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Fiber

Fiber

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Published by: Robotrix on Feb 20, 2011
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BOTANICAL NAME OR CLASSIFICATION

:
The cotton plant belongs to the order of mellow family. It grows in subtropical climates. There are various species: 

  

Gossypium Herbaceum Gossypium arboreum Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium barbadense

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COTTON:
Cellulose Oil and wax Proteins, pectoses and coloring matter Mineral matter Moisture 85.5% 0.5% 5% 1% 8%

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF COTTON:

Types of ginning: 
 
Saw ginning Roller ginning Macarthy ginning Macarthy ginning are three types:  Single acting macarthy gin  Double acting macarthy gin  Double roller macarthy gin 

LINT:
The separated fibers are called lint. The long fibers which are separated from the seeds and suitable for the spinning process are called lint. The staple length of lint 15-50 mm 

LINTERS:
After ginning, the short fibers which are attached on the seeds are called linters. They are produce or they are used to produce regenerated man made fibers such as viscose rayon, acetate rayon. The staple length of linters 1-14 mm

BOTANICAL NAME OF JUTE:

Corchorous Capsularies Corchorous Olitorious Corchorous Fuscus Corchorous Decemanglatus Corchorous Monpoxensis Corchorous Japanicus  Chemical composition of jute: Jute is composed of 65% cellulose and 35% natural wages, oils and cements (lignin). 

    

OH OH Fig: Lignin
The chemical composition of jute is given below: Cellulose Hemicelluloses Lignin Water soluble Fat and wax 65.2% 22.2% 10.8% 1.5% 0.3-1.0%

C3H7

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLAX:
Cellulose Hemicelluloses Lignin Pectin Water soluble Fats and waxes 71.3% 18.5% 2.2% 2% 4.3% 1.7%

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WOOL:
Keratin Dirt Suint Fat Mineral matter 33% 26% 28% 12% 1% 

Chemical composition of keratin: Keratin is the wool protein itself, is an extremely complex chemical. It consist the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Carbon Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen Sulfur Phosphorus Others 50-55% 19-25% 15-19% 5-8% 0-5% 0-1% 0-1%

Chemical structure of wool:
CH CH

NH CO

NH CO

CH -CH2 S .S -CH2-CH NH CO NH

CO

Classification by fleece: Sheep are generally shorn of their fleeces in the spring but the time of shearing varies in different parts of the world. Sheep are not washed before shearing. Formerly, sheep were shorn with hand clippers, today the fleeces are removed in one pieces by machine clippers, which shear closer as well as faster.  Lamb s wool:  The first fleece sheared from a lamb about six to eight months is known as lamb s wool.  Sometimes referred to as fleece wool or first clip.  This wool is of very fine quality.  Lambs wool is not as strong as fully developed wool of the same sheep.  Hogget wool:  Hogget wool comes from sheep twelve to fourteen months old that have not been previously shorn.  The fiber is fine, soft, resilient, and mature and has tapered ends.  Hogget wool is a very desirable grade of wool and because of its strength is used primarily for the warp yarn of fabrics.  Wether wool:  Any fleece clipped after the first shearing is called wether wool.  This wool is usually taken from sheep older than fourteen months,  These fleeces contain much soil and dirt.  Pulled wool:  When sheep are slaughtered for meat, their wool is pulled from the pelt by the use of lime, by sweating or by a chemical depilatory.  Such wool fiber called pulled wool is of inferior quality for two reason s: i. Because sheep that are raised for meat generally do not have a good quality of wool. ii. Because the roots of the fibers are generally damaged by the chemicals and the tension exerted in pulling.  Dead wool:  The wool that has been recovered from sheep that has died on the range or has been accidentally killed. 



Dead wool fiber is decidedly inferior in grade It is used in low grade cloth 

Cotty wool:  Sheep that are exposed to severe weather conditions or lack nourishment yield cotty wool.  This wool is matted or felted together and is hard and brittle.  This is very poor grade.  Taglocks:  The torn, ragged or discolored parts of a fleece are known as taglocks.  These are usually sold separately as an inferior grade of wool.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:
Fibroin 72-75% Sericin 22-23% Wax and fat 1.4-2.7%% Mineral salts 0.3-1.6% Ash 0.1-0.5%
Composition of silk fibroin: Glycine Alanine Tyrosine Arginine Lysine Histidine Proline Leucine Serine Phenyl alanine 40.5% 25.0% 11.0% 1.5% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 2.5% 1.8% 1.5%

FORM OF MMF FIBER:
MMF is produced in three forms mainly. These are 1. Filaments 2. Staple 3. Filament Tow. Filament Man Made Fibers: Filament fibers are spun from spinnerets with 3500 or less holes. The no. of holes in spinnerets equals to no. of filaments. There are two types of filamentsMono-filament: Where the final filament is made of only a single filament. Multi-filament: Where the final filament is made of more than one filament. Staple Man Made Fibers: Staple fibers are of limited and relatively short length. It is unit of material which is usually at least 100 times longer than thickness. Filaments are specifically made to get the staple form. Filament Tow: The product of 100 or more spinnerets is collected into a large rope of fibers, which is called filament tow. It is then crimped and made into staple by cutting or breaking. Spinneret: Spinnerets are made with precious metal alloys as it should be resistant to corrosion. The hole size is much smaller with large no of holes like 20,000 holes in a spinneret of 7.5 cm diameter.

Draw ratio 

  

PROCESS OR METHOD OF TEXTURING: 
      
False twist method Stuffer box method Gear box method Knit-de knit method Stress curled method Knife-edge crimping method Physical/chemical method Air jet method

TEXTURED YARN:
A continuous filament yarn that has been processed to introduce durable crimp, coils, loops, or other fine distortions along the length of the filament is called textured yarn. After texurization yarn can be classified into three classes:
Stretch yarn: Property: High extensible, less bulk Texturizing process: false twist, edge crimping End uses: socks, swimming costume

Modified stretched yarn: Property: intermediate between stretch and bulk yarn Texturizing process: false twist, edge crimping, heat treatment End uses: carpet, upholstery
Bulk yarn: Property: high bulk, less extensible Texturizing process: air jet, stuffer box, false twist method End uses: carpets, garments.

CHANGES OCCUR IN YARN DUE TO TEXTURING PROCESSES:
Texturing improves the following:  Stretch  Cover  Absorption  Insulation 

Hand  Wrinkle resistance

TRIACETATE:

ACETATE:

PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION OF NYLON 6 AND NYLON 6.6 FIBER:
The 50% solution of formic acid is heated carefully to 80 C. several pieces of yarn or individual filaments are dropped into the solution. Nylon 6 will shrivel or ball up and dissolved almost immediately, very little agitation being necessary. Nylon 6.6 will float in the solution and appear not to be affected. The temperature control is very important. At temperatures several degrees lower than neither 80C, neither nylon 6 nor nylon 6.6 will appear to be destroyed. At 90 C, both of them will disintegrate. Modacrylic (why Modacrylic don t ignite easily?): The ease with which acrylic ignite does not apply to certain Modacrylic fibers which have been copolymerized with chlorine containing monomers. These Modacrylic fibers will not burn but will melt, char and disintegrated. Because of carbon-chlorine bond is endothermic and carbonhydrogen bond is (also C -O) exothermic. In chlorine containing polymers there are insufficient of the carbon-hydrogen and carbonoxygen bonds to produce heat energy in excess of heat absorbency the numerous carbon chlorine bonds. So chlorine containing Modacrylic such as Teklan will not readily ignite.

FORMS OF SPANDEX YARN:
Bare yarn: used in knit fabric, socks and hosiery wear.

Covered yarn: used in foundation garments, swim wear, support hose. Core spun yarn: used in knitted fabrics, sports wear Blend spun yarn: woven and knitted fabrics

AZLON:
Regenerated protein fiber commonly known as Azlon. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is composed of any regenerated naturally occurring proteins.

TYPES:
Casein: from skinned milk Zein: obtained from maize and is a by product of starch Ardil: from ground nut protein. Casein: 1898: first developed 1930: commercial production (Italian company)

TRADE NAMES:
Trade name Lanital Merinova Fibrolane Aralac Country Belgium and France Italy Britain USA

GLASS FIBER:
Fibers spun from sodium calcium silicate and related substances forming the materials known as commercially as glass. According to FTC a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substances is glass Fiber forming glass is made by mixing of melted sand, soda ash and lime stone together in a furnace at 1315C.

TYPES OF GLASS FIBER:

E glass: E glass is a boro-silicate glass of low alkali content. It has a very high resistance to attack by moisture, and has superior electrical characteristics and high heat resistance.
C glass: C glass has superior resistance to corrosion by a wide range of chemicals, including acids and alkalis. It is widely used for chemical filtration.

COMPOSITION:
E glass: Ingredient Silica Lime Magnesia Alumina Soda; potash Boric oxide C glass: Ingredients Amount (% approx.) 52.5 53.5 16.5 17.5 4.5 5.5 14.5 less than 1 10 10.6

Amount (% approx.)

Silica Lime Potash Alumina Soda Boric oxide

62 65 6 1.0 3.0 1.0 11.0 15.0 3 4

TRADE NAME: 
  
Beta Chemcut Trianti Vitron

RAW MATERIALS: 
     
Silica Lime stone Magnesia Alumina Soda Potash Boric oxide

Bi-component fibers are synthetic fiber, filaments contains two types of polymer. The polymers may be physically or chemically different. Bi-component fibers can be defined as "extruding two polymers from the same spinneret with both polymers contained within the same filament. " A close relative is "co-spun fiber", which is a group of filaments of different polymers, but a single component per filament, spun from the same spinneret. The term "conjugate fibers" is often used, particularly in Asia, as synonymous with bi-component fibers.

HISTORY OF BI-COMPONENT FIBERS:
Du Pont introduced the first commercial bi-component application in the mid 1960s. This was a side-by-side hosiery yarn called "cantrese" and was made from two nylon polymers, which, on retraction, formed a highly coiled elastic fiber. In the 1970s, various bi -component fibers began to be made in Asia, notably in Japan. Very complex and expensive spin packs apparently were used in the manufacturing process. These techniques were found to be technically unsatisfactory and excessively expensive. Later in 1989, a novel approach was developed using thin flat plates with holes and grooves to route the polymers. This process was very flexible and quite price effective.

TRADE NAMES: 
Fossfiber  No-shock

POLYMERS OF BI-COMPONENT FIBERS:
The polymers given below can be used as either of the components in the cross sections [3]. PET (polyester) Nylon 6,6 Polypropylene PEN polyester PCT polyester PBT polyester

Nylon 6 Polylactic acid Acetal Soluble co polyester

co-polyamides polystyrene polyurethane HDPE, LLDPE

MANUFACTURING OF BI-COMPONENT FIBERS:
There are three techniques of bi-component fiber production:  Side by side  Sheath and core  Matrix fibril bi-component fiber

Side by side:
These fibers contain two components lying side-by-side (Fig.1.). Generally, these fibers consist of two components divided along the length into two or more distinct regions.

Sheath and core:
Sheath-core Bi-component fibers are those fibers where one of the components (core) is fully surrounded by the second component (sheath) (Fig.2). Adhesion is not always essential for fiber integrity. This structure is employed when it is desirable for the surface to have the property of one of the polymers such as luster, dye ability or stability, while the core may contribute to strength, reduced cost and the like.

Matrix fibril bi-component fiber:
These are also called islands-in-the-sea fibers. Technically these are complicated structures to make and use. In cross section, they are areas of one polymer in a matrix of a second polymer. These types of bi-component structure facilitate the generation of micro denier fibers. The islands' are usually a melt spinnable polymer such as nylon, polyester or polypropylene. Polystyrene water-soluble polyesters and plasticized or saponified polyvinyl alcohol can form the sea or matrix. The finer deniers that can be obtained are normally below than 0.1 denier

END USES OF BI-COMPONENT FIBER: 

To produce garments which need two different prime properties of two different type of fiber, such as strength of MMF and MR of natural fiber To produce non-woven fabric where the sheath has a melting point lower than that of core. Thus it is able to affect fiber bonding by becoming adhesive when heated to a suitable high temperature example backing tufted carpet.

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