of Contents. Specific Properties of Water in all its Forms Functions Its Anomalous Expansion Tropical evaporaIncrease of Volume Diftion Tension of Vapour fusion of Vapour Two Atmospheres Latent Heat Lightness of Mechanical Force of Evaporation Saturated Air Specific Heat of Water Table of Pro- — — — — — perties of Vapour Its Influence Daniell's Summary 59—67 The Dew Point and Table for finding . LISBON TO THE TEOPICS. The Tropical Skies Almanac The — — Fig. VINCENT TO THE PLATE. — Ecliptic Defined by the Moon its Azimuth 48 — 58 CHAPTER VIL VAPOUR AND CLOUDS. CHAPTER VIIL ST. TenerifEe — Entering the Tropics— The Cape de Verde Islands — The Challenger— Coaling at Vincent— San Antao Flying Fish — Nautilus — Luminous Sea — The Heat and Moisture —Absence of Lightning — Limits of the NorthSt. — — — — — — — Its Principal — . Crossing the Line east Trades — San Fernando— Globigerina— The South— Pernambuco—Tropical Flora— Bahia— The San Francisco Line— Luxurious Ve2:etation — The Ants . Longitude.

QUARANTINE AND THE RIVER PLATE. BUENOS AYRES AND THE PAMPAS.Table of Contents. of. CHAPTER First X. a Night at Dolores— Ephemeral Nature of Civilization-Floods of the Salado— The Western Railway —Its Benefits— The Crisis at Buenos Ayres— Public Loans— Great Cost of the Government— Defects— The — — — Public Works — Maladministration— Hospitality of the people 124-162 . Difficulties — Death on Board. Yellow Fever— Funeral — — Fig. Cape Frio Sea Temperature The Gulf Stream Rio Jlountain Clouds Botanic Gardens Tejuca— The Yelhjw — Fever Fruits Climate— A Shower YV^. Impressions— Narrow Streets — Bad Drainage — Bad Roads— Buildings — Italian Workmen— Religious Freedom —The Harbour and Lighters— The Campana Railway— The Animals and Birds— The Marshes— A Tumnlus— The Baranca— Thistles— The Great River— Progress of Civilization—Engineer's Difficulties— The Northern Railway The Ensenada Railway— Forest Planting— The PampasAbsence of Trees Its Its Formation Its Gradual Rise Natural History— The Southern Railway— No Fences— Azul. 2. The TerresLayer Changeof Climate The River Plate Yellow Fever on Board Quarantine Regulations Monte Video 68 Anchorage at Buenos Ayres trial — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 92 CHAPTER IX.. — The Quarantine Hulk— Cruel treatment — Description of the Plate — Silting— Delta of the Parana — Great River Valley — The Baranca— The Las Palmas and Guaza Branches — Campana— The Tides — Theory and Table —Amusements — Humidity and Dew—A Cloud Observation and Storm — The Camalote and Botany — The Islands —Air Plants— The North Winds— Our Acclimatization — New Arrivals — Picnics — River Fogs and Cloud Formation— A Distant Storm— Sail to Buenos Ayres 92 — 123 Pampero 3.

Ga— Conclusions The Santa Rosa storms of August Lightning. 5. CHAPTER Advantages of Peculiar Position XI. Duration and Extent A Dust Tornado Vapour Overflows from the Tropics in Rolling Cylinders Fine Climate of Buenos Ayres Coincidence of Storms and Full Moons Sun163—204 sets against the — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIL THE URUGUAY AND SALTO. 7— The Azimuth Table— The River— The Monte. Local Wind Fig.Table of Contents. 4 The Phenomena of a Great Storm Its Analogy with Condensed Steam in an Engine The Great Storm of May 1877— Barometer Observations Pressure from Descending rain The LightFigs. AlligatorsStray Cattle on the Monte Charms of Solitude The Natural History Botany of the Rocks and Monte The Lagoons — A Striking Examjjle of Natural Selection 217 232 — — — — — — . Magnitude— Estuary and Delta Steamers Uruguay — The River of — Paysandu — Fray Bentos — Salto— Cause of Decline — Public Loans — Dishonest Government — The Present Dictator — Recent Improvement and Progress — The Salto Railway — The East Argentine Railway — Descripth-e its tion of the Salto line 205— 21 CHAPTER XIIL THE COTTAGE AT ARAPEY. its Disturbance The Pampas Constant contest between Polar and Equatorial Currents Periodicity and Cause of Storms— The Terrestrial Layer— Overflow of Equatorial Vapour— Rapid Condensation The Andes Storms Travel — — — Freedom from. CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY OF BUENOS AYRES. 6 ning The Floods— The Damage to the Railway— RestoraStorm of June Its Extent tion Fig. The Bridge SoKtary but Charming Position of the Cottage The Commissariat— The Staff— The Wind Vane— Fig.

'5 —263 CHAPTER XVL PARAGUAY AND Its ITS HISTORY. His Bloodthirsty Disposition and Vices State of the Country at his Death The Railway The Loai) The Tobacco — — — — — — — — — — — — Confiscation — President Gill's Assassination . ]\.Table of Contents. CHAPTER XVIL THE PARANA AND ASUNCION. NOTES AT ARAPEY. CHAPTER XIV. The Locusts Callandrias— Widah Birds A Puma Liglitiiing Powder Magazine— The Camadraca— The Iguana The Cuati— The Nutria— The Carpincho— Rodents— The Snakes— The Lakes Alligators Scorpions and Spiders—The Becho Colorado— Puncture of the Mosquito 233—244 — — — — — — CHAPTER XV.''agnitude the Parana — Tributaries — Field for Ex— Distances —Temperature of Water—The Baranca of the Parana— Geology— The Gran Chaco — The Indians — Their Degeneracy — Excelsior — Change of of Its ploration . The Heated Rocks — The Heat and the Flowers — Fire Flies and Night Insects— Effects of Heat — Experiments on Radiation — Ascent of Heated Air — Mean Temperature and Weather — Dust Storm — Tornadoes — Explanation of— Resemblance to a Centrifugal Pump — Their Movement — Causes of Storms — Burning the Flechilla Grass — Clouds — Their Shadows — Their Formation — Perspective of — Height and Forms of— Temperature of — Length of Shadows as Affecting Climate — Excessive Heat and Drought at Christmas 24. METEOROLOGY AT ARAPEY. Union with the Argentine Confederation — Projected 264 — 274 . Beauty and Sad Fate— Its Destruction The Guarani Indians The Jesuits Rapid Development of the Country Recall of the Jesuits Dr. Francia and his Cruelty Lopez I. Prosperity under His Rule Lopez II.

or Tucuman Railway — Our Scientific Friends — The Astronomer. Mr. 349—335 .Table of Contents.-Our Hotel Undue Proportion of Females The Market The Railway The Environs and Natives— Sale of the Railway 275—296 — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVriL THE COTTAGE AT PARAGUARI. COEDOVA AND THE SIERRAS. Scenery Shooting Monkeys and Alligators Corrientes Asuncion The Lagoons The Victoria Regia— The Chaco Description of Asuncion Francia's Palace Lopez's New Palace Vast Resourcesof the Country. The Railway Cordova— The Rise of the Pampas— The Barren — Situation of Cordova— The Jesuits— A ProcesLake — The River — The sion— The Alameda. John's Cave Balls Our own ball — — — — — — — — — — — — — Peaceful Character of the People— Physical Cause of the Great Fertility — Climate— Siesta — Meditations on Happiness — Theory of the Black and White Balls — Mosquitoes — Jiggers— Amusements and Departure — The Great Heat Asuncion — The River Journey Home — The Oranges at Ipane — Our Cargo — Oranges at Pillar — Running Aground — Our Delays and Hardships — Arrival at Rosario 297 — 336 — — at — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIX. Gould — The University Professors — Botanizing — Expedition to the Sierras— Picnic—The Mill on the Tercera— The Lasso— The Botany—The Observatory — Selection of Site—The Sierras— Return Home 337 — 347 to Country Artificial its APPENDIX . Our Landlord The Village Contrast with the City Our Fare Amiable Character of the People The Commandante His Residence TheSchools Absence of Religious Culture Municipal Accounts Power of the Commandante Absence of Crime Incident at a Wedding The Market German Produce The Village Dial Eclipses The Colony The Forest Scenery Native Houses and Habits Orange Gardens and Banana Groves Bamboos Botany Hospitality— Sugar and Mandioca— Snakes Canna Distillery Sporting The Orange Distillery The Boa-constrictor St.

INTRODUCTION. The first phenomena in all the imposing grandeur with wdiich she sur- rounds her tropical throne.T is a very natural desire with every intelligent traveller to commemorate by some record the privilege he has enjoyed. the experience which he feels he has acquired. and we too often fall into the error of imagining that we can interest others by a bare record of our own delight. Such phenomena are indescribable. but it is equally impossible either with pen or pencil to convey any adequate idea either of the magnificent luxuriance of a tropical forest. . afibrds to the philosophic mind an intensity of enjoyment totally indescribable. and must be witnessed before they can be imagined. . and the prejudices which he knows he aspect of nature and natural has overcome. or the terrific grandeur of a tropical storm.

all of scientific We are irresistibly led to inquire life why put the the familiar objects of our everyday on such strange our and novel forms beneath . or the of the wind or temperature or rainfall of the storm. thus reduced to the dry and unsatisfactory list is task of furnishing a barren or description of the plants of which the forest registered force composed. or with forests in which the trees themselves are with difficulty identified amid the cloud of epiphytes and climbing plants and parasitic vegetation which covers and overtowers them. and . greatly The enjoyment is of such scenes is dependent on our preparation for their comprehension.T o One is Introduction. gigantic grasses and ferns. but as objects interest. while gigantic productions of totally new regions literally inaccessible from their very luxuriance. and cient vastly enhanced by a suffi- knowledge of natural philosophy and natural history to look on them not only as gorgeous and imposing spectacles. This has not been the dominant object in the following notes. mysterious influence of this heated zone hills why and valleys here are carpeted with such types and forms render these prolific modest vegetation. covering the land with palms and cycads. In a similar manner we attempt in vain to utilize the experience acquired in our gentle climate.

Introduction. and. so imposing that we deficiencies feel so deeply not only our for own and want of preparation such an intellectual feast. race. when we reflect Steamers make a quarter of the service. indeed. for a with a regular fortnightly sterling. It is in the presence of scenes so novel and. which can be performed hour. striking^ lesson derived from travellino^ is is is the limited field to which all observation confined. rigidly The smallness of the earth promithat nently brought before us the Royal Mail circuit. The journey occupies twenty-eight days. and the whole is covered by so scanty an envelope of atmosphere that an elevation of six or seven miles. few pounds between here and the Plate. small as of the earth is it is. 1 apply our weather theories to these regions of vapour and heat. cooled. reflects The visible abyss of space around us it our insignificance. but the infinitesimal smallness of human One knowledsje altooether. storms originate. where all meteorological pheno- mena assume such where all gigantic proportions. three-fifths of the surface a mystei'ious reservoir of water. doubtless . Again. vast as it is appears to our limited conceptions. in a balloon in half an would instantly annihilate the whole human while a similar descent beneath the unstable. and. superficial film on which we live would be equally destructive.

leaves. labelled. progeny of beetles moving about in a dense layer over the remaining material. period.1 Introduction. " Fol. who knew my fondness for natural brought me an ordinary wide-mouthed pounded hemlock leaves. to the extent of consisted of half the bottle. had been ten years in course of colonies formation. the original dried but the top layer. duced. Some history. the cemetery of former races. the exuviae and remains of former generations of a colony of thousands of minute coleoptera who lived on the surface of the sound portion of the dried leaves. Conii. He informed me that this upper bed. chemist's bottle. four years since an intelligent country apothecary. which is still visible to the naked sufficient in quantity to support many future generations in this miniature world. during the whole of this long closely corked. consisted of a bed of matter of a darker colour. fourths The bottle was more than threeThe bottom layer. as an article of com- merce. ." full. only another film as compared with the inconceivable infinity beyond. dried. was kept constantly he gave it In this state me four years ago. fresh being periodically pro- The bottle. It has is been on before my mantle-piece ever since. about 1| inches thick. and this now me with year's eye. containing.

even summer and winter. how infinitely small w^hich all their philosophy must be the ultimate sphere to must be limited. but I it have not recorded these beetles were on account solely of I its entomological interest. if have often thought that endowed with intellect of the highest order. and I is have asked myself whether our own bottle larger as much it compared with the universe in which forms so insignificant an atom. familiar to them. must be and would doubtless be explained theories without the slightest pos- by innumerable sibility of their arriving at any correct explanation. May this not also be the case with some poi'tion of the knowledge of which we are vainly in search ? . 13 so That these beetles should thrive a plant as many years in a closely-corked bottle of leaves of so poisonous hemlock is of itself a remarkable instance of adaptation. and would find them in so many respects like their own that they all would doubtless conclude the same that they must be full of beetles. and brain power capable of indefinite development. They would doubtless see through the glass that forms the confines of their tiny world the rows of other similar bottles which occupy the chemist's shelves.Introduction. in w^ay and with the same probability that our speculative astronomer peoples Jupiter and Saturn w^ith beings like ourselves. Night and day.

I am often. and course as themselves the deep. like the in in their speculations best of on the can on of to theorize the way I greater amount phenomena much which we know the nothing. has been my lot to acquire in endeavouring to explain the natural laws I under which some of the phenomena beetles have witseasons./ troduciion . inclined to ask boasted geological antiquity and stability myself whether in the great scale of creation our little globe and its assumed eternity and regarded only as a chemist's shop. would show them that previous races^ had run the same under similar conditions. and. may not after all be little bigger bottle in a larger It is in this spirit that I have in all humility attempted to utilize the small it amount of natural . as regards their scale of time. infinite future. nessed range themselves. ensure an more or less highly developed. . sound bed still remaining beneath them Avould. very much resembling ours. a bed of exuviae and skeletons of their fossilized ancestors. Their only geology.1 /. philosophy which first. as I have said before. secondly.

if majority of cases in which there would have been no difference of opinion we had all started with the same premises. with accommodation which nothing to be desired. We went through the usual discussion as to whether berths should be transverse to the ship or longitudinal. as in the disputants disagree. THE SHIP AND THE WA VES. one of the older vessels of the Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company. and we had zest to the sufficient pitching and rolling to add arguments. which lasted Biscay. was an left excellent sea-boat. all across the Bay of we sighted Cape Vincent.CHAPTER I. In this case. in good English fashion. till for three days. E Southampton on the 10th April. The left Douro. No one likes their head alternately a foot above and . during a storm of rain with a strong cold westerly wind. in which we sailed. bound for Buenos Ayres. 1876. We went on board.

On first ramble over a fine vessel like the . which preserves such provoking and enviable zon tality But even with these elements of horiwe still have the rise and fall due to the It is mean height of the great water undulations. the starboard side. his left hand is the larboard or port side. like the ship's compass. and his right hand the starboard side. as if possible. and if below heels. vessels only rolled we should certainly be most comfortable parallel with the keel it is . sus- pended in gimbals. and as the course across the Atlantic to South America is about south-west. but when steaming against a head wind.1 k^ irheir The Ship. he will prefer. and upon the whole I came to the conclusion that to be thoroughly to sleep in comfortable we ought hammocks. always stability. It may be a useful hint to a landsman selecting his berth. and vice versa on his return. to remind him that if he stands at the stern of the vessel looking ahead. and all a journey across the illusions Bay effectually removes on this subject. hopeless to attempt to neutralize such complex and ceaseless movements by any mechanical device. a berth on very much a cooler than on the port side. and the sun at starting is south. the letter initial of is L being the both left and larboard. the rolling but the pitching that often not bewilders our ideas of gravity.

and the numerous and ingenious appliits ances involved in construction. and no great waves can be formed in shallow water. but meets a shelving shore vertical oscillation is arrested from want of depth. wall. 17 its we cannot fail to be struck with strength and solidity. The Bay It of Biscay in its angry moods is a good school for checking all such presumption. which. carrying objects rapidly forward. and the its force is expended by conversion into a wave of translation. which flows bodily on to the beach. As we i)ace the spacious and solid deck we feel elated with such a triumph of inclined to human skill and industry. IJaves.The Douro. as they appear to do. curls over and in expends itself incessant breakers that follow each other with rhythmic regularity. and half defy the winds and the waves. Hence an on such a wave not carried Such an undulation requires a certain depth of water. must be borne water is in mind that an ordinary wave it in still a mere undulation in which the particles of water that compose do not move object such as is forward. on account of its forward velocity. but oscillate in vertical lines up and down. it Where the wave meets a its vertical simply if it rises up and down on the face of the wall. the retiring water runs back beneath the advancing wave. A similar undulation is the base and essence of 2 . the vessel floating forward.

such as ing on the beach.continued wind. Under such cir- cumstances the good ship rides over them. oscillations of this liquid which always blows The pendulum attain colossal dimensions. and thus increase the height of the succeeding w^ave into which it resolves itself. when facing the storm. In a similar we have seen breakway while friction delays the lower particles. overhanging follow in her wake. one tending to depress the weather of the wave. the other force tending to carry the undulation bodily forward and produce a wave of translation. in gusts. and threatening to overwhelm her. rivalling her wave appears to own speed. is easier. —a catastrophe which . permanent. pitching and dipping into successive hollows with heavy shocks. An instantaneous hurricane on still water would merely bear away a . and shipping incessant spray and sometimes solid water. thin layer into spray but when the wind impinges it is on the sloping side of these undulations into i:ide resolved two forces. the top layer of the v/ave hurries furiously on. and curls over with foam and noise under the action of long. and of the billows of broken w^ater that all characterize the Bay of Biscay. waves. When but a running before the gale her motion huge.1 The Waves. although even during a gale the waves maintain a definite form and a partial regularity in their movements. or practically increase its weight.

or even in direct opposition the general set of for- the waves. and want of way or damage to trough of the sea. or "sea. and deluging the and furnaces. 19 But if through the break- down of the engine. Such abnormal disturbances are but is tunately few and far between. of water clash together or combine. its effects are terrible and destructive beyond explanation. . the vessel no longer obeys her helm. strikes the unfortunate vessel. Mountains and are con- verted into whirlpools and foci in lines of irresistible force. dipping her bulwarks into the sea. and sometimes addincr to the by extinguishing the fires. helplessness of the crew But the Bay must be seen during the fury of a hurricane before any idea can be formed of the prodigious forces with which a vessel has to contend. while stern. the rudder. clearing the huge billows break from stem to decks of all unsecured obstacles.Seas in a Storm. Immense masses itself. of water scud away before the tempest with velocity almost equal to that of the wind often drifting directly across. streaming eno'ines down the hatchways. when termed. does occasionally occur. but drifts helplessly into the rolls she then heavily from side to side. to. bulwarks." as it . and the helmsman endeavours to avoid them as best he can such a moving column. Solid iron stanchions are bent flat down (sm the deck. On such occasions the billows rival the winds in their wild and lawless fury.

life sails are but a secondary engines are the The great breathing and are nursed during a storm wdth scrupulous anxiety and care. but it continually haj^pens that during the violent lurches of the vessel her stern and screw are lifted entirely out of the water sufficient no governing arrangement can act with force of the liberated engine for the speed to cut off the steam. by an engineer in charge who watches as well as he is abk to the pitching of the vessel. But in spite of these precautions the screw occasionally will run away.20 boats. They are only true of the ships. not unfrequently damaging the engines or twistinof the oTcat shaft asunder. and every projection. The Eno-ines. and the tremendous is moment totally expended in imparting terrific velocity to the shaft and screw. The course it of the vessel instantly arrested. In these large steamers resource. The hull trembles under the blow as is though that strikinof a rock. driven at slow speed. This is 2fuarded against as far as possible of the throttle valve. are swept bodily away. and every traveller must have been . with every unfortunate being that comes within its range. often including the hatches themselves. and temporarily cuts off the steam by hand at the moment he has reason is apprehend the stern leaving the water. and only too often happens she rises out of the sea again a helpless wreck.

The Helmsman. If a blow of the sea overcomes them. and must regret that safety is not gale '-•'. the noisy chain and quadrant which is worked from the bridge. 21 aroused by the startling jar and tremor wliich in such cases vibrates througli the whole vessel from stem are to stern. vessels provided with duplicate tiller steering gear. preferred to ornament in so vital a part of a ship's equipment. this now coming Hydraulic purpose. but the shaft should always be furnished elastic with lever efficient brake power. and the handed screw-gear worked by tlie ordinary ornaWhoever mental steering wheel at the stern. and seem constructed It as traps for arms and legs. right anil left watches the steersman at these wheels during a must be struck with the dangers of tbeir arduous duty. the wheels rotate with terrible velocity.'). To guard against generally accidents at the helm. It is difficult to imagine a more dan- gerous position than that of a sailor on an inconvenient raised platform in a rolling shipj between these two wheels with their projecting spokes. with a long gear for and proper locking use during bad weather. use is must also be a great applicable to machinery . The into steam steering machinery boon. would perhaps be better if the wheels were plane discs or protected by discs.

and although the sea always imparts a certain of its amount more own restlessness and prevents close applica- tion. while a well-equipped kinds. and there is difficulty in joining a whist party on a level with one's experience.22 The Com?nissariat. is provided in no nig- gardly pens. scale. affording abundant fresh meat throughout provided with ice is the journey. sheep. and servants number 115 people. The officers. including those taken on board at Lisbon. with forty tons of dealt out. it affords abundant scope for observation. supplies iced American drinks of no Some kind passenger generally presides at the piano in the great saloon. few days to realize the extent of It requires a the immense establishment maintained on board these large vessels. pigs. crew. A large tank placed in the centre of lihitwni the ice-house supplies the table filtered with bar iced water. TSO passengers. We had in addition. own skill and Altogether we were a very happy family. throughout the tropics. ice. The fore-deck filled is crowded with cattle- and cages with oxen. and poultry. considering the many claims on the ship's space. and the ship cellars. — a luxury which ad all liberally and thoroughly appreciated. especially as regards its own mysterious phenomena and the constantly-varying aspect of that great and . The commissariat department. Ocean-acclimatized cows supply fresh is milk.

TJic Commissar iat. . bounds the 23 unobstructed marvellous vault all that its horizon with gorgeous furniture of cLjuds and mists. dimly veiling the moving hosts of stars and planets beyond.


no sailor after losing sight of the great is from anxiety until off he sights for the there flashing is beacon Cape Finisescaj^e terre. land-locked. which lighthouse at Ushant free into the Bay. 25 of the great Atlantic wave. from the circum- stance that separates situated in the boundary which trade-winds the great zone of steady from the region of cyclones and disturbances which characterize the and disastrous The numberless wrecks which from time immemorial North Atlantic. of this character district of the A continuous denudation would ultimately absorb the whole Garonne and form a new entrance into the Mediterranean. set directly During westerly winds. inhospitable shifting but also to the set strong and the tidal currents which around Northern Cape.The Stormy Bay. flanked by the Pyrenees. The Bay owes its dangerous character not only to coast. thus clearing away the tertiary- measures which line the huttoni of the Bay from Rocheforte to Bayonne. little chance of for a crippled vessel driven into this stormy cid-de-sao during a continuous westerly its gale. It is moreover pecu- liarly subject to violent storms. confined between these indestructible walls. unenviable notoriety to have given such these . and to the Atlantic fact that the great waves assume unusual dimensions and it irregularity from their reflection as foci were into by the concave it is coast.

Depths. amounting to 2600 fathoms wdthin the Bay. so that we crossed no deeper w^ater in the Plate. /z ^-^^^ ^ . impart a melancholy interest to its history. in the great depression south of the Bermudas amounts to is 3875 fathoms. is whole of our journey to the or about 2^ miles The general 2000 fathoms. crowned by that gravest of loss all marine the disasters —the of H. of vessel Captain. w^hich in the Atlantic Ocean. the greatest known depth See the cruise of the Challenger. stormy waters. The depth.26 Ocean. The great depth of the water is also a remarkable feature. Blanc. turreted board. as a average depth of the Atlantic : the height of is Mont convenient scale of reference.M. 2500 fathoms. however. \ 4. with 500 eight or men on whom only ten escaped to record the mysterious lessons of the disaster.

THE THERMOMETER ON BOARD. and also of the atmosphere. carefully verified The instruments were by comparison with a filled standard. either Heat is communicated a thermometer other bodies. by direct contact wdth as when . E made daily observation of the tempera- ture of the surface water. These repeated are useful lessons as regards the accuracy of the instruments themselves. and the care and attention required in their use. more especially when exposed to sudden changes tests of temperature.CHAPTER III. and tested in a tin vessel with pounded ice and rain water. The problem thermometers of finding the best position for the gave rise to to a few experiments. The best instru- ments are liable slight changes of their zero. and to their errors at freezing point were ascertained. from contraction of their glass bulbs and stems.

until an equilibrium obtained by which the heat received and emitted becomes equal. which is the real object of our inquiry. and reflecting heat. Ther- mometers placed in different parts of the ship all . but temperature of the air influences. a current of secondly. only one among Its actual indication is dependent not air. superficial coating When we different consider that different bodies have capacities for heat. and dif- ferent capacities for transmitting heat. such the is itself. or. and from surroundiDg like light from a candle. distance. is the thermometer. Heat radiates in all directions from objects. only on the movement or tranquillity of the but on the nature. by radiation or reflection from other objects. and not a simple record of the temperature of the air. A but free thermometer never absoapproximates of to indefinitely and records the general mean surrounding causes. it is evident that the all and conducting combined influence of these properties of heat on a glass bulb filled with mercury only furnishes us with a record of the mixed eflect of numberless disturbances. It is effect numerous reflection.28 The Thcr7nojneter. affected direct air by and other still more rapidly by as contact with the other bodies. lutely attains. absorbing. different powers of radiating. to immersed in water or exposed air. and even of surrounding objects.

The ThcDnonictcr,


gave discordant results: one gave the temperature
of the


walls of the cabin


another, situated

outside a port-hole on the port side, gave us the

temperature of the


compounded with







and of the


and radiation from

sea water.


the starboard side

we had

a lower result, because

that side of the iron vessel was in constant shade.


the main deck

we found

that the heat which




and funnels


thermometer constantly two degrees.
gave too low a

The bows

because the spray exposed

them to the effects of evaporation. Any height up the mast was objectionable on the score of inconvenience, and the difficulty of shading the
thermometer from the direct rays of the sun.


a good situation to-day became a bad one

to-morrow, and although a permanent set of ther-

mometers was placed on the shady
I preferred to

side of the after

hatchway, properly protected by Venetian shutters,

adopt at the time of observation the

best temporary position available for the object in





availed myself of the

rapid conduction produced

by rapid motion through



by which other

influences are dwarfed,

used a delicate thermometer attached on a

and whirled rapidly round

in the air in a properly

and shaded


The thermometer


The Thermometer.

warmer than the air, is whirled round it ceases to fall, and this is recorded as the exact temperature of the dry bulb. I then wrap

the bulb of the same thermometer in a strip of


and whirl


again until


again ceases

to fall; this result is the temperature of the



On removing
aofain whirled,

the lint and drying the bulb



exact return to the

previous temperature
of the

a proof of the accuracy

experiment, which scarcely occupies two



on shore

I fixed it

on a whirling

with a proper protection against the heat

of the

body by means

of a glass cover over a

portion of


which the




by means

of a lens, and I found



thus obtained highly satisfactory

and uniform.





constantly occupied, the clays passed

happily by, and

the ship's



called us to incessant meals,





investi oration.

was a constant


even during the night,

come on deck once or twice in slippers and dressing gown, to have a look at the weather, and a few minutes' meditation on the changing aspect of

the star-lit vault above us.



wet westerly
fogs, left

Channel winds, with their accompanying
us, or rather,



them, by the time



Vincent, and on the

we rounded following day, Good
One cannot

Friday, April 14th, 187G, after a four days' journey,

we anchored
fail to

in the

Tagus at Lisbon.
of the old

be struck with the elegant proportions and










monuments, whether

forts or churches, are invari-



ably so

much more imposing than anything we seem now capable of designing ? We landed for a

few hours under a brilliant sun, and took a drive

round the Wind- Mill
of large aloes,

The glimpses we got

and arums, and palms, and other out-

scouts of tropical vegetation, excited our enthusiasm.


took on board a boat-load of oranges and other






and vegetables, and
class passengers.

about 20

and 120 third


news that yellow fever was unusually prevalent in Rio, and dread of the proverbial miseries of quarantine in the Plate, deterred
joining us

many persons from who would otherwise have done so. Before we had made much progress in our return down the Tagus, we were met by a strong N.E.
wind, amounting at

to half a gale,

which lay

on our starboard bow, and rolled us about sadly
all niofht.





however, and

resuming our normal S.W. course, we ran merrily

until it

moderated down to a pleasant
days and nights,

steady breeze.
us without

This same N.E. wind accompanied

variation for nine

through a distance of about 2400 miles, until

assumed a more easterly
of the


and died away
This was our

imperceptibly amid the heated clouds and vapours



Lat. 5 north.

acquaintance with the north-east trade winds,

which temper these quiet

The marvellous

The Doldrums.


constancy of this eternal wind might well alarm

early navigators,



running before


day after day, despaired of a change and feared
they could never return home.
calms at the Doldrums in which

But the zone of
landed them was


to be dreaded.

In this region of breathsailing

and vapour,




helplessly becalmed for
less is



So motion-

the air that the smoke of a cigar scarcely

leaves the deck, and the






the rigging.


no exaggeration in

Coleridge's beautiful metaphor, in describing this




dropt the breeze, the sails dropt down 'Twas sad as sad could be And we did speak only to break




silence of the sea.

" All in a hot

and copper sky

The bloody sun, at noon. Right up above the mast did


bigger than the moon.


after day,

day after day


stuck, nor breath nor motion.

idle as a painted ship


a j)ainted ocean."

The explanation of this singular phenomenon offers however no difficulty, though it leads us into a




dry philosophizing on the general subject of

the winds.


The atmosphere above us, like the ocean beneath though homogeneous as regards actual composiIf

tion, is not so as regards its density.

we ascend

into the


the density of the atmosphere constantly

decreases in so rapid a proportion that at a height
of only 3| miles
it is

already halved, and





proportionately diminished.

The winds

with which we are concerned are the disturbances
of this lower envelope of dense
terrestrial stratum, constantly

This unstable

varying in density and

temperature, must be subject to perpetual changes

and movements.
as the ocean


after our experience of the

storms to which the surface of so dense a
is liable,



are fully prepared for the

corresponding hurricanes and tempests of this rarer


In the same manner as

we have been

able to explain the great

dominant features of an

ocean wave, without being able to give any
factory account of the abnormal and

forms which


assumes during a hurricane, so


are able to trace the great fundamental


of the atmosphere,


are often unable

and more complicated pheto unravel The tempests which roll the Atlantic nomena. billows into the Bay of Biscay, and slowly disinlesser

tegrate a continent, are due solely to the energy

Tlic Ahnosp/icre,


of solar heat.

In every daily circuit a wave of
this mysterious
Its universal

and destruction accompanies
journey round the earth.

orb in



the basis


almost every physical

problem, but

nowhere more directly manifested

than in the phenomena of the winds and waves.

The lower stratum of the atmosphere, however, owes its condition more immediately to terrestrial temperature and humidity arc influence. Its mainly due to the surfaces with which it comes






through the air and reaches the earth with


portion which


on the land

rapidly absorbed and retained, while that portion



on the ocean


only partly absorbed, a

large proportion being

consumed by


latent heat, while in both cases a portion


back into space.

Apart therefore from


minor disturbances, the earth and atmosphere as a
whole are much more highly heated in the neighbourhood of the equator, where the sun
than under the influence of
is vertical,

oblique rays in

northern and southern latitudes; continents and
islands moreover are relatively

more heated than

oceans and seas.


local differences of

ature give rise to the trade wind.

The void occasioned by the constant ascent




from the belt


while the heated air from the tropics rising into the atmosphere flows restore the equilibrium. In manner winds coming direct from the north arrive at the equator as north-east or even east winds. is filled in if by a constant current the earth were at rest along the surface. while there is no such motion of rotation at the poles.^6 the tropics The Earth* s Rotation. while winds from the south pole apparently come from south-east. in the ratio of the cosine of the latitude. away north and south to . This same would be pro- duced in a proportionate degree by any change of latitude. this and with any other heavy body such as the air. instantaneously it transpc^ed from the the equator would from past its inertia it stand while the earth whirled from west to east. it is evident that if a cannon-ball could be jx^le to still . is Apart from other disturbing causes there thus a general tendency to a circulation of the whole atmosphere in which cold winds flow in along the surface of the earth towards the tropics from north-east and from southeast. it would thus be endowed effect with an apparent motion of 10(X) miles per hour from east to west. rise to constant winds from north and belt But when we bear in mind that the equatorial and the atmosj>here with it rotate with a velocity of 1(KX) miles per hour. and would give sonth.

and in the enormous mechanical energy labours of the sun are spread from pole to pole. . and its of rise varies in position with the sun. in their descent as well as in their work done by evaporation. latitude of less and attain [>arallels of and less diameter. is consumed. are incessant. and storms. although the difference is further disturbed by of temperature between tlie land and the sea. is At its sea it is called the charac- terized by its moisture. latitude 32°. In the form of clouds. near the equator. Between the equator and it the constancy of a circulation of this character very evident. as shown by the a. and rains. mosphere as this were upwards and increase effect bulging in becomes 32'" very apparent and constant characterized where it is by a permanently high reading of the about Lat. The great heated vapour belt from which these columns Doldrums. these ascent. tliat 57 It is moreover evident the the ascending columns of the of lieated air from wliole equatorial zone would on this hypothesis hecome compressed as they approach the pole. approach to each other of the meridians on globe. high temperatuie. and copious showers. which. is barometer. north. which is wholly supplied by a constantly vertical sun. In the movement of these currents over the surface. The and effect of this it compression is to bulge its the atheight.TJic Do Idnuns.

or when clouds partially obscure the continent. and in numberless other similar circumstances. or when a cold polar current over- flows irregularly the heated pampas. we merely light a bonfire. we witness on a small scale the elements of a great storm. pressure. or winds from higher local ascent of levels or mountains. or a heated equatorial current penetrates a colder zone. leaving large tracts exposed to full sunshine. as in South America. set fire to a forest we should do or prairie. Direct mechanical movements of the air or winds are produced by the void left by condensation of vapour into rain. great quiet trade-winds arise from the heating of a whole zone of atmosphere. or. This same phenomenon takes place when one part of a continent consistinor of darker rock or sand is more highly heated than the surrounding districts covered with marsh or forest.38 A Prairie Fij^e. or heated or by the descent of cold by the humid columns of air. into the heavens. The barometer and rain is indicates the diminished often immediately produced by descending currents of cold air. on The account of their diminished specific gravity. . Columns of flame and smoke rise furiously and the ascending current draws fill in the air in violent eddies from every side to the void. while the land breezes and If local storms are produced by the superheating of the continents as compared with the ocean.

with which we are more immediately concerned. in northern latitudes in a direction contrary to the hands of a watch. instead of flowing directly towards it. air Secondly. in from Similarly the air from the equator will come from the south-west. often originating on the northern boundary of the region of the trade winds. of low pressure in a constant direction. on account of the the north-east. as flowing from the we have come seen. Winds which blow . called Such systems of winds are succession of such cyclones. First. be filled. that remarkable and important winds rotate round a region viz.Cause of It is interesting to ]Vi)ids. and with a velocity This of the gradient of pressure. We have therefore all this general law. is a main cause They are of our unstable weather in England. and thus all round this region of low pressure the winds. 39 examine how such a void will from all sides.. will tend to rotate round it spirally. the air will flow in but principally from that side on which the actual barometric i)ressure proportionate to is greatest. in the northern hemisphere the north earth's will. A which continually pass over us. and come often of great extent and to us generally from the west or south-west. gradient isobars this is indicated graphically by a series drawn at equal barometric intervals round area of lowest pressure. motion. violence. cyclones.

or anti-cyclones. face the Thus winds never blow in and in England. must always curves. around a region of high pressure. wind during a cyclone we know the centre round which it is blowing. but as it is we approach seen. . rotate necessarily in a contrary direction. if we straight lines. with us in the same direction as the bands of a watch. This important and constant law is the basis of all our weather forecasts. as we have more directly applicable to the whole region of the trade winds. or the region of low pressure.40 Cyclones. but in be on our right hand.. is the equator totally merged in that higher law of circulation which. viz.

Accompanied by our new its friend the north-east trade wind. we ran about 260 miles a day. and consequently we see the over- . T was after leaving Lisbon in latitude 38° 30' that we experienced a marked felt change of climate. which we again leave for nearly two years. LISBON TO THE TROPICS. with a consumption of about fifty tons of coal.180 feet above the sea. but in the caught a glimpse of its we stupendous dome among morning It light the clouds.CHAPTER y. was clad as with snow. currents directly Its great height is available a valuable measure of the altitude of clouds and . little and usual escort. 12. We passed the Peak of Teneriffe in the dark. at its summit the wind to is usually opposite that of the constant trade- winds below. a mist and cloud. and entering a that we were did not new meteorological region. the great province of the sun.

to add to our discomfort. to be tightly closed. the whole of the ports and hatchways had we had put in here for the purpose of undergoing the terrible operation of coaling. latitude 23° 30'. Challenger. The Yincent. The coaling of the vessel occupied six hours. and immediately blinding any unfortunate dares to look inquirer who up or look ahead. the water The temperature in the was 66°. and on deck 85°. still although masses of fleecy cloud with haze accompanied the north-east breeze. as and. covering the decks with grit. On the 18th of April we entered first the tropics. on her return voyage. This little break was most enjoyable and opportune. and inspect her perfect equipment. now nearly vertical at noon. and rounding San Antonio anchored in the deep and brilliant and sheltered waters of St. was anchored in courteously the bay alongside us. cabins was 82°. and invited to visit this resting floating scientific we were most now weather-beaten and inte- museum. tlow from the equator passing back over our heads. lar volcanic On the 20th we arrived at that sino^u- group the Cape de Verde Islands. the . The two most serious nuisances in a steamer are doubtless the coaling of the vessel and the perpetual shower of dust and coke which in certain the wind fall states of from the funnels.42 The De Verde Islands. and tempered the niojhts. and enjoyed the truly tropical day with a hot sun.

palms and some cocoa-nut planted in tubs. which. mostly The larofe island of San Antao. and forcing them into greater elevation. dry wind. It looks like a volcano of 3^esterday. Among the few houses of consists. giving an almost stratified appearance to the ash-coloured. but the tropics. with glimpses of bignonias and a few other flowering shrubs. ocean. their . parched. Vincent. 43 brought alongside on lighters and tipped down the bunkers amid clouds of dust. barren contour of the bay. in tude 14° to 17^ north. We only remained one day at Saint Vincent. It consists of ten islands. literally covered the whole ship. which lies to the north of St. which seem of a deep volcanic rock rise in to have boiled up from the bottom St. intercepts the north-east trade winds. and all we were now at last really in was so new and full of interest.The coals being De Verde Islands. . borne away on the hot. and every one who remained on board. The group of the Cape de Verde lies about 300 lati- miles from Cape Verde on the African coast. Vincent itself is a bare walls of lava and hardened ashes all a precipitous mountain round. barren volcanic rocks it that even on these appeared to me that there was more than sufficient scope to furnish agreeable occupation for a year. which the Portuguese settlement for the first time we came with great delight upon some trees.

w^hich are established here in consequence of the convenient position of the island and the excellence of its large and sheltered harbour. and a constant cloud rests on the summit of the lofty mountains.44 moisture is Saint Vincent. waters in the bay is very remarkable depths. in their normal loins. condensed into continuous rains by the cold due to expansion. still The great dress. the coral bottom is visible at and black divers. They are prin- employed on the various coaling wharves. its but having robbed the sister. often only escaping one foe in the . all and a hurried notice was Flying fish that was practicable. which is merely a wrapper round their come alongside in their canoes. little Saint Vincent. Vincent other objects of deep interest crowded themselves that a so rapidly on our proper record became impossible. and fetch up every penny or sixpence that is thrown into the sea long before it reaches the bottom. life. On notice leaving St. other tropical all This island consequently produces abundance of oranges and fruits. exposed to constant drought and sterility. and its inhabitants depend on importation. brilliancy of the . taking long flights of two or three hundred yards from wave to wave. even for the most common necessaries of cipally blacks. with their silvery wings now scudded over the water and passed the ship in shoals. air of is humidity.

it of unusual size Ion or stinofino- floatinor on the and the its tentacles with which captures prey hanging- deep in the water below. falling called continually flocked by. track of the vessel for a long distance These rhizopods form a large percentage of the . which was open for the purpose . the fish. 45 we caught some left by means of a bright light on the lower deck placed opposite the gangway. and use more as parachutes than wings. and were captured and cooked. erroneously the nautilus. The Portuguese man-of-war. with the wave like a miniature This to singular organism the is physalia belongs the hydra family. streams of brilliant light with by Darwin. the same family as the their long pectoral fins They voracious pike. bright scintillations were thrown deep under the surface by the action of the screw. crested swimming bladder surface. The sea was occasionally covered with patches of a red colour resembling a film of red sawdust floating on the water.Flying Fish. attracted by the are of light. flew on board. —probably the microscopic alg?e observed Sometimes in the evening or at night we seemed to have entered a sea of liquid phosphorus. water to meet another in the at night air . and an excellent dish they made. and lit up the behind. rising and ship. and with its in every respect a jelly fish.

in which a bottom layer of noctiluca miliaris occu- pied half the solid contents of the tumbler. action. thing foretold our near approach to the Doldrums. whole bulk of the water. sleep or to write without the paper. with all the ports open. As we had reached 11° dQ'. first At vital is sight they appeared. it was impossible to making it difficult blotting avoid to constant perspiration.46 Lunihwus I Seas. water from the Menia near the shore. like as ice. and everyApril. so that. though congealed by but on closer examination the noctiluca no less remarkable for its its complete and wonderful organization than for beauty and evanescence. the atmosphere w^as loaded with moisture. The nights became oppressively hot. for so lowered the temperature of .wind died when our with- away outright. full of have taken a tumbler Straits. and on the 22nd the 81° and of the cabins temperature of the sea was 84°. Our north-east current^TTad almost died away. and the sun's declination was also altitude 11° oQ'. like Schemyl. with the sky still more or less cloudy. we walked about without shadows. it out a struggle. which we entered on the 23rd of trade. to be only water in another form. — not. and a deshabille almost of native simplicity. In spite of iced gin-slings and sherry cobblers. and there was no evaporation. we now for the first time experienced the effects of a perfectly vertical sun at noon. however.

but when we remember equalized. due to the preponderance of land north of the equator. south-east trades frequently overlap so that we met with them on the 24th This is in latitude 4° north. . tliis 47 it region of heated vapour that filled expired in a torrent of rain. lio:htninor There was no cauldron in althoun^h we were in which these north and south currents blend. and partially condense. but never reach the equator: the}^ oscillate latitude 11° north.The Doldrums^. by which the great ascending equatorial current is produced. The Doldrums follow the sun in its change of 2° declination north and south. and therefore electrically and moreover that the saturated air is good a conductor as to carry away quietly disturbance of equilibrium that any little may take place. while the it. heavy the clouds. between latitude and Hence the north-east trade- winds never reach as far as the equator. the absence of lightning is satisfactorily ac- counted for. and the sky witli dense. itself so that they are both surface currents over the same waters.

and disappeared beneath our northern horizon the heavens really appeared . where we remained watching newsouth. their place.CHAPTER VI. already dimmed by lessened heio-ht. jects. and new heavens were taking Jupiter and Venus. was our habit after dinner to pass these lovely warm evenings on the quarter-deck. The pole star. late into the night. rose and so vertically into the sea. to be passing away. HE gorgeous tropical sunsets. was sinking out of view. called our attention to a subject which throughout the journey afForcled us the highest enjoyment. while the southern . with their startling brevity. that they seemed like new its planets. constellations as they came up from the taking leave of old friends as they night and by night sank lower and lower. now fell brilliant ob- climbed so high. ASTRONOMICAL EVENINGS. I allude to the constantly-changing It aspect of the heavens.

wafers correctly moon.The cross. some unravelling before they were clearly realized. In manner the of the planets. 49 attended by a stately collection of new con- stellations. and the positions of the sun. ting The in of the planets given clue. which ought not to be materially to star-gazer. as well as the diurnal motion of the whole heavens. and the almanac rising set- fur- nishing no construct a tion. and their approximate position so easily 4 . Celesiial Globe. lit method will add the enjoyment of the most unscientific a little The great lines of reference in the star- sky are the meridian. latitude Our globe was rectified daily our changed. we had no alternative but to new almanac this for every change of posi- For purpose a celestial globe which as I fortunately had on board was an invaluable companion. were clearly represented. and the is ecliptic. combined with considerable change required of longitude. The changes occasioned by our rapid approach to the equator. attracted our admiration in the southern heavens. about 3° by lowering the northern pole per day. and planets were daily laid down by means of small placed in accordance with this their right ascension and position declination. the equator. A long sea journey affords an opportunity for little acquiring a knowledge of practical astronomy lost .

through this point the celestial which when we are in Lat. the altitude of the equator on the meridian will be the co-latitude. the ecliptic — E C—will If be a great circle at right angles to that line.50 The Ecliptic. determined that there is no excuse for ignorance on the subject. cuts the equator liquely. and by simply it turning our back on and lookino^ due south on great arc from is our meridian. The ^ '^^ ecliptic is the high road of the sun. Whenever is is the its moon visible position indi- cated if by the line fact that a —A B— be supposed drawn the straight Fig. 0° passes vertically over our heads. any planets are this circle. moon. 1 through tips of the horns. and planets among and ob- the fixed stars. visible they will be situate on Althouo. The is pole star is always recognised : its altitude always the latitude of the place. east A to west passing equator.h the risinp^ and settincj of the sun and o o o planets and other phenomena depending on latitude .

subject only to a small allowance for their proper motion in the heavens. they are recorded in Greenwich time. and not often possible at but it is a most interesting observation and easily shore. or from the simple time = tan latitude fornnila. shadow * and it is on entering that ing by The rising and setting are easily obtained from the southmeans of a table of semi-diurnal arcs. made on The into large disc of Jupiter throws a conical space.m.* The moon's age and phases. ascertain our corresponding The eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and occultations interest to a of stars traveller. eclipses. the when we moon the and planets wherever we are. the times of eclipses. by the moon It requires it is are of great a good telescope to see these sea. to the time so that if the given in a Greenwich almanac souths in London at 8 p. cos X tan declination. . occultations. and to we have merely local time. at times given in the almanac. are absolute times independent of our position . seconds per hour of longitude for the and two minutes per hour for the . close For a approximation in longitude west.TJic Aivianac. 51 as given in an almanac will be useless change our latitude. the southing of will take place. due to the difference of time or longitude. of Jupiter's satellites. and other similar phenomena. moon. add ten stars. it moon will south at Buenos Aja-es four hours west at eight minutes past 8.

. the in less than two days. are four satellites. At other times the satellites pass directly behind the planet and are said to be occulted. but this not the case with eclipses of the sun. and refer to the almanac to ascertain the Greenwich time at the same instant. being everywhere instant . and as a dark spot. these phenomena are occurrence. The satellites and are seen on also frequently pass over the disc it as a black speck. The satellites themselves cast a shadow which sometimes passes over the dis€ of the planet. at shadow a distance from the planet that the satellite immersion or sudden disappearance of the takes place. As there which rotate round the planet in first short periods.52 yiipiiers Satellites. and the difference will be our actual longitude without any calculation. is distinctly visible to see and it is not uncommon both the satellite and its shadow clearly projected on the bright disc of the planet at the same instant. like a sudden meteor in the sky. and afford a very ready means of finding the longitude. eclipse of the An same moon is is a phenomenon of a similar seen at the character. For since they are visible everywhere at the same instant of time. the exact time of an eclipse in our we have only to own local note time. and the fourth in of constant twenty days. Its emersion is equally sudden on the other side of the shadow.

53 furuisli Lunar distances and occultation principle. and cannot too strongly recommend a constant addition to reference to this neoflected. viz. not more among the among the officers of the vessel. of all . A few minutes' reference to a all properly rectified. as furnishing other methods of finding longitude on the same general anywhere occurring at of which the precise Greenwich phenomena observable absolute epochs of time. I but most invaluable. Ship. led to the incorrectness of at least 80 per cent. companion. as an indepenfallacy that the The popular compass our points north and south has. is sometimes imagined. But the compass is never employed. and excited constant passengers than interest.. The Navigation of the The invaluable and constant standard of reference in a ship is the compass. on shore. as dent guide. The small globe that I fortunately possessed was always in request. the luxurious know of no equipment of these splendid vessels that would be more appreciated celestial globe. and time is either known or can be calculated.TJic Celestial Globe. solves the ordinaiy astronoI mical problems at sea . daily rectified . celestial a'lobe. than a well-illumined for the latitude of the vessel with the addition of some daily indication of the actual position of the sun and planets on the ecliptic.

as they had been thrown on his hands as defective on account of the needles dipping so much as to touch the compass box. the dip and the deviation both diminish and at Buenos Ay res the needle points 10° to the ehst of true north. easily corrected by a drop sealing wax varnish placed on the lighter end of the needles. ordinary weather vanes. a perfectly -balanced magnetic suspended in England. as to assume a position such that the north end dipped 67° 39' towards the north. the dip of 67° 39' is destroyed. This was. By placing weights on the upper or southern end. of course. freely In 1877. and bringing the needle horizontal. who had received some excellent pocket compasses from London. .54 The Mariner' s Co?npass. in the form of an horizontal needle. tion down no less than and its horizontal devia- was 19° 5' to the west of true north. and w^hile I was at Buenos Ayres a tradesman. as I of explained to him. and from place to place. About three in England centuries . and we have the mariner's compass west. In delicate instruments the balancing of the needle requires to be altered on account of the change of dip. . instead of 19° to the west. bar. was so atti'acted by the earth's magnetism. with a deviation of 19° 5' As we travel south and west. ago it was nearly correct but the variation changes from year to year. was on the point of returning them.

is The speed of the ship the directly ascertained the rough method of the log. the horizon a most convenient datum for the purpose.TJie Jlla j'itier's Compass. vary with the position of the The actual variation of the compass is ascertained by means of the sun at apparent noon. and differences these ship. fixed over the centre of the compass. therefore indispensable to ascertain daily the ship's position by astronomical observations. by a calculais The compass during only short assumed intervals to remain constant the between these frequent observations. falls : the error of the compass. 55 guide. . when the exact degree is noted on which the shadow of an upright pin. the But the needle ^vould Le unsafe as an absolute two compasses alongside each other at the helm differing by six or seven degrees. or by by estimation from and the obtained with number of revolutions of the screw. including every is disturbance. is thus considerable exactitude interfere but storms and currents for with such a reckoning. course for short periods . It is equally well ascertained at any hour tion of the sun's azimuth. The latitude is obtained at sea with great facility of the altitude of the sun at affording by an observation noon. unless It is very short periods. thus directly determined.

This is not quite so Longitude is the east or west position of the It is ship with respect to Greenwich. or -will one hour. As it is apparent noon at any place at the moment the sun is on the meridian. the sun have passed the meridian of that spot one hour ago. either in hours or degrees. and the earth makes one rotation from west to east in twenty-four hours. which. the hours of longitude are practically hours of time that is . that such a practice an operation so short. latitude is simply the observed zenith dis- The tance of the sun at noon. measured on a globe. We were in the habit of daily ascertaining our latitude in this manner it is with an ordinary pocket sextant. plus or minus the declination. and a traveller. Thus the difference of longitude between any two places is practically the difference of time. and the time will be one hour after noon. the whole circumference being twenty-four hours. according as the latitude and declina- tion are alike or different. east of Greenwich. to say. and so essential to is recommended. then at any spot whose longitude fifteen degrees. so simple.56 Latitude. is The next daily operation on board the deter- mination of the longitude. The problem is therefore reduced to finding at . simple an operation. if it is noon is a-t Greenwich. or 360 degrees. are figured on the equator.

since the alti- tude can at any time be directly taken with a sextant. knowm direct as the hour of There course is no possible . on board. I cosec.m o)' = <^os >S. The polar distance. as the sun in its changes if its altitude as its hour angle. = = d = „ polar distance = 90 ± dec. we determine the exact relation between the change of altitude and the change of hour angle. d. are taken from the " Nautical Almanac. angle. a + l-\- d ." By * {s. This relation is determined by a problem in spherical trigonometry. method well as measuring this angle at sea daily but. which the is of such constant use to the traveller that usual formula is given in the note below. When P = a I hour angle required. sec. 57 between the any given instant the difference exact time on board and the time at Greenwich.* The latitude is determined from the observations made at noon. our problem will be solved . sin {S — a).Longitude. as described. The Greenwich time is given by the chronometer The ship's time is the angular distance of the sun from the meridian. latitude of the place. so that the one shall give us the other.. corrected altitude of sun. etc.

viz. The observation for time or longitude is made in the morning or afternoon. noon by the but in order to obtain mean time for the regulation of a watch. the is the work of a few minutes.58 Ship's Time. greatest. the use of convenient tables for the purpose.. the is also found in a when the time is similar way from the an observation at are sun's observed altitude. when the sun's vertical calculation motion or west is . is the deter- known. are daily recorded in the log. the equation must be daily taken into account as well as the longitude. The only other routine observation mination of the azimuth. or from moment of sunrise or sunset. and the vessel's position and progress thus obtained. These simple observations all that are necessary for navigation across the Atlantic. when it is near due east is while the observation for latitude made at noon. as given ship's bells . The ship's clock is altered daily at to the apparent time thus found. . which.

or piled icebergs. and without our attention being drawn to the extraordinary specific qualiitself. reducing three-fifths of the earth's sur- face to absolute monotonous smoothness. T is impossible to traverse these tropical seas without amazement at the prodi- gious forces that are in operation around us. although in this case it cannot . solid rocks and Its the distribution it and equalization of temperature and would appear to be as specially endowed with this object. such as bone and muscle. or whether cloud. streaming into the atmosphere above us in columns of vapour and around the poles in great oflice is . whether as a liquid mantle. VAPOUR AND CLOUDS. are for the peculiar functions to which they are so admir- ably adapted .CHAPTER YII. especiall}^ ties of water in all its forms . as materials qualifications for in the animal economy.

qualification. It is not in these tropical seas is even largely interfered with by saturation. is force with which the vapour of water equivalent to a pressure of no less than ^ lb. from form of vapour. to development. it On is cooling farther. possibility be attributed An the exceptional evolution of of heat accompanies the condensation water. it begins to expand until reaches the freezing point. In the act of freezing. by which bodies expand with heat and contract with cold . de- parts from the almost universal law of nature. its stance ties while. and no high degree of tension is attained. even in the form of proper- as a radiator of heat fulfil are equally Yole. which of life existence is over a large portion of the globe. it ceases to contract after cooling its down to a certain limit attaining maximum density at 39°. perhaps its most marvellous The evaporation of water prodigious. for In order to it the important so whioh it appears to be specially endowed.6o by any Specific Properties of Water. essential to the This property. and under a receiver this tension would be attained before . say at 80. The tension rises. on every square inch at temperature 32° half a At the temperature of the water in the tropics. unrivalled. it is pound to the square inch. free is . the latent heat set greater than for any other known subice. for the saturated layers rise as soon as they form.

an extent almost its volume to Every cubic inch of water. the temperature its lowered. tension to that of the air. marvellous all. at a temperature of 80. The singular feature of this is vapour is. to compress or expand it the vapour. water changes incredible. the vapour immediately adapts temperature. produces no less than 44. or the space became saturated. portion rain. that its expansive force or tension unalterable. and vice versa in its condensation. displaces is Ho air . or . not that displaces 44. at The presence of air totally and with the exception of the retardation 'occasioned by the resistance of the air to its difignored . it but.288 cubic inches of vapour of the same temperature. is On new the other hand. is tension to the It loses its transparenc}-. and a precipitated in the form of cloud or In assuming the form of vapour. that is licked up from the and adds this its sea.288 cubic inches amount of vapour for if it of air. did we should in a very short space of time altogether. either a portion of the passes back into form of is an additional quantity of of water evaporated but in the is presence water its tension or density if unalterable. If without change of temperature we attempt water. all perish from the absence of air to relate. except by change of temperature.Properties of J \xpom\ 6 evaporation ceased.

every cubic inch of water thus raised out of flies the sea in the form of vapour^ sufficient heat to away with have raised wherever this its temperature by no less than 1. the one of of vapour. . contracts totally the one. the other and the barometer which records the total pressure really records the sum of two dis- tinct weiofht and independent pressures. independent atmospheres. it would. for at our temperature 80. exercises. and merely as expands have other. We have thus two air. is as remarkable as the of of volume . it Latent Heat. cubic inches of vapour. for if a cubic inch of water at 80 evaporates with sufficient force to produce 44. a different influence on The change latent heat absorbed in evaporation or set free in condensation. attains its limits of saturation. and the other the tension or change of temperature. if it it is had not been transported is evaporated and to set and condensed free. we the seen. again. amount of heat The mechanical is force developed in evaporation easily calculated. which or weight of the aqueous vapour contained in the air . and behaves in every other respect in the air precisely as it would in a vacuum.62 fusion.061 degrees. exercising a pressure of \ square inch. if confined in a tube one .288 lb. the one the of the air.

as a whole. at the is same temperature and therefore Saturated air .IVcig^if of Vapour. now be under- stood. itself is of the highest / The heat consumed in raising its temperature is greater than for any the amount of heat other known substance required to raise one pound of water from 32 to . much lighter than dr}^ air for though the addition of vapour to a column of dry air must doubtless increase the weight of the column as a whole. can thus be ciated. Another property of water importance in meteorology. 63 inch square. the column must occupy a larger space.. 212 being sufficient to raise a similar weight of iron from 32 to 1. therefore. The weight per cubic inch water.288 inches^ or nearly oncton to the height of one inch. of about two-thircls of that of dry pressure. . be increased in weight per cubic foot will be di- minished. The prodigious volume of heat accumulated in these embodies these tropical seas. results.144 lbs. is of the vapour air. or to a dull red heat. it is hoped. of the column has also been increased. raise \ a or 22. more practically appretable The following short and will. it and althoui^h w^eight. force it must be borne in mind that the the surrounding pressure elastic If. remains the same. lb. its will. to a height of 44.652.

.64 Aqueous Vapour.

and condensed in the upper regions into layers of cloud or rain. . a permanently elastic fluid.DanielP s Sinnmary. expanding in of. arithmetical progressions heat.. viz. and has 5 been the principal motive of this chapter. eacli other." The appreciation little of this masterly summary well worth a attention. by equal increments ratios and decreasing in density and temperature. is and communicated thorough is to the air. meets air. Although when mixed with air it ultimately perit meates uniformly through the whole mass. is 65 Tlie first. but the other element of the atmosphere. with a large evo- lution of that latent heat to which its elasticity as vapour in force is due. decrease as and its density in and temperature we ascend a much less rapid ratio than that of the dry air. increases in a geometrical of progression with equal augmentations temperature. but is condensed by cold into the form of water. with great resistance in passing through the and requires considerable time before this equilibrium is obtained. not a permanently elastic fluid. while its latent heat set free. heat are incompatible with the air. its moisture. its whose heat decreases much more rapidly than own natural rate. and it is thus forcibly lowered in temperature. Its elasticity. The vapour is thus often forced by the movement of the air to ascend in a medium. as in we ascend is well-known and fixed . moreover.

when we that it is read that the humidity 67. but by the proportion which the amount would and actually existing bears to the quantity which produce complete saturation at the given temperature. not measured by the actual quantity of vapour contained in the atmosphere. Dew Point is that temperature to which the atmosphere must be reduced to become saturated. as when saturated. Point is The Dew serving the diflference by obof temperature shown by tw^o generally determined is thermometers. This is termed the relative humidity is . The dryness therefore. but the decrease of temperature soon attains a . kept constantly wet. nearly saturated. It may be directly determined by artificially cooling the water conuntil any metal vessel . holds a much air.66 Humidity. a very slight decrease of temperature will produce deposition of dew. The wet bulb thermometer by the vapour as it is becomes colder by evaporation. of complete saturation. dew is visibly deposited on the exterior the temperature will then If the air is already be that of the Dew Point. one of which covered with cotton. on account of the latent heat absorbed formed. it signifies 67 per cent. air. The Dew The Point. 'whatever be the temperature of the seen. and deposit tained in its moisture. larger we have amount of vapour in solution than colder of the atmosphere is. Heated air.

involves some calculation. saturation. in order to determine the difference between the actual temperature and the as given Dew Point. Augmented circulation from wind must will only hasten. If the temperature of the air. when it has attained measures the evaporating power of the varies and as it with the amount of moisture. set of factors by Mr. air. be 53 — (2 X 10) or found The factor 2 is opposite 53 in the table.TJic Wet Bulb Thcrmojnetcr. 67 limit when it although the evaporation continues. ceases. and wet this bulb. . dry bulb is to be multiplied. The difference of temperature between the dry this limit. by the dry bulb is is 53. and of the wet bulb the difference 43. but in no other at which the heat imparted way by affect this limit air tlie pre- cisely balance the heat absorbed in evaporation. the tem- perature of the Dew Point will 33°. so that 10^. the also gives indirectly humidity or distance from and also the Dew Point. by which the observed difference between the wet and I append a Temperature Glashier. The formula employed for finding the Dew Point In order to avoid this.

VIII. a puff warm water from wind sprang up.E.. bearing before they disappeared water had 83° in the its cloud them a ridge of foam. Captain Thwaites had told me that in his long experience he had seldom crossed the line without a showier of rain almost at the precise of of . at moment of crossing. though scarcely rippled large surface. no previous indication of any change. was a lovely.m.S. rolled by in and low^ered two smooth waves which sailing vessels lay becalmed near us like children in a nurse's arms. VINCENT TO THE PLATE. and although there was 5 p. the equator crossed It on the 24th of hot. The highest temperature now attained —which interfered very considerably with our . and. the water. tropical day on the that raised .OHAPTER FROM E ST. The welcome breeze the crowd of white sails carried filled by our com- panions. April. and mist. followed by a deluging shower the S.

a lack of liberality that one could scarcely have anticipated Brazilians. among It is so enlightened a people as the about 200 miles from the mainof phonolite. The remarkable steep needles of rock Avhich spires. we were dominions of the south- east trades. The island is used as a penal settlement by the is Brazilian government. in latitude 3° south. the variable baffling light airs settled down into a pleasant breeze from the south-east. Our approach to these singular rocks was indicated by the presence of flocks of sea birds. speed by lowering engines.San Fernando. so rapidly sea at does the floor of the volcanic islands. and at twelve miles the depth . columnar at land. that sink away from these six-and-a-half miles the depth is 525 fathoms. We passed close along the western rocky coast of the island of San Fernando de Noronha. and so jealously guarded that the ofiicers of the Challenger were not per- mitted to examine its interesting natural history. its 69 condensing power in the On the following day. consist rise like the base. which refreshed the hot ship and aband we welcomed the agreeable news enterincr the sorbed the great masses of cloud that lowered on every that side. ejected by volcanic action. which with few exceptions are confined to the neighbourhood of land.

where the bottom consists of that wide-spread deposit the globigerina ooze. and even pieces of pumice stone. This singular deposit forms the floor over a large portion of the Atlantic.E. and consists of the shells of clouds of microscopic organisms. The island looked green and fertile. " foraminiferoe. and which in course of ages have accumulated so as to form a deep bed or stratum. which steadied the During the frequent showers which came .70 is Globigerina Ooze. ship." that have lived in the waters above. 820 fathoms. falling off rapidly to 2. has led to the probability that another chalk formation of analogous character is in process of deposition over a very large part of the Atlantic. and although not of much assist- we spread a little sail.275 fathoms. the S. season. but becomes parched up in the drj^ aspect. trades increased to a pleasant breeze. and its covered with vegetation. The to shells of many species are beautiful microscopic objects. of The enormous thickness of our beds chalk affords some idea of the prodigious range occupied stratum. so as completely to alter On ance. in of time geological rally the deposit shells of this single These are very gene- mixed with pumice dust. the 2Gth. and their complete resemblance or analogy similar organisms of which the mass of our ordinary chalk consists. the undoubted products of volcanic action.

The reef is barely level with the surface of the sea. tenanted voracious sharks. brilliant water of animal life.Pernambuco. or ventures upon a bath. limited in width. with a quiet lake The opening vessels pass in the reef. preserved by thick coat of barnacles and shells. and when there any wind is the whole operation of landing from the steamer difficult and expensive. runs parallel with the coast for a distance of many miles. presenting the phenomenon of a wall inside. which breaks over singular it in columns of foam. so that they hot. and the great Atlantic waves roll is through with terrible violence. deep. 7 coni})elled to down in deluging quantities. and. through which small is on entering the harbour. wc were close our cabins. he is but too frequently the victim of these voracious feeders. of the steamer into a small The embarkation out . the became uncouifurtably temperature being 85° when we arrived at all Pernambuco. where we lay at anchor night outside the singular reef which runs parallel with the low shore and forms the harbour. attracted by by the refuse from the town and the numerous vessels in the harbour. This extraits ordinary wall of sandstone. enclosing a long full belt of quiet. at Pernambuco more especially. If an unfortunate boatman or sailor falls overboard. of spra}^ and breakers as far as the eye can reach in the open ocean.

the great The first imposing were cocoa palms. luxuriance of a tropical or of the intense wonder and enjoyment with which a first naturalist revels among objects fruit. through a heavy sea. crowded with and the numerous other splen- did specimens of palms. laurel-looking foliage. the risk and We took a trip in the tramway over the now old bridge which was designed and erected by myself in 1856. when an European lands for the all time in a tropical climate. Large lizards. repays difiiculty. and a small. result. brilliant- plumaged kind of wagtail crept in and out of the plastered v/alls. It is hopeless to attempt any description of the flora. with large dark. means agreeable when we are aware of but the first by no the numeis rous sharks that are hopefully waiting for a disaster. cycads. or cradle. The quays are partially shaded by a row of a luxuriant species of ficus. although this was tion either of this my first personal inspec- work or of the lighthouse at Orlando Point. polished.Tropical Flora. which efiect- . slung from a derrick on the ship the dis- tance to the town is then a mile or more. its gorgeous charms. and flowering trees with which the public squares and private gardens are crowded. which was designed a little later. ending with a sudden rush through All this the reef on some high wave. boat is effected in bad weather by means of a chair .

and remind us pleasant. Jupiter. and the moon rising vertically out of the sea. half-naked negro women. Way. On the 28th the night was lovely. Yenus. rising into little but constantly warm. south-eastern puffs.m. The air was thus saturated with moisture exactly resembling the atmosphere Kew. rich in rose prominently into view. and in drenching showers. while the southern branch of the Milky stars. carrying heavy loads of strange fruit and vegetables. The passengers and were anxious to get out to sea again. a. and shelters a host of black dealers in gorgeous parrots and other tropical birds and animals. about 7 we anchored in the beautiful Bay .. and crowds of handsome. now and then light. where the trade winds beyond the reach of the disturbance caused by this of a pinery or orchid house at all more or less felt the effects. resume their normal flow. On the 29th. We at 85°. The sky was heavy clouds. 73 ually intercepts the fierce rays of a nearly vertical sun. which during the night were constantly fell condensed by some higher. and the night intensely so hot. The cabins were It is more full of especially during the night that the high tempera- ture is much felt. We our were not long before we again encountered friend. cooler current. heated coast. with enough rolling swell to we were at sea. left Penambuco at 5 p.The Tropics.m.

and tree ferns are the prominent objects. unless maintained This overwhelming vege- with incessant labour. orange trees. but is markable wild luxuriance. and its construction under such a sacrifice sun was attended with considerable life. about 13° south of the equator. bread-fruit the jaca. Having a few hours to spare at Bahia. which speedily obliterates all the works of man. through the courtesy of Mr. Some faint idea of the details of this vegetation large may be obtained by a walk through our The lovely and its hothouses. bananas. the great tufted palms. The line is hemmed dotted in on each side by trees. totally bewilders the lover of nature. mangoes. of new types. flowers. dense foliage. to make a little excursion on the Bahia and San Francisco Railway. while gorgeous butterflies and humming-birds flutter from flower to flower. the glossy fresh laurel-like green of the foliage. Tiplady. Marmosets and monkeys innumerable play among the branches.74 The Tropics. everywhere closely tation descends right into the city. of Bahia. and scream- . but the marvellous beauty of the whole scene surpasses all all description. which gigantic palms. wanton superabundance. we were enabled. cocoa nuts. of re- The country for its all round is level. an entangled jungle with stately the amongst tree. with a dark. The line for a considerable distance runs through a mangrove swamp.

with dealers in macaws. is The general level of the country sea. about 300 feet above the is and the tow^n of Bahia lift partly on this high level. so and the beetroot sugar produced slowly and it laboriously in our cold soils has driven from the market. 75 ing parrots and flocks thi-ougli macaws the air. Well may such a have stopped again and again. wdth produce encumbered marmosets.BaJiia. raising passengers to toll. our dreary winter glories world are thus opened naturalist to us. but a convenient is constantly at work. is The quay at Bahia. as at Pernambuco. to gaze on such beauties. the u^Dper level for a small thus avoiding the fatiguing ascent through the various hot and steep and dirty streets that lead to the upper town. in rainbow beauty pass in few are aware. but nearly abandoned. and climate any competition could be the growth of the sugarcane is possible. parrots. on account of the cost of labour under such a burning sun. scooped out of a granite forma- which extends along the coast for 2. as of another How the Darwin observes. and etc. that within a few degrees from fields. Among the numerous pests that mitigate one's . in the vain endeavour to fix them on is his mind for ever.000 miles^ and enriches the interior with its fertile sands and It seems incredible that with such a soil debris. The noble bay tion. as he says he did.

books. But saddlery. are all consumed alike. A valuable collection of plans and drawings con- nected with the railway was entirely demolished. air to This sudden decline of temperature . edges brilliantly drifted illuminated by the new moon. The sea fell to 78^ and the 76°. by a pool of water little kept constantly and for this purpose a earthenware trough surrounds every plant. The sea was rough. us.70 Decline of Temperature. portmanteaus. bewildered Masses of cumuli. but the ravages of the white ant baffle all control. breeze at lower temperature with a much stifFer which set in during the night. with all The passengers were out of sorts. They little up every- thing. clothes. their ravages are not confined to plants . and even the carriages themselves are rapidly destroyed. We left Bahia on a lovely evening. unless in constant use. jiggers enthusiasm in the and mosquitoes eat play an important part. with the with the crowd of new impressions that so short a visit had imparted. away by the southern breeze but a slightly rising barometer. reminded us that south and leaving our European we were running summer behind the ports closed. and the vessel rolled about rather uncomfortably. no plant or flower can be grown in the town unless surrounded filled. temperate past us. hurried . tropics. v/hich is commonly the case after a day on shore in such intense heat.

while at Cape Frio both fell to 73^. The thinness of the superficial stratum of warm . then less rapidly. con- water at a temperature of about siderably above maximum density.m. at first rapidly. which is 40°. To appreciate as this. is 28° .Ocean Tonpcrature. much greater in the deep eastern and north- western basins of the North Atlantic. where the change is very marked. we must bear in mind that and less the temperature of the Atlantic generally decreases we descend. At a. and to the surging up of an under-current of cold w^ater flowing from the southern seas. The temperature certain spots. until belt of we meet everywhere with that of its a thick 40°. is 77 said invariably to occur on passing the Abrolhos undoubtedly does Lisbon and not rocks. belt the temperature Below falls this remains nearly uniform. The temperature at of the surface of the sea and of the atmosphere follow each other very closely. Pernambuco both the sea and tlie air at 8 were at 84°. or in decreases slowly till some cases it to 32°. and again 60 miles from Rio. and Cape Frio this sudden phase of cold in both is probably due to the deflection of the Gulf Stream. the maximum this belt density of fresh water The depth but is of averages 500 fathoms. decline regularly on leaving the equator. at Cape Frio. but 'per saltiun at as at the Abrolhos.

According to observations made by the Challenger. leaving an underlying mass of cold water of vast thickness under this upper hot film. but not we reach 600 fathoms between the Bermudas and Madeira. at a temperature and supplies the waste occasioned by evaporation from the great surface of the Atlantic this under.current of cold water sets in north- ward from the Antarctic Ocean. by evaporaThe constant humidity. of about 35°. moreover. found at is a depth of 250 fathoms. is Opposite Monte Video a temperature of 45° Fah. by the configuration the bottom.78 Ocean Temperature.current being interrupted at different heights. One of the most interesting features with respect to the distribution of temperature. and therefore of different temperatures. or in the depth of this upper layer as we move northward. intercepts a very large proportion of the sun's rays. sun of the tropics should have so slight an is due to the removal of the heated layer by the trade winds and the absorption of heat tion. is the steady increase in the volume of warm water. That the vertical effect. The same temperature met with until at 800 fathoms at the equator. is water at the equator very remarkable. a deep under. The deeper or colder strata are thus confined to the . the layers or strata which pass northwards are regulated by the height of the intercepting ridges.

Bogota. of the surface stratum overlies the belt of uniform temperature. The higher temperature which causes. affected by trade winds. which become very prominent as betw^een Cape Frio we approach near to them and Rio. where we anchored in the evening on the 3rd of May. and gradually becoming wider is lost in the great easterly drift current in the Southern Ocean. drive constantly in the heated surface layers before them in a constant current to the westward. These one direction. 79 deeper channels. The stream celebrated then divides a northern branch —the Gulf Stream running round the Gulf of Mexico. all the sudden change of temperature experienced. wiiich many disturbing none of them so patent as the effect of the tunity of studying ever since Avinds blowing we have had such ample 0[)porwe left Lisbon. while tlie southern branch runs parallel with the coast of Brazil. The deflection of the Gulf Stream in the neighbourhood of Cape Frio allows the southern cold current to skirt the coast. and are arrested by submarine elevations. The Brazilian coast is backed the w^ay by bold mountain ranges of granite. probably. and hence. is due to the sun's heat. It is difficult to imagine anything finer than the magnificent and commodious entrance into this . striking the coast of South' America about Cape St.The Gulf Stream.

called " the sugar loaf. is of the most fertile charac- being constantly kept moist from the steaming atmosphere above and the numberless streams of the purest water which percolate between the boulders beneath. and retains the limited patches he cultivates. or the roads that give him access to them. the beinof summit sea." and on rounding in trees. which consists wholly of sands from the decomposing granite. The harbour is well defined by a lofty peak or this rock. flanked Rio Janeiro. where the cloud . rising out of the most luxurious vegeta- sometimes towering into lofty needles or peaks. peak the town opens out. and sometimes resembling huge castles embedded among: trees and underwood in the wildest confusion.300 feet above the We observed a loaf. The soil. It is difficult to pene- trate track. The effect of a tropical sun on the vegetation. is totally indescribable. even a few yards away from the beaten and it is only by incessant labour that man holds his own. arising constant cloud on the top of the sugar either from the low temperature of the rock or from the nearly saturated air from the sea being forced up by these hills into colder strata. under such favourable conditions. by huge mountains of gneiss and granite tion. of the Corcovado -. ter.8o harbour. embedded and backed by ranges of high mountains covered with tropical vegetation.

alono. Vincent.Mountain is Clouds. away from San Antao at We landed at Rio and visited the fine and wellits maintained Botanical Gardens. with an eddy from the south-east. us. still but the moisture of the atmosphere oppressive. was more remarkable and The gardens are irrigated by a small 6 . Palma. The barometer rose oneAs we left them The nearest like island. and slowly dissolved 40 or 50 miles Similar clouds flowed St. defining the terrestrial stratum. with a level base. we lay at anchor. was six miles from factory of clouds. separating into detached masses. fine collection of tropical The heat was intense. to leeward.the whole rancje of hills that The effect of land in producing cloud was strik- ingly manifest in passing the group of islands at Teneriffe on our return. tenth of an inch in the eddy. a similar long fringe of massive clouds remained stationary on the Corcovado and skirt the coast. the shelter produced a calm far out to sea. with mao-nificent avenue of large palms and plants. 8i constantly formed and again immediately abstiff bi-eeze sorbed on the other side. and was an active They streamed away smoke from a conflagration. As we approached the group from the south with a north-east head wind. the north-east wind returned. and the sky was the whole time clear. as a was blowDuring ing at the time.



stream with means of flushing, and the ground was
luxuriantly green with a coarse wir}^ herbage resembling turf.

The screw

pines, sugarcanes,

and bam-

boos, the groves of tangled palms


grasses, the

enormous trees covered with epiphytes and creepers,
the banana groups, and a host of




beautiful flowers



bordered with

tillandsias, afforded

us a scene that can never be
lined with


The roads

palms, and

the houses embedded in their drooping feathers.


and gorgeous




roam from

flower to




every tree, and hang in clusters from every verandah,
thriving in full sun in this hot-house humidity.

The whirr of the chirping frog " hyla," was incessant, and we were startled frequently by the snapping


made by the large is very common.
1,200 feet,

butterfly, papilio ferronia:*

In the evening
height of

we ascended

the mountains to

by a magnificent road thoroughly well constructed, paved, drained, and
lighted with gas, that leads to Tejuca, where there







altitude of 870 feet above the town.

The views




we ascend



and the

tropical vegetation that covers the precipices

lines the road, is indescribably





placed in a valley equally




watered by copious streams, with excel-

The rocky walks are covered with ferns and flowers in endless variety, and it is diflicult to conceive any greater enjoyment than an evening in this fairy valley, lit up at night with



and enlivened by the strange and mysterious

sounds peculiar to the numberless denizens of these
tropical woods.


night, however, even at this altitude,


very hot, and the dew was most copious.
were, however, thankful
city below,


we had

not stayed in the

where even during the day we had
the stench of the narrow, crowded

suffered from

and the want of

as the surrounding hills

concentrate the heat and effectually shut out the

breeze which





After this fatiguing

gladly to our airy vessel,

we returned which had now become

a home, and


was a

relief to escape

the heat, and

the smells, and the mosquitoes, and

and sand


and other


whose remembraDce

helps to temper our regret at leaving scenes other-

wise so enchanting and agreeable.
scourge which


did not

wholly escape the




and interesting

The yellow fever never leaves Rio, but is generally at its height in the summer months. It was causing considerable mortality


Fever at Rio,

we were when we found
fatally a



had not long



we had a

case on board,


threw a gloom over the journey and terminated
few days afterw^ards in the !River Plate. There


no doubt that

this terrible scourge



entirely avoided,

and the extensive works both

drainage and water supply


in hand,

must go a

way towards

this desirable result.

The deaths from
70 per day.

fever had very lately averaged

They had now much declined but at the little port of St. Rosas the mortality was rapidly decimating the small community, and was not confined to any class or locality. The bad drainage and consequent stench, the lack of water, the

and the dirty habits of the lower
with the humidity and heat, were
plague, even

orders, together


sufficient reasons for the

in this cool season of the year.

The most

feature in the tropics


this great humidity,


tempers to a remarkable extent the direct influence
of the sun, so that one lio-hts a cis^ar with a lens

with more


under the vertical sun than in



but the result

a stifling atmosphere of

steam, in which vegetable
to rejoice.


seems so marvellously


sensation of heat



on the actual temperature than on the rate at
abstracted from the nerves of sensa-

w^hich heat

thus marble appears colder than wood, though


)i sidie



both are at the same temperature, and the intense
cold of 15° below zero, which


experienced at

Petersburg, gave no such sensation of cold as

a foggy day at a temperature of 35° in England.


dry, cold



the former case


a per-

fect non-conductor, abstracting

no heat, while the

moving humid

particles of





with painful rapidity.

The dry heat

at Arapey,

and occasionally reached
supportable so long as

where the thermometer constantly remained at 95°, 104)°, was by no means inimpossible.


we lay still, but exercise When we remember that the

blood retains a constant temperature of 98°, whether


are in air at 105° in the tropics, or at 0° at the

poles, it is far


difficult to

imagine by what


process the external temperature of 105°
to 98°,

of heat

than to understand the production
requisite for

by combustion of food


taining the blood at 98° in the atmosphere at 0°.



across a variety of tropical fruits,


are liberally supplied on board; but Avith the ex-

ception of the delicious banana, on which a large

population to a great extent depends for subsistence,



comparable with our European
across several species of orange



of excellent quality, but often pithy


as a

whole, not equal to the oranges
at Lisbon.


took on board

The sweet lime


insipid, the alligator



Fru it.

The custard-apple has no characthough sweet and agreeable, but not

teristic flavour,

comparable in flavour with the gooseberry.


water melons are deficient in sweetness and flavour.

The milk

of the fresh cocoa-nut


very delicious,

but the bread-fruit, the produce of one of

handsomest trees in the

tropics, is insipid,

and in

no respects equal to the potato or the mandioca,

which here takes


place; while the wild pine-

apple, whicli cover large districts, will bear

no com-

parison, except as regards size, with our cultivated

pines in England.


latitude of Rio


22° 53' 51" south, longi-

tude 2° 52' 36' west.

The mean temperature of the




in this latitude is about 73°.


the equator

it is 83°,

and at Buenos

Ay res

it is ^h"".

In England the mean temperature of November,
which, as regards






But the mean temperature of the

twenty-four hours affords but

idea of the

difference of climate or even of temperature, unless




into its

two elements, the day and

night means

for it is evident that the

mean temis

perature will be 72° whether the day
the night 58°, or whether the day



76° and the

night 68°; as the



the same in both cases.



of climate, moreover,

depends on


other elements besides temperature; such as




humidity, winds, rain, cloud,

summer and winter

and no idea of the marvellous climate of the tropics can be conveyed by a mere record of
the temperature.

As we quitted the harbour, with a cool, southerly breeze, we observed clouds at a low elevation round the Sugar Loaf Peak. They had accumulated all day in the north with a little lightning. The atmosphere consisted of a lower


layer of air of the

same temperature


the sea, 74°, with a cooler

The junction of the two layers was well defined by a stratum of clouds rapidly forming and consolidatlayer from the south flowing quietly over

That the

terrestrial layer

maintained an even

surface, so that the

upper layer floated on


on water, was evident on looking round the


where the perspective showed the stronglystratified bases of the


upper clouds resting

on straight horizontal






gether near the horizon.

Towards the south the

dipped into the


line of con-

tact with the sea was evident, and moved towards



at length, preceded
rise of the

by a sudden



wind and a

barometer of one-tenth of

passed over the ship, and a gentle



on the decks.
Fig. 2 explains this simple

The sketch



quent type of disturbance, which will be more fully




explained hereafter.
over-riding the

ing the barometer.
It did not

The heavier cold current made itself felt by raisThe approach was slow and

advance with a vertical


but overshadowed and covered a very large area of



air beneath.

Moreover, a nearly

vertical tropical sun was shining on the top of this
great, cold layer of cloud.


layers of cloud

were forming at a higher
layers were drifting

and these upper north, heralding far ahead the

coming mass beneath.
heralds which

These were doubtless the
observed yesterday accom-

we had

panied by lightning, and the Sugar Loaf was a
useful measure of the


level at

which the


must have been saturated, although apparently free
from cloud until

impinged against


The tem-

perature of the sea was the important element in
the whole phenomenon, rainfall occurring almost
invariably at the actual line of contact of cloud

with the earth.
In the evening the current from the south died

In some while the base was thus truly the top was carried like away by the upper current. moon. and now the change of climate was but too evident. and the next to our morning we all closed our ports and took full great coats and flannels. At night the sea was brilliantly luminous at the depth of the screw.E}itrancc of La Plata. but their peculiarity everywhere was their obstinate retention of the stratified form with hori- zontal bases. but the air was cold . level. which gave us an extra knot per hour on our southward course. — the thin terrestrial its stratum maintainsea temperature. and in a dirty . by a 88^. drifting gently by us. The atmosphere was dull and cold. in sight of the We came low coast of Uruguay in the afternoon of the 8th. The temperature was turbance for humidity The this little dis- we had passed through was fully accounted by the inroad of a column of still atmosphere which flowed northward. A later we found ourselves in a warmer and stronger current of water. the enormous stream of mud and silt brought down by the Plate gave a clayey colour to the water for many miles out to sea. smoke from a little conflagration. 89 and the great stratum of cloud resolved itself into niagniticent masses. illuminated 65°. occasionally condensing as they passed into heavy showers. out. A red sunset was followed by a brilliant sky. ing its impenetrability and cases.

I endea- voured to engage a little after cabin in a small tug employed in discharging cargo.go Monte Video. Under the most favourable circumstances the mate it proverbial misery of quarantine in the River Plate is. and as we hoped to remain in the Douro during the loading and her departure on the that ourselves unloading of the 15th. in the shallow estuary off we anchored Monte Video. and in order to avoid the terrible Lazaretto in which passengers of every nationality are all huddled together. and it cases of among could no longer be kept a secret that with the boatswain's was a decided case of yellow fever of malignant type. with no hopes of recovery. and approach had become the subject of earnest quarantine in force discussion. vessel. In many other respects besides the weather our introduction to the River Plate was unpropitious and disheartening. with drizzling cold rain. until we flattered our purgatory would be reduced to eight days. But all our arrange- ments were defeated when the health officer came on board. fever on board We had two or three the crew. . and learning that we had yellow fever on board informed us that our quarantine must be We had discharged some indefinitely prolonged. The when we arrived was limited to fifteen days after leaving Rio. beyond doubt. the most has to terrible trial that the its traveller undergo. Scotch mist.

and little state it is a subject of regret to every well-wisher of this fertile that such exceptional advantages cannot be utilized. of being converted into a maritime centre worthy of tlie comPlate. from Monte Video to the ancliorage. which seven miles from five miles. while as well as of the the trade of the great rivers. Spacious and magnificent docks could easily be constructed. leaving distance is is mud in its wake. admirably placed. Ay res. with well paved ing. must ensure a commercial activity and prosperity of the highest order. and could. but the coasts are teresting. with numerous banks of its mud and The through which the vessel forced dense columns of way. coffee 9 from from Video consisting of soaj). and uninsilt. and luxurious suburbs. city. six or the city of Buenos Ayres. sixtyto our On the 11th of May we came . including the Southern Provinces of Brazil. at moderate cost. It is a well handsome streets. The deep water runs up near the town. by dredgbe continued up to the quays and wharfs. this enormous river system. and general cargo Europe. tin slieets. The La Plata between Monte Video and decreases from fifty-three to thirty flat Buenos Ay res miles in width. which have no other natural outlet. Monte Video is the only real port in the River and capable. districts inland.Buenos cargo at Monte Rio. merce of built.

and rain. journey's end. and anchored in the outer roads of Buenos Ayres. mist.92 Buenos Ay res. lightning. in a thick thunder. with a storm of .

ship. we could obtain no definite information as but we knew it would be pro- longed. We could talk to our friends from Buenos Ayres in a who came steam launch.CHAPTER IX. LTHOUGH the health officers from Buenos Ayres had visited the to our quarantine. wliich rolled about in . as the passengers are of course entirely bewildered and lielpless . the ship professed to know nothing about value of a little and they can hardly imagine the advice under such circumstances. some. in fact. anything rather than the dreaded hulks at the Tigre. QUARANTINE AND THE RIVER PLATE. here before. for we thousfht nothing whatever of the yellow fever on board. The officers of it. who had been . others advised returning to Monte Video and under- — going quarantine there . either of them was eleven or twelve hundred miles away. recom- mended going back to Rio my friends on shore recommended me to go on to Patagonia.

but his friends of sincere may rest assured that there was no lack unfortunate sailor thus buried at patients rapidly recovered. and the simple procession disappeared in the mist. The poor fellow with the yellow fever died during the day. was hauled up with a block through the hatchway. who was himself very ill. but they could give us no information. which threw a gloom over the ship. the dirty rough water alongside. Death fro7n Yellow Fever. the body. and the body was rolled over with three heavy fire bars enclosed in the canvas shroud. sympathy for the sea. them and and wind. was obtained on the morrow. The service was read over him by the officer. The boat was then lowered from the it davits and lashed astern of the vessel with a long moonlight. from taking his hand in the inrope. but the body was to be taken fifteen miles down the river. and his death was ported. and prevented the doctor. The cabin was fumigated. and all the bedding burnt . and placed in one of the ship's boats. but of course shake hands with cult to hear we it could not what they said was diffithrough the rain and fog . a melancholy spectacle. rolled up in canvas like a mummy. The other it and was supposed .94. The boat was towed by a small steam launch containing an officer and a comrade. officially re- In the evening. where rolled about all night in the Permission for the burial variable game of whist.

so that the top-masts were perfectly invisible. which rather confirms my explanation of the rain cloud at Rio. It was. PaJiipcro. and was immediately succeeded by an atmosphere of remarkable brilliancy. I call The vessel upper surface of what atmosphere the terrestrial layer of defined was singularly by a lying about 150 3'ards away. and cut off by " the straight lines " at so it short a distance from the vessel vessel. and every one ran on deck. and made avoid all the heavy waves. the distant coasts with . a roaring wind was suddenly heard overhead as the vessel heeled over. followed by a deluge of heavy rain. where w^e found a south-west squall sweeping over the vessel from a dense mass of clouds resting on the water in the south-west. had the appearance of a wrecked In about thirty minutes afterwards. while at breakfast below. but enveloped in mist.A that the carelessness tropical fruit shore. first however. The hulks off to and launches discharging cargo alongside were cut adrift as rapidly as possible. 95 tl)e immediate cause of the fever was with which sailors will iiidulfre in and luxuries whenever they get on While we lay in the roads I observed a curious phenomenon with the mist. over. very soon " This was my introduction to the pam- peros." or sudden squalls peculiar to this latitude.

3. This great condensation creating a partial vacuum and always recruited preceding the wind.96 all A The fog had Pampe7v. B was the Douro. As south-west cold cloud formed by the air. for they could not have the or the Antarctic with sufficient initial force to travel over the whole continent of South America. ^— ^Jmk_ Fig. must supply mechanical force by which these violent winds are and retain their velocity over such enorleft mous Andes and districts. close. view. their capricious course indicates that they are not cyclonic. On the 13th a very small steamer came along- . the shipping of the Plate coming vividly into entirely disappeared. c swept The sudden squall arose as the point of contact by us. pampero swept over us through the saturated A was the ship with the straight lines cutting off the upper portion. and the heated wedge P c B was suddenly condensed. and the muggy atmosphere was the instantly replaced by a breeze of delio-htful freshness.

it And when we came was a difficult alonof- dark night and dangerous 7 . but fortunately the rain had ceased. In fact. it was after arriving at the hulk. No convict in liulk Europe could have worse quarters. 97 and was rapidly filled with mercliandise piled up high on the decks. luggage were piled up amidst the general cargo on the open deck. we were conOur trunks and or shelter. without shelter or provisions of any kind. for there was no cabin the only little space beneath the deck being the by the skipper and his wife. exposed in an open but cold sea. the was an old abandoned steamer in the most dilapidated and filthy condition. we were politely informed that this was the craft that was to convey us also to the dreaded quarantine hulks. and when she was loaded as deeply as it was possible. including several ladies. it is otherwise simply terrible to contemplate what must small cabin occupied have been the suffering of such a crowd of passengers. the Douro. during a journey which lasted until late at night. but the paddle-boxes were broken in and the decks side on a rotten. nothing can exceed the cruel barbarism of our reception and accommodation. where demned to remain until the 27th.Leaving side. It had been a paddle wheel troop ship. The wind was bitterly cold. that we our situation. On p'ettinor on board it was difficult to find standing room amidst the cargo. perished felt bitterly with and hunger.

simply swarmed with mosquitoes. By the some It flaring lamps we got out some of our baggage. in the shape of cloaks. until some wool mattresses and and blankets were vessel. per head. in- by the Spanish endless. towels.98 Ihe Quarantine Hulk. and seriously feared that our treatment would bring on the very fever that it was intended to guard . one of by themselves. small sheets blanket on board. in ing. The vessel had had berths in the cabin belov/. moreover. without ladders or any assistance. the vessel order. and we put the ladies in a small cabin at last sat down. and we had at midnight to few sea biscuits and sailors to give us a a piece of hard native cheese. nor provisions. sulted We all were. for which they charged 4s. sailors. was bitterly cold. no was in charge of only three lights. no no common Spanish beg of the sailors. as well as rats and mice. operation to get on board. There were no beds. for the vessel. midnight from some other was useless to think of sleeping. and this night seemed We longed for da3dight. where they the greatest distress and sufferin a situation in them being which such terrible exposure was dangerous. and some towels and soap. but they were condition. now in a most filthy and in most of them the bottom planks There was not a sheet nor brought about It were rotten or gone. lying as it did among light of the islands of the Tigre. There were authority.

First impressions are in the very lasting. based on the incomprehensible treatment they experienced. 99 against. had no conception of the suffering we were subjected to. in which case would certainly have refused to leave the ship and have avoided Buenos Ayres alto- of us gether. difficult to understand why better accommodation was not afforded us between the Doiivo and the hulk. for the scene we afterwards witnessed when a crowd of French passengers was brought on board. It however. of horrors. it. consisting of soup. In the morning after this night vessel.Jllisery of Qiiaiaiitinc. but there is no doubt that the government at Buenos Ayres. gether with a cook and his assistant. . and many whose stay country was short will carry away a very damaging and very erroneous opinion as to the civilization of the country. some to- provisions were sent from a neighbouring quarantine and partridges. and that they did their best to mitigate our position as soon as they were aware of is. who had been all night exposed rain. We all rose terribly disfigured by mosquito bites. on an open deck during a storm of wind and was simply heart-rending. beef. in this matter of detail as in so many others. It appeared to us very cruel that we should be thus entrapped without being warned by any one of the many fate that awaited us.

is in Plate. The River The Rio de La called. is width 180 at the coast 130 miles. which is miles from the coast. into which two large rivers empty themselves. extra and after mounting my thermometer and a wind vane. diminishing to twentyits miles at upper extremity. no sense a but a vast shallow gulf or inlet of the sea. and down by five the Parana and the Uruguay. it is Plata. It was arranged that our tariff was to be eight shillings per head per day. —a very serious charge for many who had little barely enough with them for their journey. meals. as river. but the depth increases gradually from the shallows amonff the banks and of the rivers islands formed at the mouths to sea. It is slowly filling silt up from brought Its the enormous bulk of mud. sent to Buenos Ayres for luxuries. or the River Plate. I commenced an investigation of the singular and interesting locality in which the vessel lay. The body of water which comes down from these great rivers maintains an average depth of eighteen feet in the Plate. for two I. and much out of sorts.lOO First Night in the Hulk. but the sunny sky and cheering warmth enabled us to look more calmly on our troubles. however. down is to the ocean and out This large area everywhere intercepted by enor- . sand.

It was but yesterday. it is and being tilled so rapid is the process by which up by the formation of new islands and new banks. The process of these formations is very simple the erosive power of water in any current increases . extended ing. has more the character of a mountain torrent. si lifting banks. that this gulf many hundred miles farther inland. sand. The present and and delta of the Parana occupies an area 200 miles in length by twenty-five in mean width. consists of innumerable large islands of alluvium silt. that a very short period will be necessary for its complete obliteration and the projection of the delta of the rivers far out into the Atlantic. consisting of silt. and slowly advancing farther into the estuary of the Plate. The bulk of this deposit is brought down by the Parana. though is enormous river. and It furnishes a most instructive example of geologically speak- the modern formation of alluvial plains in active })rocess. which drains a watershed supplies a extending ahnost to the equator. The Uruguay.Silting of the Estuary. highly from the alluvium through o at times an which it passes. undergoing constant change. and constant and enormous volume charored with sediment o of water. its and running is generally over a rocky bed deposit small and spasmodic. and often reduced to a moderate stream. i oi mous mud.

It thus constantly increases the width of confined. and inhabited by . the great alluvial valleys to which The banks " or precipices thus formed are called for a the Barancas. from time to The regime is time rudely broken up by floods. gene- dwarf shrubs. rally covered v/ith picturesque landmarks in the river scenery. and thus roams laterally from side to side over enormous valleys." river at They run thousand miles up the every distance. with the depth thus a constant deposit is always taking place on banks and shallows. contact with the high-lying plains of the pampas. . vast level plains of soft alluvial position bodily as it shifting its meets with harder or softer banks.I0 2 Formation of the Delta. as at Rosario. which are eighty feet above it forms steep precipices of silt and tosca by scooping away the base and fall allowing the upper portion to sections. in. when new banks process is land are raised higher and higher in farther increased This by materials brought down by the great floods to which the interior of is liable. sometimes. and large areas of level. the country The river thus runs through soil. while deep channels tend to become deeper. are formed. and somealways times bounding the great plain many They miles distant are from the present river bed. in actual process of formation. in vertical when it is speedily carried away by it is the stream. When it comes into it.

The river Parana. The great channels by which enters at the present moment. flows. or arroyos. and colonies of birds of prey and parrots. constantly maintains two or more main channels. Access to the Parana is now obtained a distance of means of a railway from Buenos Ayres to fifty miles. The width of the channel at yards. and with a depth of sixty feet by Campana. on account of the shallow banks in course of formation at its mouth.The Barancas. and forms the oTcat navio^able continuation of the Parana It was in the Parana de las into the Plate. but vessels of small draught reach it by a channel through Tigr^. with all its changes. Channel. Southern I the Plate are the Palmas Guaz^ or Northern Channel. 103 numerous foxes and other animals. these banks formed by the Kiver Lujan. which runs into the Plate at the and thence by passing through one of the various tortuous channels. with wharves over 650 yards in length. It is not directly accessible to undergo our from the Plate. where one of the finest ports on the Continent has been constructed. Campana numerous is not less than 806 and as the vessels which cany on . which is the largest and deepest. and the jjj ^ Palmas that we were doomed quarantine. between the islands. within a stone's throw of the quay. the bulk of its down which two or waters it.

out to is by north-westers. Tidal phenomena much more promi- nently before us in channels. The numberless islands that form the delta of the Parana are thickly planted with trees. consisting principally of the ceibo. The lunar effect of tides are so small and dwarfed by the wind lay. Nevertheless there Plate. and where long and narrowing inlets of the ocean concentrate the tide and prodigiously increase its height. it is difficult to believe that this only a temporary secondary channel of this gigantic river. according as the driven back sea shallow waters the Plate were by south-east winds the swept which.1 04 The Parana at Cauipana. Our position in a floating observatory rendered tidal observations very so difficult. A remarkable instance of this effect. that they were scarcely observable where we The river rose and in fell many or feet. more . lunar tide in though tertiary extends far in secondary and even itself. where the configuration of the land obstructs the great ocean tidal wave. waves water at up one the river spot so that it is high at and simultaneously are brought low water another. a regular feeble. traffic is the river sail by. weeping willow and peaches and the Tides of La Palmas.

flowing or rising. In the open Atlantic. are unaffected by less local influence. are not on the day of the new moon. little and are especially normal. The highest full or however. produce the spring which at a maximum. tides. when is always high water. the tide at any time being due thus at all sun and moon taken thirtyis six hours back. uniform coast of South America. and along the tides. moon i. the effect great moon being always about three times as At the new and full as that of the sun. and excite but they are none the instructive.Tides of the Plate. especially in the 1 05 when reinforced by Bay of Fundy. but a day and a to the position of the half. or thirty-six hours. interesting and sun. The tides are produced by the attraction of the moon and distance of the and their height varies with the and position of these orbs.e. or it is 30°. raise the waters of the open less ocean no than nine feet. There times a meridian two hours. east of the moon. occurs the tides rise sixty or seventy feet. falling. the like many but other natural phenomena. or three tides later. . the combined effect of the two attractions tides. To the west the tide To the east it is ebbing it is or and at right angles everywhere low water. and advance with a steep wave all or bore.. where strong wind. at the equinox. attention.

25 min. derived from this relation by observa- tions made at any time. the springs. In charts in which soundings are given. 19 min. and 12 hrs. by oOJ min. Moon^ s Influence. per hour of longitude. it is six hio^h water when- ever the moon is on The mean time of its the horizon. table. the moon's southing in any longitude west of Greenwich may be found from the time of 2*1 southing at Greenwich by adding min. or about threeThe mean interval between It varies sec. as a rouo^h rule.io6 The min. at two high waters between 12 hrs. tides are therefore regulated not is by the 24 solar but by the lunar day. the " is called establishment of the port. 30 min. the depths indicated are depths at low water. or. 7 at the neaps." In the is River Plate the establishment of the port hours. of The time simply the high to water will be found by adding of the given establishment corrected E by time the moon's southing. The tides are thus every day later 50J than on the preceding day quarters of an hour. 28 sec. fall is and the sub- sidence or height during the as the square of the times from high water. is thus 12 hrs. means of the adjoining short . The time between the passage of the moon over the meridian at any spot and the moment of high water which follows at the period of the equinox. whose length hrs..

107 .The Tide.

a species of barbel with appendages to the mouth. but with dangerous long sharp spines on the fins. numerous on infested with which were formerly or tigers. and other animals feeding on the capincho. cat-fish. but useless. One of the passengers. level of the quiet sea double the depression of level. who kicked one of them out of his way as it lay on the deck. made any We might then with tolerable certainty have ensured a fever of some . numerous jaguars.io8 The is Tides. or river hog. and a few fishermen. and the otters. with of quarantine. which were intercepted by extensive banks of mud covered with rushes. colour. ship. and the opposite coast was about half a mile distant. The only occupants of these islands were the charcoal burners with their small boats. to whom we fraternised in spite Moored near us was the hospital if which we should have been removed of us seriously the cruel treatment to which we were subjected had ill. We could scarcely lower a bait without catching the abun- dant. received a deep and very painful wound. the spine piercing through a thick boot deep into his foot. full of fish. Another species was of a golden-yellow Storks and other birds were sufficiently the islands. the low tide below this Near the mouth of the Las Palmas where we lay we were only a few hundred yards from the nearest islands. We had about 18 feet of water beneath us.

Our kind. cially the candles. which rendered the nights unbearable. if Cojnniissariat. and partridge. hollands. espesoap. where the we could fish or shoot. they resolutely After a few days a doctor was sent on board to take charge of the ship. . Our be incessant beef. began to nauseous. was varied with macaroni. towels. 109 not the yellow fever . eau-de-Cologne. better provisions were supplied. our weaker prisoners were very refused to admit it. beef. or sweet pota- The coffee was excellent but our position was immensely improved by receiving from a friend of mine in Buenos Ay res a hamper and omelettes. and good order was maintained. and fishing tackle. and certainly did in his power He allowed some of us to make ladies excursions in the ship's boat among the islands. and were luxurious to our beyond price. and cigars. and added indescribably means began of comfort and enjoyment. to mitigate our miseries. and yams. newspapers and towels. but although some of ill. containing candles and soap. The whole of these articles. brandy. He lent mosquito curtains to protect them from which toes these terrible pests. so that to forget we really our confinement and enjoy the lovely sunny climate and the hot days. This anomaly arose from the foct that we passed . beef. although we were now nearly in the middle of our third winter. He was all extremely kind and attentive.

Petersburg. We always lit our cigars with a small and it I was struck with the much greater vertical facility with which this was accomplished here than was under the sun of the tropics. Although the days were so fine the nights were cold with heavy dew. and now in the month of May we find ourselves in the middle of a third winter in the River Plate.no in Dew. where we remained until April.. preventing the earth from cooling night. 1876. in down during efi*ects the from the of the . us. efficient in obstructing terrestrial radiation. and also with the great difference in the intensity s of the sun heat even here between one day and . The pocket sextant enabled which. which December with the thermometer at 15° below 0°. as in protecting it is equally i. the nights were when us to obtain our time. and to of the complicated channels make and a rough survey islands that sur- rounded lens. a formidable absorbent of Vapour. The stars were often brilliant. We were in England at Christmas. we left the winter of 1875 in St. and it was our practice to compute a special almanac for every day and watch their rising and setting. still. was deposited copiously on the decks and bulwarks. without apparent reason less but this is doubt- due to the presence of invisible is vapour in the atmosphere. although in an invisible form. which solar radiation. another.e.

or long grass Short lawn grass . Long : grass radiates very freely. . If we call its radiation 1. we have the following table by Glashier Black waddmg. is When surface. It is . and that this is called the Dew Point. tliat We have already seen all it contains any to humidity at may always it be cooled down some point point at which will be saturated..310 Wood Iron Gravel Hare skin The deposit of dew even a fisherman's are carried is checked by any obstruction stopped by wind that interferes with radiation. at night the air clear and diathermous.000. as the facility admits tlie passage of rays of heat in the interesting an important element if air phenomenon of dew. .000 870 773 642 288 1. is and the formation of a cold stratum of air prevented. heat radiates rapidly into space from every exposed but certain bodies radiate more freely than others. or net.. and the vapour deposited in the form of dew. the cooled particles of air in contact with the earth away as soon as they are formed. 1.Deiv.. such as a tree. sun's heat during tlic 1 1 day and the diathermacy of with which is it the air.

the . but because when a is particle on the surface cooled by radiation it becomes heavier and sinks. although it is a good radiator. cools very exceptionally its specific The surface of water. viz. Substances which collect dew in the greatest quantity are good radiators and bad conductors of heat. the low temperature of long grass as compared v/ith short grass. A polished metal plate preserves is its surfaces untarnished. was this property of metal which led me to introduce metal caps for the insulators used on telegraph lines. will not be permanently cooled until the whole body of water has attained the temperature of the temperature of its which is greatest density. depends wholly on the heat from the earth being impeded by the length of the conduct- ing blades of the long grass. the sensation of cold resulting from the of the same cause as the absence dew. and the surface 40°. As instructively observed by Mr. while a plate of glass drenched with dew. and not upon any specific properties of grass. It is thus obvious that dew will be copiously deposited on the wooden hand-rail of the bulwarks and not on the iron anchor. not only because heat is very great. Glashier. which to the touch felt colder.112 Dew.. and slowly. Metals must be reduced throughout to the necessary temperature before It dew is deposited.

disappearing in the east It and leaving the heavens as clear as before. and then by continuous masses of cloud with heavy rain. was succeeded by a second arch. like a cataract falling into a lake. advancing rapidly over a clear star-light sky. The most lost in violent atmospheric disturbance could be propelled but a short distance. from horizon to horizon. were always accompanied by barometric change. local disturbance. We observed on the 15th : May a curious phenomenon a long low dark cloud appeared in the west. affected. and would be rapidly carried with the general atmoit sphere. The whole mass of the upper atmosphere was 8 . as They were probably due to some any movements of the great polar or equatorial currents. which passed by like smoke resulting from an explosion. in the 113 A walk round the ship curious evening supplied many phenomena connected with dew. and we kept a careful register. unless it the elements of its own propagation. The barometer was not These arches were distinct waves.Prognostic of a Storm. conductivity of the iron. but only of short duration. which alternately com- posed our atmosphere. It passed over us in the form of an immense well-defined arch of singular sym- metry. Our position in quarantine afforded good oppor- tunity for meteorological observations. and preserved their form without mingling with the atmosphere.

114 Propagation of a Storm. was due to the intermingling of strata of different temperatures. The condensation. Avalanches of cold air are frequent the Andes and among the high Alps. originating probably in the ascent of heated columns swept away from their base below. through wdiich it now commenced to spread and cut its way . its progress being rapid and its force inten- sified along the heated and saturated valleys of the it great river. and the consequent all rain. by vacuum and changes thus induced. contained its the elements for own propagation. while died equally rapidly away in the dry and cold polar currents that flowed over the pampas. and for the production of a storm of indefinite magnitude. of the first left wave was soon haze and cloud the second inroad behind its it. The intermingling obliterated . as it appeared probable I was witnessing the actual commencement of the disturbance of which they My interest were the heralds. Our little excursions amonor the islands in a boat . The increase or decrease of the disturbance depended only on the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. and the effect therefore moving^ with these arches. ture of both air The tempera- and water was 67°. or from the descent of large masses of cold air from near above. was excited by these arches. the third produced rain.

their dried flower . so plentiful in South American it is carpeting the water wherever quiet. stems being from eight to ten feet high celery the wild grew abundantly under the flowers.TJie Botany. There were no water mosses. They were rivers. when flower. and protects the banks. and in England. islands being subject to constant floods. It was now out of flower. with fibrous hanging down in the water. the underwood was covered with clematises and passion now in fruit. willow^s and and in poplars. and also of sagittaria. or pontederia nymphoetblia. which grow in large clumps. with its rich large leaves. i ! 5 afforded an opportunity of examining the winter botan}^ Among the most prominent objects was a pLant with remarkably bulbous petioles. masses of the lovely camalote. are very common. is another pontederia. and coarse character which characterises river botany. but the loveliest plant. which lloated rootlets by singly and in large masses. A gigantic very handsome form of alisma. spikes of mauve flowers and water-lily-like Various species of jussiaea with showy flowers. robust. and very few con- . The banks are lined with great eryngiums resembling aloes. belonging to the evening primrose tribe. the is The botany generally of that showy. is very abundant. mio^ht be advantao-eouslv cultivated The large pampas grass grows luxu- riantly everywhere.

bromelias and oncidiums^ with their pretty spikes of blue and yellow flowers. and very little the microscope except some desmidise. for fervae. Having thus . which resemble lobsters' claws. but the tree is the ceibo or erythrina crista most galli. hung in the open air near London. probably comes the from north-western tropics. is It grows abundantly on the islands. The air plants. grow in large masses among the trees. they flower profusely in every courtyard or garden in the the bromelias scented.1 1 TJie Botany. the limnanthemum terrible Humboldii. Many &howy of the islands are planted with peach-trees for the firewood as well as the fruit. and. but it a gnarled and bare-looking tree in the winter months. and this hardy epiphyte would be a wel- come addition in our greenhouses that I have brought Some the home have flowered abundantly. which. '' There are numerous species of pourrettia. tied on hoops. a very plentiful and vil- pretty gentian. The is wind which every one dreads here the northern or equatorial current. taking into account the earth's motion." some of them deliciously at home. with floating leaves. is Among numerous water-plants there larsia. It is in the spring one of the most striking objects on the river. like our and showy yellow flowers. city. when covered with its scarlet masses of dense flowers.

Hence the common is Spanish proverb: "Norte duro pampero seguro. rain as before occurred at the point Fig. The 3.The North Wind. the weather here being a continual contest between these two opposing currents. There was a disagreeable haze with light clouds intercepting the sun's heat to a very sensible extent. hot. more to be feared than its counterpart. where the cloud impinged on the earth. poisonous wind. while suicides and crimes of violence of every description are supposed by its baneful influence. that judges were prohibited from giving judgment during to be developed its prevalence. of the most disagreeable character. the barometer falling two-tenths and the ther- mometer rising. 1 1 passed over a large area of heated and humid land. An essential difference separates this disturbance from those already described. the dry. Our all first acquaintance with the wind confirmed heard. the that the air was nearly saturated. page 96." this So notoriously depressing and annoying north wind. cold. although the wind was north and travelled north- . we had wet bulb at 57°. so The dry bulb was at 60°. For- tunately it generally precedes a pampero. it comes to us as a damp. or southclears it western tempest. which all away. c. and irritating east winds that so plague us in Europe. but in this case the storm came from the south. This was succeeded by a storm of rain at night.

a committee to at first very painful for began. and keep away the dreadful mosquitoes . and whose position was without murmuring. of wind. and. accus- tomed US. to bear their fate They formed themselves into assist those who were most helpless they manufactured bags of muslin to envelope our heads at night.our sentences. and the first sky was covered with dew-cloud. It cleared was followed by a change it During our quarantine with what to almost was surprising to observe rapidit}^ people accommodate themselves any circumstances. now the upper Ultimately the rain passed over. and was greatly we were patiently and contentedly undero'oino. Even ladies. to all the luxuries of civilised life in England. vacuum produced by condensation but the humid heated stratum was stratum. though at considerable cost. This feature usual only with our thunder-storms in England. after five or six days. I will only now the observe that the disturbance was drawn on by like the last.1 1 Onr Resignation. ward in the teeth of the wind. for I had personally expended £22 on articles sent from Buenos Ayres. our position ameliorated. It will be further alluded to hereafter. they did something towards improving the cleanliness of our quarters. which again in the south. especially after the arrival of our soap and towels. The arrow in the is figure therefore requires reversal. when on the 20th a small .

being secured on a stake and dish. dition. Our some little excursions in boat amongf the islands vv^ere a delicious most agreeable resource. Large joints of beef. over the and ultimately browned are a hot embers. although. cooked in a similar manner common and delicious dish in South America. niorht They had passed the whole sail on the deck of this crowded with no other shelter than a their piles of baggage. and They salt cooked them in the tin pan for baling the boat. and our privacy invaded.Fresh Arrivals. botanical We we had rambles. which. These unfortu- new guests were in the most de])lorablc conof a bitter cold little boat. or On some occasions we took half a sheep with us. sailing craft 1 19 came alongside and discharged no first-class less than eighty French and Spanish emigrants. . eight of them being nate passengers. apart from the risk attending the mingling with such a strangers fresh from Rio. our own the quarters were now inconveniently crowded. made an excellent lunch. and as could always catch as many catfish we wanted. over a bonfire which we made in tlie island. The stake slio^ht is at stuck in the ground at some the until distance from It is the meat is warmed. and that afforded by however did our best crowd of We to console and assist them. though without butter. was an excellent fire. roasted over the wood first fire. then approached nearer and nearer.

and rolling away before a gentle feet wind until they were dissolved a few above the water. but a constant formation of visible vapour occurred from the gentle movement produced by the wind. the wind north the air was close on saturation. as sun rose higher. The whole of the enormous surface of water visible from our ship was covered with little tongues of fog. but at a tem- perature of only 43°. these picnics took the form of a tea- At other times party. reached 53°. foggy night. This saturated layer of air at 59° was thus in direct contact with the gently-moving air above it. The cause was The layer of air in contact with the evident. the thermometer was at 43°. but they were always most enjoyable. but the temperature of the river was . the intermingling being beautifully defined tongues or wisps of vapour with clear intervals by the spaces and In a short when the the air was motionless. was warmed by contact. So long as they were per- they maintained their transparency. and its saturation water was completed by evaporation from the water.m. rising apparently out of the water. after a cold. and spirits. time.I 20 River Fogs. which was fectly still also nearly saturated. and this beautiful phenomenon . we had a bright morning. 59°. At 8 a. the temperature ceased. helped to keep us in health and On the 22nd of May. There was no fog whatever on the land.

e. inIt reached must have arisen from south-east winds all around us. passed overhead.Cause of the Fog. which at sea. and not difficult to understand the ensue different enormous condensation that must when tem- enormous volumes of atmosphere of perature and close upon saturation are violently and turbulently intermingled. rise of the the air was nearly saturated. us on the 24th. . to The formation it is of the va})Our was due the mechanical mingling of the gentle breeze. we had a return of a very it strong and disagreeable north-west wind. exactly like Curly fleeces of cloud our layers of vapour on the river. but the evening sky was lit up in the. and was accompanied by a very considerable river . pre- accumulated in the south with straight cisely as before. i. The day following. and probably arising from precisely the same cause. the contact of strata differing in temperature. This little it 121 from incident assumes importance the lidit throws on the formation of cloud when strata of different temperature and humidity effect overlie each other. Cloud again lines. and we had a gorgeous stratified The barometer fell two-tenths of an inch. rise of accompanied by a sudden dicated great disturbance the river. wind varying So anomalous a circumstance as a constant north in temperature from 43° to 63"^.. in the form of a pampero from the south-west . sunset.

but in all cases only during a still atmosphere. and this was further conall firmed by the heavy rolling water that came in night. and sixteen days' imprisonment in the Rosetta. as the wind immediately disperses the refracting layer and mingles it with the general atmosphere. the glad tidings arrived that our troubles . and to be lifted into the air without any base. indicated the great contest that had been fought out in some other field. At length. heavy over a clear sky. While lying at Las Palmas we had many op- portunities of witnessing the constant mirage so common in the Plate. and. arising from the difference of temperature between the atmosphere and the water of the river.122 east Distut'hed Weathe7\ by incessant sheet cloud. as this all alone can account for the winds from quarters being so abnormal in temperature and losing entirely their usual characteristics. consequently. from the Plate and rocked the vessel although the air now was motionless. This effect of refraction was often more apparent over shallows or heated sand-banks. drifting lightning. trees All around our horizon islands and appeared to rest on a plate of polished silver. of the stratum of air resting on the water. while masses of brilliant. It is probable that all through this storm we occupied the centre of a cyclone which has travelled east. after a voyage of thirty-one days in the Douvo.

and a host of other fection. and.Arrival at Buenos were at an end. and the gnarled ombus and willows." The palms and cannas. we arrived in the afternoon at Buenos Ayres. we were it is This was a special favour. little 123 a steani-launch would fetch us away on the morning of the 27th. We arrived at alismas and sagittaria and the Tiorre in about three hours. and tliat Ay res. on which a large notice is posted cacti. calladium. and took up our quarters at tlie Provence Hotel. our luoforaae -^laving been examined. of us in the launch. We visited in route the charming grounds belonging to the ex-president Sarmiento on one of the islands. . There were only fiv^e and it was a lovely day.. We steamed all through an avenue of weeping willows the way. were even now in per- The banks were crowded with great pampas grass. was a most enjoyable journey. for which very thankful. and trip it gave us opportunity of enjoying a delightful the islands among It down the channel of the Capitan. as usual to land quarantine passengers at the custom-house at Buenos Ayres. to the Shade. whence we could proceed by rail to Buenos Ay res. and poplars and peach trees. to take us to the Tigrt5. : " Welcome plants. which was destined for nearly two years to be our head-quarters in South America. affording the welcome shade. and hydrangeas.

I will record my impressions as they arose. to appreciate the already overcome in founding such a city as Buenos Ayres in the course of only a few years. without trees or picturesque beauty of any kind. and erroneous. HERE is no doubt that our quarantine adventure had created great though unfounded prejudice against a country in which such administration could be infliction possible. BUENOS AYRES. first Smarting under recent my own im- pressions were biassed. .CHAPTER X. the result of the labour of centuries of difficulties civilization. He is equally unprepared on arriving from some great European capital. is dismaj^ed at the first aspect of these great level plains and mud banks. The traveller who arrives at Buenos Ayres after leaving the gorgeous scenery and climate of the tropics. unfavourable.

places so that in pass. . a peculiar and invariable smell of ammonia. which are generally only thirty feet wide. paths are sometimes three or four feet above the road. enormous width in a all be imported is almost and the most that could be done would be to pave a strip down the middle. and more the narrow and irregular footpaths. while in the lower parts of the street is sometimes town the rains. 125 a strikinnf featares to new comer especially are the badly-paved. on account of the absence of gravel or stone of either a quagmire of impassable any kind. are water.The The most Streets. or mud and a deep layer of dust. without any regard These to that of his neighbour or of the street. worst of all. in order cross that passengers these may during heavy when narrow There roads is become torrents of deep water. a It is also remarkable fact that while the streets are so width. the roads are as unaccountably extravagant in To pave this country where stone must impossible. each proprietor apparently regulating the level of his footpath. which is raised into clouds by every passing vehicle or puff of wind. narrow. nan-ow streets. spanned by a bridge. and. many extra- two persons can scarcely lips The ordinary and downs as one walks along are very troublesome. always more prominent after a short absence from the city. the roads around the suburbs and quays.

53 min. The city is it undulating land. sec. The soil is a solid base of . difficulties who are quite as well aware of the and imperfections they have inherited as our grumbling friend. and I have recorded them with that object. an European On the other hand he must not forget. which resemble monumental tombs under the aspect in which one gets a partial glimpse of them by looking straight up into the sky. of the buildings are Many when to extremely it is fine. no city in the world possesses such drainage and water supply. It is facilities for it singular that should have been so totally neglected. and the longitude 3 hrs. although see them with any effect. These are the more striking imperfections which at first sight obtrude themselves on visitor anxious to find fault. The bad drainage is a serious evil. but placed in these narrow alleys impossible The new banks They are crowded with costly decorations. and are surmounting them with all the resources at their disposition. rising gradually as recedes from the river. appeared singularly misplaced. 25*5 built on west of Greenwich.126 Bad Drainacre. The Ayres latitude of the is Mercede Church at Buenos 34° 86' 28" south. but scale the quite on which it is now commenced is indefensible. that these are the very subjects that are occupying the attention of a highly-intelligent and educated people.

invariably I'ain. They are largely utilized as available . affording unrivalled foundations for buildini^ and facilities for excava- tions of exceptional cliaracter.TJie Houses. The houses and thus bear a striking resemblance to the houses in Pompeii. series rooms surrounding a central open has been singularly adhered streets court. his left when every man's house was fortress. 127 tosca covered witli alliivium. The flat are paved with brick. except that they are on a larger scale. seldom exceedinc^ two of stories. but the public squares are fine and spacious. The older houses are all low. as it avoided external windows and only the doorway to defend. with their ornamental marble copings. The buildings and elegantly roofs is are generally very substantial. and although the fall very slight and these heavy brick joints. fur- nished and decorated. it is surprising roofs are carried on timber how water-tight and durable they prove.water and contain wells or ahjihes. and the old Spanish type of a to. This form of house with a central court doubtless originated in the turbulent old times. The patios are often highly decorated and furnished with shrubs and flowers. The old Spanish system of straight narrow streets intercepting each other at right angles has unfortunately prevailed and rendered impossible the picturesque beauty which such a situation must have otherwise ensured . or patio.

skill execute with consummate taste. This work excessively durable. The Italians are excellent full workmen. the whole population of the greater. does not though formerly now exceed 140.000 people. These great public works more remarkable when we remember that city. who plastering is are numerous here. The and and architecture is the buildings are generally of stucco and brick. The capacious post office. new prison at Palermo. structures On the other hand such totally light and airy would be out of place and uninhabitable in England. off their shirts from daylight We saw them frequently take and wring out .128 Public Biiildingrs. on account of the lovely climate and freedom from frost. watched with interest some Italian workmen engaged till in a house opposite to us. During the hottest weather they worked noon without a pause. Italian this workmen. almost universally Italian. space for recreation. and the new are magnificent public buildings. They bear slight the heat of the mid-day sun with a very I protection on their heads. and far greater taste is displayed in the elegant quintas and country houses that surround the city than in our heavy brick buildings around London. and form a most efficient protection against the heat of the sun. and the splendid park at Palermo with its avenue of palms is worthy of any capital are the in the world.

129 them in a They drink nothing but water. 2d. potatoes. less the cost of clothing. We had a number of Italian labourers on the railway. which con- matte and biscuit at daylight. are generally economized in so that in a short period they accumulate sufficient to return home with enough larore to start some business. They worked its in gangs of about seventy. It consisted of delicious soup. an<l their wages. to 4s. onions. Gd.. breakfast at twelve. per day. for his food. Sd. to Is. each gang having captain. and carefully skimmed the beverage was Each man paid l. Their peaceful. quiet habits and incessant industry were exemplary. for they is live in tents. cabbage. 9 The national religion is Roman Catholic. though low.s. to 6d. the perspiration. but the .Italian TVorhnen. per day . boiled 1^ hours in a large cauldron. water. and a large portion of the amount invested weekly by these frugal and industrious workmen. occasionally steeping pail of water. The breakfast was cooked on the or puchero. made of beef. Their wages were from 3s. and pumpkin. per day. after dark. 4c?. There is no country in which the descendants of so completely established the Spanish race have absolute religious freedom as at Buenos Ayres. batatoes. The men thus save from 2s. and supper line. sists of who supplies them with food. 2d. 2s.

or harbour. Buenos Ayres being the focus of a large foreign trade. is often left low water with northerly winds. but the construction is of a port surrounded with engineering difiiculties of the highest order. come within The town pier. but these dissensions are now is forgotten. The water in front of the city is extremely shallow. while j so extremely gradual that a large vessel cannot approach within many even lighters of shallow draught are often unable to several hundred yards of the shore. but the number of men is extremely small. which are not unfrequently drowned in bad weather. The loading and unloading of sea-going ships is therefore performed by means of lighters between the ship and the shore. confined to eccleare The women regular atten- dants at the churches. The bigotry of the population in Cordova is in striking contrast with this unrestricted freedom. or even of in the large vessels. j with a hard level bottom in depth is of sand and tosca. The influence possessed by the Jesuits led to religious riots a few years since. The cargo is then transferred to carts on high ^vheels di^awn by horses. roads. power of the Church siastical matters. which runs out a considerable entirely dry during distance. and the increase miles. . the absence of docks. No religious procession or display permitted in public. is which lie several miles away at first sight surprising.130 Religious Freedom is strictly .

carts. course very great the double shifting of theft. not easy to devise any better the subject under present means of dealing with circumstances. however. Our first trip outside the town was on the Cam- pana Railway. employing a very large population and an immense number the of horses and . It runs for a considerable distance . cannot fail to subject. must be a problem that and there are no data at present existing that could warrant any thoughtful engineer in expressing a positive opinion on the subject. In this rude manner tliis 1 3 r large trade is carried on. as far as it against its feasibility. although goes. trade. The drawbacks tlie are of cargo. if judiciously carried on. loss. is all evidence. It is evident from what we have already said that the possibility of dredging and maintaining a deep channel in an estuary subject to such incessant change requires most careful investigation. damage to goods by water. for carts case to fetch and deliver must be employed in any the goods. The experiment light now in hand at the Reachuelo.The Harbour. the waste. are a serious tax on the It is. throw considerable on the The Campaxa Railway. and and the great cost. whether warehouse. and once loaded the lighter or the they now proceed direct to their destination withit is out further delay.

hundreds are by the passing A very handsome species of large toad. side the line. with the boundless pampas on the higher level above. bird fly is the pest of the sportsmen. often sit on the telegraph wires. meditating so deeply on dangerous advances of civilisation as not even to pass into the burrow as the train dashes by. a large all handsome plover. game. almost as level as the marsh below. The biscacho. and inhabited by large tortoises. harmless snakes. line. They seem very and can hardly be driven . The ptero-ptero. into deep holes. has it lies burrowed the ground on each and at the generally a the where dry. is mouth pair of almost every hole there of small owls. during the when they killed seek shelter on the train. were pools of water overgrown with rushes and floating water plants. it utters its disagreeable cry as sails past. fish. with numerous other birds. was full of interest. and floods. this great aspect of marsh. with a spike on each wing. so numerous that. driving away aflectionate. The ditches on either dug out for its formation. pampas side. very common This over the Continent.132 Birds and Ayiimah. which is is an object of superstitious dread with the natives. rabbit. These owls. as they continually all his round him. a large kind of also common. brilliantly coloured. The first over the great alluvial plain. and are not unfrequently killed by flying accidentally against them.

On the river side of the line the marsh is inter- cepted by enormous rush-grown lakes. The wild duck a most delicious marshes. and though the river now a mile away. Among them of black swans. cranes. 133 away from a wounded companion. whirling in flocks through the and pluming themselves in the sun. endeavouring to a blow as they pass with the spike on their powerful wing. storks. by close to the dog or even the head of the inflict sportsman. command a high On approaching Campana cliff". darting and. birds and snipe. and other evidences of It nevertheless its it origin by under- mining. are as patent as though of yesterday. water-birds. and if and extremely fail to plentiful in the they could be preserved in tins and brought here they could not price with the epicure. were a formation must here be of great . the line passes close under the or baranca. spoonbills.The Jllars/ics and U'^atcr Birds. iS' which is ninety feet high. they become extremely courageous. wild turkeys. bird. and clouds of wild ducks. or marching on stilts through the shallow pools in search of are flocks fish. on passing near the nest. and smaller is of every description. the caves and gullies in the hard tosca. and disturbed the great carancho and other scavengers fighting over the feast. full of air. teal. We came constantly across the skeletons and carcases of horses and bullocks killed by the passing trains. widgeons.

sometimes sand. as well as fish bones it is found near every grave. owls. parrots. large hawks. where they will be more thoroughly carefully collected investigated. These interesting have been and preserved in the museum at Buenos Ayres. or alluvium from the neighbouring relics islands and river. or silt. number of skeletons of the mixed with a great quantity was flint of rude pottery.134 ^ Tumulus. antiquity. which was opened while I was present. and and the glades . for within a few yards of the line we came upon a tumulus in the marsh. birds are eagles. as tools are totally unknown among flint or the oldest tribes of Indians. but no other bones belonginoj to the existing fauna of the pampas. and animals. and other smaller and dwarf shrubs passion-flowers. The chalcedony was probably in the Andes. Some bones of deer also found. and in which a very aborigines larsje found. peopled with foxes. clematis. or obtained either far away may have have been brought from Uruguay. or clifl". sometimes tosca brought from the baranca close by. with flint implements of very ancient date. and from the charred stratum and large quantity of pottery. is here covered with underwood. It appears to been a burial-ground. evident the funeral was were at the same time a feast. vultures. The baranca. smothered The acacias with creeping tropeolas. plants. Each body was covered with different kinds of earth.

thistle pampas milk line runs and the artichoke cynara cardunculus. . which serves to keep animals alive till the autumn rains produce sufficient food to fatten them is for slaughter or the saladero. with groups of the dried stems of enormous thistles and other composite. The principal composit^e. . 135 between are carpeted with oxalis. country the in many places a bed of two kinds of thistle.The Thistles. but tracts the ripening of their seeds pro- sometimes far into the winter. form a very prominent ^^ item in the botany of the pampas. The thistle is the characteristic feature vast areas are covered with them. The on a high bank through this highly its picturesque old river bed. brilliant verbenas. with their it woolly involucres. and and a host of solanaceous These thistles plants. except in times of excessive drought. neither of them indigenous. but they foster the growth of a little grass and trefoil beneath their shade. . when millions of cattle perish for want of food and water. autumn plants. are the The closely-packed flowers. form an impenetrable barrier even for a horseman. with ditches on either side. The whole thistle. They are too thorny and tough to furnish fodder. deep overgrown and at length debouches on the spacious railway w^harves on the banks of the Parana de las Palmas at Campana. of the pampas and as they are from five to eight feet high they . effectually defy the sun. as with us.

peculiarly their own. yerbe. and on the other hand by a grove occasionally of weeping is willows.136 The extensive Cainpana. Thus. pumas. wheat. instead of the dreary monotony I had anticipated. backed by the newly-forming town. from the river provinces of Santa Fe. and game. raised station-ground. and other produce from the fertile provinces of Tucuman and Mendoza. while the broad waters of the river are dotted with grebe and other white fruits divers. flooded when the river high. and from the and Brazil. that is no peaks as in Sv/itzerland. Entre Rios. this little trip to Campana was full of the deepest interest and insti'uction. wine. no Alpine gorges nor mountain is an indescriband freshness able grandeur and beauty. tobacco. maize. prolific tropical gardens of Paraguay 1. from the grand chaco. there are no quiet It is true wooded hills and vales as in England. mandioca. which runs off inland. The opposite shore consists of the wooded islands of the delta. are flanked on the one hand by a prominent steep spar of the wooded baranca. vastness in such scenes_. sugar. on this stupendous river system. and Corientes. tenanted with birds. but there . be- yond Rosario. and continually enlivened by the sails of the numerous craft that bring down and timber. tigers. canna. no vine-covered terraces and castled crags as on the Rhine..800 miles distant.

Forests are already modifying the climate. and leaves perhaps a deeper and more earnest impression. One cannot help speculating on the future of such boundless which whole nations could be absorbed. formed fertile territories. in the huntino'-oTounds and battle-fields of a few for wanderincr tribes of territory ! naked Indians and the ox. after years of diligent investigation. as well as have melted away as effectually as the savage Indian before the patient labour of the colonist. only a few years ago. and which. and both in breed and Thriving homesteads are dotted everyprairie. ficditinj^ The horse. deer. thistle is replaced The pampas by vast areas improved grass of and the waving corn cattle or maize. and the sheep fea- have totally revolutionized the great natural tures of the country before their slow and peaceful their prey. The tiger and the lion. and the long railway train.Extent of the Landscape. its boundaries and limits are still mysterious and unknown. until the where throughout the boundless growing prosperity attracts the vigorous fields. and is Campana with her busy wharves destined to utilize a river system of such extent and magnitude that. Large towns spring up. capitalist from less Increased production breaks fills down the bullock cart. less 137 imposing and fascinating. the wastes are enclosed. . the fox and the and a host of carnivora. advance. and the domesticated condition.

and the banks consist wholly of soft alluvium. cult. countries subject to tropical storms. before the banks were in the thoroughlv consolidated. but it only ex- avoids Charybdis to meet with Scylla.138 In The Canipana Line. fi ' The Northekn Kailway. A paper descriptive of this storm was written at the request of engineering friends in Buenos Ayres. running with the river. the is greatest difficulty encountered by the engineer the protection of his works from the sudden and overwhelming channels. The Campana line. 1877. for it is posed to constant danger from the occasional high . floods which are always creating new which he parallel is and occasionally attain dimensions for totally unprepared from any informa- tion he can command. intercepts completely the natural drainage. tjj^N^^^^"^ this railway skirts the estuary 01 the its throughout whole length it is not subject to any damage from these inland floods.'^ Although Plate. and presented many difficulties numerous and spacious culverts were requisite across every depression. The country is entirely devoid of gravel or stone. and is given m extenso in . treacherous. the next chapter. The marshes were deep and diffi- and foundations were often very of A storm of unprecedented magnitude occurred month May. and the damao^e doue was very considerable.

and especially for rowing and boating ex- cursions. 139 The water in the Plate. The forms dotted with elegant villas. but sand-banks and all vessels shallows shut out that are not of light . tides in the Plate. ment are laid The gun-boats belonging to the Governup at the Tigre. already described.The Northern Railway. some of them extremely elegant. and the engineers have had to encounter a very heavy expenditure in maintaining wherever it comes near to the estuary. covered on the with shipping. left-hand boundary. its district. district. are not uncommon this line . are a very favourite resort for pleasure seekers. when often driven back by constant overflows its south-east gales. natural boundaries and occasions great destruction. while the lake-like estuary right. The remains of objects vessels driven on to high land and there irretrievably wrecked. This line is especially a pleasure line. It runs through a populous including the pretty villages of Belgraino and San Isidro. The islands at the Tigr^. and well situated in the undulating slopes of the steep baranca which overlooks the river. It terminates at the outlet of little the Lujan River in a port at the Tigre. and runs through an extremely picturesque steep baranca. and is lined with quintas. as the waters often break on the shore in destructive waves. is always a charming object. among the wooded islands.

Un- . The Ensenada Railway. It was in these waters one of the Government torpedo boats.000 has been ex1. the Fuhninante.000 yards long. the latter always embarking in small boats. and with no clue to the cause of the accident. draught. moderate draught to After the description already given of the difficulties attending the landing both of goods and passengers at Buenos Ay res. and in bad weather exposed to great discomfort. and shorten their journey. was last year blown up and burnt. where a deep and well-sheltered harbour. The Ensenada Railway also skirts' the River Plate to the south of Buenos Ayres. it is difiicult to under- why this port is not used by river steamers. where a substantial jetty. and even danger. but the original intention is was to run on to Ensenada. The only drawback is its unsheltered position. while sandstand It banks there interfere with direct approach.140 Ensenada. with sad loss of life. and the channels leading to Las Palmas are tortuous and narrow. would surely add vastly to the comfort of passengers going to Monte Video. and ends at Pontelara. on which £30. for a distance of thirty-five miles. affords at pended. and which all is times convenient accommodation for vessels of discharge alongside. if they started from this point.

through which the railway runs. which growls quickly and yields timber of some value. few years ago that no planted as tree existed over the whole extent of the pampas. materially . fine views of the river. but large tracts are now . and improved by from a forest.)le through a chan- that would require to bo dredged at consider- able cost among these treacherous banks. this introduction the radiation together with the shade. we passed districts that in a few years will assume appearance. The entomologist and the botanist will not fail to reap a rich harvest among line the sandy glades and lovely thickets that coast. near which the sandy river beach. offers a tempting site for a charming watering-place. traffic There is an excellent suburban on this line. properties. backed by a fringe of luxurious veo^etation. fortunately nel. a forest-like The principal tree is the eucalyptus globosa. this pretty lilies and shelter tufts of amaryllis and and other plants that delight in the porous It is only a soil. which runs through the pretty village of Quilmes. introduced from Australia. studded with droves of horses and oxen. There is no doubt that the climate will be greatly modified .Quilmss. with poplars and wallows. it is 141 only approaclial. It is moreover believed to possess antiseptic Other common trees are the acacias. and some firs. we crossed the large plains of grazing land. and commandino.

was a journey over the Great Southern Railway. not. thus tempering and equalizing the climate and increasing the rainfall. and wealth of the pampas or plains. which occupy so enormous an area and are istic of this so singularly character- southern continent. with Aja-es. from the at first at the gentle rate of about one foot per mile. gradients on the line. The excursion which more particularly impressed me with the extraordinary extent. formation of cloud. this rate . which is 200 miles from Buenos Valley. and it is stated that a slight change is already evident in the neighbourhood of the city. its We now leave the great River baranca and undulating boundaries. and the gentle sea. where planting has become very general. bounded by a well-defined it horizon. is however. The Pampas. w^hich at Azul has attained on elevation of 400 feet above the these boundless plains in every direction rise In fact gently and uniformly sea.142 favour tlie The Pampas. so level as appears. character. is The terminus . and travel over these immense distances in what It is to the eye appears a perfectly level plain or ocean of land. at Dolores 126 miles distant from the city a branch just completed runs to Azul. which soon evident from the large lake-like sheets of water which occupy slight depressions.

The Geology. 143 gradually increasing until large plateaux near the Cordilleras attain an elevation of 2. rally. then dis- pebbles and water-worn stones . When we still the enormous addition of similar deposits in active course of formation over the vast area of the valley and delta of the Parana. as though a continent had been formed by some great flow of waters depositing boulders and rocks near the mountains tricts of . led to the belief that the we are irresistibly whole must be due to some continuity of similar action.000 in feet above high the sea. the claj^s then finer sands and. gravels and coai^e sands lastly. and ultimately terminate the mountain valleys of the Andes. Speaking gene- the character of the soil corresponds with the inclination. in close proximity to this active . during periods in which the whole has been probably several times sub- merged beneath the ocean . but it is singular that the submergence and elevation should be so uniform over this large area. distributed partly by great rivers and partly by marine action. and fine silty deposits which cover see the great alluvial plains that form so large a portion of the W'hole area of the pampas. . The character composition all of the sands and clays and their lead to the conviction that the whole of these plains are the debris of the crystalline rocks of the mighty range of the Andes levelled and sorted. then coarse .

megatherium. rise The sierras or hills visible from Azul through these uniform de- posits. One of the most constant characteristics of the pampas is the existence of underlying thick beds of tosca or clays. near Paris. The lias at Mendoza and San Juan contains amfossils. disturbance. consisting of limestone. as well as sulphate of lime or gypsum. banks at Parana. the buildings are literally disintegrated and by the expansion peculiar to gypsum as I was some years since called upon to it hardens. and at some of the stations where mortar made of sand containing this material was inadvertently used. The underlying formation consists of rocks of all ages. and other characteristic while in the museum at Buenos Ayres there clays. hardened by the presence of lime. like islands out of an ocean of water. with streaks of vegetable carbon. at Ferriere. and other shells sional beds of marine shells are . found in the pampean cliffs The tertiary rocks form picturesque on the river with conglomerate masses of the great oyster. etc. is monites. terrebratula. It forms bastard limestone of considerable toughness." pecten veneris. a fine collection of the mastodon. " ostrea. giyptodon. and appears . occa- met with on the pampas.144 line of volcanic '^^^^ Geology.. report upon similar serious damage produced by shattered the use of gypsum in the erection of the palace of the Baron James Rothschild. patagonica.

moreover. and underlies the alluvium throu^rhout It is the whole valley of the Plate. appeared very remarkable that a timber grows so luxuriantly soil in which when planted should from time immemorial be so totally destitute of forests. or estancias. led at once to the investigation of the peculiarities flora.Absence of Trees. and are generally surrounded by a few ficus poplars. These plains. The horizon all round is almost It sufficiently defined for astronomical purposes. hard bottom of the river in It is and constitutes the front of Buenos Ay res. swarming with rodents and vegetable feeders. with an occasional gnarled or ombu. or eucalyptus. a tree of any kind must always have been sheep. crowded as and horses. oxen. normally without a tree or a pebble. or willows. on 10 . The surface of these singular deposits over which the line passes consists almost exclusively of grazing land. to 145 the be universally present. burnt for building purposes. are the only landmarks. the foundation always sought after by the en^fineer. The farm enclosures. of this limited It was evident that in an uninhabited and unenclosed plain. but makes only a lime of inferior quality. cliffs It forms nearly vertical of the Ijaranca. or of and a very limited variety of flowering plants it any vegetation except a few grasses and . as unable to hold its it is own with as at the present moment.

but as the land is occupied the horses and oxen soon remove this fibrous and indestructible forage. and if this were . so silicious and wiry as to be unconsumable by smaller rodents.146 Absence of Trees.000 head of oxen and plains. and a gloomy dusty desert clovers . but the very roots were torn out of the soft soil with their feet. In the Q \ / secdo the carcases of 500. temporarily takes its place. Trees can only be grown by enclosing the land. are subject account of the absence of on an average every ten years to terrible droughts. the thistles. such as the clovers. millions of sheep strewed the but before they starved these wretched victims consumed not only the grasses and every vestige of vegetation. or are in- definite in grasses. which continually improve but during the dry summers this by grazing pasture disappears. forests. and the plain is covered spontaneously in a few seasons with rich and pasturage. vitality. except those seeds are whose endowed with unusual number. In all the unoccupied were removed. wastes these still cover the soil. terrible and the During these droughts last great the animals perish in thousands. every shrub and disappear. which destroy the hardiest plants. and if the enclosures which shelter the scanty plantations around the present estancias tree would rapidly The principal grasses which originally covered the pampas were two species of the tough pampas grass.

such as the hemlock. or tough and indestructible wiry grasses. or buttercup. is The dominant resembling colonies flower a little yellow distance. and too enduring to be destroyed by drought or floods. has a chance of escape from the cattle. These dry plains during the summer months maintain a high temperature. too small and too numerous to become the prey of cattle. oxalis. and the over without saturated equatorial currents pass condensation. like the pampas and a few other over these terrestrial One oceans rides nevertheless with a freedom and freshness that is . The high temperature of the pampas. like the daisy. without liumidity. The other perennials which hold their own are either poisonous. or thorny like the numerous dwarf acacias. preventing all formation of cloud or dew. our of buttercup at a producing viviparous pseudo bulbs of extraordinary vitality. the spasmodic rainfall being due solely to the blending of aerial currents. or plantain in our pasturage. The short-lived botany of the its adapted to pampas is of course peculiar climate and circumstances no perennial. and the heat. produces the incessant mirage that so constantly obliterates the true horizon. done doubt greatly to 1 47 a large extent the climate would no be materially changed and the fertility increased.The Botany. the drought.

hawks and eagles. flamingoes. insects. darts into his burrow." or thickets. parrots. The skunk scents the . and partridges. and birds . owls. toads. take it into . The Southern Railway. frightened by the engine. Wild Afiimah. will sometimes. the biscach^ provides them with homes by wdiile the his indefatigable labours in excavation. where the jaguar and puma prey on their weaker brethren. South America. pigeons. is The railway^ in. and tortoises surround the marshy spots. Every hillock and burrow teems with curious animals. The grey fox.148 delicious. and often on the cattle and sheep. frogs. while troops of spoonbills. covered w^ith herds horses lines in of cattle. sheep. the At the time that I went over the southern line camp was in full luxuriance the country was . the easily found in the cardinal. like and all in dense groups. or a troop of horses or bullocks. plovers. oxen. after a cautious and inquisitive inspection. air so that we smell him in the passing train the armadillo and thistles all iguanodon run among the clumps of dried and grasses . snakes. and numerous Larger small birds enliven the boundless landscape. and waterfowls wade about the waters. game is '^ montes. A silly flock of sheep. is not fenced and the destruction of cattle very great. that line the arroyos.

number of these acci- Cattle are. however. along Railways must inevitably undergo enormous development in a country where roads are impossible. 149 their heads to follow one another in a stami)eLlc straight across the line in front of the whistle.The Cow-catcher. large The effect of is the prosperity of the district evidenced by the all and numerous towns that have sprung up its course. and surrounded with bullock of produce brought receipts and the these long and heavy trains. in spite of the screams of the When this happens the result is occasionally very disastrous. As fences. stations. the sometimes reaching such a line on £50 per mile per week. and where the construction of a railway involves no earthworks beyond the throw- . and accidents are more frequent with the special than with the regular trains. adopted. and the numerous skeletons that line the railway is an evidence of the frequency of such accidents. bear testimony to the enor- mous quantity fertile down from pastures. would prevent the escape of cattle caught between them on the line. The cowrcatcher. a strong frame of timber in front of the engine. The large and commodious dize. becoming accustomed to the danger. crowded with merchancarts. throws them right and left like furrows in a ploughed tects field. train. and if effectually pro- the train. it is probable that they would rather increase than diminish the dents.

are slovenly and straggling. are built with rough brick. close tory. prepared for plastering. on the new frontier line of the Indian terriwas occupied by a military detachment under Colonel Donovan. I and the appearance is very was much amused. with a 5' 6'' gauge. and his account of the raids and . This has indeed been fully exemplified in the prosperity of every railway of this character in the province. to find that she lady who had just what she thought was much surprised that in so wealthy a city so few of ! the houses should be plastered On arriving at Azul the difierence of climate was very marked. The last part performed in a carriage. ing up of a bank of loose black mould. on asking a young returned from a visit to England. which in bad weather are of the houses. as a rule. The bulk and in- even the churches.150 Railways Essential.work. of London. The lines are all single. It seems impossible to run a line any direction through these productive districts that would not speedily be remunerative. and the of the journey was rough drive across the hard but uneven surface of Azul being the pampas was very exhilarating. and the air dry and The day temperature was 68°. quagmires of mud. on which the sleepers are laid without in ballast. but the plastering definitely postponed. is deplorable. with wide roads or streets. night 32°. the crisp. The towns. taken from the side ditches.

tind so far was surprised away from civilization a powerful flour mill. and the engine. had been brought by horses across the pampas. The cuisine is . The machinery came from Paris. full 151 of of to We saw a few all Indians. supplemented by a 20-horse power steam engine. and at small cost but it seems a sad alternative. with invariable billiard-rooms.AziiL warfare of their savafje neiejhbours was interest. The town. the time must come when such waste will be impossible. ap})areutly I the lowest type of humanity. and gave evidence of welldeserved prosperity. The mill-building and dam were constructed with great skill and solidity. mounted on wheels. afibrded an excellent fuel. The fuel used for the engine was wholly pure sheep dung. to consume so valuable a manure surely in this fashion . had a thriving aspect. collected in cakes from the enclosures where these numberless flocks are folded. belonging to a most intelligent French- man. and . and a branch of the Imperial Bank was doing a large banking business. and fertile and inexhaustible as these virgin districts now appear. driven by a 15-horse power water turbine. moreover. It is there deposited in deep beds. slept in a large its We not and comfortable establishment. This hitherto inaccessible district cannot fail to rise quickly into great importance under the fostering influence of the railway communication just completed.

The night was cold. improvised the best bed we could on the carriage seats. under more sheltered con- We were not in the humour to grumble at the breakfast which followed at Dolores. but the appetite. in ponchos selves up and cloaks. of the large leather haze. more vigorous companions enjoyed a shower or but as soon as rather a storm bath in the open air. Dolores. inspired by the clear and brilliant atmosphere of the pampas. was daylight my on the grass. with fog. . the ordinary dinner of five courses of beef difficult always leaves the problem of deciding which was the toughest and which contained most onions. I was content with a bucket of water. The fences round the town are formed of the great cactus or prickly pear. at Altamirano The following day we returned to the junction and thence we ran on to Dolores. and I felt certain we should be upset into some quagmire. obtaining the water from the tank used for supplying the engines by means ditions. and a it little hoar-frost.152 enticing . furnishes a sauce that any epicure would envy. a 218 miles . total distance of we arrived there about It half-past one in the morning. find was too late to quarters in the town. and. and we visited the fine it new was prison. but the roads difficult to were so detestable that keep one's seat in the carriage. we therefore ran rollino^ the our- carriacre under an enmne shed.

with sub- stantial but very monotonous fare. is done early. the only dairy produce being a very hard. and tasteless kind of cheese. till mid- Drinkino^ is becominor a serious is evil. then breakfast. with billiards and cards nifi^ht. so easily grown. all downright hard work. —mutton it or beef. The topic of conversation generally politics. There was the usual proportion of unfinished. the population large area. and seems incredible that. on the contrary. consisting almost exclusively of meat. unknown. and unroofed houses and churches and barbarous walls. billiards. a country covered with butter is almost dry. from seven to siesta and the another short phase of business from four eleven . spread over a of the people in the The habits Business town are peculiar. then the dinner. is about 5. to five . Living settler enjoys intensely wholly on horseback.000 people. 153 which makes a totally impassable barrier. of the most local and personal type. interspersed with several good houses . is In the camp. the the keen vitality and unrestrained freedom im- parted by rambling over these boundless pastures under a brilliant sky. and though at absence of what first the total we call comfort is rather trying. Although is the cultivation of vegetables totally neglected. in cattle. unplastered. very few life who have once been accustomed to camp can be again induced to submit to the restraints .Toivn Life.

one . instincts In the same manner. but there a fine iron bridge 240 metres long over the Salado. kept full by con- stant pumping. like a leaky cistern. the is can be bought at 20s. which rapidly empties itself when the labour ceases. and the poverty and distress so common among us is totally impossible and unknown.154 Civilizatio7i. the most this is intelligent and fall back apparently natural only attained and Our high maintained by but it is civilization incessant labour and education. influence on their habits is and modes of in life their income generally invested in increasing their holdings. finest lands and a country where the acre. and the habits and result civilization which have been the of years of laborious training and example melt rapidly Laro^e away this in a few short free months under the influence of life. is With so spare a population. and levellino: fortunes are rapidly accumulated by estancia holders. but their wealth has little . per extent of land held by the large proprietors measured by square leagues. there of course occupation for every one who chooses to work. the natural resume their sway with surprising readifree ness when from restraint. There are few features of engineeris ing interest in these railways. and obligations inseparable from higher civilizaI have often indeed been struck with the which into readiness with refined life. tion.

this I have elsewhere endeavoured to explain phenomenon in connection with the great floods of May. after a most enjoyable during which we had travelled 544 miles. with a large rainfall. provided by Mr. are thus subject to terrible but it is a peculiarity not easily explained that the waters in the valley of the Salado continue to rise for a long period after the cessation of the rain. The next trip was over the Government or Western Railway. from Buenos Ayres to Chivilcoy. the third day. but the bulk of soil. during which millions of oxen and sheep were destroyed in this same valley. and excavates large temporary channels it is in alluvium. 1877. into rain di-ains a few large lakes and arroyos.Floods. 155 The The the tlie absence of rivers over this vast area. Cambaceres. one of the most thriving and remunerative lines in the country. We returned from Dolores to Buenos Ayres on excursion. under whose control this prosperous . of the very few rivers that drain the pampas. absorbed by The low-lying lands floods. is a very remarkable characteristic. The distance of 200 miles from Buenos Ayres to Azul was performed in ten hours. The Western Railway. The sumptuous breakfast and and admirably ad- lunch en route.

worked. is The present terminus. is cattle is here obtaining and the fostering influence of a railway especially prominent in the progress its earlier and trans- formation due to construction. thriving large town. as evidenced by the large and thriving establishments on all sides. Extensive areas were well planted. on which one could be struck with the great development. but on the habits and progress of the country. All our older cities were built along . Mercedes a fine and of with every appearance Nothing would be more erroneous than the opinion that would be formed progress. The open camp bears the same aspect everywhere. Chivilcoy. and what only a few years back must have been a treeless plain now resembles an English wooded district. afforded us a day of most luxurious enjoyment. but was not calculated to enrich my note-book. movement and of the resources of this great country by a visitor who confined his attention to the great centres of population. fertile The line passes through a magnificently not fail to country.156 ministered system is Chivilcoy. with the the invariably bad wide of is and usual proportion unfinished. a large but town. This extensive planting cannot fail to exercise a beneficial effect not only on the climate and produce. but the quality of the attention. ungainly brick buildings. straggling roads.




navigable rivers, as furnishing the only means of


But without


or roads, if
it is

the railways had not come to her assistance,
difficult to

imagine by what means the boundless
this great

and apparently inexhaustible plains of

continent could ever have become utilized or in-

The speedy progress that


the limited districts as

accommodated, the

rapid rise of large and thriving towns and establishments, the prominent accumulation everywhere

productive capital, as well as the increase of

population, betoken a future of wealth and prosperity

which nothing but the grossest


mismanagement can



time of

our visit

Buenos Ayres

was slowly recovering from a



unprecedented severity, wdiich had ruined








It originated in the reckless trading

and building and land speculations that had been encouraged by the facility with which money was obtained by means of the public loans. The public
expenditure was, moreover, far in excess of either



means of the




demoralizing influence had also rapidly produced

natural result.

The mischief was almost entirely


TJie Crisis.

confined to the cities where






camp generally was only

indirectly affected.

The rapidity with which these new countries surmount such difficulties can hardly be understood in


circumstances are entirely different.
crisis affects

In a manufacturing country a severe
the whole community.
If the





for his

manufactured goods, the manufac-

turer ceases to produce, the iron and coal are no

longer required nor produced, and not only capital

but the miner, and artisan, and the labourer

are all involved in forced idleness or unproductive




a country relying on


cattle for its wealth,

commercial distress scarcely

affects production, for

long as public order


maintained, and taxation

not totally prohibitive,

the cows go on calving, and the sheep lambing,









in the

and accumulating without any change small amount of labour employed, and
or of the city merchant, or

independently of the distress or prosperity of the



even of the state of the market.
conditions, if the

Under such

temptation of making

large issues of inconvertible paper could have been

avoided, and moderate retrenchments enforced, the

return of prosperity would have been extremely

The youth and

vitality of the country is

Costly Government,



way more

clearly demonstrated than

by the





much check
would be

recovery, this expedient, which

so fatal

our older community.


of the

republic, economically administered, are,

no doubt,


for all legitimate purposes,

and they are and the time

exceptionally elastic and progressive

cannot be far distant


so will


and prosperous a community

modify the pre-

demoralizing and ruinous system by which

a total population far less than that of London

supporting fourteen independent governments,

with armies, and presidents, and ministers, and
paid senators, and congress-men, and hosts of minor

while scarcely a town in the republic
surveyor to attend to the

has got a

common town

drainage or regularity or cleanliness of the streets,

minister to the


wants of the


incipient civilization.

The most

serious evil


the laxity with which the total



administered, and

of all the minor duties of administration. of departments are not seconded in their

The heads
efforts to

reduce these grievances


the numerous

hosts of employes are as a rule sadly incompetent,


their habits

and experience are inconsistent

with their
are too

duties, while the authorities themselves


occupied in vainly endeavouring to





an insatiate host of




whose interested support they are so dependent.
Matters which with us excite amazement appear
here to attract no serious attention.

seems to

us incredible that a congress can be so constituted
as to deliberately vote year after year an expendi-

ture exceeding even the estimated revenues of the

country by 40 or 50 per
be a paid congress
is still


and that

this should


profitable privileges

The short tenure and the
attached to

encourage contests for political

power, which undermine honest independence and
excite passions that

none but sordid interests could

arouse, while the population

too scattered




occupied with their



by any well- organized expression of public opinion. During my residence in Buenos Ayres a body of voters quietly going to the poll were driven back by a volley of musketry from the roof of a neighbouring building, and what is still more remarkable, the perpetrators of the
control the executive

outrage maintained a right to retain the arms thus

used in a time of profound peace.

These anomalies extend through every detail of

The stoppage

of the public




a serious calamity.

of course

certain that if the tender of a contractor like Mr.

Wythes had been

accepted, the

drainage of the

Adfu in htration




would have long

since been completed,


yielding a large revenue.
to about

His tender amounted

whereas the amount already

expended exceeds £2,000,000, and not a single house

drained, while the estimate to finish the


A is now from one to two millions. gentlemen without the remotest experience in such

committee of

and with

otlier interests to consider,

scarcely have arrived at


other result.

have only alluded

to these matters because


are at this


claiming public attention, and

will doubtless be remedied, for there is

no feature

of higher promise in this country than its patient

endurance of such evils and


peaceful efforts to

remedy them.

As a

rule, foreigners abstain




in public matters,


as the native families avoid



and almost exclusively adopt

the learned professions as leading to political ad-

of business,








sadly manifest in all the

ordinary routine of administration.
able result




be realized

town surveyors, harbour

by imagining our own and heads of departments, and
masters, municipal

even ministers of

state, to consist of

young doctors

or barristers, not only without

knowledge of the

special duties of their respective departments, but



Native Hospitality,

without business experience or habits of any kind,

and often with no other object in view than


These incongruities are disappearing, and will
be swept away before the rapid advances which
the country

making; and with


vast and


resources, its fertile lands,

and lovely
such a

and the



country must always continue to

offer to the capit-

and the emigrant, nothing can long delay the

proud position in store for this republic amongst
the great rising nations of the



In concluding these notes I must not omit to
bear testimony to the proverbial hospitality and
ui'banity characteristic of the Spanish race,


everywhere met with in these republics.
with great regret a very large



circle of excellent

friends, to

whom we


deeply indebted for

our enjoyment and information; and

some of the
solely to a

remarks that have been made
or ungrateful, they sincere


appear harsh

must be attributed
hasten the rapid



which these young countries are expanding into







which they are themselves

so resolutely overcom-

ing the abuses they have inherited.





a young country where

every one

practically occupied with the sterner







meteorological records are available, and a traveller

must depend largely on




Although a careful continuous register was never neglected, my observations were made with a specific
object in view,

which requires a









between our weather phenomena here and in Europe; on the other hand
slight analogy existing


was equally impressed with the

fact that


country furnishes so fine a

field for investigation.


meteorology, as in


botany and river system



natural history, there

a vastness and


and freedom from

turbances which prominently lays bare the great

its floating icebergs and dron on the north we have the active caula boundless region of tropical forest essential origin of all meteorological and vapour. To all the east we have the uniform surface of the of 67°. covered with perpetual snow.1 64 Natural Boundaries.000 miles square. . extend over 15° of latitude and 12° of longitude. fundamental causes and elements of every phe- nomena. The only uniformity local is interference with this singular has the great river system. extending from the Atlantic. The great bare plains. itself. with Atlantic at an average temperature the important influences of water and humidity in full force on the grandest scale. The forces at work are here on a vast scale overriding minor perturbations. the disturbances. with lastly. which excavated a wide valley through the plains and furnishes a broad belt of lakes and marshes and islands. including the grand chaco. To the west cloud we have the great chain of the Andes. The lower half is totally devoid of forest or trees. while large areas in the more tropical districts are equally barren. condensing every passing and interrupting every communication with the Pacific coast. or occupy an area nearly 1. Our southern boundary is the cold Antarctic Ocean. all more or less covered with forests and the tropics to vegetation.

It is indeed highly pro- bable that these cyclones are offshoots of tropical . as though the sea had not yet completely resigned its territorial rights over its ancient bed but such exceptions are on too small a scale to affect the general uniformity as regards meteoro- logic influences. and also depressions. and attaining a level of about 500 feet in 300 miles. In these contests is all similarity to destroyed. On tually these great battle-fields there rages perpefor possession an uncompromising contest between the cold winds from the south and the heated. 2. These general results are interfered with by occasional hills or ridges of rock. moisture-laden currents that flow in from the equator. and disturb the temperate zone.000 feet at Mendoza. within a radius of 500 miles. are here completely merged in higher laws due to the our own climate proximity of the tropics.Northern and Southern Currents. I availed 165 myself of railway surveys and other infonnation in carefully sources of determining plains of in the inclination of the apparently level rises the pampas. The great cyclonic movements which follow one another across the Atlantic. but the we ascend the River pampas rise much more rapidly. distance of The country 700 miles as 300 feet a Valley. which lakes rise through by- these levels like islands in a lake. occupied by salt and saline marshes.

The on as northern hot and moist winds come to initial us. and originate among these heated realms as rivers do from mountain streams. but the barometer invariably rises with the cold south wind and with the moist is warm north wind. very strikscale. in periodic times of singular regularity . The falls barometric changes are small. a thermometer. account of their equatorial momentum.1 66 The Barometer. the same relation to each other as the mountain torrent to the quiet river in its valley bed. except that of equivalent to a rise of the other. The uniformity with which the barois meter and thermometer move together ing . while the cold southern currents arrive from south-west. and its height at all times a very fair measure of the relative of rain-fall that heat and moisture existing in the actual atmosphere. the tornado and the great cyclone bearing often much disturbances. extremely and is as follows : Accessions of heated air flow southward. the other is The change from one to usually sudden and very manifest. and gradually occupy the whole atmosphere of the pampas. with indeed furnish an appropriate fair would a the very fall make-shift the one is barometer. The general is routine of the great periodical storms simple. north-east winds. Even the quantity is may be anticipated approximately given by the barometer.

167 5).e. fig. however widely they in differ in composition. apimrently drives back the stormy clouds. attention The first feature that struck my which was the apparent resistance to mixture between currents differing greatly It is so great that in temperature and humidity. and restores the normal blue sky and refreshing atmoIt sphere so eagerly awaited. Strata of what I term the terresclouds. overlie each other in the atmosphere above even when . as it my attention was specially is always at the actual junction of these opposing currents that storms attain their highest intensity. once commenced. (see last. whether in its commencement or progress. was to these great normal disturbances that directed. mechanical force is an essential element in any exists storm. and in this force close is almost always generated either proximity to or in actual ^contact with i. often the Cordilleras.. cold southern current follows closely in its to fill wake the void. trial layer. sets in and rain and storms The disturbance. it produced by the violent disturbance. drawn back by the vacuum produced by its own destructive condensation the . the earth's surface. retreats with accelerated energy. and. where condensation begin. eacli tlie wave intruding farther than the until heated and saturated atmosphere reaches some southern limit. in the form of whirlwind and hurricane.Propagation of Storms. often quietly us.

a mechanical is set up by which the disturbance further intensified. but at the point of actual contact between the storm itself. and solid resist- increased thermal effect due to actual contact. Apart from the largely intermingled. the line of cation being only visible in the form of a few wisps of cloud or thin strata of visible vapour. fog and cloud in contact earth are very infrequent except on As a rule the earth is air and even saturated proximity. the varying currents are is forcibly rapid condensation ance. thus satisfactorily accounted for. or contact with mountains or with the earth mixture is itself. even from directly opposite directions. equilibrium is disturbed by force. may meet and add fresh fuel to the flame. such as the rising of a heated column through their midst.1 68 The Terrestrial Layer. sometimes in the simple formation of cloud or rain. demarIf this travelline: in clifFerent directions. it dies out again. It is warmer than the becomes transparent by is its when the earth colder than . One characteristic of the terrestrial layer is its . air. it attains the violence of a hurricane when oppos- ing winds. permanent transparency with the mountains. promoted by the The anomalous and rapid decrease in the is quantity of rain collected by gauges elevated above the ground. is The focus of a storm cloud and the earth not at any altitude. accumulating in energy. but under favourable circumstances.

thus perpetually reinforced with heat is and moisture. vapour that elastic force to the atmosphere of air as a whole. hence the constant cloud and mist where it would to least be expected. which intercept radiation. this ascent is due. except on the equator. to its temperature. but to the atmosphere of vapour. as on the continent. We have seen that the is general circulation of the atmosphere due to the ascent of heated columns of vapour and air over the whole belt of the tropics . results of all experiments on the rate of decrease of temperature in relation Even at sea this permanent transparency is maintained.TJie Terrestrial Layer. continuously expanding laterally . heated belt. the higher temperature of the earth and of the layer immediately subject to influence is often to a great extent maintained b)y vapour and cloud above. consumed in evaporation. with the great due this and drags the air with it . thrown down into The air is a bad its conductor of heat. the solar heat is in heating the water. or is the air that the vapour violently is converted into rain. and not It is moreover arrested by the vapour thus formed. To return our subject. not solely. as regards the ocean. but here the water retains a temperature abnormally low. It is the rises from the water. which becomes warmer than the water. 169 fog. Hence the anomalous to elevation.

1 70 Overflow of Tropical Vapour. cold columns of air are drawn down from the upper regions. Like a train of gunpowder. and the flocks that graze over the boundless pastures of the pampas. as testified by all and streams that fertilize the mountain valleys of the Andes. until arrested by some opposing force. again in the disturbance once set in rapidly travels north. The immediate cause of the prois the vacuum formed by con- To restore the equilibrium. the air rushes into the vacuum from every direction. pagation of the storm densation. until it is lost the great belt of vapour from which it emanated. by condensation of the columns that but the work heat is all undone . regions the lateral limits north and south tend towards continual increase. heated vapours flow in from the north. and the . It is this lateral extension that produces the hot and stifling northern wind that It often perpetually tends to overflow the pampas. is The great object of this aerial campaign however the rills perfectly accomplished. the vacuum thus occasioned by by the heavier polar condensation and the ascent of columns of liberated is instantly filled in current from the south. upper as well as rising and overflowing in the . progresses this is the unopposed until it meets the Andes spell : magic wand that breaks the not only is all further progress instantly arrested first arrive. amidst storm and tempest. that would otherwise be a sandy desert.

these storms almost . although the wind north. is the storm south. by a corresponding liberation In the form of lightning this liberation of evident enough. left The vacuum partly due to the by the condensed vapour or the reduced tension occasioned by condensation. but if as a whole it moving may remain apparently stationary at the is same void locality. The of potential of the electricity is in these its masses condensing it vapour is lowered by escape to the earth as is set free. but it is principally produced and maintained by the ascent of columns of air raised to high temperature by the prodigious quantity of heat set free. but the flow of electricity heat is through this vapour in an invisible form must also be very large. by this violent admixture creates a vacuum. and all reduction of potential in- variably accompanied of heat. and hence the singular anomaly is that. there is considerable variety in the detail. travels north. and maintains the storm. more phere especially as the expanding equatorial atmos- more frequently overrides the terrestrial stratum.l^acinini frotii Condeyisatiori. 171 cold polar current from of the vapour fresh The condensation tlie south. If the is atmosphere as a whole the storm stationary. Although these are the general features of such storms. It would appear to reinforced me by highly probable that this heat electric is agency.

sees the storm approaching him from the south. clears up again south. therefore. and north at A a spectator at A. The following figure (fig. and his thermometer falls from 60° in the to 40°. . condensing and reforming as they drift along. and when it has passed here the wind shifts . moreover. B is the focus of disturbance tropics. The marshalling paratory to a storm light of the great aerial forces preis a grand phenomenon. terrestrial stratum and impinge on the The winds being drawn into the vacuum produced by the storm will be south at C. when the heated columns from the now in full retreat by condensation. scuddy clouds like skirmishers ride rapidly past. First. or the tropics. to the south. break up the earth. The sky. invariably originate in the south. 4- ABC represents the earth surface. the north. lying to the right. and against the wind. 4) will explain this puzzling feature. Fig.172 Prog ress of Storins. and travel directly against the wind.

The stifling heat is an evidence of transparent storm-cloud overhead. whirls along in a little If a puff" is generated it dust tornado. and the winds are hushed. plants close their flowers. Although so invisible air the storm is already exists. like a saturated chemical solution flashing into crystals when midst. Its it but is powerless to highly refractive properties bring into invisible. the invisible. like . The transparent its above a loaded mine. At in solid columns above the horizon. but on the horizon. 173 They mark the confines of the terrestrial layer. saturated with vapour and shutting in the radiant heat that has passed through return. the rigid horizontal when is seen well- base defined as they recede and emerge into a bank of storm cloud. tongues of fog upon a lake they are ill-defined in the zenith in plan. is The transparent cloud transformed into vapour. one single crystal is dropped into its A constant rumble by night betrays the length it rises by day and direction of distant lightning its approach. that of an eclipse so dense that a darkness like . Its view distant objects hitherto specific gravity reduces the low barometric column. in perspective. and rise smells and earthy vapours out of the ground animals are uneasy. reinforced by the heated dusty column.Great Features of a Sionn. ready to explode on the disturbance of slightest equilibrium.

passes by . it sweeps over us as icy wind. lashed into fury. 1877. what urges the stately vessel in her onward course ? It is only another gi^eater force. 1877. will be of interest to my engineering friends.174 Force of Hurricanes. is in. The great storm which extended over the whole of the Argentine Republic on the 2nd and 3rd of May. slams every and the house can scarcely be closed in . but of fined within the narrow limits of the cylinders. and the waves. brought door. The Great Storm of May. efforts of a The following description of the great storm. and the the winds and waves. sweeping aside The heated vapours there condensed bring down the massive piston tornadoes. 1877. time to keep out the tempest of hail and rain the lightning escapes in incessant streams. force of the hurricane for need excite no sur- when the tempest howls among the rigging. sweep the decks from stem to stern. the prodi- gious condensation that has set of heat that has been set free. a sudden blast of down from above. The prise. con- storm of similar character. with the force of a hundred iron hull. and the amount measured by inches of solid water over half a continent. scorns the opposing dissolving cloud. will Jong be remembered on account of .

Sfo} 'ins a re Periodic. even in the month of March. The stonn and itself. as each lowest . condensing at the Andes. was peculiarly normal and simple in iis character. near by retrogression. and invariably accompanied. as will be seen the movements of the barometer. and gradually. amounting to 615 inches in Buenos Ayres. in the interior of the province. each succeeding wave being greater than the last. Immediately after the equinox. 175 th(3 the extraordinary floods which desolated try. had been con- siderable. but evidently increasing in quantity in proportion to the distance from the sea. These waves were unusually remarkable as regards their periodic regularity throughout the whole month of April. as though following the sun across the equator. unfortunately not reliably recorded. The rainfall. over the first whole region of the pampas. coun- and possesses especial interest for the engineer test to on account of the severe all which it exposed engineering works which intercepted the waters their descent in toward the sea. by the annexed diagram of They succeeded each other with pendulum-like regularity every five days. deluging the whole southern area of the continent. it was preceded by phenomena which gave unusual timely notice of its advent to the meteorologist. and to a much larger amount. though of such unprecedented violence. enormous waves of heated and saturated equatorial air flowed southward.

2^ bar. . 67 7.T76 The RamfalL by a disturbance Thus : point was reached. or storm of more or April less magnitude. with storm and rain. fell to 29.

AT 9 A.REDUCEDT0 32? Inches 4- 5 6 7 8 9 30 12 .BAROM.M.

and under a 1st lens oscillated with a constant wave-like motion. and. escape un- injured. . and thus gradually de- scribed the singular curve shown in the diagram. but foreign to the object of this paper. is of wind.178 Barometric Oscillations. upwards of thirty miles distant.28 p. observed minute by minute. on the other side of the river. Commencing 2979 rose at 10. 6) illustrates the barometer durinsf the height of the storm. and. possesses great they go far to account for the apparently capricious manner in which certain spots are devastated and massive works destroyed while other neighbouring structures. as as will be seen hereafter. as often usual. was characterized moreover by other phenomena. much less solidly constructed. and in one minute more it it fell from 29*79 to 29'58. rose promiIt nently and clearly into view. so that the Monte Videan coast. on the May it will be seen that the barometer rose from 29*60 to in one minute. interest. The following diagram oscillations of the (fig. The movements of the barometer were so rapid as to be distinctly visible to the eye.m. of high interest to the meteorologist. In four minutes more again from 29*58 to 29*81. and I will only further allude to the extra- ordinary mechanical energy developed by the mere pressure of the descending rain. was preceded by a singularly transparent state of the atmosphere.


sound which are usual with tension passing higher through dry strata of non-con- ducting air. The rise of 0*2 inch was due to the rebound to restore the vacuum caused by this rapid condensation. Their formation in this heated mass of vapour was probably due to the descent of cold air from higher regions into the vacuum produced by condensation.Western of Monte Yideo. streaming freely away through this saturated fire. but the Southern. The hail-stones which accompanied the lightning were of large dimensions. The whole rapid rise of 0-19 was simply air due to the mechanical force by which the compressed by a descending torrent of at the was rain. and then follows the natural oscillation to restore the equilibrium so violently disturbed. the North. done to the Western line was considerable. medium in waves and ribbons of brilliant The thunder was consequently continuous in with none of those definite volleys of electricity at its character. A similar curve was again ob- served during the storm of the following morning. and . The electricity set free cipitation by this tremendous prewas enormous in quantity but moderate in intensity.1 80 Light7iing of the first and Hail. The low-lying portions of almost every railway The damage in the Republic suff'ered more or less. which moment was precipitated like an explosion from a cloud overhead.

the i8i Campana lines were naturally from their posi- tion the greatest sufferers. so long after the storm had ceased. delayed by soil.Subterrariean Rivers. the rainfall over this vast area gravitates soil. into the pervious until arrested ing strata at greater or less depth. the friction of the saturated slow underground move gradually down towards the sea. and gradually saturating the whole country as the storm moved eastward. It is a singular phenomenon that the whole of the interior of the pampas has no natural drainage in the form of rivers . their course being determined by the contiguration of the water-bearing strata beneath. The water in the whole valley of the Salado continued to rise for many weeks in<]^ after the termination of the storm. of sheep destroyed is estimated at This is to a great extent accounted for by the continuous rains of the previous month. The continuous rise of the water in the low valley of the Salado.000. This prodigious rainfall was thus an addition to a wave of Avater which was already slowly moving downward from the high lands through the saturated strata into which it had penetrated. . and than probable that at rivers of drainage by water holdit is more these depths. commencing in the west. Railway and destroying a large quantity of The number 10.000. interrupt- to a serious extent the traffic on the Western cattle. is probably due to the cropping out of these descending springs.

The Campana line. It consists of a deep bed of now slowly accumulating. all sides These great plains downwards from with an inclination of eighteen inches per mile near the river. The alluvial marsh thus formed con- sists of alternate beds of soft river mud and silt. and intercepted rests by a few muddy streams origin. Its depth varies generally from a few more. Damage to the Campana Eailway. alluvium. with dark beds of vegetable mould. The water during great storms being but little absorbed. and lakes. The rail- . and with steeper and steeper gradients as they recede from it. with occasional layers of river sand. and probably much It affords is good pasturage in the summer months. partly from the deposit left its by floods from the great river on eastern margin. and partly from the debris cliff brought down by storms from the baranca or forms the western slope which bounds the great plains of the pampas and margin. precipitates itself suddenly down these slopes in torrents of destructive dimensions loaded with mud.1 82 The Marsh. and on older beds of similar but more or less hardened by the infiltration of lime into a compact rock called tosca. traverses the great banya or marsh which forms part of the modern bed of the Parana. after running 24 kilometres out of Buenos on high ground. feet to 100 feet.

One of the curves illustrating the pressure from the descending rain was made on this occasion.sli fur a distance of forty kilos. from length of railway embankment. The ordinary law was disregarded. the banks melting away so rapidly that any delay in retreating with the engine would have rendered retreat impossible. and measured by miles in breadth and length. which rose to a complete hurricane from the west. outlets for the water being provided for by numerous done b}^ laro^e culverts and brido-es.TJie Flood. six to eight feet deep. so that huge undulations swayed to and fro like an ocean tide. The wind. its level I 1 . for the varying barometric pressures shown in the diagram weighed locally on the lake in one spot and removed pressure simultaneousl}^ in another. 183 way embankment crosses this mai. passing however over two projecting it. and the denudation and partial destruction of a considerable The author was on the line during the great storm on the 3rd and witnessed the devastation. the water pouring over the baranca and down the three valleys alluded to in of water finding wide rivers. The damajT-e the storm amounted to the total destruction of these culverts of some and bridges. spurs from the high land above pletely intercepts It thus com- three distinct valleys or water- sheds. The immediate effect of this enormous rainfall was to convert the level marsh into a vast lake.

but more especially where ateffect of mospheric weaves as described gave local impetus to the waters. An opening.1 84 tliese The Destruction. was rapidly enlarged to a gap wide. made purposely to ease the pressure in the banks. and especially where overgrown by It offered a species of creeping solanaceous plant with fleshy deep roots. or where the soil was of a silty character. and flowed through the culverts and bridges like water through a milldam. but it \Yas moreover increased by the its water-way being insufficient for a volume of water so sudden in its descent and so unexpected in volume. tides carried forward and brought down bridges. while in some spots the waves leaped over the line or carried it bodily away. scouring out the alluvial soil into deep trenches. intermittent volumes of water with destructive velocity on the banks and The waters. The embankment was more or less undermined everywhere. penned up by the embankment. were in many places three and four feet higher on the upper side than on the lower. It was moreover considerably protected . more resistance where thoroughly covered with vegetation. leaving the rails and sleepers suspended in the air. easily dissolved or destitute of vegetation. moreover. The banks crumbled away before this incessant wash. and would have been far less in absence. many yards The damage was thus mainly due to the the wind.

the large bridge over the main river both here and at Lujan escaped without injury. The only resource would be to destroy them by means of a timber barricade on short piles placed a few feet from the embankment. and the two piers.The Bridges. but fortunately without girders. but simply breaking the surface undulation. with two timber side spans of thirteen feet. any damage also to the less The abutments were more or . consisting of a centre iron girder of forty feet span. but the bridge at Pacheco. Experiments with this object have the at the suggestion of the author been made on Southern Railway with a promising valley of Las result. and the Lujan Valley. It is difiicult with the materials at single pebble disposal in a country where not a to be found to resist the force of waves by any feasible practical engineering device. was destroyed. the of the It was in the great valley of Las Conchas that the principal damage occurred . drained by the same name. the planking not extending deep into the water. each with massive brick piers and abutments. being carried bodily away to a distance of sixty yards. the centre girder and roadway. by the enormous layer debris brought down by the flood and in 185 of vegetable many places arrested by is the bank. the Escobar Valley. traversed by the River Lujan. The three valleys intercepted by the railway are river Conchas.

consisting of three spans of twenty-five iron girders and brick piers. There was no deficiency of waterway in this water on both sides of the varying very slightly on account of the large is opening at Lujan bridge. to the extent of sixteen inches. each with was seriously damaged. the bridge was an iron bridge of sixty-four feet span with brick abut- ments. undermined. The immediate engineering problem restoration traffic was the and this of the line for the resumption of the possible manner. but were not swept away. while the Salado bridge. Many of the culverts in the valley or were undermined destroyed. One of the piers was carried away. feet.The Bridges. In the Escobar Valley. trains in the quickest was done with such rapidity that were again . the level of the line laro-e o-irders. line breached in several places. to- gether with one of the abutments. The banks also were considerably damaged by the wash of the waves. of one of the abut- ments which carried the valley. the banks everywhere being seriously denuded. was placed in great jeopardy by the sinking. which 724 feet long. This bridge was swept bodily away. and the . and fell two of the girders thus into the water. In the Lujan valley the Pescado bridge. an iron bridge with two spans of forty feet and two of twenty-five feet.

000 cubic metres. The temporary restoration of the bridges and The large culverts was a more anxious problem. With resource respect to the earthwork. so constructed as not to interfere with the future permanent reconstruction. afforded valuable resources for the erection of piled timber structures. while another was The total quantity of earth- work required for renewal was G 3. so that after each it was only by securing them they could be kept down at blow that all. this was an easy problem. and followed the \ \ ' 1 monkey through a still greater space.Restoration of the Line. and the pile-driving machinery belonging to the contractors. while it was moreover so elastic that they rebounded after the blow. and so soft was the singular formation at Pacheco that the piles sunk twelve or fifteen inches under a blow of the monkey even at this great depth. an engine was available the purpose at the Buenos Ayres end of the imprisoned at Lujan. Whenever the tosca was near the surface. but on taking soundings at Pacheco and Pescado no bottom was found at fifty feet depth. and it fortunately happened that for line. Ordinary piling was thus impossible. quantity of timber in store at Campana. 187 regularly running on the 22nd Ma}^ or in twenty days after the storm. ^yo^y available was put in requisition for the reconstruc- tion of the line. and a novel .

Large transverse balks of timber were on the mud bolted together. in. The permanent restoration of all these works was the last step. including the bridge over the river. timbers elastic In this manner these transverse feet were forced six or eight deposit. was impossible to drive The piles were then and these bridges have without the slightest traffic proved thoroughly displacement efficient. which proved eminently laid successful. but separated by distance pieces. near the mill at the lowest part of the valley. some and afterwards reconstructed. cross-braced. The water-way in the Las Conchas Yalley being insufficient. the piles were then driven between these balks with cleats bolted on each side to prevent their passing through. thus practically doubling the total length of all the existing openings. Where the while ground was good the culverts and bridges were restored culverts on ordinary were entirely driven filled piles. it was resolved to increase it by the construction of a viaduct. until it them permanently efficiently farther. and the frame was then bodily driven into the mud with short falls and a very into this heavy monkey. device was resorted to. under the heavy to which they have so long been subjected.1 88 Restoration of the Line. 300 feet in length. .

the total cost was £3 sterlinof was per foot run. toughness and and the viaduct consists of a series of hard wood trestles. On further examination of the river bed at Pacheco. and carry a continuous double line of which the cross sleepers and rails contraction. each trestle resting on a bed of cement concrete three feet wide. feet apart. amounting to two the frames in the elastic or viaduct is is by the slight yield of The cost of a bridge always a minimum. At each extremity the piling. when the span is so taken that the cost of a pier exactly equal to the cost of the girders. strongly cross-braced. use. The expansion and inches.The New Viaduct. line protected by sheet Permanent Eeconstruction of the Bridges. takes place soil. considerable The soil here a dark alluvium of elasticity. and the length of span then determined. at from 189 the observed The length was arrived differences of level on either side of the line at the maximum height of the flood. and is calculated to reduce the velocity of the outfall within limits that will not disturb the grass and vegetation beneath is the viaduct. dug four or five feet into the marsh. on repose. where the bridge had been temporarily . The trestles are fifteen iron girders. This viaduct has been some time in efficient and forms an and durable is structure.

which only sank easily after passing through the hard layer. bed or layer of sand found at the surface. even at a depth of sixtythe ground in fact five feet. was found that at a depth of fifty-two feet a solid foundation could be obtained on the iosca . offering very considerable resistance to the driving of piles. The destruction of the bridge arose from the undermining of a portion of this stratum. with soil. was found. as already described. a layer of hardened alluvium. The piles are of hard wood. and at this great depth a quicksand was reached. as in other cases. became worse. moreover. The original abutments and piers had been on a hard superficial built here. Immediately beneath this bed of there sand. however. by a timber structure on sunken frames it driven into the mud. the object of hard and were highly A pile of the following description was found to offer so much resistance. to a depth of twelve or fourteen feet. that the pile itself was destroyed by the repeated blows of the monkey before it had passed through this stratum of hard soil. the per- manent bridge has therefore been built with spliced hard timber piles driven to the solid rock.igo replaced Reconstruction of the Bridges. no bottom was found . but of no great depth nor extent. Experiments were made utilizing this layer of satisfactory. At Pescado. into which piles sank two feet with a blow. with an .

was built in brick and cement of such solidity that the whole concrete foundation. At Escobar the massive thirty-two tons. enlarged inverted pyramid at the base. 1 9 in shown The base is formed by simply bolting four large timber wedges to the sides of the pile. This modification has avoided ficial all disturbance of the super- hard layer which overlies the r>^ quicksand. the disturbance of The eroding action of water. as the sketch. w^eighing cement concrete. pier. the descending current surface forms an in- . x / The of disaster has afiforded experience much on value. In the centre of an opening on a level bed. built tirely piles When they remained secure. increases with the depth as well as the velocity. Conclusions.Conclusions. although enpiles. including the distance of 250 yards. Massive brick piers and heavy abut- ments were out of place on such foundations. filled undermined between the In this case the undermined portion has been with rammed pier. rushing through a bridge or culvert. and means taken to prevent further excavation. and affords a foundation which could in no other way be obtained. without pier or was swept bodily away to a any fracture of the a single brick.

which acts wdth destructive force on it frequently scooping alongside the out into dells and hollows wing walls of the abutments. . for the foundations being only loosely scour commences near the abutments. The this point. There is another scouring importance. while the current in its passage below converts the base of this apparently quiet pool. the eroded material accumulates and forms a bank or island. the depth decreasing uniformly but the velocity- increases in a higher ratio until arrested ing away on all sides is into by spreadthe lower water. In all cases the excavation should be securely filled with the best material at hand. plane from the upper to the lower level. scouring power thus greatest on the lower side of little the culvert. column into a bottom whirlsoft soil. on the upper side. and with increasing force as the depth increases.192 clined Scour of Water. effect. is In our case clay every storm the successfully used. and a beyond where the current dies out. . but after ground should be invariably restored as near as practicable to a level bed. well rammed. Again. of the considerable The excavations made filled in. due to depth. while at the slight depth which occurs at the middle of the span is the turf not even disturbed. the water which flows freely away at the centre banks up against the abutment and maintains its full depth.

without any damage whatever to the line. 193 cases where the iron. restoration is The in every respect designed strictly in accord- ance with these principles. that could now happen toe of these sufficiently would be the sweeping away of the embankments enlarged bridge. before described. To avoid the numerous difficulties attending the use of masonry on such bad foundation. Extensive floods. Since this paper was written. whether of timber or they suffered no damage. piers consisted of piles.The In all New Works. the toe of the earthwork with natural slope being protected by timber sheet Even on the recurrence of floods of greater all extent than the last. until the waterway had itself. equal to those described. which can be rapidly The timber viaduct. have again been experienced. but without much wind. and which it is confidently be- lieved are worthy the serious attention of every engineer who may have similar difficulties to over- come. which are the result of experience. 13 . piles have been exclusively substituted for brickwork even in the abutments . without any disturbance of the would thus consist simply of a few yards of earthwork. a little extra length of girder allows the abutment piles to be driven into the its bank piling. itself. restored. these new works almost have been put to the test.

with constant equatorial wind. with heavy rain and lightning and the the thunder was constant and nino[ deafeninof. knew the southern winds were gaining ground it. entirely covered . ing. its but the atmosphere retained 60°. soon disappeared. fire liofht- streamed in ribbons of amonsf the clouds. on the following constant and morning. clouds ao-ain collected in the south." appeared in the south on the evening of the 27th June. man's hand. The lightning was it poured down from apparently fixed points in the sky in vertical vivid streams 45° in length. with distant lightning. and soon the sky. however. "no bigger than a and we . the storm again returned with far greater magnificence. again On the third evenins:. as though a reservoir of molten metal had . they retired durino^ the night. all but after covering half the sky. and we knew at once that it was only a lull. the clouds again rose up from the south in dense and massive columns. after the temperature of storm had passed.194 Approach of a Storm. terrible . Storms at Buenos Ayres. at the On the following even- same hour. a little cloud. After several very oppressive and unbearable days. this time in dense masses. The meteorologist two will forgive me if I introduce or three further examples as illustrating the character of those great disturbances. with lightning.

Extent of burst overhead. the during the last eight days. A the effect. 195 free was almost entirely from in the usual vortices in zigzag form. on the previous day. Moreover. and drove away the hazy cloud in mottled masses. and the corresponding amount of vapour and electricity set free.m. and in the night to was followed by a long spell of bright. fore Uruguay had been The rain must rising there- have prevailed far north of Salto. all directions. and it difficult to realize the prodigious mass of vapour that must have been condensed. 250 miles up the Uruguay. The clouds drifted and the thunder was dense darkness added to absolutely continuous. It the Storm. beginning The temperature 43°. The storm came to us from the south in successive invasions. torrents of water of great depth pouring down into the river through the narrow us at noon. lovely weather. informed me it had commenced there at 3 a. A friend The storm ceased with who came from Salto. cold. These storms are invari- ably followed by cold refreshing winds. streets. this great storm prevailed is The area over which was enormous. the south-west wind ultimately fell to 50^. Although in this instance the atmosphere retained its tem- perature of GO"^ for many hours. and the rain deluged the town. prevailed. and he had travelled the whole distance through the storm. and the storm with the little .

The diurnal advance to the acces- and retrogression was probably due sion of heat from the sun during the day. the motion of the whole system towards the south being neutralized by the advance of the tongue of cold air. direction determined by condensation. and the re-appearance of this successive evenings in a larger phenomena on larger scale. we come The to the Santa Rosa storm boisterous weather that generally occurs about this period in the Argentine republic . cloud. probably occurred to the south of us. and Storms had. The varying violence of these storms depends on the amount of local reinforcement they meet with in their course. regardless of the wind. 4. After this storm continual phases of heat and cold occurred. that from drier regions towards regions of greater moisture. which reinforced temporarily the equatorial or northern wind against which they were advancing. with lightning in the south on the evening of the first day. p. No stronger proof of this can be required than the fact that the disturbance always advances bodily. so that a constant rapid river of vapour was precipitated at one shot. in the is. until of the 80th. 172) some time nearly stationary. therefore. The violence and duration and the excessive rainfall were due to the remained for fact that the point b (fig.196 Fj'opagatioji of Storrm. with storms on the 10th and 24th of August.

but there were intervals of bright sky.Santa Rosa Storms. and. the corresponding intervals between the similar The converse is also generally waves give similar intervals. The heat was again considerable large areas of underwood and dried vegetation were on fire over many square miles among the islands. The storm travelled to The temperature was G0°. to epochs varying from a few hours. 197 has given Santa Rosa a very unenviable notoriety. and fro as the junction of changed its the opposing currents position. The lightning was extremely brilliant. heavy into day. On the 29th we had a storm which lasted all day. to ascertain was anxious belief. smoke obscured the atmosphere and The 28th was a dull. periodical. and doubtless some of the tive floods largest and most destrucI on record have occurred on or about the anniversary of this turbulent saint. in The changes in the weather are thus case. with incessant thunder and lightning. true. . and dense masses of increased the heat. so that large. as though the clouds were projected spasmodically and not in a continuous stream. the oscillations in the baro- meter curve were very vertices very small. collecting heavy horizontal strata with straight lines. as is generally the case. the grounds of this general Previous to the 28th. charged with moisture. as in the present seven or eight days. clouds from the north-east. ribbons or arcs .

and sometimes suddenly exploding in the air in the form of the letter S. and partly from condensation.igS of great width. The forms assumed by the lightning are consis- tent with the explanation which I have attempted masses of vapour condensed on the earth's surface not only disturb the electrical equilibrium by the setting free of their own electricity. Santa Rosa Storms. It was not zig-zag form.m. temporary hurricane from the south. the discharges of electricity set free were confined to the mass of cloud that was in more immediate contact with the earth. About 10 p. The cloud advanced steadily against the wind. with a deluge . the storm was at its height. detached clouds floated by at low elevation with great velocity from the north-east. sometimes in the form of descending arches not reaching the ground. but unevenly wavy and ribbon-like. streamed upwards from the in ing abruptly behind a mass of dense cloud. and the discharges may partly owe their streaming form to the partial vacua that are produced. but they isolate the overcharged layers above them. disappear- length. partly from new additions. and from thirty to forty degrees in river. and Intensified by a the spectacle was magnificent. and though the heaviest cloud formation was in the south-west. The rain was enormous in quantity.

The however. from the Cape to the Pacific. It prevailed country. fell many hours. the . "All day long the noise of battle hills. 199 the contest still continued. but I observed an extraordinary fall in the barometer. on the morning of the 80th. St. of hail.m. with violent thunder and lightning. the evening was clear and bright as usual. rain fell At Monte Video In all cases 5 J inches of in forty hours. the numerous south. disappeared finally with mizzling rain and fog on the morning of the 31st.Exteiit of tJie Storm. The area over which again this storm extended was over the whole enormous. in torrents for The rain though storm. The following morning was hot and oppressive. still still and much damage was done. On the 30th September. windows that were broken faced the In addition to these normal storms. and floods were very general. the contest often locally assumes the form of a tornado. its foundal^ion. the tempest broke out again with still greater fury. Distant thunder was incessant. which appeared to move all around us. We were awoke about 4 a. Rosa's day. a south-west hurri- cane. by a tempest of rain. when the barometer suddenly rose from 29*65 to 3010 inch.m. clouds were drifting from the north-east to and east as unwillinof abandon the contest." rolled among the At 9 a. shook our building to The tiles were stripped from our stations. with destructive hail.

although the was the cause sun's direct rays at high tension pass through such a haze of vapour. no doubt. it The edges were lightning. The wind was north. and behind fountain it there played a per- of quiet summer it watched changed the full for a long time. was with a peculiar haze which. con- . as. and in an instant rushed towards accompanied with clouds of it dust and a hurricane of wind so strong that burst open the large heavy doors of the station. to a cold hurricane of and now we were exposed hail and rain. rapidly it became terribly dark. aspect . and filled the house with dust and sand. and very petual light. the wind changed instantly from north to south the thermometer fell in ten minutes from 86° to 58°. doors and which forced its way through the windows and flooded the cottage. At 9 p. Dust Tornado.m. but retained it motionless its appearance. I its sharply defined. obscured. so that it moon was us. After a partial lull at about 10 p. they are powerless to return in the form of radiant heat. own trees door from the same It hurled down and tiles all around.m. of the intense heat. I was called to Campana on business. .200 air A still. and accumulate as they would in a greenhouse. and at sunset my attention was directed to a singularly dense and perfectly stationary bank of dark cloud in the south-west.. and it required our united strength to preserve our fate.

at nearly the same hour. and as the change to a southerly wind was its western periphery. permanent. was a storm The river at Paysandu. but rose suddenly the follow- . it is evident that this disturbance arose of on the confines the northern and southern currents. Anxious as we were to watch the progress. shower of hail and The any noise of the if storm prevented our hearing thunder. the lowest we have registered in South America.A Dust Tornado. which covered the house and windows.m. we were by half-a-dozen rapidlyIt repeated volleys of thunder. there to the north. would thus appear that a tornado. 201 verting the previous dust into mud. This storm extended also over a large area. or small cyclone. before the north-east wind. side during such a it was impracticable to get outtiles. there most brilliant and singularly startled was any. had passed over us from west to east. During the northern wind we were in periphery. The barometer record fell to 29'38 inches. At 11 p. at phenomena occurred Buenos fifty miles to the Ay res. The same south. incessant as to light Later on. 200 miles fell rapidly. and during the southern its eastern on wind we were The stationary cloud was probably the cloud of dust drawn up in the vortex. but lightning of the diffused kind was so up the whole neighbourhood.

due. although very disagreeable.202 Rolling Cyclones. The heat and moisture during the prevalence of northerly winds. and other observed phenomena otherwise inexplicable. which so disagreeably itself in the wardrobe in the form of mildew. and flooded the grounds. unfortunately. the haze and heat preceding the storms. not so much to the actual humidity. seldom interfere with the perpetual sunshine and clear blue sky. fall and subsequent rapid rise of the barometer. low ing day with the change. The barometer rose. and the singularly regular periodicity. the climate of Buenos Ayres is. as a rule. as to the condensation which takes place . A the succession of such rolling ellipses explains the contrary current so invariably present overhead. magnificent. and several houses were wrecked and. but until gradually contracting by the condensation they are absorbed. as usual. The moisture shows is in the houses. Except during these short intervals of storm. The general explanation of these disturbances leads to the conclusion that the accessions of heated air from the equator arrive in successive rolling vertical cylinders. my own registering thermo- meters were carried away. or in cyclones. very sud- denly after the storm. Many vessels were driven ashore in the river. these cylinders having at first the form of long ellipses.

2. But the following table is a list of all the great barometer depressions between September and December. „ „ „ 30. connection between the moon's changes and changes in the weather. 1876. 2. Dust Storm Buenos Ayres. 1. that there little. the danger of is drawing conclusions from partial data illustrated It is esta- by the following singular blished. Oct. one of the phenomena which at once excites the attention of a stranger sunsets. I have added the dates of the nearest in the I could full moons. although a constant tendency to periodic disturbance every seven days is very manifest. In a country where cloud is so unfrequent. 1. 29'40. Barom. reviewing rny observations. Great dust storm. 2. 29-43. Dec. 29-35. Nov. if any. Dec. Full moon. but most remarkable trace no such connection in previous or subsequent storms. is beyond a doubt. very considerable. which certainly coincide manner. . „ Dec. coincidences. 3. 203 on cold objects during the very rapid changes of temperature and humidity which are so frequent. 30.Storms and Full Moons. is the magnificence of the of gilded The gorgeous masses cumulus appear to be brought out for the occasion every . Storm Rosario.. The In effect of the river on the liumidity is. Dec. „ Nov. however. Oct. 29-40. Dust storm.

when they are again dissolved.204 night. last that are seen. and to be immediately removed as soon as is the stately ceremony ended. a its rays. and . owing to its higher temperature near the heated surface of the earth. a constant volume of cloud thus follows the setting sun and marks the boundaries of night and day. vast J^ > — poisons of air and vapour of varying raj^s. Sunsets. The gorgeous colours depend on the obliquity of illumination and the decomposition of the light through these density. is zone of the western horizon. This effect is pro- bably due to the fact that. until equilibrium is restored. and the vapour is temporarily converted into the sunset clouds which exist for a certain time. absorbs a larger amount of suddenly moisture. during the heat of the day the air. deprived of chilled. As the setting sun retreats. The ^ ^ / most refrangible the purple and violet are the close the glorious pageant.

it Branchingr off to the east in drains the mountain ranges of the It is southern tropical provinces of Brazil.Western railway of Monte Video a lengthened residence in the northern part of Uruguay.CHAPTER XII. and afforded one of the most interesting episodes in I my travels. in its a mag- the rainy seasons rivalling the Parana in doubling actual volume of water. THE URUGUAY AND SALTO. enclosing a true Mesopotamia or " Entre Rios " be- tween the latitude 27^ rivers. had long looked forward to the opportunity of ascending these great rivers. and in spite of the attractions of Buenos Ayres we gladly welcomed to the tropics. some nearer approach The Uruguay runs nearly parallel with the Parana. nificent river. has cut a steeper channel . Instead of flowing through it a level bed of alluvium. and more than it in velocity. ATTERS led to of business connected with the North.

side sub- with great rapidity. and its floods tlirough hard and rocky strata. which is 215 miles from Beyond and falls Salto. when completed. all Ocean-going vessels. with a leap at low water of 15 25 feet over a succes- sion of diagonal reefs of primary rock. forms the only outlet for the valuable produce of the rich and fertile southern provinces of Brazil.bove Salto the river is nearly a mile and a quarter wide. The large and powerful steamers Salto. miles. the rocky bed of the irregular. giving rise to a series river is steep of rapids and which intercept the navigation. this powerful rocky bar submerged. The Salto rises no less than 50 feet during these great floods. however. about 140 miles from the Plate. for a distance of 100 Santa Rosa. Salto to Santa Rosa The rail- way from trade was thus a commer- and cannot fail to command a large At the great falls a. it is Beyond Santa Eosa again navigable. and except during long periods of drought the large river steamers run through to the Plate. fall is feet. and It is the channel of an extensive carrying trade.2o6 The Salto Rapids. calling which ply between Monte Video and at Buenos Ayres en route.^ in American . cial necessity. are fitted w. ascend at times as far as Paysandu. as far as Salto. however. and steamers occasionally ascend the rapids through a rocky channel on the right bank of the river at river. is The total During high totally floods.

207 is with every luxury . furnished with sofas and good beds and every convenience. but the journey in one of is these floating hotels a luxury of whicli we can form no idea in England. When the river is low the large steamer journey is is left at Paysandu.m... Leaving Buenos Ayres at we arrive at Salto about 4 p. passenger to a traffic is is very large. nearly by five or six miles wide. the following day. an excellent dinner guests. served on board in the large and handsome saloon. £4 5s. and generally shallow. is high. and a few miles above Hugueritas the estuary assumes the brilliant clear water. 5 p. is This lake is without islands. It is of course greatly enhanced by the lovely climate and the wild and w^ooded scenery of the islands and banks. accommodating from 150 to :^()0 The cabins or sleeping berths arc large and elegant. after passing the fortified island of Martin Garcia we enter the estuar}^ of the Uruguay. and form a communication between the two form of a large lake of sixty miles long rivers. . On ing the Plate. The The only drawback landsman is the rough w^ater which in bad weather sometimes encountered on the Plate.m. and the leav- completed in smaller boats. The fare. wdiich may be regarded as a continuation of the great estuary of the Plate. At Hugueritas several branches of the Parana unite with the Uruguay. style.The Steamers. and extends as far as Fray Bentos.

150 miles from the though occasionally very wide to it is Plate. The large Liebig Extract establishment object is a pro- minent right on the Tosca Baranca at Fray Bentos.2oS The Delta. but . termi- nating at Paysandu. On leaving this lake near Fray Bentos large we sail among numerous delta thirty-five miles long wooded islands forming a and four or five miles river proper thus wide. by columns of curling smoke The waters of the Uruguay increase in temperature as we proceed north. extensive forests of palms and small and the rocky shores are everywhere covered to thrive in these with underwood and creepers and rich vegetation. whose destructive presence often indicated among the foliage. The comand mences at Paysandu. constantly con- fined within a rocky channel throughout its course Santa Rosa. and as we ascend higher up the river the cliffs bank is composed of of rock 100 feet high. but all the larger timber has been cut down by the is charcoal burners. with trees. That the whole of the matter this great river is brought down during the floods of is employed in filling up the delta evident from the constant transparency of the waters of the great lake below. with a deep channel half a mile wide throughout its length. The Yatai palms appear sandy wastes. very similar to that of the Parana.

j\ot 209 tlie with the same regularity as those of Parana. but its situa- the terminus of the navigable jDortion of considerable the Uruguay must always ensure a from which it is fast trade of a legitimate character. doubtless due to the incessant revolutions and der to which this little political plun- republic has so long been a prey.Saho. noticed In passing through the mirror-like lake we that the smooth surface of the undulations caus-cd by the steamer resembled watered tiful effect. Its present depresis recovering. tions. satin. Ill-natured critics maintain that its w^ealth was mainly derived from the extensive smuggling trade which its The little proximity to the frontiers of Brazil and Entre Eios would doubtless tend to encourage tion as . It is a grievous calamity in these small Spanish republics that the political power has been retained by a few native families who only regard the administration of the country as a profitable occupation. like individuals. —a beau- due to caustics formed by the l)rilliant reflection. This grievous canker has unfortunately been fostered by independent circumstances. all its highest interests to personal benefit and the acquisition or maintenance of wealth and political power. Na- cannot escape the stern moral 14 . town of Salto has been in former days a trading town of great importance. without hesitation. and sacrifice. sion.

and destroying every vestige of patriotism. The tribute paid to ancient Rome undermined and done. The present condition of Turkey and Peru and other states only too eflectually con- firms this invariable law. Large amounts of money brought into by settlers and emigrants were robbed or wasted by one side or the other. succumbed under similar baneful is and it a question whether the enormous tribute paid fatal by France to Germany has not proved more than any material destruction that could have ensued from the expenditure of the same amount in ofiensive warfare. and honesty. In the case of Uruguav the evil commenced with the Paraguayan war. unscrupulous adventurers who debauching alike the governors and governed. destroyed the empire far more effectually than any external enemy would have less Spain fell rapidly from the height of prosperity to the lowest state of help- misrule under the influence of the unearned after wealth which flowed in America. results law that the spasmodic acquisition of wealth invariably in demoralization and ruin when ob- tained wdthout labour or industry. the country .2IO Public Loans. honour. when large subsidies of Brazilian gold were absorbed by the needy and ruled the country. the discovery of Venice and the Italian republics rapidly influences. during incessant The revolutions got up with no other object.

it is thus but too sadly evident that both politically sins of the father are visited and morally the on the children. means of meeting the engagements The whole of this wealth. and completed the moral and material ruin both the plunderers and the plundered. with evils.Return of Prosperity. duced lai'ge amounts of of capital . and that grievous administrative mis- management of every spot is still more or less the inheritance where the race retains political power. and lastly the public loans followed. very loth to yield up and it is undeniable that the rapid progress of the country under the rule of . was absorbed in profligacy of costly Gothic. now going to ruin for want of the mere means of maintenance. and Byzantine quintas which cover the suburbs of Monte Video. and Avill left the former without either the or the incurred. life furnish an eloquent memorial of a period of public vice and scandal which in private would have It been corrected by the prison or the treadmill. it is evident that. railways. all its disad- vantages and serious dictatorship is a firm and honest a boon Avhich a nation w^ould be . 211 intro- promoted by reckless guarantees. Moorish. instead of and personal extravagance the rows . being invested in productive works. In a country where senators or representatives cannot be found with sufficient patriotism to refrain from voting themselves large personal incomes for their services.

is the present governor most remarkable. it is destroyed. again rapidly covering the pasture lands. under protest of being revolutionists or govern- ment troops. manufactories. and public works. hordes lance. As in every other district. railway extensions. increasing trade and production. The is legitimate resources of the country keep pace with its The land its being everywhere enclosed and recovering value. productive of warehouses. but in the guise more substantial and farm-buildings. levying contributions and sweeping away before them the remnants of horses and cattle which the helpless settlers had not had time to dispose of in Entre Rios or Brazil. Encouis raged by the peace and security which resolutely now and firmly maintained. A disciplined rifles. which had been entirely military force. armed with a bamboo and led by some brigand adventurer. galloped unresisted over the country. . the devastated itself is oountry round Salto and the town par- ticipating in the benefits of this general renovation. armed with Remmington has. as best suited their jDurpose. of savage Gauchos. and buildings are again rising in every sure direction. The herds of cattle and are horses. emigrants are fertile fields again returning to cultivate the great so long neglected. hoped. not indeed in the form of suburban quintas and pleagardens. for ever put an end to the time when.2 1 Return of Prosperity.

The terminus of the East Argentine Pvailway at . the evidences of general decay and neglect are but too evident everywhere. and if the continued south to Paysandu. to Brazil. and its resources are kept beyond the reach of incom- petent adventurers. is an excellent and which would do credit any European enormous leave it A timber pier runs some distance out into the rocky bed of the river. floods. There is not the slightest doubt that with the completion of the railway to Santa Rosa and its extension in Brazil to Urugu- ay ana. but the feet. who claim a vested right in their maladministration. capital. where the river is practically a continuation of the estuary of the Plate. which rise sometimes fifty at times nearly high and dry. built with unusual elegance and taste. and accessible it for ocean-going vessels. and cannot reins of fiiil 213 tlio to go on improving so long as in government arc firm hands. for which a concession with a guarantee has been granted by the Brazilian government. There handsome hotel to in the town. and at other times totally submerged. The steep and precipitous streets of Salto are in sad repair. will become the natural high road fail to and cannot in prove one of the most lucrative lines South America. the fortunes of Salto line is must rapidly recover.Raihvay Extension. and although there are many excellent houses. and often nearly impassable .

intercepted floods. and about The line. construction is totally incomprehensible. visible on the opposite high bank of The station of the North -Western Eailway of Monte Yideo is on high ground at the back of the town. termini at the other end are again nearly opposite each other. forty-five miles north of Salto. as solely the natural traffic is on the Uruguayan can ever cover and it is impossible after that it its working expenses line.2 r 4 is Competing Railway. and the two Concordia the river. near the present terminus of the railway. runs all the way over a camp. the completion of the Salto The guarantee years to remain its given by the Argentine government on the amount expended cannot fail for many totally unproductive. leaving the dusty-looking gardens in the suburbs. My which after stay at Salto was very short. and to form one of most serious unproductive financial liabilities. and runs through a picturesque but totally barren country. with their fences of prickly aloes. which is absolutely mono- tonous. as it was my object to take is up my permanent quarters at Arapey. The two railways run nearly parallel on opposite sides of the river. and add to the neg- . the line on the other side of the river is well constructed. with excellent stations. The heat and dryness of the climate parch to up the coarse vegetation. by marshes and object in liable to destructive its The view in side.

difficult how cattle thrive . is ated in the very centre of this vast. on such a dry and sandy-looking desert herds of cattle are dispersed all nevertheless. The Estancias are far apart. and storm water courses have ploughed up deep rocky ditches in the lower The ballast and embankments consist levels. and we meet nowhere with the dark and to conceive fertile beds of It is alluvium found in the Argentine plains. large over the plain. moreover. that away from the approaching train. has necessitated larofe undulations. lected 215 is and wild aspect. numberless curves in the considerable steepness. with occasional troops of wild ostriches or emus. largely of sands. The camp has it thus none of the verdant appearance that sents at into pre- Buenos Ay res. and we travel miles without the sight of a single human dwelling or even human being. and inhospitable wild. and pebbles. The present terminus is at . with gradients of The storms have bared the smooth red sandstone rocks on the summit of man}of these elevations. which line. uninhabited. the ground ploughed up in deep furrows by the torrents formed by the tropical rains that often prevail. broken rock.The Camp. and at the first aspect it seems rush totally incredible that so large and steady a trade situ- as at present exists could be derived from a tem- porary station which. It is thrown up. at the present time.

as it generally is. about The Camp. and through an excessively rough country. wooden station and a few it. which this brinoj goods a distance of 50 to 150 miles Brazil. with- . by the bullock carts. sur- rounded.2i6 Santa Kosa. from the surrounding camp and from out roads or villages or halting stations. huts that have clustered round It resembles in the distance a caravan halting in the desert. five miles and consists solely of the beyond the Arapey.

This marshy dell is covered by deep water during the great floods. both sides of the . and convert this rocky river into a torrent that can be heard for miles. the deep alluvium beds which form the northern bank are crossed by a viaduct of wroughtiron girders on cast-iron piles. with a single roadway between them on transverse girders resting built of on the lower The abutments are sandstone. THE COTTAGE AT ARAPEY.work wrought-iron girders. which not unfrequently rise thirty or forty feet in a few hours. river. and terminate a high bank on flange. supported on large iron columns with cement. at The bridge crosses the river proper an altitude of forty-five feet above the ordinary water. and consists of three spans of 150 feet each over filled the river. ^^f^^HE is only large work on the Salto line the great bridge over the Arapey. is which approached by a long viaduct. The girders are ordinary trellis.CHAPTER XIII.

It stands on the river. Our nearest town was Salto. and the undisturbed climate. selected This was the lonely and lovely spot by my wife and myself for a three months' to residence.2 1 Solitude. on the river about two miles below. It was roofed with corrugated iron. lit The lovely glorious star- nights. and the peaceful evenings spent in their investigation. It is hopeless attempt to describe the pure enjoyment afforded by this leisurely- examination of a subtropical river valley of exceptional interest and beauty. forty-five miles The only visible habitation was the ferryman's establishment. We were entirely dependent on the morning train for the basket . which brought our simple daily fare the owner of an estancia several . bare hard rock about 150 feet above the commanding lovely views of the river valley. How few are aware that such pure and simple ! streams of happiness are within their reach away. can never be forgotten. with a second roof of timber to keep out the heat. It was close to the line and about 250 yards from the river on its southern bank. and has a light timber look-out tower rising above the building. the treasures of natural wonders which rewarded every ramble. During the construction of this bridge a little wooden cottage had been erected by the engineers. the companionship with nature which such a retreat afforded.

had an old leaky boat for river investiga- A Spanish workman acted as cook. or wild duck. This was our whole establishment. but the fish in the river refused all temptation. covered with horizontal rafters and a deep which with flat its layer of boughs of the lucuma. constructed of hard wood uprights well secured in the rock. and was always occupied at night by about a dozen horses that had been left at the . which he changed from time to time.The Cottacre Establishment. There was no difficulty with the gun at any time in killing a partridge. 2 1 miles away would occasionally send us a sheep. as of any aspiring we were beyond the reach philosopher who might have taken " a fancy to the thermometers or theodolite or microscope. We tion. and supplied us with a milch cow. Adjoining the cottage was a remada or shelter. while an Italian who was in charge of the cottage was our general servant. who on two occasions during our residence were formally hunted out by bodies of mounted The only property of any value we pospolice. although the rocks and caves of the Monte near us were the resort of malefactors of the blackest dye. sessed were our guns. and we kept a numerous family of poultry around the cottage. and constant companion in our rambles. thick persistent foliage formed an impenetrable shelter for cattle against the terrible noon-day sun. and other game. or snipe.

as it world by the passing the lofty bridge on its thundered across fro. I On making some experiments with these feathers was struck with the singular affinity with which . and frequently disturbed us when a wandering ostrich stead. my wind-vane. A friend from his gun and stayed a few off. and sometimes station. which as usual con- an eagle's feather thrust through a cork. A couple of powerful dogs slept under the verandah that shaded the front of the cottage. the station master rode over from the which was two miles with a letter or a message.Vane. We were moreover reminded daily of the outer train. or cattle approached too near our homeSalto occasionally brought days. with a hole bored at right angles through the quill and cork to admit the long French nail that formed the axis. shed. cottage and belonged to us. The poultry invariably roosted on this which protected them from wandering beasts of prey. and that no one would accept. journey to and After selecting a site and fixing I constructed sisted of my thermometer.2 20 The Wind.

The latitude of the cottage is 30° 50' south. 8. (fig. I erect at a convenient height a small table of smooth white pine about twenty inches square. and the longitude 8 hrs. it has proved so useful to all me rough measurements of kinds that I will describe in detail the table I left behind me in the cottage at Arapey. site My next was to establish a permanent to set on the rock up a distant meridian mark. Having determined on a good position. in this case under a verandah facing north. a small ball of cork . It is always my and habit whenever I make any call lengthened residence to construct what I an azimuth for table.TJie Aziiniith Table. A fixed wire or strong string is support four or five feet overhead. 221 wind with clings to the its vane of a feather as compared action on a tin plate or other substance. I observed the time by morning and evening altitudes of the sun. west. fixed that the edge lies east The table is so and west. theodolite. then suspended from a which. my and 5 sec. a specific property of considerable importance in the act of tlying.) passing through a hole at P hangs vertically with a heavy weight at the lower end below the table (a bottle of water with a string through the cork is a very good makeshift) . 50 min. This very flagstaff efficient instrument was mounted on the care for on the tower.

and the ball up the wire we can at any time shadow to coincide before noon cause the semicircle with the and mark its position. true south will be half way between two points in the semicircle.222 slides The Azbnuth up and down the (b). string by means of a slit fig. in 9) the cork a small moveable weight (see c carrying a large-headed pin placed anywhere in the circle (s) in is to one of the sights. My first operation draw a correct meridian line (p s) on the clean If the time is accurately deal surface. If without dis- turbing the ball we now wait until the shadow these ao-ain coincides with the semicircle in the after- noon. this at once performed by observing the shadow of accuratel}'- the plumb B line at the instant of true noon. Table. and true noon will be very approximately the time shown by the watch . is known. a semi- circle (A by sliding may be drawn round the centre (p). is If mean time c) not known.

or cloud. since AB will be the tangent of c. and the measuring circle (e s w) covers the star.TJie Azimuth Tabic 223 at the intermediate time tions. is divided into degrees. We are now in a position to properly the position in azimuth of any object such as a meteor. or sunset. by simply bringmovable index B ing the weight and the movable sliding weio. any table of tangents. we can ascertain the height in arc of the object (s) from Fig. due north when our plumb that it line intercepts E (polaris) at the The meridian line (p s) bein!2: thus obtained. 9.ht into a line k with the given object. the line A c is drawn at rio-ht angles through P. between the two observa- The inor pole star furnishes a ready It will be means of obtainsame time a meridian. or dis- S tant hill. figured right and left from fix s. more than this. and reading the azimuth the on <-»j divided circle. which the angle c will be directly read . if But ^ /' we mea. the angle at c to radius A of tangents or a rod with a scale drawn on it may be prepared from off._JL_ 9) sure the distance A B (fig.

it. facility.2 24 The Azimuth great deal Table. steadily mounted. is The position of the celestial equator and poles clearly defined by raising the ball to the co-lati- tude of the observer. The altitude of the sun and moon at noon. and a good telescope. With a celestial globe and a very little spherical trigonometry. My table contained a solar black bulb for vacuum thermometer solar radiation. a half second's pendulum slung beneath to be felt with the upper end slightly projecting through a slit in the table. aflforded con- venient means for estimating the duration of any . The Time variation of the compass is conveniently tested. extra meridianal observation is very simple. The motion of clouds and storms is observed with great 2. so as by the finger in the dark. 7. are always interesting observations. The name of its any bright star or planet may be determined in passage over the meridian. at rising or and their position on the horizon at that moment. A 1. at noon is approximately found. and the azimuth of the sun or moon setting. 3. as we and ascertain at that time both its rio-ht ascension declination. may be done with this simple instrument. 4. 6. 5. completes a very serviceable rough observatory.

and maintains a steep face river. of the The River Arapey is one of the numerous feeders Uruguay its rapid fall from the high rocky hills in the northciii province of Uruguay gives it more the character of an enormous mountain torrent . pro- a series of These reaches in dry little flow. and these valleys are covered with forest trees and underwood.The River Arapcy. The banks are steep and is precipi- tous where the stream undermining the rock. It has ploughed out for a deep chasm in the hard red sandstone rocks of the district. its where we sought narrowest limits. and is cut up into successive reaches its by harder ducing strata. phenomena such 225 as the flight of meteors. which render navigation impossible except during the great floods. with and the hard rocky bottom forms islands and shallows. It often forms valleys a mile in width on each side of the river. which intercept falls. etc. than of a steady itself river. The River Arapey. towards the It is well exemplified at the bridge. passage of clouds. silt while the enormous quantity of sand and is brought down from the interior heaped up or of great deposited over large areas where the river passes through lower ground. seasons become shallow lakes. course. distance of thunder. This deposit is depth. and a vegetation of the most luxurious 15 .

is totally destitute of and it has here assumed vast propor- on account of the magnitude of the valleys through which the river runs and the excessive height and frequency of the river that floods. and are lost to the ow^ner cattle. mounted gauchos scours the rocks and of this and in a portion less Monte near our cottage no than 2. and in such cases they seldom return. and other animals. prolific soli- From time to time the cattle from the plains stray into these woods. enters these grand and tudes. with a large number of wild cattle escaped from the open camp. rich vegetation The allu- which covers these extensive It invariably vial deposits is characteristic of tropical rivers.000 . and other wild animals. but especially prominent in a rocky. tigercats. are the haunts of pumas. It is rare any human being. sandy desert. a numerous troop of dells.2 26 The Monte. They are intercepted it is description. tions. and. carpinch os. The woods are full of beautiful birds. where and by numerous lagoons and large lakes and marshes teeming with snakes and crocodiles. by deep rocky dark at noon. as they are dotted with luxuriant glades of pasturage. except occasionally an escaped felon. glens or water courses. marks out the it distant track of every stream and river. but occasionally. is where the country everywhere else vegetation. in order to recover the battue is a organized. is and called the Monte.

and lakes. frogs. Such battues are made every it is four or five years. and rocks. the rush past of some straggling ox disturbed by our presence. that to night. and marshes. and full of marvels in natural history of the deepest interest. crowded with the most gorgeous subtropical botany. afforded intense excitement. and to to a lover of nature It well worth a journey South America to be present at such a chase. but always of the most enjoydescription. like gangs of stonemasons pick. to listen to the magic music of the The deep sigh of the alligator. the scream of large owls the roar of puma. we far wandered from morning woods. of which we could give no account.Our Even trigs liead of cattle . was among these woods. and was impossible thread such wilds without a compass. 227 an expedition of were recovered in this kind during our residence at Arapey. the splash of the carpincho. it and impressive A gun was an to invariable companion. . and even with this assistance some large lagoon or deep intervene and intercept our little ravine would often way but . and caves. and often into the night. often not unmixed with able fear. the extra fatigue only enhanced the luxuries of our modest home. and break- ing its way through the dense thickets. as he plunges into the water. with a host of other mysterious noises. the metallic sound of the ing granite the .

which. as far as the rapids. and covering high trees. this clear This was in the normal quiet state of and gentle or river. On then submerges these these occasions the cottage trembles on the solid .2 28 The Floods. it hurls them down in tangled rafts among the rocks and underwood. Avith forest trees. in times of floods thirty becomes feet a furious rising it forty all with great rapidity. and seek shelter among the (juiet lagoons and inland lakes. pigs tumbled in from the banks The river and swam across parrots flew the stream . and the cUbris brought down by the muddy waters. air plants. often at We dusk descended the steep and stony boat rowed up and bank. and pigeons cooed on every side among the trees. and its noise and turmoil are indescribable. and embarking in our the river bed. after becoming more or less parched up by the dry and burning atmos[)here. wooded lands. or wrenching them out of the clayey soil. which were audible for a long distance. and limited our excursions. are again filled and often remodelled by the movements of the alluvium bed. flocks of screaming by overhead. and creepers. bowered between two precipitous heights covered which were smothered passion flowers. through a thicket of thorny talas and acacias. The alligator and carpincho then retire. it but in its angry moody torrent. little down among shallow rocky pools. We were then emin begonias.

and irises. intersisyrinchiums. with the lofty bridge and railway banks waters. covered with The near rocks fall off precii)itously near the river. covered with very sand but over large areas quite bare. tufts of beautiful flowers. the fertile nature the sands and alluvium. thrives on the hot rock close to the door. Large patches of this turf-like soil are covered with a dense scarlet verbena. but our long sojourn included the and December. with its showy lilies. The soil around the cottage is a little dark-red sandstone. Our first visit was in July. or midwinter. mergence of low lands by to destruction and the liability by rodents and Within cattle. bed of white and The portulaca. or large stones. rock. summer months of October. the occasional subfloods. November. Plants that adapt themselves to these peculiar conditions thrive in wanton luxuriance. fifty yards of the cottage flora we could enter the Monte and revel in a entirely new and peculiar. others in the form of climbers and shrubs . spersed with various solanums in endless variety. some like bunches of primroses. 229 little and wo look out from the tower upon turbid a vast and turbulent lake. and a rocky ravine little brings down a stream the cottage. in the hollows. sli<^-htly raised above its The botany was of in kcepiufj^ with the dr}' sub- tropical character of the climate.The Flora.

and other onagraceoe surrounded the pools asclepiads. or woody foliage. linear. salvias. and other thorny trees near the house.230 (Enotheras. but the most striking features were the great beds of pontederias. and bignonias. with their stained petals. pavonias. are tufted with curious mistle- and covered with air plants. ascle- piads. and pink. but none with succulent expanded leaves. and the lovely macrosyphonia. that the botany was so rich and so peculiar. and a host of others. and red. the other plants that hold their own are grasses and rushes. . with their large spikes of blue covered the deeper pools. talas. his snout and azure flowers. But it was more especially in the great Monte. passion flowers. The showy ayenias. tamus^ clematis. which The alligator often raised among their large green floating leaves. bignonias. floated on the brilliant pools. or plants with wiry. and among the lagoons and marshes. and other mallows Jussieoe . The toes. and flourish all over the rocky plains. euphorbias. passion flowers. withstand the treading of the cattle and the intense solar heat." and ^'oncidium/' and luxuriant creepers. white. " pourretia. covered the open sands. sweet-scented petunias. especially The Arapey Flora. overtopped the tallest trees with clouds of Gentians bloom. acacias. Turneras. covered the rocks with lovely flowers. with gorgeous flowers.

The ground porlulacas. and myrtles. turneras. and laurels. climbers and most accoe. replaced its vivi- by the parous bitter gentian. or thorny. plants. with perfumed curious clusters of leaves clings The similax. solaninums. As a protection against cattle. and . or the oxalis. The passion and asclepiads. euphorbias. It is very singular to observe how the principle of natural selection has peopled these Montes and parched plains with plants so peculiarly and beautifully adapted to the exceptional characters of the locality. or indestructibly tough. are here highly poisonous. but the wildest plants are the papilion- immovably to the bushes. with its and tendril-like stipules.A^a tu 1 -a I Selection 231 The woods their are rich in laurels flowers. plant could exist. bignonias. leguminous plants escape the floods and animals by climbing the floods tallest trees. The buttercup flowers. which sweep no ordinary away whole islands of vegetation. convolvuluses. and subject droughts beneath a tropical sun. and towering overhead in plants. Overrun constantly by rodents and to long cattle. or resinous. as a rule. of bloom. showy among which all the erythrinas are forest trees dispersed through the woods and covered with scarlet flowers. Hence the is great development of talas and acacias. at other times subject to floods. with buds.

on closer and far will be found more remarkable a. and placed in water. the great alismas and plantagos.nd of the as a manifestation of harmony and law. derive protection from the deep and brilliant first pools. . or even dew. possess. like animals. Oenotheras are bitter and tough. with grasses and sedges. marvellous power which plants. and strike their roots into the arid red rocks. and although the Monte may at examination it sight appear to be a wild scene of confusion ruin. singular that these plants immediately wither when gathered and The ponte- derias. They flourish withit out is soil and without moisture. of adapting themselves to the local peculiarities of their habitat.232 Natural Selection.

diffi- and caused Trains on the culty Campana travelled with great on account of the greasiness of the rails. NOTES AT A RAPE Y. like a coming thunderstorm. and the only chance of extirpating them appears to be the destruction of these deposits. down la}^ to the hard and woody pampas grass. rapidly devouring every vestige of vegetation. T the time of our arrival at the cottasre in October the country was locusts. They so solidly on the ground as to be ankle deep. infested with swarms of the crops which destroyed great distress. and when washed up on the beach the putrifying masses poison the atmosphere.CHAPTER XIV. covering 120 or 130 square yards of . they appeared in dark clouds. large They were bred in numbers in dry sanely spots about Arapey. arising from their destruction by the tram. We often came across a young progeny. where the eggs had been deposited.

with white bodies and black borders to their wings."who frightened everything away. which were disagreeably numerous everywhere. by igniting the dry grass we turned them and the poultry near the cottage tiful assisted in the attack." built their nests among the boughs of the cattle-sheds. but annoyed me by a habit that I eagle's feather could not eradicate. and among them a fine pets. rapidly destroying the grasses and thickly covering every shrub as they moved on. that darted about among the flowers with extraordinary and afforded us constant amusement. . and amused us with their thrilling song. The Monte was the haunt of numerous beauagility. on one occasion made straiojht for the cottasce. ground. A column but aside. Several mocking-birds. to avoid the iguanas. birds. that were always on the look-out . comadracas. of settling on my wind-vane. we never left the house with the gun with- out being followed by a flight of the handsome but noisy "ptero pteros. became very familiar shot eagle Some of the birds we were very handsome. " callandria. Two pair of lovely Widah birds. besides some gorgeous woodpeckers and magpies. sively These birds became exces- tame and familiar. and swinging round constantly with the wind. and a lovely small white crane.234 The Arapey Birds. A good deal of time was occupied in protecting our poultry from the vultures and caranchos. and snakes. especially humming-birds.

As soon I as I had settled down in the cottage. dry. fine 235 boys with great pluck shot a it puma had been marauding among the tail measuring the cattle. Co }i due lor. we were glad to be rid of such a neighbour. 8 on telegraph wire which we had in stock. it was not long before the security afforded. minimum of the evening being The hot gale drove dust and stones against . occupied a day in improvising a lightning-con- The conductor consisted of some No. so all we covered It with the boulders which I enjoyed around. carried the flagstaff above the top of the tower. but was a laborious operation it cut a channel in the rock to avoid disturbance from the lay cattle. and was a powerful animal. which was in a very exposed situation on the ductor. with temperature in the shade 96°. measuring 6 feet from the nose to the 2' 2": tail. but the difficulty was to find an earth on this hard. where a well had been dug which was efficient. totally in- and we had been compelled station. The sultry. for on the 26th of October we had a hot north-east wind. the 84°. non-conducting rock. The same difficulty had been experienced at the station two miles away. to put up a special wire to find an earth in a marshy spot more I than a mile from the carry my wire down to a small stream it was obliged to which passed to near the cottage.A Lightning Two close to the cottage . stifling heat rendered sleep impossible. hill.

and then a hurricane from south and south-west. large. A singular accident occurred at Arapey which might have had more . The lightning was extremely and it it far more copious than in Europe. We counted indeed. lowed by a singular tranquillity. must be due in a great measure to the sparseness of population and imperfect record. shillings. like the tongues of vapour on the lake. it and the plains are strewed with excites very little notice.2^6 A lull of Sfonn. to fishing and botanizing under a vivid. huge mountains of cloud rose suddenly in the and the line of demarcation between the upper and lower currents was beautifully defined by mottled light wisps of cloud. This was fol- the windows. for fifty it is no uncommon thing on miles of railway at Campana to have thick destroyed cattle is wire fused and four or in a single storm. The Arapey rose suddenly. five telegraph poles The but where a mare destruction is of only worth about six carcases. with torrents of hail and rain and thunder and lightning. and though attain the high degree of tension that does not would in fatal dryer air. and the next day was devoted lovely sky. ceased at sunrise. Previous to the storm. the rain. thirt^^-six flashes in one minute. I have been surprised at the few it accidents that are recorded. and shook the tower. which lasted far into the night. had not east.

and we were it . the all staircases entirely destroyed. case. but would have been absolutely against the current itself useless as a protection when once determined. but probably escaping over the wet surface of the rock. . the roof lifted and displaced. there one cask of blasting full gunpowder unopened. and another cask half a board laid over with the casks stood in the middle on the dry hard rock.LigJit)iing. and even a watch left no existence than a dark stain on ploughed up. other trace of its it the wall where in bed. and solid stone landings wires were The bellmelted. had been used as a gunpowder the cottage. At about 120 yards from wooden shed. and another in the same bed was seriously My little lightning conductor might in that off the electricity by drawing from the air. a magazine during the blasting of the rock. ten feet square. This very slight shelter would probably have protected an inmate but I witnessed an example in Wales in which a substantial house was totally wrecked. During a thunder-storm the lightning struck the roof and descending the four corner posts splintered and demolished them. it left the gunpowder uninjured. 237 serious consequences. with a corrugated iron roof. had hung. contained while It con- sisted of four upright posts with boarded sides. have prevented the lightning from attaining suffi- cient intensity to strike that particular spot. One inmate was killed injured.

we lost all compassion. mother neither gave nor asked for quarter. 2 in. The jaws were armed with a threatening array of sharp teeth. in length. exclusively American. and like the alligator it is capable of inflicting a made The fearful inroads upon our eggs and very . with twelve young in her pouch. who found under some heaps of timber near the tage and chickens. instead of any attempt to escape they flew at our feet. It was the didelphys Azarae of naturalists. and measured 4 ft. In the daily ride to the station our servant caught and brought home a very singular and ferocious pouched animal which he had caught on the railway bank it was called by the natives camadraca. . though not larger than a beaver. I came across an animal bo determinately savage. and terribly It destructive among our unfortunate poultry. snapping at our shoes with their sharp teeth and formidable jaws. largest was a formidable creature. On turning out these little active new-born savages. was a female. but flew never savagely at the bars of her cage and at everything." We cot- killed three of these monstrous saurians. Another great enemy of the persecuted poultry was a great shelter lizard. It is an animal very common here. " Podinema teguixin. and we were obliged to despatch her.238 The Wild Animals. belong- ing to an order Pedimana. and The with difficulty killed the lot with sticks.

We came across a very interesting animal^ by nS^ )v no means uncommon the cuati or nasua socialis. 239 severe blow with its The tongue was highly developed. Another animal frequently seen on the nutria in banks of the Parana. and is sold in the markets. of immediately tail. and the hard rough skin was handsomely marked. which we have described as being so In the Arapey we could seldom look river down three the or in the evening without seeing crossing the four carpinchos water. it was remarkably tenacious be good eating. and was destro3'ed for attacking a large and favourite J'etriever. the is ^'myopotamus coypas. on its large and working It it it with its paws into a thick lather. is The tail is said to The armadillo dasypusvillosus.TJic Wild Animals. and fond of being petted to . A friend at Salto had one in her pattio. which had a singular habit. is a very favourite food. the carpincho. would not allow a dog come near it. whenever we gave rubbing it it a piece of soap. . It — ^^ belongs to the bear family. . common." generally found the same spot as the other large rodent. . massive tail. or It plunging in with a loud splash from the banks. which all very plentiful article of over the pampas. and resembled the old shagreen used for spectacle cases of life. It is a powerful crea- but is very easily domesticated. was extremely docile. and in that state is very fond of eggs. ture.

We brought a great many to the cottage. harmless. There were rows two or three kinds of large green snakes. with . large nails. I /. and numberless biscachos. ^' This very remarkable animal. A small and very pretty snake lines with three black was very common down the body. there are of rats and mice. the hyclrochoerus copybara" all is the largest of is rodents. is the sea hog. of trees in the pincho on the river banks. it has and webbed. the dogs were con- by them. and the natives of naturalists. especially near the lagoon. and when attacked would attempt a courageous defence tinually startled . and said to be the favourite food of the tigers that inhabit the river banks. that burrow in every dry hillock all over the camp. a large animal. were the snakes they were so numerous that we seldom had a ramble without killing several. not unlike a pig without a call it tail.240 is Rodent Aittjnals. Most of them were.' suofo^ested that the absence «-%' pampas is due to the very large numbers of rodents which inhabit South American In addition to the nutria and the carplains. and were always in danger of treading on them. have elsewhere. several species of many pampas species hares. I believe. we knew spots where we could always find them. The only creatures that were really troublesome -. but some were of considerable size.

close alongside the line there is 16 . they lay back enclosed under a membrane in the upper jaw. snake. and had doubtless furnished a meal for some of the vultures or hawks who were it always on the look-out for such a chance. was the vibora de la Cruz. The and alluvial banks and plains extended back into the camp on the opposite side of the bridge. I have seen it this snake spring at the stick with which was disturbed. which is a very dangerous serpent. We which one day killed a very large and powerful snake. beautifully 241 The very handsome coral marked with coloured bands. head is small and narrow. We hung it on a tree. by a simple groove extending to the sharp extremity. quite distinct from I any other we had seen. but when we came back at believed night was gone. beautifully adapted for instilling They were poison into a wound. There is a double row of sharp The teeth in the lower jaw. through two-thirds of distributed There was a channel in the body of the tooth its length poison was then . was the poison fangs from very plentiful.Snakes. of sharp short teeth. I dissected several of these snakes. all sloping inward. but were too small to have pierced through a gaiter. intending to take it home on our return. rattle-snake is A stray far occasionally found. a very large . or trigonocephalus.

I have never heard 7 J* Although the Monte swarmed with mosquitoes and a valley. otters. embedded in a forest of trees and it was tenanted by water fowl. plated giants within a few it never appeared to have the slightest they generally plunged lazily under the water among the great beds of pontederia and rushes. while large birds swooped over the cries forest or uttered their peculiar among the trees. I often stood on the high viaduct in the evening. On one occasion I saw three close along- alligators lying together on the bank side the viaduct . they never left . spicuous. but their presence they are said to be sometimes eighteen feet long. terrible stinging gadfly. I have often shot at these armourpaces. hogs. The largest we saw was about ten feet lono. as they lay basking They are so inconamong the underwood.but seeing them. The teeth dull large eye and the formidable jaw and ferocious aspect. Alligators. . was often indicated by the peculiar deep sigh which they utter their eggs are frequently found in the sand and mud. that we sometimes approached very near without . and large fish. though they will the dogs. gave them a very kill but. river and alligators. but effect . the and we were unmolested in the cottage our >i y only enemies were a few scorpions under the stones.242 and deep evergreens lake. watching the pastime of this curious fauna. .

. whose bite has beyond doubt proved fatal in several instances. cold cream. olive oil. or and then apply Florida water S2:)irit . produces the most intense irritation both in Buenos Ayres and Arapey I have been laid up with the inflammation produced by these minute creatures. and many people during the summer months are altogether unable to live away from the town. requisite. principally about the legs. some other strong is there are other remedies. is and the tarantula enormous ." a species of harvest bug.TJic Bccho Colorado. that swarms among the dry grass and bushes. of 243 size. which also a we all often killed in our bedroom there small spider. or I took some pains to ascertain the cause of in irritation the bite of several of the diptera. or mosquito I . but great care sores. with those whose flesh will bear such treatment. or an is to rub the pustules with a brush empty ear of maize until they nearly bleed. especially the culex autumnatis. spider. and carbolic or vinegar. such as glycerine acid. to prevent serious to The only really eflective preventative is anoint the legs with any grease every day before venturing among any vegetation. more serious pest is the minute becho Colorado tetranychus. An in- teresting memoir on these But a spiders has been written by the professor of natural history at the Univerfar " sity at Cordova. and burying itself in the flesh. far too common. The remedy.

and I think largely due to the form of the inserts. full of extra- vasated blood. two lancets. is wound .144 Mosquitoes it could detect no poison glands. leav- ing an inflamed and conical wound. which are thus effectually extracted. . The natural food of the culex would be the juices of the river-sicle plants. a conical hole which the sucking capillaries have been destroyed in order to supply tlie hlood which is drawn up by the organs. on withdrawing the lancet the small puncture immediately closes and heals. after insertion is which are opened in the and worked round thus produced. in wound . the insect through a very small puncture.

METEOKOLOUY AT AKAPEV. totally Its no loss remarkable than the its singularly troi)ical character of fauna most striking features arc the between the temperature abnormal heat and dryness of the climate. have already alluded to the surrounded with the same configuration of the continent generally as affecting climate. difference I and the great of night and day. and absorbing the sun's lays with such avidity that during the greatest heat the ground obtains a temperature of 130°.CHAPTER XV. At this tempera- ture. but they consist of a hard. T will be seen iliat the is meteorology of the Arapey and botany. red. covered with loose tUbvl^ totally devoid of any visible pasture during the summer. with a difference of 31" between the wet and dry bulb. treeless brittle we arc here still plains. sandstone rock. and stones were disagreeably hot to the touch. it was marvellous to see luxuriant tufts .

246 The Heat. of Oenothera and petunia. the pampas was on fire ture. and then. soaring in the were indistinguishable from the hazy house was filled stars. under the verandah. and the timber hut cracked with sharp reports. the lagoons The evaporation being and ditches were dried up and the water-plants and grasses annihilated. of lanterns they darted round the cottage and air. Every article we touched felt hot. portulaca and verbena blooming luxuriantly in evening filling this dusty desert. So excessive was the dryness. and in the the air with their fragrance. The dogs and poultry seemed to suffer more from the hot breeze than we did. but the horses in full sun bore without so any apparent concern. an atmosphere was could only lie still we in our hammocks. and considerably affected the tempera- and flights of locusts came driving like hail agfainst the house and windows. the . The with crickets. reminding one of a distant Chinese feast . excessive. and appeared quite helpless and prostrated as they lay on the dust in it the shade. that old and well-seasoned theodolite and microscope cases were distorted and split. The for dried vegetation of all many round the horizon. with doors and windows open all the night. to us almost insupportable Such . The Monte was lit up by streams of fireflies. and hecatombs of moths and beetles and gnats fell round our lamps miles and covered the tables.

but by tying it a wet towel over our water bottle. we it obtained water of refreshing In this liot dry wind I have on several This was the atmosphere occasions lowered twenty-five degrees below the temperature of the in air. and thick as thouorh anxious to shelter the foliao^e. coolness. ducting materials fell I found that a thermometer at rapidly to ^^^^ which was a greater effect than I had anticipated. but the great creepers that covered the forest trees were luxuriant with legumes and winojed seed. I desired to isolate a thermometer from the ground. for by placing our beds in the evening . We were not long before we put this discovery into practice. Monte with an fruits. I discovered a practical means of utilizing its Our high effects which we were glad to adopt. alliorators 247 wallowed in the hot mud nearei* the river banks. and mcrantic fruits. and of the night 85. The temperature of the day was 101°. impenetrable canopy of flowers and We wliicli had to obtain our water from the rocky pools now constituted the river bed. and swinging in the doorway. temperature being due to the heated rock beneath. This I effected air. by placing on a feather bed laid in the open surrounding 86° it with pillows or any other non-con.Chrishnas Day.° In making some experiments on radiation. and expose it it solely to radiation. which we passed our Christmas Day at Arapey.

which form as effectual a . Uruguay naturally an extension of the tropical regions of Brazil. it. however. with veiy sensible diminution of the terrestrial influence. with their dark rock. The winds are consequently more and the great storms that retreat westward from the Andes are in a very striking manner diverted or dispersed. exposed to a vertical sun without a vestige of shade. Southern which here attain their lowest southern limit. and pays the penalty by continued loss from evaporation. are local furnaces continually pouring their heated columns of parched air into the cooler space above. and disturbed those regular alternate and polar periodic inroads of equatorial which The great river system forms a natural boundary. where they amount or of vapour necessary for their propagation. resolutely refused to be warmed. which separates Uruguay both geologically and meteorowere so marked a feature at Buenos Ayres. They are either thrown northward up the great river find the requisite valleys. These hot plains. we enjoyed the cooling influence of the space above us. outside on trestles. Close alongside lies the great ocean receiving the same amount of vertical heat. variable.248 The Parched Atmosphere. they are deflected by the ascending heated columns. The effect was very evident air on the climate. logically is from the plains of the pampas. the heat being converted into vapour.

We had a dust re- storm on the 2nd of December. night minimum 52°. day maximum 76°. The prevalent due to the higher tem- perature of the land. effect in lifting the polar currents into higher regions. which also prevents condensation. which exactly . a constant wind prevailed from the beginning of November till the 16th. 249 bar to their progress north as a range of mountains.The Tanpcraturc. rising at night to the force of half a gale from the south-east. it was a strong wind. and exercise a very singular winds were from the east. while long droughts consequently are frequent. and changed to west. The wind decreased this was succeeded by a temperature of 92°. the difference between the wet and dry bulb being 32°. tion The reverberaclouds durincr of the thunder amonor the the storm was also very striking. day temperature of heated rock 102° in violence on the 16th. with lightning and heavy rain. A striking proof of the presence of vapour above was afforded by the fact that the black bulb in the sun was only 108°. prevails in the evening all along the coast. rain. and dust storms take the place of As an east instance of normal weather. this increase at night was doubtless due to the re- inforcement it received from the sea-breeze that general The mean temperature from November 2nd to November 16th -was.

thrill of cold startled us from instinctively the our seats. The and turmoil of these storms filled indescribable . The heat was most oppressive though the thermometer fell in the evening. all secure. 93° in from the afternoon to 82° at 7 p. We observed a heavy cloud in the south-west. with constant lightning. it was followed by a very little rain. down dinner. the cottage visibly swayed before the air. with . we knew and began closing . we were wrapt in all deep darkness. rolled over us like a sea. the blow of clouds of dust seeds of the and a tide chaffy flechilla. The gale swept our remada or cattle-shed bodily away. but the storm fell The lightning was incessant. the Monte and the river valley all round with brilliant streams from west to east. sat summer but intense all we to paid no further attention. from south-west. but we make noise . and afterwards. but no thunder was audible among the uproar. filling the bedroom. sembled the one at Campana already described. at 8. when suddenly an cause. We could see nothing. which illumined on the back of the house. and the storm burst over us in its is fury. a grass which depth covers the pampas. doors and windows could as rapidly as all we could the servants barricaded before the back of the house.250 The Dust Tor7iado.15. to the two feet. before of we could close it. by lightning of the most vivid description.m.

but rain being impossible. of which it was only a specific phase. like ordinary storms. several of . extended over a very large area.The Dust Sfonn. Boats were sunk and much damage done air at Salto. though their separate nuclei are small. but as the tem- perature of the air before the storm was 93°. were helplessly This vortex rotated normally around its centre with the hands of a watch. There are. while the temperature of the 7G°. change of wind. even if the whirl wiud was absorbed in our dry hot was almost instantly A marked want of sun's rays preceded the storm. directly against the wind. and force in the the distant thunder became singularly audible saturated. the whirlwind was a few drops was formation of rain beyond impossible. numbers of them came screaming of rain to the door of the house in the darkness for protection. 251 upwards of a hundred head of poultry at roost on the top . probably. but travelled bodily. where passengers in the open hurled away. . These tornadoes often . was at Campana. The absence the was singular. disturbing half the western hemisphere with their capricious motions. as the vapour air. arise on the confines of two currents they appear to wander over enormous areas. as the cyclone passed over instantaneous. and dew point 54°. precisely as it us. Its violence again become purely a dust storm.

and expended their energy in raising columns of dust and destroying a few roofs and remadas. the only fuel it obtains being the heated dust.252 Tornadoes. Hence the invariable course of each storm or is to follow rivers wet valleys. As they travel along they hurl together all the layers of atmosphere they meet with. The analogy between ordinary storm is tornadoes and the close. as we see them in a mill race on a river skirting the central rapid torrent. where they meet with the requisite reinforcement of moisture. simultaneously waDdering on. or forests. which flows surrounded down spirally from above to supply the vacuum. The these thrill of cold which always so startles us is the descending current. The heat set free by condensation rises like a draught through a chimney in the centre of the vortex^ by a cylinder of cold air. these vortices. thus very its It is in fact simply a torrent and whirlpools. tall Such a system soon dies out on a dry arid plain. picking up the moist strata that overlie the river valleys. or marshy grounds. them air but when they met the dry parched that prevailed at Arapey they were powerless to produce rain. converting all vapour into rain and heat with almost explosive violence and more especially deluging all such localities. They supply the mechanical force neces- sary for blending the currents and flashing into rain . . constantly dissolving and reforming.

as air The tornado may be regarded a huge centrifugal pump. but These columns move from left to right round the stalks slowly the whole pump and majestically over the pampas. by the cold spiral columns of external central shaft. It rose to 29G0 when the storm reached us. The descent of the cold column gave the maximum of recovered. continually reinforced by condensation of the blended atmospheres. while the descending shaft is represented air. drawing up heated from the earth's surface. tration force pressure. like ventilatino.ToDiadocs. and bringing down mine its cold air from hiofher reo-ions. of its motion is The direction determined not only by its naturally seeking an atmosphere loaded with moisture. from which it rapidly The whole phenomenon is another illus- the absolute necessity of mechanical and of the influence of vapour in the pro- duction of a storm. from 29-58 to 20-45. great currents in which it is floating on the generated in a direc- tion contrary to that of the wind. force is maintained by colossal as- cending columns of heat. as the surrounding air was drawn away into the vortex. fig. 253 The barometer fell before the hurricane. like an ordinary storm.shafts in a . Let the isobars ABC. represent the great . which accounts for its anomalous progress contrary to the direction of the wind. 10. but also by another circumstance.

or contrary to the motion of the gentle natural current ABC. It accounts satisfac- torily for the fact that such storms soon die out when passing over dry sandy deserts. roll itself in the direction of the arrow T. at A. with the hands of a watch.. to the left. It is evident the friction against the denser where the barois meter is at thirty inches. air. and every other characteristic of singular phenomena. and in the same direction as the great cyclone. the tornado rotating in the direction of the arrows. and attain such terrible violence among the hot saturated vapours of the tropics. lo. hail. natural cyclone of the atmosphere. light- ning and thunder. The cold weather that follows them is the work done b}^ the pump. i. which .e. furnishes abundant cause these for the deluge of rain. that is. and the small circle T.254 Tornadoes. where the barometer 2 9 "7 and that the tornado must consequently Fi?. will be greater than against the current inches. The mechanical violence with which a huge cjdinder so constituted must blend together masses of air of all degrees of heat and humidity.

absorbed in evaporation over the ocean where the cloud is formed. the further development of either of a third. A very small may thus originate a very severe storm. and diverts terrestrial currents into the upper regions. is another frequent origin of disturbance. and them depends wholly on the medium in which they originate and progress. the tornado. or the vortices formed is along the margin of great currents. when once disturbance ignited they run along exploding the mixture they meet in their progress. has brought 255 of cold air down a whole atmosphere it from above. The essential cause of them all is the sun's heat. and raised lower level. have alluded to the heated columns effect of mountain ranges as one source of our storms. of air. to the density due to its tempering our parched plains with pure and refreshing breezes. like trains of gunpowder. power of these tornadoes is incomprehensible on any theory of their sudden destructive creation . of The local ascent which forcibly over- comes the tendency of strata to maintain their stratification. The great feature self-sustaining in all these storms is their power. The but all difficulty ceases when we regard them I as the accumulated effect of long-continued energy.Tornadoes. but converted into mechanical energy over the heated land when .

with horny processes. all set one way. and. illuminating the woods during the night with sudden bursts of flame. .256 the vapour is The Flechilla Grass. and they are frequently table. possesses a power of their I penetration that is irresistible. amused ourselves for several weeks after the storm by dropping lucifers among these heaps. and refreshing A very singular result of this tornado was the deposit of enormous deep beds of the light seeds of the flechilla grass in every dell and sheltered spot. enormous de- ravines and ditches were filled up. as fresh deposits were reached by the running fire. and in sheltered spots. among posits We had accumulated. working their way through it. They ruin the wool. and precipitated in storms rains. condensed. frequently kill the animals that are not shorn the flesh. They filled our bedrooms in an instant to feet. The flame from . covering the underwood. They worked way through far our clothes and gaiters. but they are more seriously damaging to the poor sheep. by penetrating The valley was several feet found in the muscle of the joints brought to filled with these seeds. flame reached a great height. its long arms studded with short hairs. a bank high lined the river for miles. deep the trees in the Monte. the depth of two This terrible plant is the its scourge of the pampas and the barbed seed. and the far fire The spread and wide.

afforded an excellent screen. distribution manner is an important botanical phenomenon. aspect of other clouds as they passed over could only be satisfactorily explained on the very probable assumption that it is on the outer surface only 17 . They indicated the enormous area of the pampas. and the tongues of vapour I had observed during our quarantine that formed and drifted great away and re-dissolved on the surface of the The symmetric forms and changing river. and in estimating their magniIt is here that I became convinced cirrus analogy between the and other different similar forms of cloud generated on the clearly of defined confines of overlying strata constitution. which had been swept by the storm. of the close fields of shadow as they drifted past over the pampas. with the dried silvery remnants of the spring vegetation. Many pleasant hours were spent in watching these tude and speed.Forms of Clouds. The high position of the cottage gave a commanding view of the level camp for many miles around. and its bare surface. Clouds. on which the shadows of passing clouds were vividly depicted. 257 a collection beneath the bridofe almost reached the high timber platform above. which of seeds in this still carried them on The for hun- dreds of miles further into Brazil.

This appearance satisfactorily accounted for by the impermeability of the lower terrestrial stratum of air which rests on the earth. Such clouds are therefore and generally follow inroads of equatorial air polar air. shells of vapour. it now brought assumes the form of a horizontal horizon The dip of the is so is slight that the surface of the terrestrial layer practically a hori- . horizontal. its direct influence. its base on the terrestrial stratum being view. oil on water constantly its horizontal base. I is know no more certain prognostic than those long. and as at A. the centre remaining transparent. from directly beneath base is imperceptible. it. clearly-defined. however subdivided the mass But the most characteristic and the stratified cloud that forms in of frequent form the horizon. ^g.258 Perspective of Clouds. whereas the dense cumulus and the storm clouds produced by is always opaque and solid throughout. straight lines into which dense clouds range themselves is previous to rain. we see only the cloudy margin When into layer. the same cloud reaches the horizon. and is subject to The appearance observed is due to The cloud sailing on this stratum like preserves perspective. 11. When the level seen in the zenith. is of cold masses of air that cloud formed. may become.

where they assume the form of straight lines on the horizon. and the cloud o. and really sees the clouds as though on the circle A H. Tenerifie. It is by no means uncommon is in stormy weather. on a small scale. as in fig. afford occular stration demonof of the defined character of the line junction of lower and upper strata. and is ultimately brought into view as a straight line. as at permanent phenomenon. 259 is seen by an observer at will be seen the base 11. when the line of separation low.Height of Clouds. this is often a At greater altitudes. This boundary line between two currents does not necessarily produce clouds. in which it subtends a less and less anixlc the farther it is re- moved from A. These appearances. The observer visible refers the various positions to the hemisphere above him. zontal line. as both are frequently far removed from saturation. to see the clouds on the upper stratum moving in a direction directly opposite to those below. which are almost of daily occurrence. but it often causes that peculiar haze which arrests the force of the .

cold air is brouo-ht down from hio^her reo^ions. When condensation takes place. The above and other deductions are taken from my Arapey notes.26o sun's stars. effect is and rain commences. but they do not apply to every form of cloud. the light shell or superficial cloud air formed on the external surface of cold masses of through a transparent medium. varying from a few yards to three or four hundred. the stormy cloud. Srdly. trial and are succeeded by is rain. and. These results would indicate three very distinct classes — 1st. . often lower their height. and they come itself. as a rule. the accumulative. Height of Clouds. through a transparent medium floating 2ndly. higher in summer than in winter. when the terres- stratum totally swept away. and in the night obscures the lesser The height of clouds depends on the vertical terrestrial stratum. rays. which again depends largely upon the temperature of the earth depth of the itself. by disturbing the terrestrial stratum. formed by volumes visible or masses of heated and saturated floating vapour . and a more rapid condensation is engendered. into mechanical contact with the earth single stratum of cloud is A generally of very mode- rate depth. but even with a gentle rain. as we have seen in storms. but gales of wind. On this account clouds are. and more cloud is formed.

where a cloud remained stationary on the summit of the Sugar Loaf during a gale of wind. The temperature of the rock was 130°. The . and new forlifting The mation on the other. condensation of the vapour produced by the eartli's sur- mechanical energy of the storm at the face. this was evident at Rio. The true nimbus visible sign of the is therefore a mere outward and mighty transformations that are in progress. and falling of clouds is not a bodily motion of the whole mass.Effect of Shadows. the nights were cold. but is more generally caused by absorption on one surface. afford striking evidence of the direct effect of the sun's heat. On was the 103°. while every one must have bodily ex- perienced the frequent change of temperature due to a passing cloud. 261 the horizontal stratified cloud formed at the limit- ing boundaries of two adjoining transparent strata. These extraordinary durinor which are of constant occurrence the continuance of the same east wind. The true storm-cloud ing of either or all arises from the forcible blend- of these forms. chano'es. 24th of December the thermometer The parched hot wind was like a blast furnace. I will only add clouds that the thermic features of passing may be recognised very accurately by a effect of thermometer screened from the the earth's radiation. with a general itself.

but it appears me there another cause of the great difference of temperature. of very considerable importance. shadow sweeps over difference cannot effect large areas all around.262 Influence of Shade. fail to exercise Such a stratum. This enormous difference in the length of the shadow from every projection must have great influence on the temperature acquired by the solid earth. The shadow of a tree or tower 100 feet — — high will therefore be the tangent of feet in length. or fifty-three feet long. an important on the tempera- ture of the terrestrial The absence of . no doubt lessens the nocturnal radiation but only in proportion to the actual whereas its space it covers. whereas enormous tracts in England are in constant shade. and in midwinter it would at noon be no less than 373 feet long. where we have a vast plain without any trees or vegetation. is obliquity of the sun's rays of course a principal cause of the cold of our northern climate. 7y or 12*1 whereas the shadow of the same tower in London would at noon at midsummer be more than half the height. as com- pared with the tropics. At Arapey. The of the tree soil. This difference must be greatly increased at Arapey. the sun at Christmas equivalent to our midsummer at noon is about 74 degrees from the zenith. the same angular amount of solar radiation being distributed over a larger area as to we recede from the equator is .

till This excessive heat continued our departure on the another hot dust storm without a drop of rain but parched and barren as the camp left had now become. minimum 31st. and of the night 58°: maximum 103°. 263 humidity is all also greatly due to the want of shade and vegetation.Infliunce of Shade. . we sincere regret. and the difference between our dry and wet bulb thermometer We The mean day temperature of this terrible Christmas week was 90°3'. 45°. reached 31° had no dew. and cult even The mighty Uruguay was now a its navigation was diffilittle with the steamer that took us back to Paysandu. our peaceful cottage with shallow rocky stream. in .

ITS HISTORY. furnish a condensed epitome human history of the most varied and eventful character. singularly distinct from the surrounding provinces. and docile population. endurance. brave. on the tropic of Capricorn. its magnificent climate. and equally remarkits able for unrivalled fertility. They are records of the highest virtues is and the blackest crimes of which man capable. a little Mesopotamia. resignation have never been and more prominently exhibited than among the descendants of the fertile gentle pagan tribes who inhabited these and lovely provinces.100 miles there all is up the Parana and and Paraguay. while. and brief and cruel history.CHAPTER PARAGUAY AND XVI. N the very centre of the South American continent. its gentle. on the other . though extending over so short a period. its its picturesque beauty. 1. of The annals of Paraguay. The Christian submissive virtues of docility.

savage despot is an historical episode of the darkest dye and of the deepest interest.The Giiaranis. the remnants an agricultural people. and cruelty. which attracted the early Spanish adventurers. . and it is hoped closing scene. 265 hand. and with no other object than the gratification of wanton barbarity and ambition.000.200. inflicted on an inoffensive and defenceless population this last. and tion. customs. since Ever the time of Pizarro the whole history of is South America little more than a record of but in Spanish misrule. and remarkable for their developed and wide-spread language. . their greater progress in civiliza- and religion. as evidenced by the remaining monuments of their prosperity. this brave and faithful incentive of plunder race was so completely annihilated that even at the remnant of the population. the present moment reduced in four years from upwards of 1. pre-eminently superior to the surrounding savage tribes. the usual was wanting. The ultimate destruction of this rich and thriving population by a sensualist. their gentle character. were the Guarani original inhabitants of Indians. The numbers eight females to one male. the dominion of their Christian conquerors has furnished a page of in its record of human history unsurpassed wanton atrocity and cruelty by any pagan annals.000 to 300. plunder.

later date the and the character of the inhabitants. these were endowed by the unlimited independent Spanish government with authority.266 The The Jesuits. Ecclesiastical edifices and mercantile establishments of the most substan- . on the banks of the Para- guay. order. mainly Indian or negro. who and old. their labours totally unex- they found a field for ampled in religious history. extraordinary fertility of the At a soil. was founded by the Spaniards in 1535. country was soon overrun. established. in the beginning of the eighteenth century. and law were strictly maintained. and the as country fortunately contained no precious missionaries metals. attracted the Jesuit fathers. Public amusements of every descrip- tion were provided for them . a purely sacerdotal government. Among so kind and docile a people. from the marriage of Spaniards with the original inhabitants. but partly Spanish and partly mulatto. city of Asuncion. for the descendants of those marriages pertinaciously admit no more Indian blood. and The was ultimately peopled by a mixed race. the Indians arts were educated and instructed in the useful and trades. Entirely incapable of independent the Indians submitted like children to the gentle rule of these intelligent and highly-educated instructors. action. justice. as thorough as uncompromising as that of the Israelites of Instead of being employed as slaves.

who required such wel- come summons after the recall of the Jesuits. The Jesuits were suddenly recalled from South America . and missals. and enriched with sive plantations. country was cultivated with skill. taught grammatically in public schools. erected. was but too ready a prey for the reckless adventurer tools. and did not hesitate to yield the same childlike obedience and fidelity to the tyrants who persecuted and ultimately destroyed the amiable them. Their new self- lessons had permitted reliance. helpless a flock first was only natural. tion dictionaries. how- ever sad. 267 and the tial and imposing character were villages. language. tribes The oral language of the and gardens. public roads. happiness and prosperity was bought at the sacrilarge fice popula- of every vestige of independence. and extenGuarani and was converted into a written language. by printed grammars. no development of that but had only confirmed habit of implicit obedience which evil of their original was the characteristic savage life. so simple-minded. The result. as to priests to though narrow-minded whom all their happiness was due.Jesuit Listrudion. without a thought or a murmur they abandoned At the first their peaceful homes. in the new Under such tuition a was brought to a state of the highest military But all this material discipline and obedience.

Francia seized on the dictatorship. and was averse decimated all to the judicial murders which had the best families under the rule of his blood-thirsty and cruel predecessor. and ruled with cruel and capricious tyranny until he died in 1840. Though under jealous restriction. and the people. In imitation of the merchant Jesuits. the Lopez.268 Francia and Lopez fell I. After the revolt it Spanish colonies in 1814 became independent from sheer inaccessibility. and became sole importer and its exporter of foreigners He in detained forcibly the country. and instituted a system of tyranny and espionage of the most oppressive character. They . though he permitted his family to enrich themselves by unscrupulous plunder of this gentle and enduring people. and lation lost two-thirds of its popuof the in thirty years. population The were was rapidly increased. committed but few atrocities. rapidly attained a material happiness. who. when a Dr. all he closed the country from produce. He was first succeeded by another adventurer. and Paraguay again into the hands of Spanish governors. pro- bably unparalleled in any part of the world. set access by land or water. all who foot and discouraged marriage and religion. and assumed the most despotic authority. he opened the country to foreign trade. in 1767. now left alone to enjoy the riches of these fertile valleys again.

The yerba is a tea of singularly refreshing properties. maize. Ay res. driven into the woods and marshes. while they lived in groves of orange trees and bananas. Lopez died in 1862. the most senseless. his v^anity. and mandioca they consume. produced from the leaves of a plant of the holly tribe. under proper regulation. cruel. and Buenos His insensate war with Brazil his fiendish cruelty. This unnatural despot was bay^n^tted in a ditch /^•Jr^^v^ by the Brazilians in 1869. and was succeeded by his son. the late Lopez II. 269 excessively hospitable. the Ilex Paraguayensis. this prosperous and happy coun- try was so ruthlessly destroyed and annihilated that the population was reduced to 200. . cowardice. and rapacity are almost inconsistent with sanity. and would have been impossible with any other population than the brave and faithful . surrounded with ex- cellent pasturage for their cows and principal revenue of the country The cattle.. produce enormous revenues.. naturally covers extensive areas in Paraguay. principally women and children. and might. but in the short period-ut*v^ j of seven years. was derived from the 3'erba forests. largely consumed in South which America.000 souls. and a few days' labuur pro- duced could all the tobacco. and blood-thirsty tyrant among all the terrible list that have desolated the South American continent.Lopez 11.

lawless disposition- cuted people. and in the it is said he spent some time where he camp of the allies in the Crimea. and resolved on his return to convert his own happy pastoral pro- His originally savage and was thus supplemented by all the lowest vices of European civilization./ whom for the he carried away with him to Paraguay. consisting almost entirely of women home- and children. the villages deserted. and labours. and to whom rest he remained permanently attached life. in London and where he met with Mrs. After his death the wretched remnant of this persevince into a huge camp. and resumed their simple agricultural The city of Asuncion was in ruins. of his His visit happened during the Crimean war.70 but helpless exceptional Lopez IL and enduring victims which such for development had prepared him. depraved disposi- Brought up in ignorance and profligacy and encouraged in extortion. the elder Lopez. Lynch. returned to their desolate steads. life He led a scandalous and disreputable Paris. acquired a taste for military power. with a retinue of dissolute companions. The revenues of the country did not yield sufficient to defray the cost of main- . His own education appears to have been specially destined to foster his naturally tion. and a revenue almost fabulous in amount. he was sent to Europe when a very young man by his father.

from The railway which Lopez had and productive a constructed. taining even a semblance of public order. but as the country it was allowed to fall The large and handsome stations were roofless. that torate resulted in a temporary protec- by a Brazilian garrison. diffi- culty in a day. the who had fled during war.Brazilian Occupation. In this state of affairs. which imposed a free heavy burden on the population. and the bridges unsafe. principally for military purposes. long as it could run without repairs. into complete decay. soon returned. until at last a sinorle enorine and two or three ruined carriao^es made an occasional run over the forty-six miles to Paraguari.000 with absolute incredulity that a loan . as even Government emjploy^s were unpaid. this unhappy people heard for £1.000. when plunder at home was no longer possible. small tokens used by a local tramway company were used for barter. runs through so rich district that in quiet times the traffic is considerable. 271 But of adventurers of the old type. the extensive equipment of rolling stock was worked as was entirely depopulated. which was often reached with In the absence of coin. and public credit was entirely destroyed. the permanent way was completely neglected. hitherto debt. and the privilege plundering this scanty remnant of the wreck led to fresh plots and revolutions so revolting it to common humanity.

rapidly attain its original prosperity but the slightest symptom of improvement attracts rival adventurers. It is only four years ago that. revolutions. under the late President. remnant of altogether. and if left alone in the enjoyment of any security. on the existing which ceased It is of course impossible to obtain any authentic It is generally account of the proceeds of this loan. but as soon as it was ready for gathering. sterling rThe Loan London. wealth and resources. and assassinations. by which sole purchasers. but no attempt was made even traffic to maintain the slight line.000. stated in Paraguay that the whole fell amount which of tranquillity to the share of the negotiators there did not exceed £30. the growth of tobacco being found to be highly remunerative. and that they were saddled its in perpetuity with a debt that only ceased to be formidable on account of fessed object of the loan magnitude. The prowas the extension of the railway and other public works.000 in 1872. from its great natural its in.000. and the character of habitants. With every phase the country speedily recovers itself with marvellous celerity.^. followed immediately had been negotiated in their name in by a second loan of £2. a special law was it was enacted that the Government should be the passed. would. doubtless. a considerable crop was grown.V^VV^. with the usual plots. at a fixed price considerably below .

A few ex- perienced town surveyors. The President was shot assassins. in the form of the usual highly-paid President. trial. they in their turn were killed in prison only a few months ago. it value. its 273 spoliation. The only people will result must be that these persecuted be saddled with a still more permanent and congress men. as year in the public streets in the middle of the day by half-a-dozen might be so imaoined. while administration in the sense in which we under- stand it will be totally neglected. unsuccessful attempt to usurp his envied privileges some of where them were arrested and prison. not. from amono: those who had been mercilessly robbed. senators. on the ground that they attempted to escape. with a small body of properly organized police to maintain public order and cleanliness. of every grade and their host of nominees. political He was murdered by who made an thrown into . and merely abandoned the rival growth of tobacco.President Gill. A pro- ject has lately been entertained for the admission of the province into the Argentine confederation. they remained a long time without and to complete this miserable history. and independent magistrates 18 for . and to add to this was paid for in an utterly worthless paper currency. with ministers incubus. adventurers. issued for last the purpose. for they bore their loss with their usual resignation.

but it is unfortunate that these requisites of civilization seldom obtain attention rely so among themes politicians who largely on their profitable eloquence. is all the impartial administration of justice. is that first required. . and prefer loftier and more for its display.274 Maladm in istration.

The rivers Parana is the second largest river in the world. is occasionally seen. the limits of the old river bed. among by shallows. sometimes intercepted which are avoided by crossing or re-crossing from The baranca. THE PARANA AND ASUNCION. For a distance of 600 miles the two banks are rarely simultaneously visible. transformation.CHAPTER XYII. which defines island to island. day after The steamer plods day. endless groups of large islands or through extensive lake-like vistas. and often forms a prominent object many miles inland but the actual banks undergo perpetual . in of regime. ploughs its continual change away the alluvium where the . her way. against the current. T is impossible to convey any adequate idea of the magnitude of the enormous Plate which empty themselves into the by any comparison with our own rivers. as the river. or cliff.

which are rain is is visible for many leagues. it in the form of new islands. lit up with rainbows. In going to Asuncion point drains we leave the Parana at Corrientes 686 miles from the Plate. 1136 Azara.000 feet wide. the banks are lined with rafts of timber. strongest. The . while the car- pinchos and other animals flounder about beneath them. at . A continuous produced by the condensation.276 stream is The Parana. As the lands that are so denuded are usually covered with timber.000 square miles in area. describes the river as 14. or rush-grown its where eddies or quiet waters allow of subsidence. and higher up the river the alligators lay basking on every sloping beach. storks. its waters break with indescribable fury a plane of granite. and the heard at roar twenty miles distance. and deposits flats. and other large birds motionless on these piles of ruin. whose roots are bared by the sit Cranes. feet. in who visited these falls 1788. gation is All navi- stopped at the great falls of Guaiva. or fly lazily as away the steamer approaches them . or with falling trees current. miles from the Plate. an inclination of about fifty degrees the clouds of spray form columns of vapour. it Even at this a mountainous region exceeding its 500. suddenly reduced at the cataract to 200 they drop fifty-six feet over Thus confined. but sources are nearly as mysterious as those of the Nile.

and P^lco- fU mayo are all nearly a thousand districts miles in length. and run through vast tribes. * teclniical details tliis extraordinary river. of Great Rivers. ." by The tributaries of the Parana are gigantic rivers. is The journey performed by from Buenos Ayres to Asuncion the steamers in about seven days. and as the political conflicts which have so long rendered them inaccessible are now at an end. For Revy. and as the steamers which navigate the main rivers are fitted up with great comfort. J.The Parana. is no longer any difficulty in its exploring a country which is is unrivalled for beauty and and which almost entirely unknown. prolific regions The field which these opens for the ambitious traveller are unbounded.820 miles from the it and at this first takes the of name of the Parana. and the Rio Plate. there fertility. "Hydraulics 1874. and of Asuncion nearly the same. totally^ occupied by Indian ^]/KX unexplored. and a continuous approach to the tropics. the Paraguay. see J. Grande at 1. so that the journey is due north.400 miles. but Buenos Ayrcs the longitude is is is 34-36. Beyond Pardo point is this unexplored the Rio a tributary at 1. The latitude of 25*20. The Salado. district is 277 race inhabited point by a low all is of Indians. the Vermejo. and even luxuriance. .

river is The distance by the follows : approximately as .278 The Parana.

Cordova and Tumman are 1.200 feet above the sea. 279 Salado. while the country itself. occa- sionally towers in the distance in the form of tosca shore. out of the river. shut in to enter again some some magnificent branch by dense and forest-like vegetation. but simultaneously the actual banks are rarely. They contain beds . falls twelve inches The uniformly increasing gradient with which the pampas everywhere rises. has been already alluded to. The baranca. upon us as we ascend and day mighty when travelling night a rapid steamer for three or four successive days. if ever. This this in prominently river . up or old river boundary. visible. among the trees cliffs on the Entre Rios and at Parana.800 feet and 1. from the river valley up to the Andes. of luxurious narrow channel. in the Gran Chaco.200 feet. of tertiary limestone of shells. rise cliffs . in a straight line. simple and uniform regime is maintained is is the most striking forced characteristic. occasionally threading We appear to sail from lake to lake amidst a labyrinth islands. reach.400 and 2. per mile. no evident dimi- nution in its width or volume can be detected. falls with perfect uni- formity five inches per mile for 700 miles.The River Journey. which we soon discover to be only another of the great network of streams and is rivers and lakes of which the great system composed. while Mendoza and San Juan are The scale over which this 2.

cliffs. Very few and though a few large birds were perched on fallen trees. we skirt the great Indian territory of the left-hand Gran Chaco on the 600 miles. stillness vastness to the scene but the gradual approach to the tropics. grew on the limestone creepers towered The yucca and numerous brilliant among the trees. by . A few palms appeared at Santa Fe. which they exchange. The town built on the high ground. communicating by means of a tram- way with a rule. is This little geological feature quite exceptional. the total absence of any sign of human life gave an imposing . This shell conglomerate is is largely burnt for lime. the river. as its maintaining shifting channels through vast deposits of alluvium almost from the tropics to the Plate. effectually prevented monotony. is inhabited only by wandering Indian tribes. west. covered with forests and swamps. eastern margin.2 8o The Gran Chaco. of a gigantic fossil oyster. the iron jetty on the river. This pro- bank for a distance of digious territory. The river here is washing away its At Rosario its bed was travelling vessels passed us. We occasionally river saw a group with their canoes on the bank drying skins. which. gave an English park-like aspect to some of the glades. After leaving La Paz. or among and the rush-grown swamps. the and large deposits Ostrea Patagonica. which slightly changed the vegetation from day to day. with the foliage.

vainly endea- vouring to understand the mysterious dispensation. or industry no lower type of humanity late can be imagined. uninhabited. which shone less regions of Avater round on bounda and land. but nothing of any value. and we enjoyed the imposing magnificence of the southern niofhts. They also bring bam- and grasses. gunpowder and boos. or indicative of the slightest skill. its to come into contact with they fall without hesitation a prey to lowest vices. of the deepest interest ripple of . and unknown. all up by a brilliant moon.The Gran crossing to CJiaco. for a The Gran Chaco few tribes of is mere hunting-ground land and virgin instincts of their wandering Indians. and carry I on relentless wars for the sake of sat territory. but even amidst this ocean-like extent of forests. . 281 the Entre Rios coast. totally unexplored. after ages of misery and suffering. The whole scene was one the only sound was the the little steamer ploughing her lit way among these vast and mysterious waters. and a few mats. which. leaves no possible future for this helpless and degraded race than that total extermination under which they are fast disappearing . have on deck half through the night. The lovely climate kept us on deck. intellect. for even when compelled by force civilization. they retain one of the more civilized brethren. for spirits and tobacco. or . catching an occasional glimpse of their camp fires.

we is is must. on which they make for the rest of their life ! no improvement The is '' true banner of civilization and improvement sior. and it astonishing. generation after generation. but to higher and The same principle holds good with educa- tion itself. in order to advance.282 It is a singular Excelsior. but continue satisfied. from this constant deterrise satisfied. be striving to attain is that which apparently beyond our reach. or the soldier who practises the goose step. by simply repeating that which we can already do ." arises and progress only mination not to be higher. how little there that is altogether unapproachable." Excel- We make no more progress than the old fiddler. I have often been struck with the fact that a gipsy fiddler plays the fiddle eight or ten hours a day. that these races progress of fact in their natural state should make no any kind. and it is a useful maxim that. and great spears. How many girls at school obtain a certain knowledge of music. and arrows. without playing in the sliofhtest first degree better when he dies than when he began. the same rude bows. when thus assailed. for sixty years. with the same precarious means of existence. while another pupil becomes a Paganini in a few years. I have water already elsewhere compared civilization to kept at a high level by the constant attempt to pump it higher. The characteristic of civilization is its " Excelsior. how- .

large birds. Although it was only after entering the Paraguay that the great change of climate became so prominent. slowly gliding into the water. with brilliant plumage. excited our spit of land and on a projecting we saw two The large alligators. especially on approach- ing Corrientes . at for the whole journey was 150 black £3 per ton. that disfigured sky.Change of Scenery. of vegetation with their The and covered vast masses showy flowers. the stream against us averaged three. dent occurred which mio^ht have had serious . the islands. had changed their character . An incithe underwood. in and a few monkeys interest. and assumed darker hues they were now intermixed with huo^e clusters of bamboo. trees. The actual speed of our vessel was ten miles per hour. and the consumption of coal tons. absolutely as regards progress. unless he has it devoted some portion of to the more ambitious attempt of doing something that he could not do before. ever industrious wliich is 283 in a man may be doing that a mere matter of routine. yet our daily approach to the tropics w^as strikingly illustrated. indicated the extravagant waste of our consumption. towerinor elegantly like ferns among creepers were innumerable. results. his day has been lost. moreover. our progress was therefore seven miles per hour. The long column of the brilliant smoke.

and strolled through the town. and sandy tracks. in the trees. and while surrounded by the passengers. of hideous were selling their useless wares. so . The pilot amused himself when the vessel neared the by firing at alligators and monkeys. than those streets of the capital of this large which form the province. into The houses . with a Remington rifle.284 Corrientes. are roofed with bamboo.000. my wife and her friend were the only European ladies who had ventured to visit Paraguay since the war. but it was a narrow escape. throwing large pieces of the barrel and stock all around fortunately no one was struck. The passengers for the late were enjoying their matie" as usual on deck. and evening it was on Sunday when we arrived at Corrientes. temperature was 73°. driving \) some cattle along the river banks. A few Indian women. and a few . front. aspect. natives were galloping about on horseback but we were objects of curiosity to a most disagreeable extent. Each but no house has a little bit pavement in same two are the same level or in the line. tied is bamboo rafters the population of 10. the diflerthat ence of level often being two or three feet. for with very few exceptions. It is impossible to imagine a more barbarous med- ley of huts and squares. civilization in the shape of a dark gaucho. It was not till we were close to Corrientes that we came across fresh symptoms of islands . the rifle burst in his hands.

with its Gran Chaco lay on our confused and entano-Ied veo-etation Tlie . The trees were tenanted by monkeys.e. and the is road a deep. while trees like large oaks seemed embowered in banks The foliage. herons. sandstone banks on every spit of lay like logs of wood. and is great morasses but the Paraguayan shore sand the crocodiles formed of a sandy beach. and we gladly got back to the comfortable steamer.TJu Parao^iiay. is the most undesirable recreation one can while the dark. We entered the Paraguay two hours after leaving Corrientes. wild-looking inhabitants stared a bold vulgar curiosity that Avith made us begin little to doubt the propriety of a much loDger extension of our journey. often two or three together. colour. furnished broad effects of light and shade. in which is the shoe entirely buried at every step. which breed in the a walk select. left. 'The creepers on the underwood formed bowers of dense shade. when shot at with apparently unhurt. relieved by the delicate green fi'onds of the lofty bamboos and the native willow Salix Hamboldii. As the feet. though generally dark in of laurels. par- . and the change of climate was extremely its abrupt and striking. sand abounds with jiggers. loose heap of hot fine sand. crawling lazily into the water the rifl. it is 285 impossible to keep on the paved path. sometimes resembling cut hedges and hop gardens. wasted down from the .

for. though a mighty stream. the channel on the side of the town widens out into a vast lake of brilliant shallow water. . is Immediately above the town the river divided two branches by a large island. rots. the Paraguay has none of the vastness of the Parana. island We arrived at Asuncion August 21st 82°. grows luxuriantly in some of the shallows. with enormous floating leaves and flowers. width varying from a quarter to three-quarters of a mile. and other animals abound among^ these forests. and so completely covered with water-plants as to resemble fields of luxuriant vegetation. and some but tigers. and shelters . of which the roads consist. with numberless creeks and pools and wooded scenery in our lake islets. The into situation of the city is extremely beautiful. and sometimes boldly ford the stream. resembling the finest literally districts. of the old telegraph posts rose out of the jungle covered with asclepias and convolvulus snakes. . the shade temperature was selves of the and we were glad to avail our- tramway which runs from the quay. Among the ponte- derias its and other water lilies the Victoria Regia. and all these lovely scenes were more its accessible. pumas. and cranes . and avoid the walk through the deep hot beds of sand. and swarming with crocodiles and magnificent birds.Asuncion. We came across remnants of the vast defensive works executed by Lopez.

and the mosquitoes and other to beat a retreat. bank spots. and at where streams of water flow down from the higher ground above. The town occupies a bend of the river overlooking this lake-like expanse. a hut or two. for We landed an hour. but it is difficult a how they can wilderness. however. monotonous gTandeur on the opposite bank. A journey across the water thus brings us in a few minutes into another world a wilderness uninhabited and unknown. with the wilderness of the Gran Chaco in all its sullen. A crowd of bathers avail themselves of this luxury every evening. . occupied by Portuguese to imagine settlers.Asuncion. or why they fruits hold their own in such prefer this parched and sun-burnt desert to the lovely paradise of waters and and shade that is stretched before them on the opposite shores. and the plant becoming scarcer in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. but the heat. There is. and made our way some distance among insects compelled us the dense underwood and vegetation. the natives have extemporized a rude kind of bath by means of wooden conduits. and enliven this charming scene with their picturesque deshabille. the numberless tenants that 287 in the prolific swarm waters beneath. The flowers are eagerly sought by the natives on account of their extraordinary is beauty. is a steep wooded cliff The river of sandstone.

riofht ano-les and are laid out with more regularity than usual. and consisted of a square. Houses and streets were demolished in the most arbitrary manner. casting his own cannon. whenever he had a surveying fit was done without judgment.The Old Palace. proper drainage was impossible. a wreck. His own palace was in the plain. . all The at streets. prisoned. and the inhabitants were ordered into their houses by sound of trumpets. are other. low. even under the precarious severity of this crushing regwie. But so rapidly did the wealth of the country increase. he unfortunately possessed a small theodolite. The retains city of Asuncion is. without hesitation or compensa- but as this tion. and anyone seen at the windows was immediately im. which as fatal as its a battery to anything which came within range. Among was other amusements of the tyrant Francia.000 well- equipped troops. upper part of the town. building iron vessels. natural water-courses were intercepted. that only fifty years later we find Lopez IJ. surrounded by solidly-built. and during tropical rains whole squares were often flooded or submerged. and erecting the magnificent arsenal which lines the river bank. single- storied buildings whenever he entered the town the streets were cleared. as in all South American towns. of course. . but its many emblems of to each former prosperity. and is still filled with the . drilling an army of 64.

carefully worked. and great skill was shown struction. The columns consist of a central nucleus of quebracho. and nearly as heavy. an eminence commanding lovely views of the with its islands and lake-like expanse. The ruins in its con- of this splendid building form an imposing object in the town. the timber wholly quebracho. and a portion of the elegant campanile carried chief. and not with any military and 19 is one . lofty tower. this has been done in wanton misobject. the design is Italian. wellworked blocks of the fine sandstone of the district. the timber has been stolen for use in the town. rivalling scale of magnificence our largest European and in lieu of the old barracks occupied by Francia. The base is built entirely of large. and covered with tiles and stucco. 289 and ruins of iiiodi'iu nuicliiiicry of the most costly perfect character. The external is balconies laid and galleries are paved with large stones . is and exceedingly chaste . a magnificent palace was constructed on river. a wood as hard and durable as iron. The upper building. on hard timber joists the building now unroofed.TJie Ahz<o Palace. away . with its handsome. shot and shell have fallen through the galleries and is floors. and colonnaded portico and external galleries. in Spacious barracks were erected opera the city. an house was coninienced and nearly completed on a and magnitude houses. is in excellent stuccoed brickwork .

from the city to Paraguari. he carried on a long costly war. under the more ruinous dishonesty of her subsequent government^ has dwindled down to an amount often less than £2." to avoid the licence that . forty -five miles of a costly. and Some palatial residences were town by Lopez for Mrs. a distance miles. and perfectly-equipped railway were prolongation to Villa Rica. of the cruel legacies left allies. and which almost exhausted Brazil and her allies. The railway was continued down to the river for military purposes. Lynch and other members of his family.500 a month. In addition to these works.290 Resources of Lop ez. under the title of the Tramway Restaurant. well-constructed. in addi- tion to all these works.000. by the Brazilians and their be It is estimated that the building could restored for about £60. now forms the city terminus. When we consider that. where massive quays and warehouses line the river bank. completed. Argentine and Monte Yidean some idea may total be formed of the intrinsic wealth and vast resources of the small but prolific province. it. and was in course of of ninety and the remains of an extremely handsome colonnaded station. Asuncion was so jealously isolated from the outer world that very few travellers have visited there are no hotels. and ^one of them now built in the does '* duty as an hotel. whose revenue. of the most substantial character.

it is 291 would be exacted from an hotel building. the men on horseback. and hooks in the walls fine our There are in the town some very specimens of the massive architecture of the early Spaniards and Jesuits. Our bedroom was a chairs. women is All all work men being as done by women every to . a spacious. with her stock of shilling produce —seldom of the value of a single spread out on the sand. the spacious marketplace was crowded a with hundreds of women and girls. with heavy loads gracefully borne on their heads. and miserably maintained. but the other buildings sadly neglected and dilapidated. large lofty room. and horses are abundant and good. ture except two jug. frequently barefooted. The roads all travel are beds of sand . each seated on the ground under a full tropical sun. two a deal table for and a water hammocks. folded in little clean white linen sheet." . with no furnibeds.TJic Jllarkct at Asuncion. light by moon- they reminded us forcibly of the nun scene Their produce consists principally of in " Roberto. but the native women bring their goods to travelling thirty or market on forty miles foot. with a . paved with brick. the proportion of one. eight to morning. nothing can be more picturesque than these market scenes. and day. the only available conveyance was the jolting bullock cart. fine like all handsome courtyard.

292 The Native Habits. various other fruits. is to bring it on their own heads and watch over it till it is sold. all and constant exchanges are taking place day . lard. full from long distances at very low passenger invariably brings the but as each weight of lug- gage authorized. the tramway tokens substitute. collect It appears surprising that there are no general dealers or com^mission agents to these goods and is avoid this apparent waste of time. mandioca and sugar-cane. tobacco and cigars. The railway enables them bring their goods fares. yams. bundles of eggs. the weighing to is carefully attended by the railway officials. but nothing can exceed their lively cheerfulness and apparent happiness. tough cheese. heaps of oranges per hundred —not of fetching more than sixpence — piles mandioca root and dried mandioca. The almost total absence of coin in the fertile field of country affords another extortion . bamboo canes. potatoes. bananas. a roughly-made black and to lives on oranges and bananas. bread. but time little of value here. gourds. batatas. and Every one of them smokes cigar. maize. and the incessant plunder of all confidence. sugar-cane. are largely used as a convenient is but the bulk of their goods bartered. They are crowded to- gether like cattle in the vans. which they have been the victims has destroyed and the only means by which these poor creatures can profit by their little store.




long in the market


The sandstone



are covered with a gorgeous subtropical

vegetation, interspersed with huts







women and children

the latter are absolutely naked.

principal object


to visit the interior of

the country, and after staying a very few days at the capital,

we determined

to proceed at once to

Paraguari, the terminus of the railway, and fortysix miles from Asuncion.

The manager, Mr. Hume,

kindly undertook to bespeak the best accommodation he could obtain,

and we are deeply indebted


for the

kind reception we met with



a country which




were naturally not without misgiving as to the hardship we knew they must encounter. The rail-



gradually through a lovely picturesque


with seven intermediate
the north

It is flanked on




rising in precipitous slopes to a height of


and 1,000

densely wooded up to the summit.

upwards of ten miles long, at the base of the hills. It was on the slopes of these hills that Lopez



skirts a large

and picturesque

formed his great military camp, consisting of 30,000 men, thoroughly drilled and equipped, and supplied

by means of the railway. The valleys are extremely




The Railway,
the exception of groups of palms

and orange


and other

prominent tropical

plants, they resemble luxuriant English


with numberless copses, and bushes, and pools, and




meandering among




of inex-

haustible richness, enamelled with calladiums


other moisture-loving plants and flowers
great timber trees, of which
consist, are themselves, to


and the



a great extent, flowering

plants of great beauty, covered with brilliant bloom.


hills to

the south of the valley are nearer the


and from 400


feet high,



the summit, and at the base forming a continuous


gardens, with villages


rounded by groves of oranges, bananas, and palms,

with plantations.

The women with

their white cloaks,

and always


round the carriages at every

offering for


chickens, sausages, cakes,





of the girls are about,

extremely hand-

some^ and

barefooted, with

heavy water pitchers on their heads, with that






peculiar to the

descendants of the Sj)anish race,

while nothing can exceed their respectful civility

and kindness.
and a few

There were a few cases of goitre






The Raihvay yourney,
stations endeavouring to excite attention




with this exception

we never met with

a single beggar anywhere in the

nor did


ever come across a drunken man or woman. The only drink sold at the stations is the canna,

or white rum, distilled from the molasses or the

cane in the sugar plantations.

It is a strong spirit,

and though very cheap, and always drunk
it is


never taken in excess.


in strong contrast

with the Indians in

the Chaco,



it is

and are soon decimated, whenever



colony of

Indians from


Chaco were

allowed to establish themselves on the beach at

Asuncion, and held one of their orgies while we


there, beginninof

with dancins^, culminatinof in a


free fight, of the

most revolting description.


very comfortable old



been put into running state
disposal for the journey,

and was placed at our

and although the speed
great comfort.

was very





line, after

being totally neglected for



had been run

the last engine and


would no longer perform the journey in a

The permanent way, and the massive hard sleepers, had lasted fifteen years without renewal, and many years without maintenance. The boiler tubes were nearly all plugged. The



Renewal of the Railway.

encrusted, and the steam escaped

at every joint,



was only under excessive







was made.


both the enofine and carriaore were of


unwilling or unable to

Government was either incur any outlay, even after

the loan of £3,000,000, this valuable property, with

very large

equipment of old

for a

machinery and workshops, was transferred
the town.
ager, Mr.

mere nominal consideration to a few individuals in

Under the Hume, two

able direction of their


engines and a few carriages
repair, the stations

were soon put into thorough
bridges put into

were rendered inhabitable, and the

and timber




arrived well-filled daily trains

had already begun

run again, with punctuality,

The gauge


feet six inches, labour is


plentiful, balks

of hard timber are attainable

^d. per cubic foot,

hard wood sleepers at


Excellent bricks are equally cheap, and the earth

works are finished


miles beyond Paraguari.

The completion

of such a

through such a
the numerous

district, is

only one


inducements that would speedily attract the capitalist

under a government with any semblance of

honesty or stability.




^|^»HE house Mr. Hume

had procured

for us

Paraguari was kept by an Italian,

with a very industrious and intelligent

and four or

five children.



the houses

that surround the large Piazza at Paraguari,


a one-storied cottage, substantially built



and brick and hard wood, roofed with Dutch tiles set solidly in mud, on bamboo rafters, with a substantial brick paved balcony in front, and with a
shed and a

yard behind, surrounded by a

high bamboo fence


secured a


privacy by

tacking up some sheets between the rooms, but
as the

windows were mere openings with wooden

— for

no such thing as a pane of glass

at Paraguari,

—and the


at night



very strong,

we were

often defeated in maintaining

flimsy barricade. Our host had provided a Spanish cook, and a very intelligent Frenchman as

guide, interpreter,

and general servant.

He had




seven or eight horses always ready in the stables,

and the half-omnibus



between the

and the station was taken service whenever we required to use
everything that the village

from that
in fact


furnished was most

kindly placed at our disposal

while every alternate

day the

train brought such luxuries

and necessaries

as could be obtained from Asuncion.

The population

of the district


about two thou-

the better houses, like our own, surround a

large piazza.

The Spanish


always consist

of a large square surrounded with


time of trouble the cattle were

and were


drawn into this defended. The mud huts

of the Indian natives are dotted round about


The marvellous town and the country, and indeed between Paraguay and other American provinces, was at once strikingly apparent, not only
thickets of guavas

and bromelias.

contrast between the


regards the amiable character of the popula-


but also in the more material matters of our


—cuisine and attendance.

Our simple




every respect,

with the widest


meat, poultry, eggs, butter, cream, game,

and vegetables of

kinds, coffee of delicious


and good

cigars, all

produced in the cottages

round about

were supplied in great profusion,



was well cooked and




Although endowed with

and devotion,

as evidenced

by the heroic

ance so long maintained against a whole contiarms, the





any kind.

The swaggering mounted

gaucho, with his long knife girdled round his loins,

not tolerated here


kindly and

considerately treated, and


felt at

we were

amongst a simple agricultural people of the

most gentle and hospitable

With the

most respectful attention, there was no

our host considered himself in every respect simply a host, and, with thorough independence, neglected

nothing that could add to our comfort.



part in the evening in the simple harmonies in


his wife

and children


joined, regulated

by a well-played accordion.
expeditions which





our movements, and he organized



we undertook, and


sionally gave us the benefit of his


spoke French fluently, and as
Spanish was very
of Guarani, which


knowledge of


knew nothing

the ordinary language of the

natives, his assistance

was very





was a very


I fre-

who kept

a store in the square, where he was doing

a large business and accumulating

quently called in and had an instructive chat, and

or Commandante. itself. Church out. was much in- and the buzzing in the sound of a hundred juvenile voices repeating their lessons in union was always welcome music square. The education was of all course purely estaall secular. and an excellent Paraguarri cigar. for political purposes. He lived in a large. and thoroughly understood the subject. erected by the Jesuits. It probably formed a portion of one of the great early of the educational establishments with which the Jesuits have endowed the country. and imposing pile of buildings. blishment having been entirely rooted religious ceremonies. adjoining a dilapidated church. and as he left the Pope . a glass of canna and water. terested in visiting these schools. but they are is badly made. The are cigars invariably smoked by the women extremely cheap. for everyI one learns to read and write. that would in cigars of very command a high price any European market. including marriage and totally discouraged and almost abandoned. Lopez.300 The Commandante. although the tobacco good . still Some large rooms were occupied as schools. did at one time nominate one of his own creatures as bishop. but we found out a Spaniard who had made cigars in Havanna. and from him we obtained cheap superior quality. for there are no clergy. But my most important and trustworthy informant was the Gefe Politico. of the district. massive.

The CoDiuiandaiitc. men. municipal mayor. and a monthly account of every item of receipt and expenditure was publicly exhibited on the doors of the Prefecture. repairs of roads and public maintenance and cleansing of the . and impressive extempore resemblance in its bearing a striking practical simplicity to the Lord's Prayer. sanctioned. and critically discussed. Witho-ut it any is definite creed or any religious convictions. exercise of an}^ ecclesiastical jurisdiction. He was military magistrate and police. friend the My Commandante had charge fact. watchfences. assessor. of it is which of the probably a simple perpetuation. of in great The payments included a salary about £150 a year to the Commandante. still the constant habit in almost every family in to assemble the evening and join in a very short but truly sincere praj^er. governor. schools. however. — he was. for a population of about people. The taxes were collected monthly. school charges. Each tax-payer ascertain could thus publicly ascertain whether his contribution had been duly detail its acknowledged and appropriation. commissaire. treasurer. no alternative but 301 total repudiation of his authority it or his consent to the nomination. was ultimately permitted the He never. jailer. in supreme in everything. for its collector and two thousand The municipal government was charming simplicity and efiiciency.

and march them away from their homesteads armed with a musket or a pike. It is difficult to imagine any system more simple or more perfect so long as the Commandante was. No one any payment without this public its announcement of amount and object. is He constantly liable to dismissal is . The utter such helplessness of the population under Commandantes Francia and Lopez would imagined. to murder each other in some iniquitous brawl of which the object to is as unknown as him as it is to them.302 Local Govermnent. like my friend. or the repair of a bamboo fence. an honourable man. the Commandante There of course appointed by the Government. He is often a total stranger in the district. and Prefecture. total expenditure could receive The was about £600 a year. in times of revolu- tion he bound and to side with one side or the other among the rival adventurers in the capital it who seek his support. the error could not be repeated without serious remonstrance. If oc- casionally a few loads of gravel. no independence or is sta- bility in his position. markets. and he selected solely on political grounds. was too dearly paid for. and expenses connected with police and magisterial duties. but too often becomes his duty to call out these helpless but obedient peasants. or as a reward for political services. public square. employ may easily be . is is On the other hand.

Absoice of Crime. theft. 303 On the other hand. if we could insure an honest. was given at the cottage of a well-to-do native near Paraguari. As quarrels. his judicial functions I only witnessed I were of the lightest one instance of their character. He was re- markable as being the only guest armed with the . one of the worst types among the various races that people The Corrientino was a wealthy and important man. and all the ordiof the villagers round about us at Paraguari genial. and there is no doubt that a lari^^e intelligent. and a very luxuriant wedding feast. as already alluded to. due to the nary vices of civilization are almost entirely un- known. despotism is confessedly the most perfect form of government that could be desired. drunkenness. and prosperity was and upright character of our friend the actual Commandante. honest. with the usual ball in the evening. display. several by members of his family. vagabondism. and perfect ruler. which is will relate. The institution of marriage now coming rapidly into vogue amongst the better people. rode in from directions. and refresh- ments were served on a very liberal scale all day and all night. —the Corrientino the furnishing. and was accompanied South American republics. Among the guests was a native of Corrientes settled in Paraguay. one hundred and all fifty to two hundred number. contentment. The in guests. part of the happiness.

Corrientino On the following day. which he would doubtless have plunged into his unarmed opponent if he had not been seized by the surrounding guests. but equally . and so distasteful to the Paraguayan.304 A Wedding Incideiit. and after a little altercation drew his excited formidable weapon. he picked a quarrel with a young peasant in the party. and directed these proThe dancing was resumed. In the course of the evening. his horses and carriage were brought oat. and the event soon forgotten. Commandante was an invariable guest at every dance and feast. the to the was summoned Prefecture by the Commandante. very resolutely the but very quietly. and the whole of them were. terrible large knife or dagger invariably carried and used by the Argentine gauclio. and credit given for the amount in the usual balance sheet when exhibited at the This simple and striking display of justice told largely in mitigation of such it power and absolute and irresponsible authority. his family fetched from among the guests. sent home about their business. Our friend ceedings. paid. pounds was Prefecture. He Avas immediately disarmed. and after a severe reprimand he was fined ten pounds for carrying such a weapon. and warned under penalty of expulsion from the district The penalty of ten to avoid such another display. by the dancing and the constant draughts of canna and strong Spanish wines served at the feast. however.

and other but with 20 They drove a good bargain. The articles they brought for sale to the house consisted of parrots. and realize the simple lesson that its truest basis contentment. microscopes. and which are sold at less than a penny a dozen. a country entirely Every morning the market and piazza. and other instruments. and without importunity^ . was occupied by hundreds of native women in their clean white sheets sitting on the ground chatting and laughing and bartering their simple produce and smoking the roughly-made cigars which everyone indulges in. or square. barometers. 305 elucidated the true foundation of the marvellous influence of the kind and beneficent early Jesuit. and with a tolerable assortment of books. tiful lace peculiar to and collars of beau- the district. On . We is could not but envy their apparent happiness. shawls. and skins of animals.Native Prod II els. the first thing that struck us was the absolute security with which we could leave these things about or travel anyin where without attendants without police. thermometers. and of the late merciless and bloodthirsty tyrant of whom even yet the peasants speak in fear and tremblins:. in addition to the knick-knacks of the ladies. handkerchiefs. elaborately ornatigers mented hammocks. singular independence. settlincr down in our cottao^e without doors or windows.

are thus equal divisions. — the upper surface giving the time in the summer dial is peculiar months. most ingeniously worked in fine gold. Such a on account of the extreme simplicity of its construction and adjustment. are extremely strong. as on an ordinary deeply cut both in the upper and lower surface. and therefore parallel with the poles of the earth. built into the top of the column.. which are all made by hand. solid copper rod.e. passing through the centre and at right angles to the block. making an angle with the The gnomon is a plain. The hammocks. and the lower surface in winter. which requires nothing but a level. and handsome. The hours clock. Amongst other relics of these pious pioneers are the sun-dials found in every village. The Paraguayan lace is also very beautiful. The Paraguayan puzzle-rings. It consists of a feet high . originated from the same source. and placed precisely in the plane of the equator. for his Every cottager grows and spins enough cotton own consumption. durable. the art being another remnant of the lessons of the Jesuits. i. column of masonry about eight the dial consists of a plain block of Lapacho wood four inches thick and fourteen inches square.3o6 The Sun Dial. and solid is an astronomical curiosity. One of the dials stood in a small enclosure in front of the Prefecture. horizon equal to the co-latitude of the village. The block is adjusted . and weaves his sheet and clothing.

. first The was an eclipse of the moon. drawn by three small but excellent horses. I in such a position that both surfaces are in shade during the found it extremely accurate. the railing round the dial serving as our temporary observatory. there was a very sensible diminution of light . the second was an the sun. and this was indeed the case throughout the continent. by simply placing whole day. that during our short stay in we witnessed two eclipses both invisible in Europe. The date on the dial was 1838. at Asuncion. Wherever we . The sun being about half obscured. the sun's disc black.m. although the block has been exposed for forty years to this tropical sun. either on foot or on horseback or in our half-omnibus. who have of course no almanacs.Eclipses. 307 column on the it on the level surface of the top of the day of the equinox. seen from Paraguari on the 7th September at 8 a. eclipse of on the 23rd August.. We made daily excursions. so that we explored the country for many miles round. and both these eclipses attracted the attention of the natives. In their use of the dial they take no account of the equation of time. and we often took long botanizing rambles quite alone. giving the time within a minute. and the times of contact were observable with great precision. We observed one spot on the body of the moon was intensely and very sharply defined. It was a singular Paraguay coincidence.

and even posts sawn off* close to the ground. went we were received with the greatest hospitality. with gardens of the most luxuriant descrip- . were There are tv/o prominent objects of beauty. and gio^antic butterflies and attracted myriads of bees and other insects. Old Jesuit buildings. species. —one The with brilliant yellow bloom. of We crossed a series pine-apples.3o8 The Scenery. leaves." with no but covered with gorgeous flowers. The wide deep ruts in the sandstone rock and beds of sand. "Tecoma. densely covered with eryngiums. backed by forests and timber trees. who road. owned a with its considerable area of land. commons. was scarcely passable for a carriage. about ten miles from the village. A favourite excursion was to the establishment of a German settler. are as sound as when cut a century ago. fell large bell flowers as they carpeted the ground beneath the trees. aud presented with fruits and flowers. which covered the surhills. but the scenery was magnificent. with thickets of large grasses of palms and flowering shrubs. towering above the other trees in clouds of flower. rounding sandstone spring. both equally valuable for their timber. We were there in the The great Lapachas. The of this durability of the iron timber bignonia appears to be almost endless. and bromelias. We passed on our road a continuous line of cottages. the other pink.

is an important duty of the : it is carried on the head in large jars of red earth. or packing oranges in banana leaves. well The men with mostly on dressed. Almost every one a proprietor. with sunburnt sandy clay . on bamboo rafters the The hammocks are slung under the verandah. or converting their little crops of tobacco into cigars . with a wide open verandah. We brought away each. or pounding it. and a large space open on two sides in the centre. frames. roomy. establishment invariably consists of a large. is found in every dwelling. coolers. . or The luxury of swinging to and such a dense shade under a tropical sun must be experienced to be understood. substantial cottage. built very solidly.TJic Native Cottages. some of these are clean on account of their elegance and efficiency their cost was threepence horseback. Dutch cooking tiles is set in clay done outside. some were distilling canna from molasses in the most primitive fashion. The fetching of water from the numberless brilliant springs that abound every- where cooler. The walls solidified are of hard wood. The women are either at work it in the gardens. unglazed. is 309 The tion. and working into others were spinning their home-grown cotton. and a porous water- made same material. the floors are paved with brick the roof consists of . fro in in the airy central space. or drying the mandioca in the sun on bamboo cakes. and bamboo. timber .

springs originating in the surrounding is There no ploughing or digging. ders. In moist spots to and above all large tracts of mandioca. the enormous trees were bowed down with They and their delicious golden produce. pro- . and a showy poncho over the shoulis trousers. of enormous towers bamboos add the luxu- riance of the shade. mammoos. is peas. of unbounded fertility. invariably containing a few palms. potatoes. rice. vegetables. cottage The surrounded by a cultivated enclosure. tool. which the staple food of the country. not now universally distributed. large towering groves of oranges. The soil is a rich vegetable mould. it is simply hoed over are with a light The orange groves inde- scribably bsautifal. vests. but always without shoes. and the ground beneath them was covered with are used for distillation fallen fruit. gourds.3 1 o The Gardens. and fruits of all kinds. batatas. and always moist from the numerous land hills. including beans. blended with coarse sand. a field of sugar-canes. indigenous. and for feeding pigs cattle. and are largely consumed by the natives. maize. a few clumps of bananas. but have no money value. but The orange is . and tracks are was introduced by the Jesuits it is enormous forest covered by the wild bitter orange. with their polished stems and majestic Plots of little foliage high into the air. vigorous growing tobacco and cotton.

separated by dense forests of timber trees of the most valuable description. . The caraguata. and furnishing the most refreshing shade. is and inexhaustible. measured some bamboos purchased by our land- lord.The Botany.. nearly cottajTfers all 311 In the are agfain rearino^ cattle : milch cows. The botany was gorgeous to tropical plants. Some of the climbing plants are used as ropes. We rode for many miles through homesteads of this character. and lands. horses. I pigs. feet long. We stung our hands with the tree nettles and cactuses and the sharp spines of the coca palms. white. a with edible fruit precisely like a pine-apple. yet explored. draught oxen. They were by bullock sixty-eight . duced by the seed of the cultivated plant. and mauve. The only English plants we met with were some fungi. addition to their vegetable wealth. species of bromelia. The woods are full of vege- table products of great economic value. with its the Paraguay party-coloured perfumed blossoms. or about lOcL each. and are not A few home uses attracted my notice. and some polypori. furnishes a splendid fibre used for cordage. viz. the universal agaricus-procerus. if the carpels were separate. and not confined one of the most showy flowers jasmine. and of proportionate carriage girth their value was the mere cart. thrive on the pasture The enclosures are fenced in with bamboo. and blue. the common mushroom and morel.

poultry. oranges. the natives are however extremely fre- sharp in avoiding them. with excellent larger scale He was . We visited the sugar plantations. bark of the gigantic carupai soft is used for tanning. used for making The wood of the timboo is large troughs. and rice. such as the rattle-snake. and accidents are not A boy who had been bitten a few days back had comparatively recovered. coffee. the more venomous snakes. although a venomous dark viper is but too common quent. a producer on a principal products than usual his were sugar. do not frequent the plantations. but another who had been bitten by a scorpion succumbed fortunately. sumptuous sausages. with before cellent at Ave the establishment of our were welcomed. which commands a high On arrivinof German friend. and mandioca. and resists without cracking the full blaze of this burning sun. and canna white rum. and deliciously cool spring water. consisting of ex- and mandioca. He quickly us a soup. peas. price. carved out of the solid trunk in one piece. boas of In Avet places are very enormous size and strength . . set the greatest hospitality. green or and omelettes. . tobacco. bitter orange are The leaves and flowers of the distilled to obtain an essential oil.312 Tlie The German Colony. canna. in which every one works barefooted. repast. as usual. maize. He also grew batatas. potatoes.

I was is in- pluck or the heart the the the fourth or last crop consists of outside leaves. The women were planting mandioca sandy soil is . for The home-made crushing machinery the sugar-canes was very jjrimitive. first all gathered . consisting of three well-worked hard vertical cylinders. The from the molasses. or simply from the crushed canes. but the duties have spirit here. separated by magnificent forests. fermented in large solid troughs adzed out from the enormous trunk of the timboo. The distillery primitive. made it a costly The tobacco crop was formed that the mildest. and I bought thirty gallons of our friend at a very nominal price to bring home.The Cauna Disfilloy. and turned by beautiful trained oxen. the loose hoed over. and the brother of our host had great difficulty in extricating himself from tlie folds of a large snake. exclusively consumed all over the continent. The canna is a fine and genuine spirit. 313 common. the condenser being a worm was equally in a wooden all cask . with a vegetation luxuriant beyond description . and to my surprise the water was brought by hand from a spring half a mile canna is distilled distant. which are strongest. the stems of the old plants are cut up moist and all into short lengths prolific soil. geared into each other with wooden cogs. and dibbed into the The cultivated spots are in patches.

some of these forests where tracks but the swarms of mosquitoes in the evening were truly formidable. our visit. entered We had been cut. in which all to help in the real labour consists. Our host. maiden forests. Amonsj the oruests at our we met his brother. We were strongly pressed to repeat and. as a temptation. of the essential oils from the wild bitter which insisted covers The visit. deer. and it afforded very agreeable excursion. who had established himself in the very middle of these distillation orano^e. night in one of these mys- J^ ^l^ and as my experience with the gun was confined to gentle pheasants and partridges. but as it involved a bivouac terious forests. and tifjer shootinor excursion all was arrano^ed . friend the German's. scent and beauty of these orange forests is indescribable. where he carried on the extensive areas. with of this marvellous land. and everyone volunteered the driving of the wood. a boar. half-a-dozen assistants. these We rode for miles through a wonderful woods in shady track. Every effort this treat was reluctantly declined.3 1 The Forests. which owned many square miles was capable of sup- porting a population of many thousands in luxury and plenty. and . He 1 did on our paying him a I which us with the more pleasure as intelligent found him a highly a guide. would doubtless have been made io-i^avo r o n d opod-" the expedition agreeable.

but he believed to be of process. nothing to compensate him for such singular a favourite haunt for considerable A stream which ran through the bottom of larc^e boas. which had just been shipped from Asuncion us he for the Zoological Gardens. and he had sent several to Europe. a dealer at Asuncion . He related to us a singular adventure with respect to a very large boa. much like those in His comjianions were a young Frenchman and a fine tame boa in a cask. He size . this forest was this and he caugcht a number. the other from the flowers of the bitter orange. He knew is nothing of the pur- pose for which it used for . much and It was a very slow produced exile. Tame specimens of snake are very common. 3 I 5 found his little establishment in an open space in the forest formed by the cutting down little stills of half-a- dozen trees of magnificent dimensions. The essential oil was of two kinds. his brother and being with him. with a couple of berths. the more valuable was from the leaves. and his very primitive hut was a mere open shed. he boldly seized a man . told frequently saw snakes for- that he dare not attack on account of their midable another but on one occasion. covered with reeds ver}^ . His were made from ordinaiy flasks with tin tubes. which lay round about.TJic Orancrc Distillery. a steam packet. bought it at about it £3 an ordinary bottle greater value.

being alive. safely and ate bread and milk. in a large cask. Encounters with these monsters are not uncommon. one round the body. but to this and so secure was the His compression that he was quite powerless. He had seized air . As a rule. Mr. At Asuncion became very tame. and another round the brother's first instinct his axe. and dragged home where was unwound it was kept but on one two months all food. leg. was to kill the animal with he courageously objected. very anxious to procure such a specimen By dint of sheer force the snake to the hut. who was in front was attacked in a most determined manner by a very formidable snake. as road. resolutely refusing . Snakes of all . told me that when he was travelling on horseback through some high rushes. It became torpid and tame occasion it inflicted a severe bite on the it thumb of a stranger. and holding the but before assistance could arrive head in the his formidable antagonist had managed to coils make two round his right arm. it crossed a marshy and called to his companions to it assist him in its capture. his peon. as usual by grasp- ing its neck with both hands. they are not at all feared by the natives. Horrox.3 1 Boa Constrictors. of him. and arrived good health in Europe. and in He has seen larger snakes that he dares not attempt to attack. very formidable snake.the manager of the tramway in Asuncion.

climb of about 500 feet through a dense over rocks with boulders of quartz conglomerate excessively hard. but too plentiful these but they seldom approach the cultivated districts. chamber in the difficult face of a vertical rock excessively It of access. Monkeys are plenti- but we only saw two kinds. All the pebbles were rounded by water fertile and they explained the origin of the sandy valley below. we came two or three varieties of coral snake. especially at the sumand apparently all sandstone or conglomerate. JoJins Cave. The hill on which isolated hills. John's Cave. brilliant The road lay among large lagoons of water. through a vast marsh filled with water plants. . the cave is situated is one of the many mountains that occur between the ranges of It mit. covered the are hill. and wild boar forests. and then through a zone of cocoa palms and dwarf shrubs. was extremely precipitous. one with a swelling like a goitre. and the other a much smaller Jesuits. ful. and is said to have been used as a refuge in troublesome times. until we entered the forest that The jaguar. 317 across kiuds are very numerous . covered with The cave was a spacious was partly artificial. Another excursion we made was so called to St. in puma. action. I saw a well eighty feet deep passing entirely through sand. by the approached by a steep forest. of great These sands are sometimes depths. forest. It is species.5/.

balls are of Dancing appears to be the dominant passion with everyone. seldom himself. their dark shoulders were w^hite mantled with dresses. but very sparingly lit up with two or three paraffine lamps. equally a perfect stranger in these happy groves. and ponchos on their The dances were quadrilles and polkas. Poverty sister. and highly-decorated shoulders. The dancing was excellent. with an enormous proportion of very monotonous bass. agreed to accept the invitation. barefooted brilliantly . and our friend the lost the Commandante. We had not been invited to one many days of these when we were simple private entertainments. or fetching water from the springs. The ball was therefore of the most simple character.3i8 Our Village Balls. and among about 100 swarthy-looking girls we recognised many whom we had seen sitting all day in the markets. is of course totally is unknown. The men wore high boots. but its twin Wealth. village life partly rivalled in interest our wandering expeditions. Canna was handed round in tumblers. with tumblers The lasses were all of cold water ad lihitur}i. The music consisted of four wind instruments. The room was a very large one. and village weekly occurrence. and was extremely . There was a very disproportionate number of fine lads and men. resident. — having advised us that we all the ladies ought not to refuse. by-the-by. chance —who.

We were. and I instructed to the my assistant to attend arrangements. moreover.. honoured by the presence of the manager of the . It was more select. order. quiet and graceful.Village Balls. surrounded the freely distributed cottage and canna was amongst no one ever dreams of taking it to excess. and the ladies wore wag at last intimated to us that we were bound to give a ball ourselves. We self. and especially one given in our honour by the Commandante himin his spacious rooms . 3 1 and though a great crowd outside. night. We remained all 1 but the dancing was kept up returned cold When we home about . were conducted with singular propriety. the night was bitterly and bright the thermometer was 38° under This of course the verandah. Only ten days before the night temperacould muster on our bed. all. but the company on this occasion shoes. and omit nothing that the neighbourhood could supply. and the whole proceedings a couple of hours. As we had no room large enough in our house a neighbour at once volunteered the use of a spacious apartment. and pile all we had to abandon our hammocks. attended other balls. a. corresponding with March 2nd in England.m. and 32° on the grass. and intense enjoyment. ture was 90°. and the clothes we The date was August 30th. is singularly abnormal in the tropics.

the refreshments were handed . Some of the girls and young men are very handsome. and lit with lamps and candles. the limits was not more as easy to ascertain especially as of our party. The refreshments consisted of canna and strong Carlone. and some laurels. Asuncion. with their excellent figures and no tight waists. the lancers. triangle. wore loose white dresses. mostly proprietors and tradesmen The music was good and very lively. The dances were quadrilles. The dancing was extremely natural grace which race.3 -O Our Dancing Party. The house was drinks and by a crowd of half-naked spectators. from many The floor on this occasion was carpeted with a Brussels carpet. and a dry Aosta wine. and of the tramways. The men wore their picturesquely coloured ponchos. The guests. with dealers in fruits. with white vests and high boots. and the room decorated with two looking-glasses. is quiet. it As there were no doors or windows. with cakes and oranges. and consisted of a rude harp and accordion^ and a real nigger with castanets and a miles round. with a native as usual surrounded all night measure called the Dove. mazurka and gentle waltzes. which was very pretty. and children perfectly naked. with a little display of lace and colour. railway who came from of fifty. with all that so peculiar to the Spanish polkas. to the number were specially selected. The girls.

among this docile race. nor any case of drunkenness or incivility curiosity Some was naturally excited by of Guarani my wife and her friend taking part in the first quadrille. nor more apparent innocence. the daughter of the I landlady of the house. or education. and peaceful. or on the sunburnt plains of Brazil or Corrientes. Such are the marvellous remnants of Jesuit teaching quarrels. Our girl leader of the ceremonies was a very handsome about twenty. wander about with more security and hospitality nowhere can he find more magnificent scenery nor 21 . In no part of the world can the traveller . happy. and crimes of violence. thefts. but as usual there was not the slightest disorder or confusion. Our ignorance course and Spanish was of several a drawback. was under thirty shillings. yet contented. or law. Although unchecked by police. freely to those outside as to those inside . are almost unknown. including music. in any London ball-room. Happy ? people ! Are they to be envied or to be pitied Most of the men maimed in the sixths of their late wars. the whole of which. but guests spoke French. drunkenness. or even religion. five- number buried still in the neighbour- ing woods and marshes. than at cost this simple entertainment.Our Dajicincr Guests. and totally ignorant of any single grievance. so specially adapted for its reception. never witnessed more happiness and real enjoyment.

32 2 Physical Formation. Its temperate climate is due to this superabundance of vegetation. was a natural enquiry it of great interest to ascertain the physical characteristics of this little province. and deep beds of vegetable mould. Ranges of mountains and isolated hills rise on all sides out of a series of sandy plains. like an island. like a garden of Eden. little rivers and rivulets drain in every direction. numberless by the great and into which forming innumerable valleys. towards the surrounding The tropical storms that occasionally devastate these mountain forests bring down these fertile . prolific a finer climate. and marshes which enclose it. and the mountains a tropical maintain atmosphere a cooling mantle of cloud. nor a more unexplored and unknown It field for investigation. ture supplies The condensation of this moisthe endless springs and streams that all directions meander gently in sandy soil through a porous rivers. from all the sunburnt deserts and it. uninhabited wastes that surround Paraguay rivers its is essentially a region of mountains and springs. hills are The mountains and composed of decomposing sandstones. densely covered with forests of marvellous luxuriance. with pebbles and quartz conglomerates of very ancient geological date. definitely limited. which separate so prominently. is lowered in The temperature by evaporation.

(>f within the limits come The re- mainder are preserved on account produce. and directly many of the palms as cultivated. of which a description has been given. and distribute in deep beds far them but and wide over the valleys. permeated everywhere by springs. living almost fruit so wholly on the great bunches of abundantly produced by those lofty and graceful plants. in animal as sometimes assuming the proportions of vast lakes. their valuable In the wars of Lopez. mixed with solid streams of the richest vegetable mould. and rains. That such a country should abound . The clearing consists in so removing the brush and underwood. cocoa palms that flourish in such a and form broad and continuous belts surrounding every valley. may is easily be imagined. by copious dews and This fertility. watered by and marshes and lagoons. 323 •decomposing sands. . The inexhaustible refreshed fertility of such a soil under a tropical sun. These are the spots selected for the numerous home- steads and gardens. to moreover. principally along the singularly fertile zones that are found at the base of every ai'e hill. not limited are the hillsides the whole of the valleys carpeted with pasture streams and luxuriant herbage.Ca uses of Fertility . These zones always distinctly marked out by the stately soil. thousands of men and women were driven into the woods.

is only The woods and waters teem with wild natural. falling at night to 85°. all its vegetable life forms. began as a gentle. may reap as rich a harvest as the The climate and fine. produce at Asuncion a tem- perature as completely tropical as in the centre of and the heat is unsupportable even in September the temperature at Asuncion was 99" for . of Paraguay would well reward It is. and increasing sometimes for to the force of a hurricane. sportsman naturalist. three successive days. and the}^ are pre- vented from travelling during the day hills but on the the nights are tempered b}^ a constant breeze. was a I could phenomenon It never satisfactorily account for. either from due north or due south the constancy and strength of a cold current that invariably sets in every evening. rule. the As a winds sweep up or down the valley . careful investigation. tempered on the Brazil. pleasant breeze at sunset. animals. and fish. shakino. and birds. temperate The northerly or equatorial winds are not prevalent. but when they do occur in the summer months. at Paraguari. and reptiles and the . these heated waves. preceded by a little haze. though slightly hills. the naked feet of the natives. as a rule.324 well as Fertility and in Climate.the stronsrest buildinos and fully accounting the massive strength of the . In for the summer the hot sands become unbearable .

Taking the mean of the maxima and minima for seven days. was so its low tem- rendering the nights bitterly The thermometer on the night of the ball at 2 a. and materially tempers the climate of Paraguari. was especially concentrated at the railway station. which on the first was 38°. striking feature during our stay perature. the winds were north or south. the night temperature with the north wdnd was 53°. one-storied cottages of the natives. registered 38°. was more probably a current from the higher regions of atmosphere deflected down upon us from local causes.m. due to the configuration of the great Its force ranges of hills around us. Its 325 most cold. where a massive building of masonry is with difficulty maintained. at 2 p. it was impossible to conceive that this cold river of air could have passed over the heated rocks of It Uruguay and Brazil. We had.m. now reached 93° but whether of a gale. sometimes with the force and which strongly reminded us how close we were to the tropics. The temperature. however. low. This current is more or less constant throughout the whole year. the day temperature 76°. an equatorial cur- which lasted six days. some experience of the disagreeable character of rent.Pj'cvaknt Winds. . it was G3°. with the . Although coming from the south. the striking differ- ence of temperature between night and day was equally manifest.

of cloud level drifted by with apparently The height of this uniform layer was 200 feet. Our landlord and from twelve to interval to a all household disappeared I four. south wind. the base still dissolving into very fine rain. The terrestrial layer beits neath it retained transparency. while small detached masses of vapour at a lower great velocity. with lightning and a deluge of rain as at Buenos Ayres. sirocco During these hot day time to winds it is . A siesta in the middle of the the universal habit. This was followed by a delicious change of temperature . medi- tating on the beauty and novelty of the surround- . the day temperature 70°. alone was only while the difference of tempera- ture between night and day was no less than whether the wind was north or south. the night temperature was 46°. Thus the difference of temperature due to 6°. its temperature being maintained above the Dew Point by the warmth in the of the earth. but for some hours low layers of cloud hills hid the summit of the surrounding directions for in all many miles. The south wind was dispersed and driven back by a southern current. wind 24°. and dreamy swing always devoted this in the hammock. impossible make any day his is exertion we could only lie still in our luxurious hammock.326 Climate.

than a on transubstantiation fire. position. and on the happiness and contentment of the population. as I kicked off my slippers. The learned discourse of Cicero bears no to more relation the happiness of discussion these simple Indians. he throws these balls into a third bag. according to his own appreciation of his material happiness. containing: an indefinite number of black and white balls. a black and discontent so that if these balls were ultimately counted.The Siesta. than to determine practically what it actually does consist in. . and age. apart from all higher consideration. ing scenes. ball ball and contentment. pose that every For this purpose let us sup- human being always carried with him two tliat bags. and this element must vary in every individual according to his It has education. " What is happiness ? " I said. to express happiness to represent unhappiness —a white . they would furnish a correct account of his own estimate of the happiness or misery of his life. often occurred to me.worshipper. which will certainly be the only standard he will acknowledge. that the only practical means of de- finition will be to accept each individual's own standard. does to the devotions of a It is far less difficult to theorize as to what happiness ought to consist in. and let us farther assume at every emotion of his active life. temperament.

we can. or any of each separate individual. That the number of black and white of necessity be equal. which will simply be. like length or height. would only take the trouble of registering one or more white balls when happier than usual. whether for good or evil that is to say. a being who. a "priori. merely lived without emotions of any kind. and amount can only be estimated by comparison with some standard. This .32 8 Siesta Meditations. We need not. the balls at all. consideration. one of us. that the number of black balls will be precisely equal to the number of white balls. like a vegetable. different number of balls collected by individuals will be proportionate to their respective activity and vital energy. taking an extreme case. No other standard can be possible. predict the first. however. or black balls when less happy than usual but the " usual " must of necessity be the mean actual state of existence in which alone no balls will be thought of. exact result. its purely relative. would collect no balls at all. which must in this case be the mean state of happiness or enjoyment The Indian. if. is balls must this evident from the following or is Enjoyment happiness in sense. whatever may be the apparent happiness of the individual to others. trouble ourselves to count or even to collect them. secondly. and whether he be an Indian or a Newton that the total . as I believe to be the case.

The mean . leads to the highly probable conclusion that precisely equal all men enjoy a amount of happiness even in their totally independent of their own and estimation. The school-boy's holiday balls precisely balance all his quarter's at every lucky turn of fortune. but the mean state absolutely It is the standard each must use. plicable to. extent with different individuals but it will itself be always mathematically defined for any given period by the actual equality of the number it of black and white balls collected during that period. of black dropped in during the long to the discovery. to him that his new planet was but the other sack was already nearly balls.TJit Black and IV/iifc TJicory. If this evident postulate be admitted. The gambler fills his bag Even the suffering . and in no way affects any other individual. rier half filled his sack wdth white balls when it was announced discovered full . vigils and labours that led woes and cares.every single action of our lives there is no pleasure no without of its concomitant drawback? Lever- waves happiness without corresponding depressions in every phase of our existence. 329 mean as or usual state of existence regards positive may and does varymeans of enjoyment to any . or even their failings their vices. The black and wdiite ball theory is equally ap. state alone varies in diffeis rent individuals special. and wealth or health or ignorance.

but that as regards the abstract enjoyment of life. the emperor. ceases. But what inducement in such a philosophy ? is there for good or evil is There for if certainly are no in- ducement to do wrong. that nothing but a or a Kars excite a single Batoum dip into the bag. and the may rest assured that neither has been favoured nor neglected.^o Equal Distribution of Happiness. adapts his mean to patient. his position. we fully per- suaded that the two or three white balls that any . happiness or misery that has fallen to his The high or low disadvantage. even according to his own estimate. sunshine in his garden chair. the invalid. and his sources of happiness so limited. it has been bestowed upon with absolute impartiality. their resources. on a bed of sickness. pauper.Tf. mean has given no advantage or The Guarani Indian. or material all happiness. Among the affluent and powerful. or and throws in white balls when pain when again allowed to enjoy the cheering The mean is sometimes so humble that a mutton chop bestowed on With a starving pauper fills his happy store. And to thus every one will be found to be precisely equally weighted. right and whenever he sits down count up. the actual sources of happiness are dwarfed by the magnitude same ratio as of their standard in precisely the they are enlarged by the extent of left. the lot. another the mean will is so inaccessible.

the temptation to evil will be completely removed. no earthly standard for its measure. 331 may afford will be accurately balanced by a corresponding number of black ones." As found sleep crept over me in these hammock mediwilder flights. On ment the other hand.On indulgence Ilappmcss. or end can have no mean. I and fancy took some trenched on failing ground. we are endowed with absorejoicing in the lute freedom to do right. argument by thrusting net. ? I Do angels have the cloud a mean or is its presence not the rigid test that separates the finite from the infinite. to climb higher and with every encourage- and higher. I —space eternity. and properly recalled me to my editorial duties. traveller in the balls tropics must be provided is with some black even at this time of the materially of the mos- The enjoyment of the siesta balanced by the determined warfare quitoes. and no thief break through and steal. was here fortunately awoke. although they are far less numerous in . I had clenched through the my my leg mosquito and a savage poncho dagger gnat had instantly into plunged his the flesh. tations. certainty that the black balls of labour and selfdenial are but stores of happiness which "no rust nor moth can corrupt. The year. ? that shrouds infinity Time without beginning etc.

probably breeds in the sandy floors it is excessively minute. but they occasionally escaped her vigilant search. After our daily rambles the delicious evenings were always occupied either with the microscope. larvee rapidly bury themselves in the sore. and insect powder bothered the fleas and other They can't stand the wind. who had a marvellous knack of seeing them and extracting the little bag of eggs crippled with a penknife . and make a dangerous The feet of many of the natives are sadly by these pests. against We managed to guard them with our nets even when sleeping in the hammocks. Oil kept away the harvest bugs. the flesh. The jigger a species of flea that . If neglected. that impossible to become aware of its presence is except by seeing has attained it. the open village than in the valleys and woods. in our which is no precaution could keep away. and buries itself beneath the skin so cautiousl}^.33^ Insect Pests. Our only protection was to have our feet examined every day by a negro girl in the house. but our worst enemies were the feet. and created a corresponding cavity in the flesh. and this unfortunately eggs it seldom done before the bag of considerable has deposited dimensions. domestic pests jiggers . and with such perfect absence of it is irritation or itching. in examining the natural treasures we had brought .

and now covered some acres of the sandy river beach in golden heaps on the bare ground. but in coming alongside our clumsy navi- . The heat and mosquitoes of that be forgotten. of the densest shade The temperature was 99°. that had collected round the village ball and of it was with sincere regret that at the duties call sterner we at length bade adieu to these simple scenes and left the lovely gardens of Paraguari. to take on board no less in number than These 250.m. or. in rambling round the square among natives.Z eaving Paraguari.m.. 90°. orange groves. the terrible night will not easily At 10 p. in weight. left at 6 the quay September 20th. On returning to Asuncion a hot sirocco wind was blowing over the burning sands. the Taraqui. A temporary stage of bamboos and timber had been erected. • 333 the home. p. due to the saturated layers above us. Our steamer. to from the river. projecting about forty yards into the deeper water. and the heat was accumulated and concentrated in the terrestrial layer by a haze. or in watching some motley throng . three tons of oranges. which cover the hills two miles exportation.000. ' in listeninc: to & the sino^ins: Oft of our host and his family. had been planted by the Jesuits on facilities account of the offered for The fruit had been gathered and brought down the shore. of the river itself 79°. with a temperature of little village steamer stopped opposite the of Ipani.

of sixty women and with the most perfect discipline. a continuous column. and returning by another plank. fenced round with bamboos about five . it This process occupied the whole night.334 gators Cargo of O^^anges. tipping her cargo of fruit into the pens on board. When girls. managed to ground the steamer on some rocks. but as regards the tonnage of the cargo. venture if 60 per cent. feet high. but not without a few black balls as far as oranges were we were it is concerned. for they have no value. and in taking this fragrant cargo on board. and occupying nearly the whole avail- able space. of them arrive at their destination in good condition. and. each bearing a large pannier of oranges on her head. The night was spent in the noisy operation of hauling off the vessel by means of anchors and capstans. not as regards the oranges.m. leaving only a narrow passage round the pens for access to the cabins. These destined for Buenos Ayres and the considered a successful surrounding camp. possible. No sleep was and we lay panting on deck watching the process. and a singular scene furnished. left at 6 a. walked along one plank of the jetty. A very We little care in packing would avoid this terrible waste. . The vessel had been prepared for receiving the cargo by the construction of large pens on the deck. at last the vessel was brought fifty or alongside.

and in their cargo. Many we third-class passengers came on board. and the spray blowing up between the two vessels deluged our decks and oranges. and make solid packages for exportation. This heavily-laden vessel was lashed alongside us. many vessels were taking At Corrientes the whole night was still again spent in uproar. The river was low and the naviaa- . and increased greatly in force. for we were in the height the harvest.Pillar a)id CorrioiUs. wdjich were also closed. our progi'ess confined us to the cabins. 335 the following morning. and a strong head wind having now was sadly impeded. principally skins and hundred bags of matt^ sewed up in skins. and in ing the decks with several further encumber- cargo. with a marvellous change of temperature. on the following day. At Pillar. although left behind us cargo more steamers. though so heavily laden. A fell polar current suddenly swept away hours the heated atmosphere. but no cloud or rain. from 98° to 77°. which being green when used. our captain's cupidity unfortunately induced him of to take in tow a large bark containing no less than a million oranges. and in a few And this with only a little haze. and we were sufficient for half-a-dozen now had truly miserable and overloaded. contract in drying. At Pillar the beach was also covered with a golden harvest of oranges. and in a few minutes the temperature to 60°.

in 8 feet of water.m. . from which no could release us. and after other mishaps we were only too glad to get on shore at last at Rosario. after a very dis- agreeable journey that had lasted no less than eight days. matte bags at Goyaz. The crew. and in a rapid current.S^6 Descending the Pai^ana. thus totally preventing These not efforts all sleep. we shortly after drifted helplessly on to a bank. on the third day that we were and again afloat. which was the draught of Our companion away and carried away our bowsprit. it occupied all the next day. worked all night laying down chain cables and anchors. which were all broken by our our steamer. drifted steam capstan. and was till 7 p. and although we discharged a few efforts tion difficult. We appeared to be in the middle of a lake. The weather was now cold cheerless.

and apparently rise as so level as to furnish a fair horizon all round. alluvial soil is fertile.CHAPTER XIX. CORDOVA AND THE SIERRAS. a special carriage being placed at our disposal for the purpose.so that Cordova is we approach no less than 1. and was very trying. the distance being 246 miles.250 feet above the river. purpose of are under Cordova and the We deep obligations to the manager of the Central to Argentine Railway for the very luxurious manner in which we were enabled make the journey from Rosario to Cordova. and large areas were under 22 . The railway traverses an ocean of pampas in an absolutely straight line. as though at sea the but the pampas in reality Sierras. The jour- ney occupies a day. as we rise is At Rosario. the change of soil and climate very marked near Rosario the normal . We visiting stopped here for the Sierras. HE of temperature at Rosario with a gale wind was 45°.

are subject to destruction by droughts and locusts and storms. and we traversed enormous areas of dry white clay. with nume- rous fine churches. is the flourishes and coarse handsome leafless yellow retama everywhere. It with a total assumes still more the character of a wilderness as we proceed. and we next pass over miles of and dry and The and the barren sands and pebbles with scrubby underwood. which was raised in clouds of dust by the strong winds that always prevail. They . on approaching with the Sierras in " the background. and tillandsias and aloes rocks. fine. covered with underwood and cactuses cover the Cordova itself lies in a valley. covered with scrubby woods and low absence of rivers or water." now nearly dry. The alluvium gradually dis- appears. are poor The ranches is and miserable. erected the town. till we merge at length into the white dusty rocky district that surrounds Cordova. the crops. convents. the heights. however. all its Cordova owes importance to the Jesuits. and the country trees. and the view from it.33 Raihvay to Cordova. runs through the valley. country grasses . producing wheat and maize . is very fine. and other ecclesiastical and its massive Moorish cathedral. climate here is dry. and sub-tropical. cultivation. its They founded and buildings. The Primero. and supplies the town with water.

no spectator could remain uncovered. round the town in the form of hideous colossal statues. has here been unchecked. consisting principally of women and children. followed by a of clergy. the}^ are almost wholly supported. also 339 They are still founded the university in 1613. some of enormous and many v/ere carried in the procession. teachers. and with military bands Temporary it altars were erected in the and sincere but abject devotion with was singular to witness the apparently which the crowd. numerous and ing but the university hav- now become and The a purely secular institution sup- ported by the national government. bigoted. influential . The altars were covered with wax candles. dressed in gorgeous colours of music. a Saint Francisco. We The witnessed a religious procession in honour of city. and superstitious character of the population. . from wax alone The revenue derived must be very considerable but no . and.Religious Procession. the patron saint of the saint and some female figure were paraded host gold. unlike Paraguay. by whom size. German seriously their power is fruits of their withering influence. streets. are but too evident in the listless. with professors shattered. which. priests The maintenance of such terrible tax an army of must prove a on the earnings of these poor creatures. knelt down and safely crossed themselves as this tawdry proces- sion passed by . indeed.

and is therefore to neighbourhood of The Primero is in this way robbed of its waters. by a promenade. but it will doubtless be improved by the . many of the The water supply is nevertheless precarious the river was reduced to a small bright stream. and all who can do so retire to the Sierras. . Cultivation in these arid valleys. surrounded shaded with trees. which are diverted by numberless channels. running among the granite boulders and pebbles. well The heat in summer is intense. daily for several hours down from which the roads are watered and houses supplied. and the same wax may is profitably do duty over and over again in a hundred atonements. where rain often totally unknown confined for many months the together. can only be carried on by means of irrigation. A peculiar feature at Cordova a large artificial lake or reservoir. The produce and trade of Cordova is steady but streams. which gave evidence of its occasional volume and Sierras as a is velocity. A clear stream of water runs the principal street. and absorbed by the fertile belt that lines its course. but this promenade forms an agreeable evening retreat for the townspeople. other material could have been selected so especially adapted for religious offerings. and is difiicult to control. small .34 The River at Cordova. It is remelted with- out injury. It comes down from the mountain torrent in wet weather.

where finds no other support or encouragement. the laboratories. even under present is difficulties. proportion of our enjoyment at Cordova to the kindness and hospitality of our —Mr. will not fail to create a movement that will soon be felt from Tucuman to the Plate. 341 prolongation of the railway from Cordova to Tucu- man. the museum. and the traffic on the Central Argentine. a distance of 337 normally completed. it is yet available for extensive tion but the cultivathe growth of of the rich and extensive districts around for Tucuman. Gould.Raihuay to Tucuman. and so not as insufficiently provided with stock. A large was due friends. and the professors at the university. though in so sad a state. This line. and the completion railway. knowledge were professors. The university. the astronomer at the obser- vatory at Cordova. local and more especially the valuable and personal experience of the always at our disposal. both at Rosario and at Campana. buildings and cloisters are The handsome and commo- . by furnishing a centre and home for science. rapidly increasing. Bonded custom houses are already authorized. who were our constant instructors and companions. The library and fine collection of plants at the university. which are adapted of tliis every kind of tropical produce. is miles. has been of the highest value in these it new countries. that traffic .

were truly enjoyable. was complete. as . for The eminent services whole journey I enjoyed rendered by that indefatigable botanist are well known. yellow with the luxurious retama and various hills. with leather botanizing bags slung on the saddle. with that gentleman into the He possessed some magnificent his intelliofent mules. We bivouacked in a shaded glen on the banks of a brilliant stream of cold water. but advantages are not yet utilized to the extent that might Imve been expected. and nucleus of a fine natural history collection. in true native fashion. and are still being enlarged. dwarf acacias. Gould and other ladies and we roasted a large portion of an ox that we had brought in the made it partly a picnic. the exhibition by Mr. on a stick over a bonfire.342 dious. its The staff is of the highest order. A very valuable and ex- tensive collection of dried specimens of plants in was course of preparation in Paris. some- times collected into large clear basins scooped out . We we were accompanied by Mrs. and the his equipment of laro-e attendant. and the ascent among the which were covered with luxuriant vegetation. and during nothing so my as much our botanizing expedition Sierras. The ride over the sunburnt plains. Cordova University. Hieronymus. bao^s. The museum contains an admirably the arranged collection of the rocks and botany of the neighbourhood.

343 of the granite rocks. as they are surrounded by tall poplars and willows. at other times tumhling over little falls or gurgling great boulders among the pebbles and down in its wilder moods brought . p-rass is almost confined to one sinole fine very long paspaeum notatum. and blocks of primary rock with micaceous sands. but the feature which it is impossible to describe was the luxuriance and novelty of the botany that covered every rock. with boulders and beds of water- worn ])ebbles. trying. horses. goats. and often the stream itself The enjoyment was tenfold increased by the pleasure of such a botanist as our friend. The heat The The the irrigated was very enclosures afforded some in the sun shade. white clay. tillandsias are especially numerous and beauspecies. Another excursion we made was to a picturesque The mill in the Sierras. returning in a few minutes with any particular species to which he wished to draw my attention. who thoroughly knew The tiful. on the river Tercera. route lay for twelve miles over a dusty. species. sunburnt. hard. which grows in patches and feeds numerous and a few herds of cattle and The river . There are twenty or thirty and I was struck with the agility and energy with which our friend would suddenly disappear high among rocks and woods totally inaccessible to me. the locality of every plant for miles around.The Bo fany.

for the purpose of marking them. The prominent plants found the curious azola. We is passed also some extremely pleasant hours at the observatory with Mr. and else. Gould. although as occasionally even to break their backs. there had been no rain for seven months. We by Mr. are thrown so violently down on the hard ground remarkable. and some gigantic tree-like objects. cassia aphylla. prepared for us Taylor. in the Sierras were growing in the streams. as everywhere the most unbounded liberality. necessitating a new national order. the zanthoxyllon. and the extraordinary skill of the pdi^rto was very we could not but feel pity for the animals. "cereus. met here. the various species of baccharis. the beautiful cestrums. runs under a high baranca of sands and pebblyclays . the water was low. Hieronymus showed me a very curious species of gnetum. several clematis and other climbing plants." which were very striking Among species totally new. Mr. found on the Algarobo. the budleias. cactuses. the retama. which covers the arid clays with yellow flowers. The building feet on a dry and very dusty eminence 100 . the tillandsias. —a new genus. and the singular water plant lill?ea subulata. the proprietor. when lassoed at a full gallop. We also witnessed here the lassoing of some hundred cattle in an K enclosure.344 Botafiy of the Sierras. which. with enjoyed a truly sumptuous repast.

above the town. and the important result of their labour tion.Cordova Observatory. all 345 is around it the white clay ploughed out into deep ravines by the lains in the most singular manner. The for principal instruments were specially designed that purpose. as this department also province of the astronomer. is The observatory The main object viz. a spacious and commodious establishment. and a collection of standard meteorological instrufalls ments. of within the assistance With the an efficient staff* of assistants. entirely free from with this indefatigable astronomer has been the supply of a want long experienced. The ground it is so cut it up had and looks as though just emerged from a stormy sea. without the wearying detail incident to meteorology. the requisite routine observations have been carried on for some years with a zeal and continuity and completeness probably unrivalled.. though ostentation. . the pub- lication of a perfect catalogue of the stars in the southern hemisphere. as to be impassable. is in course of reduction and publicain- The in care and undisturbed application astronomical volved the work is more than enough. They equa- consist of a large meridian circle torial and a fine by Alvan Clark. and relief it would surely be a welcome to and an advantage both departments if they were kept separate. with the usual accessories.

compiled at the observatory. a want really although it is connected by telegraph with Cordova. no small share in the selection. sierras. as he informed me it himself. venient if would have been more con- a public establishment of this kind had been erected nearer the capital. In other respects.346 The Observatory. Among the graphic illustrations a plate which demonstrates in the most striking manner the connection between sun-spots selected clear and temperature. interest. extensive Two and instructive volumes of meteorological observations. It is usual . have just been issued. which almost come down to the town. The site for the observatory was Mr. and which higher and higher ranges of moun- tains until lost in the great chain of the Andes. as They possess great being the first publication of the kind in this there is climate. is all that could be desired at Buenos Ayres is where felt. of which they are the outl3dng sentinels. We regretted very much that we could not make or a longer stay at Cordova to join in wider excursions among rise in the magnificent ranges of hills. the absence of an observatory The climate itself. but the complete seclusion afforded accessible by a position so remote and in- from every busy centre of civilization had. by sky The dry climate and were important considerations. Gould himself.

two travelling on horseback. bringing with us several hundred dried specimens of plants. hills but this it is is soon left behind. and turned to our old quarters at Buenos Ayres. geological all specimens.Return Home. and among the only from the cold at is night that any real inconvenience experienced. bottled coolers. The unwillingness with which was Hieronymus accompany him on such an interesting expedition may well be imagined. The heat is a drawobliged to refuse the invitation of Mr. We bade adieu with regret to our many excellent re- friends at Cordova on the 10th of October. a puncheon of canna. . and carrying tents and for provisions the journey. and a couple of parrots. to extend these excursions over 347 or three weeks. snakes. to back in the valleys. water lace. hammocks. with to of which we returned England in December 1877. sleeping at night I in the tents.


It is generally agree with the mercurial barometer at when the mercury temperature 32°. The pressure of atmosphere strong this causes the elastic sides of a metallic box. the error. for it is enough not collapse is to be entirely crushed . and in inches of recorded on the is mercury ascertained The equivalent by experiment under adjusted to is the receiver of an air pump. with a good aneroid. a measure of the relative is of the atmosphere. between a table and the I have two aneroids made . to collapse.APPENDIX. will exceed y|^ of an inch. It is not therefore an independent adjusted instrument. HIS universal and invaluable instrument its is seldom thoroughly understood. though were weighed the spring balance. without the actual weight of superincumbent in atmosphere a precisely. and the extent of pressure dial. from which the air has been exhausted. and applied. will indicate a difference of level floor. but when properly and it and carefully not used. cor- rections are often totally neglected or mis- The as aneroid the it records. ESTIMATION OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAROMETER. correction.

in which the weight at any height simply proportional to the height above. the pressure diminishes in a twofold ratio not only are there less bricks as before. atmosphere above The absolute height As is of the atmosphere is unknown. but on account of the compressibility of the air a cubic inch weighs more near to its the earth than compression. What the corresponding difference of level due to any given fall in the barometer ? The column the barometer. X c. the pressures will be corresponding natural numbers. but the bricks are individually of less and less weight. as . of bricks. And the question arises. therefore. The height of the column of mercury in the barometer is directly proportional to the pressure or weight of the it. if the heights are logar- ithms. above in a definite proportion.. If. v/e ascend the barometer falls. by Elliott.350 Appendix. the corresponding pressures will form a decreasing geometrical series . the heights are represented by an arith- metical series. but not simply in proportion to our ascent. It does not probably exceed 50 miles. that have not differed y^ of an inch daring two years. when compared at uniform temperature. in projoortion The column of air thus resembles a column which every brick is heavier than the one Therefore. is whose weight is given by not like a column of water. i. . Since the barometer readings will be proportional to the pressures. the actual difference of level between any two stations will be given b}^ the Differ formula - : = log.e. is or bricks. we ascend. or mercury. in at a higher level. of air above us.

886 one inch at the mean barometric height — 29'5 inches. In order to reduce barometric observations made with mercury at any temperature to what they would have been * if the mercury had been at 32°. The height of the column of homogeneous atmosphere that balances is 30 inches of Mercury. 29 inch. = at -01472 X 60158-6 = 886 feet. due to a barometric rise of we have li therefore H at sea . and their readings are not comparable. which height the barometer feet is the value of will have fallen 1 inch.* For the difference of one inch. both at temperature 32.58-6 feet. barometer with hot mercury or hot water a is simply a different instrument from barometer with cold mercury or cold water. Since tiplied The factor c is the height of the homogeneous atmosphere mulby 2-3026 to conyert Napierian into common logarithms. of course essential that the temperature of the for a It is water or mercury should be precisely the same at both levels . at altitude required. All observations are usually reduced to temperature 32°. . 26126 feet. say 30 inches. and c a factor.-. « = log. 351 When h is h is the barometric reading at the lower station. with mercury and when the temperature of the level air is 32°.Baromctyic Heights and Correct mis. c = 60158-6. level. depending on the density or temperature of the air to require consideration. at 32°. 1^ 601. is the barometric reading at the upper station. and some other minor influences which are too small In latitude 52°. Density of Mercury is 10500 times that of air.

Thus for temperature 60° add double 28. — = 29-916 is = the corresponding reading when the mercury at 32°. therefore. and when confined in a tube this expansion is wholly in length. is Since the barometer at ordinary level usually near 80 inches. the correc- tion will be simply the difference of temperature multiplied by Yowo P^^^ ^^ '^^ total height of the given column. mercury expands in volume ywo"o" ^^ ^^^ h\iSk for every increase of temperature of one degree. Secondly. 18 and 18 X and 30 j-^ or -084 X-003= -084. or very approximately at ordinary levels 2 feet for a rise in feet due to 1 inch of the barometer. c is based air is it must be borne in mind that the constant on the assumption that the temperature of the 32°. then for the reading with the mercury at 82" we have difference of temperature 18°. For any other temperature we have the Air expands very nearly yoVo ^^ ^^^ volume for each degree of increase of temperature. By following correction. If the barometer reads 30 inches with mercury at temperature 60°. an increase of temperature of one degree. and vice versa for temperature below 32°.35- Appendix. the correction is always approximately obtained by simply multiplying the difference between 82 and the actual temperature of the mercury by '003. Hence this very simple rule : — For any excess of temperature in degrees above 32 add double the excess to the value in feet for 1 inch found as above. the total atmosphere is increased in height at the rate of 2 feet per 1000 feet of elevation. and for the . That is for temperature 32° + x" add 2 x.

Difference heights with the barometer. James.irometric Heights and Correclions. Temperature of Air 0°. * If a is the total difference of level between two stations. for temperature of any other mean temperature T assuming expansion at -^^ per degree — T32 Corre ition 490 23 . per 1 inch. or 912 feet. barometric readings should be at tempera30-9 30-5 30-0 29-5 29-0 28-5 28-0 27-5 27-0 26-5 26-0 25-5 25-0 reduced ture 32°. The value of the in feet for one inch barometer being deterfor the mined mean height a of 935 957 980 1004 4-0 4-2 4-4 46 4 9 the barometer between the upper and lower stations. In estimating Feet due to 1 inch. with air 32°. abbreviated from Col. simple for For any temperature of tlie add twice the temair above peratiu'e in feet. the inches.B. 353 the value in feet of 1 inch at temperature GO'^ with barometer at 29*5 we get 88G + 50. Temperature of Mercury 32°. is The temperathe mean temperature at 840 -G 857-8 875 of the air the if upper they and lower 894 91-t station differ. with all the accuracy is of which the problem capable. It will be found very convenient to attach this little table to every aneroid. in Explanation. Bar.* In this manner the following short and useful table. to Mercury The aneroid requires 781-2 793-0 808-3 82-1-1 3 31 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-6 3-8 no ture correction. and will it be sufficient with moderate altitudes for the measureof heights and for the reduction of barometric readings ment to sea level. proportion gives the value the whole diflference of readings. has been calculated.

Whether for comparison with the aneroid or with to its reading for other barometers. —Ben Lomond : Inches. of air 59 at summit 26-606 48 . COKEECTIONS OF BaEOMETEK. 28-205 one inch Add for temperature 53-5 ^ = 868 temp. Table gives for Bar. temperature of the mercury 65°: . 32° or aneroid 29-803 temp. multiply the excess by '003 and deduct the result from the reading. If the temperature of the mercury is above 32°. it is necessary for comparison to reduce the readings inch for to their equivalent at sea level by adding ^-^ every 100 feet of elevation. Example : Temperature of air barometer 29-89 inches.354 Example Appendix. „ . As also stations are usually above the level of the sea. at base reduced to Mer. For greater accuracy ascertain approximately as above the mean reading of the barometer between the station and the sea level. the reading of the mercurial barometer must always be reduced mercury at 32°. 60°. Bar.. and take out the correct value due to 1 inch for the given mean reading and mean temperature of the air from the table at p. 353. of air 53*5 One inch = And 3-197 inches X 975 = 3117 feet.. the height of Ben Lomond. „ Mean Difference 28-205 3-197 Mean 5 3-5 Feet. of air 107 975 temp.

= -099 and 29-89 — -099 feet. which the approximate reading at sea level for mercury — 32. Printers. Note. is = 29-791 inches for mer- cury 32° 29-791 which wall correspond with the aneroid reading. elevation being 200 To reduce to sea level + ^-^inch = 29-991 . — Our formula gives for the reading at sea level H = log. Hence. or 931 feet.— the correct reading at sea level mercury at 32°. : : -215 inches. : Log.Baronictric HcigJits First.° mean reading between sea level More accurately. . for the reading for and Corrections. Watson and Viney. h + Altitude 60158 + 60158 (2 t 980 — 64) FINIS. 355 mercury at 32° we have 33 X -003 . the and the The value in ^V inch = 29-891 inch. feet due to one inch for barometer 29-891 and thermometer 60°. will station will be 29-791 + from the table be 815 As 931 200 1 inch : + : 120 feet. Secondly. Hazell. And 29-791 for + -215 = 30-006. London and Aylesbury.

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