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Edwin Clark - Visit To South America - 1878 -

Edwin Clark - Visit To South America - 1878 -

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*ms»3fac*x r\vf ; xatasoii







The Bequest of Colonel George Earl Church









Ins. Civ. Engineers,

F.R.A.S., F.M.S.,

etc., etc. ;

Author of



and Comoay Tubular Bridges."





London and Aylesbury. Watson. and Viney. . Printers.^\oD Hazell.

often involves repetition. but it has the advantage of preserving that freshness and authenticity peculiar to notes written in the presence of scenes described. little They thus form a text for various observations and explanations with which they are interwoven. Paraguay. during a journe}^ to the Eiver Plate and a residence of nearly two years in Buenos Ayres. . So far as the notes are concerned substance of notes they are given in the order in which they were written. and with alteration. Such a course and even dis- cordant views on the same subject.PEEFACE ^^^p3E following pages contain the made in 1876 and 1877. and Uruguay.

Preface. but though I have it omitted detailed observations. Considerable attention was given to the natural history and meteorology of the country. mechanics vitiated — and remarkable compilation. I must meDtion that under the I laboured through- out serious disadvantage of possessing no library of reference. and the notes and views on these subjects were far too voluminous for a book of this description all . The only books and of I possessed were Hooker Decaizne's invaluable manual of botany. Nystrom's American pocket-book its and engineering. but which ciated can only be thoroughly by those who have witnessed the countries he describes and realized the marvellous accuracy and eloquence of his descriptions. is hoped that the meteorologist and botanist . and Darwin's Beagle^'' a Naturalist's Voyage it in the book of which appre- is impossible to speak too highly. with useful collection of tables and formulae. but unfortunately by its many typographical *' other errors.

On the other hand. My professional of information interest.Preface. A very large space has heen devoted to the description of Paraguay. yet unpeopled. . not only on account of the extreme interest which its sad history and marvellous beauty excited. but also on account of the great dearth of existing information that is available for the solution of the very remarkable physical and moral problems to which they give rise. but it brethren will doubtless be disappointed in finding so small an amount on subjects of engineering the little level must be borne in mind that plains of the pampas furnish the vast and fertile scope for engineering works of novelty or magnitude. though offering a field of unbounded future importance are and as interest for enterprise. will not fail to finti original matter on these toiHCs wliicli will excite his interest. I have always been inclined to assign a much the larger range to the subjects that of essentially civil come within the province is engineer than usually admitted. and even unexplored. while regions beyond.

. and in that sense some of the following pages may serve as elemen- tary lessons for the young engineer. which includes the whole subject of terrestrial physics. Prefc the mere technical or practical portion forming in my opinion only a single branch of the great science of engineering philoso- phy.ace.

THE BAY OF BISCAY. and 24 their Cause Loss of the Cajjtaln Ocean Depths — — — — 27 CHAPTER Verification of III. — Diffusion of Heat— Indications of the Thermometer — Finding a Good Position on Board— TemperaAir— The Wet Bulb— The Whirling Table 28—30 ture best obtained by Rapid Motion of the Instrument through the CHAPTER IV. THE SHIP AND THE WAVES. The Tagus Lisbon Entering the Trade Winds Its Dread by Early Navigators The Doldrums Explanation of The Atmosphere Influence of Solar Heat Circulation Moisture and Heat of the Doldrums of the Atmosphere Ascent of Heated Air A Prairie Fire Cyclones and — — — — — — — — — — Anticyclones 31 — 40 / . Extent and Formation Its Dangers and Storms.TABLE OF CONTENTS. THE THEEMOMETER ON BOARD. INTllODUCTION 9- U CHAPTER I. LISBON AND THE TRADE WINDS. Departure Selecting a Berth The Douro Waves Shipping a Sea Storms at Sea The Engines The Slip of 15 the Screw The Helmsman The Commissariat — — — — — — — — — . —21 CHAPTER Its II.

CHAPTER V. — — — — — — — Its Principal — . TenerifEe — Entering the Tropics— The Cape de Verde Islands — The Challenger— Coaling at Vincent— San Antao Flying Fish — Nautilus — Luminous Sea — The Heat and Moisture —Absence of Lightning — Limits of the NorthSt. VINCENT TO THE PLATE.Table of Contents. — Ecliptic Defined by the Moon its Azimuth 48 — 58 CHAPTER VIL VAPOUR AND CLOUDS. Longitude. and Setting of Planets — Jupiter's Satellites and LongiCortude — The Celestial Globe — The Compass and rections— The Log — The Latitude. Crossing the Line east Trades — San Fernando— Globigerina— The South— Pernambuco—Tropical Flora— Bahia— The San Francisco Line— Luxurious Ve2:etation — The Ants . — Southing. The Tropical Skies Almanac The — — Fig. and Sun's — — The Celestial Southern Cross The Want of an Equator and Meridian The 1. CHAPTER VIIL ST. LISBON TO THE TEOPICS. east Trades and the Doldrums 41 — 47 CHAPTER VL ASTKONOMICAL EVENINGS. Specific Properties of Water in all its Forms Functions Its Anomalous Expansion Tropical evaporaIncrease of Volume Diftion Tension of Vapour fusion of Vapour Two Atmospheres Latent Heat Lightness of Mechanical Force of Evaporation Saturated Air Specific Heat of Water Table of Pro- — — — — — perties of Vapour Its Influence Daniell's Summary 59—67 The Dew Point and Table for finding . Rising. .

BUENOS AYRES AND THE PAMPAS. CHAPTER First X. QUARANTINE AND THE RIVER PLATE. Difficulties — Death on Board. The TerresLayer Changeof Climate The River Plate Yellow Fever on Board Quarantine Regulations Monte Video 68 Anchorage at Buenos Ayres trial — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 92 CHAPTER IX.Table of Contents. a Night at Dolores— Ephemeral Nature of Civilization-Floods of the Salado— The Western Railway —Its Benefits— The Crisis at Buenos Ayres— Public Loans— Great Cost of the Government— Defects— The — — — Public Works — Maladministration— Hospitality of the people 124-162 . 2. Yellow Fever— Funeral — — Fig. Impressions— Narrow Streets — Bad Drainage — Bad Roads— Buildings — Italian Workmen— Religious Freedom —The Harbour and Lighters— The Campana Railway— The Animals and Birds— The Marshes— A Tumnlus— The Baranca— Thistles— The Great River— Progress of Civilization—Engineer's Difficulties— The Northern Railway The Ensenada Railway— Forest Planting— The PampasAbsence of Trees Its Its Formation Its Gradual Rise Natural History— The Southern Railway— No Fences— Azul. Cape Frio Sea Temperature The Gulf Stream Rio Jlountain Clouds Botanic Gardens Tejuca— The Yelhjw — Fever Fruits Climate— A Shower YV^.. — The Quarantine Hulk— Cruel treatment — Description of the Plate — Silting— Delta of the Parana — Great River Valley — The Baranca— The Las Palmas and Guaza Branches — Campana— The Tides — Theory and Table —Amusements — Humidity and Dew—A Cloud Observation and Storm — The Camalote and Botany — The Islands —Air Plants— The North Winds— Our Acclimatization — New Arrivals — Picnics — River Fogs and Cloud Formation— A Distant Storm— Sail to Buenos Ayres 92 — 123 Pampero 3. of.

Ga— Conclusions The Santa Rosa storms of August Lightning. CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY OF BUENOS AYRES. its Disturbance The Pampas Constant contest between Polar and Equatorial Currents Periodicity and Cause of Storms— The Terrestrial Layer— Overflow of Equatorial Vapour— Rapid Condensation The Andes Storms Travel — — — Freedom from. 4 The Phenomena of a Great Storm Its Analogy with Condensed Steam in an Engine The Great Storm of May 1877— Barometer Observations Pressure from Descending rain The LightFigs. AlligatorsStray Cattle on the Monte Charms of Solitude The Natural History Botany of the Rocks and Monte The Lagoons — A Striking Examjjle of Natural Selection 217 232 — — — — — — . CHAPTER Advantages of Peculiar Position XI. Magnitude— Estuary and Delta Steamers Uruguay — The River of — Paysandu — Fray Bentos — Salto— Cause of Decline — Public Loans — Dishonest Government — The Present Dictator — Recent Improvement and Progress — The Salto Railway — The East Argentine Railway — Descripth-e its tion of the Salto line 205— 21 CHAPTER XIIL THE COTTAGE AT ARAPEY.Table of Contents. 5. 6 ning The Floods— The Damage to the Railway— RestoraStorm of June Its Extent tion Fig. Duration and Extent A Dust Tornado Vapour Overflows from the Tropics in Rolling Cylinders Fine Climate of Buenos Ayres Coincidence of Storms and Full Moons Sun163—204 sets against the — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIL THE URUGUAY AND SALTO. 7— The Azimuth Table— The River— The Monte. Local Wind Fig. The Bridge SoKtary but Charming Position of the Cottage The Commissariat— The Staff— The Wind Vane— Fig.

The Locusts Callandrias— Widah Birds A Puma Liglitiiing Powder Magazine— The Camadraca— The Iguana The Cuati— The Nutria— The Carpincho— Rodents— The Snakes— The Lakes Alligators Scorpions and Spiders—The Becho Colorado— Puncture of the Mosquito 233—244 — — — — — — CHAPTER XV. The Heated Rocks — The Heat and the Flowers — Fire Flies and Night Insects— Effects of Heat — Experiments on Radiation — Ascent of Heated Air — Mean Temperature and Weather — Dust Storm — Tornadoes — Explanation of— Resemblance to a Centrifugal Pump — Their Movement — Causes of Storms — Burning the Flechilla Grass — Clouds — Their Shadows — Their Formation — Perspective of — Height and Forms of— Temperature of — Length of Shadows as Affecting Climate — Excessive Heat and Drought at Christmas 24. Prosperity under His Rule Lopez II. NOTES AT ARAPEY.''agnitude the Parana — Tributaries — Field for Ex— Distances —Temperature of Water—The Baranca of the Parana— Geology— The Gran Chaco — The Indians — Their Degeneracy — Excelsior — Change of of Its ploration . Beauty and Sad Fate— Its Destruction The Guarani Indians The Jesuits Rapid Development of the Country Recall of the Jesuits Dr. Union with the Argentine Confederation — Projected 264 — 274 . Francia and his Cruelty Lopez I.'5 —263 CHAPTER XVL PARAGUAY AND Its ITS HISTORY.Table of Contents. His Bloodthirsty Disposition and Vices State of the Country at his Death The Railway The Loai) The Tobacco — — — — — — — — — — — — Confiscation — President Gill's Assassination . CHAPTER XIV. CHAPTER XVIL THE PARANA AND ASUNCION. ]\. METEOROLOGY AT ARAPEY.

Scenery Shooting Monkeys and Alligators Corrientes Asuncion The Lagoons The Victoria Regia— The Chaco Description of Asuncion Francia's Palace Lopez's New Palace Vast Resourcesof the Country. John's Cave Balls Our own ball — — — — — — — — — — — — — Peaceful Character of the People— Physical Cause of the Great Fertility — Climate— Siesta — Meditations on Happiness — Theory of the Black and White Balls — Mosquitoes — Jiggers— Amusements and Departure — The Great Heat Asuncion — The River Journey Home — The Oranges at Ipane — Our Cargo — Oranges at Pillar — Running Aground — Our Delays and Hardships — Arrival at Rosario 297 — 336 — — at — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIX. The Railway Cordova— The Rise of the Pampas— The Barren — Situation of Cordova— The Jesuits— A ProcesLake — The River — The sion— The Alameda.-Our Hotel Undue Proportion of Females The Market The Railway The Environs and Natives— Sale of the Railway 275—296 — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVriL THE COTTAGE AT PARAGUARI. Our Landlord The Village Contrast with the City Our Fare Amiable Character of the People The Commandante His Residence TheSchools Absence of Religious Culture Municipal Accounts Power of the Commandante Absence of Crime Incident at a Wedding The Market German Produce The Village Dial Eclipses The Colony The Forest Scenery Native Houses and Habits Orange Gardens and Banana Groves Bamboos Botany Hospitality— Sugar and Mandioca— Snakes Canna Distillery Sporting The Orange Distillery The Boa-constrictor St. 349—335 .Table of Contents. or Tucuman Railway — Our Scientific Friends — The Astronomer. Gould — The University Professors — Botanizing — Expedition to the Sierras— Picnic—The Mill on the Tercera— The Lasso— The Botany—The Observatory — Selection of Site—The Sierras— Return Home 337 — 347 to Country Artificial its APPENDIX . Mr. COEDOVA AND THE SIERRAS.

Such phenomena are indescribable. afibrds to the philosophic mind an intensity of enjoyment totally indescribable. or the terrific grandeur of a tropical storm. . . The first phenomena in all the imposing grandeur with wdiich she sur- rounds her tropical throne.INTRODUCTION. and we too often fall into the error of imagining that we can interest others by a bare record of our own delight. and the prejudices which he knows he aspect of nature and natural has overcome. the experience which he feels he has acquired.T is a very natural desire with every intelligent traveller to commemorate by some record the privilege he has enjoyed. and must be witnessed before they can be imagined. but it is equally impossible either with pen or pencil to convey any adequate idea either of the magnificent luxuriance of a tropical forest.

thus reduced to the dry and unsatisfactory list is task of furnishing a barren or description of the plants of which the forest registered force composed. or the of the wind or temperature or rainfall of the storm. This has not been the dominant object in the following notes. while gigantic productions of totally new regions literally inaccessible from their very luxuriance. greatly The enjoyment is of such scenes is dependent on our preparation for their comprehension. gigantic grasses and ferns. all of scientific We are irresistibly led to inquire life why put the the familiar objects of our everyday on such strange our and novel forms beneath .T o One is Introduction. and . but as objects interest. and cient vastly enhanced by a suffi- knowledge of natural philosophy and natural history to look on them not only as gorgeous and imposing spectacles. covering the land with palms and cycads. or with forests in which the trees themselves are with difficulty identified amid the cloud of epiphytes and climbing plants and parasitic vegetation which covers and overtowers them. mysterious influence of this heated zone hills why and valleys here are carpeted with such types and forms render these prolific modest vegetation. In a similar manner we attempt in vain to utilize the experience acquired in our gentle climate.

and. rigidly The smallness of the earth promithat nently brought before us the Royal Mail circuit. few pounds between here and the Plate. and the whole is covered by so scanty an envelope of atmosphere that an elevation of six or seven miles. where all meteorological pheno- mena assume such where all gigantic proportions. but the infinitesimal smallness of human One knowledsje altooether. so imposing that we deficiencies feel so deeply not only our for own and want of preparation such an intellectual feast. It is in the presence of scenes so novel and. race. superficial film on which we live would be equally destructive. three-fifths of the surface a mystei'ious reservoir of water. reflects The visible abyss of space around us it our insignificance. Again. vast as it is appears to our limited conceptions. 1 apply our weather theories to these regions of vapour and heat. cooled. striking^ lesson derived from travellino^ is is is the limited field to which all observation confined. when we reflect Steamers make a quarter of the service.Introduction. doubtless . storms originate. for a with a regular fortnightly sterling. which can be performed hour. in a balloon in half an would instantly annihilate the whole human while a similar descent beneath the unstable. and. small as of the earth is it is. indeed. The journey occupies twenty-eight days.

It has is been on before my mantle-piece ever since. progeny of beetles moving about in a dense layer over the remaining material. had been ten years in course of colonies formation. only another film as compared with the inconceivable infinity beyond. leaves. containing. Conii. period.1 Introduction. which is still visible to the naked sufficient in quantity to support many future generations in this miniature world. during the whole of this long closely corked. fresh being periodically pro- The bottle." full. Some history. duced. four years since an intelligent country apothecary. " Fol. the cemetery of former races. the original dried but the top layer. as an article of com- merce. . He informed me that this upper bed. to the extent of consisted of half the bottle. who knew my fondness for natural brought me an ordinary wide-mouthed pounded hemlock leaves. about 1| inches thick. labelled. fourths The bottle was more than threeThe bottom layer. chemist's bottle. the exuviae and remains of former generations of a colony of thousands of minute coleoptera who lived on the surface of the sound portion of the dried leaves. consisted of a bed of matter of a darker colour. was kept constantly he gave it In this state me four years ago. dried. and this now me with year's eye.

if have often thought that endowed with intellect of the highest order. but I it have not recorded these beetles were on account solely of I its entomological interest. must be and would doubtless be explained theories without the slightest pos- by innumerable sibility of their arriving at any correct explanation. 13 so That these beetles should thrive a plant as many years in a closely-corked bottle of leaves of so poisonous hemlock is of itself a remarkable instance of adaptation. and brain power capable of indefinite development. They would doubtless see through the glass that forms the confines of their tiny world the rows of other similar bottles which occupy the chemist's shelves. even summer and winter. how infinitely small w^hich all their philosophy must be the ultimate sphere to must be limited.Introduction. familiar to them. in w^ay and with the same probability that our speculative astronomer peoples Jupiter and Saturn w^ith beings like ourselves. and would find them in so many respects like their own that they all would doubtless conclude the same that they must be full of beetles. May this not also be the case with some poi'tion of the knowledge of which we are vainly in search ? . Night and day. and I is have asked myself whether our own bottle larger as much it compared with the universe in which forms so insignificant an atom.

/ troduciion .1 /. as I have said before. philosophy which first. may not after all be little bigger bottle in a larger It is in this spirit that I have in all humility attempted to utilize the small it amount of natural . and. secondly. sound bed still remaining beneath them Avould. I am often. very much resembling ours. Their only geology. ensure an more or less highly developed. inclined to ask boasted geological antiquity and stability myself whether in the great scale of creation our little globe and its assumed eternity and regarded only as a chemist's shop. would show them that previous races^ had run the same under similar conditions. . nessed range themselves. as regards their scale of time. and course as themselves the deep. infinite future. like the in in their speculations best of on the can on of to theorize the way I greater amount phenomena much which we know the nothing. a bed of exuviae and skeletons of their fossilized ancestors. has been my lot to acquire in endeavouring to explain the natural laws I under which some of the phenomena beetles have witseasons.

The left Douro. all across the Bay of we sighted Cape Vincent. We went through the usual discussion as to whether berths should be transverse to the ship or longitudinal. as in the disputants disagree. E Southampton on the 10th April. was an left excellent sea-boat. one of the older vessels of the Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company.CHAPTER I. bound for Buenos Ayres. No one likes their head alternately a foot above and . In this case. and we had zest to the sufficient pitching and rolling to add arguments. in which we sailed. till for three days. with accommodation which nothing to be desired. if majority of cases in which there would have been no difference of opinion we had all started with the same premises. THE SHIP AND THE WA VES. which lasted Biscay. in good English fashion. We went on board. during a storm of rain with a strong cold westerly wind. 1876.

and the sun at starting is south. sus- pended in gimbals. the rolling but the pitching that often not bewilders our ideas of gravity. but when steaming against a head wind. and all a journey across the illusions Bay effectually removes on this subject. hopeless to attempt to neutralize such complex and ceaseless movements by any mechanical device. to remind him that if he stands at the stern of the vessel looking ahead. and as the course across the Atlantic to South America is about south-west. and his right hand the starboard side. and vice versa on his return. On first ramble over a fine vessel like the . and if below heels.1 k^ irheir The Ship. he will prefer. like the ship's compass. and upon the whole I came to the conclusion that to be thoroughly to sleep in comfortable we ought hammocks. his left hand is the larboard or port side. vessels only rolled we should certainly be most comfortable parallel with the keel it is . which preserves such provoking and enviable zon tality But even with these elements of horiwe still have the rise and fall due to the It is mean height of the great water undulations. always stability. a berth on very much a cooler than on the port side. the starboard side. as if possible. It may be a useful hint to a landsman selecting his berth. the letter initial of is L being the both left and larboard.

must be borne water is in mind that an ordinary wave it in still a mere undulation in which the particles of water that compose do not move object such as is forward. the vessel floating forward. The Bay It of Biscay in its angry moods is a good school for checking all such presumption. on account of its forward velocity. and no great waves can be formed in shallow water. the retiring water runs back beneath the advancing wave. as they appear to do. carrying objects rapidly forward. and the its force is expended by conversion into a wave of translation. 17 its we cannot fail to be struck with strength and solidity. IJaves. it Where the wave meets a its vertical simply if it rises up and down on the face of the wall. but meets a shelving shore vertical oscillation is arrested from want of depth. which flows bodily on to the beach. which. A similar undulation is the base and essence of 2 . Hence an on such a wave not carried Such an undulation requires a certain depth of water. wall. curls over and in expends itself incessant breakers that follow each other with rhythmic regularity. and half defy the winds and the waves. As we i)ace the spacious and solid deck we feel elated with such a triumph of inclined to human skill and industry.The Douro. but oscillate in vertical lines up and down. and the numerous and ingenious appliits ances involved in construction.

is easier. In a similar we have seen breakway while friction delays the lower particles. pitching and dipping into successive hollows with heavy shocks. rivalling her wave appears to own speed. and thus increase the height of the succeeding w^ave into which it resolves itself. oscillations of this liquid which always blows The pendulum attain colossal dimensions. An instantaneous hurricane on still water would merely bear away a . in gusts. waves. Under such cir- cumstances the good ship rides over them.continued wind. and shipping incessant spray and sometimes solid water. when facing the storm. the top layer of the v/ave hurries furiously on. one tending to depress the weather of the wave. and curls over with foam and noise under the action of long. although even during a gale the waves maintain a definite form and a partial regularity in their movements. —a catastrophe which . the other force tending to carry the undulation bodily forward and produce a wave of translation. and threatening to overwhelm her. thin layer into spray but when the wind impinges it is on the sloping side of these undulations into i:ide resolved two forces. such as ing on the beach. and of the billows of broken w^ater that all characterize the Bay of Biscay. overhanging follow in her wake. or practically increase its weight. When but a running before the gale her motion huge.1 The Waves. permanent.

helplessness of the crew But the Bay must be seen during the fury of a hurricane before any idea can be formed of the prodigious forces with which a vessel has to contend. and the helmsman endeavours to avoid them as best he can such a moving column. the vessel no longer obeys her helm. its effects are terrible and destructive beyond explanation. or "sea. On such occasions the billows rival the winds in their wild and lawless fury.Seas in a Storm. and sometimes addincr to the by extinguishing the fires. Such abnormal disturbances are but is tunately few and far between. strikes the unfortunate vessel. dipping her bulwarks into the sea. Immense masses itself. clearing the huge billows break from stem to decks of all unsecured obstacles. 19 But if through the break- down of the engine. Mountains and are con- verted into whirlpools and foci in lines of irresistible force. streaming eno'ines down the hatchways. of water clash together or combine. when termed. does occasionally occur. the rudder. Solid iron stanchions are bent flat down (sm the deck. and want of way or damage to trough of the sea. but drifts helplessly into the rolls she then heavily from side to side. to. of water scud away before the tempest with velocity almost equal to that of the wind often drifting directly across. bulwarks. and deluging the and furnaces. . while stern. or even in direct opposition the general set of for- the waves." as it .

are swept bodily away. with every unfortunate being that comes within its range. but it continually haj^pens that during the violent lurches of the vessel her stern and screw are lifted entirely out of the water sufficient no governing arrangement can act with force of the liberated engine for the speed to cut off the steam. by an engineer in charge who watches as well as he is abk to the pitching of the vessel. and the tremendous is moment totally expended in imparting terrific velocity to the shaft and screw. In these large steamers resource. not unfrequently damaging the engines or twistinof the oTcat shaft asunder. This is 2fuarded against as far as possible of the throttle valve. and only too often happens she rises out of the sea again a helpless wreck. They are only true of the ships. and every projection. The Eno-ines. But in spite of these precautions the screw occasionally will run away. The hull trembles under the blow as is though that strikinof a rock. and every traveller must have been . The course it of the vessel instantly arrested. driven at slow speed. life sails are but a secondary engines are the The great breathing and are nursed during a storm wdth scrupulous anxiety and care.20 boats. often including the hatches themselves. and temporarily cuts off the steam by hand at the moment he has reason is apprehend the stern leaving the water.

and must regret that safety is not gale '-•'. The into steam steering machinery boon. If a blow of the sea overcomes them. vessels provided with duplicate tiller steering gear. the noisy chain and quadrant which is worked from the bridge. this now coming Hydraulic purpose.The Helmsman. It is difficult to imagine a more dan- gerous position than that of a sailor on an inconvenient raised platform in a rolling shipj between these two wheels with their projecting spokes. and seem constructed It as traps for arms and legs. use is must also be a great applicable to machinery . To guard against generally accidents at the helm. with a long gear for and proper locking use during bad weather. right anil left watches the steersman at these wheels during a must be struck with the dangers of tbeir arduous duty. would perhaps be better if the wheels were plane discs or protected by discs. the wheels rotate with terrible velocity. but the shaft should always be furnished elastic with lever efficient brake power. and the handed screw-gear worked by tlie ordinary ornaWhoever mental steering wheel at the stern. preferred to ornament in so vital a part of a ship's equipment. 21 aroused by the startling jar and tremor wliich in such cases vibrates througli the whole vessel from stem are to stern.').

sheep. and poultry. crew. ice. including those taken on board at Lisbon. affording abundant fresh meat throughout provided with ice is the journey. few days to realize the extent of It requires a the immense establishment maintained on board these large vessels. A large tank placed in the centre of lihitwni the ice-house supplies the table filtered with bar iced water. especially as regards its own mysterious phenomena and the constantly-varying aspect of that great and . and servants number 115 people. with forty tons of dealt out. and although the sea always imparts a certain of its amount more own restlessness and prevents close applica- tion. Ocean-acclimatized cows supply fresh is milk.22 The Com?nissariat. throughout the tropics. The officers. The commissariat department. — a luxury which ad all liberally and thoroughly appreciated. supplies iced American drinks of no Some kind passenger generally presides at the piano in the great saloon. and the ship cellars. it affords abundant scope for observation. is provided in no nig- gardly pens. scale. We had in addition. The fore-deck filled is crowded with cattle- and cages with oxen. pigs. TSO passengers. while a well-equipped kinds. and there is difficulty in joining a whist party on a level with one's experience. considering the many claims on the ship's space. own skill and Altogether we were a very happy family.

.TJic Commissar iat. dimly veiling the moving hosts of stars and planets beyond. bounds the 23 unobstructed marvellous vault all that its horizon with gorgeous furniture of cLjuds and mists.


confined between these indestructible walls. land-locked. and to the Atlantic fact that the great waves assume unusual dimensions and it irregularity from their reflection as foci were into by the concave it is coast. It is moreover pecu- liarly subject to violent storms. no sailor after losing sight of the great is from anxiety until off he sights for the there flashing is beacon Cape Finisescaj^e terre.The Stormy Bay. 25 of the great Atlantic wave. from the circum- stance that separates situated in the boundary which trade-winds the great zone of steady from the region of cyclones and disturbances which characterize the and disastrous The numberless wrecks which from time immemorial North Atlantic. little chance of for a crippled vessel driven into this stormy cid-de-sao during a continuous westerly its gale. unenviable notoriety to have given such these . inhospitable shifting but also to the set strong and the tidal currents which around Northern Cape. set directly During westerly winds. which lighthouse at Ushant free into the Bay. flanked by the Pyrenees. The Bay owes its dangerous character not only to coast. thus clearing away the tertiary- measures which line the huttoni of the Bay from Rocheforte to Bayonne. of this character district of the A continuous denudation would ultimately absorb the whole Garonne and form a new entrance into the Mediterranean.

2500 fathoms. The great depth of the water is also a remarkable feature. Blanc. so that we crossed no deeper w^ater in the Plate. with 500 eight or men on whom only ten escaped to record the mysterious lessons of the disaster. is whole of our journey to the or about 2^ miles The general 2000 fathoms.M. turreted board. in the great depression south of the Bermudas amounts to is 3875 fathoms. however. impart a melancholy interest to its history. The depth. Depths. crowned by that gravest of loss all marine the disasters —the of H. amounting to 2600 fathoms wdthin the Bay. the greatest known depth See the cruise of the Challenger. as a average depth of the Atlantic : the height of is Mont convenient scale of reference.26 Ocean. w^hich in the Atlantic Ocean. /z ^-^^^ ^ . \ 4. of vessel Captain. stormy waters.

The best instru- ments are liable slight changes of their zero. THE THERMOMETER ON BOARD. The problem thermometers of finding the best position for the gave rise to to a few experiments. These repeated are useful lessons as regards the accuracy of the instruments themselves. and to their errors at freezing point were ascertained. and also of the atmosphere. from contraction of their glass bulbs and stems. and tested in a tin vessel with pounded ice and rain water. more especially when exposed to sudden changes tests of temperature.CHAPTER III. by direct contact wdth as when . either Heat is communicated a thermometer other bodies. carefully verified The instruments were by comparison with a filled standard. E made daily observation of the tempera- ture of the surface water. and the care and attention required in their use.

but temperature of the air influences. It is effect numerous reflection. superficial coating When we different consider that different bodies have capacities for heat. a current of secondly.28 The Thcr7nojneter. and even of surrounding objects. distance. only on the movement or tranquillity of the but on the nature. lutely attains. and from surroundiDg like light from a candle. and dif- ferent capacities for transmitting heat. until an equilibrium obtained by which the heat received and emitted becomes equal. A but free thermometer never absoapproximates of to indefinitely and records the general mean surrounding causes. it is evident that the all and conducting combined influence of these properties of heat on a glass bulb filled with mercury only furnishes us with a record of the mixed eflect of numberless disturbances. and not a simple record of the temperature of the air. such the is itself. which is the real object of our inquiry. only one among Its actual indication is dependent not air. different powers of radiating. Heat radiates in all directions from objects. or. affected direct air by and other still more rapidly by as contact with the other bodies. and reflecting heat. is the thermometer. to immersed in water or exposed air. by radiation or reflection from other objects. absorbing. Ther- mometers placed in different parts of the ship all .

The ThcDnonictcr,


gave discordant results: one gave the temperature
of the


walls of the cabin


another, situated

outside a port-hole on the port side, gave us the

temperature of the


compounded with







and of the


and radiation from

sea water.


the starboard side

we had

a lower result, because

that side of the iron vessel was in constant shade.


the main deck

we found

that the heat which




and funnels


thermometer constantly two degrees.
gave too low a

The bows

because the spray exposed

them to the effects of evaporation. Any height up the mast was objectionable on the score of inconvenience, and the difficulty of shading the
thermometer from the direct rays of the sun.


a good situation to-day became a bad one

to-morrow, and although a permanent set of ther-

mometers was placed on the shady
I preferred to

side of the after

hatchway, properly protected by Venetian shutters,

adopt at the time of observation the

best temporary position available for the object in





availed myself of the

rapid conduction produced

by rapid motion through



by which other

influences are dwarfed,

used a delicate thermometer attached on a

and whirled rapidly round

in the air in a properly

and shaded


The thermometer


The Thermometer.

warmer than the air, is whirled round it ceases to fall, and this is recorded as the exact temperature of the dry bulb. I then wrap

the bulb of the same thermometer in a strip of


and whirl


again until


again ceases

to fall; this result is the temperature of the



On removing
aofain whirled,

the lint and drying the bulb



exact return to the

previous temperature
of the

a proof of the accuracy

experiment, which scarcely occupies two



on shore

I fixed it

on a whirling

with a proper protection against the heat

of the

body by means

of a glass cover over a

portion of


which the




by means

of a lens, and I found



thus obtained highly satisfactory

and uniform.





constantly occupied, the clays passed

happily by, and

the ship's



called us to incessant meals,





investi oration.

was a constant


even during the night,

come on deck once or twice in slippers and dressing gown, to have a look at the weather, and a few minutes' meditation on the changing aspect of

the star-lit vault above us.



wet westerly
fogs, left

Channel winds, with their accompanying
us, or rather,



them, by the time



Vincent, and on the

we rounded following day, Good
One cannot

Friday, April 14th, 187G, after a four days' journey,

we anchored
fail to

in the

Tagus at Lisbon.
of the old

be struck with the elegant proportions and










monuments, whether

forts or churches, are invari-



ably so

much more imposing than anything we seem now capable of designing ? We landed for a

few hours under a brilliant sun, and took a drive

round the Wind- Mill
of large aloes,

The glimpses we got

and arums, and palms, and other out-

scouts of tropical vegetation, excited our enthusiasm.


took on board a boat-load of oranges and other






and vegetables, and
class passengers.

about 20

and 120 third


news that yellow fever was unusually prevalent in Rio, and dread of the proverbial miseries of quarantine in the Plate, deterred
joining us

many persons from who would otherwise have done so. Before we had made much progress in our return down the Tagus, we were met by a strong N.E.
wind, amounting at

to half a gale,

which lay

on our starboard bow, and rolled us about sadly
all niofht.





however, and

resuming our normal S.W. course, we ran merrily

until it

moderated down to a pleasant
days and nights,

steady breeze.
us without

This same N.E. wind accompanied

variation for nine

through a distance of about 2400 miles, until

assumed a more easterly
of the


and died away
This was our

imperceptibly amid the heated clouds and vapours



Lat. 5 north.

acquaintance with the north-east trade winds,

which temper these quiet

The marvellous

The Doldrums.


constancy of this eternal wind might well alarm

early navigators,



running before


day after day, despaired of a change and feared
they could never return home.
calms at the Doldrums in which

But the zone of
landed them was


to be dreaded.

In this region of breathsailing

and vapour,




helplessly becalmed for
less is



So motion-

the air that the smoke of a cigar scarcely

leaves the deck, and the






the rigging.


no exaggeration in

Coleridge's beautiful metaphor, in describing this




dropt the breeze, the sails dropt down 'Twas sad as sad could be And we did speak only to break




silence of the sea.

" All in a hot

and copper sky

The bloody sun, at noon. Right up above the mast did


bigger than the moon.


after day,

day after day


stuck, nor breath nor motion.

idle as a painted ship


a j)ainted ocean."

The explanation of this singular phenomenon offers however no difficulty, though it leads us into a




dry philosophizing on the general subject of

the winds.


The atmosphere above us, like the ocean beneath though homogeneous as regards actual composiIf

tion, is not so as regards its density.

we ascend

into the


the density of the atmosphere constantly

decreases in so rapid a proportion that at a height
of only 3| miles
it is

already halved, and





proportionately diminished.

The winds

with which we are concerned are the disturbances
of this lower envelope of dense
terrestrial stratum, constantly

This unstable

varying in density and

temperature, must be subject to perpetual changes

and movements.
as the ocean


after our experience of the

storms to which the surface of so dense a
is liable,



are fully prepared for the

corresponding hurricanes and tempests of this rarer


In the same manner as

we have been

able to explain the great

dominant features of an

ocean wave, without being able to give any
factory account of the abnormal and

forms which


assumes during a hurricane, so


are able to trace the great fundamental


of the atmosphere,


are often unable

and more complicated pheto unravel The tempests which roll the Atlantic nomena. billows into the Bay of Biscay, and slowly disinlesser

tegrate a continent, are due solely to the energy

Tlic Ahnosp/icre,


of solar heat.

In every daily circuit a wave of
this mysterious
Its universal

and destruction accompanies
journey round the earth.

orb in



the basis


almost every physical

problem, but

nowhere more directly manifested

than in the phenomena of the winds and waves.

The lower stratum of the atmosphere, however, owes its condition more immediately to terrestrial temperature and humidity arc influence. Its mainly due to the surfaces with which it comes






through the air and reaches the earth with


portion which


on the land

rapidly absorbed and retained, while that portion



on the ocean


only partly absorbed, a

large proportion being

consumed by


latent heat, while in both cases a portion


back into space.

Apart therefore from


minor disturbances, the earth and atmosphere as a
whole are much more highly heated in the neighbourhood of the equator, where the sun
than under the influence of
is vertical,

oblique rays in

northern and southern latitudes; continents and
islands moreover are relatively

more heated than

oceans and seas.


local differences of

ature give rise to the trade wind.

The void occasioned by the constant ascent




from the belt


and would give sonth. rise to constant winds from north and belt But when we bear in mind that the equatorial and the atmosj>here with it rotate with a velocity of 1(KX) miles per hour. is filled in if by a constant current the earth were at rest along the surface. instantaneously it transpc^ed from the the equator would from past its inertia it stand while the earth whirled from west to east. this and with any other heavy body such as the air. This same would be pro- duced in a proportionate degree by any change of latitude. while there is no such motion of rotation at the poles. is Apart from other disturbing causes there thus a general tendency to a circulation of the whole atmosphere in which cold winds flow in along the surface of the earth towards the tropics from north-east and from southeast. away north and south to . while the heated air from the tropics rising into the atmosphere flows restore the equilibrium. it would thus be endowed effect with an apparent motion of 10(X) miles per hour from east to west. while winds from the south pole apparently come from south-east. in the ratio of the cosine of the latitude. it is evident that if a cannon-ball could be jx^le to still .^6 the tropics The Earth* s Rotation. In manner winds coming direct from the north arrive at the equator as north-east or even east winds.

and in the enormous mechanical energy labours of the sun are spread from pole to pole. The and effect of this it compression is to bulge its the atheight.TJic Do Idnuns. as shown by the a. is consumed. these ascent. latitude 32°. Between the equator and it the constancy of a circulation of this character very evident. mosphere as this were upwards and increase effect bulging in becomes 32'" very apparent and constant characterized where it is by a permanently high reading of the about Lat. and its of rise varies in position with the sun. and copious showers. in their descent as well as in their work done by evaporation. although the difference is further disturbed by of temperature between tlie land and the sea. which is wholly supplied by a constantly vertical sun. tliat 57 It is moreover evident the the ascending columns of the of lieated air from wliole equatorial zone would on this hypothesis hecome compressed as they approach the pole. which. high temperatuie. In the form of clouds. . The great heated vapour belt from which these columns Doldrums. near the equator. is barometer. north. In the movement of these currents over the surface. and rains. are incessant. is At its sea it is called the charac- terized by its moisture. latitude of less and attain [>arallels of and less diameter. approach to each other of the meridians on globe. and storms.

. into the heavens. on The account of their diminished specific gravity. or heated or by the descent of cold by the humid columns of air. This same phenomenon takes place when one part of a continent consistinor of darker rock or sand is more highly heated than the surrounding districts covered with marsh or forest. pressure. and in numberless other similar circumstances. as in South America. or when a cold polar current over- flows irregularly the heated pampas. or. or a heated equatorial current penetrates a colder zone. Direct mechanical movements of the air or winds are produced by the void left by condensation of vapour into rain. we merely light a bonfire. or when clouds partially obscure the continent. while the land breezes and If local storms are produced by the superheating of the continents as compared with the ocean. set fire to a forest we should do or prairie. Columns of flame and smoke rise furiously and the ascending current draws fill in the air in violent eddies from every side to the void. The barometer and rain is indicates the diminished often immediately produced by descending currents of cold air.38 A Prairie Fij^e. leaving large tracts exposed to full sunshine. great quiet trade-winds arise from the heating of a whole zone of atmosphere. we witness on a small scale the elements of a great storm. or winds from higher local ascent of levels or mountains.

Cause of It is interesting to ]Vi)ids. called Such systems of winds are succession of such cyclones. often originating on the northern boundary of the region of the trade winds. the air will flow in but principally from that side on which the actual barometric i)ressure proportionate to is greatest. air Secondly. A which continually pass over us. is a main cause They are of our unstable weather in England. We have therefore all this general law. Winds which blow . 39 examine how such a void will from all sides. violence. and thus all round this region of low pressure the winds. and with a velocity This of the gradient of pressure.. with which we are more immediately concerned. cyclones. First. will tend to rotate round it spirally. on account of the the north-east. in from Similarly the air from the equator will come from the south-west. motion. that remarkable and important winds rotate round a region viz. in the northern hemisphere the north earth's will. of low pressure in a constant direction. be filled. in northern latitudes in a direction contrary to the hands of a watch. as flowing from the we have come seen. gradient isobars this is indicated graphically by a series drawn at equal barometric intervals round area of lowest pressure. and come often of great extent and to us generally from the west or south-west. instead of flowing directly towards it.

rotate necessarily in a contrary direction. . wind during a cyclone we know the centre round which it is blowing. but in be on our right hand. as we have more directly applicable to the whole region of the trade winds. with us in the same direction as the bands of a watch. if we straight lines. is the equator totally merged in that higher law of circulation which. This important and constant law is the basis of all our weather forecasts. or the region of low pressure.. viz. or anti-cyclones. must always curves. but as it is we approach seen.40 Cyclones. face the Thus winds never blow in and in England. around a region of high pressure.

12. little and usual escort. and entering a that we were did not new meteorological region. Accompanied by our new its friend the north-east trade wind.CHAPTER y. a mist and cloud. the great province of the sun.180 feet above the sea. We passed the Peak of Teneriffe in the dark. currents directly Its great height is available a valuable measure of the altitude of clouds and . T was after leaving Lisbon in latitude 38° 30' that we experienced a marked felt change of climate. at its summit the wind to is usually opposite that of the constant trade- winds below. we ran about 260 miles a day. and consequently we see the over- . with a consumption of about fifty tons of coal. which we again leave for nearly two years. was clad as with snow. LISBON TO THE TROPICS. but in the caught a glimpse of its we stupendous dome among morning It light the clouds.

The Yincent. still although masses of fleecy cloud with haze accompanied the north-east breeze. This little break was most enjoyable and opportune. the whole of the ports and hatchways had we had put in here for the purpose of undergoing the terrible operation of coaling. now nearly vertical at noon. to add to our discomfort. as and. the water The temperature in the was 66°.42 The De Verde Islands. and immediately blinding any unfortunate dares to look inquirer who up or look ahead. and invited to visit this resting floating scientific we were most now weather-beaten and inte- museum. lar volcanic On the 20th we arrived at that sino^u- group the Cape de Verde Islands. Challenger. and inspect her perfect equipment. tlow from the equator passing back over our heads. cabins was 82°. to be tightly closed. and on deck 85°. latitude 23° 30'. the . was anchored in courteously the bay alongside us. On the 18th of April we entered first the tropics. The coaling of the vessel occupied six hours. and tempered the niojhts. on her return voyage. and rounding San Antonio anchored in the deep and brilliant and sheltered waters of St. and enjoyed the truly tropical day with a hot sun. The two most serious nuisances in a steamer are doubtless the coaling of the vessel and the perpetual shower of dust and coke which in certain the wind fall states of from the funnels. covering the decks with grit.

with glimpses of bignonias and a few other flowering shrubs. Among the few houses of consists. parched. . 43 brought alongside on lighters and tipped down the bunkers amid clouds of dust. It looks like a volcano of 3^esterday. and every one who remained on board. barren volcanic rocks it that even on these appeared to me that there was more than sufficient scope to furnish agreeable occupation for a year. barren contour of the bay. ocean. We only remained one day at Saint Vincent. The group of the Cape de Verde lies about 300 lati- miles from Cape Verde on the African coast. which the Portuguese settlement for the first time we came with great delight upon some trees. and forcing them into greater elevation. which lies to the north of St. It consists of ten islands. which. their . dry wind. in tude 14° to 17^ north. but the tropics.The coals being De Verde Islands. borne away on the hot. palms and some cocoa-nut planted in tubs. which seem of a deep volcanic rock rise in to have boiled up from the bottom St. intercepts the north-east trade winds. and all we were now at last really in was so new and full of interest. literally covered the whole ship. giving an almost stratified appearance to the ash-coloured. Vincent. mostly The larofe island of San Antao. Vincent itself is a bare walls of lava and hardened ashes all a precipitous mountain round.

condensed into continuous rains by the cold due to expansion. the coral bottom is visible at and black divers. Vincent other objects of deep interest crowded themselves that a so rapidly on our proper record became impossible. often only escaping one foe in the . which is merely a wrapper round their come alongside in their canoes. taking long flights of two or three hundred yards from wave to wave.44 moisture is Saint Vincent. w^hich are established here in consequence of the convenient position of the island and the excellence of its large and sheltered harbour. little Saint Vincent. waters in the bay is very remarkable depths. exposed to constant drought and sterility. even for the most common necessaries of cipally blacks. and its inhabitants depend on importation. and a constant cloud rests on the summit of the lofty mountains. life. and fetch up every penny or sixpence that is thrown into the sea long before it reaches the bottom. other tropical all This island consequently produces abundance of oranges and fruits. They are prin- employed on the various coaling wharves. still The great dress. its but having robbed the sister. in their normal loins. brilliancy of the . air of is humidity. with their silvery wings now scudded over the water and passed the ship in shoals. all and a hurried notice was Flying fish that was practicable. On notice leaving St.

water to meet another in the at night air . track of the vessel for a long distance These rhizopods form a large percentage of the .Flying Fish. bright scintillations were thrown deep under the surface by the action of the screw. and use more as parachutes than wings. flew on board. with the wave like a miniature This to singular organism the is physalia belongs the hydra family. crested swimming bladder surface. it of unusual size Ion or stinofino- floatinor on the and the its tentacles with which captures prey hanging- deep in the water below. 45 we caught some left by means of a bright light on the lower deck placed opposite the gangway. falling called continually flocked by. erroneously the nautilus. and an excellent dish they made. —probably the microscopic alg?e observed Sometimes in the evening or at night we seemed to have entered a sea of liquid phosphorus. attracted by the are of light. the fish. which was open for the purpose . The Portuguese man-of-war. and were captured and cooked. the same family as the their long pectoral fins They voracious pike. and lit up the behind. and with its in every respect a jelly fish. The sea was occasionally covered with patches of a red colour resembling a film of red sawdust floating on the water. rising and ship. streams of brilliant light with by Darwin.

for so lowered the temperature of . to be only water in another form. so that. it was impossible to making it difficult blotting avoid to constant perspiration. though congealed by but on closer examination the noctiluca no less remarkable for its its complete and wonderful organization than for beauty and evanescence. whole bulk of the water. however. and a deshabille almost of native simplicity. in which a bottom layer of noctiluca miliaris occu- pied half the solid contents of the tumbler. Our north-east current^TTad almost died away. we now for the first time experienced the effects of a perfectly vertical sun at noon. first At vital is sight they appeared. — not. water from the Menia near the shore. As we had reached 11° dQ'. with all the ports open. thing foretold our near approach to the Doldrums. full of have taken a tumbler Straits. sleep or to write without the paper. action. like Schemyl.wind died when our with- away outright. The nights became oppressively hot. and everyApril. it out a struggle. and the sun's declination was also altitude 11° oQ'. which we entered on the 23rd of trade. we walked about without shadows.46 Lunihwus I Seas. and on the 22nd the 81° and of the cabins temperature of the sea was 84°. and there was no evaporation. like as ice. In spite of iced gin-slings and sherry cobblers. the atmosphere w^as loaded with moisture. with the sky still more or less cloudy.

south-east trades frequently overlap so that we met with them on the 24th This is in latitude 4° north. but never reach the equator: the}^ oscillate latitude 11° north. due to the preponderance of land north of the equator.The Doldrums^. but when we remember equalized. the absence of lightning is satisfactorily ac- counted for. and partially condense. by which the great ascending equatorial current is produced. heavy the clouds. tliis 47 it region of heated vapour that filled expired in a torrent of rain. while the it. lio:htninor There was no cauldron in althoun^h we were in which these north and south currents blend. . between latitude and Hence the north-east trade- winds never reach as far as the equator. and therefore electrically and moreover that the saturated air is good a conductor as to carry away quietly disturbance of equilibrium that any little may take place. The Doldrums follow the sun in its change of 2° declination north and south. itself so that they are both surface currents over the same waters. and the sky witli dense.

and new heavens were taking Jupiter and Venus. with their startling brevity. late into the night. and disappeared beneath our northern horizon the heavens really appeared . that they seemed like new its planets. HE gorgeous tropical sunsets. was sinking out of view. The pole star. called our attention to a subject which throughout the journey afForcled us the highest enjoyment. I allude to the constantly-changing It aspect of the heavens.CHAPTER VI. rose and so vertically into the sea. their place. while the southern . constellations as they came up from the taking leave of old friends as they night and by night sank lower and lower. was our habit after dinner to pass these lovely warm evenings on the quarter-deck. ASTRONOMICAL EVENINGS. jects. now fell brilliant ob- climbed so high. where we remained watching newsouth. to be passing away. already dimmed by lessened heio-ht.

Celesiial Globe. about 3° by lowering the northern pole per day. 49 attended by a stately collection of new con- stellations.The cross. some unravelling before they were clearly realized. and the almanac rising set- fur- nishing no construct a tion. latitude Our globe was rectified daily our changed. lit method will add the enjoyment of the most unscientific a little The great lines of reference in the star- sky are the meridian. and the positions of the sun. the equator. we had no alternative but to new almanac this for every change of posi- For purpose a celestial globe which as I fortunately had on board was an invaluable companion. attracted our admiration in the southern heavens. ting The in of the planets given clue. wafers correctly moon. which ought not to be materially to star-gazer. The changes occasioned by our rapid approach to the equator. A long sea journey affords an opportunity for little acquiring a knowledge of practical astronomy lost . combined with considerable change required of longitude. and the is ecliptic. and their approximate position so easily 4 . and planets were daily laid down by means of small placed in accordance with this their right ascension and position declination. In manner the of the planets. were clearly represented. as well as the diurnal motion of the whole heavens.

1 through tips of the horns.h the risinp^ and settincj of the sun and o o o planets and other phenomena depending on latitude . the ecliptic — E C—will If be a great circle at right angles to that line. Whenever is is the its moon visible position indi- cated if by the line fact that a —A B— be supposed drawn the straight Fig. and by simply it turning our back on and lookino^ due south on great arc from is our meridian. the altitude of the equator on the meridian will be the co-latitude.50 The Ecliptic. 0° passes vertically over our heads. determined that there is no excuse for ignorance on the subject. through this point the celestial which when we are in Lat. The is pole star is always recognised : its altitude always the latitude of the place. any planets are this circle. The ^ '^^ ecliptic is the high road of the sun. cuts the equator liquely. and planets among and ob- the fixed stars. visible they will be situate on Althouo. east A to west passing equator. moon.

subject only to a small allowance for their proper motion in the heavens. ascertain our corresponding The eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and occultations interest to a of stars traveller. add ten stars. eclipses. seconds per hour of longitude for the and two minutes per hour for the . shadow * and it is on entering that ing by The rising and setting are easily obtained from the southmeans of a table of semi-diurnal arcs. the southing of will take place. cos X tan declination.* The moon's age and phases.TJic Aivianac. and other similar phenomena. made on The into large disc of Jupiter throws a conical space. it moon will south at Buenos Aja-es four hours west at eight minutes past 8. and to we have merely local time.m. the times of eclipses. at times given in the almanac. are absolute times independent of our position . . occultations. close For a approximation in longitude west. and not often possible at but it is a most interesting observation and easily shore. the when we moon the and planets wherever we are. due to the difference of time or longitude. by the moon It requires it is are of great a good telescope to see these sea. of Jupiter's satellites. they are recorded in Greenwich time. to the time so that if the given in a Greenwich almanac souths in London at 8 p. 51 as given in an almanac will be useless change our latitude. moon. or from the simple time = tan latitude fornnila.

the exact time of an eclipse in our we have only to own local note time. The satellites and are seen on also frequently pass over the disc it as a black speck. is distinctly visible to see and it is not uncommon both the satellite and its shadow clearly projected on the bright disc of the planet at the same instant. eclipse of the An same moon is is a phenomenon of a similar seen at the character. these phenomena are occurrence. are four satellites. and refer to the almanac to ascertain the Greenwich time at the same instant. and as a dark spot. the in less than two days. at shadow a distance from the planet that the satellite immersion or sudden disappearance of the takes place. For since they are visible everywhere at the same instant of time. As there which rotate round the planet in first short periods. . like a sudden meteor in the sky. and the difference will be our actual longitude without any calculation. At other times the satellites pass directly behind the planet and are said to be occulted. The satellites themselves cast a shadow which sometimes passes over the dis€ of the planet. and the fourth in of constant twenty days. Its emersion is equally sudden on the other side of the shadow. being everywhere instant . and afford a very ready means of finding the longitude.52 yiipiiers Satellites. but this not the case with eclipses of the sun.

led to the incorrectness of at least 80 per cent. But the compass is never employed. 53 furuisli Lunar distances and occultation principle. as dent guide. A few minutes' reference to a all properly rectified. daily rectified . Ship. and time is either known or can be calculated. on shore. The small globe that I fortunately possessed was always in request. of all . viz. The Navigation of the The invaluable and constant standard of reference in a ship is the compass. the luxurious know of no equipment of these splendid vessels that would be more appreciated celestial globe. I but most invaluable. not more among the among the officers of the vessel. than a well-illumined for the latitude of the vessel with the addition of some daily indication of the actual position of the sun and planets on the ecliptic. is sometimes imagined. as an indepenfallacy that the The popular compass our points north and south has. and excited constant passengers than interest. and cannot too strongly recommend a constant addition to reference to this neoflected. celestial a'lobe. companion.TJic Celestial Globe. solves the ordinaiy astronoI mical problems at sea .. as furnishing other methods of finding longitude on the same general anywhere occurring at of which the precise Greenwich phenomena observable absolute epochs of time.

as to assume a position such that the north end dipped 67° 39' towards the north. as they had been thrown on his hands as defective on account of the needles dipping so much as to touch the compass box. was so atti'acted by the earth's magnetism. By placing weights on the upper or southern end. who had received some excellent pocket compasses from London. and we have the mariner's compass west. of course. . freely In 1877. About three in England centuries . the dip and the deviation both diminish and at Buenos Ay res the needle points 10° to the ehst of true north. and from place to place. and w^hile I was at Buenos Ayres a tradesman. and bringing the needle horizontal. the dip of 67° 39' is destroyed. tion down no less than and its horizontal devia- was 19° 5' to the west of true north. easily corrected by a drop sealing wax varnish placed on the lighter end of the needles. . bar. in the form of an horizontal needle. a perfectly -balanced magnetic suspended in England. as I of explained to him. with a deviation of 19° 5' As we travel south and west.54 The Mariner' s Co?npass. This was. ago it was nearly correct but the variation changes from year to year. In delicate instruments the balancing of the needle requires to be altered on account of the change of dip. instead of 19° to the west. ordinary weather vanes. was on the point of returning them.

course for short periods . when the exact degree is noted on which the shadow of an upright pin. . It is equally well ascertained at any hour tion of the sun's azimuth. therefore indispensable to ascertain daily the ship's position by astronomical observations. including every is disturbance. The latitude is obtained at sea with great facility of the altitude of the sun at affording by an observation noon. vary with the position of the The actual variation of the compass is ascertained by means of the sun at apparent noon.TJie Jlla j'itier's Compass. 55 guide. the horizon a most convenient datum for the purpose. the But the needle ^vould Le unsafe as an absolute two compasses alongside each other at the helm differing by six or seven degrees. is The speed of the ship the directly ascertained the rough method of the log. falls : the error of the compass. thus directly determined. is thus considerable exactitude interfere but storms and currents for with such a reckoning. fixed over the centre of the compass. unless It is very short periods. or by by estimation from and the obtained with number of revolutions of the screw. by a calculais The compass during only short assumed intervals to remain constant the between these frequent observations. and differences these ship.

The problem is therefore reduced to finding at . according as the latitude and declina- tion are alike or different. then at any spot whose longitude fifteen degrees. to say. measured on a globe. is The next daily operation on board the deter- mination of the longitude. and so essential to is recommended. or -will one hour. and a traveller. the sun have passed the meridian of that spot one hour ago. which. that such a practice an operation so short. plus or minus the declination. or 360 degrees. and the time will be one hour after noon.56 Latitude. east of Greenwich. We were in the habit of daily ascertaining our latitude in this manner it is with an ordinary pocket sextant. simple an operation. latitude is simply the observed zenith dis- The tance of the sun at noon. the whole circumference being twenty-four hours. either in hours or degrees. and the earth makes one rotation from west to east in twenty-four hours. are figured on the equator. This is not quite so Longitude is the east or west position of the It is ship with respect to Greenwich. Thus the difference of longitude between any two places is practically the difference of time. As it is apparent noon at any place at the moment the sun is on the meridian. so simple. the hours of longitude are practically hours of time that is . if it is noon is a-t Greenwich.

sec. This relation is determined by a problem in spherical trigonometry." By * {s. as the sun in its changes if its altitude as its hour angle. method well as measuring this angle at sea daily but. d. angle..* The latitude is determined from the observations made at noon.Longitude. knowm direct as the hour of There course is no possible . we determine the exact relation between the change of altitude and the change of hour angle. latitude of the place. 57 between the any given instant the difference exact time on board and the time at Greenwich. sin {S — a). corrected altitude of sun. etc. = = d = „ polar distance = 90 ± dec. as described. our problem will be solved . so that the one shall give us the other. since the alti- tude can at any time be directly taken with a sextant. are taken from the " Nautical Almanac. on board. When P = a I hour angle required.m o)' = <^os >S. The Greenwich time is given by the chronometer The ship's time is the angular distance of the sun from the meridian. The polar distance. which the is of such constant use to the traveller that usual formula is given in the note below. a + l-\- d . I cosec.

The ship's clock is altered daily at to the apparent time thus found. the equation must be daily taken into account as well as the longitude. the use of convenient tables for the purpose. as given ship's bells . greatest.. is the deter- known. the is the work of a few minutes.58 Ship's Time. the is also found in a when the time is similar way from the an observation at are sun's observed altitude. These simple observations all that are necessary for navigation across the Atlantic. noon by the but in order to obtain mean time for the regulation of a watch. which. The only other routine observation mination of the azimuth. or from moment of sunrise or sunset. viz. when the sun's vertical calculation motion or west is . when it is near due east is while the observation for latitude made at noon. The observation for time or longitude is made in the morning or afternoon. and the vessel's position and progress thus obtained. . are daily recorded in the log.

or whether cloud. VAPOUR AND CLOUDS. or piled icebergs. streaming into the atmosphere above us in columns of vapour and around the poles in great oflice is . although in this case it cannot . such as bone and muscle. solid rocks and Its the distribution it and equalization of temperature and would appear to be as specially endowed with this object. as materials qualifications for in the animal economy. T is impossible to traverse these tropical seas without amazement at the prodi- gious forces that are in operation around us.CHAPTER YII. and without our attention being drawn to the extraordinary specific qualiitself. reducing three-fifths of the earth's sur- face to absolute monotonous smoothness. are for the peculiar functions to which they are so admir- ably adapted . especiall}^ ties of water in all its forms . whether as a liquid mantle.

the latent heat set greater than for any other known subice. which of life existence is over a large portion of the globe. it On is cooling farther. It is not in these tropical seas is even largely interfered with by saturation. In the act of freezing. unrivalled. and no high degree of tension is attained. by which bodies expand with heat and contract with cold . on every square inch at temperature 32° half a At the temperature of the water in the tropics. from form of vapour. it is pound to the square inch. it ceases to contract after cooling its down to a certain limit attaining maximum density at 39°. essential to the This property. possibility be attributed An the exceptional evolution of of heat accompanies the condensation water. perhaps its most marvellous The evaporation of water prodigious. de- parts from the almost universal law of nature. even in the form of proper- as a radiator of heat fulfil are equally Yole. it begins to expand until reaches the freezing point. The tension rises. qualification. free is . say at 80. and under a receiver this tension would be attained before . for In order to it the important so whioh it appears to be specially endowed. for the saturated layers rise as soon as they form.6o by any Specific Properties of Water. its stance ties while. is force with which the vapour of water equivalent to a pressure of no less than ^ lb. to development.

water changes incredible. the temperature its lowered. that is licked up from the and adds this its sea. all perish from the absence of air to relate. at The presence of air totally and with the exception of the retardation 'occasioned by the resistance of the air to its difignored . The singular feature of this is vapour is. portion rain.Properties of J \xpom\ 6 evaporation ceased. except by change of temperature. produces no less than 44.288 cubic inches amount of vapour for if it of air. an extent almost its volume to Every cubic inch of water. either a portion of the passes back into form of is an additional quantity of of water evaporated but in the is presence water its tension or density if unalterable. is tension to the It loses its transparenc}-. at a temperature of 80. the vapour immediately adapts temperature. displaces is Ho air . not that displaces 44. is On new the other hand. and a precipitated in the form of cloud or In assuming the form of vapour. it but. did we should in a very short space of time altogether. marvellous all. or the space became saturated. to compress or expand it the vapour. that its expansive force or tension unalterable. If without change of temperature we attempt water. or . tension to that of the air.288 cubic inches of vapour of the same temperature. and vice versa in its condensation.

attains its limits of saturation. the other and the barometer which records the total pressure really records the sum of two dis- tinct weiofht and independent pressures. independent atmospheres. cubic inches of vapour. amount of heat The mechanical is force developed in evaporation easily calculated. We have thus two air.62 fusion. contracts totally the one. we the seen. it Latent Heat. exercises. a different influence on The change latent heat absorbed in evaporation or set free in condensation. .061 degrees.288 lb. and behaves in every other respect in the air precisely as it would in a vacuum. again. every cubic inch of water thus raised out of flies the sea in the form of vapour^ sufficient heat to away with have raised wherever this its temperature by no less than 1. and merely as expands have other. for at our temperature 80. the one the of the air. which or weight of the aqueous vapour contained in the air . exercising a pressure of \ square inch. and the other the tension or change of temperature. is as remarkable as the of of volume . if confined in a tube one . the one of of vapour. for if a cubic inch of water at 80 evaporates with sufficient force to produce 44. it would. if it it is had not been transported is evaporated and to set and condensed free.

more practically appretable The following short and will. . as a whole. at the is same temperature and therefore Saturated air . or to a dull red heat.IVcig^if of Vapour.652. to a height of 44. lb. Another property of water importance in meteorology.144 lbs. of about two-thircls of that of dry pressure. much lighter than dr}^ air for though the addition of vapour to a column of dry air must doubtless increase the weight of the column as a whole. is of the vapour air. raise \ a or 22. The prodigious volume of heat accumulated in these embodies these tropical seas. therefore. it is hoped. the column must occupy a larger space. be increased in weight per cubic foot will be di- minished. results. now be under- stood.. it and althoui^h w^eight. can thus be ciated. its will. itself is of the highest / The heat consumed in raising its temperature is greater than for any the amount of heat other known substance required to raise one pound of water from 32 to . of the column has also been increased. 212 being sufficient to raise a similar weight of iron from 32 to 1. force it must be borne in mind that the the surrounding pressure elastic If. remains the same. The weight per cubic inch water.288 inches^ or nearly oncton to the height of one inch. 63 inch square.

64 Aqueous Vapour. .

but the other element of the atmosphere. its moisture. expanding in of. a permanently elastic fluid. and condensed in the upper regions into layers of cloud or rain. viz. Its elasticity. increases in a geometrical of progression with equal augmentations temperature. with great resistance in passing through the and requires considerable time before this equilibrium is obtained. decrease as and its density in and temperature we ascend a much less rapid ratio than that of the dry air. and has 5 been the principal motive of this chapter. meets air. not a permanently elastic fluid. The vapour is thus often forced by the movement of the air to ascend in a medium. and it is thus forcibly lowered in temperature. eacli other. with a large evo- lution of that latent heat to which its elasticity as vapour in force is due. . is and communicated thorough is to the air. heat are incompatible with the air. but is condensed by cold into the form of water." The appreciation little of this masterly summary well worth a attention. is 65 Tlie first. moreover. Although when mixed with air it ultimately perit meates uniformly through the whole mass. while its latent heat set free. its whose heat decreases much more rapidly than own natural rate. by equal increments ratios and decreasing in density and temperature. arithmetical progressions heat. as in we ascend is well-known and fixed .DanielP s Sinnmary..

dew is visibly deposited on the exterior the temperature will then If the air is already be that of the Dew Point. The Dew The Point. It may be directly determined by artificially cooling the water conuntil any metal vessel .66 Humidity. Point is The Dew serving the diflference by obof temperature shown by tw^o generally determined is thermometers. and deposit tained in its moisture. This is termed the relative humidity is . Heated air. one of which covered with cotton. but the decrease of temperature soon attains a . of complete saturation. The wet bulb thermometer by the vapour as it is becomes colder by evaporation. The dryness therefore. when we that it is read that the humidity 67. holds a much air. on account of the latent heat absorbed formed. air. a very slight decrease of temperature will produce deposition of dew. as when saturated. larger we have amount of vapour in solution than colder of the atmosphere is. but by the proportion which the amount would and actually existing bears to the quantity which produce complete saturation at the given temperature. nearly saturated. not measured by the actual quantity of vapour contained in the atmosphere. 'whatever be the temperature of the seen. it signifies 67 per cent. kept constantly wet. Dew Point is that temperature to which the atmosphere must be reduced to become saturated.

the tem- perature of the Dew Point will 33°. set of factors by Mr. by the dry bulb is is 53. . ceases. in order to determine the difference between the actual temperature and the as given Dew Point. 67 limit when it although the evaporation continues. be 53 — (2 X 10) or found The factor 2 is opposite 53 in the table. The formula employed for finding the Dew Point In order to avoid this. when it has attained measures the evaporating power of the varies and as it with the amount of moisture. The difference of temperature between the dry this limit. If the temperature of the air. and wet this bulb. so that 10^. air. the also gives indirectly humidity or distance from and also the Dew Point. and of the wet bulb the difference 43. involves some calculation.TJic Wet Bulb Thcrmojnetcr. saturation. dry bulb is to be multiplied. but in no other at which the heat imparted way by affect this limit air tlie pre- cisely balance the heat absorbed in evaporation. by which the observed difference between the wet and I append a Temperature Glashier. Augmented circulation from wind must will only hasten.

no previous indication of any change. and. bearing before they disappeared water had 83° in the its cloud them a ridge of foam.m. The welcome breeze the crowd of white sails carried filled by our com- panions.OHAPTER FROM E ST.S. The highest temperature now attained —which interfered very considerably with our . the water. the equator crossed It on the 24th of hot.. rolled by in and low^ered two smooth waves which sailing vessels lay becalmed near us like children in a nurse's arms. April.E. though scarcely rippled large surface. a puff warm water from wind sprang up. VINCENT TO THE PLATE. tropical day on the that raised . followed by a deluging shower the S. at moment of crossing. Captain Thwaites had told me that in his long experience he had seldom crossed the line without a showier of rain almost at the precise of of . and mist. was a lovely. and although there was 5 p. VIII.

a lack of liberality that one could scarcely have anticipated Brazilians. the variable baffling light airs settled down into a pleasant breeze from the south-east. in latitude 3° south. The island is used as a penal settlement by the is Brazilian government. which with few exceptions are confined to the neighbourhood of land. that sink away from these six-and-a-half miles the depth is 525 fathoms. speed by lowering engines. among It is so enlightened a people as the about 200 miles from the mainof phonolite. We passed close along the western rocky coast of the island of San Fernando de Noronha. we were dominions of the south- east trades. and so jealously guarded that the ofiicers of the Challenger were not per- mitted to examine its interesting natural history. which refreshed the hot ship and aband we welcomed the agreeable news enterincr the sorbed the great masses of cloud that lowered on every that side. columnar at land. its 69 condensing power in the On the following day. ejected by volcanic action.San Fernando. The remarkable steep needles of rock Avhich spires. consist rise like the base. and at twelve miles the depth . so rapidly sea at does the floor of the volcanic islands. Our approach to these singular rocks was indicated by the presence of flocks of sea birds.

and even pieces of pumice stone. 820 fathoms. and consists of the shells of clouds of microscopic organisms. and its covered with vegetation. the 2Gth. and which in course of ages have accumulated so as to form a deep bed or stratum. The island looked green and fertile. This singular deposit forms the floor over a large portion of the Atlantic. and their complete resemblance or analogy similar organisms of which the mass of our ordinary chalk consists. falling off rapidly to 2. where the bottom consists of that wide-spread deposit the globigerina ooze. so as completely to alter On ance. but becomes parched up in the drj^ aspect. trades increased to a pleasant breeze.275 fathoms.E. the S. in of time geological rally the deposit shells of this single These are very gene- mixed with pumice dust. " foraminiferoe." that have lived in the waters above. season.70 is Globigerina Ooze. The to shells of many species are beautiful microscopic objects. and although not of much assist- we spread a little sail. ship. has led to the probability that another chalk formation of analogous character is in process of deposition over a very large part of the Atlantic. which steadied the During the frequent showers which came . the undoubted products of volcanic action. of The enormous thickness of our beds chalk affords some idea of the prodigious range occupied stratum.

the became uncouifurtably temperature being 85° when we arrived at all Pernambuco. of spra}^ and breakers as far as the eye can reach in the open ocean. through which small is on entering the harbour. If an unfortunate boatman or sailor falls overboard. This extraits ordinary wall of sandstone. of the steamer into a small The embarkation out . attracted by by the refuse from the town and the numerous vessels in the harbour. The reef is barely level with the surface of the sea.Pernambuco. brilliant water of animal life. 7 coni})elled to down in deluging quantities. so that they hot. and. with a quiet lake The opening vessels pass in the reef. presenting the phenomenon of a wall inside. enclosing a long full belt of quiet. limited in width. runs parallel with the coast for a distance of many miles. deep. and when there any wind is the whole operation of landing from the steamer difficult and expensive. preserved by thick coat of barnacles and shells. tenanted voracious sharks. and the great Atlantic waves roll is through with terrible violence. wc were close our cabins. he is but too frequently the victim of these voracious feeders. at Pernambuco more especially. where we lay at anchor night outside the singular reef which runs parallel with the low shore and forms the harbour. which breaks over singular it in columns of foam. or ventures upon a bath.

slung from a derrick on the ship the dis- tance to the town is then a mile or more.Tropical Flora. laurel-looking foliage. Large lizards. cycads. its gorgeous charms. ending with a sudden rush through All this the reef on some high wave. luxuriance of a tropical or of the intense wonder and enjoyment with which a first naturalist revels among objects fruit. the risk and We took a trip in the tramway over the now old bridge which was designed and erected by myself in 1856. although this was tion either of this my first personal inspec- work or of the lighthouse at Orlando Point. boat is effected in bad weather by means of a chair . crowded with and the numerous other splen- did specimens of palms. the great The first imposing were cocoa palms. repays difiiculty. The quays are partially shaded by a row of a luxuriant species of ficus. when an European lands for the all time in a tropical climate. which was designed a little later. or cradle. which efiect- . result. with large dark. It is hopeless to attempt any description of the flora. and flowering trees with which the public squares and private gardens are crowded. brilliant- plumaged kind of wagtail crept in and out of the plastered v/alls. and a small. through a heavy sea. means agreeable when we are aware of but the first by no the numeis rous sharks that are hopefully waiting for a disaster. polished.

rising into little but constantly warm.m. a. The sky was heavy clouds. The passengers and were anxious to get out to sea again. Yenus. and the moon rising vertically out of the sea. and crowds of handsome. Way.. carrying heavy loads of strange fruit and vegetables. resume their normal flow. and in drenching showers.The Tropics. and remind us pleasant.m. 73 ually intercepts the fierce rays of a nearly vertical sun. which during the night were constantly fell condensed by some higher. Jupiter. cooler current. about 7 we anchored in the beautiful Bay . rich in rose prominently into view. where the trade winds beyond the reach of the disturbance caused by this of a pinery or orchid house at all more or less felt the effects. The air was thus saturated with moisture exactly resembling the atmosphere Kew. On the 29th. left Penambuco at 5 p. half-naked negro women. south-eastern puffs. now and then light. We at 85°. The cabins were It is more full of especially during the night that the high tempera- ture is much felt. and shelters a host of black dealers in gorgeous parrots and other tropical birds and animals. We our were not long before we again encountered friend. and the night intensely so hot. while the southern branch of the Milky stars. with enough rolling swell to we were at sea. On the 28th the night was lovely. heated coast.

and tree ferns are the prominent objects. through the courtesy of Mr. but the marvellous beauty of the whole scene surpasses all all description. of Bahia. Having a few hours to spare at Bahia. everywhere closely tation descends right into the city. bread-fruit the jaca. cocoa nuts. an entangled jungle with stately the amongst tree. which speedily obliterates all the works of man. of new types. unless maintained This overwhelming vege- with incessant labour. to make a little excursion on the Bahia and San Francisco Railway.74 The Tropics. which gigantic palms. of re- The country for its all round is level. orange trees. Marmosets and monkeys innumerable play among the branches. we were enabled. but is markable wild luxuriance. and scream- . flowers. dense foliage. mangoes. the glossy fresh laurel-like green of the foliage. the great tufted palms. while gorgeous butterflies and humming-birds flutter from flower to flower. totally bewilders the lover of nature. about 13° south of the equator. Tiplady. with a dark. Some faint idea of the details of this vegetation large may be obtained by a walk through our The lovely and its hothouses. The line for a considerable distance runs through a mangrove swamp. wanton superabundance. The line is hemmed dotted in on each side by trees. bananas. and its construction under such a sacrifice sun was attended with considerable life.

parrots. scooped out of a granite forma- which extends along the coast for 2. The noble bay tion. to gaze on such beauties. our dreary winter glories world are thus opened naturalist to us. in rainbow beauty pass in few are aware.BaJiia. as he says he did. is The quay at Bahia. so and the beetroot sugar produced slowly and it laboriously in our cold soils has driven from the market. but nearly abandoned. and climate any competition could be the growth of the sugarcane is possible. on account of the cost of labour under such a burning sun. 75 ing parrots and flocks thi-ougli macaws the air. that within a few degrees from fields. Among the numerous pests that mitigate one's . and etc. Well may such a have stopped again and again. in the vain endeavour to fix them on is his mind for ever. as at Pernambuco. but a convenient is constantly at work. wdth produce encumbered marmosets. about 300 feet above the is and the tow^n of Bahia lift partly on this high level.000 miles^ and enriches the interior with its fertile sands and It seems incredible that with such a soil debris. raising passengers to toll. the u^Dper level for a small thus avoiding the fatiguing ascent through the various hot and steep and dirty streets that lead to the upper town. is The general level of the country sea. as of another How the Darwin observes. with dealers in macaws.

no plant or flower can be grown in the town unless surrounded filled. We left Bahia on a lovely evening. and the vessel rolled about rather uncomfortably. v/hich is commonly the case after a day on shore in such intense heat. reminded us that south and leaving our European we were running summer behind the ports closed. A valuable collection of plans and drawings con- nected with the railway was entirely demolished. and even the carriages themselves are rapidly destroyed. unless in constant use. books. air to This sudden decline of temperature . with the with the crowd of new impressions that so short a visit had imparted. by a pool of water little kept constantly and for this purpose a earthenware trough surrounds every plant. temperate past us. away by the southern breeze but a slightly rising barometer. But saddlery. They little up every- thing. but the ravages of the white ant baffle all control. breeze at lower temperature with a much stifFer which set in during the night. tropics. The sea was rough. their ravages are not confined to plants . with all The passengers were out of sorts. bewildered Masses of cumuli. hurried . The sea fell to 78^ and the 76°. clothes. portmanteaus.70 Decline of Temperature. us. jiggers enthusiasm in the and mosquitoes eat play an important part. edges brilliantly drifted illuminated by the new moon. are all consumed alike.

decline regularly on leaving the equator. then less rapidly. is 77 said invariably to occur on passing the Abrolhos undoubtedly does Lisbon and not rocks. The thinness of the superficial stratum of warm .m. we must bear in mind that and less the temperature of the Atlantic generally decreases we descend. the maximum this belt density of fresh water The depth but is of averages 500 fathoms. belt the temperature Below falls this remains nearly uniform. and to the surging up of an under-current of cold w^ater flowing from the southern seas. To appreciate as this. The temperature at of the surface of the sea and of the atmosphere follow each other very closely. con- water at a temperature of about siderably above maximum density. at first rapidly. and Cape Frio this sudden phase of cold in both is probably due to the deflection of the Gulf Stream. much greater in the deep eastern and north- western basins of the North Atlantic. which is 40°. The temperature certain spots. while at Cape Frio both fell to 73^. Pernambuco both the sea and tlie air at 8 were at 84°. and again 60 miles from Rio. where the change is very marked. At a. until belt of we meet everywhere with that of its a thick 40°. but 'per saltiun at as at the Abrolhos. or in decreases slowly till some cases it to 32°. at Cape Frio.Ocean Tonpcrature. is 28° .

is the steady increase in the volume of warm water. sun of the tropics should have so slight an is due to the removal of the heated layer by the trade winds and the absorption of heat tion. According to observations made by the Challenger. That the vertical effect. the layers or strata which pass northwards are regulated by the height of the intercepting ridges. is Opposite Monte Video a temperature of 45° Fah. but not we reach 600 fathoms between the Bermudas and Madeira. leaving an underlying mass of cold water of vast thickness under this upper hot film. The deeper or colder strata are thus confined to the . intercepts a very large proportion of the sun's rays. and therefore of different temperatures. a deep under. moreover. found at is a depth of 250 fathoms. by the configuration the bottom. by evaporaThe constant humidity. or in the depth of this upper layer as we move northward. The same temperature met with until at 800 fathoms at the equator. at a temperature and supplies the waste occasioned by evaporation from the great surface of the Atlantic this under. is water at the equator very remarkable.current of cold water sets in north- ward from the Antarctic Ocean.current being interrupted at different heights. One of the most interesting features with respect to the distribution of temperature. of about 35°.78 Ocean Temperature.

probably. which become very prominent as betw^een Cape Frio we approach near to them and Rio. Bogota. of the surface stratum overlies the belt of uniform temperature.The Gulf Stream. drive constantly in the heated surface layers before them in a constant current to the westward. The higher temperature which causes. wiiich many disturbing none of them so patent as the effect of the tunity of studying ever since Avinds blowing we have had such ample 0[)porwe left Lisbon. affected by trade winds. It is difficult to imagine anything finer than the magnificent and commodious entrance into this . These one direction. where we anchored in the evening on the 3rd of May. 79 deeper channels. and gradually becoming wider is lost in the great easterly drift current in the Southern Ocean. all the sudden change of temperature experienced. is due to the sun's heat. and are arrested by submarine elevations. The Brazilian coast is backed the w^ay by bold mountain ranges of granite. striking the coast of South' America about Cape St. The deflection of the Gulf Stream in the neighbourhood of Cape Frio allows the southern cold current to skirt the coast. while tlie southern branch runs parallel with the coast of Brazil. and hence. The stream celebrated then divides a northern branch —the Gulf Stream running round the Gulf of Mexico.

the beinof summit sea.8o harbour. and retains the limited patches he cultivates. arising constant cloud on the top of the sugar either from the low temperature of the rock or from the nearly saturated air from the sea being forced up by these hills into colder strata. by huge mountains of gneiss and granite tion. The harbour is well defined by a lofty peak or this rock. embedded and backed by ranges of high mountains covered with tropical vegetation. It is difficult to pene- trate track. peak the town opens out. is of the most fertile charac- being constantly kept moist from the steaming atmosphere above and the numberless streams of the purest water which percolate between the boulders beneath. of the Corcovado -. or the roads that give him access to them. flanked Rio Janeiro. The soil.300 feet above the We observed a loaf. rising out of the most luxurious vegeta- sometimes towering into lofty needles or peaks. ter. where the cloud . under such favourable conditions." and on rounding in trees. is totally indescribable. called " the sugar loaf. which consists wholly of sands from the decomposing granite. and sometimes resembling huge castles embedded among: trees and underwood in the wildest confusion. The effect of a tropical sun on the vegetation. even a few yards away from the beaten and it is only by incessant labour that man holds his own.

fine collection of tropical The heat was intense. alono. to leeward. away from San Antao at We landed at Rio and visited the fine and wellits maintained Botanical Gardens. the north-east wind returned. and the sky was the whole time clear. and slowly dissolved 40 or 50 miles Similar clouds flowed St. with mao-nificent avenue of large palms and plants. and was an active They streamed away smoke from a conflagration. was more remarkable and The gardens are irrigated by a small 6 .the whole rancje of hills that The effect of land in producing cloud was strik- ingly manifest in passing the group of islands at Teneriffe on our return. 8i constantly formed and again immediately abstiff bi-eeze sorbed on the other side. was six miles from factory of clouds. with an eddy from the south-east. The barometer rose oneAs we left them The nearest like island.Mountain is Clouds. still but the moisture of the atmosphere oppressive. Palma. us. we lay at anchor. as a was blowDuring ing at the time. separating into detached masses. defining the terrestrial stratum. a similar long fringe of massive clouds remained stationary on the Corcovado and skirt the coast. Vincent. tenth of an inch in the eddy. As we approached the group from the south with a north-east head wind. with a level base. the shelter produced a calm far out to sea.



stream with means of flushing, and the ground was
luxuriantly green with a coarse wir}^ herbage resembling turf.

The screw

pines, sugarcanes,

and bam-

boos, the groves of tangled palms


grasses, the

enormous trees covered with epiphytes and creepers,
the banana groups, and a host of




beautiful flowers



bordered with

tillandsias, afforded

us a scene that can never be
lined with


The roads

palms, and

the houses embedded in their drooping feathers.


and gorgeous




roam from

flower to




every tree, and hang in clusters from every verandah,
thriving in full sun in this hot-house humidity.

The whirr of the chirping frog " hyla," was incessant, and we were startled frequently by the snapping


made by the large is very common.
1,200 feet,

butterfly, papilio ferronia:*

In the evening
height of

we ascended

the mountains to

by a magnificent road thoroughly well constructed, paved, drained, and
lighted with gas, that leads to Tejuca, where there







altitude of 870 feet above the town.

The views




we ascend



and the

tropical vegetation that covers the precipices

lines the road, is indescribably





placed in a valley equally




watered by copious streams, with excel-

The rocky walks are covered with ferns and flowers in endless variety, and it is diflicult to conceive any greater enjoyment than an evening in this fairy valley, lit up at night with



and enlivened by the strange and mysterious

sounds peculiar to the numberless denizens of these
tropical woods.


night, however, even at this altitude,


very hot, and the dew was most copious.
were, however, thankful
city below,


we had

not stayed in the

where even during the day we had
the stench of the narrow, crowded

suffered from

and the want of

as the surrounding hills

concentrate the heat and effectually shut out the

breeze which





After this fatiguing

gladly to our airy vessel,

we returned which had now become

a home, and


was a

relief to escape

the heat, and

the smells, and the mosquitoes, and

and sand


and other


whose remembraDce

helps to temper our regret at leaving scenes other-

wise so enchanting and agreeable.
scourge which


did not

wholly escape the




and interesting

The yellow fever never leaves Rio, but is generally at its height in the summer months. It was causing considerable mortality


Fever at Rio,

we were when we found
fatally a



had not long



we had a

case on board,


threw a gloom over the journey and terminated
few days afterw^ards in the !River Plate. There


no doubt that

this terrible scourge



entirely avoided,

and the extensive works both

drainage and water supply


in hand,

must go a

way towards

this desirable result.

The deaths from
70 per day.

fever had very lately averaged

They had now much declined but at the little port of St. Rosas the mortality was rapidly decimating the small community, and was not confined to any class or locality. The bad drainage and consequent stench, the lack of water, the

and the dirty habits of the lower
with the humidity and heat, were
plague, even

orders, together


sufficient reasons for the

in this cool season of the year.

The most

feature in the tropics


this great humidity,


tempers to a remarkable extent the direct influence
of the sun, so that one lio-hts a cis^ar with a lens

with more


under the vertical sun than in



but the result

a stifling atmosphere of

steam, in which vegetable
to rejoice.


seems so marvellously


sensation of heat



on the actual temperature than on the rate at
abstracted from the nerves of sensa-

w^hich heat

thus marble appears colder than wood, though


)i sidie



both are at the same temperature, and the intense
cold of 15° below zero, which


experienced at

Petersburg, gave no such sensation of cold as

a foggy day at a temperature of 35° in England.


dry, cold



the former case


a per-

fect non-conductor, abstracting

no heat, while the

moving humid

particles of





with painful rapidity.

The dry heat

at Arapey,

and occasionally reached
supportable so long as

where the thermometer constantly remained at 95°, 104)°, was by no means inimpossible.


we lay still, but exercise When we remember that the

blood retains a constant temperature of 98°, whether


are in air at 105° in the tropics, or at 0° at the

poles, it is far


difficult to

imagine by what


process the external temperature of 105°
to 98°,

of heat

than to understand the production
requisite for

by combustion of food


taining the blood at 98° in the atmosphere at 0°.



across a variety of tropical fruits,


are liberally supplied on board; but Avith the ex-

ception of the delicious banana, on which a large

population to a great extent depends for subsistence,



comparable with our European
across several species of orange



of excellent quality, but often pithy


as a

whole, not equal to the oranges
at Lisbon.


took on board

The sweet lime


insipid, the alligator



Fru it.

The custard-apple has no characthough sweet and agreeable, but not

teristic flavour,

comparable in flavour with the gooseberry.


water melons are deficient in sweetness and flavour.

The milk

of the fresh cocoa-nut


very delicious,

but the bread-fruit, the produce of one of

handsomest trees in the

tropics, is insipid,

and in

no respects equal to the potato or the mandioca,

which here takes


place; while the wild pine-

apple, whicli cover large districts, will bear

no com-

parison, except as regards size, with our cultivated

pines in England.


latitude of Rio


22° 53' 51" south, longi-

tude 2° 52' 36' west.

The mean temperature of the




in this latitude is about 73°.


the equator

it is 83°,

and at Buenos

Ay res

it is ^h"".

In England the mean temperature of November,
which, as regards






But the mean temperature of the

twenty-four hours affords but

idea of the

difference of climate or even of temperature, unless




into its

two elements, the day and

night means

for it is evident that the

mean temis

perature will be 72° whether the day
the night 58°, or whether the day



76° and the

night 68°; as the



the same in both cases.



of climate, moreover,

depends on


other elements besides temperature; such as




humidity, winds, rain, cloud,

summer and winter

and no idea of the marvellous climate of the tropics can be conveyed by a mere record of
the temperature.

As we quitted the harbour, with a cool, southerly breeze, we observed clouds at a low elevation round the Sugar Loaf Peak. They had accumulated all day in the north with a little lightning. The atmosphere consisted of a lower


layer of air of the

same temperature


the sea, 74°, with a cooler

The junction of the two layers was well defined by a stratum of clouds rapidly forming and consolidatlayer from the south flowing quietly over

That the

terrestrial layer

maintained an even

surface, so that the

upper layer floated on


on water, was evident on looking round the


where the perspective showed the stronglystratified bases of the


upper clouds resting

on straight horizontal






gether near the horizon.

Towards the south the

dipped into the


line of con-

tact with the sea was evident, and moved towards



at length, preceded
rise of the

by a sudden



wind and a

barometer of one-tenth of

passed over the ship, and a gentle



on the decks.
Fig. 2 explains this simple

The sketch



quent type of disturbance, which will be more fully




explained hereafter.
over-riding the

ing the barometer.
It did not

The heavier cold current made itself felt by raisThe approach was slow and

advance with a vertical


but overshadowed and covered a very large area of



air beneath.

Moreover, a nearly

vertical tropical sun was shining on the top of this
great, cold layer of cloud.


layers of cloud

were forming at a higher
layers were drifting

and these upper north, heralding far ahead the

coming mass beneath.
heralds which

These were doubtless the
observed yesterday accom-

we had

panied by lightning, and the Sugar Loaf was a
useful measure of the


level at

which the


must have been saturated, although apparently free
from cloud until

impinged against


The tem-

perature of the sea was the important element in
the whole phenomenon, rainfall occurring almost
invariably at the actual line of contact of cloud

with the earth.
In the evening the current from the south died

level. 89 and the great stratum of cloud resolved itself into niagniticent masses. ing its impenetrability and cases. — the thin terrestrial its stratum maintainsea temperature. but the air was cold . At night the sea was brilliantly luminous at the depth of the screw. by a 88^. smoke from a little conflagration. drifting gently by us. occasionally condensing as they passed into heavy showers. out. In some while the base was thus truly the top was carried like away by the upper current. which gave us an extra knot per hour on our southward course. and the next to our morning we all closed our ports and took full great coats and flannels.E}itrancc of La Plata. and now the change of climate was but too evident. illuminated 65°. the enormous stream of mud and silt brought down by the Plate gave a clayey colour to the water for many miles out to sea. The atmosphere was dull and cold. The temperature was turbance for humidity The this little dis- we had passed through was fully accounted by the inroad of a column of still atmosphere which flowed northward. in sight of the We came low coast of Uruguay in the afternoon of the 8th. but their peculiarity everywhere was their obstinate retention of the stratified form with hori- zontal bases. A later we found ourselves in a warmer and stronger current of water. A red sunset was followed by a brilliant sky. moon. and in a dirty .

In many other respects besides the weather our introduction to the River Plate was unpropitious and disheartening. and approach had become the subject of earnest quarantine in force discussion. in the shallow estuary off we anchored Monte Video. beyond doubt. and learning that we had yellow fever on board informed us that our quarantine must be We had discharged some indefinitely prolonged. and in order to avoid the terrible Lazaretto in which passengers of every nationality are all huddled together. vessel. the most has to terrible trial that the its traveller undergo. and as we hoped to remain in the Douro during the loading and her departure on the that ourselves unloading of the 15th.go Monte Video. . and it cases of among could no longer be kept a secret that with the boatswain's was a decided case of yellow fever of malignant type. with no hopes of recovery. Scotch mist. fever on board We had two or three the crew. until we flattered our purgatory would be reduced to eight days. Under the most favourable circumstances the mate it proverbial misery of quarantine in the River Plate is. with drizzling cold rain. But all our arrange- ments were defeated when the health officer came on board. I endea- voured to engage a little after cabin in a small tug employed in discharging cargo. The when we arrived was limited to fifteen days after leaving Rio.

sixtyto our On the 11th of May we came .Buenos cargo at Monte Rio. with numerous banks of its mud and The through which the vessel forced dense columns of way. merce of built. and could. including the Southern Provinces of Brazil. but the coasts are teresting. admirably placed. which have no other natural outlet. The deep water runs up near the town. leaving distance is is mud in its wake. It is a well handsome streets. and general cargo Europe. coffee 9 from from Video consisting of soaj). by dredgbe continued up to the quays and wharfs. while as well as of the the trade of the great rivers. tin slieets. The La Plata between Monte Video and decreases from fifty-three to thirty flat Buenos Ay res miles in width. Spacious and magnificent docks could easily be constructed. city. districts inland. and little state it is a subject of regret to every well-wisher of this fertile that such exceptional advantages cannot be utilized. of being converted into a maritime centre worthy of tlie comPlate. with well paved ing. this enormous river system. must ensure a commercial activity and prosperity of the highest order. six or the city of Buenos Ayres. which seven miles from five miles. from Monte Video to the ancliorage. and luxurious suburbs. at moderate cost. Monte Video is the only real port in the River and capable. Ay res. and uninsilt.

journey's end. and anchored in the outer roads of Buenos Ayres. lightning. mist. and rain. with a storm of .92 Buenos Ay res. in a thick thunder.

either of them was eleven or twelve hundred miles away. others advised returning to Monte Video and under- — going quarantine there .CHAPTER IX. We could talk to our friends from Buenos Ayres in a who came steam launch. in fact. who had been . ship. as the passengers are of course entirely bewildered and lielpless . the ship professed to know nothing about value of a little and they can hardly imagine the advice under such circumstances. QUARANTINE AND THE RIVER PLATE. wliich rolled about in . for we thousfht nothing whatever of the yellow fever on board. The officers of it. some. we could obtain no definite information as but we knew it would be pro- longed. recom- mended going back to Rio my friends on shore recommended me to go on to Patagonia. anything rather than the dreaded hulks at the Tigre. here before. LTHOUGH the health officers from Buenos Ayres had visited the to our quarantine.

officially re- In the evening. The boat was towed by a small steam launch containing an officer and a comrade. and all the bedding burnt . from taking his hand in the inrope. the dirty rough water alongside. them and and wind. but his friends of sincere may rest assured that there was no lack unfortunate sailor thus buried at patients rapidly recovered.94. the body. where rolled about all night in the Permission for the burial variable game of whist. but of course shake hands with cult to hear we it could not what they said was diffithrough the rain and fog . and the body was rolled over with three heavy fire bars enclosed in the canvas shroud. rolled up in canvas like a mummy. The service was read over him by the officer. and his death was ported. and prevented the doctor. and placed in one of the ship's boats. and the simple procession disappeared in the mist. but they could give us no information. The boat was then lowered from the it davits and lashed astern of the vessel with a long moonlight. was hauled up with a block through the hatchway. which threw a gloom over the ship. but the body was to be taken fifteen miles down the river. who was himself very ill. The cabin was fumigated. Death fro7n Yellow Fever. sympathy for the sea. was obtained on the morrow. The other it and was supposed . The poor fellow with the yellow fever died during the day. a melancholy spectacle.

" or sudden squalls peculiar to this latitude. and every one ran on deck. but enveloped in mist. It was. a roaring wind was suddenly heard overhead as the vessel heeled over. I call The vessel upper surface of what atmosphere the terrestrial layer of defined was singularly by a lying about 150 3'ards away. the distant coasts with . so that the top-masts were perfectly invisible. very soon " This was my introduction to the pam- peros.A that the carelessness tropical fruit shore. had the appearance of a wrecked In about thirty minutes afterwards. while at breakfast below. and made avoid all the heavy waves. PaJiipcro. 95 tl)e immediate cause of the fever was with which sailors will iiidulfre in and luxuries whenever they get on While we lay in the roads I observed a curious phenomenon with the mist. and was immediately succeeded by an atmosphere of remarkable brilliancy. and cut off by " the straight lines " at so it short a distance from the vessel vessel. The hulks off to and launches discharging cargo alongside were cut adrift as rapidly as possible. followed by a deluge of heavy rain. which rather confirms my explanation of the rain cloud at Rio. first however. where w^e found a south-west squall sweeping over the vessel from a dense mass of clouds resting on the water in the south-west. over.

and the heated wedge P c B was suddenly condensed. As south-west cold cloud formed by the air. B was the Douro. 3. their capricious course indicates that they are not cyclonic. pampero swept over us through the saturated A was the ship with the straight lines cutting off the upper portion. close. c swept The sudden squall arose as the point of contact by us.96 all A The fog had Pampe7v. On the 13th a very small steamer came along- . view. ^— ^Jmk_ Fig. This great condensation creating a partial vacuum and always recruited preceding the wind. for they could not have the or the Antarctic with sufficient initial force to travel over the whole continent of South America. and the muggy atmosphere was the instantly replaced by a breeze of delio-htful freshness. must supply mechanical force by which these violent winds are and retain their velocity over such enorleft mous Andes and districts. the shipping of the Plate coming vividly into entirely disappeared.

perished felt bitterly with and hunger. for there was no cabin the only little space beneath the deck being the by the skipper and his wife. It had been a paddle wheel troop ship. and when she was loaded as deeply as it was possible. we were politely informed that this was the craft that was to convey us also to the dreaded quarantine hulks. where demned to remain until the 27th. during a journey which lasted until late at night. exposed in an open but cold sea. that we our situation.Leaving side. without shelter or provisions of any kind. 97 and was rapidly filled with mercliandise piled up high on the decks. it was after arriving at the hulk. it And when we came was a difficult alonof- dark night and dangerous 7 . the was an old abandoned steamer in the most dilapidated and filthy condition. we were conOur trunks and or shelter. but fortunately the rain had ceased. No convict in liulk Europe could have worse quarters. The wind was bitterly cold. but the paddle-boxes were broken in and the decks side on a rotten. On p'ettinor on board it was difficult to find standing room amidst the cargo. it is otherwise simply terrible to contemplate what must small cabin occupied have been the suffering of such a crowd of passengers. including several ladies. nothing can exceed the cruel barbarism of our reception and accommodation. the Douro. luggage were piled up amidst the general cargo on the open deck. In fact.

lying as it did among light of the islands of the Tigre. sulted We all were. where they the greatest distress and sufferin a situation in them being which such terrible exposure was dangerous. the vessel order. towels. in the shape of cloaks. There were no beds. and we had at midnight to few sea biscuits and sailors to give us a a piece of hard native cheese. in- by the Spanish endless. small sheets blanket on board. and some towels and soap. one of by themselves. By the some It flaring lamps we got out some of our baggage. There were authority. and we put the ladies in a small cabin at last sat down. midnight from some other was useless to think of sleeping. as well as rats and mice. in ing. and seriously feared that our treatment would bring on the very fever that it was intended to guard . simply swarmed with mosquitoes. for which they charged 4s. for the vessel. no no common Spanish beg of the sailors. per head. without ladders or any assistance. no was in charge of only three lights. was bitterly cold.98 Ihe Quarantine Hulk. now in a most filthy and in most of them the bottom planks There was not a sheet nor brought about It were rotten or gone. but they were condition. and this night seemed We longed for da3dight. operation to get on board. nor provisions. The vessel had had berths in the cabin belov/. until some wool mattresses and and blankets were vessel. sailors. moreover.

First impressions are in the very lasting. some to- provisions were sent from a neighbouring quarantine and partridges. for the scene we afterwards witnessed when a crowd of French passengers was brought on board. gether with a cook and his assistant. It appeared to us very cruel that we should be thus entrapped without being warned by any one of the many fate that awaited us. and many whose stay country was short will carry away a very damaging and very erroneous opinion as to the civilization of the country. consisting of soup. in which case would certainly have refused to leave the ship and have avoided Buenos Ayres alto- of us gether. We all rose terribly disfigured by mosquito bites. had no conception of the suffering we were subjected to. in this matter of detail as in so many others. of horrors. on an open deck during a storm of wind and was simply heart-rending. 99 against. who had been all night exposed rain. beef. based on the incomprehensible treatment they experienced. difficult to understand why better accommodation was not afforded us between the Doiivo and the hulk. it.Jllisery of Qiiaiaiitinc. It however. . and that they did their best to mitigate our position as soon as they were aware of is. but there is no doubt that the government at Buenos Ayres. In the morning after this night vessel.

The River The Rio de La called. down is to the ocean and out This large area everywhere intercepted by enor- . extra and after mounting my thermometer and a wind vane. diminishing to twentyits miles at upper extremity. and down by five the Parana and the Uruguay.lOO First Night in the Hulk. into which two large rivers empty themselves. but the depth increases gradually from the shallows amonff the banks and of the rivers islands formed at the mouths to sea. no sense a but a vast shallow gulf or inlet of the sea. is width 180 at the coast 130 miles. and much out of sorts. —a very serious charge for many who had little barely enough with them for their journey. It is slowly filling silt up from brought Its the enormous bulk of mud. however. for two I. sent to Buenos Ayres for luxuries. sand. It was arranged that our tariff was to be eight shillings per head per day. I commenced an investigation of the singular and interesting locality in which the vessel lay. as river. which is miles from the coast. is in Plate. meals. but the sunny sky and cheering warmth enabled us to look more calmly on our troubles. The body of water which comes down from these great rivers maintains an average depth of eighteen feet in the Plate. it is Plata. or the River Plate.

it is and being tilled so rapid is the process by which up by the formation of new islands and new banks. si lifting banks. highly from the alluvium through o at times an which it passes. The bulk of this deposit is brought down by the Parana. consisting of silt. sand. and often reduced to a moderate stream. The process of these formations is very simple the erosive power of water in any current increases . and It furnishes a most instructive example of geologically speak- the modern formation of alluvial plains in active })rocess. that this gulf many hundred miles farther inland. though is enormous river. It was but yesterday.Silting of the Estuary. has more the character of a mountain torrent. undergoing constant change. which drains a watershed supplies a extending ahnost to the equator. extended ing. The Uruguay. consists of innumerable large islands of alluvium silt. that a very short period will be necessary for its complete obliteration and the projection of the delta of the rivers far out into the Atlantic. i oi mous mud. The present and and delta of the Parana occupies an area 200 miles in length by twenty-five in mean width. and slowly advancing farther into the estuary of the Plate. its and running is generally over a rocky bed deposit small and spasmodic. and constant and enormous volume charored with sediment o of water.

and inhabited by . gene- dwarf shrubs. are formed. rally covered v/ith picturesque landmarks in the river scenery. as at Rosario. contact with the high-lying plains of the pampas.I0 2 Formation of the Delta. the country The river thus runs through soil. It thus constantly increases the width of confined." river at They run thousand miles up the every distance. while deep channels tend to become deeper. in. with the depth thus a constant deposit is always taking place on banks and shallows. and somealways times bounding the great plain many They miles distant are from the present river bed. when new banks process is land are raised higher and higher in farther increased This by materials brought down by the great floods to which the interior of is liable. sometimes. the great alluvial valleys to which The banks " or precipices thus formed are called for a the Barancas. from time to The regime is time rudely broken up by floods. . and large areas of level. which are eighty feet above it forms steep precipices of silt and tosca by scooping away the base and fall allowing the upper portion to sections. vast level plains of soft alluvial position bodily as it shifting its meets with harder or softer banks. When it comes into it. and thus roams laterally from side to side over enormous valleys. in actual process of formation. in vertical when it is speedily carried away by it is the stream.

Access to the Parana is now obtained a distance of means of a railway from Buenos Ayres to fifty miles. and forms the oTcat navio^able continuation of the Parana It was in the Parana de las into the Plate. It is not directly accessible to undergo our from the Plate. Southern I the Plate are the Palmas Guaz^ or Northern Channel. the bulk of its down which two or waters it. constantly maintains two or more main channels. these banks formed by the Kiver Lujan. The great channels by which enters at the present moment. Channel. flows. The river Parana. 103 numerous foxes and other animals. and colonies of birds of prey and parrots. Campana numerous is not less than 806 and as the vessels which cany on . with wharves over 650 yards in length. on account of the shallow banks in course of formation at its mouth. and with a depth of sixty feet by Campana. with all its changes. which is the largest and deepest. and the jjj ^ Palmas that we were doomed quarantine. between the islands. The width of the channel at yards. but vessels of small draught reach it by a channel through Tigr^. which runs into the Plate at the and thence by passing through one of the various tortuous channels. or arroyos.The Barancas. within a stone's throw of the quay. where one of the finest ports on the Continent has been constructed.

out to is by north-westers. lunar tide in though tertiary extends far in secondary and even itself. traffic is the river sail by. it is difficult to believe that this only a temporary secondary channel of this gigantic river. according as the driven back sea shallow waters the Plate were by south-east winds the swept which. weeping willow and peaches and the Tides of La Palmas.1 04 The Parana at Cauipana. where the configuration of the land obstructs the great ocean tidal wave. more . Our position in a floating observatory rendered tidal observations very so difficult. Tidal phenomena much more promi- nently before us in channels. The lunar effect of tides are so small and dwarfed by the wind lay. The numberless islands that form the delta of the Parana are thickly planted with trees. waves water at up one the river spot so that it is high at and simultaneously are brought low water another. A remarkable instance of this effect. consisting principally of the ceibo. and where long and narrowing inlets of the ocean concentrate the tide and prodigiously increase its height. a regular feeble. Nevertheless there Plate. that they were scarcely observable where we The river rose and in fell many or feet.

the combined effect of the two attractions tides. tides. but a day and a to the position of the half. or three tides later. little and are especially normal. or it is 30°.Tides of the Plate. the effect great moon being always about three times as At the new and full as that of the sun. The tides are produced by the attraction of the moon and distance of the and their height varies with the and position of these orbs. or thirty-six hours. raise the waters of the open less ocean no than nine feet. produce the spring which at a maximum. moon i. where strong wind. at the equinox. are not on the day of the new moon. falling. and advance with a steep wave all or bore. flowing or rising. east of the moon. There times a meridian two hours. .e. The highest full or however. attention. interesting and sun. occurs the tides rise sixty or seventy feet. the tide at any time being due thus at all sun and moon taken thirtyis six hours back. the like many but other natural phenomena. and along the tides. and excite but they are none the instructive. especially in the 1 05 when reinforced by Bay of Fundy. are unaffected by less local influence.. when is always high water. In the open Atlantic. To the west the tide To the east it is ebbing it is or and at right angles everywhere low water. uniform coast of South America.

it is six hio^h water when- ever the moon is on The mean time of its the horizon. the depths indicated are depths at low water.io6 The min. means of the adjoining short . derived from this relation by observa- tions made at any time. and 12 hrs. the " is called establishment of the port. fall is and the sub- sidence or height during the as the square of the times from high water. 25 min. 7 at the neaps. Moon^ s Influence. the springs. is thus 12 hrs. or about threeThe mean interval between It varies sec. the moon's southing in any longitude west of Greenwich may be found from the time of 2*1 southing at Greenwich by adding min. or. of The time simply the high to water will be found by adding of the given establishment corrected E by time the moon's southing. In charts in which soundings are given. whose length hrs. The tides are thus every day later 50J than on the preceding day quarters of an hour. tides are therefore regulated not is by the 24 solar but by the lunar day. 30 min. at two high waters between 12 hrs. per hour of longitude. 19 min. as a rouo^h rule. table. The time between the passage of the moon over the meridian at any spot and the moment of high water which follows at the period of the equinox.. by oOJ min. 28 sec." In the is River Plate the establishment of the port hours.

The Tide. 107 .

and the otters. who kicked one of them out of his way as it lay on the deck. full of fish. and a few fishermen. or river hog. One of the passengers. and the opposite coast was about half a mile distant. Another species was of a golden-yellow Storks and other birds were sufficiently the islands. the spine piercing through a thick boot deep into his foot. but with dangerous long sharp spines on the fins. cat-fish. ship. received a deep and very painful wound. and other animals feeding on the capincho. made any We might then with tolerable certainty have ensured a fever of some . numerous on infested with which were formerly or tigers.io8 The is Tides. colour. the low tide below this Near the mouth of the Las Palmas where we lay we were only a few hundred yards from the nearest islands. numerous jaguars. a species of barbel with appendages to the mouth. but useless. We had about 18 feet of water beneath us. to whom we fraternised in spite Moored near us was the hospital if which we should have been removed of us seriously the cruel treatment to which we were subjected had ill. We could scarcely lower a bait without catching the abun- dant. with of quarantine. level of the quiet sea double the depression of level. The only occupants of these islands were the charcoal burners with their small boats. which were intercepted by extensive banks of mud covered with rushes.

and good order was maintained. and certainly did in his power He allowed some of us to make ladies excursions in the ship's boat among the islands. containing candles and soap. and cigars. our weaker prisoners were very refused to admit it. or sweet pota- The coffee was excellent but our position was immensely improved by receiving from a friend of mine in Buenos Ay res a hamper and omelettes. towels. but although some of ill. espesoap. beef. and yams. The whole of these articles. eau-de-Cologne. to mitigate our miseries. He lent mosquito curtains to protect them from which toes these terrible pests. better provisions were supplied. they resolutely After a few days a doctor was sent on board to take charge of the ship.Our kind. where the we could fish or shoot. beef. brandy. cially the candles. newspapers and towels. This anomaly arose from the foct that we passed . so that to forget we really our confinement and enjoy the lovely sunny climate and the hot days. 109 not the yellow fever . and fishing tackle. and added indescribably means began of comfort and enjoyment. although we were now nearly in the middle of our third winter. which rendered the nights unbearable. . Our be incessant beef. began to nauseous. hollands. if Cojnniissariat. He was all extremely kind and attentive. and were luxurious to our beyond price. was varied with macaroni. and partridge.

The pocket sextant enabled which. preventing the earth from cooling night. Although the days were so fine the nights were cold with heavy dew. 1876. another. was deposited copiously on the decks and bulwarks. as in protecting it is equally i. We always lit our cigars with a small and it I was struck with the much greater vertical facility with which this was accomplished here than was under the sun of the tropics. We were in England at Christmas. The stars were often brilliant. which solar radiation. in down during efi*ects the from the of the . a formidable absorbent of Vapour. still. and also with the great difference in the intensity s of the sun heat even here between one day and . the nights were when us to obtain our time. which December with the thermometer at 15° below 0°.e. us. we left the winter of 1875 in St. and now in the month of May we find ourselves in the middle of a third winter in the River Plate. and to of the complicated channels make and a rough survey islands that sur- rounded lens.. although in an invisible form. efficient in obstructing terrestrial radiation.no in Dew. without apparent reason less but this is doubt- due to the presence of invisible is vapour in the atmosphere. and it was our practice to compute a special almanac for every day and watch their rising and setting. where we remained until April. Petersburg.

we have the following table by Glashier Black waddmg. tliat We have already seen all it contains any to humidity at may always it be cooled down some point point at which will be saturated.310 Wood Iron Gravel Hare skin The deposit of dew even a fisherman's are carried is checked by any obstruction stopped by wind that interferes with radiation. . 1. is When surface. heat radiates rapidly into space from every exposed but certain bodies radiate more freely than others. Long : grass radiates very freely.. and the vapour deposited in the form of dew. the cooled particles of air in contact with the earth away as soon as they are formed.Deiv. as the facility admits tlie passage of rays of heat in the interesting an important element if air phenomenon of dew... If we call its radiation 1. It is . sun's heat during tlic 1 1 day and the diathermacy of with which is it the air. is and the formation of a cold stratum of air prevented.000. or long grass Short lawn grass .000 870 773 642 288 1. . such as a tree. or net. and that this is called the Dew Point. at night the air clear and diathermous.

As instructively observed by Mr. cools very exceptionally its specific The surface of water. A polished metal plate preserves is its surfaces untarnished. and the surface 40°.112 Dew. while a plate of glass drenched with dew. which to the touch felt colder. the low temperature of long grass as compared v/ith short grass.. depends wholly on the heat from the earth being impeded by the length of the conduct- ing blades of the long grass. was this property of metal which led me to introduce metal caps for the insulators used on telegraph lines. Substances which collect dew in the greatest quantity are good radiators and bad conductors of heat. Metals must be reduced throughout to the necessary temperature before It dew is deposited. and not upon any specific properties of grass. not only because heat is very great. the sensation of cold resulting from the of the same cause as the absence dew. but because when a is particle on the surface cooled by radiation it becomes heavier and sinks. the . will not be permanently cooled until the whole body of water has attained the temperature of the temperature of its which is greatest density. although it is a good radiator. viz. Glashier. and slowly. It is thus obvious that dew will be copiously deposited on the wooden hand-rail of the bulwarks and not on the iron anchor.

which alternately com- posed our atmosphere. Our position in quarantine afforded good oppor- tunity for meteorological observations. and preserved their form without mingling with the atmosphere. disappearing in the east It and leaving the heavens as clear as before. advancing rapidly over a clear star-light sky. which passed by like smoke resulting from an explosion. and would be rapidly carried with the general atmoit sphere. It passed over us in the form of an immense well-defined arch of singular sym- metry. and we kept a careful register. conductivity of the iron. were always accompanied by barometric change. in the 113 A walk round the ship curious evening supplied many phenomena connected with dew. local disturbance. We observed on the 15th : May a curious phenomenon a long low dark cloud appeared in the west. The barometer was not These arches were distinct waves. was succeeded by a second arch. affected. unless it the elements of its own propagation. as They were probably due to some any movements of the great polar or equatorial currents. and then by continuous masses of cloud with heavy rain. The most lost in violent atmospheric disturbance could be propelled but a short distance. like a cataract falling into a lake. from horizon to horizon. but only of short duration.Prognostic of a Storm. The whole mass of the upper atmosphere was 8 .

contained its the elements for own propagation. and for the production of a storm of indefinite magnitude. The intermingling obliterated .114 Propagation of a Storm. its progress being rapid and its force inten- sified along the heated and saturated valleys of the it great river. or from the descent of large masses of cold air from near above. Our little excursions amonor the islands in a boat . and the consequent all rain. of the first left wave was soon haze and cloud the second inroad behind its it. while died equally rapidly away in the dry and cold polar currents that flowed over the pampas. by vacuum and changes thus induced. as it appeared probable I was witnessing the actual commencement of the disturbance of which they My interest were the heralds. and the effect therefore moving^ with these arches. originating probably in the ascent of heated columns swept away from their base below. through wdiich it now commenced to spread and cut its way . The condensation. Avalanches of cold air are frequent the Andes and among the high Alps. was due to the intermingling of strata of different temperatures. was excited by these arches. ture of both air The tempera- and water was 67°. the third produced rain. The increase or decrease of the disturbance depended only on the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere.

which grow in large clumps. There were no water mosses. willow^s and and in poplars. so plentiful in South American it is carpeting the water wherever quiet. i ! 5 afforded an opportunity of examining the winter botan}^ Among the most prominent objects was a pLant with remarkably bulbous petioles. their dried flower . spikes of mauve flowers and water-lily-like Various species of jussiaea with showy flowers. with its rich large leaves. and coarse character which characterises river botany. the is The botany generally of that showy. belonging to the evening primrose tribe. They were rivers. The banks are lined with great eryngiums resembling aloes.TJie Botany. stems being from eight to ten feet high celery the wild grew abundantly under the flowers. and also of sagittaria. is very abundant. or pontederia nymphoetblia. and in England. islands being subject to constant floods. It was now out of flower. A gigantic very handsome form of alisma. which lloated rootlets by singly and in large masses. are very common. when flower. is another pontederia. with fibrous hanging down in the water. but the loveliest plant. the underwood was covered with clematises and passion now in fruit. masses of the lovely camalote. robust. and protects the banks. and very few con- . mio^ht be advantao-eouslv cultivated The large pampas grass grows luxu- riantly everywhere.

city. but the tree is the ceibo or erythrina crista most galli. The is wind which every one dreads here the northern or equatorial current. for fervae. and.1 1 TJie Botany. a very plentiful and vil- pretty gentian. and very little the microscope except some desmidise. '' There are numerous species of pourrettia. probably comes the from north-western tropics. tied on hoops. The air plants. which. when covered with its scarlet masses of dense flowers. hung in the open air near London. grow in large masses among the trees. It is in the spring one of the most striking objects on the river." some of them deliciously at home. taking into account the earth's motion. is Among numerous water-plants there larsia. is It grows abundantly on the islands. Having thus . the limnanthemum terrible Humboldii. like our and showy yellow flowers. Many &howy of the islands are planted with peach-trees for the firewood as well as the fruit. bromelias and oncidiums^ with their pretty spikes of blue and yellow flowers. they flower profusely in every courtyard or garden in the the bromelias scented. with floating leaves. but it a gnarled and bare-looking tree in the winter months. and this hardy epiphyte would be a wel- come addition in our greenhouses that I have brought Some the home have flowered abundantly. which resemble lobsters' claws.

rain as before occurred at the point Fig. of the most disagreeable character. 1 1 passed over a large area of heated and humid land. but in this case the storm came from the south. more to be feared than its counterpart. For- tunately it generally precedes a pampero. that judges were prohibited from giving judgment during to be developed its prevalence. and irritating east winds that so plague us in Europe. or southclears it western tempest. the dry.The North Wind. the that the air was nearly saturated. which all away. it comes to us as a damp. where the cloud impinged on the earth. although the wind was north and travelled north- . Hence the common is Spanish proverb: "Norte duro pampero seguro. the weather here being a continual contest between these two opposing currents. c. so The dry bulb was at 60°. page 96. the barometer falling two-tenths and the ther- mometer rising. Our all first acquaintance with the wind confirmed heard. This was succeeded by a storm of rain at night. poisonous wind. An essential difference separates this disturbance from those already described. hot. while suicides and crimes of violence of every description are supposed by its baneful influence. There was a disagreeable haze with light clouds intercepting the sun's heat to a very sensible extent. cold. we had wet bulb at 57°. The 3." this So notoriously depressing and annoying north wind.

and was greatly we were patiently and contentedly undero'oino. of wind. ward in the teeth of the wind. our position ameliorated. I will only now the observe that the disturbance was drawn on by like the last. when on the 20th a small .1 1 Onr Resignation. which again in the south. a committee to at first very painful for began. especially after the arrival of our soap and towels. The arrow in the is figure therefore requires reversal. and keep away the dreadful mosquitoes . and the first sky was covered with dew-cloud. though at considerable cost. they did something towards improving the cleanliness of our quarters. now the upper Ultimately the rain passed over. and whose position was without murmuring. vacuum produced by condensation but the humid heated stratum was stratum. and. for I had personally expended £22 on articles sent from Buenos Ayres. It cleared was followed by a change it During our quarantine with what to almost was surprising to observe rapidit}^ people accommodate themselves any circumstances. This feature usual only with our thunder-storms in England. to all the luxuries of civilised life in England. to bear their fate They formed themselves into assist those who were most helpless they manufactured bags of muslin to envelope our heads at night. It will be further alluded to hereafter. Even ladies. after five or six days. accus- tomed US.our sentences.

. niorht They had passed the whole sail on the deck of this crowded with no other shelter than a their piles of baggage. and as could always catch as many catfish we wanted. then approached nearer and nearer. over the and ultimately browned are a hot embers. eight of them being nate passengers. being secured on a stake and dish. dition. and our privacy invaded. made an excellent lunch. though without butter. cooked in a similar manner common and delicious dish in South America. which. and They salt cooked them in the tin pan for baling the boat. was an excellent fire. apart from the risk attending the mingling with such a strangers fresh from Rio. over a bonfire which we made in tlie island. botanical We we had rambles. and that afforded by however did our best crowd of We to console and assist them. These unfortu- new guests were in the most de])lorablc conof a bitter cold little boat.Fresh Arrivals. our own the quarters were now inconveniently crowded. The stake slio^ht is at stuck in the ground at some the until distance from It is the meat is warmed. roasted over the wood first fire. Our some little excursions in boat amongf the islands vv^ere a delicious most agreeable resource. sailing craft 1 19 came alongside and discharged no first-class less than eighty French and Spanish emigrants. or On some occasions we took half a sheep with us. although. Large joints of beef.

the thermometer was at 43°. 59°. the intermingling being beautifully defined tongues or wisps of vapour with clear intervals by the spaces and In a short when the the air was motionless. and this beautiful phenomenon . as sun rose higher. the temperature ceased. and rolling away before a gentle feet wind until they were dissolved a few above the water. and its saturation water was completed by evaporation from the water. but a constant formation of visible vapour occurred from the gentle movement produced by the wind. So long as they were per- they maintained their transparency. these picnics took the form of a tea- At other times party. At 8 a. There was no fog whatever on the land. helped to keep us in health and On the 22nd of May. This saturated layer of air at 59° was thus in direct contact with the gently-moving air above it. but the temperature of the river was . the wind north the air was close on saturation. but they were always most enjoyable. reached 53°. The whole of the enormous surface of water visible from our ship was covered with little tongues of fog.I 20 River Fogs. which was fectly still also nearly saturated. after a cold.m. but at a tem- perature of only 43°. The cause was The layer of air in contact with the evident. foggy night. time. we had a bright morning. rising apparently out of the water. was warmed by contact. and spirits.

to The formation it is of the va})Our was due the mechanical mingling of the gentle breeze. wind varying So anomalous a circumstance as a constant north in temperature from 43° to 63"^. and not difficult to understand the ensue different enormous condensation that must when tem- enormous volumes of atmosphere of perature and close upon saturation are violently and turbulently intermingled. . us on the 24th. and we had a gorgeous stratified The barometer fell two-tenths of an inch. pre- accumulated in the south with straight cisely as before. Cloud again lines. and probably arising from precisely the same cause. rise of accompanied by a sudden dicated great disturbance the river. i. inIt reached must have arisen from south-east winds all around us. sunset. passed overhead.Cause of the Fog. The day following. and was accompanied by a very considerable river . in the form of a pampero from the south-west . the contact of strata differing in temperature. exactly like Curly fleeces of cloud our layers of vapour on the river. This little it 121 from incident assumes importance the lidit throws on the formation of cloud when strata of different temperature and humidity effect overlie each other.. but the evening sky was lit up in the. rise of the the air was nearly saturated. we had a return of a very it strong and disagreeable north-west wind. which at sea.e.

At length. It is probable that all through this storm we occupied the centre of a cyclone which has travelled east. and. and sixteen days' imprisonment in the Rosetta. as the wind immediately disperses the refracting layer and mingles it with the general atmosphere. but in all cases only during a still atmosphere. consequently. arising from the difference of temperature between the atmosphere and the water of the river. drifting lightning. of the stratum of air resting on the water. the glad tidings arrived that our troubles . While lying at Las Palmas we had many op- portunities of witnessing the constant mirage so common in the Plate. indicated the great contest that had been fought out in some other field.122 east Distut'hed Weathe7\ by incessant sheet cloud. and this was further conall firmed by the heavy rolling water that came in night. trees All around our horizon islands and appeared to rest on a plate of polished silver. while masses of brilliant. after a voyage of thirty-one days in the Douvo. from the Plate and rocked the vessel although the air now was motionless. and to be lifted into the air without any base. heavy over a clear sky. as this all alone can account for the winds from quarters being so abnormal in temperature and losing entirely their usual characteristics. This effect of refraction was often more apparent over shallows or heated sand-banks.

for which very thankful. were even now in per- The banks were crowded with great pampas grass. There were only fiv^e and it was a lovely day. We visited in route the charming grounds belonging to the ex-president Sarmiento on one of the islands. on which a large notice is posted cacti. calladium. affording the welcome shade. and hydrangeas. and trip it gave us opportunity of enjoying a delightful the islands among It down the channel of the Capitan. : " Welcome plants. and a host of other fection. we were it is This was a special favour. whence we could proceed by rail to Buenos Ay res. and. We arrived at alismas and sagittaria and the Tiorre in about three hours. and took up our quarters at tlie Provence Hotel. to the Shade." The palms and cannas. We steamed all through an avenue of weeping willows the way. as usual to land quarantine passengers at the custom-house at Buenos Ayres. . and the gnarled ombus and willows. which was destined for nearly two years to be our head-quarters in South America. we arrived in the afternoon at Buenos Ayres. to take us to the Tigrt5. and tliat Ay res. and poplars and peach trees.. of us in the launch. was a most enjoyable journey.Arrival at Buenos were at an end. our luoforaae -^laving been examined. little 123 a steani-launch would fetch us away on the morning of the 27th.

The traveller who arrives at Buenos Ayres after leaving the gorgeous scenery and climate of the tropics. unfavourable. is dismaj^ed at the first aspect of these great level plains and mud banks.CHAPTER X. BUENOS AYRES. . HERE is no doubt that our quarantine adventure had created great though unfounded prejudice against a country in which such administration could be infliction possible. without trees or picturesque beauty of any kind. first Smarting under recent my own im- pressions were biassed. the result of the labour of centuries of difficulties civilization. and erroneous. He is equally unprepared on arriving from some great European capital. to appreciate the already overcome in founding such a city as Buenos Ayres in the course of only a few years. I will record my impressions as they arose.

which is raised into clouds by every passing vehicle or puff of wind. 125 a strikinnf featares to new comer especially are the badly-paved.The The most Streets. narrow. . worst of all. a It is also remarkable fact that while the streets are so width. a peculiar and invariable smell of ammonia. are water. without any regard These to that of his neighbour or of the street. spanned by a bridge. and more the narrow and irregular footpaths. each proprietor apparently regulating the level of his footpath. and. while in the lower parts of the street is sometimes town the rains. in order cross that passengers these may during heavy when narrow There roads is become torrents of deep water. many extra- two persons can scarcely lips The ordinary and downs as one walks along are very troublesome. nan-ow streets. always more prominent after a short absence from the city. or mud and a deep layer of dust. the roads around the suburbs and quays. enormous width in a all be imported is almost and the most that could be done would be to pave a strip down the middle. places so that in pass. paths are sometimes three or four feet above the road. on account of the absence of gravel or stone of either a quagmire of impassable any kind. which are generally only thirty feet wide. the roads are as unaccountably extravagant in To pave this country where stone must impossible.

and I have recorded them with that object. although see them with any effect. of the buildings are Many when to extremely it is fine. and are surmounting them with all the resources at their disposition. that these are the very subjects that are occupying the attention of a highly-intelligent and educated people. no city in the world possesses such drainage and water supply. difficulties who are quite as well aware of the and imperfections they have inherited as our grumbling friend. but scale the quite on which it is now commenced is indefensible. The Ayres latitude of the is Mercede Church at Buenos 34° 86' 28" south.126 Bad Drainacre. rising gradually as recedes from the river. It is facilities for it singular that should have been so totally neglected. These are the more striking imperfections which at first sight obtrude themselves on visitor anxious to find fault. The soil is a solid base of . 25*5 built on west of Greenwich. The city is it undulating land. which resemble monumental tombs under the aspect in which one gets a partial glimpse of them by looking straight up into the sky. an European On the other hand he must not forget. and the longitude 3 hrs. 53 min. but placed in these narrow alleys impossible The new banks They are crowded with costly decorations. sec. The bad drainage is a serious evil. appeared singularly misplaced.

127 tosca covered witli alliivium. The flat are paved with brick. and although the fall very slight and these heavy brick joints. The buildings and elegantly roofs is are generally very substantial. it is surprising roofs are carried on timber how water-tight and durable they prove. with their ornamental marble copings.TJie Houses. except that they are on a larger scale. as it avoided external windows and only the doorway to defend. but the public squares are fine and spacious. affording unrivalled foundations for buildini^ and facilities for excava- tions of exceptional cliaracter. series rooms surrounding a central open has been singularly adhered streets court. The old Spanish system of straight narrow streets intercepting each other at right angles has unfortunately prevailed and rendered impossible the picturesque beauty which such a situation must have otherwise ensured . invariably I'ain. fur- nished and decorated.water and contain wells or ahjihes. or patio. They are largely utilized as available . seldom exceedinc^ two of stories. The houses and thus bear a striking resemblance to the houses in Pompeii. and the old Spanish type of a to. This form of house with a central court doubtless originated in the turbulent old times. The patios are often highly decorated and furnished with shrubs and flowers. his left when every man's house was fortress. The older houses are all low.

During the hottest weather they worked noon without a pause. watched with interest some Italian workmen engaged till in a house opposite to us. structures On the other hand such totally light and airy would be out of place and uninhabitable in England. and far greater taste is displayed in the elegant quintas and country houses that surround the city than in our heavy brick buildings around London. The Italians are excellent full workmen. skill execute with consummate taste. These great public works more remarkable when we remember that city.128 Public Biiildingrs. The and and architecture is the buildings are generally of stucco and brick. Italian this workmen. new prison at Palermo. does not though formerly now exceed 140. They bear slight the heat of the mid-day sun with a very I protection on their heads.000 people. the whole population of the greater. almost universally Italian. and the splendid park at Palermo with its avenue of palms is worthy of any capital are the in the world. The capacious post office. and form a most efficient protection against the heat of the sun. on account of the lovely climate and freedom from frost. who plastering is are numerous here. This work excessively durable. off their shirts from daylight We saw them frequently take and wring out . space for recreation. and the new are magnificent public buildings.

We had a number of Italian labourers on the railway. occasionally steeping pail of water. after dark. to Is. batatoes. They worked its in gangs of about seventy. an<l their wages. 2s. potatoes. 2d.Italian TVorhnen. but the . and a large portion of the amount invested weekly by these frugal and industrious workmen. per day . to 4s. boiled 1^ hours in a large cauldron.. 2d.s. breakfast at twelve. though low. per day. made of beef. are generally economized in so that in a short period they accumulate sufficient to return home with enough larore to start some business. Their wages were from 3s. which con- matte and biscuit at daylight. each gang having captain. and pumpkin. It consisted of delicious soup. per day. quiet habits and incessant industry were exemplary. 9 The national religion is Roman Catholic. onions. 129 them in a They drink nothing but water. less the cost of clothing. Gd. and carefully skimmed the beverage was Each man paid l. sists of who supplies them with food. for his food. for they is live in tents. the perspiration. Sd. Their peaceful. cabbage. The breakfast was cooked on the or puchero. The men thus save from 2s. and supper line. There is no country in which the descendants of so completely established the Spanish race have absolute religious freedom as at Buenos Ayres. water. 4c?. to 6d.

The loading and unloading of sea-going ships is therefore performed by means of lighters between the ship and the shore. The influence possessed by the Jesuits led to religious riots a few years since. j with a hard level bottom in depth is of sand and tosca. the absence of docks. while j so extremely gradual that a large vessel cannot approach within many even lighters of shallow draught are often unable to several hundred yards of the shore. come within The town pier. and the increase miles. Buenos Ayres being the focus of a large foreign trade.130 Religious Freedom is strictly . or harbour. . which runs out a considerable entirely dry during distance. but the construction is of a port surrounded with engineering difiiculties of the highest order. or even of in the large vessels. but the number of men is extremely small. power of the Church siastical matters. which are not unfrequently drowned in bad weather. The bigotry of the population in Cordova is in striking contrast with this unrestricted freedom. The water in front of the city is extremely shallow. roads. The cargo is then transferred to carts on high ^vheels di^awn by horses. No religious procession or display permitted in public. is which lie several miles away at first sight surprising. is often left low water with northerly winds. confined to eccleare The women regular atten- dants at the churches. but these dissensions are now is forgotten.

employing a very large population and an immense number the of horses and . carts. The experiment light now in hand at the Reachuelo. The drawbacks tlie are of cargo. although goes. cannot fail to subject. course very great the double shifting of theft. whether warehouse. and and the great cost. throw considerable on the The Campaxa Railway. are a serious tax on the It is. not easy to devise any better the subject under present means of dealing with circumstances. must be a problem that and there are no data at present existing that could warrant any thoughtful engineer in expressing a positive opinion on the subject. It runs for a considerable distance . if judiciously carried on. is all evidence.The Harbour. for carts case to fetch and deliver must be employed in any the goods. It is evident from what we have already said that the possibility of dredging and maintaining a deep channel in an estuary subject to such incessant change requires most careful investigation. the waste. loss. trade. In this rude manner tliis 1 3 r large trade is carried on. as far as it against its feasibility. and once loaded the lighter or the they now proceed direct to their destination withit is out further delay. damage to goods by water. Our first trip outside the town was on the Cam- pana Railway. however.

a large kind of also common. often sit on the telegraph wires. The ditches on either dug out for its formation. were pools of water overgrown with rushes and floating water plants. and inhabited by large tortoises. harmless snakes. These owls. driving away aflectionate. has it lies burrowed the ground on each and at the generally a the where dry. fish. this great aspect of marsh. side the line.132 Birds and Ayiimah. with the boundless pampas on the higher level above. The ptero-ptero. with a spike on each wing. meditating so deeply on dangerous advances of civilisation as not even to pass into the burrow as the train dashes by. line. game. as they continually all his round him. The first over the great alluvial plain. and floods. hundreds are by the passing A very handsome species of large toad. so numerous that. is mouth pair of almost every hole there of small owls. with numerous other birds. and are not unfrequently killed by flying accidentally against them. into deep holes. brilliantly coloured. it utters its disagreeable cry as sails past. bird fly is the pest of the sportsmen. The biscacho. was full of interest. a large all handsome plover. which is is an object of superstitious dread with the natives. They seem very and can hardly be driven . during the when they killed seek shelter on the train. almost as level as the marsh below. very common This over the Continent. pampas side. rabbit.

teal. they become extremely courageous. bird. endeavouring to a blow as they pass with the spike on their powerful wing. spoonbills. We came constantly across the skeletons and carcases of horses and bullocks killed by the passing trains. darting and. are as patent as though of yesterday. the line passes close under the or baranca. the caves and gullies in the hard tosca. 133 away from a wounded companion. or marching on stilts through the shallow pools in search of are flocks fish. and though the river now a mile away.The Jllars/ics and U'^atcr Birds. storks. by close to the dog or even the head of the inflict sportsman. and disturbed the great carancho and other scavengers fighting over the feast. water-birds. and clouds of wild ducks. command a high On approaching Campana cliff". iS' which is ninety feet high. were a formation must here be of great . On the river side of the line the marsh is inter- cepted by enormous rush-grown lakes. birds and snipe. The wild duck a most delicious marshes. and if and extremely fail to plentiful in the they could be preserved in tins and brought here they could not price with the epicure. and other evidences of It nevertheless its it origin by under- mining. and smaller is of every description. cranes. Among them of black swans. whirling in flocks through the and pluming themselves in the sun. on passing near the nest. widgeons. full of air. wild turkeys.

plants. These interesting have been and preserved in the museum at Buenos Ayres. sometimes sand. Each body was covered with different kinds of earth. is here covered with underwood. vultures. and other smaller and dwarf shrubs passion-flowers. smothered The acacias with creeping tropeolas. large hawks. birds are eagles. or clifl". where they will be more thoroughly carefully collected investigated. antiquity. parrots. and animals.134 ^ Tumulus. and and the glades . sometimes tosca brought from the baranca close by. and in which a very aborigines larsje found. as tools are totally unknown among flint or the oldest tribes of Indians. The chalcedony was probably in the Andes. It appears to been a burial-ground. number of skeletons of the mixed with a great quantity was flint of rude pottery. or alluvium from the neighbouring relics islands and river. evident the funeral was were at the same time a feast. which was opened while I was present. with flint implements of very ancient date. Some bones of deer also found. or silt. for within a few yards of the line we came upon a tumulus in the marsh. owls. peopled with foxes. clematis. as well as fish bones it is found near every grave. and from the charred stratum and large quantity of pottery. The baranca. but no other bones belonginoj to the existing fauna of the pampas. or obtained either far away may have have been brought from Uruguay.

effectually defy the sun. when millions of cattle perish for want of food and water. with ditches on either side. neither of them indigenous. thistle pampas milk line runs and the artichoke cynara cardunculus. and and a host of solanaceous These thistles plants. with their it woolly involucres. form a very prominent ^^ item in the botany of the pampas. The on a high bank through this highly its picturesque old river bed. The whole thistle. are the The closely-packed flowers. of the pampas and as they are from five to eight feet high they . as with us. . . The principal composit^e. . The thistle is the characteristic feature vast areas are covered with them. 135 between are carpeted with oxalis. brilliant verbenas. They are too thorny and tough to furnish fodder. with groups of the dried stems of enormous thistles and other composite. but they foster the growth of a little grass and trefoil beneath their shade. which serves to keep animals alive till the autumn rains produce sufficient food to fatten them is for slaughter or the saladero.The Thistles. deep overgrown and at length debouches on the spacious railway w^harves on the banks of the Parana de las Palmas at Campana. except in times of excessive drought. autumn plants. form an impenetrable barrier even for a horseman. but tracts the ripening of their seeds pro- sometimes far into the winter. country the in many places a bed of two kinds of thistle.

tenanted with birds. from the river provinces of Santa Fe. but there .. no vine-covered terraces and castled crags as on the Rhine. instead of the dreary monotony I had anticipated. raised station-ground. and from the and Brazil. vastness in such scenes_. canna. and on the other hand by a grove occasionally of weeping is willows. wine. while the broad waters of the river are dotted with grebe and other white fruits divers. no Alpine gorges nor mountain is an indescriband freshness able grandeur and beauty. wheat. from the grand chaco. there are no quiet It is true wooded hills and vales as in England. tobacco. The opposite shore consists of the wooded islands of the delta. flooded when the river high.800 miles distant. yerbe. prolific tropical gardens of Paraguay 1. Entre Rios. and Corientes.136 The extensive Cainpana. backed by the newly-forming town. which runs off inland. mandioca. sugar. that is no peaks as in Sv/itzerland. on this stupendous river system. and other produce from the fertile provinces of Tucuman and Mendoza. peculiarly their own. this little trip to Campana was full of the deepest interest and insti'uction. Thus. maize. and continually enlivened by the sails of the numerous craft that bring down and timber. pumas. are flanked on the one hand by a prominent steep spar of the wooded baranca. and game. tigers. be- yond Rosario.

Large towns spring up. until the where throughout the boundless growing prosperity attracts the vigorous fields. and leaves perhaps a deeper and more earnest impression. advance. and both in breed and Thriving homesteads are dotted everyprairie. ficditinj^ The horse. . the fox and the and a host of carnivora. One cannot help speculating on the future of such boundless which whole nations could be absorbed. and the domesticated condition. formed fertile territories. capitalist from less Increased production breaks fills down the bullock cart. The tiger and the lion.Extent of the Landscape. after years of diligent investigation. and the long railway train. only a few years ago. the wastes are enclosed. its boundaries and limits are still mysterious and unknown. and the sheep fea- have totally revolutionized the great natural tures of the country before their slow and peaceful their prey. in the huntino'-oTounds and battle-fields of a few for wanderincr tribes of territory ! naked Indians and the ox. and which. deer. as well as have melted away as effectually as the savage Indian before the patient labour of the colonist. and is Campana with her busy wharves destined to utilize a river system of such extent and magnitude that. thistle is replaced The pampas by vast areas improved grass of and the waving corn cattle or maize. Forests are already modifying the climate. less 137 imposing and fascinating.

and the damao^e doue was very considerable.138 In The Canipana Line. and presented many difficulties numerous and spacious culverts were requisite across every depression. running with the river. before the banks were in the thoroughlv consolidated.'^ Although Plate. A paper descriptive of this storm was written at the request of engineering friends in Buenos Ayres. The marshes were deep and diffi- and foundations were often very of A storm of unprecedented magnitude occurred month May. for it is posed to constant danger from the occasional high . intercepts completely the natural drainage. The country is entirely devoid of gravel or stone. countries subject to tropical storms. and is given m extenso in . the next chapter. cult. and the banks consist wholly of soft alluvium. tjj^N^^^^"^ this railway skirts the estuary 01 the its throughout whole length it is not subject to any damage from these inland floods. but it only ex- avoids Charybdis to meet with Scylla. floods which are always creating new which he parallel is and occasionally attain dimensions for totally unprepared from any informa- tion he can command. the is greatest difficulty encountered by the engineer the protection of his works from the sudden and overwhelming channels. The Campana line. 1877. treacherous. fi ' The Northekn Kailway.

139 The water in the Plate. but sand-banks and all vessels shallows shut out that are not of light . ment are laid The gun-boats belonging to the Governup at the Tigre. already described. and runs through an extremely picturesque steep baranca. and especially for rowing and boating ex- cursions. when often driven back by constant overflows its south-east gales. and is lined with quintas. tides in the Plate. among the wooded islands. natural boundaries and occasions great destruction. are a very favourite resort for pleasure seekers. The islands at the Tigr^. This line is especially a pleasure line. while the lake-like estuary right. some of them extremely elegant. is always a charming object. district. its district. and well situated in the undulating slopes of the steep baranca which overlooks the river.The Northern Railway. covered on the with shipping. left-hand boundary. and the engineers have had to encounter a very heavy expenditure in maintaining wherever it comes near to the estuary. It runs through a populous including the pretty villages of Belgraino and San Isidro. It terminates at the outlet of little the Lujan River in a port at the Tigre. The forms dotted with elegant villas. are not uncommon this line . as the waters often break on the shore in destructive waves. The remains of objects vessels driven on to high land and there irretrievably wrecked.

000 yards long. It was in these waters one of the Government torpedo boats. the latter always embarking in small boats. would surely add vastly to the comfort of passengers going to Monte Video. and ends at Pontelara.140 Ensenada. where a deep and well-sheltered harbour. was last year blown up and burnt. on which £30. where a substantial jetty. moderate draught to After the description already given of the difficulties attending the landing both of goods and passengers at Buenos Ay res. draught. and shorten their journey. The Ensenada Railway also skirts' the River Plate to the south of Buenos Ayres. and the channels leading to Las Palmas are tortuous and narrow. it is difiicult to under- why this port is not used by river steamers. for a distance of thirty-five miles. with sad loss of life. The only drawback is its unsheltered position. the Fuhninante.000 has been ex1. and which all is times convenient accommodation for vessels of discharge alongside. while sandstand It banks there interfere with direct approach. The Ensenada Railway. but the original intention is was to run on to Ensenada. and in bad weather exposed to great discomfort. if they started from this point. Un- . affords at pended. and with no clue to the cause of the accident. and even danger.

we crossed the large plains of grazing land. a forest-like The principal tree is the eucalyptus globosa. but large tracts are now . this introduction the radiation together with the shade. introduced from Australia. materially . which runs through the pretty village of Quilmes. and commandino. and improved by from a forest. near which the sandy river beach. offers a tempting site for a charming watering-place. It is moreover believed to possess antiseptic Other common trees are the acacias. with poplars and wallows.)le through a chan- that would require to bo dredged at consider- able cost among these treacherous banks. through which the railway runs. few years ago that no planted as tree existed over the whole extent of the pampas. fortunately nel. this pretty lilies and shelter tufts of amaryllis and and other plants that delight in the porous It is only a soil. which growls quickly and yields timber of some value. traffic There is an excellent suburban on this line. we passed districts that in a few years will assume appearance. fine views of the river. it is 141 only approaclial. backed by a fringe of luxurious veo^etation. There is no doubt that the climate will be greatly modified . studded with droves of horses and oxen.Quilmss. properties. and some firs. The entomologist and the botanist will not fail to reap a rich harvest among line the sandy glades and lovely thickets that coast.

gradients on the line. this rate . The excursion which more particularly impressed me with the extraordinary extent. from the at first at the gentle rate of about one foot per mile. thus tempering and equalizing the climate and increasing the rainfall. so level as appears. where planting has become very general. formation of cloud. its We now leave the great River baranca and undulating boundaries. is The terminus . with Aja-es. and wealth of the pampas or plains. character. w^hich at Azul has attained on elevation of 400 feet above the these boundless plains in every direction rise In fact gently and uniformly sea. and it is stated that a slight change is already evident in the neighbourhood of the city. and travel over these immense distances in what It is to the eye appears a perfectly level plain or ocean of land. bounded by a well-defined it horizon. The Pampas. at Dolores 126 miles distant from the city a branch just completed runs to Azul. which occupy so enormous an area and are istic of this so singularly character- southern continent.142 favour tlie The Pampas. which soon evident from the large lake-like sheets of water which occupy slight depressions. not. which is 200 miles from Buenos Valley. and the gentle sea. was a journey over the Great Southern Railway. is however.

Speaking gene- the character of the soil corresponds with the inclination. . then dis- pebbles and water-worn stones . and ultimately terminate the mountain valleys of the Andes. distributed partly by great rivers and partly by marine action. during periods in which the whole has been probably several times sub- merged beneath the ocean . in close proximity to this active . but it is singular that the submergence and elevation should be so uniform over this large area. as though a continent had been formed by some great flow of waters depositing boulders and rocks near the mountains tricts of . then coarse . and fine silty deposits which cover see the great alluvial plains that form so large a portion of the W'hole area of the pampas. the claj^s then finer sands and. led to the belief that the we are irresistibly whole must be due to some continuity of similar action.The Geology. The character composition all of the sands and clays and their lead to the conviction that the whole of these plains are the debris of the crystalline rocks of the mighty range of the Andes levelled and sorted. 143 gradually increasing until large plateaux near the Cordilleras attain an elevation of 2. gravels and coai^e sands lastly. When we still the enormous addition of similar deposits in active course of formation over the vast area of the valley and delta of the Parana.000 in feet above high the sea. rally.

and other shells sional beds of marine shells are . One of the most constant characteristics of the pampas is the existence of underlying thick beds of tosca or clays. like islands out of an ocean of water. occa- met with on the pampas. and appears . found in the pampean cliffs The tertiary rocks form picturesque on the river with conglomerate masses of the great oyster. It forms bastard limestone of considerable toughness. with streaks of vegetable carbon.. report upon similar serious damage produced by shattered the use of gypsum in the erection of the palace of the Baron James Rothschild. disturbance. patagonica. and at some of the stations where mortar made of sand containing this material was inadvertently used. consisting of limestone. The underlying formation consists of rocks of all ages. the buildings are literally disintegrated and by the expansion peculiar to gypsum as I was some years since called upon to it hardens.144 line of volcanic '^^^^ Geology. terrebratula. is monites. " ostrea. hardened by the presence of lime. megatherium. etc. near Paris. at Ferriere. rise The sierras or hills visible from Azul through these uniform de- posits. The lias at Mendoza and San Juan contains amfossils. banks at Parana. a fine collection of the mastodon. and other characteristic while in the museum at Buenos Ayres there clays. giyptodon." pecten veneris. as well as sulphate of lime or gypsum.

of this limited It was evident that in an uninhabited and unenclosed plain. normally without a tree or a pebble. The horizon all round is almost It sufficiently defined for astronomical purposes. or eucalyptus. cliffs It forms nearly vertical of the Ijaranca. moreover. led at once to the investigation of the peculiarities flora. as unable to hold its it is own with as at the present moment. burnt for building purposes. the foundation always sought after by the en^fineer. These plains. and underlies the alluvium throu^rhout It is the whole valley of the Plate. to 145 the be universally present. appeared very remarkable that a timber grows so luxuriantly soil in which when planted should from time immemorial be so totally destitute of forests.Absence of Trees. with an occasional gnarled or ombu. swarming with rodents and vegetable feeders. or willows. are the only landmarks. crowded as and horses. oxen. hard bottom of the river in It is and constitutes the front of Buenos Ay res. or estancias. but makes only a lime of inferior quality. or of and a very limited variety of flowering plants it any vegetation except a few grasses and . a tree of any kind must always have been sheep. and are generally surrounded by a few ficus poplars. on 10 . The farm enclosures. The surface of these singular deposits over which the line passes consists almost exclusively of grazing land.

and if the enclosures which shelter the scanty plantations around the present estancias tree would rapidly The principal grasses which originally covered the pampas were two species of the tough pampas grass. Trees can only be grown by enclosing the land. which continually improve but during the dry summers this by grazing pasture disappears. which destroy the hardiest plants.000 head of oxen and plains. In all the unoccupied were removed. such as the clovers. or are in- definite in grasses. every shrub and disappear. but as the land is occupied the horses and oxen soon remove this fibrous and indestructible forage. millions of sheep strewed the but before they starved these wretched victims consumed not only the grasses and every vestige of vegetation. wastes these still cover the soil. temporarily takes its place. and a gloomy dusty desert clovers . forests. terrible and the During these droughts last great the animals perish in thousands. but the very roots were torn out of the soft soil with their feet. and the plain is covered spontaneously in a few seasons with rich and pasturage. are subject account of the absence of on an average every ten years to terrible droughts. and if this were .146 Absence of Trees. vitality. so silicious and wiry as to be unconsumable by smaller rodents. In the Q \ / secdo the carcases of 500. the thistles. except those seeds are whose endowed with unusual number.

the spasmodic rainfall being due solely to the blending of aerial currents. has a chance of escape from the cattle.The Botany. like the pampas and a few other over these terrestrial One oceans rides nevertheless with a freedom and freshness that is . done doubt greatly to 1 47 a large extent the climate would no be materially changed and the fertility increased. without liumidity. preventing all formation of cloud or dew. or plantain in our pasturage. is The dominant resembling colonies flower a little yellow distance. The other perennials which hold their own are either poisonous. and the heat. The high temperature of the pampas. oxalis. such as the hemlock. The short-lived botany of the its adapted to pampas is of course peculiar climate and circumstances no perennial. like the daisy. too small and too numerous to become the prey of cattle. These dry plains during the summer months maintain a high temperature. the drought. or thorny like the numerous dwarf acacias. or tough and indestructible wiry grasses. our of buttercup at a producing viviparous pseudo bulbs of extraordinary vitality. produces the incessant mirage that so constantly obliterates the true horizon. and the over without saturated equatorial currents pass condensation. or buttercup. and too enduring to be destroyed by drought or floods.

parrots. insects. and often on the cattle and sheep. the easily found in the cardinal. toads. while troops of spoonbills. where the jaguar and puma prey on their weaker brethren. plovers. A silly flock of sheep. is not fenced and the destruction of cattle very great. the biscach^ provides them with homes by wdiile the his indefatigable labours in excavation. and tortoises surround the marshy spots. take it into . hawks and eagles. pigeons. oxen. South America. Wild Afiimah. flamingoes. after a cautious and inquisitive inspection. The skunk scents the .148 delicious. the At the time that I went over the southern line camp was in full luxuriance the country was . or a troop of horses or bullocks. frightened by the engine. covered w^ith herds horses lines in of cattle. that line the arroyos. Every hillock and burrow teems with curious animals. will sometimes. snakes. and waterfowls wade about the waters. The grey fox. is The railway^ in. and partridges. sheep. game is '^ montes. and birds . The Southern Railway. darts into his burrow. owls. and numerous Larger small birds enliven the boundless landscape." or thickets. like and all in dense groups. air so that we smell him in the passing train the armadillo and thistles all iguanodon run among the clumps of dried and grasses . frogs.

train. number of these acci- Cattle are. throws them right and left like furrows in a ploughed tects field. and if effectually pro- the train. along Railways must inevitably undergo enormous development in a country where roads are impossible. a strong frame of timber in front of the engine. adopted. and surrounded with bullock of produce brought receipts and the these long and heavy trains. crowded with merchancarts. however. As fences. bear testimony to the enor- mous quantity fertile down from pastures. and accidents are more frequent with the special than with the regular trains. The large and commodious dize. in spite of the screams of the When this happens the result is occasionally very disastrous. and the numerous skeletons that line the railway is an evidence of the frequency of such accidents. large The effect of is the prosperity of the district evidenced by the all and numerous towns that have sprung up its course. stations. The cowrcatcher. the sometimes reaching such a line on £50 per mile per week.The Cow-catcher. would prevent the escape of cattle caught between them on the line. becoming accustomed to the danger. 149 their heads to follow one another in a stami)eLlc straight across the line in front of the whistle. and where the construction of a railway involves no earthworks beyond the throw- . it is probable that they would rather increase than diminish the dents.

150 Railways Essential. The towns. the crisp. and the of the journey was rough drive across the hard but uneven surface of Azul being the pampas was very exhilarating. on asking a young returned from a visit to England. night 32°. on the new frontier line of the Indian terriwas occupied by a military detachment under Colonel Donovan. ing up of a bank of loose black mould. The last part performed in a carriage. to find that she lady who had just what she thought was much surprised that in so wealthy a city so few of ! the houses should be plastered On arriving at Azul the difierence of climate was very marked. with a 5' 6'' gauge. prepared for plastering. which in bad weather are of the houses. and the air dry and The day temperature was 68°. with wide roads or streets. I and the appearance is very was much amused. taken from the side ditches. close tory. This has indeed been fully exemplified in the prosperity of every railway of this character in the province. as a rule. on which the sleepers are laid without in ballast.work. The lines are all single. The bulk and in- even the churches. It seems impossible to run a line any direction through these productive districts that would not speedily be remunerative. quagmires of mud. but the plastering definitely postponed. of London. are slovenly and straggling. is deplorable. are built with rough brick. and his account of the raids and .

slept in a large its We not and comfortable establishment. tind so far was surprised away from civilization a powerful flour mill. The mill-building and dam were constructed with great skill and solidity. had a thriving aspect. The town. afibrded an excellent fuel. It is there deposited in deep beds. The cuisine is . the time must come when such waste will be impossible. collected in cakes from the enclosures where these numberless flocks are folded. full 151 of of to We saw a few all Indians. and a branch of the Imperial Bank was doing a large banking business. belonging to a most intelligent French- man. and fertile and inexhaustible as these virgin districts now appear. had been brought by horses across the pampas. The machinery came from Paris. and . The fuel used for the engine was wholly pure sheep dung. with invariable billiard-rooms. and the engine. driven by a 15-horse power water turbine. This hitherto inaccessible district cannot fail to rise quickly into great importance under the fostering influence of the railway communication just completed.AziiL warfare of their savafje neiejhbours was interest. to consume so valuable a manure surely in this fashion . and at small cost but it seems a sad alternative. supplemented by a 20-horse power steam engine. moreover. and gave evidence of welldeserved prosperity. ap})areutly I the lowest type of humanity. mounted on wheels.

at Altamirano The following day we returned to the junction and thence we ran on to Dolores. and we visited the fine it new was prison. I was content with a bucket of water. obtaining the water from the tank used for supplying the engines by means ditions. inspired by the clear and brilliant atmosphere of the pampas. more vigorous companions enjoyed a shower or but as soon as rather a storm bath in the open air. was daylight my on the grass. and I felt certain we should be upset into some quagmire. with fog. The fences round the town are formed of the great cactus or prickly pear. furnishes a sauce that any epicure would envy. of the large leather haze. Dolores. but the roads difficult to were so detestable that keep one's seat in the carriage. The night was cold. the ordinary dinner of five courses of beef difficult always leaves the problem of deciding which was the toughest and which contained most onions. we therefore ran rollino^ the our- carriacre under an enmne shed. under more sheltered con- We were not in the humour to grumble at the breakfast which followed at Dolores. and a it little hoar-frost. in ponchos selves up and cloaks. total distance of we arrived there about It half-past one in the morning. but the appetite. . and. improvised the best bed we could on the carriage seats.152 enticing . a 218 miles . find was too late to quarters in the town.

in cattle. a country covered with butter is almost dry. the population large area. till mid- Drinkino^ is becominor a serious is evil. the the keen vitality and unrestrained freedom im- parted by rambling over these boundless pastures under a brilliant sky. and tasteless kind of cheese. of the most local and personal type. Living settler enjoys intensely wholly on horseback. is In the camp. The topic of conversation generally politics. —mutton it or beef. very few life who have once been accustomed to camp can be again induced to submit to the restraints . Although is the cultivation of vegetables totally neglected. spread over a of the people in the The habits Business town are peculiar. on the contrary.Toivn Life. with billiards and cards nifi^ht. is about 5. and seems incredible that.000 people. and though at absence of what first the total we call comfort is rather trying. There was the usual proportion of unfinished. to five . unplastered. is done early. the only dairy produce being a very hard. billiards. from seven to siesta and the another short phase of business from four eleven . then breakfast. consisting almost exclusively of meat. so easily grown. all downright hard work. and unroofed houses and churches and barbarous walls. then the dinner. interspersed with several good houses . 153 which makes a totally impassable barrier. unknown. with sub- stantial but very monotonous fare.

which rapidly empties itself when the labour ceases. influence on their habits is and modes of in life their income generally invested in increasing their holdings. instincts In the same manner. and the habits and result civilization which have been the of years of laborious training and example melt rapidly Laro^e away this in a few short free months under the influence of life. the most this is intelligent and fall back apparently natural only attained and Our high maintained by but it is civilization incessant labour and education. the natural resume their sway with surprising readifree ness when from restraint. one . but there a fine iron bridge 240 metres long over the Salado. there of course occupation for every one who chooses to work. but their wealth has little . per extent of land held by the large proprietors measured by square leagues. There are few features of engineeris ing interest in these railways. and obligations inseparable from higher civilizaI have often indeed been struck with the which into readiness with refined life. and levellino: fortunes are rapidly accumulated by estancia holders. is With so spare a population. kept full by con- stant pumping. like a leaky cistern. the is can be bought at 20s.154 Civilizatio7i. tion. and the poverty and distress so common among us is totally impossible and unknown. finest lands and a country where the acre.

are thus subject to terrible but it is a peculiarity not easily explained that the waters in the valley of the Salado continue to rise for a long period after the cessation of the rain. this I have elsewhere endeavoured to explain phenomenon in connection with the great floods of May. 155 The The the tlie absence of rivers over this vast area. of the very few rivers that drain the pampas. The distance of 200 miles from Buenos Ayres to Azul was performed in ten hours. with a large rainfall. We returned from Dolores to Buenos Ayres on excursion. during which millions of oxen and sheep were destroyed in this same valley. The Western Railway. and excavates large temporary channels it is in alluvium. one of the most thriving and remunerative lines in the country. but the bulk of soil. the third day. into rain di-ains a few large lakes and arroyos. after a most enjoyable during which we had travelled 544 miles.Floods. The sumptuous breakfast and and admirably ad- lunch en route. from Buenos Ayres to Chivilcoy. 1877. under whose control this prosperous . is a very remarkable characteristic. Cambaceres. provided by Mr. The next trip was over the Government or Western Railway. absorbed by The low-lying lands floods.

All our older cities were built along . but on the habits and progress of the country. Mercedes a fine and of with every appearance Nothing would be more erroneous than the opinion that would be formed progress. Extensive areas were well planted. ungainly brick buildings. afforded us a day of most luxurious enjoyment. is The present terminus. fertile The line passes through a magnificently not fail to country. and what only a few years back must have been a treeless plain now resembles an English wooded district. straggling roads. a large but town. but was not calculated to enrich my note-book. worked. Chivilcoy. movement and of the resources of this great country by a visitor who confined his attention to the great centres of population. but the quality of the attention. thriving large town. The open camp bears the same aspect everywhere. This extensive planting cannot fail to exercise a beneficial effect not only on the climate and produce. is cattle is here obtaining and the fostering influence of a railway especially prominent in the progress its earlier and trans- formation due to construction. as evidenced by the large and thriving establishments on all sides. with the the invariably bad wide of is and usual proportion unfinished.156 ministered system is Chivilcoy. on which one could be struck with the great development.




navigable rivers, as furnishing the only means of


But without


or roads, if
it is

the railways had not come to her assistance,
difficult to

imagine by what means the boundless
this great

and apparently inexhaustible plains of

continent could ever have become utilized or in-

The speedy progress that


the limited districts as

accommodated, the

rapid rise of large and thriving towns and establishments, the prominent accumulation everywhere

productive capital, as well as the increase of

population, betoken a future of wealth and prosperity

which nothing but the grossest


mismanagement can



time of

our visit

Buenos Ayres

was slowly recovering from a



unprecedented severity, wdiich had ruined








It originated in the reckless trading

and building and land speculations that had been encouraged by the facility with which money was obtained by means of the public loans. The public
expenditure was, moreover, far in excess of either



means of the




demoralizing influence had also rapidly produced

natural result.

The mischief was almost entirely


TJie Crisis.

confined to the cities where






camp generally was only

indirectly affected.

The rapidity with which these new countries surmount such difficulties can hardly be understood in


circumstances are entirely different.
crisis affects

In a manufacturing country a severe
the whole community.
If the





for his

manufactured goods, the manufac-

turer ceases to produce, the iron and coal are no

longer required nor produced, and not only capital

but the miner, and artisan, and the labourer

are all involved in forced idleness or unproductive




a country relying on


cattle for its wealth,

commercial distress scarcely

affects production, for

long as public order


maintained, and taxation

not totally prohibitive,

the cows go on calving, and the sheep lambing,









in the

and accumulating without any change small amount of labour employed, and
or of the city merchant, or

independently of the distress or prosperity of the



even of the state of the market.
conditions, if the

Under such

temptation of making

large issues of inconvertible paper could have been

avoided, and moderate retrenchments enforced, the

return of prosperity would have been extremely

The youth and

vitality of the country is

Costly Government,



way more

clearly demonstrated than

by the





much check
would be

recovery, this expedient, which

so fatal

our older community.


of the

republic, economically administered, are,

no doubt,


for all legitimate purposes,

and they are and the time

exceptionally elastic and progressive

cannot be far distant


so will


and prosperous a community

modify the pre-

demoralizing and ruinous system by which

a total population far less than that of London

supporting fourteen independent governments,

with armies, and presidents, and ministers, and
paid senators, and congress-men, and hosts of minor

while scarcely a town in the republic
surveyor to attend to the

has got a

common town

drainage or regularity or cleanliness of the streets,

minister to the


wants of the


incipient civilization.

The most

serious evil


the laxity with which the total



administered, and

of all the minor duties of administration. of departments are not seconded in their

The heads
efforts to

reduce these grievances


the numerous

hosts of employes are as a rule sadly incompetent,


their habits

and experience are inconsistent

with their
are too

duties, while the authorities themselves


occupied in vainly endeavouring to





an insatiate host of




whose interested support they are so dependent.
Matters which with us excite amazement appear
here to attract no serious attention.

seems to

us incredible that a congress can be so constituted
as to deliberately vote year after year an expendi-

ture exceeding even the estimated revenues of the

country by 40 or 50 per
be a paid congress
is still


and that

this should


profitable privileges

The short tenure and the
attached to

encourage contests for political

power, which undermine honest independence and
excite passions that

none but sordid interests could

arouse, while the population

too scattered




occupied with their



by any well- organized expression of public opinion. During my residence in Buenos Ayres a body of voters quietly going to the poll were driven back by a volley of musketry from the roof of a neighbouring building, and what is still more remarkable, the perpetrators of the
control the executive

outrage maintained a right to retain the arms thus

used in a time of profound peace.

These anomalies extend through every detail of

The stoppage

of the public




a serious calamity.

of course

certain that if the tender of a contractor like Mr.

Wythes had been

accepted, the

drainage of the

Adfu in htration




would have long

since been completed,


yielding a large revenue.
to about

His tender amounted

whereas the amount already

expended exceeds £2,000,000, and not a single house

drained, while the estimate to finish the


A is now from one to two millions. gentlemen without the remotest experience in such

committee of

and with

otlier interests to consider,

scarcely have arrived at


other result.

have only alluded

to these matters because


are at this


claiming public attention, and

will doubtless be remedied, for there is

no feature

of higher promise in this country than its patient

endurance of such evils and


peaceful efforts to

remedy them.

As a

rule, foreigners abstain




in public matters,


as the native families avoid



and almost exclusively adopt

the learned professions as leading to political ad-

of business,








sadly manifest in all the

ordinary routine of administration.
able result




be realized

town surveyors, harbour

by imagining our own and heads of departments, and
masters, municipal

even ministers of

state, to consist of

young doctors

or barristers, not only without

knowledge of the

special duties of their respective departments, but



Native Hospitality,

without business experience or habits of any kind,

and often with no other object in view than


These incongruities are disappearing, and will
be swept away before the rapid advances which
the country

making; and with


vast and


resources, its fertile lands,

and lovely
such a

and the



country must always continue to

offer to the capit-

and the emigrant, nothing can long delay the

proud position in store for this republic amongst
the great rising nations of the



In concluding these notes I must not omit to
bear testimony to the proverbial hospitality and
ui'banity characteristic of the Spanish race,


everywhere met with in these republics.
with great regret a very large



circle of excellent

friends, to

whom we


deeply indebted for

our enjoyment and information; and

some of the
solely to a

remarks that have been made
or ungrateful, they sincere


appear harsh

must be attributed
hasten the rapid



which these young countries are expanding into







which they are themselves

so resolutely overcom-

ing the abuses they have inherited.





a young country where

every one

practically occupied with the sterner







meteorological records are available, and a traveller

must depend largely on




Although a careful continuous register was never neglected, my observations were made with a specific
object in view,

which requires a









between our weather phenomena here and in Europe; on the other hand
slight analogy existing


was equally impressed with the

fact that


country furnishes so fine a

field for investigation.


meteorology, as in


botany and river system



natural history, there

a vastness and


and freedom from

turbances which prominently lays bare the great

The lower half is totally devoid of forest or trees. To the west cloud we have the great chain of the Andes. condensing every passing and interrupting every communication with the Pacific coast. while large areas in the more tropical districts are equally barren. The great bare plains. extending from the Atlantic. extend over 15° of latitude and 12° of longitude. The forces at work are here on a vast scale overriding minor perturbations. its floating icebergs and dron on the north we have the active caula boundless region of tropical forest essential origin of all meteorological and vapour.000 miles square. all more or less covered with forests and the tropics to vegetation. which excavated a wide valley through the plains and furnishes a broad belt of lakes and marshes and islands. fundamental causes and elements of every phe- nomena.1 64 Natural Boundaries. or occupy an area nearly 1. covered with perpetual snow. including the grand chaco. . The only uniformity local is interference with this singular has the great river system. with lastly. with Atlantic at an average temperature the important influences of water and humidity in full force on the grandest scale. To all the east we have the uniform surface of the of 67°. Our southern boundary is the cold Antarctic Ocean. the disturbances. itself.

and also depressions. moisture-laden currents that flow in from the equator. It is indeed highly pro- bable that these cyclones are offshoots of tropical . and attaining a level of about 500 feet in 300 miles. On tually these great battle-fields there rages perpefor possession an uncompromising contest between the cold winds from the south and the heated. and disturb the temperate zone.Northern and Southern Currents. are here completely merged in higher laws due to the our own climate proximity of the tropics. The great cyclonic movements which follow one another across the Atlantic. which lakes rise through by- these levels like islands in a lake. In these contests is all similarity to destroyed. within a radius of 500 miles. but the we ascend the River pampas rise much more rapidly. as though the sea had not yet completely resigned its territorial rights over its ancient bed but such exceptions are on too small a scale to affect the general uniformity as regards meteoro- logic influences.000 feet at Mendoza. occupied by salt and saline marshes. These general results are interfered with by occasional hills or ridges of rock. distance of The country 700 miles as 300 feet a Valley. I availed 165 myself of railway surveys and other infonnation in carefully sources of determining plains of in the inclination of the apparently level rises the pampas. 2.

very strikscale. and its height at all times a very fair measure of the relative of rain-fall that heat and moisture existing in the actual atmosphere. The on as northern hot and moist winds come to initial us. but the barometer invariably rises with the cold south wind and with the moist is warm north wind. the tornado and the great cyclone bearing often much disturbances. while the cold southern currents arrive from south-west. The uniformity with which the barois meter and thermometer move together ing . extremely and is as follows : Accessions of heated air flow southward. and gradually occupy the whole atmosphere of the pampas. and originate among these heated realms as rivers do from mountain streams.1 66 The Barometer. The general is routine of the great periodical storms simple. account of their equatorial momentum. north-east winds. except that of equivalent to a rise of the other. the other is The change from one to usually sudden and very manifest. a thermometer. with indeed furnish an appropriate fair would a the very fall make-shift the one is barometer. the same relation to each other as the mountain torrent to the quiet river in its valley bed. The falls barometric changes are small. Even the quantity is may be anticipated approximately given by the barometer. in periodic times of singular regularity .

drawn back by the vacuum produced by its own destructive condensation the . mechanical force is an essential element in any exists storm. fig. and. cold southern current follows closely in its to fill wake the void. 167 5). sets in and rain and storms The disturbance. however widely they in differ in composition. and in this force close is almost always generated either proximity to or in actual ^contact with i. attention The first feature that struck my which was the apparent resistance to mixture between currents differing greatly It is so great that in temperature and humidity. it produced by the violent disturbance. often the Cordilleras. as it my attention was specially is always at the actual junction of these opposing currents that storms attain their highest intensity. in the form of whirlwind and hurricane. whether in its commencement or progress. apimrently drives back the stormy clouds.Propagation of Storms.e. overlie each other in the atmosphere above even when . (see last. was to these great normal disturbances that directed.. once commenced. trial layer. and restores the normal blue sky and refreshing atmoIt sphere so eagerly awaited. retreats with accelerated energy. often quietly us. where condensation begin. the earth's surface. Strata of what I term the terresclouds. eacli tlie wave intruding farther than the until heated and saturated atmosphere reaches some southern limit.

and solid resist- increased thermal effect due to actual contact. may meet and add fresh fuel to the flame. a mechanical is set up by which the disturbance further intensified. such as the rising of a heated column through their midst.1 68 The Terrestrial Layer. equilibrium is disturbed by force. sometimes in the simple formation of cloud or rain. it attains the violence of a hurricane when oppos- ing winds. but under favourable circumstances. It is warmer than the becomes transparent by is its when the earth colder than . thus satisfactorily accounted for. but at the point of actual contact between the storm itself. One characteristic of the terrestrial layer is its . air. accumulating in energy. the line of cation being only visible in the form of a few wisps of cloud or thin strata of visible vapour. even from directly opposite directions. fog and cloud in contact earth are very infrequent except on As a rule the earth is air and even saturated proximity. demarIf this travelline: in clifFerent directions. or contact with mountains or with the earth mixture is itself. is The focus of a storm cloud and the earth not at any altitude. it dies out again. promoted by the The anomalous and rapid decrease in the is quantity of rain collected by gauges elevated above the ground. the varying currents are is forcibly rapid condensation ance. Apart from the largely intermingled. permanent transparency with the mountains.

the higher temperature of the earth and of the layer immediately subject to influence is often to a great extent maintained b)y vapour and cloud above. with the great due this and drags the air with it . which intercept radiation. To return our subject. the solar heat is in heating the water. thrown down into The air is a bad its conductor of heat. or is the air that the vapour violently is converted into rain. to its temperature. results of all experiments on the rate of decrease of temperature in relation Even at sea this permanent transparency is maintained. 169 fog. It is the rises from the water. but to the atmosphere of vapour. not solely. but here the water retains a temperature abnormally low. except on the equator. this ascent is due. heated belt. Hence the anomalous to elevation.TJie Terrestrial Layer. as on the continent. which becomes warmer than the water. thus perpetually reinforced with heat is and moisture. vapour that elastic force to the atmosphere of air as a whole. and not It is moreover arrested by the vapour thus formed. as regards the ocean. consumed in evaporation. We have seen that the is general circulation of the atmosphere due to the ascent of heated columns of vapour and air over the whole belt of the tropics . hence the constant cloud and mist where it would to least be expected. continuously expanding laterally .

and the .1 70 Overflow of Tropical Vapour. Like a train of gunpowder. cold columns of air are drawn down from the upper regions. as testified by all and streams that fertilize the mountain valleys of the Andes. regions the lateral limits north and south tend towards continual increase. that would otherwise be a sandy desert. upper as well as rising and overflowing in the . the vacuum thus occasioned by by the heavier polar condensation and the ascent of columns of liberated is instantly filled in current from the south. heated vapours flow in from the north. pagation of the storm densation. It is this lateral extension that produces the hot and stifling northern wind that It often perpetually tends to overflow the pampas. the air rushes into the vacuum from every direction. until arrested by some opposing force. is The great object of this aerial campaign however the rills perfectly accomplished. progresses this is the unopposed until it meets the Andes spell : magic wand that breaks the not only is all further progress instantly arrested first arrive. by condensation of the columns that but the work heat is all undone . The immediate cause of the prois the vacuum formed by con- To restore the equilibrium. and the flocks that graze over the boundless pastures of the pampas. again in the disturbance once set in rapidly travels north. amidst storm and tempest. until it is lost the great belt of vapour from which it emanated.

and maintains the storm. If the is atmosphere as a whole the storm stationary. but it is principally produced and maintained by the ascent of columns of air raised to high temperature by the prodigious quantity of heat set free. is the storm south.l^acinini frotii Condeyisatiori. there is considerable variety in the detail. but if as a whole it moving may remain apparently stationary at the is same void locality. Although these are the general features of such storms. although the wind north. more phere especially as the expanding equatorial atmos- more frequently overrides the terrestrial stratum. by this violent admixture creates a vacuum. and all reduction of potential in- variably accompanied of heat. but the flow of electricity heat is through this vapour in an invisible form must also be very large. by a corresponding liberation In the form of lightning this liberation of evident enough. The of potential of the electricity is in these its masses condensing it vapour is lowered by escape to the earth as is set free. left The vacuum partly due to the by the condensed vapour or the reduced tension occasioned by condensation. 171 cold polar current from of the vapour fresh The condensation tlie south. and hence the singular anomaly is that. these storms almost . travels north. It would appear to reinforced me by highly probable that this heat electric is agency.

and north at A a spectator at A. 4- ABC represents the earth surface. and travel directly against the wind. . The marshalling paratory to a storm light of the great aerial forces preis a grand phenomenon. terrestrial stratum and impinge on the The winds being drawn into the vacuum produced by the storm will be south at C. the north. and when it has passed here the wind shifts . and his thermometer falls from 60° in the to 40°. condensing and reforming as they drift along. invariably originate in the south. scuddy clouds like skirmishers ride rapidly past. and against the wind. moreover. break up the earth. or the tropics. B is the focus of disturbance tropics. when the heated columns from the now in full retreat by condensation. sees the storm approaching him from the south. lying to the right. The following figure (fig. clears up again south. 4) will explain this puzzling feature.172 Prog ress of Storins. therefore. The sky. First. Fig. to the south.

The transparent its above a loaded mine. and the winds are hushed. At in solid columns above the horizon. Although so invisible air the storm is already exists. Its view distant objects hitherto specific gravity reduces the low barometric column. like . one single crystal is dropped into its A constant rumble by night betrays the length it rises by day and direction of distant lightning its approach. ready to explode on the disturbance of slightest equilibrium. the invisible. reinforced by the heated dusty column. and rise smells and earthy vapours out of the ground animals are uneasy. whirls along in a little If a puff" is generated it dust tornado. in perspective. plants close their flowers. tongues of fog upon a lake they are ill-defined in the zenith in plan.Great Features of a Sionn. like a saturated chemical solution flashing into crystals when midst. 173 They mark the confines of the terrestrial layer. that of an eclipse so dense that a darkness like . but on the horizon. The stifling heat is an evidence of transparent storm-cloud overhead. saturated with vapour and shutting in the radiant heat that has passed through return. the rigid horizontal when is seen well- base defined as they recede and emerge into a bank of storm cloud. is The transparent cloud transformed into vapour. Its it but is powerless to highly refractive properties bring into invisible.

and the waves. but of fined within the narrow limits of the cylinders. will be of interest to my engineering friends.174 Force of Hurricanes. with the force of a hundred iron hull. 1877. time to keep out the tempest of hail and rain the lightning escapes in incessant streams. the prodi- gious condensation that has set of heat that has been set free. efforts of a The following description of the great storm. force of the hurricane for need excite no sur- when the tempest howls among the rigging. 1877. passes by . brought door. 1877. The prise. it sweeps over us as icy wind. and the amount measured by inches of solid water over half a continent. lashed into fury. con- storm of similar character. and the the winds and waves. sweep the decks from stem to stern. slams every and the house can scarcely be closed in . what urges the stately vessel in her onward course ? It is only another gi^eater force. The Great Storm of May. sweeping aside The heated vapours there condensed bring down the massive piston tornadoes. is in. will Jong be remembered on account of . The great storm which extended over the whole of the Argentine Republic on the 2nd and 3rd of May. a sudden blast of down from above. scorns the opposing dissolving cloud.

and gradually. near by retrogression. and to a much larger amount. was peculiarly normal and simple in iis character. coun- and possesses especial interest for the engineer test to on account of the severe all which it exposed engineering works which intercepted the waters their descent in toward the sea. each succeeding wave being greater than the last. 175 th(3 the extraordinary floods which desolated try. The rainfall. as will be seen the movements of the barometer. it was preceded by phenomena which gave unusual timely notice of its advent to the meteorologist. The stonn and itself. enormous waves of heated and saturated equatorial air flowed southward. unfortunately not reliably recorded. deluging the whole southern area of the continent. had been con- siderable. as each lowest . over the first whole region of the pampas. by the annexed diagram of They succeeded each other with pendulum-like regularity every five days. as though following the sun across the equator. though of such unprecedented violence. even in the month of March. Immediately after the equinox. These waves were unusually remarkable as regards their periodic regularity throughout the whole month of April.Sfo} 'ins a re Periodic. and invariably accompanied. condensing at the Andes. in the interior of the province. but evidently increasing in quantity in proportion to the distance from the sea. amounting to 615 inches in Buenos Ayres.

2^ bar. with storm and rain. 67 7. fell to 29. or storm of more or April less magnitude.T76 The RamfalL by a disturbance Thus : point was reached. .

BAROM.M.AT 9 A.REDUCEDT0 32? Inches 4- 5 6 7 8 9 30 12 .

and thus gradually de- scribed the singular curve shown in the diagram. interest. The following diagram oscillations of the (fig. but foreign to the object of this paper. and.28 p. The movements of the barometer were so rapid as to be distinctly visible to the eye.m. was characterized moreover by other phenomena. observed minute by minute. was preceded by a singularly transparent state of the atmosphere. rose promiIt nently and clearly into view. Commencing 2979 rose at 10. and in one minute more it it fell from 29*79 to 29'58. 6) illustrates the barometer durinsf the height of the storm. so that the Monte Videan coast.178 Barometric Oscillations. as as will be seen hereafter. on the May it will be seen that the barometer rose from 29*60 to in one minute. possesses great they go far to account for the apparently capricious manner in which certain spots are devastated and massive works destroyed while other neighbouring structures. upwards of thirty miles distant. as often usual. In four minutes more again from 29*58 to 29*81. on the other side of the river. and I will only further allude to the extra- ordinary mechanical energy developed by the mere pressure of the descending rain. of high interest to the meteorologist. escape un- injured. . much less solidly constructed. and. is of wind. and under a 1st lens oscillated with a constant wave-like motion.


which moment was precipitated like an explosion from a cloud overhead. and then follows the natural oscillation to restore the equilibrium so violently disturbed. and . the North. The whole rapid rise of 0-19 was simply air due to the mechanical force by which the compressed by a descending torrent of at the was rain. The low-lying portions of almost every railway The damage in the Republic suff'ered more or less. but the Southern. A similar curve was again ob- served during the storm of the following morning. The hail-stones which accompanied the lightning were of large dimensions. done to the Western line was considerable. The rise of 0*2 inch was due to the rebound to restore the vacuum caused by this rapid condensation.1 80 Light7iing of the first and Hail.Western of Monte Yideo. The electricity set free cipitation by this tremendous prewas enormous in quantity but moderate in intensity. sound which are usual with tension passing higher through dry strata of non-con- ducting air. Their formation in this heated mass of vapour was probably due to the descent of cold air from higher regions into the vacuum produced by condensation. streaming freely away through this saturated fire. medium in waves and ribbons of brilliant The thunder was consequently continuous in with none of those definite volleys of electricity at its character.

Railway and destroying a large quantity of The number 10. their course being determined by the contiguration of the water-bearing strata beneath. and gradually saturating the whole country as the storm moved eastward.Subterrariean Rivers. It is a singular phenomenon that the whole of the interior of the pampas has no natural drainage in the form of rivers . and than probable that at rivers of drainage by water holdit is more these depths.000. The continuous rise of the water in the low valley of the Salado.000. the rainfall over this vast area gravitates soil. so long after the storm had ceased. of sheep destroyed is estimated at This is to a great extent accounted for by the continuous rains of the previous month. delayed by soil. into the pervious until arrested ing strata at greater or less depth. interrupt- to a serious extent the traffic on the Western cattle. The water in the whole valley of the Salado continued to rise for many weeks in<]^ after the termination of the storm. the i8i Campana lines were naturally from their posi- tion the greatest sufferers. commencing in the west. This prodigious rainfall was thus an addition to a wave of Avater which was already slowly moving downward from the high lands through the saturated strata into which it had penetrated. is probably due to the cropping out of these descending springs. . the friction of the saturated slow underground move gradually down towards the sea.

and on older beds of similar but more or less hardened by the infiltration of lime into a compact rock called tosca. and lakes. feet to 100 feet. with occasional layers of river sand. traverses the great banya or marsh which forms part of the modern bed of the Parana. with dark beds of vegetable mould. partly from the deposit left its by floods from the great river on eastern margin. after running 24 kilometres out of Buenos on high ground. Its depth varies generally from a few more. Damage to the Campana Eailway. all sides These great plains downwards from with an inclination of eighteen inches per mile near the river. precipitates itself suddenly down these slopes in torrents of destructive dimensions loaded with mud. The water during great storms being but little absorbed. and partly from the debris cliff brought down by storms from the baranca or forms the western slope which bounds the great plains of the pampas and margin. It consists of a deep bed of now slowly accumulating. and intercepted rests by a few muddy streams origin. The rail- . and probably much It affords is good pasturage in the summer months. and with steeper and steeper gradients as they recede from it. The Campana line.1 82 The Marsh. The alluvial marsh thus formed con- sists of alternate beds of soft river mud and silt. alluvium.

outlets for the water being provided for by numerous done b}^ laro^e culverts and brido-es. the water pouring over the baranca and down the three valleys alluded to in of water finding wide rivers. The immediate effect of this enormous rainfall was to convert the level marsh into a vast lake. its level I 1 . six to eight feet deep.TJie Flood. 183 way embankment crosses this mai. spurs from the high land above pletely intercepts It thus com- three distinct valleys or water- sheds. the banks melting away so rapidly that any delay in retreating with the engine would have rendered retreat impossible. for the varying barometric pressures shown in the diagram weighed locally on the lake in one spot and removed pressure simultaneousl}^ in another. and the denudation and partial destruction of a considerable The author was on the line during the great storm on the 3rd and witnessed the devastation. passing however over two projecting it. which rose to a complete hurricane from the west. The wind. from length of railway embankment. The ordinary law was disregarded. so that huge undulations swayed to and fro like an ocean tide. and measured by miles in breadth and length. The damajT-e the storm amounted to the total destruction of these culverts of some and bridges. One of the curves illustrating the pressure from the descending rain was made on this occasion.sli fur a distance of forty kilos.

moreover. but it \Yas moreover increased by the its water-way being insufficient for a volume of water so sudden in its descent and so unexpected in volume. but more especially where ateffect of mospheric weaves as described gave local impetus to the waters. The banks crumbled away before this incessant wash. and flowed through the culverts and bridges like water through a milldam. intermittent volumes of water with destructive velocity on the banks and The waters. tides carried forward and brought down bridges. penned up by the embankment. were in many places three and four feet higher on the upper side than on the lower. made purposely to ease the pressure in the banks.1 84 tliese The Destruction. and would have been far less in absence. was rapidly enlarged to a gap wide. and especially where overgrown by It offered a species of creeping solanaceous plant with fleshy deep roots. more resistance where thoroughly covered with vegetation. or where the soil was of a silty character. scouring out the alluvial soil into deep trenches. while in some spots the waves leaped over the line or carried it bodily away. It was moreover considerably protected . An opening. easily dissolved or destitute of vegetation. many yards The damage was thus mainly due to the the wind. The embankment was more or less undermined everywhere. leaving the rails and sleepers suspended in the air.

and the two piers. the large bridge over the main river both here and at Lujan escaped without injury.The Bridges. but simply breaking the surface undulation. the of the It was in the great valley of Las Conchas that the principal damage occurred . and the Lujan Valley. the planking not extending deep into the water. drained by the same name. The three valleys intercepted by the railway are river Conchas. traversed by the River Lujan. by the enormous layer debris brought down by the flood and in 185 of vegetable many places arrested by is the bank. but the bridge at Pacheco. consisting of a centre iron girder of forty feet span. being carried bodily away to a distance of sixty yards. It is difiicult with the materials at single pebble disposal in a country where not a to be found to resist the force of waves by any feasible practical engineering device. was destroyed. the centre girder and roadway. any damage also to the less The abutments were more or . The only resource would be to destroy them by means of a timber barricade on short piles placed a few feet from the embankment. the Escobar Valley. but fortunately without girders. Experiments with this object have the at the suggestion of the author been made on Southern Railway with a promising valley of Las result. each with massive brick piers and abutments. with two timber side spans of thirteen feet.

In the Escobar Valley. the banks everywhere being seriously denuded. consisting of three spans of twenty-five iron girders and brick piers. The immediate engineering problem restoration traffic was the and this of the line for the resumption of the possible manner. to the extent of sixteen inches. and the . the level of the line laro-e o-irders. The banks also were considerably damaged by the wash of the waves. of one of the abut- ments which carried the valley. while the Salado bridge. was placed in great jeopardy by the sinking. the bridge was an iron bridge of sixty-four feet span with brick abut- ments. which 724 feet long. feet. Many of the culverts in the valley or were undermined destroyed. One of the piers was carried away.The Bridges. In the Lujan valley the Pescado bridge. This bridge was swept bodily away. There was no deficiency of waterway in this water on both sides of the varying very slightly on account of the large is opening at Lujan bridge. line breached in several places. each with was seriously damaged. and fell two of the girders thus into the water. to- gether with one of the abutments. but were not swept away. an iron bridge with two spans of forty feet and two of twenty-five feet. trains in the quickest was done with such rapidity that were again . undermined.

and the pile-driving machinery belonging to the contractors. Ordinary piling was thus impossible. so that after each it was only by securing them they could be kept down at blow that all. With resource respect to the earthwork.Restoration of the Line. ^yo^y available was put in requisition for the reconstruc- tion of the line. an engine was available the purpose at the Buenos Ayres end of the imprisoned at Lujan. and so soft was the singular formation at Pacheco that the piles sunk twelve or fifteen inches under a blow of the monkey even at this great depth. while it was moreover so elastic that they rebounded after the blow. Whenever the tosca was near the surface.000 cubic metres. The temporary restoration of the bridges and The large culverts was a more anxious problem. afforded valuable resources for the erection of piled timber structures. while another was The total quantity of earth- work required for renewal was G 3. quantity of timber in store at Campana. and followed the \ \ ' 1 monkey through a still greater space. 187 regularly running on the 22nd Ma}^ or in twenty days after the storm. and a novel . so constructed as not to interfere with the future permanent reconstruction. this was an easy problem. and it fortunately happened that for line. but on taking soundings at Pacheco and Pescado no bottom was found at fifty feet depth.

The permanent restoration of all these works was the last step. timbers elastic In this manner these transverse feet were forced six or eight deposit. cross-braced. Large transverse balks of timber were on the mud bolted together. and the frame was then bodily driven into the mud with short falls and a very into this heavy monkey. the piles were then driven between these balks with cleats bolted on each side to prevent their passing through. but separated by distance pieces. including the bridge over the river.1 88 Restoration of the Line. device was resorted to. Where the while ground was good the culverts and bridges were restored culverts on ordinary were entirely driven filled piles. thus practically doubling the total length of all the existing openings. The water-way in the Las Conchas Yalley being insufficient. which proved eminently laid successful. 300 feet in length. near the mill at the lowest part of the valley. some and afterwards reconstructed. under the heavy to which they have so long been subjected. . in. it was resolved to increase it by the construction of a viaduct. until it them permanently efficiently farther. was impossible to drive The piles were then and these bridges have without the slightest traffic proved thoroughly displacement efficient.

where the bridge had been temporarily . and the length of span then determined. feet apart. at from 189 the observed The length was arrived differences of level on either side of the line at the maximum height of the flood. and is calculated to reduce the velocity of the outfall within limits that will not disturb the grass and vegetation beneath is the viaduct. the total cost was £3 sterlinof was per foot run. amounting to two the frames in the elastic or viaduct is is by the slight yield of The cost of a bridge always a minimum. At each extremity the piling. takes place soil. strongly cross-braced. This viaduct has been some time in efficient and forms an and durable is structure. on repose. line protected by sheet Permanent Eeconstruction of the Bridges. The trestles are fifteen iron girders. dug four or five feet into the marsh. and carry a continuous double line of which the cross sleepers and rails contraction. toughness and and the viaduct consists of a series of hard wood trestles. The expansion and inches. On further examination of the river bed at Pacheco. use. considerable The soil here a dark alluvium of elasticity. when the span is so taken that the cost of a pier exactly equal to the cost of the girders. each trestle resting on a bed of cement concrete three feet wide.The New Viaduct.

even at a depth of sixtythe ground in fact five feet. to a depth of twelve or fourteen feet. by a timber structure on sunken frames it driven into the mud. The piles are of hard wood. moreover. was found that at a depth of fifty-two feet a solid foundation could be obtained on the iosca . and at this great depth a quicksand was reached. Immediately beneath this bed of there sand. Experiments were made utilizing this layer of satisfactory. became worse. the object of hard and were highly A pile of the following description was found to offer so much resistance. the per- manent bridge has therefore been built with spliced hard timber piles driven to the solid rock. At Pescado. The original abutments and piers had been on a hard superficial built here. was found. with an . bed or layer of sand found at the surface. The destruction of the bridge arose from the undermining of a portion of this stratum. no bottom was found . with soil. into which piles sank two feet with a blow.igo replaced Reconstruction of the Bridges. a layer of hardened alluvium. as in other cases. which only sank easily after passing through the hard layer. but of no great depth nor extent. that the pile itself was destroyed by the repeated blows of the monkey before it had passed through this stratum of hard soil. as already described. offering very considerable resistance to the driving of piles. however.

Conclusions. as the sketch. and affords a foundation which could in no other way be obtained. In the centre of an opening on a level bed. built tirely piles When they remained secure. At Escobar the massive thirty-two tons. although enpiles. 1 9 in shown The base is formed by simply bolting four large timber wedges to the sides of the pile. was built in brick and cement of such solidity that the whole concrete foundation. rushing through a bridge or culvert. Massive brick piers and heavy abut- ments were out of place on such foundations. x / The of disaster has afiforded experience much on value. without pier or was swept bodily away to a any fracture of the a single brick. filled undermined between the In this case the undermined portion has been with rammed pier. w^eighing cement concrete. the descending current surface forms an in- . enlarged inverted pyramid at the base. including the distance of 250 yards. pier. increases with the depth as well as the velocity. This modification has avoided ficial all disturbance of the super- hard layer which overlies the r>^ quicksand. and means taken to prevent further excavation. the disturbance of The eroding action of water. Conclusions.

is In our case clay every storm the successfully used. plane from the upper to the lower level. . for the foundations being only loosely scour commences near the abutments. but after ground should be invariably restored as near as practicable to a level bed. effect. Again. the eroded material accumulates and forms a bank or island. . In all cases the excavation should be securely filled with the best material at hand. due to depth. column into a bottom whirlsoft soil. The this point. while the current in its passage below converts the base of this apparently quiet pool. of the considerable The excavations made filled in.192 clined Scour of Water. which acts wdth destructive force on it frequently scooping alongside the out into dells and hollows wing walls of the abutments. on the upper side. scouring power thus greatest on the lower side of little the culvert. and a beyond where the current dies out. There is another scouring importance. while at the slight depth which occurs at the middle of the span is the turf not even disturbed. and with increasing force as the depth increases. the depth decreasing uniformly but the velocity- increases in a higher ratio until arrested ing away on all sides is into by spreadthe lower water. well rammed. the water which flows freely away at the centre banks up against the abutment and maintains its full depth.

restoration is The in every respect designed strictly in accord- ance with these principles. without any damage whatever to the line. that could now happen toe of these sufficiently would be the sweeping away of the embankments enlarged bridge. Extensive floods. To avoid the numerous difficulties attending the use of masonry on such bad foundation. until the waterway had itself. which can be rapidly The timber viaduct. equal to those described. a little extra length of girder allows the abutment piles to be driven into the its bank piling. 193 cases where the iron. but without much wind. 13 . itself. Since this paper was written. piles have been exclusively substituted for brickwork even in the abutments . before described.The In all New Works. these new works almost have been put to the test. whether of timber or they suffered no damage. restored. have again been experienced. piers consisted of piles. which are the result of experience. without any disturbance of the would thus consist simply of a few yards of earthwork. the toe of the earthwork with natural slope being protected by timber sheet Even on the recurrence of floods of greater all extent than the last. and which it is confidently be- lieved are worthy the serious attention of every engineer who may have similar difficulties to over- come.

its but the atmosphere retained 60°. the clouds again rose up from the south in dense and massive columns. again On the third evenins:. with constant equatorial wind. with heavy rain and lightning and the the thunder was constant and nino[ deafeninof. as though a reservoir of molten metal had . ing. clouds ao-ain collected in the south. fire liofht- streamed in ribbons of amonsf the clouds. terrible . The meteorologist two will forgive me if I introduce or three further examples as illustrating the character of those great disturbances. they retired durino^ the night. with distant lightning. After several very oppressive and unbearable days. at the On the following even- same hour.194 Approach of a Storm. however. and we knew at once that it was only a lull." appeared in the south on the evening of the 27th June. soon disappeared. a little cloud. "no bigger than a and we . after the temperature of storm had passed. with lightning. Storms at Buenos Ayres. on the following constant and morning. the storm again returned with far greater magnificence. and soon the sky. this time in dense masses. all but after covering half the sky. The lightning was it poured down from apparently fixed points in the sky in vertical vivid streams 45° in length. man's hand. knew the southern winds were gaining ground it. entirely covered .

informed me it had commenced there at 3 a. The clouds drifted and the thunder was dense darkness added to absolutely continuous. and he had travelled the whole distance through the storm. and the rain deluged the town. and the corresponding amount of vapour and electricity set free. torrents of water of great depth pouring down into the river through the narrow us at noon. all directions. and it difficult to realize the prodigious mass of vapour that must have been condensed. fore Uruguay had been The rain must rising there- have prevailed far north of Salto. this great storm prevailed is The area over which was enormous. the south-west wind ultimately fell to 50^. A the effect.Extent of burst overhead. cold. lovely weather. beginning The temperature 43°. and drove away the hazy cloud in mottled masses.m. A friend The storm ceased with who came from Salto. and the storm with the little . The storm came to us from the south in successive invasions. It the Storm. the during the last eight days. Although in this instance the atmosphere retained its tem- perature of GO"^ for many hours. and in the night to was followed by a long spell of bright. streets. on the previous day. Moreover. prevailed. 250 miles up the Uruguay. These storms are invari- ably followed by cold refreshing winds. 195 free was almost entirely from in the usual vortices in zigzag form.

172) some time nearly stationary. with lightning in the south on the evening of the first day. and Storms had. in the is. the motion of the whole system towards the south being neutralized by the advance of the tongue of cold air. The varying violence of these storms depends on the amount of local reinforcement they meet with in their course. cloud. which reinforced temporarily the equatorial or northern wind against which they were advancing. until of the 80th. probably occurred to the south of us. After this storm continual phases of heat and cold occurred.196 Fj'opagatioji of Storrm. 4. with storms on the 10th and 24th of August. we come The to the Santa Rosa storm boisterous weather that generally occurs about this period in the Argentine republic . p. regardless of the wind. so that a constant rapid river of vapour was precipitated at one shot. that from drier regions towards regions of greater moisture. therefore. and the re-appearance of this successive evenings in a larger phenomena on larger scale. direction determined by condensation. The violence and duration and the excessive rainfall were due to the remained for fact that the point b (fig. No stronger proof of this can be required than the fact that the disturbance always advances bodily. The diurnal advance to the acces- and retrogression was probably due sion of heat from the sun during the day.

with incessant thunder and lightning. periodical. as though the clouds were projected spasmodically and not in a continuous stream. the grounds of this general Previous to the 28th.Santa Rosa Storms. charged with moisture. the oscillations in the baro- meter curve were very vertices very small. in The changes in the weather are thus case. true. and dense masses of increased the heat. On the 29th we had a storm which lasted all day. The storm travelled to The temperature was G0°. and. ribbons or arcs . as in the present seven or eight days. heavy into day. but there were intervals of bright sky. smoke obscured the atmosphere and The 28th was a dull. and doubtless some of the tive floods largest and most destrucI on record have occurred on or about the anniversary of this turbulent saint. the corresponding intervals between the similar The converse is also generally waves give similar intervals. as is generally the case. and fro as the junction of changed its the opposing currents position. so that large. to ascertain was anxious belief. 197 has given Santa Rosa a very unenviable notoriety. . The heat was again considerable large areas of underwood and dried vegetation were on fire over many square miles among the islands. clouds from the north-east. The lightning was extremely brilliant. to epochs varying from a few hours. collecting heavy horizontal strata with straight lines.

disappear- length. the discharges of electricity set free were confined to the mass of cloud that was in more immediate contact with the earth. and from thirty to forty degrees in river. The cloud advanced steadily against the wind. temporary hurricane from the south. and Intensified by a the spectacle was magnificent. Santa Rosa Storms. and though the heaviest cloud formation was in the south-west.igS of great width. It was not zig-zag form. About 10 p. but unevenly wavy and ribbon-like. and sometimes suddenly exploding in the air in the form of the letter S. and partly from condensation. detached clouds floated by at low elevation with great velocity from the north-east. but they isolate the overcharged layers above them. sometimes in the form of descending arches not reaching the ground. with a deluge . The forms assumed by the lightning are consis- tent with the explanation which I have attempted masses of vapour condensed on the earth's surface not only disturb the electrical equilibrium by the setting free of their own electricity. The rain was enormous in quantity. streamed upwards from the in ing abruptly behind a mass of dense cloud.m. the storm was at its height. and the discharges may partly owe their streaming form to the partial vacua that are produced. partly from new additions.

but I observed an extraordinary fall in the barometer. from the Cape to the Pacific. The area over which again this storm extended was over the whole enormous. We were awoke about 4 a. Distant thunder was incessant. when the barometer suddenly rose from 29*65 to 3010 inch. which appeared to move all around us." rolled among the At 9 a. rain fell At Monte Video In all cases 5 J inches of in forty hours. and floods were very general. fell many hours. shook our building to The tiles were stripped from our stations. The however.m. Rosa's day.Exteiit of tJie Storm. St. "All day long the noise of battle hills.m. disappeared finally with mizzling rain and fog on the morning of the 31st. with destructive hail. the contest often locally assumes the form of a tornado. the numerous south. still still and much damage was done. a south-west hurri- cane. the tempest broke out again with still greater fury. windows that were broken faced the In addition to these normal storms. in torrents for The rain though storm. by a tempest of rain. 199 the contest still continued. the evening was clear and bright as usual. on the morning of the 80th. On the 30th September. with violent thunder and lightning. the . clouds were drifting from the north-east to and east as unwillinof abandon the contest. of hail. its foundal^ion. It prevailed country. The following morning was hot and oppressive.

m. and very petual light. of the intense heat. and it required our united strength to preserve our fate. I its sharply defined. obscured. so that it moon was us. was with a peculiar haze which. aspect .200 air A still. as. At 9 p. although the was the cause sun's direct rays at high tension pass through such a haze of vapour. they are powerless to return in the form of radiant heat.. the wind changed instantly from north to south the thermometer fell in ten minutes from 86° to 58°. doors and which forced its way through the windows and flooded the cottage. and accumulate as they would in a greenhouse. . it The edges were lightning. and at sunset my attention was directed to a singularly dense and perfectly stationary bank of dark cloud in the south-west. and behind fountain it there played a per- of quiet summer it watched changed the full for a long time. The wind was north. and filled the house with dust and sand. no doubt. Dust Tornado. and in an instant rushed towards accompanied with clouds of it dust and a hurricane of wind so strong that burst open the large heavy doors of the station. I was called to Campana on business.m. to a cold hurricane of and now we were exposed hail and rain. own trees door from the same It hurled down and tiles all around. but retained it motionless its appearance. After a partial lull at about 10 p. rapidly it became terribly dark. con- .

would thus appear that a tornado.m. Anxious as we were to watch the progress. there most brilliant and singularly startled was any. at nearly the same hour. it is evident that this disturbance arose of on the confines the northern and southern currents. During the northern wind we were in periphery. was a storm The river at Paysandu. the lowest we have registered in South America. had passed over us from west to east. but rose suddenly the follow- . before the north-east wind. incessant as to light Later on. which covered the house and windows. and as the change to a southerly wind was its western periphery. permanent. there to the north. we were by half-a-dozen rapidlyIt repeated volleys of thunder. but lightning of the diffused kind was so up the whole neighbourhood. 200 miles fell rapidly. At 11 p. 201 verting the previous dust into mud. at phenomena occurred Buenos fifty miles to the Ay res. side during such a it was impracticable to get outtiles. or small cyclone. shower of hail and The any noise of the if storm prevented our hearing thunder. and during the southern its eastern on wind we were The stationary cloud was probably the cloud of dust drawn up in the vortex. The barometer record fell to 29'38 inches. This storm extended also over a large area.A Dust Tornado. The same south.

very sud- denly after the storm. as to the condensation which takes place . and several houses were wrecked and. seldom interfere with the perpetual sunshine and clear blue sky. The moisture shows is in the houses. the climate of Buenos Ayres is. The general explanation of these disturbances leads to the conclusion that the accessions of heated air from the equator arrive in successive rolling vertical cylinders. The heat and moisture during the prevalence of northerly winds. as usual. or in cyclones. and the singularly regular periodicity. Many vessels were driven ashore in the river. which so disagreeably itself in the wardrobe in the form of mildew. as a rule. Except during these short intervals of storm. low ing day with the change. The barometer rose. fall and subsequent rapid rise of the barometer. magnificent. although very disagreeable. the haze and heat preceding the storms. but until gradually contracting by the condensation they are absorbed. these cylinders having at first the form of long ellipses. due.202 Rolling Cyclones. and other observed phenomena otherwise inexplicable. unfortunately. not so much to the actual humidity. A the succession of such rolling ellipses explains the contrary current so invariably present overhead. my own registering thermo- meters were carried away. and flooded the grounds.

the danger of is drawing conclusions from partial data illustrated It is esta- by the following singular blished.Storms and Full Moons. Storm Rosario. I have added the dates of the nearest in the I could full moons. 29-35. In a country where cloud is so unfrequent. although a constant tendency to periodic disturbance every seven days is very manifest. is beyond a doubt. Barom. however. Dust storm. Dec. „ Nov. 29-40. 2. which certainly coincide manner. 2. coincidences. 1876. 29'40.. Dust Storm Buenos Ayres. reviewing rny observations. 1. Oct. Full moon. Nov. Great dust storm. very considerable. 2. one of the phenomena which at once excites the attention of a stranger sunsets. „ „ „ 30. but most remarkable trace no such connection in previous or subsequent storms. 1. is the magnificence of the of gilded The gorgeous masses cumulus appear to be brought out for the occasion every . 3. 203 on cold objects during the very rapid changes of temperature and humidity which are so frequent. that there little. connection between the moon's changes and changes in the weather. Oct. 29-43. Dec. Dec. if any. But the following table is a list of all the great barometer depressions between September and December. The In effect of the river on the liumidity is. „ Dec. 30. .

and to be immediately removed as soon as is the stately ceremony ended. vast J^ > — poisons of air and vapour of varying raj^s. last that are seen. As the setting sun retreats. a its rays. and the vapour is temporarily converted into the sunset clouds which exist for a certain time. The ^ ^ / most refrangible the purple and violet are the close the glorious pageant. a constant volume of cloud thus follows the setting sun and marks the boundaries of night and day. owing to its higher temperature near the heated surface of the earth. is zone of the western horizon. until equilibrium is restored. This effect is pro- bably due to the fact that. deprived of chilled. and . during the heat of the day the air. Sunsets. absorbs a larger amount of suddenly moisture. when they are again dissolved.204 night. The gorgeous colours depend on the obliquity of illumination and the decomposition of the light through these density.

and more than it in velocity. nificent river. had long looked forward to the opportunity of ascending these great rivers. has cut a steeper channel . Instead of flowing through it a level bed of alluvium. ATTERS led to of business connected with the North.Western railway of Monte Video a lengthened residence in the northern part of Uruguay. THE URUGUAY AND SALTO.CHAPTER XII. some nearer approach The Uruguay runs nearly parallel with the Parana. and afforded one of the most interesting episodes in I my travels. enclosing a true Mesopotamia or " Entre Rios " be- tween the latitude 27^ rivers. it Branchingr off to the east in drains the mountain ranges of the It is southern tropical provinces of Brazil. in its a mag- the rainy seasons rivalling the Parana in doubling actual volume of water. and in spite of the attractions of Buenos Ayres we gladly welcomed to the tropics.

giving rise to a series river is steep of rapids and which intercept the navigation. and its floods tlirough hard and rocky strata.2o6 The Salto Rapids. it is Beyond Santa Eosa again navigable. when completed. miles. Salto to Santa Rosa The rail- way from trade was thus a commer- and cannot fail to command a large At the great falls a. The large and powerful steamers Salto. and except during long periods of drought the large river steamers run through to the Plate. cial necessity. however. are fitted w. fall is feet. side sub- with great rapidity. and It is the channel of an extensive carrying trade. ascend at times as far as Paysandu. however. all Ocean-going vessels. about 140 miles from the Plate. The Salto rises no less than 50 feet during these great floods.bove Salto the river is nearly a mile and a quarter wide. the rocky bed of the irregular. this powerful rocky bar submerged. as far as Salto. forms the only outlet for the valuable produce of the rich and fertile southern provinces of Brazil. and steamers occasionally ascend the rapids through a rocky channel on the right bank of the river at river. is The total During high totally floods. with a leap at low water of 15 25 feet over a succes- sion of diagonal reefs of primary rock.^ in American . calling which ply between Monte Video and at Buenos Ayres en route. which is 215 miles from Beyond and falls Salto. for a distance of 100 Santa Rosa.

. When the river is low the large steamer journey is is left at Paysandu. and extends as far as Fray Bentos. furnished with sofas and good beds and every convenience. £4 5s. wdiich may be regarded as a continuation of the great estuary of the Plate.m. style. On ing the Plate.The Steamers. accommodating from 150 to :^()0 The cabins or sleeping berths arc large and elegant. The The only drawback landsman is the rough w^ater which in bad weather sometimes encountered on the Plate. Leaving Buenos Ayres at we arrive at Salto about 4 p. the following day. served on board in the large and handsome saloon. after passing the fortified island of Martin Garcia we enter the estuar}^ of the Uruguay. . 207 is with every luxury . is This lake is without islands. It is of course greatly enhanced by the lovely climate and the wild and w^ooded scenery of the islands and banks. At Hugueritas several branches of the Parana unite with the Uruguay. passenger to a traffic is is very large. but the journey in one of is these floating hotels a luxury of whicli we can form no idea in England. nearly by five or six miles wide. The fare. is high. and generally shallow. and form a communication between the two form of a large lake of sixty miles long rivers. and the leav- completed in smaller boats. 5 p. an excellent dinner guests. and a few miles above Hugueritas the estuary assumes the brilliant clear water..m.

but all the larger timber has been cut down by the is charcoal burners. termi- nating at Paysandu. with trees. The Yatai palms appear sandy wastes.2oS The Delta. and as we ascend higher up the river the cliffs bank is composed of of rock 100 feet high. That the whole of the matter this great river is brought down during the floods of is employed in filling up the delta evident from the constant transparency of the waters of the great lake below. 150 miles from the though occasionally very wide to it is Plate. extensive forests of palms and small and the rocky shores are everywhere covered to thrive in these with underwood and creepers and rich vegetation. with a deep channel half a mile wide throughout its length. On leaving this lake near Fray Bentos large we sail among numerous delta thirty-five miles long wooded islands forming a and four or five miles river proper thus wide. but . The large Liebig Extract establishment object is a pro- minent right on the Tosca Baranca at Fray Bentos. very similar to that of the Parana. by columns of curling smoke The waters of the Uruguay increase in temperature as we proceed north. The comand mences at Paysandu. whose destructive presence often indicated among the foliage. constantly con- fined within a rocky channel throughout its course Santa Rosa.

and sacrifice. Its present depresis recovering. all its highest interests to personal benefit and the acquisition or maintenance of wealth and political power. but its situa- the terminus of the navigable jDortion of considerable the Uruguay must always ensure a from which it is fast trade of a legitimate character. sion. like individuals. town of Salto has been in former days a trading town of great importance. j\ot 209 tlie with the same regularity as those of Parana. doubtless due to the incessant revolutions and der to which this little political plun- republic has so long been a prey. —a beau- due to caustics formed by the l)rilliant reflection. without hesitation. satin. It is a grievous calamity in these small Spanish republics that the political power has been retained by a few native families who only regard the administration of the country as a profitable occupation.Saho. This grievous canker has unfortunately been fostered by independent circumstances. Ill-natured critics maintain that its w^ealth was mainly derived from the extensive smuggling trade which its The little proximity to the frontiers of Brazil and Entre Eios would doubtless tend to encourage tion as . noticed In passing through the mirror-like lake we that the smooth surface of the undulations caus-cd by the steamer resembled watered tiful effect. Na- cannot escape the stern moral 14 . tions.

during incessant The revolutions got up with no other object. and destroying every vestige of patriotism. The present condition of Turkey and Peru and other states only too eflectually con- firms this invariable law. the country . and honesty. In the case of Uruguav the evil commenced with the Paraguayan war. destroyed the empire far more effectually than any external enemy would have less Spain fell rapidly from the height of prosperity to the lowest state of help- misrule under the influence of the unearned after wealth which flowed in America. results law that the spasmodic acquisition of wealth invariably in demoralization and ruin when ob- tained wdthout labour or industry. The tribute paid to ancient Rome undermined and done. Large amounts of money brought into by settlers and emigrants were robbed or wasted by one side or the other. when large subsidies of Brazilian gold were absorbed by the needy and ruled the country. unscrupulous adventurers who debauching alike the governors and governed. honour. the discovery of Venice and the Italian republics rapidly influences.2IO Public Loans. succumbed under similar baneful is and it a question whether the enormous tribute paid fatal by France to Germany has not proved more than any material destruction that could have ensued from the expenditure of the same amount in ofiensive warfare.

duced lai'ge amounts of of capital . it is evident that. and completed the moral and material ruin both the plunderers and the plundered. was absorbed in profligacy of costly Gothic. and lastly the public loans followed. means of meeting the engagements The whole of this wealth. and Byzantine quintas which cover the suburbs of Monte Video. with evils. very loth to yield up and it is undeniable that the rapid progress of the country under the rule of . and that grievous administrative mis- management of every spot is still more or less the inheritance where the race retains political power. Moorish. and Avill left the former without either the or the incurred. 211 intro- promoted by reckless guarantees. life furnish an eloquent memorial of a period of public vice and scandal which in private would have It been corrected by the prison or the treadmill. it is thus but too sadly evident that both politically sins of the father are visited and morally the on the children. In a country where senators or representatives cannot be found with sufficient patriotism to refrain from voting themselves large personal incomes for their services. being invested in productive works.Return of Prosperity. instead of and personal extravagance the rows . railways. all its disad- vantages and serious dictatorship is a firm and honest a boon Avhich a nation w^ould be . now going to ruin for want of the mere means of maintenance.

increasing trade and production. The herds of cattle and are horses. levying contributions and sweeping away before them the remnants of horses and cattle which the helpless settlers had not had time to dispose of in Entre Rios or Brazil. armed with Remmington has. railway extensions. manufactories. as best suited their jDurpose. . not indeed in the form of suburban quintas and pleagardens. Encouis raged by the peace and security which resolutely now and firmly maintained. productive of warehouses.2 1 Return of Prosperity. under protest of being revolutionists or govern- ment troops. of savage Gauchos. The is legitimate resources of the country keep pace with its The land its being everywhere enclosed and recovering value. armed with a bamboo and led by some brigand adventurer. is the present governor most remarkable. and buildings are again rising in every sure direction. A disciplined rifles. hoped. which had been entirely military force. but in the guise more substantial and farm-buildings. As in every other district. and public works. hordes lance. again rapidly covering the pasture lands. it is destroyed. for ever put an end to the time when. galloped unresisted over the country. the devastated itself is oountry round Salto and the town par- ticipating in the benefits of this general renovation. emigrants are fertile fields again returning to cultivate the great so long neglected.

who claim a vested right in their maladministration. There is not the slightest doubt that with the completion of the railway to Santa Rosa and its extension in Brazil to Urugu- ay ana.Raihvay Extension. capital. and cannot reins of fiiil 213 tlio to go on improving so long as in government arc firm hands. to Brazil. and although there are many excellent houses. The steep and precipitous streets of Salto are in sad repair. which rise sometimes fifty at times nearly high and dry. and accessible it for ocean-going vessels. and often nearly impassable . for which a concession with a guarantee has been granted by the Brazilian government. and if the continued south to Paysandu. The terminus of the East Argentine Pvailway at . will become the natural high road fail to and cannot in prove one of the most lucrative lines South America. where the river is practically a continuation of the estuary of the Plate. is an excellent and which would do credit any European enormous leave it A timber pier runs some distance out into the rocky bed of the river. and its resources are kept beyond the reach of incom- petent adventurers. and at other times totally submerged. but the feet. the fortunes of Salto line is must rapidly recover. floods. There handsome hotel to in the town. the evidences of general decay and neglect are but too evident everywhere. built with unusual elegance and taste.

and the two Concordia the river. construction is totally incomprehensible. intercepted floods. and about The line. termini at the other end are again nearly opposite each other. and add to the neg- . the line on the other side of the river is well constructed. by marshes and object in liable to destructive its The view in side. forty-five miles north of Salto. the completion of the Salto The guarantee years to remain its given by the Argentine government on the amount expended cannot fail for many totally unproductive. and runs through a picturesque but totally barren country. leaving the dusty-looking gardens in the suburbs. as it was my object to take is up my permanent quarters at Arapey. which is absolutely mono- tonous. and to form one of most serious unproductive financial liabilities. The two railways run nearly parallel on opposite sides of the river. My which after stay at Salto was very short. with their fences of prickly aloes. with excellent stations. near the present terminus of the railway. visible on the opposite high bank of The station of the North -Western Eailway of Monte Yideo is on high ground at the back of the town. The heat and dryness of the climate parch to up the coarse vegetation. runs all the way over a camp. as solely the natural traffic is on the Uruguayan can ever cover and it is impossible after that it its working expenses line.2 r 4 is Competing Railway.

which line. and we meet nowhere with the dark and to conceive fertile beds of It is alluvium found in the Argentine plains. and at the first aspect it seems rush totally incredible that so large and steady a trade situ- as at present exists could be derived from a tem- porary station which. that away from the approaching train. with gradients of The storms have bared the smooth red sandstone rocks on the summit of man}of these elevations. It is thrown up. with occasional troops of wild ostriches or emus. broken rock. and pebbles. uninhabited. and storm water courses have ploughed up deep rocky ditches in the lower The ballast and embankments consist levels. numberless curves in the considerable steepness. The camp has it thus none of the verdant appearance that sents at into pre- Buenos Ay res. the ground ploughed up in deep furrows by the torrents formed by the tropical rains that often prevail. at the present time. difficult how cattle thrive . is ated in the very centre of this vast. lected 215 is and wild aspect.The Camp. The Estancias are far apart. and we travel miles without the sight of a single human dwelling or even human being. and inhospitable wild. moreover. large over the plain. on such a dry and sandy-looking desert herds of cattle are dispersed all nevertheless. largely of sands. has necessitated larofe undulations. The present terminus is at .

sur- rounded. which this brinoj goods a distance of 50 to 150 miles Brazil. with- . from the surrounding camp and from out roads or villages or halting stations. and through an excessively rough country. as it generally is. huts that have clustered round It resembles in the distance a caravan halting in the desert. wooden station and a few it.2i6 Santa Kosa. by the bullock carts. about The Camp. five miles and consists solely of the beyond the Arapey.

The girders are ordinary trellis. the deep alluvium beds which form the northern bank are crossed by a viaduct of wroughtiron girders on cast-iron piles. This marshy dell is covered by deep water during the great floods. river. and convert this rocky river into a torrent that can be heard for miles.CHAPTER XIII. with a single roadway between them on transverse girders resting built of on the lower The abutments are sandstone. at The bridge crosses the river proper an altitude of forty-five feet above the ordinary water. supported on large iron columns with cement. and terminate a high bank on flange. is which approached by a long viaduct.work wrought-iron girders. and consists of three spans of 150 feet each over filled the river. ^^f^^HE is only large work on the Salto line the great bridge over the Arapey. both sides of the . THE COTTAGE AT ARAPEY. which not unfrequently rise thirty or forty feet in a few hours.

which brought our simple daily fare the owner of an estancia several . the companionship with nature which such a retreat afforded. with a second roof of timber to keep out the heat. During the construction of this bridge a little wooden cottage had been erected by the engineers. on the river about two miles below. the treasures of natural wonders which rewarded every ramble. It is hopeless attempt to describe the pure enjoyment afforded by this leisurely- examination of a subtropical river valley of exceptional interest and beauty. bare hard rock about 150 feet above the commanding lovely views of the river valley. and the peaceful evenings spent in their investigation. selected This was the lonely and lovely spot by my wife and myself for a three months' to residence.2 1 Solitude. Our nearest town was Salto. can never be forgotten. and the undisturbed climate. It was roofed with corrugated iron. It was close to the line and about 250 yards from the river on its southern bank. How few are aware that such pure and simple ! streams of happiness are within their reach away. We were entirely dependent on the morning train for the basket . and has a light timber look-out tower rising above the building. lit The lovely glorious star- nights. It stands on the river. forty-five miles The only visible habitation was the ferryman's establishment.

There was no difficulty with the gun at any time in killing a partridge. although the rocks and caves of the Monte near us were the resort of malefactors of the blackest dye. and we kept a numerous family of poultry around the cottage. We tion. and supplied us with a milch cow. who on two occasions during our residence were formally hunted out by bodies of mounted The only property of any value we pospolice. constructed of hard wood uprights well secured in the rock. thick persistent foliage formed an impenetrable shelter for cattle against the terrible noon-day sun.The Cottacre Establishment. sessed were our guns. had an old leaky boat for river investiga- A Spanish workman acted as cook. and constant companion in our rambles. or wild duck. while an Italian who was in charge of the cottage was our general servant. and other game. or snipe. but the fish in the river refused all temptation. This was our whole establishment. as of any aspiring we were beyond the reach philosopher who might have taken " a fancy to the thermometers or theodolite or microscope. 2 1 miles away would occasionally send us a sheep. Adjoining the cottage was a remada or shelter. and was always occupied at night by about a dozen horses that had been left at the . which he changed from time to time. covered with horizontal rafters and a deep which with flat its layer of boughs of the lucuma.

or cattle approached too near our homeSalto occasionally brought days. We were moreover reminded daily of the outer train.Vane. which as usual con- an eagle's feather thrust through a cork. A friend from his gun and stayed a few off. cottage and belonged to us.2 20 The Wind. as it world by the passing the lofty bridge on its thundered across fro. A couple of powerful dogs slept under the verandah that shaded the front of the cottage. with a hole bored at right angles through the quill and cork to admit the long French nail that formed the axis. shed. and that no one would accept. journey to and After selecting a site and fixing I constructed sisted of my thermometer. my wind-vane. I On making some experiments with these feathers was struck with the singular affinity with which . and sometimes station. the station master rode over from the which was two miles with a letter or a message. The poultry invariably roosted on this which protected them from wandering beasts of prey. and frequently disturbed us when a wandering ostrich stead.

fixed that the edge lies east The table is so and west. A fixed wire or strong string is support four or five feet overhead. in this case under a verandah facing north.) passing through a hole at P hangs vertically with a heavy weight at the lower end below the table (a bottle of water with a string through the cork is a very good makeshift) . This very flagstaff efficient instrument was mounted on the care for on the tower. 221 wind with clings to the its vane of a feather as compared action on a tin plate or other substance. a specific property of considerable importance in the act of tlying. site My next was to establish a permanent to set on the rock up a distant meridian mark. my and 5 sec. I erect at a convenient height a small table of smooth white pine about twenty inches square. theodolite. It is always my and habit whenever I make any call lengthened residence to construct what I an azimuth for table. and the longitude 8 hrs. Having determined on a good position. 50 min. then suspended from a which. a small ball of cork .TJie Aziiniith Table. (fig. it has proved so useful to all me rough measurements of kinds that I will describe in detail the table I left behind me in the cottage at Arapey. The latitude of the cottage is 30° 50' south. west. I observed the time by morning and evening altitudes of the sun. 8.

and the ball up the wire we can at any time shadow to coincide before noon cause the semicircle with the and mark its position. string by means of a slit fig. If without dis- turbing the ball we now wait until the shadow these ao-ain coincides with the semicircle in the after- noon. this at once performed by observing the shadow of accuratel}'- the plumb B line at the instant of true noon. is If mean time c) not known. is known. and true noon will be very approximately the time shown by the watch . true south will be half way between two points in the semicircle. Table.222 slides The Azbnuth up and down the (b). in 9) the cork a small moveable weight (see c carrying a large-headed pin placed anywhere in the circle (s) in is to one of the sights. a semi- circle (A by sliding may be drawn round the centre (p). My first operation draw a correct meridian line (p s) on the clean If the time is accurately deal surface.

or cloud. or sunset. if But ^ /' we mea. any table of tangents. and the measuring circle (e s w) covers the star. since AB will be the tangent of c. which the angle c will be directly read .TJie Azimuth Tabic 223 at the intermediate time tions. we can ascertain the height in arc of the object (s) from Fig._JL_ 9) sure the distance A B (fig. We are now in a position to properly the position in azimuth of any object such as a meteor. by simply bringmovable index B ing the weight and the movable sliding weio. figured right and left from fix s. is divided into degrees. the angle at c to radius A of tangents or a rod with a scale drawn on it may be prepared from off. the line A c is drawn at rio-ht angles through P. or dis- S tant hill. 9. between the two observa- The inor pole star furnishes a ready It will be means of obtainsame time a meridian. due north when our plumb that it line intercepts E (polaris) at the The meridian line (p s) bein!2: thus obtained. and reading the azimuth the on <-»j divided circle.ht into a line k with the given object. more than this.

are always interesting observations. so as by the finger in the dark. 6. The motion of clouds and storms is observed with great 2. With a celestial globe and a very little spherical trigonometry. completes a very serviceable rough observatory. 4. steadily mounted. The altitude of the sun and moon at noon. it. facility. The name of its any bright star or planet may be determined in passage over the meridian. aflforded con- venient means for estimating the duration of any . may be done with this simple instrument.2 24 The Azimuth great deal Table. My table contained a solar black bulb for vacuum thermometer solar radiation. a half second's pendulum slung beneath to be felt with the upper end slightly projecting through a slit in the table. The Time variation of the compass is conveniently tested. 5. and the azimuth of the sun or moon setting. 3. 7. at rising or and their position on the horizon at that moment. A 1. at noon is approximately found. is The position of the celestial equator and poles clearly defined by raising the ball to the co-lati- tude of the observer. as we and ascertain at that time both its rio-ht ascension declination. extra meridianal observation is very simple. and a good telescope.

its where we sought narrowest limits. and these valleys are covered with forest trees and underwood. of the The River Arapey is one of the numerous feeders Uruguay its rapid fall from the high rocky hills in the northciii province of Uruguay gives it more the character of an enormous mountain torrent . The River Arapey. It has ploughed out for a deep chasm in the hard red sandstone rocks of the district. It often forms valleys a mile in width on each side of the river. course. which intercept falls. silt while the enormous quantity of sand and is brought down from the interior heaped up or of great deposited over large areas where the river passes through lower ground. phenomena such 225 as the flight of meteors. pro- a series of These reaches in dry little flow. This deposit is depth. and is cut up into successive reaches its by harder ducing strata. distance of thunder. and maintains a steep face river. than of a steady itself river. seasons become shallow lakes. with and the hard rocky bottom forms islands and shallows.The River Arapcy. and a vegetation of the most luxurious 15 . passage of clouds. towards the It is well exemplified at the bridge. The banks are steep and is precipi- tous where the stream undermining the rock. which render navigation impossible except during the great floods. etc.

and. tigercats. a numerous troop of dells. but occasionally. carpinch os. The woods are full of beautiful birds. is totally destitute of and it has here assumed vast propor- on account of the magnitude of the valleys through which the river runs and the excessive height and frequency of the river that floods. in order to recover the battue is a organized. by deep rocky dark at noon. are the haunts of pumas. It is rare any human being. glens or water courses. and other wild animals. enters these grand and tudes. mounted gauchos scours the rocks and of this and in a portion less Monte near our cottage no than 2. and in such cases they seldom return. is where the country everywhere else vegetation. with a large number of wild cattle escaped from the open camp. rich vegetation The allu- which covers these extensive It invariably vial deposits is characteristic of tropical rivers. where and by numerous lagoons and large lakes and marshes teeming with snakes and crocodiles. They are intercepted it is description.2 26 The Monte. except occasionally an escaped felon. as they are dotted with luxuriant glades of pasturage. and other animals. but especially prominent in a rocky. and are lost to the ow^ner cattle. marks out the it distant track of every stream and river. prolific soli- From time to time the cattle from the plains stray into these woods. is and called the Monte.000 . tions. sandy desert.

the scream of large owls the roar of puma. it and impressive A gun was an to invariable companion. but always of the most enjoydescription. and rocks. frogs. and lakes. and break- ing its way through the dense thickets. and caves. the metallic sound of the ing granite the . with a host of other mysterious noises. to listen to the magic music of the The deep sigh of the alligator. that to night. 227 an expedition of were recovered in this kind during our residence at Arapey. crowded with the most gorgeous subtropical botany. afforded intense excitement. Such battues are made every it is four or five years. . and full of marvels in natural history of the deepest interest. and often into the night. the rush past of some straggling ox disturbed by our presence. like gangs of stonemasons pick.Our Even trigs liead of cattle . and marshes. and was impossible thread such wilds without a compass. and to to a lover of nature It well worth a journey South America to be present at such a chase. as he plunges into the water. the extra fatigue only enhanced the luxuries of our modest home. often not unmixed with able fear. and even with this assistance some large lagoon or deep intervene and intercept our little ravine would often way but . the splash of the carpincho. was among these woods. we far wandered from morning woods. of which we could give no account.

wooded lands. flocks of screaming by overhead. and covering high trees. through a thicket of thorny talas and acacias. it hurls them down in tangled rafts among the rocks and underwood. and the cUbris brought down by the muddy waters. are again filled and often remodelled by the movements of the alluvium bed.2 28 The Floods. and creepers. often at We dusk descended the steep and stony boat rowed up and bank. and its noise and turmoil are indescribable. air plants. bowered between two precipitous heights covered which were smothered passion flowers. or wrenching them out of the clayey soil. after becoming more or less parched up by the dry and burning atmos[)here. Avith forest trees. and seek shelter among the (juiet lagoons and inland lakes. On then submerges these these occasions the cottage trembles on the solid . and limited our excursions. little down among shallow rocky pools. pigs tumbled in from the banks The river and swam across parrots flew the stream . The alligator and carpincho then retire. We were then emin begonias. as far as the rapids. it but in its angry moody torrent. and pigeons cooed on every side among the trees. this clear This was in the normal quiet state of and gentle or river. which were audible for a long distance. which. and embarking in our the river bed. in times of floods thirty becomes feet a furious rising it forty all with great rapidity.

covered with The near rocks fall off precii)itously near the river. covered with very sand but over large areas quite bare.The Flora. summer months of October. the occasional subfloods. others in the form of climbers and shrubs . and irises. bed of white and The portulaca. in the hollows. Large patches of this turf-like soil are covered with a dense scarlet verbena. the fertile nature the sands and alluvium. thrives on the hot rock close to the door. but our long sojourn included the and December. or large stones. Our first visit was in July. 229 little and wo look out from the tower upon turbid a vast and turbulent lake. or midwinter. spersed with various solanums in endless variety. and a rocky ravine little brings down a stream the cottage. tufts of beautiful flowers. rock. sli<^-htly raised above its The botany was of in kcepiufj^ with the dr}' sub- tropical character of the climate. some like bunches of primroses. intersisyrinchiums. with the lofty bridge and railway banks waters. Plants that adapt themselves to these peculiar conditions thrive in wanton luxuriance. November. fifty yards of the cottage flora we could enter the Monte and revel in a entirely new and peculiar. The soil around the cottage is a little dark-red sandstone. mergence of low lands by to destruction and the liability by rodents and Within cattle. with its showy lilies.

and other thorny trees near the house. The showy ayenias. overtopped the tallest trees with clouds of Gentians bloom. bignonias. linear. are tufted with curious mistle- and covered with air plants. especially The Arapey Flora. withstand the treading of the cattle and the intense solar heat. Turneras. and the lovely macrosyphonia. with their large spikes of blue covered the deeper pools. and red. and pink. acacias. and bignonias. but the most striking features were the great beds of pontederias. euphorbias. and other mallows Jussieoe . and a host of others. and other onagraceoe surrounded the pools asclepiads. talas. salvias. which The alligator often raised among their large green floating leaves. or woody foliage. but none with succulent expanded leaves. . pavonias.230 (Enotheras. with their stained petals. his snout and azure flowers. ascle- piads. floated on the brilliant pools. passion flowers. passion flowers. white. The toes. the other plants that hold their own are grasses and rushes. that the botany was so rich and so peculiar. tamus^ clematis. " pourretia. or plants with wiry. But it was more especially in the great Monte. with gorgeous flowers. covered the open sands. sweet-scented petunias. and among the lagoons and marshes." and ^'oncidium/' and luxuriant creepers. and flourish all over the rocky plains. covered the rocks with lovely flowers.

Overrun constantly by rodents and to long cattle. with perfumed curious clusters of leaves clings The similax. of bloom. The ground porlulacas.A^a tu 1 -a I Selection 231 The woods their are rich in laurels flowers. or thorny. are here highly poisonous. and subject droughts beneath a tropical sun. plant could exist. convolvuluses. As a protection against cattle. The buttercup flowers. as a rule. with buds. It is very singular to observe how the principle of natural selection has peopled these Montes and parched plains with plants so peculiarly and beautifully adapted to the exceptional characters of the locality. and myrtles. The passion and asclepiads. but the wildest plants are the papilion- immovably to the bushes. or resinous. and towering overhead in plants. and . turneras. Hence the is great development of talas and acacias. plants. showy among which all the erythrinas are forest trees dispersed through the woods and covered with scarlet flowers. which sweep no ordinary away whole islands of vegetation. or indestructibly tough. and laurels. or the oxalis. with its and tendril-like stipules. at other times subject to floods. euphorbias. bignonias. replaced its vivi- by the parous bitter gentian. leguminous plants escape the floods and animals by climbing the floods tallest trees. solaninums. climbers and most accoe.

Oenotheras are bitter and tough. marvellous power which plants.232 Natural Selection. with grasses and sedges. possess. and placed in water. or even dew.nd of the as a manifestation of harmony and law. and although the Monte may at examination it sight appear to be a wild scene of confusion ruin. the great alismas and plantagos. of adapting themselves to the local peculiarities of their habitat. and strike their roots into the arid red rocks. on closer and far will be found more remarkable a. . derive protection from the deep and brilliant first pools. They flourish withit out is soil and without moisture. like animals. singular that these plants immediately wither when gathered and The ponte- derias.

T the time of our arrival at the cottasre in October the country was locusts. diffi- and caused Trains on the culty Campana travelled with great on account of the greasiness of the rails. and the only chance of extirpating them appears to be the destruction of these deposits. like a coming thunderstorm. NOTES AT A RAPE Y. They so solidly on the ground as to be ankle deep. and when washed up on the beach the putrifying masses poison the atmosphere. rapidly devouring every vestige of vegetation. covering 120 or 130 square yards of .CHAPTER XIV. where the eggs had been deposited. We often came across a young progeny. down la}^ to the hard and woody pampas grass. infested with swarms of the crops which destroyed great distress. large They were bred in numbers in dry sanely spots about Arapey. they appeared in dark clouds. arising from their destruction by the tram.

Several mocking-birds. became very familiar shot eagle Some of the birds we were very handsome. ground. but annoyed me by a habit that I eagle's feather could not eradicate. we never left the house with the gun with- out being followed by a flight of the handsome but noisy "ptero pteros. Two pair of lovely Widah birds. " callandria. birds."who frightened everything away. on one occasion made straiojht for the cottasce. and among them a fine pets. which were disagreeably numerous everywhere. by igniting the dry grass we turned them and the poultry near the cottage tiful assisted in the attack. and swinging round constantly with the wind. . The Monte was the haunt of numerous beauagility. that darted about among the flowers with extraordinary and afforded us constant amusement. and amused us with their thrilling song. that were always on the look-out ." built their nests among the boughs of the cattle-sheds. to avoid the iguanas. with white bodies and black borders to their wings. comadracas.234 The Arapey Birds. A column but aside. especially humming-birds. besides some gorgeous woodpeckers and magpies. sively These birds became exces- tame and familiar. of settling on my wind-vane. rapidly destroying the grasses and thickly covering every shrub as they moved on. and snakes. A good deal of time was occupied in protecting our poultry from the vultures and caranchos. and a lovely small white crane.

measuring 6 feet from the nose to the 2' 2": tail. where a well had been dug which was efficient. The same difficulty had been experienced at the station two miles away. to put up a special wire to find an earth in a marshy spot more I than a mile from the carry my wire down to a small stream it was obliged to which passed to near the cottage. it was not long before the security afforded. for on the 26th of October we had a hot north-east wind. but the difficulty was to find an earth on this hard. dry. and was a powerful animal. we were glad to be rid of such a neighbour. so all we covered It with the boulders which I enjoyed around.A Lightning Two close to the cottage . As soon I as I had settled down in the cottage. The sultry. fine 235 boys with great pluck shot a it puma had been marauding among the tail measuring the cattle. minimum of the evening being The hot gale drove dust and stones against . but was a laborious operation it cut a channel in the rock to avoid disturbance from the lay cattle. which was in a very exposed situation on the ductor. 8 on telegraph wire which we had in stock. totally in- and we had been compelled station. stifling heat rendered sleep impossible. carried the flagstaff above the top of the tower. hill. with temperature in the shade 96°. non-conducting rock. the 84°. occupied a day in improvising a lightning-con- The conductor consisted of some No. Co }i due lor.

A singular accident occurred at Arapey which might have had more . The Arapey rose suddenly. five telegraph poles The but where a mare destruction is of only worth about six carcases. had not east. This was fol- the windows. I have been surprised at the few it accidents that are recorded. huge mountains of cloud rose suddenly in the and the line of demarcation between the upper and lower currents was beautifully defined by mottled light wisps of cloud. and then a hurricane from south and south-west. to fishing and botanizing under a vivid. for fifty it is no uncommon thing on miles of railway at Campana to have thick destroyed cattle is wire fused and four or in a single storm. thirt^^-six flashes in one minute. and the next day was devoted lovely sky. like the tongues of vapour on the lake. large.2^6 A lull of Sfonn. We counted indeed. The lightning was extremely and it it far more copious than in Europe. Previous to the storm. lowed by a singular tranquillity. with torrents of hail and rain and thunder and lightning. ceased at sunrise. which lasted far into the night. and shook the tower. it and the plains are strewed with excites very little notice. and though attain the high degree of tension that does not would in fatal dryer air. shillings. the rain. must be due in a great measure to the sparseness of population and imperfect record.

and even a watch left no existence than a dark stain on ploughed up. and another in the same bed was seriously My little lightning conductor might in that off the electricity by drawing from the air. a magazine during the blasting of the rock. During a thunder-storm the lightning struck the roof and descending the four corner posts splintered and demolished them. and we were it . One inmate was killed injured. This very slight shelter would probably have protected an inmate but I witnessed an example in Wales in which a substantial house was totally wrecked. had been used as a gunpowder the cottage. the all staircases entirely destroyed. and another cask half a board laid over with the casks stood in the middle on the dry hard rock. contained while It con- sisted of four upright posts with boarded sides. but would have been absolutely against the current itself useless as a protection when once determined. but probably escaping over the wet surface of the rock. 237 serious consequences. with a corrugated iron roof.LigJit)iing. case. it left the gunpowder uninjured. and solid stone landings wires were The bellmelted. other trace of its it the wall where in bed. At about 120 yards from wooden shed. . the roof lifted and displaced. had hung. have prevented the lightning from attaining suffi- cient intensity to strike that particular spot. ten feet square. there one cask of blasting full gunpowder unopened.

but flew never savagely at the bars of her cage and at everything. In the daily ride to the station our servant caught and brought home a very singular and ferocious pouched animal which he had caught on the railway bank it was called by the natives camadraca. instead of any attempt to escape they flew at our feet. It was the didelphys Azarae of naturalists. The jaws were armed with a threatening array of sharp teeth. we lost all compassion. and terribly It destructive among our unfortunate poultry. and we were obliged to despatch her." We cot- killed three of these monstrous saurians. 2 in. with twelve young in her pouch. was a female. It is an animal very common here. I came across an animal bo determinately savage. though not larger than a beaver. mother neither gave nor asked for quarter. in length. belong- ing to an order Pedimana. snapping at our shoes with their sharp teeth and formidable jaws. largest was a formidable creature. .238 The Wild Animals. On turning out these little active new-born savages. and measured 4 ft. exclusively American. and The with difficulty killed the lot with sticks. and like the alligator it is capable of inflicting a made The fearful inroads upon our eggs and very . Another great enemy of the persecuted poultry was a great shelter lizard. who found under some heaps of timber near the tage and chickens. " Podinema teguixin.

It — ^^ belongs to the bear family." generally found the same spot as the other large rodent. and is sold in the markets. It is a powerful crea- but is very easily domesticated. was extremely docile. or It plunging in with a loud splash from the banks. it was remarkably tenacious be good eating. . and fond of being petted to . massive tail. on its large and working It it it with its paws into a thick lather. is The tail is said to The armadillo dasypusvillosus. is a very favourite food. A friend at Salto had one in her pattio. . which we have described as being so In the Arapey we could seldom look river down three the or in the evening without seeing crossing the four carpinchos water. whenever we gave rubbing it it a piece of soap. Another animal frequently seen on the nutria in banks of the Parana. and resembled the old shagreen used for spectacle cases of life. 239 severe blow with its The tongue was highly developed. ture. of immediately tail. and was destro3'ed for attacking a large and favourite J'etriever.TJic Wild Animals. would not allow a dog come near it. and in that state is very fond of eggs. which had a singular habit. the carpincho. We came across a very interesting animal^ by nS^ )v no means uncommon the cuati or nasua socialis. which all very plentiful article of over the pampas. common. the is ^'myopotamus coypas. and the hard rough skin was handsomely marked. .

that burrow in every dry hillock all over the camp. with . we knew spots where we could always find them. and numberless biscachos. I believe. is the sea hog. several species of many pampas species hares. there are of rats and mice. A small and very pretty snake lines with three black was very common down the body.240 is Rodent Aittjnals. We brought a great many to the cottage. it has and webbed. and said to be the favourite food of the tigers that inhabit the river banks. There were rows two or three kinds of large green snakes. large nails.' suofo^ested that the absence «-%' pampas is due to the very large numbers of rodents which inhabit South American In addition to the nutria and the carplains. The only creatures that were really troublesome -. ^' This very remarkable animal. not unlike a pig without a call it tail. were the snakes they were so numerous that we seldom had a ramble without killing several. I /. harmless. especially near the lagoon. and the natives of naturalists. but some were of considerable size. and when attacked would attempt a courageous defence tinually startled . the dogs were con- by them. have elsewhere. a large animal. of trees in the pincho on the river banks. Most of them were. and were always in danger of treading on them. the hyclrochoerus copybara" all is the largest of is rodents.

or trigonocephalus. but when we came back at believed night was gone. quite distinct from I any other we had seen. I have seen it this snake spring at the stick with which was disturbed. they lay back enclosed under a membrane in the upper jaw. We hung it on a tree. beautifully 241 The very handsome coral marked with coloured bands. a very large . through two-thirds of distributed There was a channel in the body of the tooth its length poison was then . close alongside the line there is 16 . beautifully adapted for instilling They were poison into a wound. and had doubtless furnished a meal for some of the vultures or hawks who were it always on the look-out for such a chance. was the poison fangs from very plentiful. rattle-snake is A stray far occasionally found. I dissected several of these snakes. snake. all sloping inward.Snakes. of sharp short teeth. was the vibora de la Cruz. but were too small to have pierced through a gaiter. intending to take it home on our return. by a simple groove extending to the sharp extremity. head is small and narrow. We which one day killed a very large and powerful snake. There is a double row of sharp The teeth in the lower jaw. The and alluvial banks and plains extended back into the camp on the opposite side of the bridge. which is a very dangerous serpent.

On one occasion I saw three close along- alligators lying together on the bank side the viaduct . The largest we saw was about ten feet lono. . I have never heard 7 J* Although the Monte swarmed with mosquitoes and a valley.but seeing them. The teeth dull large eye and the formidable jaw and ferocious aspect. plated giants within a few it never appeared to have the slightest they generally plunged lazily under the water among the great beds of pontederia and rushes. Alligators. hogs. they never left . but effect . watching the pastime of this curious fauna. that we sometimes approached very near without . gave them a very kill but. but their presence they are said to be sometimes eighteen feet long. otters. as they lay basking They are so inconamong the underwood. embedded in a forest of trees and it was tenanted by water fowl. I have often shot at these armourpaces. terrible stinging gadfly. was often indicated by the peculiar deep sigh which they utter their eggs are frequently found in the sand and mud. I often stood on the high viaduct in the evening. spicuous. river and alligators.242 and deep evergreens lake. though they will the dogs. while large birds swooped over the cries forest or uttered their peculiar among the trees. and large fish. the and we were unmolested in the cottage our >i y only enemies were a few scorpions under the stones. .

An in- teresting memoir on these But a spiders has been written by the professor of natural history at the Univerfar " sity at Cordova. some other strong is there are other remedies. which also a we all often killed in our bedroom there small spider. whose bite has beyond doubt proved fatal in several instances. such as glycerine acid. and many people during the summer months are altogether unable to live away from the town. is and the tarantula enormous . far too common. The remedy. of 243 size. cold cream. to prevent serious to The only really eflective preventative is anoint the legs with any grease every day before venturing among any vegetation." a species of harvest bug. requisite. and carbolic or vinegar.TJic Bccho Colorado. and burying itself in the flesh. or mosquito I . or I took some pains to ascertain the cause of in irritation the bite of several of the diptera. with those whose flesh will bear such treatment. especially the culex autumnatis. . produces the most intense irritation both in Buenos Ayres and Arapey I have been laid up with the inflammation produced by these minute creatures. or an is to rub the pustules with a brush empty ear of maize until they nearly bleed. that swarms among the dry grass and bushes. or and then apply Florida water S2:)irit . but great care sores. olive oil. spider. more serious pest is the minute becho Colorado tetranychus. principally about the legs.

is wound . The natural food of the culex would be the juices of the river-sicle plants. two lancets. on withdrawing the lancet the small puncture immediately closes and heals. leav- ing an inflamed and conical wound. full of extra- vasated blood. the insect through a very small puncture. and I think largely due to the form of the inserts. a conical hole which the sucking capillaries have been destroyed in order to supply tlie hlood which is drawn up by the organs. which are thus effectually extracted. after insertion is which are opened in the and worked round thus produced. in wound .144 Mosquitoes it could detect no poison glands. .

red. it was marvellous to see luxuriant tufts . and absorbing the sun's lays with such avidity that during the greatest heat the ground obtains a temperature of 130°. METEOKOLOUY AT AKAPEV. T will be seen iliat the is meteorology of the Arapey and botany. have already alluded to the surrounded with the same configuration of the continent generally as affecting climate. with a difference of 31" between the wet and dry bulb. and stones were disagreeably hot to the touch. At this tempera- ture. totally Its no loss remarkable than the its singularly troi)ical character of fauna most striking features arc the between the temperature abnormal heat and dryness of the climate. difference I and the great of night and day. treeless brittle we arc here still plains.CHAPTER XV. sandstone rock. covered with loose tUbvl^ totally devoid of any visible pasture during the summer. but they consist of a hard.

an atmosphere was could only lie still we in our hammocks. soaring in the were indistinguishable from the hazy house was filled stars. to us almost insupportable Such . Every article we touched felt hot. that old and well-seasoned theodolite and microscope cases were distorted and split. and appeared quite helpless and prostrated as they lay on the dust in it the shade. portulaca and verbena blooming luxuriantly in evening filling this dusty desert. reminding one of a distant Chinese feast . The dogs and poultry seemed to suffer more from the hot breeze than we did. the pampas was on fire ture. The Monte was lit up by streams of fireflies. and in the the air with their fragrance. and hecatombs of moths and beetles and gnats fell round our lamps miles and covered the tables. and the timber hut cracked with sharp reports. and then. the . and considerably affected the tempera- and flights of locusts came driving like hail agfainst the house and windows. of lanterns they darted round the cottage and air. The with crickets. the lagoons The evaporation being and ditches were dried up and the water-plants and grasses annihilated. So excessive was the dryness. under the verandah.246 The Heat. but the horses in full sun bore without so any apparent concern. The for dried vegetation of all many round the horizon. of Oenothera and petunia. excessive. with doors and windows open all the night.

Monte with an fruits. but by tying it a wet towel over our water bottle. for by placing our beds in the evening . impenetrable canopy of flowers and We wliicli had to obtain our water from the rocky pools now constituted the river bed. which we passed our Christmas Day at Arapey. alliorators 247 wallowed in the hot mud nearei* the river banks. and swinging in the doorway. we it obtained water of refreshing In this liot dry wind I have on several This was the atmosphere occasions lowered twenty-five degrees below the temperature of the in air. by placing on a feather bed laid in the open surrounding 86° it with pillows or any other non-con. coolness. temperature being due to the heated rock beneath. but the great creepers that covered the forest trees were luxuriant with legumes and winojed seed. and mcrantic fruits.° In making some experiments on radiation. ducting materials fell I found that a thermometer at rapidly to ^^^^ which was a greater effect than I had anticipated. We were not long before we put this discovery into practice.Chrishnas Day. This I effected air. and thick as thouorh anxious to shelter the foliao^e. I desired to isolate a thermometer from the ground. and expose it it solely to radiation. and of the night 85. I discovered a practical means of utilizing its Our high effects which we were glad to adopt. The temperature of the day was 101°.

and disturbed those regular alternate and polar periodic inroads of equatorial which The great river system forms a natural boundary. are local furnaces continually pouring their heated columns of parched air into the cooler space above. These hot plains.248 The Parched Atmosphere. with veiy sensible diminution of the terrestrial influence. The effect was very evident air on the climate. and pays the penalty by continued loss from evaporation. Close alongside lies the great ocean receiving the same amount of vertical heat. they are deflected by the ascending heated columns. exposed to a vertical sun without a vestige of shade. with their dark rock. outside on trestles. it. Southern which here attain their lowest southern limit. They are either thrown northward up the great river find the requisite valleys. the heat being converted into vapour. which separates Uruguay both geologically and meteorowere so marked a feature at Buenos Ayres. The winds are consequently more and the great storms that retreat westward from the Andes are in a very striking manner diverted or dispersed. variable. which form as effectual a . we enjoyed the cooling influence of the space above us. Uruguay naturally an extension of the tropical regions of Brazil. where they amount or of vapour necessary for their propagation. resolutely refused to be warmed. however. logically is from the plains of the pampas.

prevails in the evening all along the coast. 249 bar to their progress north as a range of mountains. night minimum 52°. A striking proof of the presence of vapour above was afforded by the fact that the black bulb in the sun was only 108°. The wind decreased this was succeeded by a temperature of 92°. which exactly . The prevalent due to the higher tem- perature of the land. this increase at night was doubtless due to the re- inforcement it received from the sea-breeze that general The mean temperature from November 2nd to November 16th -was. effect in lifting the polar currents into higher regions. the difference between the wet and dry bulb being 32°. and changed to west. and dust storms take the place of As an east instance of normal weather.The Tanpcraturc. it was a strong wind. while long droughts consequently are frequent. day temperature of heated rock 102° in violence on the 16th. with lightning and heavy rain. which also prevents condensation. and exercise a very singular winds were from the east. tion The reverberaclouds durincr of the thunder amonor the the storm was also very striking. day maximum 76°. rain. We had a dust re- storm on the 2nd of December. rising at night to the force of half a gale from the south-east. a constant wind prevailed from the beginning of November till the 16th.

The and turmoil of these storms filled indescribable . but the storm fell The lightning was incessant. all secure.15. 93° in from the afternoon to 82° at 7 p. it was followed by a very little rain.m. rolled over us like a sea. thrill of cold startled us from instinctively the our seats. The heat was most oppressive though the thermometer fell in the evening. when suddenly an cause. and the storm burst over us in its is fury. by lightning of the most vivid description. sembled the one at Campana already described. we were wrapt in all deep darkness. the cottage visibly swayed before the air. filling the bedroom. with constant lightning. and afterwards. down dinner. but we make noise . but no thunder was audible among the uproar. before of we could close it. we knew and began closing . the Monte and the river valley all round with brilliant streams from west to east. sat summer but intense all we to paid no further attention. The gale swept our remada or cattle-shed bodily away. which illumined on the back of the house. at 8. the blow of clouds of dust seeds of the and a tide chaffy flechilla. to the two feet. with .250 The Dust Tor7iado. We could see nothing. doors and windows could as rapidly as all we could the servants barricaded before the back of the house. from south-west. a grass which depth covers the pampas. We observed a heavy cloud in the south-west.

where passengers in the open hurled away.The Dust Sfonn. arise on the confines of two currents they appear to wander over enormous areas. even if the whirl wiud was absorbed in our dry hot was almost instantly A marked want of sun's rays preceded the storm. Its violence again become purely a dust storm. and dew point 54°. of which it was only a specific phase. though their separate nuclei are small. and force in the the distant thunder became singularly audible saturated. was at Campana. extended over a very large area. were helplessly This vortex rotated normally around its centre with the hands of a watch. precisely as it us. The absence the was singular. but as the tem- perature of the air before the storm was 93°. but rain being impossible. like ordinary storms. There are. These tornadoes often . as the cyclone passed over instantaneous. but travelled bodily. directly against the wind. as the vapour air. several of . while the temperature of the 7G°. the whirlwind was a few drops was formation of rain beyond impossible. . numbers of them came screaming of rain to the door of the house in the darkness for protection. Boats were sunk and much damage done air at Salto. 251 upwards of a hundred head of poultry at roost on the top . disturbing half the western hemisphere with their capricious motions. probably. change of wind.

picking up the moist strata that overlie the river valleys. which flows surrounded down spirally from above to supply the vacuum. The analogy between ordinary storm is tornadoes and the close. simultaneously waDdering on. where they meet with the requisite reinforcement of moisture.252 Tornadoes. As they travel along they hurl together all the layers of atmosphere they meet with. or marshy grounds. these vortices. The these thrill of cold which always so startles us is the descending current. . Hence the invariable course of each storm or is to follow rivers wet valleys. and expended their energy in raising columns of dust and destroying a few roofs and remadas. constantly dissolving and reforming. the only fuel it obtains being the heated dust. converting all vapour into rain and heat with almost explosive violence and more especially deluging all such localities. thus very its It is in fact simply a torrent and whirlpools. as we see them in a mill race on a river skirting the central rapid torrent. them air but when they met the dry parched that prevailed at Arapey they were powerless to produce rain. tall Such a system soon dies out on a dry arid plain. They supply the mechanical force neces- sary for blending the currents and flashing into rain . The heat set free by condensation rises like a draught through a chimney in the centre of the vortex^ by a cylinder of cold air. or forests.

as air The tornado may be regarded a huge centrifugal pump. like an ordinary storm. tration force pressure. It rose to 29G0 when the storm reached us. drawing up heated from the earth's surface. of its motion is The direction determined not only by its naturally seeking an atmosphere loaded with moisture. force is maintained by colossal as- cending columns of heat. great currents in which it is floating on the generated in a direc- tion contrary to that of the wind. Let the isobars ABC. and bringing down mine its cold air from hiofher reo-ions. 10.ToDiadocs.shafts in a . but also by another circumstance. like ventilatino. by the cold spiral columns of external central shaft. The descent of the cold column gave the maximum of recovered. which accounts for its anomalous progress contrary to the direction of the wind. but These columns move from left to right round the stalks slowly the whole pump and majestically over the pampas. as the surrounding air was drawn away into the vortex. from which it rapidly The whole phenomenon is another illus- the absolute necessity of mechanical and of the influence of vapour in the pro- duction of a storm. 253 The barometer fell before the hurricane. while the descending shaft is represented air. continually reinforced by condensation of the blended atmospheres. from 29-58 to 20-45. represent the great . fig.

. and the small circle T. It is evident the friction against the denser where the barois meter is at thirty inches. and in the same direction as the great cyclone. The cold weather that follows them is the work done b}^ the pump. to the left. with the hands of a watch. roll itself in the direction of the arrow T. and attain such terrible violence among the hot saturated vapours of the tropics. hail. natural cyclone of the atmosphere. lo. or contrary to the motion of the gentle natural current ABC. will be greater than against the current inches. at A. which . light- ning and thunder. It accounts satisfac- torily for the fact that such storms soon die out when passing over dry sandy deserts. The mechanical violence with which a huge cjdinder so constituted must blend together masses of air of all degrees of heat and humidity. the tornado rotating in the direction of the arrows. and every other characteristic of singular phenomena. where the barometer 2 9 "7 and that the tornado must consequently Fi?. furnishes abundant cause these for the deluge of rain. air. that is. i.e.254 Tornadoes.

the tornado. to the density due to its tempering our parched plains with pure and refreshing breezes. The essential cause of them all is the sun's heat. A very small may thus originate a very severe storm. the further development of either of a third. power of these tornadoes is incomprehensible on any theory of their sudden destructive creation . absorbed in evaporation over the ocean where the cloud is formed. but converted into mechanical energy over the heated land when . and diverts terrestrial currents into the upper regions. The great feature self-sustaining in all these storms is their power. is another frequent origin of disturbance. has brought 255 of cold air down a whole atmosphere it from above. when once disturbance ignited they run along exploding the mixture they meet in their progress. have alluded to the heated columns effect of mountain ranges as one source of our storms. and them depends wholly on the medium in which they originate and progress. and raised lower level. or the vortices formed is along the margin of great currents. The but all difficulty ceases when we regard them I as the accumulated effect of long-continued energy. of air.Tornadoes. of The local ascent which forcibly over- comes the tendency of strata to maintain their stratification. like trains of gunpowder.

but they are more seriously damaging to the poor sheep. covering the underwood. and the far fire The spread and wide. and refreshing A very singular result of this tornado was the deposit of enormous deep beds of the light seeds of the flechilla grass in every dell and sheltered spot.256 the vapour is The Flechilla Grass. and precipitated in storms rains. a bank high lined the river for miles. and in sheltered spots. as fresh deposits were reached by the running fire. frequently kill the animals that are not shorn the flesh. condensed. among posits We had accumulated. possesses a power of their I penetration that is irresistible. They ruin the wool. They filled our bedrooms in an instant to feet. enormous de- ravines and ditches were filled up. the depth of two This terrible plant is the its scourge of the pampas and the barbed seed. with horny processes. They worked way through far our clothes and gaiters. and. illuminating the woods during the night with sudden bursts of flame. its long arms studded with short hairs. and they are frequently table. flame reached a great height. . by penetrating The valley was several feet found in the muscle of the joints brought to filled with these seeds. deep the trees in the Monte. The flame from . all set one way. amused ourselves for several weeks after the storm by dropping lucifers among these heaps. working their way through it.

They indicated the enormous area of the pampas. Clouds. and in estimating their magniIt is here that I became convinced cirrus analogy between the and other different similar forms of cloud generated on the clearly of defined confines of overlying strata constitution. and its bare surface. with the dried silvery remnants of the spring vegetation. on which the shadows of passing clouds were vividly depicted. aspect of other clouds as they passed over could only be satisfactorily explained on the very probable assumption that it is on the outer surface only 17 . Many pleasant hours were spent in watching these tude and speed. which of seeds in this still carried them on The for hun- dreds of miles further into Brazil. of the close fields of shadow as they drifted past over the pampas. which had been swept by the storm. distribution manner is an important botanical phenomenon.Forms of Clouds. and the tongues of vapour I had observed during our quarantine that formed and drifted great away and re-dissolved on the surface of the The symmetric forms and changing river. The high position of the cottage gave a commanding view of the level camp for many miles around. 257 a collection beneath the bridofe almost reached the high timber platform above. afforded an excellent screen.

it now brought assumes the form of a horizontal horizon The dip of the is so is slight that the surface of the terrestrial layer practically a hori- . however subdivided the mass But the most characteristic and the stratified cloud that forms in of frequent form the horizon. and as at A. I is know no more certain prognostic than those long. When the level seen in the zenith. we see only the cloudy margin When into layer. its direct influence. straight lines into which dense clouds range themselves is previous to rain. the same cloud reaches the horizon. shells of vapour. is of cold masses of air that cloud formed. from directly beneath base is imperceptible. the centre remaining transparent. horizontal. its base on the terrestrial stratum being view. it. oil on water constantly its horizontal base. Such clouds are therefore and generally follow inroads of equatorial air polar air. ^g. clearly-defined.258 Perspective of Clouds. This appearance satisfactorily accounted for by the impermeability of the lower terrestrial stratum of air which rests on the earth. 11. may become. and is subject to The appearance observed is due to The cloud sailing on this stratum like preserves perspective. whereas the dense cumulus and the storm clouds produced by is always opaque and solid throughout.

259 is seen by an observer at will be seen the base 11. as at permanent phenomenon. in which it subtends a less and less anixlc the farther it is re- moved from A. as in fig.Height of Clouds. afford occular stration demonof of the defined character of the line junction of lower and upper strata. It is by no means uncommon is in stormy weather. zontal line. this is often a At greater altitudes. This boundary line between two currents does not necessarily produce clouds. and is ultimately brought into view as a straight line. as both are frequently far removed from saturation. when the line of separation low. but it often causes that peculiar haze which arrests the force of the . and really sees the clouds as though on the circle A H. on a small scale. where they assume the form of straight lines on the horizon. The observer visible refers the various positions to the hemisphere above him. Tenerifie. These appearances. and the cloud o. to see the clouds on the upper stratum moving in a direction directly opposite to those below. which are almost of daily occurrence.

and in the night obscures the lesser The height of clouds depends on the vertical terrestrial stratum. by disturbing the terrestrial stratum. and.26o sun's stars. These results would indicate three very distinct classes — 1st. the accumulative. which again depends largely upon the temperature of the earth depth of the itself. through a transparent medium floating 2ndly. often lower their height. rays. effect is and rain commences. cold air is brouo-ht down from hio^her reo^ions. When condensation takes place. the stormy cloud. and they come itself. but even with a gentle rain. and a more rapid condensation is engendered. the light shell or superficial cloud air formed on the external surface of cold masses of through a transparent medium. as we have seen in storms. higher in summer than in winter. but gales of wind. formed by volumes visible or masses of heated and saturated floating vapour . Srdly. The above and other deductions are taken from my Arapey notes. Height of Clouds. as a rule. On this account clouds are. varying from a few yards to three or four hundred. but they do not apply to every form of cloud. when the terres- stratum totally swept away. into mechanical contact with the earth single stratum of cloud is A generally of very mode- rate depth. trial and are succeeded by is rain. . and more cloud is formed.

chano'es. the nights were cold. The temperature of the rock was 130°. 261 the horizontal stratified cloud formed at the limit- ing boundaries of two adjoining transparent strata. 24th of December the thermometer The parched hot wind was like a blast furnace. The true nimbus visible sign of the is therefore a mere outward and mighty transformations that are in progress. and falling of clouds is not a bodily motion of the whole mass. The . and new forlifting The mation on the other. but is more generally caused by absorption on one surface. condensation of the vapour produced by the eartli's sur- mechanical energy of the storm at the face. this was evident at Rio. The true storm-cloud ing of either or all arises from the forcible blend- of these forms. afford striking evidence of the direct effect of the sun's heat.Effect of Shadows. with a general itself. These extraordinary durinor which are of constant occurrence the continuance of the same east wind. where a cloud remained stationary on the summit of the Sugar Loaf during a gale of wind. I will only add clouds that the thermic features of passing may be recognised very accurately by a effect of thermometer screened from the the earth's radiation. while every one must have bodily ex- perienced the frequent change of temperature due to a passing cloud. On was the 103°.

no doubt lessens the nocturnal radiation but only in proportion to the actual whereas its space it covers. fail to exercise Such a stratum. is obliquity of the sun's rays of course a principal cause of the cold of our northern climate.262 Influence of Shade. The of the tree soil. as com- pared with the tropics. or fifty-three feet long. The shadow of a tree or tower 100 feet — — high will therefore be the tangent of feet in length. This enormous difference in the length of the shadow from every projection must have great influence on the temperature acquired by the solid earth. the sun at Christmas equivalent to our midsummer at noon is about 74 degrees from the zenith. where we have a vast plain without any trees or vegetation. shadow sweeps over difference cannot effect large areas all around. but it appears me there another cause of the great difference of temperature. and in midwinter it would at noon be no less than 373 feet long. 7y or 12*1 whereas the shadow of the same tower in London would at noon at midsummer be more than half the height. At Arapey. an important on the tempera- ture of the terrestrial The absence of . the same angular amount of solar radiation being distributed over a larger area as to we recede from the equator is . This difference must be greatly increased at Arapey. whereas enormous tracts in England are in constant shade. of very considerable importance.

. our peaceful cottage with shallow rocky stream. 45°. we sincere regret. reached 31° had no dew. 263 humidity is all also greatly due to the want of shade and vegetation. and of the night 58°: maximum 103°. and the difference between our dry and wet bulb thermometer We The mean day temperature of this terrible Christmas week was 90°3'. in . till This excessive heat continued our departure on the another hot dust storm without a drop of rain but parched and barren as the camp left had now become.Infliunce of Shade. minimum 31st. and cult even The mighty Uruguay was now a its navigation was diffilittle with the steamer that took us back to Paysandu.

a little Mesopotamia. while. endurance. its gentle. N the very centre of the South American continent. on the other . its its picturesque beauty. brave. ITS HISTORY. resignation have never been and more prominently exhibited than among the descendants of the fertile gentle pagan tribes who inhabited these and lovely provinces. 1. though extending over so short a period. and equally remarkits able for unrivalled fertility. on the tropic of Capricorn. of The annals of Paraguay. They are records of the highest virtues is and the blackest crimes of which man capable. its magnificent climate. The Christian submissive virtues of docility. and brief and cruel history. and docile population.100 miles there all is up the Parana and and Paraguay. singularly distinct from the surrounding provinces. furnish a condensed epitome human history of the most varied and eventful character.CHAPTER PARAGUAY AND XVI.

and tion. their gentle character. were the Guarani original inhabitants of Indians. and it is hoped closing scene. and remarkable for their developed and wide-spread language. and cruelty. this brave and faithful incentive of plunder race was so completely annihilated that even at the remnant of the population. .200. the present moment reduced in four years from upwards of 1.000. The numbers eight females to one male. customs. and with no other object than the gratification of wanton barbarity and ambition. plunder. the dominion of their Christian conquerors has furnished a page of in its record of human history unsurpassed wanton atrocity and cruelty by any pagan annals. which attracted the early Spanish adventurers.000 to 300. The ultimate destruction of this rich and thriving population by a sensualist. inflicted on an inoffensive and defenceless population this last. the remnants an agricultural people. as evidenced by the remaining monuments of their prosperity. . savage despot is an historical episode of the darkest dye and of the deepest interest. since Ever the time of Pizarro the whole history of is South America little more than a record of but in Spanish misrule. the usual was wanting.The Giiaranis. 265 hand. their greater progress in civiliza- and religion. pre-eminently superior to the surrounding savage tribes.

the Indians arts were educated and instructed in the useful and trades. order. country was soon overrun. and The was ultimately peopled by a mixed race. extraordinary fertility of the At a soil. and law were strictly maintained. on the banks of the Para- guay. for the descendants of those marriages pertinaciously admit no more Indian blood. as thorough as uncompromising as that of the Israelites of Instead of being employed as slaves. Entirely incapable of independent the Indians submitted like children to the gentle rule of these intelligent and highly-educated instructors. a purely sacerdotal government. Ecclesiastical edifices and mercantile establishments of the most substan- .266 The The Jesuits. mainly Indian or negro. from the marriage of Spaniards with the original inhabitants. established. but partly Spanish and partly mulatto. justice. later date the and the character of the inhabitants. in the beginning of the eighteenth century. city of Asuncion. these were endowed by the unlimited independent Spanish government with authority. attracted the Jesuit fathers. who and old. Public amusements of every descrip- tion were provided for them . Among so kind and docile a people. was founded by the Spaniards in 1535. and the as country fortunately contained no precious missionaries metals. action. their labours totally unex- they found a field for ampled in religious history.

and extenGuarani and was converted into a written language. language. erected. no development of that but had only confirmed habit of implicit obedience which evil of their original was the characteristic savage life. who required such wel- come summons after the recall of the Jesuits. The result. and missals. and did not hesitate to yield the same childlike obedience and fidelity to the tyrants who persecuted and ultimately destroyed the amiable them. taught grammatically in public schools. and enriched with sive plantations. 267 and the tial and imposing character were villages. by printed grammars. happiness and prosperity was bought at the sacrilarge fice popula- of every vestige of independence. without a thought or a murmur they abandoned At the first their peaceful homes. so simple-minded. tribes The oral language of the and gardens. as to priests to though narrow-minded whom all their happiness was due. was but too ready a prey for the reckless adventurer tools. Their new self- lessons had permitted reliance. The Jesuits were suddenly recalled from South America . tion dictionaries. helpless a flock first was only natural. public roads. in the new Under such tuition a was brought to a state of the highest military But all this material discipline and obedience.Jesuit Listrudion. country was cultivated with skill. how- ever sad.

he opened the country to foreign trade. rapidly attained a material happiness. set access by land or water. and Paraguay again into the hands of Spanish governors. in 1767. and assumed the most despotic authority. In imitation of the merchant Jesuits. and lation lost two-thirds of its popuof the in thirty years. He was first succeeded by another adventurer. and instituted a system of tyranny and espionage of the most oppressive character.268 Francia and Lopez fell I. pro- bably unparalleled in any part of the world. when a Dr. After the revolt it Spanish colonies in 1814 became independent from sheer inaccessibility. all who foot and discouraged marriage and religion. the Lopez. They . and the people. and ruled with cruel and capricious tyranny until he died in 1840. population The were was rapidly increased. Though under jealous restriction. committed but few atrocities. Francia seized on the dictatorship. now left alone to enjoy the riches of these fertile valleys again. and became sole importer and its exporter of foreigners He in detained forcibly the country. all he closed the country from produce. and was averse decimated all to the judicial murders which had the best families under the rule of his blood-thirsty and cruel predecessor. though he permitted his family to enrich themselves by unscrupulous plunder of this gentle and enduring people. who.

. the Ilex Paraguayensis. driven into the woods and marshes. Lopez died in 1862.Lopez 11. surrounded with ex- cellent pasturage for their cows and principal revenue of the country The cattle.. under proper regulation. produce enormous revenues. and might.. and rapacity are almost inconsistent with sanity. and was succeeded by his son. the most senseless. while they lived in groves of orange trees and bananas. The yerba is a tea of singularly refreshing properties. principally women and children. produced from the leaves of a plant of the holly tribe. but in the short period-ut*v^ j of seven years. Ay res. cowardice. 269 excessively hospitable. maize. his v^anity. largely consumed in South which America. and Buenos His insensate war with Brazil his fiendish cruelty. and a few days' labuur pro- duced could all the tobacco. was derived from the 3'erba forests. This unnatural despot was bay^n^tted in a ditch /^•Jr^^v^ by the Brazilians in 1869. and mandioca they consume. this prosperous and happy coun- try was so ruthlessly destroyed and annihilated that the population was reduced to 200. and would have been impossible with any other population than the brave and faithful . cruel. naturally covers extensive areas in Paraguay. and blood-thirsty tyrant among all the terrible list that have desolated the South American continent.000 souls. the late Lopez II.

Lynch. and resumed their simple agricultural The city of Asuncion was in ruins. and resolved on his return to convert his own happy pastoral pro- His originally savage and was thus supplemented by all the lowest vices of European civilization. His own education appears to have been specially destined to foster his naturally tion. and in the it is said he spent some time where he camp of the allies in the Crimea. depraved disposi- Brought up in ignorance and profligacy and encouraged in extortion. consisting almost entirely of women home- and children. the elder Lopez. in London and where he met with Mrs.70 but helpless exceptional Lopez IL and enduring victims which such for development had prepared him. life He led a scandalous and disreputable Paris. returned to their desolate steads. After his death the wretched remnant of this persevince into a huge camp. and a revenue almost fabulous in amount. and labours. with a retinue of dissolute companions. of his His visit happened during the Crimean war./ whom for the he carried away with him to Paraguay. lawless disposition- cuted people. acquired a taste for military power. The revenues of the country did not yield sufficient to defray the cost of main- . the villages deserted. he was sent to Europe when a very young man by his father. and to whom rest he remained permanently attached life.

000 with absolute incredulity that a loan . which was often reached with In the absence of coin. which imposed a free heavy burden on the population. the extensive equipment of rolling stock was worked as was entirely depopulated. principally for military purposes. and public credit was entirely destroyed.Brazilian Occupation. In this state of affairs. small tokens used by a local tramway company were used for barter. into complete decay. long as it could run without repairs. 271 But of adventurers of the old type. from The railway which Lopez had and productive a constructed. this unhappy people heard for £1. soon returned. the permanent way was completely neglected. taining even a semblance of public order.000. as even Government emjploy^s were unpaid. but as the country it was allowed to fall The large and handsome stations were roofless. diffi- culty in a day. and the bridges unsafe. and the privilege plundering this scanty remnant of the wreck led to fresh plots and revolutions so revolting it to common humanity. until at last a sinorle enorine and two or three ruined carriao^es made an occasional run over the forty-six miles to Paraguari. that torate resulted in a temporary protec- by a Brazilian garrison. the who had fled during war. runs through so rich district that in quiet times the traffic is considerable. when plunder at home was no longer possible. hitherto debt.

and assassinations. and that they were saddled its in perpetuity with a debt that only ceased to be formidable on account of fessed object of the loan magnitude. followed immediately had been negotiated in their name in by a second loan of £2. and if left alone in the enjoyment of any security. a considerable crop was grown. but no attempt was made even traffic to maintain the slight line. under the late President. revolutions. but as soon as it was ready for gathering. and the character of habitants. sterling rThe Loan London. on the existing which ceased It is of course impossible to obtain any authentic It is generally account of the proceeds of this loan. The prowas the extension of the railway and other public works. would. rapidly attain its original prosperity but the slightest symptom of improvement attracts rival adventurers. wealth and resources. With every phase the country speedily recovers itself with marvellous celerity. stated in Paraguay that the whole fell amount which of tranquillity to the share of the negotiators there did not exceed £30. from its great natural its in. with the usual plots.^. the growth of tobacco being found to be highly remunerative. by which sole purchasers. remnant of altogether. doubtless.000.V^VV^. It is only four years ago that.000. at a fixed price considerably below . a special law was it was enacted that the Government should be the passed.000 in 1872.

on the ground that they attempted to escape. unsuccessful attempt to usurp his envied privileges some of where them were arrested and prison. it value. for they bore their loss with their usual resignation. The only people will result must be that these persecuted be saddled with a still more permanent and congress men. as year in the public streets in the middle of the day by half-a-dozen might be so imaoined. of every grade and their host of nominees. political He was murdered by who made an thrown into . not. its 273 spoliation. with a small body of properly organized police to maintain public order and cleanliness. A few ex- perienced town surveyors. and merely abandoned the rival growth of tobacco. The President was shot assassins. they remained a long time without and to complete this miserable history. from amono: those who had been mercilessly robbed. adventurers. trial. A pro- ject has lately been entertained for the admission of the province into the Argentine confederation. and independent magistrates 18 for . with ministers incubus.President Gill. while administration in the sense in which we under- stand it will be totally neglected. issued for last the purpose. senators. and to add to this was paid for in an utterly worthless paper currency. in the form of the usual highly-paid President. they in their turn were killed in prison only a few months ago.

. and prefer loftier and more for its display. is that first required.274 Maladm in istration. is all the impartial administration of justice. but it is unfortunate that these requisites of civilization seldom obtain attention rely so among themes politicians who largely on their profitable eloquence.

The rivers Parana is the second largest river in the world. is occasionally seen. day after The steamer plods day. For a distance of 600 miles the two banks are rarely simultaneously visible. as the river. endless groups of large islands or through extensive lake-like vistas. which defines island to island. or cliff. T is impossible to convey any adequate idea of the magnitude of the enormous Plate which empty themselves into the by any comparison with our own rivers.CHAPTER XYII. in of regime. and often forms a prominent object many miles inland but the actual banks undergo perpetual . THE PARANA AND ASUNCION. transformation. the limits of the old river bed. among by shallows. her way. against the current. sometimes intercepted which are avoided by crossing or re-crossing from The baranca. ploughs its continual change away the alluvium where the .

at . As the lands that are so denuded are usually covered with timber. and deposits flats. miles from the Plate. whose roots are bared by the sit Cranes. the banks are lined with rafts of timber. and the heard at roar twenty miles distance. its waters break with indescribable fury a plane of granite.000 feet wide. storks.000 square miles in area. lit up with rainbows. gation is All navi- stopped at the great falls of Guaiva. but sources are nearly as mysterious as those of the Nile. and other large birds motionless on these piles of ruin. it Even at this a mountainous region exceeding its 500. which are rain is is visible for many leagues. strongest. In going to Asuncion point drains we leave the Parana at Corrientes 686 miles from the Plate. an inclination of about fifty degrees the clouds of spray form columns of vapour. The . it in the form of new islands. or with falling trees current. or fly lazily as away the steamer approaches them . and higher up the river the alligators lay basking on every sloping beach. or rush-grown its where eddies or quiet waters allow of subsidence. suddenly reduced at the cataract to 200 they drop fifty-six feet over Thus confined. A continuous produced by the condensation. 1136 Azara. while the car- pinchos and other animals flounder about beneath them. describes the river as 14. in who visited these falls 1788. feet.276 stream is The Parana.

. and P^lco- fU mayo are all nearly a thousand districts miles in length. "Hydraulics 1874. see J. and even luxuriance. and run through vast tribes. and the Rio Plate. of Great Rivers.400 miles. and as the political conflicts which have so long rendered them inaccessible are now at an end. the Vermejo. * teclniical details tliis extraordinary river. and as the steamers which navigate the main rivers are fitted up with great comfort. the Paraguay. For Revy." by The tributaries of the Parana are gigantic rivers. so that the journey is due north. The Salado. totally^ occupied by Indian ^]/KX unexplored. . and of Asuncion nearly the same. there fertility. district is 277 race inhabited point by a low all is of Indians. Grande at 1. The latitude of 25*20. Beyond Pardo point is this unexplored the Rio a tributary at 1. prolific regions The field which these opens for the ambitious traveller are unbounded.The Parana. but Buenos Ayrcs the longitude is is is 34-36. is The journey performed by from Buenos Ayres to Asuncion the steamers in about seven days. and a continuous approach to the tropics.820 miles from the it and at this first takes the of name of the Parana. J. is no longer any difficulty in its exploring a country which is is unrivalled for beauty and and which almost entirely unknown.

river is The distance by the follows : approximately as .278 The Parana.

but simultaneously the actual banks are rarely. of tertiary limestone of shells. Cordova and Tumman are 1. occa- sionally towers in the distance in the form of tosca shore. which we soon discover to be only another of the great network of streams and is rivers and lakes of which the great system composed. while Mendoza and San Juan are The scale over which this 2. visible. falls twelve inches The uniformly increasing gradient with which the pampas everywhere rises.The River Journey. upon us as we ascend and day mighty when travelling night a rapid steamer for three or four successive days. rise cliffs . This this in prominently river . if ever. The baranca. of luxurious narrow channel. while the country itself. simple and uniform regime is maintained is is the most striking forced characteristic. per mile. shut in to enter again some some magnificent branch by dense and forest-like vegetation. no evident dimi- nution in its width or volume can be detected. reach. occasionally threading We appear to sail from lake to lake amidst a labyrinth islands. in the Gran Chaco. has been already alluded to. 279 Salado. falls with perfect uni- formity five inches per mile for 700 miles.200 feet above the sea.800 feet and 1.400 and 2. among the trees cliffs on the Entre Rios and at Parana. They contain beds . from the river valley up to the Andes. out of the river.200 feet. in a straight line. up or old river boundary.

2 8o The Gran Chaco. is This little geological feature quite exceptional. covered with forests and swamps. This shell conglomerate is is largely burnt for lime. cliffs. which slightly changed the vegetation from day to day. the iron jetty on the river. west. as its maintaining shifting channels through vast deposits of alluvium almost from the tropics to the Plate. by . We occasionally river saw a group with their canoes on the bank drying skins. is inhabited only by wandering Indian tribes. gave an English park-like aspect to some of the glades. The town built on the high ground. the river. grew on the limestone creepers towered The yucca and numerous brilliant among the trees. the and large deposits Ostrea Patagonica. which. of a gigantic fossil oyster. we skirt the great Indian territory of the left-hand Gran Chaco on the 600 miles. A few palms appeared at Santa Fe. Very few and though a few large birds were perched on fallen trees. communicating by means of a tram- way with a rule. the total absence of any sign of human life gave an imposing . This pro- bank for a distance of digious territory. or among and the rush-grown swamps. stillness vastness to the scene but the gradual approach to the tropics. which they exchange. with the foliage. effectually prevented monotony. eastern margin. The river here is washing away its At Rosario its bed was travelling vessels passed us. After leaving La Paz.

or indicative of the slightest skill. The whole scene was one the only sound was the the little steamer ploughing her lit way among these vast and mysterious waters. for even when compelled by force civilization. for a The Gran Chaco few tribes of is mere hunting-ground land and virgin instincts of their wandering Indians. of the deepest interest ripple of . vainly endea- vouring to understand the mysterious dispensation. they retain one of the more civilized brethren. but even amidst this ocean-like extent of forests. catching an occasional glimpse of their camp fires. and carry I on relentless wars for the sake of sat territory. and we enjoyed the imposing magnificence of the southern niofhts. uninhabited. its to come into contact with they fall without hesitation a prey to lowest vices. leaves no possible future for this helpless and degraded race than that total extermination under which they are fast disappearing . . and unknown. for spirits and tobacco. totally unexplored. after ages of misery and suffering. which. The lovely climate kept us on deck. which shone less regions of Avater round on bounda and land. 281 the Entre Rios coast. but nothing of any value. or . have on deck half through the night.The Gran crossing to CJiaco. and a few mats. gunpowder and boos. all up by a brilliant moon. They also bring bam- and grasses. intellect. or industry no lower type of humanity late can be imagined.

How many girls at school obtain a certain knowledge of music. from this constant deterrise satisfied. I have often been struck with the fact that a gipsy fiddler plays the fiddle eight or ten hours a day. The characteristic of civilization is its " Excelsior. or the soldier who practises the goose step. how- . and it is a useful maxim that. be striving to attain is that which apparently beyond our reach. the same rude bows. on which they make for the rest of their life ! no improvement The is '' true banner of civilization and improvement sior." arises and progress only mination not to be higher. and arrows. I have water already elsewhere compared civilization to kept at a high level by the constant attempt to pump it higher. that these races progress of fact in their natural state should make no any kind. and it astonishing. and great spears. generation after generation." Excel- We make no more progress than the old fiddler. by simply repeating that which we can already do . in order to advance. with the same precarious means of existence. but to higher and The same principle holds good with educa- tion itself. but continue satisfied. how little there that is altogether unapproachable. we is is must.282 It is a singular Excelsior. for sixty years. without playing in the sliofhtest first degree better when he dies than when he began. when thus assailed. while another pupil becomes a Paganini in a few years.

The actual speed of our vessel was ten miles per hour. at for the whole journey was 150 black £3 per ton. An incithe underwood. absolutely as regards progress. the islands. dent occurred which mio^ht have had serious . and the consumption of coal tons. especially on approach- ing Corrientes . slowly gliding into the water. and assumed darker hues they were now intermixed with huo^e clusters of bamboo. had changed their character . ever industrious wliich is 283 in a man may be doing that a mere matter of routine. towerinor elegantly like ferns among creepers were innumerable. unless he has it devoted some portion of to the more ambitious attempt of doing something that he could not do before. The long column of the brilliant smoke. in and a few monkeys interest. the stream against us averaged three. indicated the extravagant waste of our consumption.Change of Scenery. excited our spit of land and on a projecting we saw two The large alligators. his day has been lost. Although it was only after entering the Paraguay that the great change of climate became so prominent. moreover. yet our daily approach to the tropics w^as strikingly illustrated. our progress was therefore seven miles per hour. that disfigured sky. trees. of vegetation with their The and covered vast masses showy flowers. with brilliant plumage. results. large birds.

284 Corrientes. my wife and her friend were the only European ladies who had ventured to visit Paraguay since the war. natives were galloping about on horseback but we were objects of curiosity to a most disagreeable extent. for with very few exceptions. and while surrounded by the passengers. aspect. with a Remington rifle. the diflerthat ence of level often being two or three feet. of hideous were selling their useless wares. and strolled through the town. temperature was 73°. and evening it was on Sunday when we arrived at Corrientes. are roofed with bamboo. and a few . into The houses . so . driving \) some cattle along the river banks. throwing large pieces of the barrel and stock all around fortunately no one was struck. and sandy tracks. in the trees. tied is bamboo rafters the population of 10. than those streets of the capital of this large which form the province. A few Indian women. civilization in the shape of a dark gaucho. It is impossible to imagine a more barbarous med- ley of huts and squares. Each but no house has a little bit pavement in same two are the same level or in the line. It was not till we were close to Corrientes that we came across fresh symptoms of islands . front. The pilot amused himself when the vessel neared the by firing at alligators and monkeys. but it was a narrow escape.000. the rifle burst in his hands. The passengers for the late were enjoying their matie" as usual on deck.

and the change of climate was extremely its abrupt and striking. and is great morasses but the Paraguayan shore sand the crocodiles formed of a sandy beach.TJu Parao^iiay. is the most undesirable recreation one can while the dark. sand abounds with jiggers. when shot at with apparently unhurt.e. which breed in the a walk select. though generally dark in of laurels. and we gladly got back to the comfortable steamer. and the is road a deep. colour. while trees like large oaks seemed embowered in banks The foliage. loose heap of hot fine sand. The trees were tenanted by monkeys. par- . it is 285 impossible to keep on the paved path. wasted down from the . relieved by the delicate green fi'onds of the lofty bamboos and the native willow Salix Hamboldii. 'The creepers on the underwood formed bowers of dense shade. herons. furnished broad effects of light and shade. with its Gran Chaco lay on our confused and entano-Ied veo-etation Tlie . As the feet. crawling lazily into the water the rifl. often two or three together. left. in which is the shoe entirely buried at every step. sometimes resembling cut hedges and hop gardens. We entered the Paraguay two hours after leaving Corrientes. wild-looking inhabitants stared a bold vulgar curiosity that Avith made us begin little to doubt the propriety of a much loDger extension of our journey. sandstone banks on every spit of lay like logs of wood.

and some but tigers. and other animals abound among^ these forests. of which the roads consist. The into situation of the city is extremely beautiful.Asuncion. with numberless creeks and pools and wooded scenery in our lake islets. Among the ponte- derias its and other water lilies the Victoria Regia. and cranes . and swarming with crocodiles and magnificent birds. the shade temperature was selves of the and we were glad to avail our- tramway which runs from the quay. We came across remnants of the vast defensive works executed by Lopez. resembling the finest literally districts. the Paraguay has none of the vastness of the Parana. and avoid the walk through the deep hot beds of sand. though a mighty stream. of the old telegraph posts rose out of the jungle covered with asclepias and convolvulus snakes. and shelters . island We arrived at Asuncion August 21st 82°. . for. grows luxuriantly in some of the shallows. rots. the channel on the side of the town widens out into a vast lake of brilliant shallow water. width varying from a quarter to three-quarters of a mile. and so completely covered with water-plants as to resemble fields of luxuriant vegetation. and sometimes boldly ford the stream. and all these lovely scenes were more its accessible. . is Immediately above the town the river divided two branches by a large island. pumas. with enormous floating leaves and flowers.

the numberless tenants that 287 in the prolific swarm waters beneath. but the heat. for We landed an hour. . A journey across the water thus brings us in a few minutes into another world a wilderness uninhabited and unknown. The town occupies a bend of the river overlooking this lake-like expanse. with the wilderness of the Gran Chaco in all its sullen. the natives have extemporized a rude kind of bath by means of wooden conduits.Asuncion. A crowd of bathers avail themselves of this luxury every evening. monotonous gTandeur on the opposite bank. a hut or two. is a steep wooded cliff The river of sandstone. and enliven this charming scene with their picturesque deshabille. There is. and the plant becoming scarcer in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. but it is difficult a how they can wilderness. and the mosquitoes and other to beat a retreat. however. occupied by Portuguese to imagine settlers. and made our way some distance among insects compelled us the dense underwood and vegetation. or why they fruits hold their own in such prefer this parched and sun-burnt desert to the lovely paradise of waters and and shade that is stretched before them on the opposite shores. The flowers are eagerly sought by the natives on account of their extraordinary is beauty. bank spots. and at where streams of water flow down from the higher ground above.

The Old Palace. all The at streets. low. and is still filled with the . as in all South American towns. and anyone seen at the windows was immediately im. Houses and streets were demolished in the most arbitrary manner. The retains city of Asuncion is. without hesitation or compensa- but as this tion. a wreck. casting his own cannon. drilling an army of 64. and the inhabitants were ordered into their houses by sound of trumpets. that only fifty years later we find Lopez IJ. . proper drainage was impossible. are other. building iron vessels. riofht ano-les and are laid out with more regularity than usual. .000 well- equipped troops. natural water-courses were intercepted. But so rapidly did the wealth of the country increase. upper part of the town. even under the precarious severity of this crushing regwie. which as fatal as its a battery to anything which came within range. and erecting the magnificent arsenal which lines the river bank. Among was other amusements of the tyrant Francia. whenever he had a surveying fit was done without judgment. of course. His own palace was in the plain. prisoned. and consisted of a square. he unfortunately possessed a small theodolite. and during tropical rains whole squares were often flooded or submerged. single- storied buildings whenever he entered the town the streets were cleared. surrounded by solidly-built. but its many emblems of to each former prosperity.

carefully worked. an eminence commanding lovely views of the with its islands and lake-like expanse. is in excellent stuccoed brickwork . The external is balconies laid and galleries are paved with large stones . The ruins in its con- of this splendid building form an imposing object in the town. The upper building. lofty tower. on hard timber joists the building now unroofed. the design is Italian. and colonnaded portico and external galleries. a wood as hard and durable as iron. wellworked blocks of the fine sandstone of the district. a magnificent palace was constructed on river. this has been done in wanton misobject. in Spacious barracks were erected opera the city. is and exceedingly chaste . with its handsome. The base is built entirely of large. shot and shell have fallen through the galleries and is floors. The columns consist of a central nucleus of quebracho. and a portion of the elegant campanile carried chief. and great skill was shown struction. away . rivalling scale of magnificence our largest European and in lieu of the old barracks occupied by Francia. the timber wholly quebracho. 289 and ruins of iiiodi'iu nuicliiiicry of the most costly perfect character. an house was coninienced and nearly completed on a and magnitude houses. the timber has been stolen for use in the town. and nearly as heavy.TJie Ahz<o Palace. and not with any military and 19 is one . and covered with tiles and stucco.

of the most substantial character. from the city to Paraguari. whose revenue. The railway was continued down to the river for military purposes.500 a month. and which almost exhausted Brazil and her allies. in addi- tion to all these works. In addition to these works. and Some palatial residences were town by Lopez for Mrs. and perfectly-equipped railway were prolongation to Villa Rica. by the Brazilians and their be It is estimated that the building could restored for about £60. Lynch and other members of his family. Argentine and Monte Yidean some idea may total be formed of the intrinsic wealth and vast resources of the small but prolific province. under the title of the Tramway Restaurant. under the more ruinous dishonesty of her subsequent government^ has dwindled down to an amount often less than £2. When we consider that. and ^one of them now built in the does '* duty as an hotel. completed. where massive quays and warehouses line the river bank. forty -five miles of a costly. and was in course of of ninety and the remains of an extremely handsome colonnaded station. Asuncion was so jealously isolated from the outer world that very few travellers have visited there are no hotels.290 Resources of Lop ez. a distance miles. now forms the city terminus.000. well-constructed. of the cruel legacies left allies. he carried on a long costly war. it." to avoid the licence that .

and day. and hooks in the walls fine our There are in the town some very specimens of the massive architecture of the early Spaniards and Jesuits. the proportion of one. large lofty room. frequently barefooted. women is All all work men being as done by women every to . it is 291 would be exacted from an hotel building. but the native women bring their goods to travelling thirty or market on forty miles foot. the spacious marketplace was crowded a with hundreds of women and girls. ture except two jug. and miserably maintained. with heavy loads gracefully borne on their heads. the only available conveyance was the jolting bullock cart. folded in little clean white linen sheet. with her stock of shilling produce —seldom of the value of a single spread out on the sand. two a deal table for and a water hammocks. a spacious. The roads all travel are beds of sand . fine like all handsome courtyard. eight to morning. with a . with no furnibeds. Our bedroom was a chairs. but the other buildings sadly neglected and dilapidated." . each seated on the ground under a full tropical sun. paved with brick. and horses are abundant and good. nothing can be more picturesque than these market scenes. the men on horseback.TJic Jllarkct at Asuncion. light by moon- they reminded us forcibly of the nun scene Their produce consists principally of in " Roberto.

gourds. mandioca and sugar-cane. which they have been the victims has destroyed and the only means by which these poor creatures can profit by their little store. collect It appears surprising that there are no general dealers or com^mission agents to these goods and is avoid this apparent waste of time. sugar-cane. various other fruits. and Every one of them smokes cigar. bundles of eggs. tobacco and cigars. tough cheese. yams. The railway enables them bring their goods fares. full from long distances at very low passenger invariably brings the but as each weight of lug- gage authorized. is to bring it on their own heads and watch over it till it is sold. the weighing to is carefully attended by the railway officials. but time little of value here. bananas. heaps of oranges per hundred —not of fetching more than sixpence — piles mandioca root and dried mandioca. They are crowded to- gether like cattle in the vans. The almost total absence of coin in the fertile field of country affords another extortion . are largely used as a convenient is but the bulk of their goods bartered. bread. and the incessant plunder of all confidence. potatoes. lard. bamboo canes. a roughly-made black and to lives on oranges and bananas. batatas. maize. all and constant exchanges are taking place day .292 The Native Habits. the tramway tokens substitute. but nothing can exceed their lively cheerfulness and apparent happiness.




long in the market


The sandstone



are covered with a gorgeous subtropical

vegetation, interspersed with huts







women and children

the latter are absolutely naked.

principal object


to visit the interior of

the country, and after staying a very few days at the capital,

we determined

to proceed at once to

Paraguari, the terminus of the railway, and fortysix miles from Asuncion.

The manager, Mr. Hume,

kindly undertook to bespeak the best accommodation he could obtain,

and we are deeply indebted


for the

kind reception we met with



a country which




were naturally not without misgiving as to the hardship we knew they must encounter. The rail-



gradually through a lovely picturesque


with seven intermediate
the north

It is flanked on




rising in precipitous slopes to a height of


and 1,000

densely wooded up to the summit.

upwards of ten miles long, at the base of the hills. It was on the slopes of these hills that Lopez



skirts a large

and picturesque

formed his great military camp, consisting of 30,000 men, thoroughly drilled and equipped, and supplied

by means of the railway. The valleys are extremely




The Railway,
the exception of groups of palms

and orange


and other

prominent tropical

plants, they resemble luxuriant English


with numberless copses, and bushes, and pools, and




meandering among




of inex-

haustible richness, enamelled with calladiums


other moisture-loving plants and flowers
great timber trees, of which
consist, are themselves, to


and the



a great extent, flowering

plants of great beauty, covered with brilliant bloom.


hills to

the south of the valley are nearer the


and from 400


feet high,



the summit, and at the base forming a continuous


gardens, with villages


rounded by groves of oranges, bananas, and palms,

with plantations.

The women with

their white cloaks,

and always


round the carriages at every

offering for


chickens, sausages, cakes,





of the girls are about,

extremely hand-

some^ and

barefooted, with

heavy water pitchers on their heads, with that






peculiar to the

descendants of the Sj)anish race,

while nothing can exceed their respectful civility

and kindness.
and a few

There were a few cases of goitre






The Raihvay yourney,
stations endeavouring to excite attention




with this exception

we never met with

a single beggar anywhere in the

nor did


ever come across a drunken man or woman. The only drink sold at the stations is the canna,

or white rum, distilled from the molasses or the

cane in the sugar plantations.

It is a strong spirit,

and though very cheap, and always drunk
it is


never taken in excess.


in strong contrast

with the Indians in

the Chaco,



it is

and are soon decimated, whenever



colony of

Indians from


Chaco were

allowed to establish themselves on the beach at

Asuncion, and held one of their orgies while we


there, beginninof

with dancins^, culminatinof in a


free fight, of the

most revolting description.


very comfortable old



been put into running state
disposal for the journey,

and was placed at our

and although the speed
great comfort.

was very





line, after

being totally neglected for



had been run

the last engine and


would no longer perform the journey in a

The permanent way, and the massive hard sleepers, had lasted fifteen years without renewal, and many years without maintenance. The boiler tubes were nearly all plugged. The



Renewal of the Railway.

encrusted, and the steam escaped

at every joint,



was only under excessive







was made.


both the enofine and carriaore were of


unwilling or unable to

Government was either incur any outlay, even after

the loan of £3,000,000, this valuable property, with

very large

equipment of old

for a

machinery and workshops, was transferred
the town.
ager, Mr.

mere nominal consideration to a few individuals in

Under the Hume, two

able direction of their


engines and a few carriages
repair, the stations

were soon put into thorough
bridges put into

were rendered inhabitable, and the

and timber




arrived well-filled daily trains

had already begun

run again, with punctuality,

The gauge


feet six inches, labour is


plentiful, balks

of hard timber are attainable

^d. per cubic foot,

hard wood sleepers at


Excellent bricks are equally cheap, and the earth

works are finished


miles beyond Paraguari.

The completion

of such a

through such a
the numerous

district, is

only one


inducements that would speedily attract the capitalist

under a government with any semblance of

honesty or stability.




^|^»HE house Mr. Hume

had procured

for us

Paraguari was kept by an Italian,

with a very industrious and intelligent

and four or

five children.



the houses

that surround the large Piazza at Paraguari,


a one-storied cottage, substantially built



and brick and hard wood, roofed with Dutch tiles set solidly in mud, on bamboo rafters, with a substantial brick paved balcony in front, and with a
shed and a

yard behind, surrounded by a

high bamboo fence


secured a


privacy by

tacking up some sheets between the rooms, but
as the

windows were mere openings with wooden

— for

no such thing as a pane of glass

at Paraguari,

—and the


at night



very strong,

we were

often defeated in maintaining

flimsy barricade. Our host had provided a Spanish cook, and a very intelligent Frenchman as

guide, interpreter,

and general servant.

He had




seven or eight horses always ready in the stables,

and the half-omnibus



between the

and the station was taken service whenever we required to use
everything that the village

from that
in fact


furnished was most

kindly placed at our disposal

while every alternate

day the

train brought such luxuries

and necessaries

as could be obtained from Asuncion.

The population

of the district


about two thou-

the better houses, like our own, surround a

large piazza.

The Spanish


always consist

of a large square surrounded with


time of trouble the cattle were

and were


drawn into this defended. The mud huts

of the Indian natives are dotted round about


The marvellous town and the country, and indeed between Paraguay and other American provinces, was at once strikingly apparent, not only
thickets of guavas

and bromelias.

contrast between the


regards the amiable character of the popula-


but also in the more material matters of our


—cuisine and attendance.

Our simple




every respect,

with the widest


meat, poultry, eggs, butter, cream, game,

and vegetables of

kinds, coffee of delicious


and good

cigars, all

produced in the cottages

round about

were supplied in great profusion,



was well cooked and




Although endowed with

and devotion,

as evidenced

by the heroic

ance so long maintained against a whole contiarms, the





any kind.

The swaggering mounted

gaucho, with his long knife girdled round his loins,

not tolerated here


kindly and

considerately treated, and


felt at

we were

amongst a simple agricultural people of the

most gentle and hospitable

With the

most respectful attention, there was no

our host considered himself in every respect simply a host, and, with thorough independence, neglected

nothing that could add to our comfort.



part in the evening in the simple harmonies in


his wife

and children


joined, regulated

by a well-played accordion.
expeditions which





our movements, and he organized



we undertook, and


sionally gave us the benefit of his


spoke French fluently, and as
Spanish was very
of Guarani, which


knowledge of


knew nothing

the ordinary language of the

natives, his assistance

was very





was a very


I fre-

who kept

a store in the square, where he was doing

a large business and accumulating

quently called in and had an instructive chat, and

did at one time nominate one of his own creatures as bishop. including marriage and totally discouraged and almost abandoned. terested in visiting these schools. or Commandante. erected by the Jesuits. massive. of the district. It probably formed a portion of one of the great early of the educational establishments with which the Jesuits have endowed the country. and imposing pile of buildings. and as he left the Pope . The are cigars invariably smoked by the women extremely cheap. Church out. He lived in a large. But my most important and trustworthy informant was the Gefe Politico. but we found out a Spaniard who had made cigars in Havanna. still Some large rooms were occupied as schools. itself. for everyI one learns to read and write. a glass of canna and water. Lopez. The education was of all course purely estaall secular. but they are is badly made. and thoroughly understood the subject. blishment having been entirely rooted religious ceremonies. adjoining a dilapidated church. for political purposes. was much in- and the buzzing in the sound of a hundred juvenile voices repeating their lessons in union was always welcome music square. that would in cigars of very command a high price any European market.300 The Commandante. and from him we obtained cheap superior quality. for there are no clergy. and an excellent Paraguarri cigar. although the tobacco good .

school charges. He was military magistrate and police. jailer. for its collector and two thousand The municipal government was charming simplicity and efiiciency. repairs of roads and public maintenance and cleansing of the . The taxes were collected monthly. watchfences. and a monthly account of every item of receipt and expenditure was publicly exhibited on the doors of the Prefecture. — he was. Witho-ut it any is definite creed or any religious convictions. Each tax-payer ascertain could thus publicly ascertain whether his contribution had been duly detail its acknowledged and appropriation. treasurer. commissaire. still the constant habit in almost every family in to assemble the evening and join in a very short but truly sincere praj^er. assessor. municipal mayor. for a population of about people. men. exercise of an}^ ecclesiastical jurisdiction. however. in supreme in everything. of it is which of the probably a simple perpetuation. and critically discussed. was ultimately permitted the He never.The CoDiuiandaiitc. schools. governor. no alternative but 301 total repudiation of his authority it or his consent to the nomination. of in great The payments included a salary about £150 a year to the Commandante. sanctioned. friend the My Commandante had charge fact. and impressive extempore resemblance in its bearing a striking practical simplicity to the Lord's Prayer.

and Prefecture. is He constantly liable to dismissal is . the Commandante There of course appointed by the Government. in times of revolu- tion he bound and to side with one side or the other among the rival adventurers in the capital it who seek his support. or the repair of a bamboo fence. No one any payment without this public its announcement of amount and object. It is difficult to imagine any system more simple or more perfect so long as the Commandante was. total expenditure could receive The was about £600 a year. markets. is is On the other hand. was too dearly paid for. employ may easily be . and he selected solely on political grounds. like my friend. public square.302 Local Govermnent. and march them away from their homesteads armed with a musket or a pike. If oc- casionally a few loads of gravel. but too often becomes his duty to call out these helpless but obedient peasants. The utter such helplessness of the population under Commandantes Francia and Lopez would imagined. and expenses connected with police and magisterial duties. no independence or is sta- bility in his position. an honourable man. He is often a total stranger in the district. to murder each other in some iniquitous brawl of which the object to is as unknown as him as it is to them. or as a reward for political services. the error could not be repeated without serious remonstrance.

theft. and refresh- ments were served on a very liberal scale all day and all night. 303 On the other hand. honest. due to the nary vices of civilization are almost entirely un- known. which is will relate. Among the guests was a native of Corrientes settled in Paraguay. display. his judicial functions I only witnessed I were of the lightest one instance of their character. He was re- markable as being the only guest armed with the . The in guests. rode in from directions. The institution of marriage now coming rapidly into vogue amongst the better people. and prosperity was and upright character of our friend the actual Commandante.Absoice of Crime. drunkenness. and a very luxuriant wedding feast. despotism is confessedly the most perfect form of government that could be desired. one hundred and all fifty to two hundred number. and perfect ruler. several by members of his family. with the usual ball in the evening. As quarrels. part of the happiness. vagabondism. and was accompanied South American republics. and all the ordiof the villagers round about us at Paraguari genial. and there is no doubt that a lari^^e intelligent. as already alluded to. —the Corrientino the furnishing. contentment. if we could insure an honest. one of the worst types among the various races that people The Corrientino was a wealthy and important man. was given at the cottage of a well-to-do native near Paraguari.

sent home about their business. however. but equally . Our friend ceedings. and so distasteful to the Paraguayan. and directed these proThe dancing was resumed. and after a severe reprimand he was fined ten pounds for carrying such a weapon. by the dancing and the constant draughts of canna and strong Spanish wines served at the feast. Corrientino On the following day. and warned under penalty of expulsion from the district The penalty of ten to avoid such another display. Commandante was an invariable guest at every dance and feast. terrible large knife or dagger invariably carried and used by the Argentine gauclio. he picked a quarrel with a young peasant in the party. and the event soon forgotten.304 A Wedding Incideiit. his horses and carriage were brought oat. and after a little altercation drew his excited formidable weapon. which he would doubtless have plunged into his unarmed opponent if he had not been seized by the surrounding guests. and credit given for the amount in the usual balance sheet when exhibited at the This simple and striking display of justice told largely in mitigation of such it power and absolute and irresponsible authority. paid. his family fetched from among the guests. the to the was summoned Prefecture by the Commandante. In the course of the evening. and the whole of them were. pounds was Prefecture. He Avas immediately disarmed. very resolutely the but very quietly.

The articles they brought for sale to the house consisted of parrots. singular independence. On . settlincr down in our cottao^e without doors or windows. microscopes.Native Prod II els. was occupied by hundreds of native women in their clean white sheets sitting on the ground chatting and laughing and bartering their simple produce and smoking the roughly-made cigars which everyone indulges in. and which are sold at less than a penny a dozen. a country entirely Every morning the market and piazza. and realize the simple lesson that its truest basis contentment. handkerchiefs. or square. in addition to the knick-knacks of the ladies. 305 elucidated the true foundation of the marvellous influence of the kind and beneficent early Jesuit. We is could not but envy their apparent happiness. barometers. shawls. tiful lace peculiar to and collars of beau- the district. and skins of animals. and with a tolerable assortment of books. the first thing that struck us was the absolute security with which we could leave these things about or travel anyin where without attendants without police. and other instruments. and of the late merciless and bloodthirsty tyrant of whom even yet the peasants speak in fear and tremblins:. and other but with 20 They drove a good bargain. thermometers. elaborately ornatigers mented hammocks. and without importunity^ .

e. and solid is an astronomical curiosity. The Paraguayan puzzle-rings. durable. are extremely strong. — the upper surface giving the time in the summer dial is peculiar months. One of the dials stood in a small enclosure in front of the Prefecture. are thus equal divisions. column of masonry about eight the dial consists of a plain block of Lapacho wood four inches thick and fourteen inches square. which are all made by hand. The Paraguayan lace is also very beautiful. passing through the centre and at right angles to the block. and therefore parallel with the poles of the earth. solid copper rod. The hammocks. most ingeniously worked in fine gold. originated from the same source. Such a on account of the extreme simplicity of its construction and adjustment. The block is adjusted . Amongst other relics of these pious pioneers are the sun-dials found in every village. and the lower surface in winter. for his Every cottager grows and spins enough cotton own consumption. and weaves his sheet and clothing.3o6 The Sun Dial.. It consists of a feet high . and handsome. The hours clock. making an angle with the The gnomon is a plain. horizon equal to the co-latitude of the village. which requires nothing but a level. i. the art being another remnant of the lessons of the Jesuits. as on an ordinary deeply cut both in the upper and lower surface. and placed precisely in the plane of the equator. built into the top of the column.

and the times of contact were observable with great precision. I in such a position that both surfaces are in shade during the found it extremely accurate. In their use of the dial they take no account of the equation of time. the sun's disc black.. eclipse of on the 23rd August. although the block has been exposed for forty years to this tropical sun.m. . the railing round the dial serving as our temporary observatory. drawn by three small but excellent horses. giving the time within a minute. We observed one spot on the body of the moon was intensely and very sharply defined. who have of course no almanacs. first The was an eclipse of the moon. seen from Paraguari on the 7th September at 8 a. and both these eclipses attracted the attention of the natives. either on foot or on horseback or in our half-omnibus. the second was an the sun. Wherever we . We made daily excursions. and we often took long botanizing rambles quite alone. there was a very sensible diminution of light . by simply placing whole day. and this was indeed the case throughout the continent. It was a singular Paraguay coincidence. at Asuncion. 307 column on the it on the level surface of the top of the day of the equinox. that during our short stay in we witnessed two eclipses both invisible in Europe. The sun being about half obscured. so that we explored the country for many miles round. The date on the dial was 1838.Eclipses.

and gio^antic butterflies and attracted myriads of bees and other insects. went we were received with the greatest hospitality. We were there in the The great Lapachas. commons. and bromelias. —one The with brilliant yellow bloom. "Tecoma. both equally valuable for their timber. are as sound as when cut a century ago. leaves. about ten miles from the village. Old Jesuit buildings. The wide deep ruts in the sandstone rock and beds of sand. which covered the surhills. who road. towering above the other trees in clouds of flower.3o8 The Scenery. backed by forests and timber trees. The of this durability of the iron timber bignonia appears to be almost endless. of We crossed a series pine-apples. A favourite excursion was to the establishment of a German settler. aud presented with fruits and flowers. the other pink. but the scenery was magnificent. owned a with its considerable area of land. fell large bell flowers as they carpeted the ground beneath the trees. with gardens of the most luxuriant descrip- . rounding sandstone spring. species. and even posts sawn off* close to the ground. densely covered with eryngiums. We passed on our road a continuous line of cottages. was scarcely passable for a carriage." with no but covered with gorgeous flowers. with thickets of large grasses of palms and flowering shrubs. were There are tv/o prominent objects of beauty.

. is 309 The tion. the floors are paved with brick the roof consists of . and a porous water- made same material. frames. establishment invariably consists of a large. or The luxury of swinging to and such a dense shade under a tropical sun must be experienced to be understood. Almost every one a proprietor.TJic Native Cottages. on bamboo rafters the The hammocks are slung under the verandah. The women are either at work it in the gardens. and working into others were spinning their home-grown cotton. built very solidly. roomy. The fetching of water from the numberless brilliant springs that abound every- where cooler. or pounding it. timber . coolers. The walls solidified are of hard wood. is an important duty of the : it is carried on the head in large jars of red earth. some were distilling canna from molasses in the most primitive fashion. fro in in the airy central space. unglazed. Dutch cooking tiles is set in clay done outside. with sunburnt sandy clay . and bamboo. is found in every dwelling. or packing oranges in banana leaves. some of these are clean on account of their elegance and efficiency their cost was threepence horseback. We brought away each. well The men with mostly on dressed. and a large space open on two sides in the centre. or drying the mandioca in the sun on bamboo cakes. with a wide open verandah. or converting their little crops of tobacco into cigars . substantial cottage.

is peas. large towering groves of oranges. batatas. including beans. which the staple food of the country. it is simply hoed over are with a light The orange groves inde- scribably bsautifal. vests. and for feeding pigs cattle. and fruits of all kinds. not now universally distributed. pro- . springs originating in the surrounding is There no ploughing or digging. of enormous towers bamboos add the luxu- riance of the shade. indigenous. The soil is a rich vegetable mould. In moist spots to and above all large tracts of mandioca. but always without shoes. the enormous trees were bowed down with They and their delicious golden produce. but have no money value. potatoes. and the ground beneath them was covered with are used for distillation fallen fruit. but The orange is . vegetables. vigorous growing tobacco and cotton. cottage The surrounded by a cultivated enclosure. tool. with their polished stems and majestic Plots of little foliage high into the air. invariably containing a few palms. gourds. and are largely consumed by the natives. rice.3 1 o The Gardens. and tracks are was introduced by the Jesuits it is enormous forest covered by the wild bitter orange. a field of sugar-canes. of unbounded fertility. and a showy poncho over the shoulis trousers. mammoos. blended with coarse sand. a few clumps of bananas. and always moist from the numerous land hills. maize. ders.

and mauve. and are not A few home uses attracted my notice. yet explored. is and inexhaustible. and blue. . the common mushroom and morel. The woods are full of vege- table products of great economic value. horses. Some of the climbing plants are used as ropes. and some polypori. We rode for many miles through homesteads of this character. and furnishing the most refreshing shade. feet long. thrive on the pasture The enclosures are fenced in with bamboo. if the carpels were separate. I pigs. the universal agaricus-procerus. The botany was gorgeous to tropical plants.. with its the Paraguay party-coloured perfumed blossoms. furnishes a splendid fibre used for cordage. draught oxen. and lands. a with edible fruit precisely like a pine-apple.The Botany. The only English plants we met with were some fungi. measured some bamboos purchased by our land- lord. nearly cottajTfers all 311 In the are agfain rearino^ cattle : milch cows. and of proportionate carriage girth their value was the mere cart. We stung our hands with the tree nettles and cactuses and the sharp spines of the coca palms. duced by the seed of the cultivated plant. or about lOcL each. They were by bullock sixty-eight . viz. white. separated by dense forests of timber trees of the most valuable description. species of bromelia. and not confined one of the most showy flowers jasmine. The caraguata. addition to their vegetable wealth.

maize. He also grew batatas. used for making The wood of the timboo is large troughs. set the greatest hospitality. boas of In Avet places are very enormous size and strength . as usual. with before cellent at Ave the establishment of our were welcomed. We visited the sugar plantations. and rice. tobacco. . coffee. and mandioca. but another who had been bitten by a scorpion succumbed fortunately. peas. bark of the gigantic carupai soft is used for tanning. although a venomous dark viper is but too common quent. the more venomous snakes. potatoes. and deliciously cool spring water. repast. consisting of ex- and mandioca. carved out of the solid trunk in one piece. He quickly us a soup. green or and omelettes. bitter orange are The leaves and flowers of the distilled to obtain an essential oil. a producer on a principal products than usual his were sugar. and accidents are not A boy who had been bitten a few days back had comparatively recovered. . the natives are however extremely fre- sharp in avoiding them. such as the rattle-snake.312 Tlie The German Colony. with excellent larger scale He was . price. canna. and canna white rum. sumptuous sausages. oranges. and resists without cracking the full blaze of this burning sun. in which every one works barefooted. do not frequent the plantations. poultry. which commands a high On arrivinof German friend.

The canna is a fine and genuine spirit. I was is in- pluck or the heart the the the fourth or last crop consists of outside leaves. 313 common. which are strongest. but the duties have spirit here. and to my surprise the water was brought by hand from a spring half a mile canna is distilled distant. and the brother of our host had great difficulty in extricating himself from tlie folds of a large snake. the stems of the old plants are cut up moist and all into short lengths prolific soil. fermented in large solid troughs adzed out from the enormous trunk of the timboo. for The home-made crushing machinery the sugar-canes was very jjrimitive. or simply from the crushed canes. and turned by beautiful trained oxen. The from the molasses. first all gathered . made it a costly The tobacco crop was formed that the mildest. and dibbed into the The cultivated spots are in patches. the loose hoed over. separated by magnificent forests. geared into each other with wooden cogs. with a vegetation luxuriant beyond description . the condenser being a worm was equally in a wooden all cask .The Cauna Disfilloy. and I bought thirty gallons of our friend at a very nominal price to bring home. consisting of three well-worked hard vertical cylinders. exclusively consumed all over the continent. The women were planting mandioca sandy soil is . The distillery primitive.

a boar. with of this marvellous land. some of these forests where tracks but the swarms of mosquitoes in the evening were truly formidable. of the essential oils from the wild bitter which insisted covers The visit. Amonsj the oruests at our we met his brother. which owned many square miles was capable of sup- porting a population of many thousands in luxury and plenty. Our host. these We rode for miles through a wonderful woods in shady track. scent and beauty of these orange forests is indescribable. entered We had been cut.3 1 The Forests. would doubtless have been made io-i^avo r o n d opod-" the expedition agreeable. He 1 did on our paying him a I which us with the more pleasure as intelligent found him a highly a guide. where he carried on the extensive areas. Every effort this treat was reluctantly declined. deer. in which all to help in the real labour consists. We were strongly pressed to repeat and. and tifjer shootinor excursion all was arrano^ed . and everyone volunteered the driving of the wood. but as it involved a bivouac terious forests. half-a-dozen assistants. maiden forests. as a temptation. our visit. friend the German's. who had established himself in the very middle of these distillation orano^e. and . and it afforded very agreeable excursion. night in one of these mys- J^ ^l^ and as my experience with the gun was confined to gentle pheasants and partridges.

which had just been shipped from Asuncion us he for the Zoological Gardens. this forest was this and he caugcht a number. a steam packet. the other from the flowers of the bitter orange. and his very primitive hut was a mere open shed. Tame specimens of snake are very common. The essential oil was of two kinds. He size . told frequently saw snakes for- that he dare not attack on account of their midable another but on one occasion. with a couple of berths. nothing to compensate him for such singular a favourite haunt for considerable A stream which ran through the bottom of larc^e boas. and he had sent several to Europe. which lay round about. his brother and being with him. He knew is nothing of the pur- pose for which it used for . a dealer at Asuncion .TJic Orancrc Distillery. much like those in His comjianions were a young Frenchman and a fine tame boa in a cask. he boldly seized a man . His were made from ordinaiy flasks with tin tubes. He related to us a singular adventure with respect to a very large boa. but he believed to be of process. 3 I 5 found his little establishment in an open space in the forest formed by the cutting down little stills of half-a- dozen trees of magnificent dimensions. the more valuable was from the leaves. bought it at about it £3 an ordinary bottle greater value. much and It was a very slow produced exile. covered with reeds ver}^ .

Mr. resolutely refusing . It became torpid and tame occasion it inflicted a severe bite on the it thumb of a stranger.the manager of the tramway in Asuncion. As a rule. safely and ate bread and milk. was to kill the animal with he courageously objected. it crossed a marshy and called to his companions to it assist him in its capture. but to this and so secure was the His compression that he was quite powerless. He had seized air . very anxious to procure such a specimen By dint of sheer force the snake to the hut. and another round the brother's first instinct his axe. and in He has seen larger snakes that he dares not attempt to attack. they are not at all feared by the natives. and arrived good health in Europe. leg. being alive. as usual by grasp- ing its neck with both hands. as road. one round the body.3 1 Boa Constrictors. very formidable snake. Snakes of all . his peon. who was in front was attacked in a most determined manner by a very formidable snake. Horrox. At Asuncion became very tame. in a large cask. Encounters with these monsters are not uncommon. told me that when he was travelling on horseback through some high rushes. and holding the but before assistance could arrive head in the his formidable antagonist had managed to coils make two round his right arm. of him. and dragged home where was unwound it was kept but on one two months all food.

I saw a well eighty feet deep passing entirely through sand. and wild boar forests. The hill on which isolated hills. brilliant The road lay among large lagoons of water. 317 across kiuds are very numerous . . until we entered the forest that The jaguar. chamber in the difficult face of a vertical rock excessively It of access. It is species. and the other a much smaller Jesuits. climb of about 500 feet through a dense over rocks with boulders of quartz conglomerate excessively hard. the cave is situated is one of the many mountains that occur between the ranges of It mit. covered with The cave was a spacious was partly artificial. especially at the sumand apparently all sandstone or conglomerate. JoJins Cave. one with a swelling like a goitre. John's Cave. Another excursion we made was so called to St. in puma. through a vast marsh filled with water plants. and is said to have been used as a refuge in troublesome times. covered the are hill. we came two or three varieties of coral snake. of great These sands are sometimes depths. ful. Monkeys are plenti- but we only saw two kinds. but too plentiful these but they seldom approach the cultivated districts. All the pebbles were rounded by water fertile and they explained the origin of the sandy valley below. action. and then through a zone of cocoa palms and dwarf shrubs.5/. was extremely precipitous. by the approached by a steep forest. forest.

chance —who. their dark shoulders were w^hite mantled with dresses.3i8 Our Village Balls. and among about 100 swarthy-looking girls we recognised many whom we had seen sitting all day in the markets. The room was a very large one. — having advised us that we all the ladies ought not to refuse. resident. by-the-by. The dancing was excellent. and our friend the lost the Commandante. The music consisted of four wind instruments. barefooted brilliantly . equally a perfect stranger in these happy groves. We had not been invited to one many days of these when we were simple private entertainments. balls are of Dancing appears to be the dominant passion with everyone. but very sparingly lit up with two or three paraffine lamps. Canna was handed round in tumblers. but its twin Wealth. and ponchos on their The dances were quadrilles and polkas. village life partly rivalled in interest our wandering expeditions. and village weekly occurrence. There was a very disproportionate number of fine lads and men. agreed to accept the invitation. with an enormous proportion of very monotonous bass. is of course totally is unknown. and highly-decorated shoulders. or fetching water from the springs. seldom himself. with tumblers The lasses were all of cold water ad lihitur}i. Poverty sister. and was extremely . The men wore high boots. The ball was therefore of the most simple character.

quiet and graceful. and the ladies wore wag at last intimated to us that we were bound to give a ball ourselves. and omit nothing that the neighbourhood could supply. We were. order. We remained all 1 but the dancing was kept up returned cold When we home about . Only ten days before the night temperacould muster on our bed.. ture was 90°. and the whole proceedings a couple of hours. and the clothes we The date was August 30th. and pile all we had to abandon our hammocks. corresponding with March 2nd in England.m. It was more select. moreover. a. We self. but the company on this occasion shoes. the night was bitterly and bright the thermometer was 38° under This of course the verandah. and I instructed to the my assistant to attend arrangements. and especially one given in our honour by the Commandante himin his spacious rooms . and 32° on the grass. attended other balls. were conducted with singular propriety. all. night. As we had no room large enough in our house a neighbour at once volunteered the use of a spacious apartment. and intense enjoyment. surrounded the freely distributed cottage and canna was amongst no one ever dreams of taking it to excess. 3 1 and though a great crowd outside. honoured by the presence of the manager of the .Village Balls. is singularly abnormal in the tropics.

railway who came from of fifty. The men wore their picturesquely coloured ponchos. which was very pretty. mazurka and gentle waltzes. and some laurels. Asuncion. the lancers. and a dry Aosta wine. is quiet. The dances were quadrilles. with a native as usual surrounded all night measure called the Dove. The house was drinks and by a crowd of half-naked spectators. the limits was not more as easy to ascertain especially as of our party. with dealers in fruits. with white vests and high boots. it As there were no doors or windows. mostly proprietors and tradesmen The music was good and very lively. The dancing was extremely natural grace which race. The refreshments consisted of canna and strong Carlone. and the room decorated with two looking-glasses. The girls. and of the tramways. triangle. with their excellent figures and no tight waists. and children perfectly naked. The guests.3 -O Our Dancing Party. the refreshments were handed . from many The floor on this occasion was carpeted with a Brussels carpet. and lit with lamps and candles. Some of the girls and young men are very handsome. wore loose white dresses. to the number were specially selected. with all that so peculiar to the Spanish polkas. with a little display of lace and colour. and consisted of a rude harp and accordion^ and a real nigger with castanets and a miles round. with cakes and oranges.

or education. including music. freely to those outside as to those inside . among this docile race. and crimes of violence. In no part of the world can the traveller . happy. was under thirty shillings. or on the sunburnt plains of Brazil or Corrientes. but as usual there was not the slightest disorder or confusion. Our girl leader of the ceremonies was a very handsome about twenty. the daughter of the I landlady of the house. Happy ? people ! Are they to be envied or to be pitied Most of the men maimed in the sixths of their late wars. than at cost this simple entertainment. five- number buried still in the neighbour- ing woods and marshes. or law. Our ignorance course and Spanish was of several a drawback. the whole of which. drunkenness. thefts. so specially adapted for its reception. nor more apparent innocence. in any London ball-room. or even religion. Such are the marvellous remnants of Jesuit teaching quarrels. are almost unknown.Our Dajicincr Guests. never witnessed more happiness and real enjoyment. nor any case of drunkenness or incivility curiosity Some was naturally excited by of Guarani my wife and her friend taking part in the first quadrille. and totally ignorant of any single grievance. wander about with more security and hospitality nowhere can he find more magnificent scenery nor 21 . and peaceful. Although unchecked by police. yet contented. but guests spoke French.

prolific a finer climate. was a natural enquiry it of great interest to ascertain the physical characteristics of this little province. and the mountains a tropical maintain atmosphere a cooling mantle of cloud. hills are The mountains and composed of decomposing sandstones. densely covered with forests of marvellous luxuriance. which separate so prominently. like a garden of Eden. like an island. numberless by the great and into which forming innumerable valleys. with pebbles and quartz conglomerates of very ancient geological date.32 2 Physical Formation. uninhabited wastes that surround Paraguay rivers its is essentially a region of mountains and springs. Its temperate climate is due to this superabundance of vegetation. ture supplies The condensation of this moisthe endless springs and streams that all directions meander gently in sandy soil through a porous rivers. is lowered in The temperature by evaporation. and marshes which enclose it. towards the surrounding The tropical storms that occasionally devastate these mountain forests bring down these fertile . little rivers and rivulets drain in every direction. nor a more unexplored and unknown It field for investigation. definitely limited. and deep beds of vegetable mould. from all the sunburnt deserts and it. Ranges of mountains and isolated hills rise on all sides out of a series of sandy plains.

(>f within the limits come The re- mainder are preserved on account produce. and rains. and directly many of the palms as cultivated. . 323 •decomposing sands. permeated everywhere by springs. to moreover. That such a country should abound . cocoa palms that flourish in such a and form broad and continuous belts surrounding every valley. by copious dews and This fertility. The clearing consists in so removing the brush and underwood. watered by and marshes and lagoons. living almost fruit so wholly on the great bunches of abundantly produced by those lofty and graceful plants. of which a description has been given. These zones always distinctly marked out by the stately soil. thousands of men and women were driven into the woods. in animal as sometimes assuming the proportions of vast lakes. their valuable In the wars of Lopez. principally along the singularly fertile zones that are found at the base of every ai'e hill.Ca uses of Fertility . may is easily be imagined. These are the spots selected for the numerous home- steads and gardens. and distribute in deep beds far them but and wide over the valleys. not limited are the hillsides the whole of the valleys carpeted with pasture streams and luxuriant herbage. mixed with solid streams of the richest vegetable mould. The inexhaustible refreshed fertility of such a soil under a tropical sun.

preceded by a little haze.324 well as Fertility and in Climate. falling at night to 85°. these heated waves. and fish. and reptiles and the . three successive days. temperate The northerly or equatorial winds are not prevalent. is only The woods and waters teem with wild natural. and the}^ are pre- vented from travelling during the day hills but on the the nights are tempered b}^ a constant breeze. but when they do occur in the summer months. was a I could phenomenon It never satisfactorily account for. In for the summer the hot sands become unbearable . shakino. careful investigation. either from due north or due south the constancy and strength of a cold current that invariably sets in every evening. the As a winds sweep up or down the valley .the stronsrest buildinos and fully accounting the massive strength of the . all its vegetable life forms. tempered on the Brazil. may reap as rich a harvest as the The climate and fine. produce at Asuncion a tem- perature as completely tropical as in the centre of and the heat is unsupportable even in September the temperature at Asuncion was 99" for . at Paraguari. and birds. rule. and increasing sometimes for to the force of a hurricane. of Paraguay would well reward It is. pleasant breeze at sunset. sportsman naturalist. though slightly hills. began as a gentle. animals. as a rule. the naked feet of the natives.

Although coming from the south.Pj'cvaknt Winds. was especially concentrated at the railway station. striking feature during our stay perature. the winds were north or south. and materially tempers the climate of Paraguari. Taking the mean of the maxima and minima for seven days.m. Its 325 most cold. was so its low tem- rendering the nights bitterly The thermometer on the night of the ball at 2 a. was more probably a current from the higher regions of atmosphere deflected down upon us from local causes. registered 38°. one-storied cottages of the natives. . some experience of the disagreeable character of rent. We had. it was G3°. at 2 p. low. the day temperature 76°. sometimes with the force and which strongly reminded us how close we were to the tropics. however. the night temperature with the north wdnd was 53°. where a massive building of masonry is with difficulty maintained. due to the configuration of the great Its force ranges of hills around us. The temperature. it was impossible to conceive that this cold river of air could have passed over the heated rocks of It Uruguay and Brazil.m. This current is more or less constant throughout the whole year. an equatorial cur- which lasted six days. the striking differ- ence of temperature between night and day was equally manifest. which on the first was 38°. with the . now reached 93° but whether of a gale.

and dreamy swing always devoted this in the hammock. but for some hours low layers of cloud hills hid the summit of the surrounding directions for in all many miles. of cloud level drifted by with apparently The height of this uniform layer was 200 feet. the night temperature was 46°. sirocco During these hot day time to winds it is . The terrestrial layer beits neath it retained transparency. Thus the difference of temperature due to 6°. its temperature being maintained above the Dew Point by the warmth in the of the earth. impossible make any day his is exertion we could only lie still in our luxurious hammock. medi- tating on the beauty and novelty of the surround- . south wind. A siesta in the middle of the the universal habit. the day temperature 70°. the base still dissolving into very fine rain. wind 24°. with lightning and a deluge of rain as at Buenos Ayres. This was followed by a delicious change of temperature . Our landlord and from twelve to interval to a all household disappeared I four. alone was only while the difference of tempera- ture between night and day was no less than whether the wind was north or south. while small detached masses of vapour at a lower great velocity.326 Climate. The south wind was dispersed and driven back by a southern current.

which will certainly be the only standard he will acknowledge. he throws these balls into a third bag.The Siesta. according to his own appreciation of his material happiness. " What is happiness ? " I said. a black and discontent so that if these balls were ultimately counted. to express happiness to represent unhappiness —a white . position.worshipper. as I kicked off my slippers. and on the happiness and contentment of the population. often occurred to me. apart from all higher consideration. that the only practical means of de- finition will be to accept each individual's own standard. temperament. and this element must vary in every individual according to his It has education. they would furnish a correct account of his own estimate of the happiness or misery of his life. pose that every For this purpose let us sup- human being always carried with him two tliat bags. ball ball and contentment. containing: an indefinite number of black and white balls. ing scenes. than to determine practically what it actually does consist in. and let us farther assume at every emotion of his active life. The learned discourse of Cicero bears no to more relation the happiness of discussion these simple Indians. . and age. than a on transubstantiation fire. does to the devotions of a It is far less difficult to theorize as to what happiness ought to consist in.

trouble ourselves to count or even to collect them.32 8 Siesta Meditations. the balls at all. one of us. exact result. predict the first. if. or any of each separate individual. taking an extreme case. We need not. would only take the trouble of registering one or more white balls when happier than usual. No other standard can be possible. a "priori. we can. that the number of black balls will be precisely equal to the number of white balls. like a vegetable. however. consideration. which will simply be. is balls must this evident from the following or is Enjoyment happiness in sense. its purely relative. whether for good or evil that is to say. as I believe to be the case. or black balls when less happy than usual but the " usual " must of necessity be the mean actual state of existence in which alone no balls will be thought of. which must in this case be the mean state of happiness or enjoyment The Indian. whatever may be the apparent happiness of the individual to others. and whether he be an Indian or a Newton that the total . a being who. merely lived without emotions of any kind. and amount can only be estimated by comparison with some standard. That the number of black and white of necessity be equal. would collect no balls at all. like length or height. secondly. This . different number of balls collected by individuals will be proportionate to their respective activity and vital energy.

and wealth or health or ignorance. leads to the highly probable conclusion that precisely equal all men enjoy a amount of happiness even in their totally independent of their own and estimation. rier half filled his sack wdth white balls when it was announced discovered full . 329 mean as or usual state of existence regards positive may and does varymeans of enjoyment to any . The school-boy's holiday balls precisely balance all his quarter's at every lucky turn of fortune. and in no way affects any other individual. The black and wdiite ball theory is equally ap.TJit Black and IV/iifc TJicory. state alone varies in diffeis rent individuals special. or even their failings their vices. The mean . If this evident postulate be admitted. but the mean state absolutely It is the standard each must use. plicable to. of black dropped in during the long to the discovery. The gambler fills his bag Even the suffering . extent with different individuals but it will itself be always mathematically defined for any given period by the actual equality of the number it of black and white balls collected during that period. vigils and labours that led woes and cares. to him that his new planet was but the other sack was already nearly balls.every single action of our lives there is no pleasure no without of its concomitant drawback? Lever- waves happiness without corresponding depressions in every phase of our existence.

And to thus every one will be found to be precisely equally weighted. the lot. mean has given no advantage or The Guarani Indian. on a bed of sickness. the invalid. we fully per- suaded that the two or three white balls that any . their resources. or material all happiness. sunshine in his garden chair. or and throws in white balls when pain when again allowed to enjoy the cheering The mean is sometimes so humble that a mutton chop bestowed on With a starving pauper fills his happy store. his position. even according to his own estimate. Among the affluent and powerful. happiness or misery that has fallen to his The high or low disadvantage. and his sources of happiness so limited. another the mean will is so inaccessible. pauper. but that as regards the abstract enjoyment of life. and the may rest assured that neither has been favoured nor neglected. adapts his mean to patient. the actual sources of happiness are dwarfed by the magnitude same ratio as of their standard in precisely the they are enlarged by the extent of left.Tf.^o Equal Distribution of Happiness. right and whenever he sits down count up. it has been bestowed upon with absolute impartiality. ceases. that nothing but a or a Kars excite a single Batoum dip into the bag. But what inducement in such a philosophy ? is there for good or evil is There for if certainly are no in- ducement to do wrong. the emperor.

certainty that the black balls of labour and selfdenial are but stores of happiness which "no rust nor moth can corrupt. and no thief break through and steal. argument by thrusting net. The year. although they are far less numerous in . to climb higher and with every encourage- and higher. On ment the other hand.On indulgence Ilappmcss. I had clenched through the my my leg mosquito and a savage poncho dagger gnat had instantly into plunged his the flesh." As found sleep crept over me in these hammock mediwilder flights. I —space eternity. ? I Do angels have the cloud a mean or is its presence not the rigid test that separates the finite from the infinite. I and fancy took some trenched on failing ground. or end can have no mean. the temptation to evil will be completely removed. traveller in the balls tropics must be provided is with some black even at this time of the materially of the mos- The enjoyment of the siesta balanced by the determined warfare quitoes. 331 may afford will be accurately balanced by a corresponding number of black ones. we are endowed with absorejoicing in the lute freedom to do right. no earthly standard for its measure. tations. and properly recalled me to my editorial duties. ? that shrouds infinity Time without beginning etc. was here fortunately awoke.

but our worst enemies were the feet. The jigger a species of flea that . and this unfortunately eggs it seldom done before the bag of considerable has deposited dimensions. Our only protection was to have our feet examined every day by a negro girl in the house. and buries itself beneath the skin so cautiousl}^. and insect powder bothered the fleas and other They can't stand the wind. probably breeds in the sandy floors it is excessively minute. Oil kept away the harvest bugs. domestic pests jiggers . that impossible to become aware of its presence is except by seeing has attained it. larvee rapidly bury themselves in the sore. the open village than in the valleys and woods. in examining the natural treasures we had brought . the flesh. in our which is no precaution could keep away. and with such perfect absence of it is irritation or itching. who had a marvellous knack of seeing them and extracting the little bag of eggs crippled with a penknife . and created a corresponding cavity in the flesh. If neglected. After our daily rambles the delicious evenings were always occupied either with the microscope.33^ Insect Pests. but they occasionally escaped her vigilant search. against We managed to guard them with our nets even when sleeping in the hammocks. and make a dangerous The feet of many of the natives are sadly by these pests.

. due to the saturated layers above us.m. projecting about forty yards into the deeper water. the Taraqui. or. but in coming alongside our clumsy navi- . and the heat was accumulated and concentrated in the terrestrial layer by a haze. p.Z eaving Paraguari. On returning to Asuncion a hot sirocco wind was blowing over the burning sands. left at 6 the quay September 20th. the terrible night will not easily At 10 p. The heat and mosquitoes of that be forgotten. of the densest shade The temperature was 99°. in weight. • 333 the home. in rambling round the square among natives. or in watching some motley throng . to take on board no less in number than These 250. three tons of oranges. 90°.000. with a temperature of little village steamer stopped opposite the of Ipani. Our steamer. that had collected round the village ball and of it was with sincere regret that at the duties call sterner we at length bade adieu to these simple scenes and left the lovely gardens of Paraguari. which cover the hills two miles exportation.m. had been planted by the Jesuits on facilities account of the offered for The fruit had been gathered and brought down the shore. to from the river. of the river itself 79°. A temporary stage of bamboos and timber had been erected. and now covered some acres of the sandy river beach in golden heaps on the bare ground. orange groves. ' in listeninc: to & the sino^ins: Oft of our host and his family.

but not without a few black balls as far as oranges were we were it is concerned. but as regards the tonnage of the cargo. and in taking this fragrant cargo on board. managed to ground the steamer on some rocks. and. of sixty women and with the most perfect discipline. The night was spent in the noisy operation of hauling off the vessel by means of anchors and capstans. left at 6 a. and returning by another plank. a continuous column. These destined for Buenos Ayres and the considered a successful surrounding camp. of them arrive at their destination in good condition. fenced round with bamboos about five . tipping her cargo of fruit into the pens on board. . A very We little care in packing would avoid this terrible waste.m.334 gators Cargo of O^^anges. The vessel had been prepared for receiving the cargo by the construction of large pens on the deck. at last the vessel was brought fifty or alongside. feet high. When girls. possible. it This process occupied the whole night. No sleep was and we lay panting on deck watching the process. venture if 60 per cent. and occupying nearly the whole avail- able space. walked along one plank of the jetty. for they have no value. leaving only a narrow passage round the pens for access to the cabins. each bearing a large pannier of oranges on her head. and a singular scene furnished. not as regards the oranges.

with a marvellous change of temperature. our captain's cupidity unfortunately induced him of to take in tow a large bark containing no less than a million oranges. and in a few minutes the temperature to 60°. for we were in the height the harvest. The river was low and the naviaa- . contract in drying. our progi'ess confined us to the cabins. and in their cargo. many vessels were taking At Corrientes the whole night was still again spent in uproar.Pillar a)id CorrioiUs. At Pillar the beach was also covered with a golden harvest of oranges. principally skins and hundred bags of matt^ sewed up in skins. and the spray blowing up between the two vessels deluged our decks and oranges. wdjich were also closed. which being green when used. 335 the following morning. from 98° to 77°. This heavily-laden vessel was lashed alongside us. and make solid packages for exportation. At Pillar. and we were sufficient for half-a-dozen now had truly miserable and overloaded. although left behind us cargo more steamers. and a strong head wind having now was sadly impeded. and in ing the decks with several further encumber- cargo. Many we third-class passengers came on board. though so heavily laden. and in a few And this with only a little haze. but no cloud or rain. on the following day. A fell polar current suddenly swept away hours the heated atmosphere. and increased greatly in force.

in 8 feet of water. The weather was now cold cheerless. worked all night laying down chain cables and anchors. and after other mishaps we were only too glad to get on shore at last at Rosario. from which no could release us. which was the draught of Our companion away and carried away our bowsprit. we shortly after drifted helplessly on to a bank. and in a rapid current. The crew. it occupied all the next day. We appeared to be in the middle of a lake. which were all broken by our our steamer.m. matte bags at Goyaz. after a very dis- agreeable journey that had lasted no less than eight days. on the third day that we were and again afloat. thus totally preventing These not efforts all sleep. and although we discharged a few efforts tion difficult. and was till 7 p. .S^6 Descending the Pai^ana. drifted steam capstan.

so that Cordova is we approach no less than 1. The railway traverses an ocean of pampas in an absolutely straight line. and apparently rise as so level as to furnish a fair horizon all round. as we rise is At Rosario.250 feet above the river. as though at sea the but the pampas in reality Sierras.CHAPTER XIX. The jour- ney occupies a day. CORDOVA AND THE SIERRAS. and large areas were under 22 . HE of temperature at Rosario with a gale wind was 45°. a special carriage being placed at our disposal for the purpose. We visiting stopped here for the Sierras. alluvial soil is fertile. the change of soil and climate very marked near Rosario the normal . and was very trying. purpose of are under Cordova and the We deep obligations to the manager of the Central to Argentine Railway for the very luxurious manner in which we were enabled make the journey from Rosario to Cordova. the distance being 246 miles.

erected the town. They . is very fine. and the view from it. the heights. runs through the valley. which was raised in clouds of dust by the strong winds that always prevail. The Primero. its They founded and buildings. and other ecclesiastical and its massive Moorish cathedral. are subject to destruction by droughts and locusts and storms. fine. cultivation. country grasses . convents. producing wheat and maize . and tillandsias and aloes rocks.33 Raihvay to Cordova. covered with scrubby woods and low absence of rivers or water. and sub-tropical. on approaching with the Sierras in " the background. the crops. climate here is dry. and we next pass over miles of and dry and The and the barren sands and pebbles with scrubby underwood. and we traversed enormous areas of dry white clay. are poor The ranches is and miserable. is the flourishes and coarse handsome leafless yellow retama everywhere. and the country trees. The alluvium gradually dis- appears. till we merge at length into the white dusty rocky district that surrounds Cordova. however. It with a total assumes still more the character of a wilderness as we proceed. all its Cordova owes importance to the Jesuits. with nume- rous fine churches." now nearly dry. and supplies the town with water. covered with underwood and cactuses cover the Cordova itself lies in a valley.

with professors shattered. priests The maintenance of such terrible tax an army of must prove a on the earnings of these poor creatures. dressed in gorgeous colours of music. and with military bands Temporary it altars were erected in the and sincere but abject devotion with was singular to witness the apparently which the crowd. We The witnessed a religious procession in honour of city. . by whom size.Religious Procession. some of enormous and many v/ere carried in the procession. no spectator could remain uncovered. from wax alone The revenue derived must be very considerable but no . indeed. a Saint Francisco. unlike Paraguay. also 339 They are still founded the university in 1613. The altars were covered with wax candles. which. bigoted. has here been unchecked. the}^ are almost wholly supported. knelt down and safely crossed themselves as this tawdry proces- sion passed by . numerous and ing but the university hav- now become and The a purely secular institution sup- ported by the national government. the patron saint of the saint and some female figure were paraded host gold. and. round the town in the form of hideous colossal statues. consisting principally of women and children. are but too evident in the listless. influential . teachers. streets. followed by a of clergy. German seriously their power is fruits of their withering influence. and superstitious character of the population.

which gave evidence of its occasional volume and Sierras as a is velocity. Cultivation in these arid valleys. running among the granite boulders and pebbles. and the same wax may is profitably do duty over and over again in a hundred atonements. and all who can do so retire to the Sierras. many of the The water supply is nevertheless precarious the river was reduced to a small bright stream. surrounded shaded with trees. well The heat in summer is intense.34 The River at Cordova. which are diverted by numberless channels. but it will doubtless be improved by the . where rain often totally unknown confined for many months the together. and absorbed by the fertile belt that lines its course. other material could have been selected so especially adapted for religious offerings. by a promenade. It is remelted with- out injury. and is difiicult to control. A clear stream of water runs the principal street. can only be carried on by means of irrigation. but this promenade forms an agreeable evening retreat for the townspeople. and is therefore to neighbourhood of The Primero is in this way robbed of its waters. It comes down from the mountain torrent in wet weather. A peculiar feature at Cordova a large artificial lake or reservoir. small . . The produce and trade of Cordova is steady but streams. daily for several hours down from which the roads are watered and houses supplied.

knowledge were professors. both at Rosario and at Campana. the museum. A large was due friends. and the traffic on the Central Argentine. even under present is difficulties. the laboratories. local and more especially the valuable and personal experience of the always at our disposal.Raihuay to Tucuman. that traffic . Gould. and so not as insufficiently provided with stock. and the professors at the university. The library and fine collection of plants at the university. and the completion railway. who were our constant instructors and companions. has been of the highest value in these it new countries. The university. it is yet available for extensive tion but the cultivathe growth of of the rich and extensive districts around for Tucuman. though in so sad a state. This line. is miles. Bonded custom houses are already authorized. the astronomer at the obser- vatory at Cordova. buildings and cloisters are The handsome and commo- . which are adapted of tliis every kind of tropical produce. will not fail to create a movement that will soon be felt from Tucuman to the Plate. 341 prolongation of the railway from Cordova to Tucu- man. where finds no other support or encouragement. a distance of 337 normally completed. proportion of our enjoyment at Cordova to the kindness and hospitality of our —Mr. rapidly increasing. by furnishing a centre and home for science.

342 dious. and the his equipment of laro-e attendant. and during nothing so my as much our botanizing expedition Sierras. bao^s. dwarf acacias. with that gentleman into the He possessed some magnificent his intelliofent mules. We we were accompanied by Mrs. with leather botanizing bags slung on the saddle. Cordova University. We bivouacked in a shaded glen on the banks of a brilliant stream of cold water. A very valuable and ex- tensive collection of dried specimens of plants in was course of preparation in Paris. but advantages are not yet utilized to the extent that might Imve been expected. The ride over the sunburnt plains. yellow with the luxurious retama and various hills. Gould and other ladies and we roasted a large portion of an ox that we had brought in the made it partly a picnic. some- times collected into large clear basins scooped out . on a stick over a bonfire. The museum contains an admirably the arranged collection of the rocks and botany of the neighbourhood. as . and nucleus of a fine natural history collection. in true native fashion. its The staff is of the highest order. was complete. for The eminent services whole journey I enjoyed rendered by that indefatigable botanist are well known. and are still being enlarged. Hieronymus. were truly enjoyable. and the ascent among the which were covered with luxuriant vegetation. the exhibition by Mr.

on the river Tercera. Another excursion we made was to a picturesque The mill in the Sierras. who thoroughly knew The tiful. which grows in patches and feeds numerous and a few herds of cattle and The river . but the feature which it is impossible to describe was the luxuriance and novelty of the botany that covered every rock. with boulders and beds of water- worn ])ebbles. and blocks of primary rock with micaceous sands. There are twenty or thirty and I was struck with the agility and energy with which our friend would suddenly disappear high among rocks and woods totally inaccessible to me. goats. and often the stream itself The enjoyment was tenfold increased by the pleasure of such a botanist as our friend. p-rass is almost confined to one sinole fine very long paspaeum notatum. returning in a few minutes with any particular species to which he wished to draw my attention. horses. tillandsias are especially numerous and beauspecies. The heat The The the irrigated was very enclosures afforded some in the sun shade.The Bo fany. the locality of every plant for miles around. at other times tumhling over little falls or gurgling great boulders among the pebbles and down in its wilder moods brought . species. hard. white clay. as they are surrounded by tall poplars and willows. trying. sunburnt. route lay for twelve miles over a dusty. 343 of the granite rocks.

the beautiful cestrums. Hieronymus showed me a very curious species of gnetum. with enjoyed a truly sumptuous repast. the retama. The building feet on a dry and very dusty eminence 100 . —a new genus. the zanthoxyllon. in the Sierras were growing in the streams. are thrown so violently down on the hard ground remarkable. cactuses. found on the Algarobo. Mr. We also witnessed here the lassoing of some hundred cattle in an K enclosure. and the singular water plant lill?ea subulata. although as occasionally even to break their backs. several clematis and other climbing plants. We is passed also some extremely pleasant hours at the observatory with Mr. met here. and the extraordinary skill of the pdi^rto was very we could not but feel pity for the animals. "cereus. and some gigantic tree-like objects. for the purpose of marking them. which. The prominent plants found the curious azola. and else. We by Mr. the water was low. there had been no rain for seven months. the various species of baccharis. the proprietor. necessitating a new national order. as everywhere the most unbounded liberality. Gould. the tillandsias. prepared for us Taylor. cassia aphylla." which were very striking Among species totally new.344 Botafiy of the Sierras. when lassoed at a full gallop. which covers the arid clays with yellow flowers. the budleias. runs under a high baranca of sands and pebblyclays .

The for principal instruments were specially designed that purpose. . of within the assistance With the an efficient staff* of assistants. the pub- lication of a perfect catalogue of the stars in the southern hemisphere. with the usual accessories. is in course of reduction and publicain- The in care and undisturbed application astronomical volved the work is more than enough. The ground it is so cut it up had and looks as though just emerged from a stormy sea. entirely free from with this indefatigable astronomer has been the supply of a want long experienced.. above the town. though ostentation. the requisite routine observations have been carried on for some years with a zeal and continuity and completeness probably unrivalled.Cordova Observatory. all 345 is around it the white clay ploughed out into deep ravines by the lains in the most singular manner. a spacious and commodious establishment. as this department also province of the astronomer. and relief it would surely be a welcome to and an advantage both departments if they were kept separate. is The observatory The main object viz. and the important result of their labour tion. They equa- consist of a large meridian circle torial and a fine by Alvan Clark. as to be impassable. and a collection of standard meteorological instrufalls ments. without the wearying detail incident to meteorology.

as They possess great being the first publication of the kind in this there is climate. compiled at the observatory. have just been issued. It is usual . as he informed me it himself. the absence of an observatory The climate itself. a want really although it is connected by telegraph with Cordova. by sky The dry climate and were important considerations. and which higher and higher ranges of moun- tains until lost in the great chain of the Andes. venient if would have been more con- a public establishment of this kind had been erected nearer the capital. Gould himself. Among the graphic illustrations a plate which demonstrates in the most striking manner the connection between sun-spots selected clear and temperature. is all that could be desired at Buenos Ayres is where felt. of which they are the outl3dng sentinels. The site for the observatory was Mr. which almost come down to the town. We regretted very much that we could not make or a longer stay at Cordova to join in wider excursions among rise in the magnificent ranges of hills. extensive Two and instructive volumes of meteorological observations. interest.346 The Observatory. In other respects. sierras. but the complete seclusion afforded accessible by a position so remote and in- from every busy centre of civilization had. no small share in the selection.

with to of which we returned England in December 1877. bringing with us several hundred dried specimens of plants. sleeping at night I in the tents. bottled coolers. geological all specimens. The heat is a drawobliged to refuse the invitation of Mr. a puncheon of canna. The unwillingness with which was Hieronymus accompany him on such an interesting expedition may well be imagined. to back in the valleys. two travelling on horseback. and a couple of parrots. and turned to our old quarters at Buenos Ayres.Return Home. We bade adieu with regret to our many excellent re- friends at Cordova on the 10th of October. water lace. to extend these excursions over 347 or three weeks. snakes. hammocks. . hills but this it is is soon left behind. and carrying tents and for provisions the journey. and among the only from the cold at is night that any real inconvenience experienced.


but when properly and it and carefully not used. and applied. without the actual weight of superincumbent in atmosphere a precisely. though were weighed the spring balance. and in inches of recorded on the is mercury ascertained The equivalent by experiment under adjusted to is the receiver of an air pump. with a good aneroid. It is not therefore an independent adjusted instrument. will indicate a difference of level floor. correction. and the extent of pressure dial. ESTIMATION OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAROMETER. cor- rections are often totally neglected or mis- The as aneroid the it records. between a table and the I have two aneroids made .APPENDIX. from which the air has been exhausted. will exceed y|^ of an inch. The pressure of atmosphere strong this causes the elastic sides of a metallic box. a measure of the relative is of the atmosphere. It is generally agree with the mercurial barometer at when the mercury temperature 32°. the error. for it is enough not collapse is to be entirely crushed . HIS universal and invaluable instrument its is seldom thoroughly understood. to collapse.

the pressure diminishes in a twofold ratio not only are there less bricks as before. What the corresponding difference of level due to any given fall in the barometer ? The column the barometer. the actual difference of level between any two stations will be given b}^ the Differ formula - : = log..e. And the question arises. It does not probably exceed 50 miles. in projoortion The column of air thus resembles a column which every brick is heavier than the one Therefore. we ascend. The height of the column of mercury in the barometer is directly proportional to the pressure or weight of the it. is whose weight is given by not like a column of water. therefore. of bricks. in which the weight at any height simply proportional to the height above. is or bricks. atmosphere above The absolute height As is of the atmosphere is unknown. when compared at uniform temperature. i. the corresponding pressures will form a decreasing geometrical series . but on account of the compressibility of the air a cubic inch weighs more near to its the earth than compression. X c. if the heights are logar- ithms. the pressures will be corresponding natural numbers. but the bricks are individually of less and less weight. above in a definite proportion. v/e ascend the barometer falls. If. that have not differed y^ of an inch daring two years. but not simply in proportion to our ascent. Since the barometer readings will be proportional to the pressures. . of air above us. the heights are represented by an arith- metical series.350 Appendix. in at a higher level. by Elliott. as . or mercury.

both at temperature 32. say 30 inches. which height the barometer feet is the value of will have fallen 1 inch.Baromctyic Heights and Correct mis. depending on the density or temperature of the air to require consideration.* For the difference of one inch. and their readings are not comparable. All observations are usually reduced to temperature 32°. and some other minor influences which are too small In latitude 52°. level. Since tiplied The factor c is the height of the homogeneous atmosphere mulby 2-3026 to conyert Napierian into common logarithms. In order to reduce barometric observations made with mercury at any temperature to what they would have been * if the mercury had been at 32°. at 32°. 26126 feet. with mercury and when the temperature of the level air is 32°. Density of Mercury is 10500 times that of air. = at -01472 X 60158-6 = 886 feet. . is the barometric reading at the upper station.-. 886 one inch at the mean barometric height — 29'5 inches.58-6 feet. 1^ 601. due to a barometric rise of we have li therefore H at sea . The height of the column of homogeneous atmosphere that balances is 30 inches of Mercury. « = log. and c a factor. 29 inch. 351 When h is h is the barometric reading at the lower station. c = 60158-6. barometer with hot mercury or hot water a is simply a different instrument from barometer with cold mercury or cold water. at altitude required. of course essential that the temperature of the for a It is water or mercury should be precisely the same at both levels .

By following correction. Secondly. the total atmosphere is increased in height at the rate of 2 feet per 1000 feet of elevation. the correc- tion will be simply the difference of temperature multiplied by Yowo P^^^ ^^ '^^ total height of the given column. mercury expands in volume ywo"o" ^^ ^^^ h\iSk for every increase of temperature of one degree. 18 and 18 X and 30 j-^ or -084 X-003= -084. and when confined in a tube this expansion is wholly in length. therefore. the correction is always approximately obtained by simply multiplying the difference between 82 and the actual temperature of the mercury by '003. and vice versa for temperature below 32°. That is for temperature 32° + x" add 2 x. If the barometer reads 30 inches with mercury at temperature 60°. — = 29-916 is = the corresponding reading when the mercury at 32°. or very approximately at ordinary levels 2 feet for a rise in feet due to 1 inch of the barometer. is Since the barometer at ordinary level usually near 80 inches. then for the reading with the mercury at 82" we have difference of temperature 18°. Thus for temperature 60° add double 28. c is based air is it must be borne in mind that the constant on the assumption that the temperature of the 32°. For any other temperature we have the Air expands very nearly yoVo ^^ ^^^ volume for each degree of increase of temperature.35- Appendix. and for the . an increase of temperature of one degree. Hence this very simple rule : — For any excess of temperature in degrees above 32 add double the excess to the value in feet for 1 inch found as above.

simple for For any temperature of tlie add twice the temair above peratiu'e in feet. Temperature of Air 0°. with air 32°. the inches. Temperature of Mercury 32°. has been calculated. and will it be sufficient with moderate altitudes for the measureof heights and for the reduction of barometric readings ment to sea level. The value of the in feet for one inch barometer being deterfor the mined mean height a of 935 957 980 1004 4-0 4-2 4-4 46 4 9 the barometer between the upper and lower stations.B. It will be found very convenient to attach this little table to every aneroid.* In this manner the following short and useful table. James. for temperature of any other mean temperature T assuming expansion at -^^ per degree — T32 Corre ition 490 23 . in Explanation. * If a is the total difference of level between two stations. proportion gives the value the whole diflference of readings. with all the accuracy is of which the problem capable. to Mercury The aneroid requires 781-2 793-0 808-3 82-1-1 3 31 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-6 3-8 no ture correction. 353 the value in feet of 1 inch at temperature GO'^ with barometer at 29*5 we get 88G + 50. is The temperathe mean temperature at 840 -G 857-8 875 of the air the if upper they and lower 894 91-t station differ. or 912 feet. per 1 inch. Bar. barometric readings should be at tempera30-9 30-5 30-0 29-5 29-0 28-5 28-0 27-5 27-0 26-5 26-0 25-5 25-0 reduced ture 32°. abbreviated from Col. In estimating Feet due to 1 inch.irometric Heights and Correclions. Difference heights with the barometer.

28-205 one inch Add for temperature 53-5 ^ = 868 temp. it is necessary for comparison to reduce the readings inch for to their equivalent at sea level by adding ^-^ every 100 feet of elevation. of air 107 975 temp. the reading of the mercurial barometer must always be reduced mercury at 32°. Whether for comparison with the aneroid or with to its reading for other barometers.354 Example Appendix. at base reduced to Mer. As also stations are usually above the level of the sea. COKEECTIONS OF BaEOMETEK. of air 59 at summit 26-606 48 . the height of Ben Lomond. multiply the excess by '003 and deduct the result from the reading. Example : Temperature of air barometer 29-89 inches. —Ben Lomond : Inches. „ . If the temperature of the mercury is above 32°. temperature of the mercury 65°: . 32° or aneroid 29-803 temp.. and take out the correct value due to 1 inch for the given mean reading and mean temperature of the air from the table at p. For greater accuracy ascertain approximately as above the mean reading of the barometer between the station and the sea level. Table gives for Bar. „ Mean Difference 28-205 3-197 Mean 5 3-5 Feet. 353. of air 53*5 One inch = And 3-197 inches X 975 = 3117 feet. 60°.. Bar.

= -099 and 29-89 — -099 feet. Watson and Viney. Hence. : Log. Note.° mean reading between sea level More accurately. — Our formula gives for the reading at sea level H = log. h + Altitude 60158 + 60158 (2 t 980 — 64) FINIS. elevation being 200 To reduce to sea level + ^-^inch = 29-991 . And 29-791 for + -215 = 30-006. Secondly. will station will be 29-791 + from the table be 815 As 931 200 1 inch : + : 120 feet. : : -215 inches. feet due to one inch for barometer 29-891 and thermometer 60°. London and Aylesbury. for the reading for and Corrections. or 931 feet. 355 mercury at 32° we have 33 X -003 . Printers. Hazell. which the approximate reading at sea level for mercury — 32. .— the correct reading at sea level mercury at 32°. is = 29-791 inches for mer- cury 32° 29-791 which wall correspond with the aneroid reading. the and the The value in ^V inch = 29-891 inch.Baronictric HcigJits First.

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CHAPTER III. 59th Regiment (T'ncle to Smith who shot O'Giady in Dixblin) and Colonel Macdonald.Just Ready. CHAPTER V. — — — CHAPTER X. FLEET STKEET E. Duel between Captain Smith and Mr. Murder of Mr. Price Five Shillings. — CHAPTER VI. Trout Fishing— Ancient Burying Place -Story of a " Furriner " as told by Old Shawn the Boatman— Funeral Crossing the Lake O'Connell's Birthplace.G. hafidsomely bound. O'Grady at Harold's Cross. CHAPTER A I. Single Combat between a chief Constable and the Leader of a Faction— Murder in the City— Murder of the Brothers Marurn in County . CHAPTER IV. 92nd Highlanders. Shaw Use and Abuse of Duelling Tempora Mutantur. Duel between Mr. and Let Live Religious Matters The Flitting— A New Hatred Sectarian Home—The " Banshee"— Prognostics Fulfilled—Return to the Old Home. Difference in Live.. gilt edges. PORTRAYING IRISH LIFE AND of the CHARACTER. etc. ALL POSITIVE FACTS. PUBLISHERS. at Fermoy— Death of Captain Smith— Duelling versus Divorce Court. — Story of what happened on a Christmas Day—The Attack oh Mr. Forrester's House I'he Attack on the Mail Coach. and Early Associations. CONTENTS. and Mr. — — — — — — tion Fight — Religious Warfare. — Cahirciven—Valentina State QuarriesKnight of Kerry— Waterville Lake. Duel between Captain Smith. By an EX-OFFICER ROYAL IRISH CONSTABULARY. CHAPTER II. Lieutenant Markham. — Churchyard— Reformists in — — — — Intercourse— Royal Irish Constabulary — CHAPTER IX. CHAPTER Battle of the VIII. Dublin— Death Sentence on Smith and his of O'Grady Second. Murder of McDermott — — — CHAPTER gerton. Cooke Death of Mr. Sheriff of the Queen's County. LEAVES FROM MY NOTE BEING A BOOK. Tore Lake—The O'Donohue— The Echoes of Killarney— Paddy Blake's Echo— Mj>n- DEAN & SON. 160a. Dingle— Fishing at Mount Eagle— Tithe Warfare— Year 1848 — Her Majesty's War Steamer in Harbour— Serious Engagement between Fair Inhabitants of Dingle and Happy Officers and Crew of Steamer Ending— The Kerry Dragoons. and what followed. Hall— A Day's FishingMeeting in the Glen Irish Hospitality The First and Last Pleasant Evening — — — Meeting. are the changes for the better?— Fistic Duel between Dan Donelly and Oliver on English Ground Defeat of the Latter. CHAPTER XI. The Athlone Canal Passenger Boat Captain Priest's Dejeune Old Bridge FacParsonstown Courtney's Wooing the West Reminiscences of City of Kilkenny Literary Celebrities— Old Theatre— Social — Guarding a Priest to Church Snakes in the Grass A Sail in the Rector's Yacht across the Bay in company with the Priest Narrow Escape — Hawser Cut Vessel Run Ashore Death of a Convert. XII. . CHAPTER VII. Shaw. COLLECTION OF TALES.

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